Letters from Isthmian Canal construction workers

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Material Information

Title:
Letters from Isthmian Canal construction workers Contest solicitation, overview and entry requirements
Series Title:
Isthmian Historical Society competition for the best true stories of life and work on the Isthmus of Panama during the construction of the Panama Canal
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Language:
English
Spanish
Donor:
Afro-Antillean Museum ( donor )
Publisher:
Isthmian Historical Society
Place of Publication:
Panama

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Panama Canal

Notes

Scope and Content:
The Contest: In 1963, as the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal drew near, the Isthmian Historical Society decided to make a collection of stories of personal experiences of non-U.S. citizens during Construction Days by means of a contest. This contest was publicized in local newspapers, by notices in the food packages given to Disability Relief recipients, and in newspapers in the Caribbean area. The following letter was sent to a total of 15 newspapers in Jamaica, Barbados, British Honduras, Trinidad, Antigua, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and Grenada: "The Isthmian Historical Society is trying to collect the personal experiences and viewpoints of those West Indians who served in the labor force that dug the Panama Canal. Very little has been written by them or about them. Soon it will be too late to obtain personal accounts. In the hope of making a permanent record of their experiences during the construction of the Canal, our Society is sponsoring a competition for the best true stories of life and work on the Isthmus of Panama during the construction years. It would be much appreciated if you would assist us in publicizing our competition. I am enclosing a separate sheet with the information for this." The information sheet: "The Isthmian Historical Society announces a competition for the-best true stories of life and work on the Isthmus of Panama during the construction of the Panama Canal. The competition is open to West Indians and other non-U.S. citizens who were on the Isthmus prior to 1915. Entries may be handwritten but must be legible. Anyone who is infirm may have his story written for him by someone else, but in this case it must be stated on the entry that it has been written for him in his own words by someone else. Give name, address, year arrived in Panama, where employed there, and type of work done. All entries must be in the mail by November 1, 1963. The winners will be announced in December. All entries become the property of the Isthmian Historical Society. First prize will be: $50 (U.S.); second prize: $30 (U.S.); third prize: $20 (U.S.)…” Brief notices of the contest were placed in several thousand food packages ("Food for Peace" packages have been distributed monthly by the Panama Canal Company-Canal Zone Government). These notices read: "Competition -- For West Indians & other non-U.S. citizens who worked on the Isthmus before 1915. For the best true stories of life & work on the Isthmus during the Canal construction there will be awarded prizes: 1st PRIZE: $50; … Give year arrived in Panama, kind of work & where, name & address. Write of interesting experiences & people, living & working conditions, etc… The Entries: The majority of the contest entries were handwritten. In some cases the handwriting was difficult to read. In making copies of the entries, it occasionally was necessary to omit an undecipherable word, leaving a blank space to indicate the omission. Although an effort was made to reproduce the letters exactly as they were written, it is probable that there are errors. However, they will detract little from what these Old Timers wanted to say. It should be remembered that these letters were written by individuals who labored on the Isthmus prior to 1915. They are no longer young. Some are handicapped by the infirmities of age: failing eyesight, unsteadv and arthritic hands that find it laborious to form words and sentences, and minds that know what they want to say but communicate it imperfectly. Generally, unfamiliar spellings need only to be sounded and their meaning becomes clear. In cases where the entrants wrote as they speak, there may be dropped "H"8s so that "has" is written "as". Other features of West Indian speech will be noted. As spoken language, there is no English more colorful. Mr. Albert Banister's interesting letter is a good example. The Society is most grateful for all the entries and we regret that there could not be a prize for everyone. Ruth C. Stuhl Competition Editor
General Note:
This text will be used in the Panama Silver, Asian Gold course to be taught at three institutions starting in Fall 2013.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Afro-Antillean Museum
Holding Location:
Afro-Antillean Museum
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00016037:00010


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text







Austin, Hartriuan; :Etafet". Corri llo, Apartado 5993, Fanama,
:- .P.


At your request I am prcncntina to you a brieftrue story
of my personal exnorience on the isthrcur of panama during the
Construction period. J-ly first extorience, land.nm at Colon,
on the 9th of Oct 1905, .-".om the royal ma.l stce2rviship Orinoco
having had a hazarnoun trip, of thirteen days of bad weather,
poor accommodation in general w:'.tb sparinr meals on a Crowded
Ship, we were all m:oro or less hungry. 'We Saw after landing
on the dock, a pile of bg:-s of brown sugar. And the whole
crowd of us like ants fed ourselves on that sugar without
questioning any cne, and no one said any thing to us either.

