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A S YMBIOTIC R ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN G OLF C OURSES AND H YDR O F RACTURING : A CHIEVED T HROUGH V ISUAL P HYSICAL AND C HEMICAL M ITIGATION T ECHNIQUES W RITTEN BY : M ATTHEW F RANKO April 1st, 2013 A T ERMINAL P ROJECT C OMPLETED FOR THE D EPARTMENT OF L ANDSCAPE A RCHITECTURE AT THE U NIVERSITY OF F LORIDA AS P ART OF THE R EQUIREMENTS FOR A CHIEVING THE D EGREE OF M ASTER OF L ANDSCAPE A RCHITECTURE
Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1 ABSTRACT 2 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 4 Hydro Fracing Status 4 Hydraulic Fracturing History 6 Hydraulic Fracturing Process 6 Hydro Fracing Problems 10 Golf Course Industry Status and Problems 1 2 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 15 Research Question 15 Golf Course and Fracing Integration 15 Limitations 18 Project Feasibility via Regional Suitability Analysis 19 Regional Perspective 20 GIS Utilization 21 Selection Criteria of Data 22 Summary 26 CHAPTER 3: CRITICAL ANALYSIS 28 Introduction 28 Fracing Visual Problems 28 Fracing Vertical Visual Impact 29 Fracing Horizontal Visual Impact 2 9 Water and Soil Impacts 31 Impacts of Well Pad: Post Drilling Site Conditions 32 Lack of Fracing Safety Structures 33 Hypothetical Fracing Site 34 Course Analysis 36 Site Analysis 43 46 Site Synthesis: Strengths and Weakness 48 CHAPTER 4: SOLUTIONS 52 Visual Mitigation 52 Physical Mitigation 53 Drainage and Soil 53 Containment and Safety Structures 55
Table of Contents Bio Mediated Soil 57 Solutions Summary 58 CHAPTER 5: MITIGATION IMPLEMENT ATION THROUGH GOLF C OURSE DESIGN 61 Golf Course Design Integrated with Fracing 61 Golf Course Routing Plan 61 Golf Course Sizing Plan 65 Golf Course Shaping Plan 67 Golf Course Cut and Fill Plan 6 9 Golf Course Master Plan 70 Site Details: Drainage and Containment 70 Site Details: Visual Mitigation 74 Site Details: Safety Structures 76 Conclusion 77 CHAPTER 6 : CONCLUSIONS 81 Fracing Industry Problems and Needs 81 Golf Course Industry Problems and Needs 81 Golf Course and F racing Integration 81 Relevance to Landscape A rchitecture 83 New Technology on the Horizon 83 Summary 85 CHAPTER 7 : LITERATURE REVIEW 86 Golf Course Sustainability 86 Golf Course Design 87 Golf Course Economic Resources 89 Fracing Resources 90 APPENDIX 99 Horizontal Hydraulic Fracturing: A Documentation of its History, Litigation & Process with an Overview of its Possible Mitigation & Future Potential 99 Frac Focus Chemical Disclosure Spreadsheet 1 32
1 | Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ _______ I would like to thank my parents for supporting me through this process and my entire educational I would like to thank my committee: Bob and Kay for giving me the guidanc e and encouragement to complete this project to its fullest potential. You both provided me the perfect balance during this project and kept me focused on what I needed to accomplish. I would also like to thank Colleen Carter and Jessica Scharf for their help in editing this report and h e l p i n g e x p r e s s m y thoughts a s b e s t a s p o s s i b l e I w o u l d l their club and letting me utilize the site as potential land for my project. Lastly I would like to thank the University of Florida. It has been an incredible three years full of great memories. I am proud to say I am and always will be part of the Gator Nation. Go Gators!
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses Abstract 2 | Page ABSTRACT ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ______________ The golf course and fracing industries have experienced m u c h success but now have encountered certain issues within their respective markets These issues, such as negative public perception and poor environmental practices, h ave create d somewhat of an impasse for the two if they wish to be successful in the future. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n e x a m i n e d h o w t h e s e t w o s e e m i n g incompatible l a n d u s e t y p e s c a n c o m e t o g e t h e r i n o r d e r t o s o l v e e a c h o t h e r s p r o b l e m s The integration of fracing sites and golf courses provides a potential partn ership between the two industries where they both complement each other in the exact areas in which they are lacking. Fracing can provide golf courses with the revenue necessary to pull them out of their financial hole w h i l e g olf courses c a n provide fracing with the necessary land required to expand their operations but also provide the drainage infrastructure needed to safeguard t he fracing process better W ith minor structural intervention s, the hydro fracing process can put in place safety measures to prevent possible environmental disasters. These sites can potentially utilize bio mediated soils in order to provide better clean up services and also aid in the sequestration and removal of potential contaminants. This infrastructure utilized for fracing can easily be re trofitted after the d rilling process is complete and become an integral part of the golf course These areas can b e integrated with the course in the form of hazards, waste bunkers, or similar golf course elements. The two industries, when combined, can create a symbiotic relationship with each other as they both fulfill the current needs of one another. This will h elp to propel them into the future by improving both their financial performance as well as their public perception The successful integration of the two will then lead to a future where both can operate harmoniously within the framework of our human envi ronment. This project look ed at how these two industries can be integrated through the exploration of a purpos ed ere Country Club. This site w a s integrated into the framework of the course and various mitigation techniques w e r e implemented for the site through the design of new golf course infrastructure. These fracing mitigation techniques will address visual problems, soil & water contamination, and a lack of safety structures. The key to these techniques is that they wil l mitigate the fracing site for its potential problems while also serving as integral components of the golf course.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses Abstract 3 | Page After this exercise it was found that much of the problems associated with fracing in regard to soil and water cleansing must be done off site. The water cleansing process requires techniques which can only be performed at treatment centers and are not available on site. However, the introduction of bio mediated soil can help in cleansing some potential contaminants in the soil and then aid in the removal of any contaminated soil left over s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e e v e n t o f a n y a c c i d e n t s Visual mitigation can be accomplished through the strategic placement of various vegetative screening areas also functioning in conjunction with the golf course. Further visual mitigation can be acco mplished by properly planning the fracing site so as to limit its visual impact on the environment. Finally, various safety structures in the form of various swales can be constructed around a fracing site to serve as a potential containment area for any h azardous materials. These areas can later be retrofitted to be incorporated into the golf course and serve as a key component in the design of a golf course. T h e t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e rudimentary in nature; h o w e v e r t h e y p r o v i d e t h e p i v o t a l f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s m a k i n g t h e f r a c i n g a n d t h e g o l f c o u r s e i n d u s t r i e s s a f e r m o r e p r o f i t a b l e a n d accepted b y a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCT ION
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 4 HYDR O FRACTURING STATUS ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ T he current energy portfolio of the United States is becoming more and more pola rized due to the increase of hydro fracing well sites harvest ing natural gas. Natural gas comes from various shale formations found at subterranean depths of 4000 8000 feet. 1 These areas can be tapped via drilling structures which extract the gas from unde rground deposits. Advancements in technology have offered allowances for increasin g the amount of drilling due to increased profitability of each individual well. Natural gas has thus become a more prolific form of energy utilized in the U.S. and is projec ted to increase its market share tremendously over the next 30 years an expected 32% increase by 2035 (Figure 1) 2 The president has even pledged his allegiance t o this energy source and claims it can 3 The Marcellus Shale play is the largest in the United States, covering approximately 95,000 square miles, and offers more obtainable natural gas than any other shale play (see Figure 2). It is estimated that there is 260 490 trillion cubic feet of natural gas within the Marcellus Shale. This amount of energy, if produced, would make the United States a larger energy producer than Saudi Arabia and Russia. 4 Subsequently, utilizing all the energy found in Marcellus Shale could create 600,000 jobs 4 and would se t the U.S. economy apart from the rest of the world sparking periods of growth similar to that of crude oil booms in the past. 5 The fracing process has invigorated highly contested debate amongst the general public and energy companies due to potential environmental concerns it presents. In order to better recognize and address these concerns, the fracing process must first be understood in depth. 1 Zweig, Steve. Hydraulic Fracturing (Hydro frac ing): The Risks and Rewards of the Controversial Drilling Technique." Heating Oil LLC, 30 Nov. 2009. Web. Apr. 2012. < http://www.heatingoil.com/wp content/uploads/2009/11/hydraulic 3.pdf>. 2 Arthur Et. All, J. Daniel. "Water Resources and Use for Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region." ALL Consulting, LLC. Web. 15 Mar. 2012. 3 The Breakthrough Institute. "US Government Role in Shale Gas Fracking History: An Overview and Response to Our Critics." The Breakthrough Institute: US Government Role in Shale Gas Fracking History: An Overview and Response to Our Critics 12 Mar. 2012. Web. 20 May 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 5 Figure 1 : Estimated U.S. Shale Gas Production Figure 2 : North American Shale Gas Plays
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 6 HYDRO FRACING HISTORY ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___ The drilling technique known as fracing has existed since the 1940s Hydro fracturing is the utilization of a high pressure water, chemical and sand mixture injected underground through well bores which causes fractures to occur in subsurface shale formations. However, become feasib le, that this energy could be efficiently extracted. 2 The horizontal drilling technique was so successful because it created a way to extract energy from various shale plays, which up until then, were unobtainable due to their depth (4,000 8,000 ft.). Dril ling at this depth required too much energy to vertically drill then could be brought up to the surface. 6 When vertical drilling was able to spread horizontally it had achieved a profitable method to extract energy due to the increased drilling radius o f horizontal exploration. This achievement was significant as shale could now provide a highly obtainable resource, due to its high porosity and low density, making it very harvestable via drilling. In 2002 the hydr o fracturing process and horizontal drilling techniques were combined resulting in one of the most profitable and efficient energy extraction techniques in history. These fractures expose natural gas which can be extracted and utilized as a form of energy. There lies within this practice high contention amongst its critics and supporters due to the potential environmental hazards regarding the details of the drilling process. HYDRO FRACING PROCESS ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ ____ The process of fracing has evolved over time and has become extremely efficient. Through various research tactics, an overall scientific methodology for finding, extracting, storing, and shipping this energy source has been established. The drill s ite is selected through the work of geologists using seismic monitoring devices which detect the Marcellus Rock formation from 1 1.5 miles beneath the surface. Once Marcellus Shale is identified, a well pad is constructed above the site to engage in expl oratory drilling. This site is obtained by an energy company through the purchase of the mineral rights associated with a certain plot of land. These 6 Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. "Subcommittee Shale Gas Production Second Ninety Day Report." U.S. Department of Energy, 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 7 rights are obtained through a land lease agreement in which a dollars per acre amount is negotiated along with a royalty based payment system for any gas sold from the site. 7 A typical well pad is constructed on approximately 4 6 acres and can hold 1 9 wells depending on the spatial needs of equipment for a particular pad. The well pad is cleared of all vegetation and receives layers of sand and rock which is compacted in order to bear the load for the various equipment and storage tanks needed on site. There are also multiple pits dug on site fitted with plastic lining which will serve as containment structures for fracing flowback water until it can be transported or treated on site. A drill fixated on the well pad penetrate s the ground until it is app roximately 500 feet above the M arcellus Shale play (typically 4 000 into the horizon tal section of the drill hole and, using an electric charge, is detonated creating small fissures, which extend dendritically out from the horizontal portion of the well. 8 Once the fissures are created fracturing fluid is then pumped down into the horizontal well at very high pressure approximately 15,000 psi. The fracturing fluid is composed of water, sand, and chemical additives typically with 98% water, 1.5% sand, and 0.5% chemicals. A sing le well requires approximately 3 5 million gallons of water to be successfully fraced. This water is used primarily for the fracturing fluid but some is also used in mud like slurry which cools the drill bit as it bores through the ground. Note Table 1 which details various chemicals used in the fracturing fluid and their corresponding impacts. These chemicals are the focal point of much of the debate regarding the safety of the fracing process. Certain experts claim these chemicals pose a sever threat to water resources and the overall health of the surroun ding ecosystem. After the fissures have been expanded via the fracturing fluid, the fluid is removed and placed into containment ponds or holding tanks until it can be transported to treatment facilities. The natural gas is now able to travel freely throu gh the fissures, held open by sand, and through the perforations created 7 McClure, Susan, and Roberta Winters. "Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Study Guide I V." The League of Women Voters of Pennsylvania, 2010. Web. 8 Packer, Kevin, and Brian DeRuschi. "Technology Taking America Out of Energy C risis: The Rise of Fracking." University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, 7 Feb. 2012
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 8 Table 1 : Hydro Fracturing Fluid Chemical Elements (* = known carcinogen) Element Common Name Use Vegetation Impact Soil Impact Wildlife Impact Human Impact H 2 O Water Create pressure and is base for chemical mixture Too much water can cause certain plant species to drown N/A N/A N/A SiO 2 Sand Keep fissures open to allow natural gas to flow out N/A N/A N/A N/A HCL Hydrochloric Acid Break apart fissures in rock formation Skin, Eye Irritant Can alter soil pH Can be toxic to wildlife Can be toxic to humans [NH 4 ] + [HSO 4 ] Ammonium Bisulfate E limina te oxygen content in frac fluid Fertilizer Can alter spil chemical composition N/A Corrosive to skin CH 2 (CH 2 CHO) 2 Glutaraldehyde Biocide to prevent bacterial growth and contamination Can cause death of biological organisms and stop biological processes Can kill microorganisms in soil Can alter ecological processes Skin, eye, nose, throat, lung irritant NaCl Sodum Chloride Lower the viscosity of fluid Can kill vegetation and make areas unable to grow future vegetation Can alter soil pH N/A N/A C 12 H 23 Diesel Lubricant Can kill vegetation in large quantities Can alter soil chemical composition N/A Fumes from burning can be an irritant CH 3 OH Methanol Fuel additive ; bi product of certain chemical reactions Causes temperature increase N/A Air Pollutant Respiratory irritant; lethal if ingested in large quantities C 3 H 8 O Isopropanol Used as a product stabilizer Can irritate or kill plant life Can slightly disrupt soil pH N/A Eye irritant NaOH Sodium Hydroxide Adjust composition pH Can irritate or kill plant life easily Greatly increases soil pH Can alter ecological processes S kin burns or blindness C 2 H 6 O 2 Ethylene Glycol Product stabilizer Can kill plants in large quantities Can alter microorganism life in soil Can cause severe illness or death Eye, respiratory, central nervous system disruption C 6 H 6 Benzene Diesel bi product N/A N/A Can cause severe cardiovascular/respir atory failure C entral nervous system & cardiovascular failure C 7 H 8 Toluene* Diesel bi product N/A N/A Can cause respiratory failure and death Can cause respiratory failure and death C 6 H 4 C 2 H 6 Xylene Diesel bi product N/A N/A Eye & respiratory irritant Eye & respiratory irritant; can cause death or blindness; known carcinogen C 8 H 10 Ethylbenzene* Diesel bi product N/A N/A Pulmonary adema, paralysis Cardiovascular disruptor C 10 H 8 Naphthalene Carrier fluid for active ingredients Can adversely affect plant growing efficacy N/A Eye, nose, throat irritant Eye, nose, throat irritant C 7 H 7 Cl Benzyl Chloride* N/A N/A N/A N/A Known carcinogen Cu Copper Bi product N/A N/A N/A Skin irritant in high quantities Pb Lead Bi product Toxin N/A Toxin Toxin C 3 H 5 NO Acrylamide Used as a friction reducer N/A N/A Neuro & reproductive toxin & carcinogen Central nervous system disruptor CH 3 COOH Acetic Acid Prevents metal oxide precipitation N/A N/A Minor eye irritant Minor eye irritant (AlO) 2 SiO Aluminum Silicate N/A None None None None C 2 H 6 O Ethanol Product Stabilizer N/A N/A N/A N/A Al 6 Si 2 O 13 Mullite Keep fissures in rock open N/A N/A N/A N/A
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 9 earlier by the small explosions. A well cap is then placed on the drill hole and the natural gas can be pumped to the surface or saved for later use This natural gas can be liquefied for ease of transport to potential users. For an extensive overview of the 1 Figure 3 : Natural Gas Well Capped for Storage After this process approximately 11% of the sand, water, and chemicals return to the surface and must be contained and treated. The remaining 89% remains underground and can potentially invade nearby subsurface water and soil systems (although this is considered very unlikely due to the extreme depth of drilling). 9 This potentially har mful water (frac fluid) located above and below ground, has the potential to compromise the health of wildlife populations, ecosystems, and drinking water supplies. After drilling, the area essentially serves as a storage facility for all the natural gas underground and can be extracted from the well cap ( see Figure 3 for an image of a capped well drill 9 Poole, David T. "Hydraulic Fracturing of Unconventional Gas Shales: Potential Pollutants, Treatments and Remediation." The Ohio State University, 18 May 201 2. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 10 hole ) The area remains as is until no more natural gas is obtainable from the underground holding area At this point, it is the dut y of the energy company accountable for drilling to restore the site to its original condition within a 9 month period. This restoration is monitored by local governments and the associated governing entity. 10 Many times the oversight of this process is eit her done in a very cursory manner or not done at all. This has left fracing well pads, which have already been used, in a decrepit state and a nuisance to the aesthetics as well as local ecological systems of the area. This novel energy harvesting techni que is so new that it exists without much regulation and is able to keep many of the effects of its process hidden from public scrutiny. This process is currently exempted from The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and the Safe Drinking Water Act via the Energy Policy Act of 2005. This policy was initiated and promoted by the Bush administration. 11 This legislation further compounds the difficulty of regulating this industry and increases the negative public opinion. This negative opinion stems from the pr and more research on the environmental degradation caused by fracing is revealed, there is increasing pressure from the public and various organizations to restrict and regulate how this proc ess occurs. HYDRO FRACING PROBLEMS _____________________________________________________________ The problems most identified with regarding fracing revolve around water, soil, visual resources, and an overall lack of safety infrastructure. These problems must be addressed and mitigated for if fracing expects to grow at the projected rate and have such a monumental and lucrative effect on the economy. By addressing these issues the public can potentially become accepting of the practice and it can gain more support from previous detractors. First and foremost, the issues regarding water and fracing are the most contested. Each individual well used for fracing requires approximately 3 5 million gallons of water in order to be successfully fr aced. This water is obtained by purchasing the rights to nearby water systems or through the direct purchase from a water distributor. With nearly 509,000 well pads and counting, and each well pad containing 1 9 10 Zweig, Steve. "Hydraulic Fracturing (Hydrofracking): The Risks and Rewards of the Controversial Drilling Technique." Heating Oil LLC, 30 Nov. 2009. Web. Apr. 2012. < http://www.heatingoil.com/wp content/up loads/2009/11/hydraulic 3.pdf>. 11 Griffith, Benjamin E. "Fracking for Shale Gas: Energy Security & Sustainable Water Resources." World Jurist Association 24th Biennial Congress on the Law of the World National Legal C ultures in a Globalized World N.p., 27 Oct. 2011. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 11 wells, there is an immense amount of water n ecessary in order to properly undergo the drilling process. Clearly the amount of water used in this process is a staggeringly total and if the projections of fracing grow at the expected rate, the expected use of water will increase proportionally. This expected water need is somewhat troubling in regard to environmental impacts but so is the chemical substances added to the water. In order for the fracing process to work properly a mixture of various chemicals and compounds must be incorporated into the mixture (note Table 1 ) These chemicals all play a role in the fracing process and help to do things such as provide drill lubricant, prevent bacterial growth, aid in the fracturing of shale, etc. The troubling aspect to these chemicals comes in their pot ential contamination of both groundwater and surface water resources which can occur before, during, or after the drilling process takes place. Potential soil contamination is another cause for concern regarding fracing and its impact on surrounding area s. All of the chemicals utilized in the water resources can similarly affect various soil resources and impact their role in the environment. There are also the difficult visual problems presented by a fracing site. These areas are large and extend up to 100 feet in the air. These areas must be properly screened both at the site and at various locations which will have direct views oriented towards the site. The negative visual stigma associated with fracing and its supporting infrastructure creates a siz eable public perception problem which must be solved. Finally, fracing lacks various safety structures which would help to safeguard the process better from contaminating surrounding areas. Currently, the open brine pits and chemical mixing areas can eas ily spill and spread throughout the landscape. This creates a major potential health hazard for surrounding areas and makes it much more difficult to manage and contain any potential contaminants. The various problems regarding fracing involving water & soil contamination, visual resource degradation, and a lack of safety structures must be addressed in order to improve the fracing industry. In doing so, fracing can become better integrated within the framework of our ecosystems as the industry progresse s into the future.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 12 GOLF COURSE INDUSTRY STATUS AND PROBLEMS ____________________ ____________________ ___ The golf course industry is currently in disarray. Statistically speaking, 47% of golf courses worldwide have seen a decline in revenue along with a 39% decrease in rounds played per year. 12 These figures are indicators of the lack of financial revenue available for the public to pursue an interest in the game of golf. Without a growing customer base, an increasing number of golf courses will soon either be forced to change their design and management techniques in order to sustain themselves, or they will go bankrupt and close, turning into grey fields Golf courses must view sustainable management and environmental stewardship as a competitive advantage to be gained against their opposition in the industry The leading courses in the world are the ones incorporating environmental stewardship into their actual business models and generating large revenues because of it As the golf in dustry continues to evolve it will become more competitive amongst the surviving courses and subsequently breed new innovations in the field and spur on a new era in golf course design and management. 13 This new era will revolve around the original princip les of golf course design: Hole variety Player experience Environmental strengths and weaknesses These new innovations must come in the form of multi use operations occurring on golf courses while experimenting in new industries and ways to create a sustai nable revenue stream. Golf courses need to find a new revenue source which can relieve of them of their financially decrepit state and be re invested into the course for re designs and sustainable retrofitting. One potentially beneficial resource the golf course industry can utilize is the hydraulic fracturing drilling industry. 12 Sartori, Andrea. "Golf and the Economic Downturn." KPMG Consulting, 2010. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 13 IMAGE CREDITS ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________ Figure 1 Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. "Subcommittee Shale Gas Production Second Ninety Day Report." U.S. Department of Energy, 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH1: Introduction Pag e | 14 UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE MINORITY STAFF. "CHEMICALS USED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING." N.p., Apr. 2011. Web. "Wor kplace Saefty & Health Topics Chemicals." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention N.p., 29 Sept. 2010. Web. 30 June 2012.
CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 15 | Page RESEARCH QUESTION ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ __ If a golf course is designed as part of a visual improvement and ecological restoration structure for a fracing well pad can it meet the requirements for successful mitigatio n practices while maintaining the integrity and viability of the golf course? If so, what would be the impacts on the way the game of golf is played and how would it need to potentially change? This information would be incredibly relevant in the industry as it will: Explore var ious repurposing of golf course infrastructure S tudy the best ways to mitigate for fracing waste products and offset the negative ae sthetic qualities of well pads If these two purposes can be researched and designed they can potent ially lift the depressed golf industry and mitigate the harmful effects of fracing to a point where it can become publically safe and acceptable. This research can also potentially be applicable to other industries and provide fracing with measures that ca n make its process safer regardless of where it is performed. GOLF COURSE AND FRAC ING INTEGRATION ____________________ ____________________ ______ The fracing industry can provide golf courses with an incredibly valuable revenue generator which serves as a m ild inconvenience for a small period of time This revenue can come from initial up front leasing profits and subsequent royalties associated with the selling and distribution of the natural gas harvested on site. This combination may seem odd but the two industries for m somewhat of a unique combination in which each industry fills a void of the other Golf courses specialize in aesthetically pleasing environments and creating visually stimulating scenes. The harsh visual scenarios presented by fracing, p rovide golf courses a useful opportunity to integrate various screening and visual buffers for the fracing site into the golf design. These areas, when planned properly, can be identified ahead of time and serve as visual mitigation for fracing but also as an intricate part of the course design and strategy. This will limit the negative visual stigma associated with fracing and help to make fracing in the landscape appear less intrusive Visual mitigation is effective but the process still requires infrastr ucture which can help to capture and cleanse an area from potential fracing water and soil hazards. Golf courses are designed essentially as
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 16 | Page giant storm water collection facilities. They are very effective at controlling where water on the course is direct ed to and is subsequently collected. They must be good at this practice as a majority of the time they are required by law to contain all stormwater on site and it is impermissible to have the water leave the area. 1 One of the major concerns with fracing i s the potential for surface spills of various harmful chemicals, toxins, heavy metals, and radioactive materials. If this process were to occur on properly designed golf courses then any potential spill can successfully be contained on site and greatly dim inish potential damage it could cause. This would effectively limit the impact potential fracing water contamination to the constraints of the course itself and help to prevent any outside ecosystem contamination. The golf course can also lend its stormw ater infrastructure to potential fracing sites as a means to add accident pr evention and protection measure Currently, there are no accident prevention structures surrounding fracing sites. This can lead to the potential for chemical spillage and absorpti on into nearby ecosystems, aquifers, and other valuable natural resources. If proper analysis and planning is done, then various swales, depressions, and other catchment areas can serve as safeguards against fracing accidents. This infrastructure can later be slightly remodeled to become part of a golf course in the form of hazards, waste bunkers, etc. Golf courses integrated with fracing if designed properly, have the potential to: Serve the overall community by helping to visually screen the fracing p rocess Serve the environment by protecting valuable ecosystem processes and wildlife Serve the public by providing recreation and protecting valuable water resources Serve the energy companies by providing an economically beneficial way to mitigate for a nd contain the potentially harmful outputs caused by fracing Serve the golf course by providing a needed source of revenue Serve as a way to restore well pads after use Through this development, a symbiotic relationship is created as certain golf course infrastructure can serve as a safeguard for the fracing process while also obtaining revenue from the very process it is 1 "A Tale of Two Courses Golf Course Industry." Golf Course Industry News, Resources for Golf Co urse Superintendents, Turf Care, Managers Golf Course Industry, 27 July 2010. Web. 11 Feb. 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 17 | Page protecting. This added revenue can help a golf course pay for rising maintenance fees and defray the loss of revenue due to a lack of g reens fees and memberships. In certain instances the added revenue can provide a great opportunity to invest back into the golf course in a way that will attract new customers. This reinvestment can come in the form of course re designs which cater more to increasing the experience for the player and improving the overall course design. Another great redistribution of the added revenue from fracing can be in the form of sustainable retrofitting which can defray the accelerating co sts of golf course mainte nance. By reducing these costs they can also reduce their impact on the environment, which would make the industry more widely accepted among the general public. 2 Through sustainable retrofits, courses can become more self sufficient and able to exist on t heir attribute they have lacked for some time and is a major reason for the decline in golf course success recently. 3 This project will explore this integration by first addressing the stat us of both industries and what problems are associated with their current status. As these problems are identified, potential solutions can be hypothesized which relate to fracing and golf individually and collectively. Once these solutions are hypothesize d a site will be selected in order to hypothetically implement the potential solutions. The chosen site will go through a critical analysis analyzing fracing and golf elements separately and collectively. All of the data collected in this phase will be syn thesized to develop strength and weakness areas. By utilizing these areas the potential solutions can be implemented through the design of new golf course infrastructure which will aim to solve both the fracing and golf associated problems. (See Figure 1 f or a research methodology diagram) The integration of hydro fracing and golf course retrofit design, in the long run, can make fracing safer, save the golf course industry by increasing revenue and inspire an increase in sustainable golf course renovation T h i s c a n yield a long term return on the short term investment of fracing. 2 iness Value of Environmental Stewardship on Golf Courses." United States Golf Association, Sept. 2007. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 18 | Page Figure 1 : Research Methodology Diagram LIMITATIONS ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ________ This study will be limited in that finding a fracing site which resides on or adjacen t to a golf course would require some luck and extremely fortuitous timing. Due to these circumstances, certain limitations and assumptions will be made.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 19 | Page In this study it is u n d e r s t o o d ntry Club in Sullivan County, P e n n s y l v a n i a is exploring potent ial natural gas drilling on or in the vicinity of its existing golf course. The research er will develop a hypothetical drilling site and utilize this for the duration of the study This will be done as the time to process and wait for drilling site selecti on does not fall within the timeframe for the research p rocess. The study will also limit its evaluation of chemicals used in the fracing process to those which present the most potential dan ger to ecosystems. M any types of chemicals are used in this process in varying quantities and it is impossible to predict exactly which will be used Also, the chemical information is protected by trademark laws and companies do not have to give full d isclosure of the chemicals they use as it is considered proprietary information. Finally, due to the nature of their complexity they would require a chemist to provide a full and detailed examination of the chemicals used as this is beyond the scope of a l PROJECT FESABILITY V IA REGIONAL SUITABIL ITY ANALYSIS ____________________ ______________ The process for determining appropriate locations for a hydraulic fracturing well site is a complicated convergence of variables which all must be accounted for in order to run a successful and safe well. The emphasis in this process must come from a safety standpoint in order to protect all of those to be impacted by the drilling including plants and ani mals. This safety is addressed by understanding the impact fracing can have on an area and the areas surrounding it. Through this understanding an attempt can be made to minimize the overall footprint of the well pad on the landscape. 4 By limiting their i mpact, fracing sites can be less obtrusive in the landscape and give ecosystems a chance to rebound from the initial jolt caused by a drilling project. C ountry Club Unfortunately, the time scale for the overall legal and financial process of fracing site selection does not fall within the time frame of this research project. By doing this suitability assessment of Sullivan County where th e researcher can move on confidently with the project and know that the anticipated work to be done is based in a logical sequence of potential events. 4 Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. "Subcommittee Shale Gas Production Sec ond Ninety Day Report." U.S. Department of Energy, 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 20 | Page REGIONAL PERSP ECTIVE ____________________________________________________________ It is important to develop a regional scale when it comes to planning for hydraulic fracturing sites. This will help to better extrapolate the impact a well can have on an area, as well as, present scenarios or concerns which might go overlooked at the local level. The regi onal scale approach helps to guarantee that all of the people, plants, and animals to be impacted are accounted for in the planning process. Perhaps the most important considerations to make when regionally planning a fracing site is in regard to the var ious watersheds in the area as they serve as drainage basins for any potential hazar dous waste ( s ee Figure 2 ) The watersheds of the region will absorb any and all elements involved in fracing, whether it is wate r, diesel fuel, chemicals, etc. These water sheds must be identified so the overarching hydrology can be mapped out and u nderstood by the engineers. offer a multitude of resources which must be inve ntoried and analyzed through GIS in order to properly incorporate and utilize them in a suitability analysis. Figure 2 : Eagle's Mere Lake Watershed Map
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 21 | Page GIS UTILIZATION ___________________________________________________________ ____________ The first class of information that needs to be gathered to begin the regional analysis is resources utilized for fracing. This includes but is not limited to: water supplies, sand and rock manufacturing areas, roadways, and water treatment f acilities. This data is important because drillers are required to develop t heir own infrastructure to construct a site and the less construction and travel they must go through during the entire drilling process will result in less overhead spending, grea ter profit, and decrease the chances of environmental mishaps. The next set of data to collect deals with soil and the varying permeability within different soil types. It is crucial to know what types of soils will be on potential sites so the proper ne eds for drilling can be established. This will help to understand how the ground will percolate when exposed to liquids (perk test). It would be ideal to have perk test data so as to choose areas with the proper drainage for the drilling procedures perform ed on site. This information will determine how any potential disasters would react to certain sites as well as how structurally appropriate certain areas will be for placing massive infrastructure on them associated with fracing. Another data set which m ust be obtained, which is linked to soil types, is the topography of the area. Through topographic analysis various view sheds can be determined, drainage locations can be chosen and the overall lay of the land can be established. Also, to address the reg ional scale, any hydrologic connections (drainage) to surrounding areas can be established in order to plan for potential safeguards to protect surrounding hydrologic systems The topography will also help to map out the potential facility location to mini mize the construction needs (cut and fill) as well as to establish the drainage plan and locate structures for the particular area. This can save a company a lot of overhead in the construction process and also help to better prevent leakage to nearby area s causing environmental concerns. The next important piece of data to be studied is the land use plan for the area in question. The land use plan is critical as it establishes what the adjacent areas are involved in and can better direct the synthesis pr ocess towards proper, analogous uses compatible with hydraulic fracturing. A second located within the context of a site.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 22 | Page It is also important to consi der various environmental variables and data when performing fracing overlay synthesis. The first environmental factor to consider is the boundaries of various protected lands as dictated by local, regional, and federal governments. It is not only necessar y to establish these lands but to also identify proper linkages and buffers for them so as to not disrupt their place in the landscape during or after the drilling of well pads. Protecting these areas will save an energy company capital from potential miti gation costs and fines as well as protect the surrounding area throughout the process. For the same reasons, it is important to identify data layers which represent the natural resources of the area. These can ran ge from aquifers, wetlands, to fossil fue ls, carbon sequestration areas, etc. By which their impacts for energy drilling do not limit or take away from the other energy creating processes occurri ng nearby. Finally, it is important to identify what endangered species of plants and animals are residing within the area. The fracing process can be intrusive and many endangered species habitats must be protected when such a drastic change in the land scape occurs. By protecting the most vulnerable species, there is a good chance that many other species will be protected in the process as well. All o f t his data is vitally important in the analysis and synthesis phases of the drilling site selection pr ocess. I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s i s b e i n g p r o p o s e d a s a m e a n s t o p r o p e r l y i d e n t i f y f r a c i n g s i t e s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h m a y n o t b e c u r r e n t l y u t i l i z e d t o i t f u l l p o t e n t i a l This data provides a positive step forward for the driller in regard to finding an acceptable location in th e landscape to drill To recap, the information utilized in the process is: Resources for fracing Soils Topography hydrology Land use Prot ected areas Natural resources Endangered species SELECTION CRITERIA OF DATA ____________________ ____________________ _________________
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 23 | Page Table 1: Site Considerations Energy Perspective 1. Process resources (60) 2. Soil permability ( 20) 3. Land use (10) 4. Natural resources (5) 5. Protected areas (2.5) 6. Critical species (2.5) Environmental Perspective 1. Critical species (19) 2. Natural resources ( 19) 3. Protected area (19) 4. Land use (19) 5. Soil permeability (19) 6. Process resources (5) Golf Course Owner 1. Land use (16.7) 2. Natural resources (16.7) 3. Soil permeability (16.7) 4. Protected areas (16.7) 5. Critical species (16.7) 6. Process resources (16.7) Once the necessary data is obtained it can be given different weight i n g (numerical scale of 0 100) based on its importanc e associated with a particular stakeholder. The information can then be incorporated into GIS digital data and a priority list can be compiled for the different viewpoints represented by al l parties involved (see Table 1 ) It is important to account for st ake holder values within the data sets and make sure to incorporate these value estimations in the various scenarios presented in order to more accurately identify all stake holder opinions. It is up to the researcher to investigate and make assumptions re garding the hierarchy of the data in reference to each perspective utilized in the suitability process. In this scenario for Sullivan County, various nu merical values were ascribed to three distinct viewpoints based on their involvement in fracing. The t hree perspectives were that of: 1. An energy company 2. Environmental advocates 3. Golf course owner It was assumed the energy company would be most concerned with the fracing process so they received the highest weighting for data regarding resources for fraci ng (60). Next, soil permeability and land use were ranked with corresponding values of (20) and (10) as this information would help to serve as a Figure 2 : Stakeholder Perspective Values
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 24 | Page means to determine if a site could handle particular infrastructure. Finally environmental factors were ranked low and received values of (5) or less as these factors would not influence the decisions of an energy company. (Note Figure 3 for the energy company suitability map) Figure 3 : Energy Company Drilling Suitability Map The environ mental advocates received essentially the opposite weighting values of the energy company. It is believed their highest priority would be the environment so they had their highest weighted data represented as the environmental factors, such as: critical sp ecies, natural resources, and protected areas all receiving values of (19) The environmental perspective also received values of (19) for land use and soil permeability as these factors will directly impact the viability of various habitat regimes and f unction with the environmental factors concurrently. Finally the fracing resources received a value of (5) as they were of the lowest importance to the environmental perspective group. (Note Figure 4 for the environmental advocate suitability map) The fina l group to be represented in this assumptive analysis is the golf course owner. This perspective was valuable as it was assumed they would value the environment and the energy perspective equally seeing as how they gain something from each. They want to successfully frac as a means to generate revenue but they also must protect their environmental resources as they are critical to the function and aesthetics of their golf course. Seeing as how both of these influences are important, all values in the golf course owner group received equal values of (16.7). This created an egalitarian approach to the golf
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 25 | Page course suitability analysis and formed somewhat of a compromise between the energy and environmental perspectives. (Note Figure 5 for the golf course suit ability map) Figure 4 : Environmental Drilling Suitability Map Figure 5 : Golf Course Drilling Suitability Map
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 26 | Page SUMMARY ___________________________________________________________________________ Th is ana lysis served as a way to evaluate Sullivan County, as a whole, for potential fracing while identifying various stakeholder groups involved with the drilling process. In order to properly perform a ential fracking the researcher had to properly evaluate the county as a whole as a means to justify the entirety of the research being done. Through the analysis of the cou nty based on energy company, environmentalist, and golf course owner viewpoints, the maintaining the integrity of the environmental factors present at the site O v e r a l l t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o u t l i n e d f o r t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l s e r v e a s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e w a y t o a n a l y s i s v a r i o u s c o m p o n e n t s o f f r a c i n g a n d g o l f c o u r s e d a t a f r o m m u l t i p l e s c a l e s T h e p r o c e s s a l s o o u t l i n e s h o w t h i s d a t a w i l l b e u t i l i z e d t o inform t h e d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s t o b e m a d e a n d w i l l yield a f i n a l r e s u l t w h i c h i s e n t r e n c h e d i n c o n c l u s i v e d a t a a n d r e f l e c t s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s i t e p r o p e r l y T h i s w i l l r e s u l t i n a s u c c e s s f u l d e s i g n a n d p r o v i d e a p o t e n t i a l b l u e p r i n t o n w h i c h E a g l e s M e r e c o u l d successfully i n t e g r a t e a f r a c i n g s i t e w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e i r g o l f c o u r s e
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH2: Research Methodology 27 | Page IMAGE CREDITS ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________ Figure 1 Franko Matthew. Adapted graphic from overall research methodology Figure 2 Lowrey, Todd A., Christopher D. Finton, and James R. Eby. "Hydrogeologic Report: Eagles Mere Lake and Vicinity Sullivan County, PA." Eagles Mere Lake & Watershed Committee, 25 Jan. 2011. Web.