Soon we were all lo:".ed up in freight Cars and hurried
off, and distributed at v-rious SGtations. My lot happened to
be at Las Cancadas. It ;.'.c a Sunday, we were led to open
camps and given a cot each, and an agned to a place to Stay.
Then we were gathered to ether, and marched to the mess hall,
. and Given our first meal, 2nd told when we should be there for
meals and be reea.dy for work the next morning. I had a box of
Carpenter's tools, and wpn as;i.ned to work at Bas Obispo, the
next Station to Colon. "'h rre the carpenters was to work
repairing quarters, 'take the midday real there, and on evenings
return on the labor train to Las Cascadas to eat and sleep.
Our foreman was 3. white -nan, he appointed one of the most
experienced en to be sub foruman as really the only thing he
knew to do was to uatch us but really very little about hand-
ling or 'directing a CarpenLbcrc rnng. It refined excessively in
those days and we were often forced to work in the rain, in
order to show up .a a:.ys work; the bad thing about it we had
to get our own tools and do skill l:.bor for the same 10O per
hour at 8 hours per day, ..hich was only 80f per day. While
the unskilled labored s was Cgven their tools, picks, shovels,
machets, etc; and received ecual pay as us, and at some times
when it rained if 'ce were not working wile it rained our time
was cut. Indeed to come degree life wcs some sort of semi
slavery, and there was none to appeal to, for we were strangers
and actually co;.c.telied to accept what we sot, for in any case
of an arSu.'cnt '. would have to shut up, r.j't or wrong; And
the bosr.n or polince-en or other officials ri.-ht or wrong could
bc always ir; the .-..'e, r.nd those cmn who had the chances of
filling cich po2ition:t -cre : -encr'.ll y of the dominating type
whc tried to br:inr: otbe'- 3 into suje-ction for their fame.
M-ost of the time the fcoG ,'rve.j3rcd at the m.es. Kitchen was
poorly cooked; someti:,c3s could scarcely be uned. Host of us
was forced to find ouher ways to feed ourselves. Clothing was
also a problem they were no laundries or women who could do










Austin, iarrigc.n p.2


our washing for us we had to do it for oursetfes the best we
could. We had to bctthe, wash our clothes in the same river
drink the same water and cook. The horses and cattle all of
us together used the came wnattr. nome others who couldn't do
their own washing for themselves wore their clothes as long
as they could, thc'i threw them away and put' on new ones, and
kept repeating that way; that method sometimes created germs
and sickness tien we lhid the onlaria fever, and poorly
trained doctors and nurses indeed many went to an early grave
because of the lack of proper care and trained attendants who
had any underst.ndin-s of hrAndling a sick human being. Many
went deaf from the excessive use of quinine used for malaria,
and any one who happen to rot sick and go to some of those
dispensaries, quinine v:An prescribed until many persons
couldn't even hear' .-ben the engineer blew the engine whistle
to get them off the raJ.lroad track, and many -:ere killed.
Some were so afraid of those doctors in those days they would
hide: away and try to use their ow:-n remedies and when caught up
with, would be brutalized :nd some time carried to jail, for
the rule .was laborers should he on the job or in hospital and
if caught hanging around luring working hours and at nights
no one was allowed to have even a candle burning in the Camp
after 9 p.s. lest they should disturb others from sleeping.
This was very good for tO:nse who had to do a hard days work
and not in very good health

As I hnve alroad, s2.id, they were fcw women here in the
early Construction period. And were many me; who didn't seem
as though they could ,et ?lonf- without the opposite sex, hence
the absence of women E~c-r cd to have been disadvantageous for
many, ano caused -orne Si ilcultics. For this the government
brought .nany French '. ,acn from ,arknioue and those who wanted
went to those in -uLholtyl, and cook themselves wives and
became responsible 'or thc>a hecce some of those conditions
became better on another hand &many accidents was caused
on the jobn because .-hey were not so many precautions and
safty mcpnures t'o.n as we have to day. Some of those in
nut'orJty :r-;ce untrnined for t.hc r ros 5tions, cavsinCg ;.any
acc3tnts a.ltihour: they w ,re Jdoin': the best they knew -- note
also skilled work. j.in C- nlQ action ;::.yc. did not have the
pr.'.v-ilcre as tod;.y. 'c "P. tc-: pre;are all our material for
jobs from our own br:yin : d :m:-: l1 labor we had no machinery
to prepare our 'oyrkinr :. unt.eri-1c we had to take the rough
lumber or metals cut tc. m u p ts 'ieiOncsi ons, and make what we
wanted for small vwa.cs at that -- The excavation side of the
Construction period was riu:h, rnd without a remedy, the method