CHAPTER 3 : CRITICAL ANALYSIS
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 28 | Page INTRODUCTION ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________ F racing occurs wherever an energy company obtains a lease for mineral rights from a location where natural gas is located. There is no zoning regulation or other restrictions on where this occurs a nd in what quantity. Some areas have attempted to include this practice within land use planni ng (such as Pennsylvania cities ) but those requests have either been blocked or denied by the state and federal government 1 The time has come for fracing to find its proper place within the landscape and be appropriately integrated within the ov erall framework of our societies In order to integrate fracing within the landscape, its impact must be fully understood. This impact comes from the visual intrusion of its nature, its potential impact on localized water and soil quality, and within the overall safety framework it lacks for surrounding areas. After this under standing is achieved various factors can be evaluated in order to fixate a hypothetical mitig ation techniques through golf course infrastructure. This g olf course infrastructure will be designed the analysis This combination will culminate in the production of an ov erall synthesis analysis which presents an overall strength and weakness analysis of the site. This final map will dictate a major portion of the new course design which encapsulates the mitigation techniques to be utilized for fracing. FRACING VISUAL PROBLEMS ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ The visual effects of hydraulic fracturing can be seen as extremely obtrusive and can greatly alter the visual impact of a landscape. The average fracing well pad is an approximate 4 6 acres with effects that spread far beyond this boundary. Fracing well pads create disturbances in both the vertical and horizontal realm of space. Both of these frames of reference must be addressed in the restoration phase of a fracing project in o rder to minimize their disturbance This will improve the public perception of fracing and help to make the practice more widely accepted by the community. 1 Navarro, Miery A. "Court Rejects a Ban on Local Frackin g Limits." Green Blog The New York Times, 26 July 2012. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 29 | Page FRACING VERTICAL VISUAL IMPACT _______________________________________________________ The vertical realm of the fracturing process is small in footprint but very substantial in regard to its visual impact. This visual impact is created by the drilling rig itself often reaching 80 100 feet in height ( see Figure 1 ) This equipment is used as the primary means for gaining access to the bedrock and subsequent natural gas located far below the surface. The vertical nature of fracing visual impacts can span across the landscape for miles and greatly alter the views associated with the area. The average drill rig can be seen from up to 5 miles away and therefore creates a major nuisance within the landscape. This nuisance cannot be addressed simply from a localized scale but should be incorporated within a larger impact area This area takes into account locations which are far from the drill site but Figure 1 : Hydro Fracing Well Pad FRACING HORIZONTAL VISUAL IMPACT ______________________________________ ________ ______ The horizontal impact of fracing comes from the substantial infrastructure associated with the process and subsequent transportation of the resources obtained through drill ing. Every fracing well pad requires substantial roads to provide access to the site for large equipment such as drills, storage tanks, maintenance trucks, etc. The fracturing process requires a substantial amount of equipment which is
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 30 | Page can be considered comparable to the average unpaved road. This means that these roads cannot simply be erased from the landscape and leave their footprint long after the drilling process is over. Figure 2 : Natural Gas Pipeline There is also the visual impact of the miles of pipelines ( see Figure 2 ) which are constructed in order to transport the natural gas from the drilling sites to various storage, treatment, or distribution facilities. These pipelines can often have a greater impa ct on the land than the drilling sites themselves as they can span across miles of the landscape. These structures have a much greater edge effect to surrounding areas than an individual well pad. These disruptions can be extremely noticeable to humans fro m an aesthetic means and to wildlife from a habitat & migration means. Visual mitigation for these structures will prove to be more difficult than mitigation for drilling structures. The vast distances these structures span require a much more concerted ef fort from a planning perspective as well as more time intensive mitigation Due to the lengthy linear nature of these structures planning must include: T ransportation networks W aterways
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 31 | Page N atural & protected areas U rban areas T he movement of species V isual perspectives of roads, trails, railway The la rge list of elements incorporated into pipeline planning requires that the process must be done from a regional scale in order to incorporate all the necessary information regarding the length of the pipe. These elements can scar the landscape and disrupt so many visual resources that there must be a means to conceal them from the general public in order to continue the fracturing process without destroying valuable visual resources. These visual resources often have strong indirect economic benefits and if they are overshadowed by the potential benefits of fracing they may be disregarded and lost forever. WATER AND SOIL IMPACTS ______________________________________________________________ In order to effectively frac a well, the energy company must utilize various chemicals and compounds in order to ensure the process works correctly. Certain chemicals, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene are incorporated into this process as they are bi products of the diesel fuel used. These compounds are known hu man carcinogens and pose a serious threat to humans and wildlife if they are exposed to water resources or surrounding soil media. 2 Along with these noxious compounds are other chemicals such as Hydrochloric Acid, Glutaraldehyde Sodium Chloride, and Benz yl Chloride. These compounds are used to create fissures within the rock and also prevent any bacterial growth within the fluid system. These products can serve as a major threat to the well being of humans and wildlife and if introduced to soil or water p ose major health risks. 3 Another subset of bi products found in frac fluid are heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements. Metals such as lead and copper become incorporated into the frac fluid after drilling occurs and can potentially con taminate various water sources or affect soil conditions. The presence of these 2 Environmental Protection Agency. "Benzyl Chloride (CASRN 100 44 7) | IRIS | US EPA."EPA. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 June 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 32 | Page elements within an ecosystem can severely alter its health and cause catastrophic consequences for humans and wildlife. There are also naturally occurring radioactive elements found in frac fluid after drilling most notably uranium. The uranium is released from shale during the fracturing process and can cause severe impacts to the health of any living organism. Uranium produces radon gas which can cause severe health problems for living organisms and also spread very easily as an air borne hazard. 4 These are just a handful of the elements used in fracing (refer to chemical table in the Appendix for full list of chemicals) which can cause severe water and soil contamination i ssues around drill sites. These elements pose an immediate threat to the quality of water and soil within a fracing area and must be properly planned for in order to ensure a lack of contamination potential. Due to the ease of movement of water and soil, i f they become incorporated into water or soil systems they can easily be dispersed to other areas and quickly spread into a large area resulting in large scale contamination. Figure 3 : Aerial Image of Fracing Sites IMPACTS OF W ELL PAD: POST DRILLING SITE CONDIT IONS ____________________ _________________ Fracing impacts include added roads & pipelines as a means to bring equipment to the site and carry the waste products as well as the harvested energy to its final destination. Ano ther impact comes from the physical well pad itself landscape ( see Figure 3 for an aerial image of a fracing site ). The immediate impact to vegetation, soil, 4 United St ates H ouse of R epresentatives C ommittee on E nergy and C ommerce M inority S taff "C hemicals U sed in H ydraulic F racturing ." N.p., Apr. 2011. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 33 | Page and wildlife extend from the well pad and entrance roads 300 500 feet from the boundaries of the physical site itself. 1 The increased human activity at the drill site is another form of an ecosystem impact, which must be mitigated and planned for. The introduction of hum presence of humans cause a ripple effect throughout nearby ecological systems which alters their overall functio n. 1 There is a larger scale at which drilling impacts the landscape as well. The disruption of patches in the landscape can, through drilling infrastructure, negatively affect ecosystem connectivity and create negative, high contrast edge affects. These di sturbance patterns can lead to discontinuity in ecosystems and create: Isolated patches of species Homogeneity in overall system biodiversity Eventual local extinction of species. 5 The affects of the well pad can also impact wind, humidity, hydrology, and soil erosion patterns all of which can lead to changes in the microclimate of the area. 3 Changing the microclimate can induce species migration and affect the way species move in and out of the landscape. This fluctuation in species presence can prov ide opportunities for non native species to colonize an area and become invasive. The impact of invasive species on the landscape can cripple biodiversity and lead to ecosystem homogeneity. 6 Hydraulic fracturing well sites can create landscape fragmentat ion, a major ecological issue that compounds the air and water pollution already produced by their presence. By fragmenting the landscape they can set off chain reactions that can reach far beyond the perceived impact of the well pad itself. LACK OF FRACING SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE _______________________ _________________________ 5 Dramstad, Wenche E., James D. Olson, and Richard T. T. Forman. Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Archit ecture and Land use Planning [Cambridge? Mass.]: Harvard University Graduate School of Design, 1996. Print. 6 Voller, Joan. "Biodiversity and Interior Habitats: The Need to Minimize Edge Effects." British Columbia: Ministry of Forests Research Program, Ju ne 1998. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 34 | Page Despite the aforementioned environmental issues that plague fracing sites, there are essentially no safety measures in place in the form of physical infrastructure which can hel p to prevent accidents or contain potential contamination. Typically, fracing sites are located at higher elevations in order to prevent erosion problems S ubsequent ly, chemical and fluid holding areas are placed at the highest location of a well pad ( see Figure 4 ) as these areas house all of the potentially harmful contaminants which could affects surrounding ecosystem s Despite the severity of their nature, these elements are often stored in open air with no safe guard mechanisms surrounding them to provi de a means of containment if any is to breach the realm of its holding location. This is a major concern for fracing sites, from an environmental protection standpoint, and is an issue which can be provisioned for somewhat easily. Without any safety infras tructure in place things such as well explosions, severe weather events, human error, containment structure breech, etc. can directly expose these harmful components to the adjacent areas and subsequent surrounding systems. Figure 4 : Elevated Fracing Site HYPOTHETICAL FRACING SITE____________________________________________________________ determine the most suitable location for potential fracing. his process must
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 35 | Page be done hypothetically because the time frame for actual site selection does not fall within the time ilized for determining fracing site selection as theorized by the researcher: 1. Topography 2. Existing infrastructure 3. Proximity to resources and development 7 This determination was built on the work done by Upadhyay and Min out of Cornell University. They theo rized various techniques to apply to fracing sites to help avoid negative visual perceptions which the research is applying as a means to limit potential visual and physical hazards to critical areas in the The first factor to use i n lo cating a potential drill site is topography. This utilizes the topographic map of the area to f ind a site which i s located towards a higher elevation It is import ant to note the highest point i s not selected as that would create a situation which woul d be difficult to mitigate for from a visual perspective. A point that is relatively higher than the surrounding area, but not the highest, would be ideal as this would not emphasize the size of the drill as a focal point but would help to prevent erosion due to its higher elevation. It is also critical to look for areas with existing infrastructure nearby so as to limit the amount of infrastructure which must be built in order to accommodate the well pad. This infrastructure can include electrical sources water sources, roadways, and vegetative screening areas. Finally, it is also important to identify any residential or critical water bodies within the area as they would be of utmost importance to safeguard from the fracing from a visual and physical pe rspective. By utilizing topographic maps, the potential hyd rologic flow lines for water sources can be determined and any associated water bodies or developed areas linked to them can be accou nted for. This will help to establish a fracing site out of the localized watersheds of critical water re sources or development areas. 7 Upadhyay, Sarita Rose, and Min Bu. "Visual Impacts of Natural Gas Drilling in the Marcellus Shale Region." Cornell University, Dept. of City and Regional Planning:, 2010. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 36 | Page the selection of the potential fracing well pad ( seen in Figure 5 ) In th is scenario the location was selected as it was towards the top of the primary elevations in play, it was situated adjacent to an existing road which will decrease overhead infrastructure cost, and was located on the opposite side of a watershed associated fracing site has been determined, a comprehensive analysis can be done which evaluates the site from a golf course standpoint, overall site standpoint, and visual standpoint. These analyses will culminate in an overall strength and weakness map which will guide the design of the golf course while utilizing the needs for fracing. Figure 5 : Fracing Well Pad Site Selection Analysis COURSE ANALYSIS ( EAGLES MERE COUNTRY CLUB )___________________ ____________________ ____ destination which provides all the typical facets of a country club:
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 37 | Page tennis courts golf clubhouse locker room pool from the northeast region of the United States notably New York and New Jersey. The course has existed since 1911 and was designed by William S. Flynn. 8 The course provides a modest par 70 olfer would attain for 18 holes of play a course rating hese values ranges from 55 9 somewhat easy layout and would be better served by additions which would increase its difficulty level in order to attract a wider range of player abiliti es. Figure 6 : Eagle's Mere Signature Hole "A View to New York" 8 9 United States Golf Association. "National Course Rating Database." National Course Rating Database N.p., 2012. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 38 | Page The course is most noted for its strong elevation changes and corresponding views ( see Figure 6 ). The course is spread out over the top of a large hill and provides a great vantage point to gaze at the endless mountains of Pennsylvania. The topographic challenges facing a course situated on top of a hill have given rise to some issues with how the c ourse is laid out. There are two main course layout types loop and core. In the loop layout, the holes are laid out in a circular fashion and the 9 th green and 10 th tees are not setup to bring players back to the clubhouse ( see Figure 7 ). The core layo ut is a more compact course footprint, which brings players back to the clubhouse at the end and beginning of a nine hole stretch ( see Figure 8 Country Club a combination of the two layout styles is used. There is a cluster of early holes (1 5) all of which play around the clubhouse, but the rest of the holes follow more of a loop format with the first nine ending and second nine beginning away from the club house ( see Figure 9 for a golf analysis of ). 10 There can be different reasons this layout type may have been chosen. This layout however is not conducive to the country cub style of golf and does not provide the opportunity for players to only play nine holes without being stranded on the course. The loop metho d also often creates odd scenarios in which holes cross paths or the logical flow from one hole to another may be difficult to understand. This creates an unpleasant experience for the golfer and can lead to frustration leading further to poor play and an overall unenjoyable experience for the golfer. Figure 7: Loop Course Layout Figure 8: Core Course Layout 10 Graves, Robert Muir., and Geoffrey S. Cornish. Golf Course Design New York: J. Wiley, 1998. Print.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 39 | Page Figure 9 : Eagle's Mere Golf Analysis
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 40 | Page It also hurts the clubhouse to not have players be able to access refreshments or other necessities between nines amenities. Ea pay s to run a halfway house on hol e number 7. If the course fit into more of a core layout, players could return to the clubhouse after the first nine, eliminating the need for a halfway house and The enjoyment of players, one o f the cor nerstones of golf course design, also hinges on the style of play presented to the player. There are three basic styles of play used in golf course design: (1) strategic (2) penal (3) heroic. The strategic design places certain hazards/obstacles player to bail out to. This style of golf course design is considered more traditional and seen in older golf courses. 16 around the hazards/obstacles and is given multiple paths in which to avoid them. The final design strategy employed is the heroic method. This method places large hazards/obstacles in the way of a player creating a major decision in regard to how to attack them. If the player challenges them, they are often rewarded greatly from succeeding or punished severely for failing. The player will route. 13 e of play in which holes are somewhat simply designed and do no present a large amount of variety or rigor. Most of the holes are straight ahead or maintain a slight dog leg either left or right. Of the 14 non par 3 holes, six dog leg and the remaining eig ht are straight forward. The six doglegs provide three to the left and three to the right creating good balance and not favoring one type of shot over the other. However, t he course provides no opportunities for heroic moments or shots for the
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 41 | Page players. E ven the final par 5 18 th has its water hazard some 50 yards before the green. If this water was nestled closer to the green players would be left with an incredibly dramatic finish to their round. The water hazard does provide one of the best focal points on the course ( see Figure 1 0 ) and provides the player with a lasting image after their round. Figure 10 : The course provides some useful focal points by providing vistas at highpoints ( see Figure 1 1 ), showy water features, and tremendous view sheds both at the beginning and end of holes. These features are not only aesthetically pleasing to the players but ca n serve as way finding devices to help players navigate the course. The most noteworthy aspect to the course is the drastic elevation changes a player will experience throughout the round. These create scenic vistas, blind shots, and give many holes spec ific character through elevation alone. The course also establishes individual hole character through amenity features Figure 8 : alysis
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 42 | Page such as rock outcroppings and fern meadows surrounding trees. This is a great way to boost the aesthetic appeal of a course with le ss phy sical dynamics or appeal 11 Figure 11 : Hole Number 6 creating memorable experiences with incredible views. The overall flow of the course could be re worked to fit the core layout model and provide a more enjoy able experience for the user while providing more efficient services from the golf course. The course could also benefit from the variety some heroic holes would provide the players with. As of now, the course plays mostly to the strategic nature (which is a testament to its age and more conventional, old style design) but could greatly benefit from more opportunities for the golfer. The inclusion of a new nine holes could be the perfect way to remedy all of these problems. A new nine holes would create t he opportunity to re route the course and create a more playable course in terms of 11 Hurdzan, Michael J. Golf Course Architecture: Evolution Sin Design, Construction, and Restoration Technology Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Print.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 43 | Page the natural flow of play. This would also provide multiple varieties of 18 hole courses that could be played which would provide a new look for the members while maintainin g the integrity and history of the original design. The new nine holes would be best suited as a heroic style of play, a contrasting element that can be integrated in the more mundane, strategic layout that currently exists. SITE ANALYSIS ( CLUB )___________________ ____________________ _______ The physical analysis of the site works together with the course analysis by identifying opportunity and weakness areas related to bo th golf and fracing The key to this analysis id identifying areas that, not only can be renovated or protected, but are actually able to accommodate everything required for golf and fracing to succeed. These physical characteristics include but are not li mited to: soil type slopes wetland areas property shape irrigation water source electricity source tree cover existing transportation infrastructure critical vegetated areas wildlife habitat depth to water table wind patter The soil types that must be ide ntified are those that are well drained (suitable for golf course development) and poorly drained soils (not suitable for development). 13 By identifying these areas a designer can establish zones which would be prone to flooding and water pooling these areas would cause destruction to the golf course, once established, and raise management costs. Also, many plant species require well dra ined soils (including many golf course grasses) and poorly drained soil will drown much of the vegetation planted there. Data regarding t wa s unobtainable, but due to the high vegetative quality in the area and the existing success o f the golf course, it can be assumed
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 44 | Page the site has soils which would be beneficial for golf courses and provide the proper drainage necessary for a successful golf course development. Slopes are another critical factor to consider in the site analysis phase The slopes of the site work directly with the soil types indicating a specific angle of repose to establish areas of critical erosion potential so they can be avoided and maintained with vegetation to stabilize their slopes. The topography and accompanyi ng slopes will also identify critical areas that are too steep for proper golf course play and management a minimum of 2% to a maximum of 40% with the most suitable slopes falling between 2% 10%. 14 The slope analysis will also reveal low areas which wi ll often coincide with on the top of a mountain. This creates a distinct character to the holes and limits the remaining amount of properly sloped are 40% ( see Figure 12 for the overall site analysis). This would indicate that the site has many areas that would not be suitable for golf course infrastructure, but that could serve as aesthetic areas or some sort of drainage or containment function. Wetland areas should be avoided in order to prevent future flooding, to thwart any seepage of chemicals into water systems, and to avoid infringement on critical wildlife habitat. 15 As sociated with wetlands is the various known depth to the water table on site as this will inform what areas are appropriate for construction infrastructure and major earth moving practices. Depth to water table is critical as it establishes areas not to bu ild on as well as protect from aquifer contamination. Eagles Mere has two nearby wetland areas to the Southwest and East. These areas should be buffered and protected from potential golf course and fracing run off. These areas can be protected by golf cour se infrastructure designed in conjunction with the newly proposed golf course. Water and electricity sources must also be identified so clubhouse function can be established and course irrigation can be assured. This will also help to limit the infrastruc ture needed during course infrastructure on site, it can be assumed that ample water and electric sources exist along with data of their corresponding loc ation.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 45 | Page Figure 12 : Eagles Mere Site Analysis
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 46 | Page Existing tree cover and transportation infrastructure will be valuable information to obtain in the site analysis phase so as to inform how much land clearing will be necessary in the future a major construction cost contributor. 13 note the aerial backdrop in Figure 12 ). Newly proposed holes will require a large amount of tree removal. Ideally, some of these trees can be relocated to be inc orporated into the visual mitigation practices for fracing and function as strategic components of the course design. The location of vegetated areas will be a valuable information source as they will dictate critical wildlife habitat. It is paramount to establish, protect, and buffer these areas during the site design process. These areas are intrinsic to native flora and fauna and their survival will be a key factor to the future ecological success of the site and subsequently to the course itself ( note Figure 12 for areas to buffer ). 15 In the case of a golf course and hydraulic fracing partnership, new considerations arise in terms of physical factors to be identified in the site analysis phase. The well pad must be clearly identified and analyzed for vegetation growth feasibility and im pact on the overall landscape. This designation must carefully take into consideration hydrology, slopes, soils, and other factors dealing with the transport of materials of the fracing site to nearby habitats or water bodies. Due to the hazardous nature of the fracing process, anything from the site must either be contained and/or filtered via a buffer from the other program elements located nearby. This is a critical process in the establishment of wildlife on site, as it will facilitate population regen eration and bring nature back into the site after drilling has occurred. VISUAL ANALYSIS (EAG UB)___________ ____________________ ________ It is also important to address the visual sight lines from various locations on the course which c ould dictate views directed at the fracing site. These views can be unappealing to the player and must be mitigated for in order to preserve the aesthetic quality of the golf course. Figure 13 shows where these ies areas which must be buffered from the visual impact of drilling. golf that can also serve as potential wildlife habitat and integration are have a lasting impact on the future management of the course. The architect must find a balance between design and maintenance feasibility in order to maintain the viability of the golf course over
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 47 | Page Figure 13 : Eagles Mer e View Analysis
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 48 | Page time. 12 A proper design will provide a unique golfing experience while providing a course that a superintendent can easily maintain while avoiding any major management issues (such as flooding, mowing difficulties and vegetation mortality). This analysis is crit ical as it will play a pivotal role in the design of the new golf course while ed into the strategic location of various vegetation. The visual impact of fracing and its integration with golf will be the most notable to the public and dictate their first impression of the area. By critically blocking any negative views, the design ca n properly introduce users of the site to pleasant views leading to an overall enjoyable golf experience without the intrusion of fracing infrastructure. SITE SYNTHESIS: STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES ____________________ ____________________ ______ The valuable wo rk done in the critical analysis phase which included (1) golf (2) fracing (3) overall site characteristics and (4) visual impacts can all provide input which can be utilized in an overall site synthesis map which will identify strength and weakness areas for potential fracing and golf course integration. A synthesis map combines all of this information ( see Figure 14 ) and will help to dictate the design process. This ensures that all the work done in the site analysis phase properly transitions and reveals itself in the course design and fracing integration phase. Much of the information presented in the synthesis map will be utilized in the golf course design process and play an intricate role in all phases of design. It will inform areas to take advantage of for golf course purposes, areas to utilize for fracing mitigation, and areas to avoid in terms of any form of golf or fracing infrastructure. This will lead to the proper integration of fracing and golf course design while maintaining the functionality of both uses during their respective time frames of operation. 12 Dodson, Ronald G. Managing Wildlife Habitat on Golf Courses Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor, 2000. Print.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 49 | Page Figure 14 : Eagles Mere Site Synthesis Map
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 50 | Page IMAGE CREDITS_____________ ____________________ ____________________ ___________________ Figure 1 http://inspirationgreen.com/hydraulic fracking basics.html Figure 2 Photo by Matthew Franko of natural gas pipeline in Sullivan County Pennsylvania Figure 3 http://jhenryfair.com/aerial/portfolio/gas_drilling.html Figure 4 http://sites.lafayette.edu/egrs2 51 fa11 fracking/what is hydraulic fracturing/ Figure 5 Fracing site selection analysis diagram composed by Matthew Franko Figure 6 Photo by Matthew Franko of 6 th Figure 7 Graves, Robert Muir., and Geoffrey S. Cornish. Golf Course Design New York: J. Wiley, 1998. Print. Figure 8 Graves, Robert Muir., and Geoffrey S. Cornish. Golf Course Design New York: J. Wiley, 1998. Print. Figure 9 Golf Analysis Diagram composed by Matthew Franko Figure 1 0
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis 51 | Page Figure 11 Photo by Matthew Franko of an elevated view point hole number 6 Figure 12 E ysis provided by Matthew Franko Figure 13 view anal ysis provided by Matthew Franko Figure 14 site synthesis map provided by Matthew Fra nko
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH3: Critical Analysis
CHAPTER 4 : SOLUTIONS
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 52 | Page VISUAL MITIGATION _______________________________________________________________ Sarah Kuehn has proposed the use of vegetative screening barrier s located at strategic locations within the landscape which block views directed at drilling sites. The use of existing and proposed vegetation is an effective way to block or obscure the visual impacts of fracing sites. Seeing as how drill rigs average 80 100 feet in height, it is reasonable to assume that the entire rig would be difficult to block. However, can be achieved through various vegetative scre ening measures located adjacent to human activities which will facilitate in blocking view sheds overlooking a fracing site. fracing sites could offer substantial screen i n g vegetation due lived pines which can come close to reaching the heights needed to block the fracturing drills entirely. Most notably the Eastern White Pine, Pinus rigida 1 and the S cots Pine, Pinus sylvestris 2 which reach average heights of 90 feet and 70 feet respectively. These trees can be utilized to contribute to the visual blocking of the vertical nuisances created by fracing. 3 The location of these trees, or similar ones, can be chosen a n d p r e s e r v e d with these vegetative buffers incorporated into the site d e s i g n p r o c e s s These trees can be utilized at Existing trees to be preserved Existing trees to be relocated Proposed trees to be planted It is important to understand that the drilling rig is an integral part of the fracing process and cannot simply be removed from the site. H owev er its visual impact can be considered when selecting the location for the rig. In doing so, the exposure of this massive structure to the public can be limited. This vertical element can be hidden by incorporating aspect analysis through GIS services when selecting sites and utilizing the data to locate visual problem areas before dril ling begins Once these areas are identified they can be planned for and incorporated into the overall drilling site plan. Note Figure 1 i n 1 Cook. "Common Trees of Pennsylvania Eastern White Pine." Common Trees of Pennsylvania Eastern White Pine N.p., n.d. Web. 19 July 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 53 | Page C h a p t e r 3 f o r a d e t a i l e d v i e w s h e d w h i c h identifies potential v i s u a l problem areas associated with the fracing site. These areas were identified before the design process took place and lead to the placement of various vegetation at the associated negative areas. This vegetation served as a buffer to various fracing site lines but also as an integral piece of the design strategy associated with the respective holes. The location of residential, commercial, recreational, and transportation networks can also be evaluated when selecting a drill site, so it can be ori ented away from these areas reducing its visual expos ure to the public. This will lead to less of an overall impact to the public and decrease public perception of the rig. the location of a residential neighborhood to the east of the site was taken into account when sel ecting the drilling site ( s e e Figure 5 i n C h a p t e r 3 ) This limited the impact the site had on nearby residents as it kept the drill from their immediate line of sight. PHYSCIAL MITIGATION ______________________________________________________________ There are many ways in which t he physical impacts of a fracing site can be mitigated for. A v i t a l l y important aspect to incorporate into fracing physical mitigation h a s t o d o w i t h drainage and soil. An integral part of the drainage design will come t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n o f various containment st ructures which will facilitate in collecting runoff and preventing the spread of harmful chemicals throughout the site. Within these containment areas, bio mediated soils can be implemented to further advance the cleansing and containment strategies in pl ace By controlling drainage and amending soil, the impacts of a fracing site on water and soil resources can be effectively contained and either cleansed or removed. Also, various parts of the drainage and containment infrastructure can be utilized simultaneously as safety structures which limit the spread of any hazardous material in the e v e n t of an accident or equipment malfunction. DRAINAGE AND SOIL ________________________________________________________________ The soil removed for the creation of fracing infrastructure should be stockpiled and placed in an area which will not be at risk of coming into contact with natural or man made dra inage patterns (to avoid contamination). This soil should also be properly labeled so as to avoid confusion with other soils stored
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 54 | Page on site. It is also important to make sure the top soil is not mixed with any sub soil as the top soil will be best for re u sing on the site post drilling. Figure 1 : Fracing Brine Pit The strict drainage requirements of fracing sites necessitate that the site be re graded (post drilling) to reverse all of the steps taken to prep the site for drilling. The pre drilling grading consists of constructed rete ntion ponds (lined with special tarps), drainage ditches, canals, berms, silt fences, retention walls and other structures used to move all of the water on site into the proper areas and maintain the structural integrity of the drainage system. 3 There are sub soil and then covered with top soil as part of the restoration process. This is another reason why it is so important to save topsoil and sub soil which can be used to refill brine pits ( s e e F i g u r e 1 f o r a n i m a g e o f a b r i n e p i t ) All of the pits constructed on site should be located in areas of lower risk for aquifer (or other groundwater) source contamination. These areas must be re filled with the aforementione d
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 55 | Page top s o i l and sub soil saved before drilling. 4 The well pad will also severel y compact the soil and hinder proper drainage, soil aeration, water infiltration, etc. This compacted land must be restored in order to: De compress the soil Re establish the topsoil and sub soil to the original depth Re establish all the contours to match the contours of pre drilling conditions. 5 By addressing these issues a fracing site can be properly integrat ed back into the natural form o f the grading to naturally f it the lay of the land but also as an integral piece of the golf course. The site drainage work that had to be done post fracing served a purposed in the design intent of the golf course as it functioned as a new tee box for the course. T h e p o t e n t i a l f o r t h i s w a s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e c o u r s e r o u t i n g p h a s e w h i c h w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5 CONTAINMENT A N D S A F E T Y S T R U C T U R E S _ __________________________________________ During the planning process it is important to note the existing contours (which will be altered by the well pad) and how they function within the greater context of the surrounding site T his must be done so they can be fully restored and re established after all drilling activities are finished and the site i s restored to its natural condition. These contours can be manipulated to form various drainage areas for the site and can help to so lve the containment problems associated with fracing site. By creating various struc tures such as trenches, littoral zones, and containment areas, any fracing hazards can be controlled and p o t e n t i a l l y mitigated for on site. Currently, there are no true drainage struct ure requirements for fracing sites and any potential cleansing opportunities are not utilized. These containment areas can be utilized as cleansing zones which will serve to help clean water and soil and decrease the effort needed to restore c o n t a i n m e n t areas were located directly around the fracing site and later utilized as part of the g o l f c o u r s e design process T h e y w e r e c r e a t e d i n t o a tee box a l o n g w i t h a s u r r o u n d i n g w a s t e b u n k e r Th e key component to these containment structures is the integration of bio mediated soils within them to serve as a cleansing and containment enhancement making them more usefu l and effective for mitigation ( S e e F i g u r e 2 a n d F i g u r e 3 f o r b e f o r e a n d a f t e r diagrammatic sections of t h e c o n t a i n m e n t a r e a s 4 Poole, David T. "Hydraulic Fracturing of Unconventional Gas Sh ales: Potential Pollutants, Treatments and Remediation." The Ohio State University, 18 May 2012. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 56 | Page Figure 2 : Fracing Containment Trenches Before Figure 3 : Fracing Containment Structures After The s e areas d e s i g n e d for drainage, containment, and treatment can also serve a valuable s a f e t y s t r u c t u r e during the fracing process. C urrently s a f e t y structures a r e non ex istent a r o u n d f r a c i n g s i t e s Refer back to Figure 1 and note how there are no safety structures associated with the fracing b r i n e p i t All of the hazards chemicals and post fracing waste is stored in t h e s e pits which are open to the air and susceptible to all sorts of potential d isasters. In the event of a flood, wind storm, human error, etc.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 57 | Page anything spilled from the frac site will flow directly into the surrounding areas and not be safeguarded for i n a n y w a y Through the implementation of a simple trench system, these potentia l accidents could be prevented and r e d u c e t h e c h a n c e s o f any potential e nvironmental disasters Mere, these safety structures also function as potential cleansing areas as they can be outfitted with bio mediated soil and vegetation. After they h ave served their purpose for fracing, they can be utilized safety structures directly surrounding the fracing site were retrofitted to serve as a wast e bunker surrounding a tee box which was also created from previous the fracing site. This development was present through all phases of the course design and utilized as an important aspect to the planning and design of the course. BIOMEDIATED SOIL ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ______ New advancements in geotechnical and geochemical engineering have provided very exciting technology available for site cleansing and restoring. This new wave of technology is centered on t he introduction of biologic organisms which change the chemical and physical properties of the media they are introduced into. 5 This method of chemical and physical site remediation and restoration is referred or ganisms are introduced into the media and through their own metabolic processes either take in harmful pollutants and contain them or they change the molecular structure of the surrounding environment. 6 This can be an incredibly useful practice for restori ng a fracing site after it has been drilled on and potentially contaminated. The bio mediated organisms can be introduced into the soil and successfully clean out various harmful chemicals and absorb other heavy metals, toxins, a n d radioactive materials After this, different bio mediated organisms can be introduced that will change the physical structure of the media making it easier to remove or serve as a way to contain the harmful agents found in the soil until proper cleansing proced ures can take place. This structural alteration would turn it from a porous and lose consistency 5 DeJong, J.T. "Biogeochemical Processes and Geotechnical Applications: Progress, Opportunities and Challenges." University of California, Davis: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, n.d. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 58 | Page into a dense and un porous structure resulting in better chemical sequestration within the soil and subsequently easier t o clean up and r e m o v e p o l l u t a n t s 7 At golf course or fracing site. This includes but is not limited to trenches, littoral zones, containment areas, bunkers, waste bunkers, water hazards, etc. Th ese ideas are grand in nature and would serve well from the input of chemical geologic al, and environmental engineers. By integrating this technique with fracing the industry could forge on into a new era of more environmentally sound practice s S O L U T I O N S SUMMARY ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ _____ Clearly there is a lot that can be done in terms of fracing site mitigation and restoration. Visual mitigation can be achieved through proper planning and utilization of vegetative s creening. This vegetation can be incorporated effectively into golf course design for both aesthetics and strategic purposes. The introduction of various soil containment techniques can also help to preserve the quality and effectiveness of the soil on sit e. This allows for it to be utilized post fracing for restoration and golf course design. Drainage and containment areas can also be implemented adjacent to and in the proximity of fracing sites in an attempt to control the f l o w o f w a t e r a n d d e b r i s from the site and conta in it for proper cleaning. This cleansing and removal can be enhanced through the use of bio mediated soil which will lead to better overall fracing mitigation. These drainage and containment structures can be easily incorporated into golf course design as various infrastructure related to the flow of play. This in t e g r a t i o n can e a s i l y b e a c h i e v e d due to their similar design and function. These drainage and containment areas also can serve as safety structures which safeguard the area from potential runoff contamination associated with fracing accidents and disasters. 7 D, Jason T., Brina M. Mortsensen, Brian C. Martinez, and Douglas C. Nelson. "Bio Mediated Soil Improvments." Ecological Engineering, Feb. 2010. Web. 07 Jan. 2013.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 59 | Page All of the se techniques can serve as a means to achieve the purpose of solving the visual, water, soil, and safety problems associated with fraci ng while simultaneously providing intriguing components to golf course design.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing and Golf Courses CH4: Solutions 60 | Page IMAGE CREDITS_____________ ____________________ ____________________ __________________ Figure 1 I n d u s t r i a l S c a r s http://jhenryfair.com/aerial/portfol io/gas_drilling.html Figure 2 F r a c i n g I m a g e S e c t i o n c r e a t e d b y M a t t h e w F r a n k o Figure 3 F r a c i n g I m a g e S e c t i o n c r e a t e d b y M a t t h e w F r a n k o
CHAPTER 5 : MITIGATION IMPLEMENT ATION THROUGH GOLF COURSE DESIGN
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 61 | Page GOLF COURSE DESIGN I NTEGRATED WITH FRACI NG ____________________ ____________________ __ The process of golf course design is one which requires a routing pan, sizing plan, shaping plan, cut and fill analysis, and eventual master plan. All of the techniques u sed through the design process are very capable of incorporating fracing infrastructure into its methodology. From the golf standpoint an evaluation of the potential area must take place, along with an evaluation of any existing golf infrastructure and how it can be improved. This analy sis will inform the routing, siz ing, and eventual master planning of a newly designed golf course. Note Figure 9 in Chapter 3 to see The fracing side of things requires simultaneo us evaluation of site feasibility as well as identi fication of the potential problems the drilling will have on the current and future functionality of the golf course. This will help implement potential d rilling while play still occurs. It will also help to identify where implementation of additional safety features can be integrated as well as areas in need of visual mitigation This infrastructure can be converted to integrated pieces of the golf course after the drilling is completed. Through these pr ocesses you will see the development of a fracing site (post drilling) be utilized in the design and development of a golf course which incorporates the fracing infrastructure as an integral part of the course design methodology. In order for the fracing a nd golf course integration to be successful the golf course must be designed in the proper manner and follow all the attributable steps to creating a successful golf course development. GOLF COURSE ROUTING PLAN ___________________________________ __ ________ _______________ The course design process must always begin with a topographic analysis resulting in the routing plan for potential holes. The routing process is comprised of identifying all the potential locations for holes and how they will interact wit h each other. In this process the architect can dictate a certain flow of play and achieve many of the strategic sequence of events which are to occur for the player. It is in this stage
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 62 | Page Figure 1 : Course Routing Plan
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 63 | Page that the pr oper loops of play can be assured in an attempt to have players always start and finish at the clubhouse. It is typical to utilize the topographic map in this process in an attempt to find the flatter areas for tees and greens in order to minimize the amou nt of earthwork which must be done later in the construction phase of the project (note Figure 1 ) from the site synthesis analysis were combined with the topography in the routing phase. This allowed the pivotal information gathered in the critical analysis study to be incorporated into the earliest stages of golf course design. This will help to design the holes around the fracing site and properly incorporate it into the golf course. T he routing phase wi ll also be crucial in the cut and fill process and help to dictate how many uphill, downhill, side hill, level, straight and dog leg shots a re presented to the player. While developing the routing it is important to achieve a balance of all of these shot types so as to provide the player with multiple scenarios so as to avoid a monotony of hole types. Figure 2 : Hole Concept Sketch This is also a great opportunity for the architect to begin sketches in order to experiment with w hat the course will look like and what type of character it will have example sketches in Figures 2 and 3 The qualities.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 64 | Page Fracing can be integrat ed into this process by incorporating its existing infrastructure into the strategic location of golf specific areas. The fracing site itself can be identifi ed by flat terrain which would be useful as some form of tee or green. The fracing site can also di ctate the prescribed location of various stormwater and safety structures. By identifying these areas in the routing phase, they can remain constant throughout the design process and be effectively utilized in the final golf course plan. Figure 3 : Hole Concept Sketch In the case of the new routing is intended to eliminate awkward hole crossing and provide more variety and heroic shot making opportunities for the player. T hree new nine hole layouts have been proposed which can be played in any combination so the player can add variety to their round by incorporating drastic elevation changes and many subsequent heroic opportunities. This added variety is crucial in terms of adding enjoyment for players an d helping to maintain the golf