Austin, Hiarln 1 n p.3


used then was the best known to those days so we just had to
face it. I had left Carpentry and worked directly on the
drilling work for the actual explosions and removal of excava-
tion of the water way Cvyn.nmitir': and breaking up the .soil
rocks etc This work 1:.ws rouih, dirty and rushing the drill-
ing of holes for dna-.nitinr7 and blastin, up bCi rocks so that
the steam shovels could be able to load them in the trucks
I worked at thiro work 5n -edro tiguel an 4iraflores from time
to time. Day and night, sun or rain for they wore times when
it was compulsory to go throu-"h the rain in order not to hold
up the shovels or the trains things had to be on time. Some
times some of the holon loaded fall to go off in the blast and
that unblasted por lion remains until otiuck by the shovel
then exspodes and many have been injured this way. Some times
below hills rocks 1'll.: from above on men working making
trouble. I have had to work on flooded areas in Mira Flores
for days and nights in water up to my w..Ist where pumps were
useless. Some times the rocks were so hnad, as fast as we
could chnre a drill and put a sharp one the rocks would break
them in Cocoli excavation, but it had to be done. I.have
witnessed a train loaded with railroad tiles in Mira Flowers
Cut, and the Engineer applied hin broken suddenly, and the
tiles from both cars ran toCethecr, cn-u-bt the brakesman between
the two set of tiles and squeezed him to sudden death. And
also the Pedro Miguel Cut explosions when many was injured.
I' the year 1907 I workeAP at SAn Pablo where there was people
on one side of the Cbsv:rcs river and people on the other side
called Calmito people used to go back and forth day and niEht
in their work a cayuca boat was used to take the people back
ond forth one night it rained very hard and the river was
swollen the boat-man thou'-ht he c-vul cross over and tried
to do it with a load of 12 men the river took them away and
I heard he never was found or the men -Some other times when
the boat turned over the *en would. -in over. I also was
used to rrect a cable asuininr: bridge from one side of the
river to the other, .*n'.Dnin the tw:o "ides of the secclon so
that people cculd :m.l': over fro- one ;.lde to the other. My
foreman at th:.,t time :.a, called P'ick: i didn't know his other
nime I al:t-. expcrien crn Cyplr.1cn the same year at Cal-
mitrx when the shot '.e:it off une ocectcdly before the time I
v:as living the snme pl. co nd hlcd moved out the day before the
explosion, and w:n on b-=n to helr do the-o di-ring to find those
who wz.re killed in that cxplot ion; these are but a few of the
experiences of Construccion d".n )a.TO..-enin.s. Things which took
place in the making of this wV-tr way which has become of un-
told benefits to the world at large., tis reasonable to under-
stand in any big war or any such projects as this, something











Austin, Harrican p.4


will happen. Some ;nmut suffer for the good and welfare of the
others, for where their is no Cross they may be no Crown