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 65 | Page term 1 The routing has also incorporated the fracing site as a potential tee box and specifically designed holes to utilize various littoral collection areas as either aesthetic accents or backdrop is effectively utilizing the various techniques needed to mitigate for the problems associated with fracing, while maintaining the integrity and playability of t he golf course. GOLF COURSE SIZING PLAN ______________________ _______________________________________ The routing process can often demand the most time for the overall project as it will lay the g roundwork for the entire course. However, once routin g is established it is important to incorporate course sizing into the concept to make sure it will effectively fit the space it is intended to This process takes the linear characteristics established in the routing phase and begins to give some dimensi o ns to each hole. T here is no true hole design during this process, but it is essentially setting aside the land nec essary for certain features needed for each individual hole This guarantees t hat the dimensions necessary can be supported by the topograph y and will establish proper proximity for adjacent holes. This is a crucial step in the course design process as it serves as a safeguard for setting aside the required land needed t o create each hole separately. This is also a great time to establish p otential conflicts between holes and gives a better vision to what the overall course is intended to be. In Figure 4 depicted to provide a comprehensive example of the appropriate sizing phase after routing is completed. This stage shows how the new holes will fit into the existing landscape and demonstrates how the holes fit next to each other in order to achieve a proper layout. T his step in the design process is also incorporating the fracing relat ed sites into it consideration by considering the size and shape of the fracing site in conjunction with the hole surrounding it This is also helping to ensure that the necessary sizing and placement of fracing mitigation infrastructure is achieved and ba lanced in conjunction with the golf course. 1 Doak, Tom. The Anatomy of a Golf Course Short Hills, NJ: Burford, 1992. Print.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 66 | Page Figure 4 : Course Sizing Plan
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 67 | Page GOLF COURSE SHAPING PLAN ______________ __ ____________________________________________ The course shaping process is where the first detailed design can be gin to be implemented and the actual course can begin to take shape. In this stage the subtle nuances of each hole can begin to reveal themselves and the overall course strategy developed in the routing phase can begin to take shape. Each hole will now be given a specific shape which corresponds to how the hole must react to the introduc tion of hazards, rough, the creation of various sight angles and existing or proposed fracing infrastructure Here the various aspects to each hole can be identified and ex perimented with such as bunker shape, rough proximity, green shape, etc. This phase is crucial to maintain ing a variety between where h azards are placed as well as how each hole is played Through the addition of various hazards a certain style of play c an be dictated to the user either: Heroic Strategic Penal. It is important to maintain a balance of these types of holes which is achievable through the placement of certain hazards or landing zones. By placing trees, bunkers, or landing zones in the prop er places, a player can be enticed into a heroic shot or forced to m ake a more conservative play Creating a balance between these types of situations is critical as it will provide variety to the player. 2 A the orange layout (the entire n ew 9 holes) serves as the primary heroic component while the existing course presents the necessary penal and strategic scenarios to create balance. Many of the fracing mitigation areas have been integrated in the new heroic layout as they provide the need ed hazards to encourage a heroic opportunity. The in Figure 5 As the hazards safe zones and fracing mitigation areas are implemented more information can be gained topographically and should be noted as it w ill be crucial in the next phase cut and fill. 2 Shackelford, Geoff. Grounds for Golf: The History and Fundamentals of Gol f Course Design New York: T. Dunne, 2003. Print
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 68 | Page Figure 5 : Course Shaping Plan
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 69 | Page GOLF COURSE CUT AND FILL PLAN _________________________________________ ___ _____________ The cut and fill stage is the ultimate feasibility evaluation in regard to the overall golf course plan as it will dictate the overall financial cost associated with the amount of earth moving done to achieve the design This process is a system of analyzing the existing topography and then calculating how much land must be removed or added in order to achieve the layout desired. Typically, the cut and fill occurs mostly on the tees and greens as these are the most desirable level locations for the golf course. They must be level as anything greater than approximatel y a 3% slope will be unusable by the players for potential shots. 2 There will also be a fair amount of cut and fill done to the fairway section s of a cours e as these areas provide the opportunity to create side slopes on the fairways as well as level lan ding zones for the players to utilize. It is important to provide a balance of these areas as they can play into the strategic layout of a hole. For example, a player may be provided with a flat area to reach for an approach shot but is far from the green ; whereas an un level area can be provided which will be closer to the green but offer a more challenging shot. The cut and fill process is one which can help to further advance the strategy and balance created in the routing an d sizing processes. This cu t and fill stage is crucial as it must reinforce the ideas set forth in the routing and siz ing steps and not conflict with them render ing them useless. For example, if an easy for a player, then it would not be wise to create a drastic elevation and slope change on this hole as it will make it play harder and therefore not achieve the original goal. The overall feasibility of the potential course layout is not geared towards h ow much cut and fill is needed but more about how balanced it is. By achieving a balance of cut and fill the topsoil needed for the creation of the course can be found on site. When all the cut dug out can be used for fill then the final product will n ot require the purchase of needed soil or the selling of leftover soil. It is important to note that if complete balance is not achievable then it would be more advantageous to have extra cut
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 70 | Page Figure 6 : Course Cut and Fill Analysi s
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 71 | Page as this will provide a surplus as opposed to a deficit of soil This excess can potential ly be sold for financial gain. 1 A cut and fill analysis for Eagle the fracing site (post drilling) into the process (see Figure 6 ) This analysis shows how the existing site was utilized as a tee box and provided a useful area in which a lot of potential cut was avoided. This analysis also displays how much cut and fill was estimated to be needed in order to achieve the desired desig n. These estimations were very similar in totals and helped to dictate subtle changes in the design in order to get the numbers as close as possible. In doing this it helped to establish the appropriateness of the fracing and golf course integration from a n earthmoving standpoint. GOLF COURSE MASTER PLAN ______________________ __ _____________________________________ In the master plan phase all of the larger conflicts can be worked out such as hole length, flow of play, etc. and more details can be add ressed and worked through. This is where the course design can begin to reveal itself and will show its true nature. The intent of this plan is to provide people with a grand vision for the course and will include any special features which the course will bring to the table such as fracing mitigation infrastructure This plan demonstrates the culmination of all the previous design steps and serves as a means to demonstrate the overall goal of the final plan. An example of a master plan for the fracing can be seen in Figure 7 which is the culmination of Figures 1 6. This plan depicts the overall site and shows an illustrative example of how the entire course is laid out and integrated with the fracing mitigation areas The course has been outfitted with various techniques used for potential physical, chemical, and visual mitigation zones which address the fracing site and incorporate it into the course design These techniques, which were established in the critical an alysis phase and carried throughout the golf course design phase, can be seen their true form via the final master plan.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 72 | Page Figure 7 : Course Master Plan
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 73 | Page SITE DETAILS: DRAINAGE AND CONTAINMENT _____________________________ __________________ First, the issue of physical and chemical mitigation must take place within and around the golf course as it s know n inhabits previously drilled the land Physical mitigation can come in the form of various structures integrated into the stormwater and management plan through the use of trenches and littoral zones used for stormwater collection and potential cleansing. The use of strategically placed littoral zones is a great way to incorporate safeguards for groundwater intrusion areas a s well as water filtration areas. If you note Figure 7 (the Master Plan) made littoral zones which serve as: (1) Overflow structures for certain wet areas (preventing golf course damage during flooding) (2) Water filtration zone s as they are located in the direct path of runoff (3) Catchment zones where any potentially polluted water can be held until it is either cleansed or harvested Figure 8 : Strategic Littoral Zones Shown in Areas with Bright Colored G rasses The littoral zones which serve as catchment and safety structures can be seen in Figure 8 and Figure 9 depicted in section elevation form. These areas can also be outfitted with the bio mediated soil mentioned in Chapter 4. The use of this cleans ing and hazard removal technique increases the efficacy
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 74 | Page of these drainage and containment structures making them more effective in the landscape It is also lizers are not incorporated into their management plan. These areas can receive high levels of runoff and must be preserved in an attempt to not overload them from potential Phosphorous and Nitrogen contamination. 3 Figure 9 : Strat egic Littoral Zones Shown in Areas with Bright Colored Grasses These areas can be interspersed throughout the course and serve as a valuable fracing protection structure along with water quality improvement mechanisms. After the physical containment a nd treatment methods have been addressed, the potential visual problems associated with the drilling structures can be implemented SITE DETAILS: VISUAL MITIGATION ________________________________________________________ It is critical to understand and p lan for the impact drilling structures can have on the flow of play and potential visual hazards within the area. Although fracturing often takes place in rural areas, by creating 3 Dodson, Ronald G. Sustainable Golf Courses: A Guide to Environmental Stewardship Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons, 2005. Print.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 75 | Page Figure 10 : Fracing Visual Impact Section Elevati on (Before) Figure 11 : Fracing Visual Impact Section Elevation (After) an atmosphere which humans can find acceptable; it will help to boost the public perception of the fracturing process in more populated areas 4 They can a lso provide potential aesthetic enhancements to 4 Kuehn, Sarah. "Landscape Practices on Gas Well Sites in North Texas: Perceptio ns of Selected Industry Representatives and Regulators." University of Texas at Arlington, Dec. 2011. http://dspace.uta.edu/bitstream/handle/10106/9543/Kuehn_uta_2502M_11493.pdf?sequence=1 Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 76 | Page an area based on the site line mitigation utilized to buffer the fracing site. Examples of how these visual mitigation structures works can be seen in Figures 10 11 depicting section elevations of potential sight line problems and how they can be solved via the addition of strategically placed vegetative cover. This part to the strategic design of the course and the development of its aesthetic. The site line mitigation needs were present in the planning stages of the course and facilitated in dictating the design and implementation of various hole components and accent areas. For a diagrammatic section of this visual mitigation occurring away from the drilling site, refer to Figure 12 Figure 12 : Diagrammatic Sight Line Blocking Section SITE DETAILS: SAFETY STRUCTURES ________________________________________________________ The golf course is in need of various depressions in which to outfit water hazards, bunkers, and other structures (trenches and swales) created around the f racing site can be retrofitted and utilized as hazard areas associated with t h e n e w l y d e s i g n e d golf course These structures, although serving as part of the golf course, can also still effectively prevent any potential fracing hazards left behind from spreading throu ghout the landscape. N o t e Figure 2 and F i g u r e 3 i n C h a p t e r 4 f o r before a nd after d i a g r a m m a t i c
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 77 | Page section elevations of the fracing site at Ea a n d h o w t h e c o n t a i n m e n t a n d s a f e t y s t r u c t u r e s f u n c t i o n These images demonstrat e the protective nature of the trenches during fracing, as well as how they are integrated with the golf course, post fracing. The trenches and swales can be molded and shaped in order to fit the lay of the la nd surrounding the fracing site so as to appear to fit in properly Since much re grading is done to prep a site for fracing this is a ver y easy safety measure to retrofit after drilling has finished a s a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y e q u i p m e n t r e q u i r e d w i l l b e o n s i t e CONCLUSION ____ ______________________________________________________________________ All of this bio technology combined with the other physical and visual mitigation techniques can provide the basis necessary to create a safer hydraulic fracturing process and successfu l marriage between the fracing process and golf course infrastructure A final before and after view of a fracing site Mere converted into a part of a golf hole can be seen in Figure 1 3 and F i g u r e 1 4 T he drainage, containment, and treatment technique s along with the visual appeal and sequestration safety structures provided by a golf course can clearly be integrated into the drilling process This integration is beneficial as it provides necessary mitigat ion for fracing while still providing useful go lf course infrastructure. Figure 13 : Fracing Site Aerial Perspective (Before)
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 78 | Page Figure 14 : Fracing Site Aerial Perspective (After)
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 79 | Page IMAGE CREDITS ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________ Figure 1 Course routing plan c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 2 Hole concept sketch c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 3 Hole concept sketch c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 4 C o u r s e s i z i n g d i a g r a m c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 5 C o u r s e s h a p i n g d i a g r a m c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 6 C o u r s e c u t a n d f i l l d i a g r a m c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 7 F r a c i n g l i t t o r a l s a f e t y z o n e s s e c t i o n e l e v a t i o n c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 8 F r a c i n g l i t t o r a l s a f e t y z o n e s s e c t i o n e l e v a t i o n c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 9 F r a c i n g v i s u a l s e c t i o n c reated by Matthew Franko
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing C H5: Mitigation Implementation and Golf Courses Through Golf Course Design 80 | Page Figure 10 F r a c i n g v i s u a l s e c t i o n c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 11 Created by Matthew Franko Figure 12 V i s u a l screening d i a g r a m c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 13 F r a c i n g s i t e a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e c reated by Matthew Franko Figure 14 F r a c i n g s i t e a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e c reated by Matthew Franko
CHAPTER 6 : CONCLUSIONS
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH6: Conclusions 81 | Page FRACING INDUSTRY PROBLEMS AND NEEDS ______________________________________________ T he natural gas industry has advanced both technologically and politically as its representation in the energy market has grown 28% since 2002. The innovations of horizontal drilling techniques are by far, the largest contributor to the immense growth in the industry. The growth of this industry is still young in comparison to older methods of fossil fuel extraction and still has much to be seen from technological and legisl ative perspectives. Much of the future of this industry will be determined based on the growth for its processes. The industry will also need to find solutions for many of the environ mental problems created by its practices. T he industry is currently seeking to find technologies or ideas which can fill the gaps present in the industry and successfully mitigate their impact on the landscape GOLF COURSE INDUSTRY PROBLEMS AND NEEDS ____ _______________________________________ Golf courses are in desperate need of f revenue continues to decrease. To be sustainable, this revenue must come from improved course playability through better design technique s 1 The industry must find a way to fill the void s in their revenue stream for the short term, in order to invest in much needed course re designs which will provide long term financial gains. Golf courses offer certain attributes which are very unique a nd cann ot be found in many other areas due to their large size and drainage infrastructure. The drainage systems on golf courses are immense systems which control a majority of water present on the course. Golf courses are very effective in their stormwate r management practices and their usefulness in these areas must be utilized if they are to expand their future and become successful once more Golf courses could utilize their infrastructure within other industries for an increase in revenue in order to f ill the debt left by recent market trends and a dip in their overall profitability GOLF COURSE AND FRACING INTEGRATION ________________________________________________ 1 GSCAA. "Golf Course Environmental Profile: Property Profile and Environmental Stewardship of Golf Courses Volume I." Environmental Institute for Golf, 2007. Web. < http://www.eifg.org/programs/GCRPfullreport.pdf >
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH6: Conclusions 82 | Page The search for a new revenue source for golf courses could come in the form of constru cting temporary fracing sites within the property. The fracing industry, although booming, is dealing with a major public perception issue and is seen by many as a source for potential environmental degrad ation 2 The major issues of concern regarding fraci ng are : Visual stigma G roundwater and soil pollution S urface water pollution N egative visual impacts L ack of safety measures surrounding well pads All of these problems can be solved by utilizing golf course infrastructure. The golf cou rse industry presen ts the necessary resources for the fracing industry to improve its practices and advance its elf. Fracing sites can receive the needed visual mitigation through the implementation of vegetation associated with golf course design and aesthetic. Fracing sties can also achieve proper methods to sequester, clean, and remove any potential hazards through the utilization of existing or proposed golf course infrastructure in the form of: Absorption trenches Diversion ditches Retention areas Water and soil cleansi ng areas via man made littoral zones Highly needed safety structure can also be implemented during the drilling process to protect the site as drilling occurs. After drilling has taken place, these areas c an be retrofitted quite easily to be reintegrated w ith the golf course and serve as important pieces associated with course design and play In order to advancing the effectiveness of the drainage, containment or safety structures bio mediated soil can be introduced as a means to effectively neutralize h armful waste within the soil and also provide potential containment and removal of this waste in an effective manner. and help the course re establish it s financial roots. These financial gains could be reinvested in the 2 Wiseman, Hannah. "Trade Secrets, Disclosure, and Dissent in a Fracturing Energy Revolution." Columbia Law Review: Sidebar 111 (2011): 1 13. Print.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH6: Conclusions 83 | Page increase player enjoyment leading to a sustainable and profitable future. The two in dustries could greatly benefit from their integration G olf courses can solve the visual, water, soil, and safety problems associated with fracing and fracing sites can provide a revenue source for golf courses to lift them from their depressed state. REL EVANCE TO LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE ____________________ ____________________ ________ Landscape architects could find themselves in the middle of this combination of industries as they possess the skill set required to undertake the task of integrating golf co urse design with hydraulic fracturing methodologies. This profession is uniquely trained in not only developing land in a particular way but also in choosing the proper location for development. Chapter 2, Research Methodology, demonstrates the site sele ction process and how well suited a landscape architect would be at selecting and evaluati ng potential fracing sites. The analysis ability of a landscape architect is uniquely valuable to the fracing industry and could greatly improve upon its current prac tices. Landscape architects also can serve the fracing and golf course design industries by lending an aesthetic eye to their overall processes and integration. The profession implements the particular s kill of problem solving, like an engineer while esta blishing an aesthetic appeal much akin to that which an artist could create. The fracing in dustry could be uniquely impacted by the landscape architecture profession and could also introduce them more into the golf course design industry. Landscape arch itects can also utilize their talents across multiple disciplines as a way to introduce the initial first steps in mitigation process w i t h i n more land use types. A l s o d ue to the many disciplines landscape architects work with, their advancement of fra cing mitigation techniques can make it more noticeable to other p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h o m t h e y w o r k t h i s T h i s h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o generate more a d v a n c e m e n t s o v e r a b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f d i s c i p l i n e s r e s u l t i n g i n a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f u s e f u l f r a c i n g m i t i g a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s NEW TECHNOLOGY ON THE HORIZON ___________________________________________________ T here are many ways in which the fracing industry has implemented new technologies in order to decrease its draw on natural resources and make themselves more sustainable for the future.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH6: Conclusions 84 | Page There is new technology which can incorporate DNA markers into the fracing fluid used and subsequently tr ace idually solution created. 3 This data can be used in conjunction with a baseline for the ar monitor it throughout the fracing process and even afterwards in order to assure the qu ality of the water If the water becomes contaminated it can be determined very quickly and the proper protective and reactive measures can take place. Another major breakthrough in the fracing industry was introduced by Gasfrac Energy Ser vices (based out of Canada) in which propane gel is used in place of the current fracturing fluid mixture. This water (90% reduction) in the process as well as creates no hazardous waste bi products. The technology behind this innovation is linked to the chemical interaction of gelled propane and the gases released by the fracturing in the shale. In this process the gelled propane provides the necessary l ubricant for fractures occur and the natural gas is released, the propane mixes with the gas resulting in a reaction which eliminates the gel like properties of the propane. The resultant bi product of this process i s a gaseous form of propane which is no different than that drilled and extracted with hazardous fracturing fluid. 4 These technologic advancements can reduce a tremendous amount of environmental concerns in regard to fracing and eliminate the high water demands associated with this drilling technique. By utilizing this technology with the integration of the mitigation techniques discussed in this research, the fracing industry can severely limit i ts impact on the landscape and become a less intrusive form of fossil fuel extraction. It is important to note these advances as the technology behind this industry is moving extremely fast and the research regarding its mitigation techniques must progre ss in a similar fashion. This study 3 Revkin, Andrew C. "Traceable Gas Drilling Fluids." The NY Ti mes, 8 Jan. 2013. Web. 8 Jan. 2013.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH6: Conclusions 85 | Page mitigation can be conducted throughout many disciplines and continuously over time, then more advances can be made wh ich can be applicable to more and more land use types. This is will create many more opportunities to develop mitigation techniques which can advance along with technology. SUMMARY ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________ T he marriage of fracing and golf courses is one that may be difficult to satiate at first, but when their wants and needs are analyzed their truly in tegral nature can be expressed. Both the fracing and golf industries have shown needs in various publ ic per ception and safety realms. They are currently seeking to find technologies or ideas which can fill the gaps present in their respective industries. Golf courses can fill the spatial and safety needs of fracing and fra cing can fulfill the financial needs of golf courses The two industries create a symbiotic relationship with one another which fulfills their individual needs but also makes them both more financially viable and acceptable by the general public both major factors in fluencing their future gro wth and success.
CHAPTER 7 : LITERATURE REVIEW
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 86 | Page GOLF COURSE SUSTAINABILITY ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ______ White, Charles B. Turf Managers Handbook for Golf Course Construction, Renovation and Grow in Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor, 2000. Print. This book is a resource for understanding how turf on a golf course is implemented and managed along with an appropriate cost estimation guide for installation and upkeep. This book will serve as a means to evaluating turfgrass growth potential in fracing wastewater sites. The text will help to understand what conditions are needed to a chieve successful turf growth and maintenance and how the introduction of a used fracing site will impact it. Dodson, Ronald G. Sustainable Golf Courses: A Guide to Environmental Stewardship Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons, 2005. Print. This book is the leader in sustainable golf course design and management. It will play a crucial role in creating a sustainable design with future management in mind. This resource which will be at the heart of creating a golf course which can exist in harmony/ in contrast to the adverse potential effects of fracing. Dodson, Ronald G. Managing Wildlife Habitat on Golf Courses Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor, 2000. Print. This book will serve as a supplemental resource to the previous resource mentioned. It elaborates on the prin ciples of various habitat s and explains how to successfully maintain quality animal habitat on golf courses. Sustainable golf course design and habitat creation play major roles in getting various tax credits and other financial benefits to offset the coas t of construction and maintenance. Designing a golf course which creates/enhances animal habitat will also make the integration of fracing and golf courses more palatable for the general public. Dramstad, Wenche E., James D. Olson, and Richard T. T. Forman. Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land use Planning [Cambridge, Mass.]: Harvard University Graduate School of Design, 1996. Print. This resource will play a critical role in outlining the structure of the site in order to have to maintain the proper spatial relationship with surrounding ecosystems. The text outlines a regional perspective in regards to ecosystem and how they interact. This will be critical during the analysis phase of the project as it will help to drive proper site selection regarding interaction with surrounding areas. This resource will also be critical after the feasibility assessment has been conducted in order to drive the location of various aspects to both fraci ng and golf Mirimichi, Golf Club. "Facility Case Study: Mirimichi Golf Course." Mirimichi Golf Club, 2009. Print. This article serves as a real life account of the sustainable golf course practices outlined in various resources and demonstrates how mult iple ideas can function together in a successfully run business. The course is an Audubon International Sanctuary Gold Certified course (the first in the U.S.) and provides various methods for sustainable golf course design and management. Most noteably, t he text outlines various methods of preventing chemical and fuel contamination on site and dictates proper storage techniques for the aforementioned substances. This will be a valuable resource regarding
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 87 | Page fracing site containment in order to properly restor e the fracing site and protect the surrounding area during and after drilling. GSCAA. "Golf Course Environmental Profile: Property Profile and Environmental Stewardship of Golf Courses Volume I." Environmental Institute for Golf, 2007. Web. < http://www.eifg.org/programs/GCRPfullreport.pdf > This article will serve as a valuable resource for getting a large scale idea of golf course design and maintenance from a nation wide perspective. This will be critical for better understanding the economic behind the golf market and how the entire indust ry handles various issues and concerns. This article articulates on the economic drivers behind golf and how they will shape the future of the industry. This will be valuable in evaluating the future success of golf courses and how the intervention of frac ing can affect them economically. GSCAA. "Golf Course Environmental Profile: Water Use and Conservation Practices on U.S. Golf Courses Volume II." Environmental Institute for Golf, 2007. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 88 | Page course function. The t ext provides a rich history of golf course design culminating in a methodology to design a golf course in current times using techniques and styles discussed in the historical section of the book. Doak, Tom. The Anatomy of a Golf Course Short Hills, NJ: Burford, 1992. Print. This book outlines again the history of the golf course but provides it in context with current design standard and techniques. This will serve again as a historical reference but also provide a more current implementation method of various techniques which wi ll help a golf course succeed u nder various conditions/uses. Multiple scenarios are explored in this text with various corresponding methodologies used to design in keeping with the site specific constraints presented. Gr aves, Robert Muir., and Geoffrey S. Cornish. Golf Course Design New York: J. Wiley, 1998. Print. This book is considered to be a valuable resource in terms of organizing and understanding all the various aspects to golf course design and how to properly d eploy techniques in order to create a successful golf course on all levels. For decades this text has been the primary resource for golf course architects as it provides a thorough overview of the details one must address when designing a golf course. The topics include site analysis, site synthesis, golf course design history, the technical process of golf course design and construction, the economic side to golf course design, restoration techniques used on golf courses, and the future of the golf course design industry. Hurdzan, Michael J. Golf Course Architecture: Evolutions in Design, Construction, and Restoration Technology 2 nd Edition Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons, 2006. Print. This book is considered to be another industry leading resource to golf course design and overall facility performance. This is will as a main guide for design principles, routing, and all other component s of successful golf course design including the economic background to proper golf cours e design as well as providing industry standards which will facilitate the design process These principles will be critical to complete the feasibility study the site analysis & synthesis phase, as well as to help guide the design process and make sure t he proper steps are being taken Harris, Charles W., Nicholas T. Dines, and Kyle D. Brown. Time saver Standards for Landscape Architecture: Design and Construction Data New York: McGraw Hill, 1998. Print. This book provides a brief section of golf course design information and diagrams which will be very useful in designing a golf course in the proper fashion. This resource will help to maintain a consistent design standard and make sure all of the proper methodologies are implemented. Hurdzan, Dr. Mich ael J. Building a Practical Golf Facility: A Step by Step Guide to Realizing a Dream Brookfield: American Society of Golf Course Architects. Print. This brief book provides an incredibly valuable resource as it not only provide the general outline for gol f course design but most importantly provides multiple case studies to how this process was implemented in various locations and how many difficulties were overcome through strategic design. This will be a valuable resource to me as it will demonstrate rea l life scenarios of how to implement all the golf course design techniques I have studied.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 89 | Page American Society of Golf Course Architects. "The Golf Course Remodeling Process." (2006). Print. This brief resource provide a valuable check list of sorts which w ill play an integral role in the site analysis and synthesis phase focused on golf course design/renovation. Hazelrigg, George. "Garbage In, Golf Out: Former Landfills near Boston Become 27 Holes of Golf." Landscape Architecture (2005): 1 6. Print. This resource will be utilized to understand how a golf course can be designed to handle potentially harmful chemicals. The techniques overviewed in this text will be analogous to the intervention of fracing site son golf courses and how they can function prope rly during and after the drilling process has taken place. GOLF COURSE ECONOMIC RESOURCES ____________________ ____________________ _____________ Audubon, Internation Environmental Stewardship on Golf Courses." United States Golf Association, Sept. 2007. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 90 | Page Sartori, Andrea. "Golf and the Economic Downturn." KPMG Consulting, 2010. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 91 | Page Wis eman, Hannah. "Trade Secrets, Disclosure and Dissent in a Fracturing Energy R evolution ." Columbia Law Review: Sidebar 111 (2011): 1 13. Print. This resource is a great place to start when determining the elements used in fracing and the ramifications they have on the environment. This article addresses the secrecy issues related to fracing and its practices and how they may be required to reveal information on their processes. This would b e critical to a potential fracing project as it will help understand the current and future trends of the fracing industry. Mooney, Chris. "The Truth About Fracing." Scientific American (2011). Print. This article provides a great analysis of how fracing works and explains it in terms which can be easily understood by the average person. This will be a great resource to help me get a base knowledge of the process in order to facilitate my exploration of more advanced articles and resources detailing fraci ng practices. It will also facilitate in explaining the fracing process to those without knowledge regarding the subject resulting in a better educated public and audience. Lustgarten, Abraham. "EPA: Chemicals Found in Wyo. Drinking Water Might Be From Fr ackin g ." Pro Publica, 25 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 Feb. 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 92 | Page from both the physical and chemical aspects of the process. This will help evaluate the efficacy of potential golf course infrastructure integration with abandoned fracing sites. Northrup, James L. "T he U nique E nvironmental I mpacts of H orizontally H ydrofracking S hale ." Otsego 2000, 18 Aug. 2010. Web. < http://fracingfreeireland.org/wp content/uploads/2011/08/10aug19_NorthrupEPAcommentsFracing2010.pdf>. This article is another great resource which explains how fracing is done. It will be absolutely critical to become an expert at the fracing process and t o understand how it works from all levels. I must achieve this understanding if I hope to successfully conduct a feasibility study and advance those findings further. Manuel, John. "EPA Tackles Frac in g ." National Center for Biotechnology Information U.S National Library of Medicine, May 2010. Web. 22 Feb. 2012.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 93 | Page Suchy, Daviel R., and K. David Newell. "Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil and Gas Wells in Kansas." KGS Pub. Inf. Circ. 32 -. Kansas Geological Survey, Dec. 2011. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 94 | Page This resource will be utilized in an appendix and used to show what chemicals can be contained in hydro fracing fluid as well as their associated OSHA registr ation number, purpose, and function. Leff, Eugene. "Leff Letter of Concern." S cenic Hudson, 11 Jan. 2012. This document is a letter sent by a representative of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regarding fracing in New York stat e. Currently, a moratorium has been placed on fracing in the state until more information can be obtained regarding the practice. This letter outlines various changes to current regulations established for fracing in an effort to make it safer and protect resources better. The information set forth in this document can be utilized in the fracing mitigation proposed for Eagles Mere Country Club before and after drilling would take place. These guidelines will help to develop a framework for potential fracing mitigation and greatly help to plan the entirety of the project. Reins, Leonie. "The Shale Gas Extraction Process and Its Impacts on Water Resources." Review of European Community & International Environemntal Law, 2012. Web. < http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467 9388.2012.00733.x/pdf>. scale. The natural gas harvest from fracing is a global commodity so it is importan t to understand fracing impact on water resources from a global scale. This article juxtaposes fracing regulation in the United States and Europe. It is important to establish an understanding of fracing regulation worldwide in order to understand all poss ible types of regulation imposed on the process. This article specifically identifies water resource laws and provides examples from multiple international areas. This is a valuable resource as ideas presented in regulation can be attributed to the mitigat ion techniques utilized before, during, and after drilling has taken place. Currie, Katrina M., and Elizabeth B. Stelle. "Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Boom: Economic & Environmental Impacts." Policy Brief from the Commonwealth Foundation 22.05 (2010): 1 1 2. This article provides a more detailed look at the impacts fracing has on the Pennsylvania environment and economy. It evaluates the impacts the process can have on the environment and various resources but also provides data regarding the amount of mone as how many estimated jobs it would create. This is a valuable resource for balancing the benefits versus the costs fracing would have on an area and play a role in determining whether or not fracing should take place in an area. Rendell, Edward, and John Hanger. "Northeastern Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale Short Term Ambient Air Sampling Report." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Air Quality, 12 Jan. 2011. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 95 | Page determining the feasibility of drilling on or near a golf course as well as evaluating the condition which would be present before, during, and after drilling. This d ata can be synthesized to make a determination of the overall impact fracing has on atmospheric conditions and how it would impact localized areas. SEAB Subcommittee. "The SEAB Shale Gas Production Subcommittee Ninety Day Report." Secretary of Energy Adv isory Board, 11 Aug. 2011. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 96 | Page system profitable. The article also details the energy future of American and how the introduction of natural gas can revitalize the economy and create jobs. This a valuable resource to utilize in order to understand the fracking process and the impact it will have on our future. Understanding this aspect to the fracing industry will play a vital role in determining the feasibility of drilling in certain location by providing an economic forecast for the future. Langley, Diane. "Technology Advances Push Greener Side of Fracing." Drilling Contractor N.p., 2011. Web.
A Symbiotic Relationship between Hydro Fracing Site and Golf Courses CH7: Literature Review 97 | Page chemicals and to change the structural properties of the soil in order to pr event pollutants to spread to nearby soil/water systems. Heckman, John R. "Restoration of Degraded Land: A Comparison of Structural and Functional Measurements of Recovery." Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Apr. 1997. Web.
98 | Page Hoizontal Hydraulic Fractuing A Documentation of its History, Litigation & Process with an Overview of its Possible Mitigation & Future Potential 8/9/2012 Landscape Architecture Department at the University of Florida Matthew Franko
99 | Page Fracing History Natural gas was discovered in the United States in the 1900s and quickly became the supplier of a large energy source continued to evolve an d by the 1930s many people were using natural gas to power the heating and cooling of their homes. This technology then further evolved into natural gas powered refrigerators and hot water heaters. Natural gas power was being incorporated into many differe nt devices and was clearly becoming a valuable resource for the country as an integral component of daily activities. In the 1940s natural gas was able to be liquefied which made transportation of the energy source incredibly simple and brought the industr 1 Coincidently, hydraulic fracturing began in 1940 as a means to further extract oil and gas from previously perceived fully taped wells in Kansas. 2 This was a simple measure of extraction in which water, chemicals, and sand were injected vertically into drilled wells in an attempt to create fissures in rock formations allowing for the extraction of oil and gas. This process was utilized for decades as it created a way to advance the extraction of hydrocarb ons from drilling sites making them more efficient as they produced more energy. After the 1980s this process had begun to dry up and there was a lack of production from the vertical hydro fracturing method of energy extraction. Up until 1991 drilling only occurred in a vertical fashion, which limited the radius of extraction from each well and significantly detracted from the obtainable resources per site. Mitchell Energy successfully drilled the first horizontal well in 1991 which significantly increased the radius of extraction achievable by a single well and created a much more efficient process of energy extraction (one well could now produce far more 1 Gas Technology Institute. "History of Natural Gas Industry." Natural Gas History Energy Resource Department, 2012. Web. 20 May 2012.
100 | Page hydrocarbons). In 2002 the hydraulic fracturing process and horizontal drilling techniques were combine d in order to create one of the most profitable and efficient energy extraction techniques in history. This drilling techniques was so successful because it created a way to extract energy from various shale plays, which up until then, were unobtainable. P reviously, shale plays such as Marcellus Shale were unobtainable because their depth (4,000 8,500 ft.) required too much energy to vertically drill than could be brought up to the surface. 3 When this vertical well was able to spread horizontally at the de pth of Marcellus Shale it had achieved a profitable method to extract energy from a previously unprofitable area. This achievement was significant as Marcellus Shale now provided a highly obtainable resource as it has a high porosity and low density which makes its energy very harvestable via horizontal hydro fracturing. The Marcellus Shale play in the United States covers approximately 95,000 square miles with more obtainable natural gas than any other shale play (see Figure 1). It is estimated that there is 260 490 trillion cubic feet of natural gas within the Marcellus Shale which is the equivalent energy needed to heat 15 million homes for an entire year. 4 Since the advancement of horizontal hydro fracturing the amount of energy coming from natural ga s in the U.S. increased from approximately 2% to 30%. This energy source has now grown to comprise 22% of the overall energy use in the United States with estimates to contribute up to 46% by 2035 (See Figures 2 & 3). 5 This resource has been embraced by Am reserves 3 The president clearly supports this practi ce and has included it 3 Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. "Subcommittee Shale Gas Production Second Ninety Day Report." U.S. Department of Energy, 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012.
101 | Page Address. The president believes the extraction of natural gas could create 600,000 jobs in the future which would be part of the appro ximate 200,000 jobs it has created thus far. 6 All signs indicate that the horizontal hydro fracturing process will continue into the future and play a major role in the economic development of the United States. Fracing History Pennsylvania energy supply came in the form of coal. The state supplied a majority of the coal from the northeast portion of the country from the early to mid 1900s and continues to supply a large portion of the 6 Obama, Barack. "The Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future." The White House, 1 Mar. 201 2. Web. 20 May 2012.
102 | Page 7 Since the discovery of natural gas in the state, coal has taken a back seat to the development of drilling for this innovative new energy sour ce which is touted to burn with 70% less natural gas is considered to be the next revolution in energy supplies for the country and is seen as a transition r esource to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energies. 8 This has created a substantial increase in the research and development of natural gas in Pennsylvania and has led to the drilling of 1,526 wells from 2005 2010 and future growth is believed to co ntinue at a similar rate up to 2035. This growth is expected due to the fact that Pennsylvania holds the largest known reserves of natural gas in the United States. This energy source has been a huge contributor to the Pennsylvania economy in 2009 the d evelopment of natural gas contributed $389 million dollars in state tax revenue and created an estimated 44,000 jobs. This has lead to the advancement of the standard of living and raised the 7 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. "Pennsylvania Mining History." Web. 21 May 2012. < http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/districts/homepage/california/underground/pa%20mining%2 0history/pennsylvania_mining_history.htm>. 8 Fulton, Mark, Nils Mellquist, Saya Kitasei, and Joel Bluestein. "Comparing Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission s From Natural Gas and Coal." World Watch Institute, 25 Aug. 2011. Web.