Such have been what may be Considered the dark side of
the picture, but therc is also a. briCht side. In the begin-
ning of the Conntrict.ion prriod, the ]sthi'as of P nn:ma from
Colon to ;n'..nma twas alto cthcr or practically nothing to com-
pare with wh:.at it w.a. a; the clo e. At the be;ining', both the
cities also the stations alonr the lines, were all in a miser-
able condition. The best street in Colon or Pannma could
hardly afford a place to walk if just a shower of rain fell,
and not only mud, t'wa. a common thin, to find that you had
stepped in real filth of different kinds human filth as well
as that of annimlu. The sanitation was the worst I had ever
experienced any w:'mcrc before. This was all changed. Many
people who ran away, hack to their homes, being afraid of the
unhealthy condlticns, w'iere now corilng back to Panruna, and
bringing their families, and those who stood here and endured
the conditions were noending for theirs Many who were unmar-
ried, sent for women '.nd married. Things had changed for the
better, and people from all ovcr the world were coming to
Pan:- mna. .e had better Doctors sood sanitation, better pre-
pared food, la.unarrcri and P;ore justice in the Courts, and
better respect in general from cur superiors. Christian
workers were doinG Church work along the various sections.
And the Isthimui of .:n.a.a becnIemc n.. place to be desired. But
few of the natives of Panama were interested to work in the
Canal in those dave the few who ever did was unreliable.
aosst of them, as soon Rs they got the first pay, they'd go
drinking and 'may show up come future time. The men who stuck
to the job, .as with a purpose '-:ore the 'ent Indlans and the
Europeans. The material czcav:-.tcd from the Canal was used
for filling swa.m;p, .'nd such pl.-'es which was too low, and
could be used advantn"rcously by rai 'l.n. Such places above
the level of the water level, of the Canal waters, such
plr.ces an o:e now call Fort Cla i;ton, Curundu, Ba.lboa Flat, Fort
lenodor, r.lro Ta.bcnpilla :'nd Cat.un so the work in removing
the dirt iron the C -':.l served two purposes diAgfing the
ditch fcr rbipc to "**'y'r, nn i111y'.: the low places to be
used for oll occ-r'nonn in the operation of the Canal. Then
there is the .underfvl cn-'lncc'rin; :'.nf( equally great mechani-
cim in the making and. hanging of those cates at Catun, Pedro
NiCinel and Mira Flores also the tunol for passing trains,
t'.ian all excellict be-; had their difficulties, but the
accomplishments has :0oro that repaid them. They were many
that said the Canal ;.'ould ncver be finished, but would be with











Auztin, liarrican p.5


the Americann asc t x.as wi th the French. But Thank God, the
Canal has been finished anc! blas3 become a blessing to the
world at large. A frca:.t a.conplinhl-ment, the work of a Great
Nation Ma'.y Cod Plesn A'.crica.