103 | Page income rate per capita leading to a more successful and compet itive state economy. Due to the intensive nature of natural gas drilling, various organizations have been given the task of regulating this regulation com e from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania Fish & Boat Commission, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, and various multi state watershed management organi zations. All of these organizations play an active role in monitoring natural gas extraction and are key components in advancing its development throughout the state. To date, these organizations have been very successful in managing the natural gas extrac tion process as only 0.25% of wells drilled in the state have lead to negative impacts on drinking water. Due to the large amounts of water needed for hydro fracing, these state agencies have set various standards and requirements of all companies using wa ter resources and dictates how these resources must be treated. Current state regulations dictate that if anyone withdrawals over 10,000 gallons of water per day for a 30 day time frame they must obtain a permit and be evaluated by various regulatory agenc ies. 9 There are certain environmental concerns regarding horizontal hydro fracturing that the state has addressed and carefully studies and monitors these concerns in order to limit the amount of environmental degradation occurring due to the process. The first, and primary concern, revolves around water. The PA Department of Environmental Protection regulates the water extracted to be used in the fracing process by requiring that energy companies ter wells within 100 ft. of a proposed drilling started, can be used in conjunction with water well evaluation post drilling in order to determine if fracing has had any impact on the water quality. There is also a major concern with the amount of water 9 Currie, Katrina M., and Elizabeth B. Stelle. "Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Boom: Economic & Environmenta l Impacts." Commonwealth Foundation Volume 22 Number 05, June 2010. http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/doclib/20100607_marcellusshaledrilling.pdf
104 | Page required for the drilling process as roughly 2 10 million gallons of water are needed for each individual well. The state currently allows this water t o be sold and traded without much oversight; however, the Susquehanna and Delaware River Basins have created multi state governing agencies that have the power to intervene in the water purchasing and water use process. These agencies are very effective re gulators due to the fact that they are comprised of members from multiple states. Each member wants to do what is best for its state/region and, as a collective; this group ultimately makes decisions based on the best actions for all states involved in the form of compromises. The main focus of these organizations is on the chemicals used in fracing and how wastewater is handled after the drilling process. The chemicals used in the fracturing fluid only make up 0.5 1.5% of the overall composition, but due to the large quantities of water this can still yield a result of nearly 15,000 gallons of chemicals used per well. In 2008, legislation was passed which dictated that drilling companies must disclose the chemicals used in the hydro fracturing process but did not require the release of the proportions of these chemicals as that is considered proprietary information. This determination caused much distress for regulators because when the fracing fluid is pumped into the gr ound a portion of it returns to the Figure 3 : U.S. Natural Gas Use
105 | Page surface at salinity rates higher than sea water, while also carrying with it calcium, potassium, chloride, carbonates, various heavy metals, and radioactive materials naturally occurring in shale such as radium which p roduces radon gas. A large portion of the chemicals that return to the surface are known human carcinogens and must be treated and disposed of in the proper manner. This treatment and disposal process is arguably the most debated topic in regard to hydro f racturing. There are three options for treating this wastewater when it returns to the surface: (1) on site recycling in which the water is treated & re used on site or transported to another site this practice is extremely expensive and is yet to prove profitable for drilling companies (2) injection underground a majority of which is done in Ohio and requires used fracing water to travel great distances on public roads (3) sent to wastewater treatment plants throughout the state; however, there are onl y 8 water treatment plants in Pennsylvania which can successfully treat the water from hydro fracing. The decisions regarding where to store, how to treat, and how to transport this waste water will likely determine the future success of the horizontal hyd ro fracturing process in the future. The hydro fracturing process has also been linked to the emission of varies sources of air pollution and poses potential hazards to the general public and wildlife. Emissions come from mainly 2 sources: the drilling pr ocess itself and the use of machinery in the fracturing process. Some of the emissions documented are Methane, Nitrogen Oxide, VOCs (volatile organic compounds), BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, & Xylenes), Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrogen Sulfide, a nd various others. 10 Despite the volatile nature of these compounds it has been determined that the quantities of their occurrence are negligible and do not pose any direct threat to humans. 11 The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted studies of horizontal hydro fracturing wells in Sullivan and 10 McClure, Susan, and Roberta Winters. "Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Study Guide I V." The League of Women V oters of Pennsylvania, 2010. Web. 11 Rendell, Edward, and John Hanger. "Northeastern Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale Short Term Ambient Air Sampling Report." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Air Quality, 12 Jan. 2011. Web.
106 | Page These collection methods all discovered the volatile compounds mentioned earlier; however, none of them were considered excessive when compared to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. compound puts off a very off putting smell but poses no seriou s health risks to humans. The concentrations of this compound were very low and also below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Litigation National & Pennsylvania The litigation in regard to horizontal hydro fracturing is somewhat controversial in nature. From a national standpoint there is not much regulation or management from the federal government. In fact, the hydro fracturing industry is exempt from the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act which are both major regulations set in pl ace to protect humans and wildlife for general water needs. The Clean Water Act was passed in 1972 and regulates safety measures regarding surface waters via the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permitting. The Safe Drinking Water Act, passe d in 1974, was implemented to protect public drinking water reserves and regulate any liquids to be injected underground. This act also allowed the EPA to create standards for all underground liquid injections. Both of these acts would help to manage the w aste water issues produced from hydro fracturing but the Bush administration exempted the hydro fracturing industry from both of these acts via the Energy Policy Act of 2005. This act has helped speed the development of technology and occurrence of wells d rilled in the United States; however, the lack of regulation has lead to high public scrutiny of the drilling technique and caused many misconceptions regarding the process. Many states have had to implement their own regulation measures in order to manage the hydro fracturing industry in order to protect their environment and associated environmental capital. Pennsylvania has enacted many different preventative and management laws which are aimed at protecting the environment and valuable water resources associated with it. The Oil and Gas Act established the right of the state to regulate
107 | Page exploration and production of natural gas, manage standards for drilling and protective casing, monitor the financial responsibility of energy companies, and head the ma nagement of restoration projects to make sure all sites are restored properly. The Clean Streams Law was also passed in order to protect valuable Pennsylvania surface waters and develop policies and penalties for discharging any waste fluids into rivers or streams. The Solid Waste Management Act was established to regulate all solid forms of hydro fracturing waste products and dictate the proper transport and disposal of the waste. The Water Resource Planning Act was also established in order to mandate tha t studies be done on water availability, water use, and future water needs in order to prevent the destruction of various watersheds and resources. These acts may seem like a great safety net for the process; however, the hydro fracturing industry has foun d a loop hole which does not deem the waste products from drilling to be keeps energy companies from having to disclose the proportions of chemicals used in fracture fluid. There was also a piece of legislation passed, The Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Act, which limits the amount of input municipalities can have and leaves a majority of regulation up to the state. 10 Although many ources to fully regulate the industry, they still deserve the right to be involved in the regulation process. State wide management agencies will struggle to fully manage all fracturing wells in Pennsylvania, especially if the industry continues to grow at its current rate. The response to this limitation in the northeast has been the formation of the Susquehanna and Delaware River Basin management organizations. These organizations are multi state groups based on the overarching watersheds of the Pennsylva nia, New York, and Delaware. 9 These organizations provide regional perspective and operate at a scale which is very suitable for hydro fracturing regulation. Legislation has been proposed at the federal level by the STRONGER organization (State Review of Oil and Natural Gas Environmental Regulations) which is known as the FRAC Act (Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals). This act would repeal the hydro fracturing industry exemption from the
108 | Page Safe Drinking Water Act and The Clean Water Act whi le establishing provisions for regulations specific to hydro fracturing via the following guidelines: (1) Improvement of air quality by reducing emissions of regulated pollutants and methane caused by hydro fracturing and implement comprehensive studies to compile the overall carbon footprint of fracing (2) Protect water supply and quality by regulating methane contamination of water supplies, safeguard cement features designed to prevent leaks undergro und, and mandate how the liquid wastes from hydro fracturing are to be stored and treated (3) Create background water quality measures by requiring mandatory water resource testing before any drilling occurs in order to provide base line data to accurately Mandate that all chemicals used in the hydro fracturing be disclosed along with the specific proportions for each well drilled (5) Reduce the use of diesel fuel in all fracturing operations (6) Mandate short and long term studies on fracturing wells impact on communities, land uses, and wildlife ecologies and then provide management plans to mitigate for all disturbances caused by drilling. 12 This litigation is yet to be passed and is considered by many to be ahead of its time and too broad to dictate regulations on a nation wide scale for drilling practices that change based on geologic composition. Fracing Process The process of fracing has evolved over time and, through various methodologies, has generated an overall scientific methodology for finding, extracting, storing, and shipping this energy source. The natural gas located within the Marcellus Shale rock form ation was often considered inefficient to drill 12 DeGet te. "H.R. 1084." U.S. Government 112th Congress, 15 Mar. 2011. Web.
109 | Page for because it required more energy to extract it than could be produced from the ground. The horizontal drilling technique revitalized the industry by expanding the drilling radius for every well and made Ma rcellus Shale a profitable rock formation for natural gas extraction see Figure 4. The drill site is selected through the work of geologists using seismic monitoring devices which detect the Marcellus Rock formation one to one and a half miles beneath th e surface. This is achieved by using historical records of underground rock formation which are readily available in Pennsylvania due to the high use of coal and subsequent coal mining in the area. By using this information, geologists can approximate ar eas in which Marcellus Shale plays are expected to be located. Once these areas are located the mineral rights for the area(s) must be identified and acquired by the subsequent owner(s). Mineral rights are essentially the ownership of the materials beneath of surface of a particular plot of land and are quite often sold and traded separately from the above ground land owner rights. Quite often the ty rights consent or expectation of any return of capital gained on the site. Geologists determine where the exact location of the Marcellus Shale formation is by setting up a grid of charges spaced out approximately 280 300 feet by 280 300 feet in a diagonal pattern for the length of the property. 13 This grid covers the area suspected to have Marcellus Shale underneath it or the area which has been obtained through the purchas ing of mineral rights. Then charges are set underground at a depth of approximately 20 feet and 13 Tucker, Corey Contact Agent. Geokinetics. 570 945 5672. Figure 5 : Standard Marcellus Shale Seismic Test Results
110 | Page Figure 6 : Standard Marcellus Shale Seismic Search Grid
111 | Page detonated. The seismic affects after the detonation produces signature readings for Marcellus Shale formations and geologists interpret the data which reveal the varying depth and thickness of any shale plays. 10 The geologists then use this information to decide exactly where to drill (see F igure 5 for a typical result from seismic testing) as well as when the drill must be redirected and begin to travel horizontally so as to stay within the shale play and collect more natural gas. A typical grid system on a property can be seen in Figure 6. This process is critical because there is a great variation in thickness and depth to the Marcellus Shale (seen in Figure 7) and in order to be efficient and achieve profitability, drillers must be able to strike Marcellus Shale and subsequent natural gas on a strong majority of the sites they drill. Before the energy company will fully invest in the mineral rights, testing, and future drilling of a site they will confer with local and state authorities regarding various infrastructure and environmental req uirements and standards these include details such as location & size of access roads as well as water quality standard testing. Once a site has been approved by the proper authorities and tested by geologists the energy company will fully invest in a le ase with the owner of the mineral in exchange for an amount of money per acre of leased land. This money is guaranteed to the leaser even if no natur al gas is found or is deemed unobtainable. If however, natural gas is found, the leaser time agreed upon by both parties (in Pennsylvania the minimum royalty percentage is 12.5%). 10 The actually drilling process of a well is relatively simple and can be completed in approximately 50 days. A typical well pad is constructed on approximately 6 acres and can hold 6 10 wells depending on the spatial needs of equipment for a particular well pad. The well pad is cleared of all vegetation and receives layers of sand and rock compacted to maintain the load for the various equipment and storage tanks needed on site. There are also multiple pits dug on site with plastic lining which will serve as containment structures for fracing flowback water until the waste can be transported to a treatment
112 | Page facility or recycled on site. Once the site is prepped for drilling a specialized drill head used for the rock formations found on site will drill going beyond the ground water depth greater than 300 feet in most areas. Once the desired depth is reached, steel tubing is placed down through the drilled hole and around the drill itself while providing spacing between the drill and the surrounding casing. Concrete is then pumped down the well and out the opening at the bottom forcing it back up vertically wh ich provides a second protective layer surrounding the drill bit and creating a barrier between the overall drill hole and surrounding hydro geologic features. At this stage there is a layer of concrete, a layer of steel, and another layer of concrete betw een the drill and the surrounding rock. The drill will then penetrate deeper into the ground until it is approximately 500 feet above the Marcellus Shale play (typically 6000 lling Figure 7 : Marcellus Shale Formation Cross Section
113 | Page equipment is retracted from the well bore and special horizontal drilling equipment is lowered into the drill hole. This equipment begins drilling in a curved fashion until an approximate 90 degree an gle is achieved and the drill bit can spread horizontally out through the shale formation. The horizontal drilling typically extends for 14,000 feet depending on the surrounding geology and location of other vertical and horizontal drilling locations. Next a second layer of steel tubing is placed down the length of the drill bore which is then filled with concrete again similar to the first layer of concrete casing at the shallower depth. Once this is complete there is a double layer of steel and concret e (approximately 6 inches thick) at the shallower depth near ground water resources and a single layer of steel and concrete (approximately 3 inches thick) at the final depth and horizontal reach of the well bore. The drill is then extracted as it is no lo nger required in the hydro fracturing process. A perforating gun is then displaced into the horizontal section of the drill hole and, using an electric charge, fires through the drill Figure 8: Natural Gas Well Caped for Storage
114 | Page hole creating small fissures which extend dendritically out from the hor izontal portion of the drill hole. 14 At this point the fracturing fluid is then pumped down into the horizontal well section at very high pressure approximately 15,000 psi. The fracturing fluid is composed of water, sand, and chemical additives typicall y with 98% water, 1.5% sand, and 0.5% chemicals. A single well requires approximately 4 7 million gallons of water to be successfully fraced. This water is used primarily for the fracturing fluid but some is also used in mud like slurry which cools the dri ll bit as it boroughs through the ground. Note Figure 9 which details various chemicals used in the fracturing fluid and their corresponding impacts. After the fissures have been expanded via the fracturing fluid, the fluid is removed and placed into cont ainment ponds or holding tanks until they can be transported to treatment facilities. The natural gas is now able to travel freely through the fissures held open by sand and through the perforations created earlier by the small explosions. A well cap is th en placed on the drill hole and the natural gas can be pumped to the surface. The natural gas returns to the surface in a mixture of water and natural elements located underground. Notably, Uranium which produces Radon gas is often included in the natural gas mixture which returns to the surface. This mixture is treated and the natural gas is removed from the mixture and stored separately. This natural gas can then be liquefied for ease of transport to potential users. A well cap is then placed on the drill hole in order to preserve any natural gas from escaping. Now the area essentially serves as a storage facility for all the natural gas underground and see Figure 8 for an image of a capped well ho le. The area remains as is until no more natural gas is obtainable from underground. At this point, it is the duty of the energy company responsible for drilling to restore the site to its original condition within a 9 month period. This restoration is mon itored by local governments and the associated governing 14 Packer, Kevin, and Brian DeRuschi. "Technology Tak ing America Out of Energy Crisis: The Rise of Fracking." University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, 7 Feb. 2012
115 | Page Figure 9: Hydro Fracturing Fluid Chemical Elements (* = known carcinogen) Element Common Name Use Vegetation Impact Soil Impact Wildlife Impact Human Impact H 2 O Water Create pressure and i s base for chemical mixture Too much water can cause certain plant species to drown N/A N/A N/A SiO 2 Sand Keep fissures open to allow natural gas to flow out N/A N/A N/A N/A HCL Hydrochloric Acid B reak apart fissures in rock formation Skin, Eye Irritant Can alter soil pH Can be toxic to wildlife Can be toxic to humans [NH 4 ] + [HSO 4 ] Ammonium Bisulfate E limina te oxygen content in frac fluid Fertilizer Can alter spil chemical composition N/A Corrosive to skin CH 2 (CH 2 CHO) 2 Glutaraldehyde Biocide to prevent bacterial growth and contamination Can cause death of biological organisms and stop biological processes Can kill microorganisms in soil Can alter ecological processes Skin, eye, nose, throat, lung irritant NaCl Sodum Chloride Lower the viscosity of fluid Can kill vegetation and make areas unable to grow future vegetation Can alter soil pH N/A N/A C 12 H 23 Diesel Lubricant Can kill vegetation in large quantities Can alter soil chemical composition N/A Fumes from burning can be an irritant CH 3 OH Methanol Fuel additive ; bi product of certain chemical reactions Causes temperature increase N/A Air Pollutant Respiratory irritant; lethal if ingested in large quantities C 3 H 8 O Isopropanol Used as a product stabilizer Can irritate or kill plant life Can slightly disrupt soil pH N/A Eye irritant NaOH Sodium Hydroxide Adjust composition pH Can irritate or kill plant life easily Greatly increases soil pH Can alter ecological processes S kin burns or blindness C 2 H 6 O 2 Ethylene Glycol Product stabilizer Can kill plants in large quantities Can alter microorganism life in soil Can cause severe illness or death E ye, respiratory, central nervous system disruption C 6 H 6 Benzene Diesel bi product N/A N/A Can cause severe cardiovascular/respir atory failure C entral nervous system & cardiovascular failure C 7 H 8 Toluene Diesel bi product N/A N/A Can cause respiratory failure and death Can cause respiratory failure and death C 6 H 4 C 2 H 6 Xylene Diesel bi product N/A N/A Eye & respiratory irritant Eye & respiratory irritant; can cause death or blindness; known carcinogen C 8 H 10 Ethylbenzene Diesel bi product N/A N/A Pulmonary adema, paralysis Cardiovascular disruptor C 10 H 8 Naphthalene Carrier fluid for active ingredients Can adversely affect plant growing efficacy N/A Eye, nose, throat irritant Eye, nose, throat irritant C 7 H 7 Cl Benzyl Chloride N/A N/A N/A N/A Known carcinogen Cu Copper Bi product N/A N/A N/A Skin irritant in high quantities Pb Lead Bi product Toxin N/A Toxin Toxin C 3 H 5 NO Acrylamide Used as a friction reducer N/A N/A Neuro & reproductive toxin & carcinogen Central nervous system disruptor CH 3 COOH Acetic Acid Prevents metal oxide precipitation N/A N/A Minor eye irritant Minor eye irritant (AlO) 2 SiO Aluminum Silicate N/A None None None None C 2 H 6 O Ethanol Product Stabilizer N/A N/A N/A N/A Al 6 Si 2 O 13 Mullite Keep fissures in rock open N/A N/A N/A N/A
116 | Page entity. 15 Many times the oversight of this process is either done in a very cursory manner or not done at all. This has left fracing well pads that have already been used in a decrepit state and a nuisance to the aesthetics of the area as well as local ecological s ystems. Fracing Visual Mitigation The visual effects of hydraulic fracturing can be seen as extremely obtrusive and can greatly alter the visual impact of a landscape. The average fracing well pad is an approximate 6 acres with effects that spread far beyond this boundary. Fracing well pad s create disturbances in both the vertical and horizontal realm of space. Both of these frames of reference must be addressed in the restoration phase of a fracing project in order to minimize the disturbance caused by the process. This will greatly increa se the public perception of fracing and help to make the practice more widely accepted by the community. The vertical realm of the fracturing process is small in footprint but very substantial in regard to its visual impact. This visual impact is created b y the drilling rig itself often reaching 80 feet in height, see Figure 10. This equipment is used as the primary means for gaining access to the bedrock and subsequent natural gas located far below the surface. Obviously, this rig cannot simply be remove d from the site as it is crucial to the drilling process; however, it is important to consider visual impact when fracturing well pads are chosen so as to limit the exposure of this massive structure to the public. This vertical element can be blocked by i ncorporating aspect analysis through GIS services when selecting sites. It can also survey the location of residential, commercial, recreational, and transportation networks when selecting a drill site so it can be oriented away from these areas and reduce its visual exposure to the public. The use of existing and proposed vegetation is also a great way to block or obscure the visual impacts of these sites. Seeing as how the rigs average 80 feet in height it is reasonable to assume that the entire rig would be difficult to block; however, enough of the rig can be blocked so as to remove it from the 15 Zweig, Steve. "Hydraulic Fracturing (Hydrofracking ): The Risks and Rewards of the Controversial Drilling Technique." Heating Oil LLC, 30 Nov. 2009. Web. Apr. 2012.
117 | Page large, long lived pines which can come close to reaching th e heights needed to block the fracturing drills overall. Most notably the Eastern White Pine, Pinus rigida 16 and the Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris 17 which reach average heights of 90 feet and 70 feet respectively. These trees can be utilized to contribute to the visual blocking of the vertical nuisances created by fracing. 18 The horizontal impact of fracturing comes from the substantial infrastructure associated with the fracturing process and subsequent transportation of the resources obtaining through fracturing. Every fracing well pad requires substantial roads to provide access to the site for large equipment such as drills, storage tanks, maintenan ce trucks, 16 Cook. "Common Trees of Pennsylvania Eastern White Pine." Common T rees of Pennsylvania Eastern White Pine N.p., n.d. Web. 19 July 2012.
118 | Page etc. The fracturing process requires a substantial amount of equipment which is extremely large and comparable to the average unpaved road. This me ans that these roads cannot simply be erased from the landscape and leave their footprint long after the drilling process is over. There is also the visual impact of the miles of pipelines (see Figures 11, 12) which are constructed in order to transport th e natural gas from the drilling sites to various storage, treatment, or distribution facilities. These pipelines can often have a greater impact on the landscape than the drilling sites themselves as they can span across miles of the landscape and have a m uch greater edge effect to surrounding areas than an individual well pad. These disruptions can be extremely noticeable to humans from an aesthetic means and to wildlife from a habitat & migration means see Figure 13. Visual mitigation for these structur es will prove to be more difficult than mitigation for drilling structures. The vast distances these structures span require a much more concerted effort from a planning perspective as well more time intensive structural mitigation through the use of physi cal objects. The planning of these pipelines is similar to the planning needed for well pad site selection but must take into account many more factors. Due to the lengthy linear nature of these structures planning must include: transportation networks, wa terways, natural & protected areas, urban areas, visual perspectives of roads, trails, railways, and the movement of species. The large list of elements incorporated into pipeline planning begs that the process must be done from a regional scale in order t o incorporate all the necessary information regarding the length of the pipe. These elements can scar the landscape and disrupt so many visual resources that there must be a means to conceal them from the general public in order to continue the fracturing process without destroying valuable resources. These visual resources often have strong indirect economic benefits and if they are overshadowed by the potential benefits of fracing they may be disregarded and lost forever. It is also very important to iden tify the visual economic values of an area before a pipeline is sent through it. Once this value is identified, a cost benefit analysis can be conducted in order to make sure
119 | Page ural area (in which case it can be determined that the pipeline would yield a net loss and should therefore not be constructed in a proposed area). This type of analysis would help to locate pipelines into areas of lesser aesthetic value and therefore have a diminished impact on the overall landscape as a whole. 19 There are certain factors which will help to dictate proper visual mitigation techniques for both the vertical and horizontal landscapes. These factors include (1) land use of area of interest and surrounding areas, (2) environmental factors such as species present, species of concern, ecosystem & natural patches, geologic makeup, climate, (3) city, state & federa l regulations, (4) surrounding mitigation banks, and (5) community values. 19 NaturalGas. "The Transportation of Natural Gas." NaturalGas.org N.p., 2011. Web. 19 July 2012.
120 | Page (1): By analyzing land use patterns, visual mitigation can be better managed by maintaining concurrency amongst the development of the area in question. Different land uses will cr eate different public/animal perceptions. These perceptions must align with the reclaimed well pad in order to transition smoothly through the restoration process. (2): Analyzing environmental factors of the area will produce results that may not be direc tly noticeable can be documented then vegetation can be selected which will provided for the survival of the species in the area (done in moderation t o avoid the area being decimated by local animal/insect populations). By creating suitable animal habitat in these areas the restoration process can be vastly accelerated as the species introduction will increase the succession process. If the proper speci es are accounted for, that can lead to the proper analysis of the ecosystem within the area and all attempts to mimic that ecosystem through restoration can be improved upon. The study of the geologic makeup of a restoration area is also important in regar d to visual mitigation for its direct impact to site lines as well as dictating vegetation patterns. Finally the climate must be considered in the planning and restoration processes of well pad in order to aid in site drainage and plant selection. Restorat ion practitioners must take climatic factors into account in order to create a long lasting restoration site which can hold up to the elements. (3): It is also critical to identify regulations from all levels of government in order to generate a restorati on plan which can concurrently appease local, state, and federal guidelines. This will help to guarantee the success of the restoration by utilizing assistance and oversight from all levels of authority as well as guaranteeing that no work will have to be redone. (4): Another key factor in fracing visual mitigation planning is the identification of any surrounding mitigation banks. It would be wise to incorporate them into site restoration and visual mitigation as this
121 | Page would elevate the success of the over all mitigation system and provide a smoother transition into the existing area for aesthetic gains provided to all users. (5): Finally community values must be addressed in order to successfully mitigate the negative visual affects of fracing. By doing so all stakeholders can address their needs and the restoration practitioners can try to incorporate them into their designs. The project can only be successful if the people living with it can appreciate it and find its transition into the landscape suitab le. By identifying and utilizing these (5) factors for both site selection and reclamation a well pad can be better hidden during the drilling process and better restored after. There are a handful of tec hniques that can be used in the visual mitigation process for fracing well pads. First vegetative screening should be utilized in a fashion that both screens the well pad but also fits into the landscape. This can be difficult as many well pads are rectang ular with straight edges and a proper Figure 12 : Natural Gas Pipeline Over Mountain
122 | Page designer must recreate natural curvature to blend the harsh well pad into a soft landscape for a positive visual aesthetic. A great way to transition from the hard edges of a well pad is through the use of masonry wall between developed and undeveloped land. The masonry wall will dictate somewhat of a rustic quality area into perspective for future users. Apart from masonry walls, general fencing can also be utilized in the landscape to protect fauna from any hazardous parts of the landscape. These fences can be artfully constructed with a weathered look and use espa liered plant material in order to create the illusion that these fences have been present for some time and blend into the landscape. Finally, it is important to note that if the visual mitigation can be assembled concurrently with the drilling process then it will also help to block auditory pollution and help to limit the negative sound effects associated with the fracturing process. T his secondary auditory mitigation will keep various fauna within the general area as opposed to encourage mass species migration. By keeping valuable species within the area they will be more likely to repopulate the site post drilling and accelerate the o verall restoration processes. The noise reduction will also be appreciated by any human populations which also inhabit the area. Although fracturing often takes place in rural areas, by creating an atmosphere which humans can find acceptable will Figure 13 : Estimated Emissions of Various Fossil Fuels
123 | Page help to b oost the public perception of the fracturing process. 18 Visual mitigation is a crucial element to the fracing process. It can be assumed that the future of drilling by fracturing will rely on proper visual mitigation in order to encroach closer to human populations without drawing high scorn from nearby populat ions. This mitigation will also be crucial as more and more well pads are created and must be properly restored and managed if they wish to continue to Fracing Future & Outlook Natural gas extracted through hydraulic fracturing has exploded into the energy industry and become a major player in the markets of fossil fuels. The current President of the United States, who has icy, has whole heartedly supported independence. 6 As the industry has advanced, both technologically and politically, its portion of the market has grown 28%. 5 The innovation of horizontal drilling techniques are, by far, the largest contributor to this immense growth most of which has occurred over the last 15 years. 10 The growth of this industry is still young in comparison to older methods of fossil fuel extract ion. There is much to be seen in the future for hydro fracing from technological and legislative perspectives. somewhat slowed since its inception due to the large amount of capital and labor going towards finding, procuring, and drilling sites. Recent environmental movements and concerns have pushed energy companies to invest more capital into the research and development of techniques to make fracing more env ironmentally sensitive and reduce its carbon footprint. There are arguments that fracing has higher and lower emissions than its nearest competitor: coal. Unfortunately, there is not much data on the carbon footprint of fracing due to the relative young age of the process. The primary concern with fracing is the amount of methane released during the drilling process (note Figure 13). Methane is a bi
124 | Page product of the fluid used in the drilling process and also is released naturally from the ground as the bed rock is fractured. It is important to note that methane causes 21 times more heat to be trapped by 50 200 years for CO 2 ) 20 This makes methane less of a atmosphere at a rate which rises as rapidly as hydro fracing. On the other hand, the longevity of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a cause for concern regarding the coal industry. Coal was a powerhouse, figuratively and literally, for the United States for over a century which has lead to large deposit of CO 2 in the atmosphere actively playing a role in glob al climate change. With the intervention of natural gas drilling, CO 2 emissions have lowered in relation to the decrease in coal energy production and has lead vances in the fracing industry still loom on the horizon as the possibilities are explored by researchers. Many of these advances will be in the equipment and products used in the fracturing process as opposes to various drilling techniques. For example a technique has been developed which lessens the need for proppant by 45%. This process works by created a synthetic fiber based network within fracturing fluid which aids in transport of fluid and fracture preservation. This reduces the need for water and o ther chemicals required to generate the proper solution to form proppant required for successful drilling. 21 Another major breakthrough in the fracing industry was introduced by Gasfrac Energy Services (based out of Canada) in which propane gel is used in p lace of the current fracturing fluid mixture. This 20 Koerner, Brenden. "Is Methane Really Worse for the Environment than Carbon Dioxide?" Slate Magazine N.p. 27 Nov. 2007. Web. 01 Aug. 2012.
125 | Page water (90% reduction) in the process as well as creates no hazardous waste bi products. The technolog y behind this innovation is linked to the chemical interaction of gelled propane and the gases released by the fracturing in the shale. In this process the gelled propane provides the necessary lubricant for equipment, and mimics all the other effects that fractures occur and the natural gas is released, the propane mixes with the gas resulting in a reaction which eliminates the gel like properties of the propane. The resultant bi product of this process is a gaseous form of natural gas which is no different than that drilled and extracted with hazardous fracturing fluid. Essentially, a bi product of natural gas is used to drill for more natural gas. This technology can reduce a tremendous amount of environmen tal concerns in regard to fracing and eliminate the high water demands associated with this drilling technique. 22 Another valuable technological advance in the fracing industry is in the technology related to water contamination prevention. Halliburton has developed a system called CleanSuite Technologies which provides micro seismic monitoring, 3D fracture mapping (showing predictions and locations of shale fractures), UV light sterilization (eliminating the need for biocides), and has created a fracturing fluid using only ingredients found on foods for human consumption). Halliburton has also developed an advanced technology used for treating frac turing flowback waste on site for reuse on other wellbores. This process utilizes electro coagulation and reduces the amount of times fracing flowback water must be stored or transported on public roads. It should be noted that after an entire well pad is drilled the fluid then must be transported as the well site shuts down. At this point the fluid can be significantly 22 Milmo, Sean. "Fracking with Propane Gel." Fracking With Propane Gel RSC Chemical Solutions, 15 Nov. 2011. Web. 01 Aug. 2012.
126 | Page developed a technology which utilizes the water needs for a typical fracing well. This technique however has not disclosed the composition of e higher associated costs that accompany them. Many of these processes increase the production costs associated with a well pad from 20% 40%. It has been estimated that these increases in overhead can easily be made up over time still does not sit well wit h customers and investors looking for immediate rewards. 21 The goal from a political perspective must be to make these technologies cheaper and draft legislation promoting the more efficient and safer manner of hydraulic fracturing. A major piece of legislation, put forth by the EPA has set the pieces in motion for regulation to constrain the harmful practices of hydro fracing which in turn can boost insentive for a cleaner process. The EPA is required to evaluate New Source Performance Standards for various industries every eight yea rs; however, no evaluation of natural gas production had occurred since 1985. This was startling considering the major role oil and gas production plays in terms of VOC emmions (see Figure 15). This fact was brought to the EPA by various environmental grou ps which subsequently evaluted the fracing process as a whole. This evaluation found many violations of the Ground Ozone Standard of 75 ppb which natural gas drilling sites were violating. The EPA then established rules in July of 2011 and by April of 2012 had passed regulations regarding air quaility and hydraulic fracing sites in an attempt mitigate the damage that had been done. The rules apply to wells drilled since August 23 rd 2011 and have until 2015 to comply (some provisions must be met within 60 days due to the severity of the threat). (1) Emissions equipment must be installed on site which seperates mixed solids, liquids, and gases which as the return to the surface of a wellbore. (2) All the equipment used in the natural gas drilling, shipment, treatment, and storage process must reduce their overall emissions based on various extenuating factors while monitoring and reporting
127 | Page these figures on a regular basis. (3) All states must monitor and report the natural gas drilling emissions rates in re gard to the Ground Ozone Standardsand report the findings to the EPA. The EPA has estimated that these new regulations will eliminate 95% of the VOCs from an approximated 12,800 fraced and re fraced wells for 2015. Also, it is estimated that these procedur es will result in a major reduction of methane gas emissions from fracing well site which would amount to the equivalent of 18 million tons of CO 2 There will be a negative cost associated to these new regulations which the energy companies must absorb; ho wever; the EPA estimates that these new restrictions will result in a decrease of negative health benefits by $400 million dollars. 23 The argument can be made that these savings easily offsets the associated costs of complying with the new regulations. These regulations, in my opinion, represent the tip of the ice berg for what is needed to truly make this process safe. It is logically to conclude that natural gas is will play a major role in the futu re energy 23 Weinhold, Bob. "The Future of Fracking: New Rules Target Air Em issions for Cleaner Natural Gas Production. Environmental Health Perspectives: N.p., 2 July 2012. Web. 29 July 2012.
128 | Page needs of the United States and to think it can simply be abandoned would be impractical. It is also safe to assume that the current standards in place for natural gas extraction are much too lax and must be retrofitted to accommodate the needs of the environment while accounting for the safety of all living things. The EPA has begun to set the standards for hydraulic fracturing in air emissions, but water standards and land planning standards must be addressed to encompass all the impacts fracing has on the environment. Water use by the industry must be cut severely if this process hopes to have any chance on sustaining itself over the course of our future. This can be met through regulatory action limiting the amount of water allowed per well while also establishing impact estimates on local and regional water bodies so as not to disrupt them. Statewide agencies must also be appointed in order to monitor large scale water systems w hich serve jurisdictions which cannot be met via state boundaries. These organizations can Figure 16 : U.S. States with Active Natural Gas Production
129 | Page d which sets a standard for energy companies to replace all or a majority of the water back to the systems they were extracted from in a condition which is suitable for the associated ecosystem. By further limiting and regulating the water resources used i n this process, a more clean and sustainable method of extraction can be fostered through a business mentality all while maintaining ecological integrity in doing so. Land planning is another area of regulation which must be addressed in regard to fraci ng. The EPA has delegated this power to state governments which is understandable when one considers how many states actively participate in fracing (see Figure 16). These states must be required by the EPA to incorporate horizontal hydro fracing technique s into its comprehensive plans and associated land use drilling techniques, it is important to understand and legislate that understanding in the form of land use buffering and protection. Fracing must be able to be limited to certain boundaries and associated uses such as food production, schools, endangered species habitats, wildlife corridors, urban enterprise zones, central business districts, and criti cal wetlands must be protected from negative fracing consequences. Natural gas will be a major energy source for our future and can greatly help to reduce env ironment to do so.
130 | Page Image Appendix Figure 1 PacWest Consulting Partners. "North America Shale Plays." Web. 21 May 2012.
131 | Page Figure 11 Photo by Matthew Franko of natural gas pipeline in Sullivan County Pennsylvania Figure 12 Photo by Matthew Franko of natural gas pipeline in Wyoming County Pennsylvania Figure 13 Howarth, Robert, Renee Santoro, and Anthony Ingraffea. "Methane and the Greenhouse Gas Footprint of Natural Ga s From Shale Formations." Cornell University, 13 Mar. 2011. Web.
132 | Page Chemical Name CAS Chemical Purpose Product Function Hydrochloric Acid 007647 01 0 Helps dissolve minerals and initiate cracks in the rock Acid Glutaraldehyde 000111 30 8 Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by products Biocide Quaternary Ammonium Chloride 012125 02 9 Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by products Biocide Quaternary Ammonium Chloride 061789 71 1 Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by products Biocide Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate 055566 30 8 Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by products Biocide Ammonium Persulfate 007727 54 0 Allows a delayed break down of the gel Breaker Sodium Chloride 007647 14 5 Product Stabilizer Breaker Magnesium Peroxide 014452 57 4 Allows a delayed break down the gel Breaker Magnesium Oxide 001309 48 4 Allows a delayed break down the gel Breaker Calcium Chloride 010043 52 4 Product Stabilizer Breaker Choline Chloride 000067 48 1 Prevents clays from swelling or shifting Clay Stabilizer Tetramethyl ammonium chloride 000075 57 0 Prevents clays from swelling or shifting Clay Stabilizer Sodium Chloride 007647 14 5 Prevents clays from swelling or shifting Clay Stabilizer Isopropanol 000067 63 0 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent Corrosion Inhibitor Methanol 000067 56 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent Corrosion Inhibitor Formic Acid 000064 18 6 Prevents the corrosion of the pipe Corrosion Inhibitor Acetaldehyde 000075 07 0 Prevents the corrosion of the pipe Corrosion Inhibitor Petroleum Distillate 064741 85 1 Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate crosslinker Crosslinker Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate 064742 47 8 Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate crosslinker Crosslinker Potassium Metaborate 013709 94 9 Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases Crosslinker Triethanolamine Zirconate 101033 44 7 Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases Crosslinker Sodium Tetraborate 001303 96 4 Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases Crosslinker Boric Acid 001333 73 9 Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases Crosslinker Zirconium Complex 113184 20 6 Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases Crosslinker Borate Salts N/A Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases Crosslinker Ethylene Glycol 000107 21 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Crosslinker Methanol 000067 56 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Crosslinker Polyacrylamide 009003 05 8 Friction Reducer Petroleum Distillate 064741 85 1 Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducer Friction Reducer Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate 064742 47 8 Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducer Friction Reducer Methanol 000067 56 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Friction Reducer Ethylene Glycol 000107 21 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Friction Reducer Guar Gum 009000 30 0 Thickens the water in order to suspend the sand Gelling Agent Petroleum Distillate 064741 85 1 Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gels Gelling Agent Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate 064742 47 8 Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gels Gelling Agent Methanol 000067 56 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Gelling Agent Polysaccharide Blend 068130 15 4 Thickens the water in order to suspend the sand Gelling Agent Ethylene Glycol 000107 21 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Gelling Agent Citric Acid 000077 92 9 Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Iron Control Acetic Acid 000064 19 7 Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Iron Control Thioglycolic Acid 000068 11 1 Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Iron Control
133 | Page Sodium Erythorbate 006381 77 7 Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Iron Control Lauryl Sulfate 000151 21 3 Used to prevent the formation of emulsions in the fracture fluid Non Emulsifier Isopropanol 000067 63 0 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Non Emulsifier Ethylene Glycol 000107 21 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Non Emulsifier Sodium Hydroxide 001310 73 2 Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent Potassium Hydroxide 001310 58 3 Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent Acetic Acid 000064 19 7 Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent Sodium Carbonate 000497 19 8 Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent Potassium Carbonate 000584 08 7 Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers pH Adjusting Agent Copolymer of Acrylamide and Sodium Acrylate 025987 30 8 Prevents scale deposits in the pipe Scale Inhibitor Sodium Polycarboxylate N/A Prevents scale deposits in the pipe Scale Inhibitor Phosphonic Acid Salt N/A Prevents scale deposits in the pipe Scale Inhibitor Lauryl Sulfate 000151 21 3 Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluid Surfactant Ethanol 000064 17 5 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Surfactant Naphthalene 000091 20 3 Carrier fluid for the active surfactant ingredients Surfactant Methanol 000067 56 1 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Surfactant Isopropyl Alcohol 000067 63 0 Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent. Surfactant 2 Butoxyethanol 000111 76 2 Product stabilizer Surfactant