I t1 nk you
1iAI IGAi AUSTIN




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Letters from Isthmian Canal construction workers
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Austin, Hartriuan; :Etafet". Corri llo, Apartado 5993, Fanama,
:- .P.
At your request I am prcncntina to you a brieftrue story
of my personal exnorience on the isthrcur of panama during the
Construction period. J-ly first extorience, land.nm at Colon,
on the 9th of Oct 1905, .-".om the royal ma.l stce2rviship Orinoco
having had a hazarnoun trip, of thirteen days of bad weather,
poor accommodation in general w:'.tb sparinr meals on a Crowded
Ship, we were all m:oro or less hungry. 'We Saw after landing
on the dock, a pile of bg:-s of brown sugar. And the whole
crowd of us like ants fed ourselves on that sugar without
questioning any cne, and no one said any thing to us either.
Soon we were all lo:".ed up in freight Cars and hurried
off, and distributed at v-rious SGtations. My lot happened to
be at Las Cancadas. It ;.'.c a Sunday, we were led to open
camps and given a cot each, and an agned to a place to Stay.
Then we were gathered to ether, and marched to the mess hall,
. and Given our first meal, 2nd told when we should be there for
meals and be reea.dy for work the next morning. I had a box of
Carpenter's tools, and wpn as;i.ned to work at Bas Obispo, the
next Station to Colon. "'h rre the carpenters was to work
repairing quarters, 'take the midday real there, and on evenings
return on the labor train to Las Cascadas to eat and sleep.
Our foreman was 3. white -nan, he appointed one of the most
experienced en to be sub foruman as really the only thing he
knew to do was to uatch us but really very little about hand-
ling or 'directing a CarpenLbcrc rnng. It refined excessively in
those days and we were often forced to work in the rain, in
order to show up .a a:.ys work; the bad thing about it we had
to get our own tools and do skill l:.bor for the same 10O per
hour at 8 hours per day, ..hich was only 80f per day. While
the unskilled labored s was Cgven their tools, picks, shovels,
machets, etc; and received ecual pay as us, and at some times
when it rained if 'ce were not working wile it rained our time
was cut. Indeed to come degree life wcs some sort of semi
slavery, and there was none to appeal to, for we were strangers
and actually co;.c.telied to accept what we sot, for in any case
of an arSu.'cnt '. would have to shut up, r.j't or wrong; And
the bosr.n or polince-en or other officials ri.-ht or wrong could
bc always ir; the .-..'e, r.nd those cmn who had the chances of
filling cich po2ition:t -cre : -encr'.ll y of the dominating type
whc tried to br:inr: otbe'- 3 into suje-ction for their fame.
M-ost of the time the fcoG ,'rve.j3rcd at the m.es. Kitchen was
poorly cooked; someti:,c3s could scarcely be uned. Host of us
was forced to find ouher ways to feed ourselves. Clothing was
also a problem they were no laundries or women who could do
2 image0038.jpg
Austin, iarrigc.n p.2
our washing for us we had to do it for oursetfes the best we
could. We had to bctthe, wash our clothes in the same river
drink the same water and cook. The horses and cattle all of
us together used the came wnattr. nome others who couldn't do
their own washing for themselves wore their clothes as long
as they could, thc'i threw them away and put' on new ones, and
kept repeating that way; that method sometimes created germs
and sickness tien we lhid the onlaria fever, and poorly
trained doctors and nurses indeed many went to an early grave
because of the lack of proper care and trained attendants who
had any underst.ndin-s of hrAndling a sick human being. Many
went deaf from the excessive use of quinine used for malaria,
and any one who happen to rot sick and go to some of those
dispensaries, quinine v:An prescribed until many persons
couldn't even hear' .-ben the engineer blew the engine whistle
to get them off the raJ.lroad track, and many -:ere killed.
Some were so afraid of those doctors in those days they would
hide: away and try to use their ow:-n remedies and when caught up
with, would be brutalized :nd some time carried to jail, for
the rule .was laborers should he on the job or in hospital and
if caught hanging around luring working hours and at nights
no one was allowed to have even a candle burning in the Camp
after 9 p.s. lest they should disturb others from sleeping.
This was very good for tO:nse who had to do a hard days work
and not in very good health
As I hnve alroad, s2.id, they were fcw women here in the
early Construction period. And were many me; who didn't seem
as though they could ,et ?lonf- without the opposite sex, hence
the absence of women E~c-r cd to have been disadvantageous for
many, ano caused -orne Si ilcultics. For this the government
brought .nany French '. ,acn from ,arknioue and those who wanted
went to those in -uLholtyl, and cook themselves wives and
became responsible 'or thc>a hecce some of those conditions
became better on another hand &many accidents was caused
on the jobn because .-hey were not so many precautions and
safty mcpnures t'o.n as we have to day. Some of those in
nut'orJty :r-;ce untrnined for t.hc r ros 5tions, cavsinCg ;.any
acc3tnts a.ltihour: they w ,re Jdoin': the best they knew -- note
also skilled work. j.in C- nlQ action ;::.yc. did not have the
pr.'.v-ilcre as tod;.y. 'c "P. tc-: pre;are all our material for
jobs from our own br:yin : d :m:-: l1 labor we had no machinery
to prepare our 'oyrkinr :. unt.eri-1c we had to take the rough
lumber or metals cut tc. m u p ts 'ieiOncsi ons, and make what we
wanted for small vwa.cs at that -- The excavation side of the
Construction period was riu:h, rnd without a remedy, the method
3 image0039.jpg
Austin, Hiarln 1 n p.3
used then was the best known to those days so we just had to
face it. I had left Carpentry and worked directly on the
drilling work for the actual explosions and removal of excava-
tion of the water way Cvyn.nmitir': and breaking up the .soil
rocks etc This work 1:.ws rouih, dirty and rushing the drill-
ing of holes for dna-.nitinr7 and blastin, up bCi rocks so that
the steam shovels could be able to load them in the trucks
I worked at thiro work 5n -edro tiguel an 4iraflores from time
to time. Day and night, sun or rain for they wore times when
it was compulsory to go throu-"h the rain in order not to hold
up the shovels or the trains things had to be on time. Some
times some of the holon loaded fall to go off in the blast and
that unblasted por lion remains until otiuck by the shovel
then exspodes and many have been injured this way. Some times
below hills rocks 1'll.: from above on men working making
trouble. I have had to work on flooded areas in Mira Flores
for days and nights in water up to my w..Ist where pumps were
useless. Some times the rocks were so hnad, as fast as we
could chnre a drill and put a sharp one the rocks would break
them in Cocoli excavation, but it had to be done. I.have
witnessed a train loaded with railroad tiles in Mira Flowers
Cut, and the Engineer applied hin broken suddenly, and the
tiles from both cars ran toCethecr, cn-u-bt the brakesman between
the two set of tiles and squeezed him to sudden death. And
also the Pedro Miguel Cut explosions when many was injured.
I' the year 1907 I workeAP at SAn Pablo where there was people
on one side of the Cbsv:rcs river and people on the other side
called Calmito people used to go back and forth day and niEht
in their work a cayuca boat was used to take the people back
ond forth one night it rained very hard and the river was
swollen the boat-man thou'-ht he c-vul cross over and tried
to do it with a load of 12 men the river took them away and
I heard he never was found or the men -Some other times when
the boat turned over the *en would. -in over. I also was
used to rrect a cable asuininr: bridge from one side of the
river to the other, .*n'.Dnin the tw:o "ides of the secclon so
that people cculd :m.l': over fro- one ;.lde to the other. My
foreman at th:.,t time :.a, called P'ick: i didn't know his other
nime I al:t-. expcrien crn Cyplr.1cn the same year at Cal-
mitrx when the shot '.e:it off une ocectcdly before the time I
v:as living the snme pl. co nd hlcd moved out the day before the
explosion, and w:n on b-=n to helr do the-o di-ring to find those
who wz.re killed in that cxplot ion; these are but a few of the
experiences of Construccion d".n )a.TO..-enin.s. Things which took
place in the making of this wV-tr way which has become of un-
told benefits to the world at large., tis reasonable to under-
stand in any big war or any such projects as this, something
4 image0040.jpg
Austin, Harrican p.4
will happen. Some ;nmut suffer for the good and welfare of the
others, for where their is no Cross they may be no Crown
Such have been what may be Considered the dark side of
the picture, but therc is also a. briCht side. In the begin-
ning of the Conntrict.ion prriod, the ]sthi'as of P nn:ma from
Colon to ;n'..nma twas alto cthcr or practically nothing to com-
pare with wh:.at it w.a. a; the clo e. At the be;ining', both the
cities also the stations alonr the lines, were all in a miser-
able condition. The best street in Colon or Pannma could
hardly afford a place to walk if just a shower of rain fell,
and not only mud, t'wa. a common thin, to find that you had
stepped in real filth of different kinds human filth as well
as that of annimlu. The sanitation was the worst I had ever
experienced any w:'mcrc before. This was all changed. Many
people who ran away, hack to their homes, being afraid of the
unhealthy condlticns, w'iere now corilng back to Panruna, and
bringing their families, and those who stood here and endured
the conditions were noending for theirs Many who were unmar-
ried, sent for women '.nd married. Things had changed for the
better, and people from all ovcr the world were coming to
Pan:- mna. .e had better Doctors sood sanitation, better pre-
pared food, la.unarrcri and P;ore justice in the Courts, and
better respect in general from cur superiors. Christian
workers were doinG Church work along the various sections.
And the Isthimui of .:n.a.a becnIemc n.. place to be desired. But
few of the natives of Panama were interested to work in the
Canal in those dave the few who ever did was unreliable.
aosst of them, as soon Rs they got the first pay, they'd go
drinking and 'may show up come future time. The men who stuck
to the job, .as with a purpose '-:ore the 'ent Indlans and the
Europeans. The material czcav:-.tcd from the Canal was used
for filling swa.m;p, .'nd such pl.-'es which was too low, and
could be used advantn"rcously by rai 'l.n. Such places above
the level of the water level, of the Canal waters, such
plr.ces an o:e now call Fort Cla i;ton, Curundu, Ba.lboa Flat, Fort
lenodor, r.lro Ta.bcnpilla :'nd Cat.un so the work in removing
the dirt iron the C -':.l served two purposes diAgfing the
ditch fcr rbipc to "**'y'r, nn i111y'.: the low places to be
used for oll occ-r'nonn in the operation of the Canal. Then
there is the .underfvl cn-'lncc'rin; :'.nf( equally great mechani-
cim in the making and. hanging of those cates at Catun, Pedro
NiCinel and Mira Flores also the tunol for passing trains,
t'.ian all excellict be-; had their difficulties, but the
accomplishments has :0oro that repaid them. They were many
that said the Canal ;.'ould ncver be finished, but would be with
5 image0041.jpg
Auztin, liarrican p.5
the Americann asc t x.as wi th the French. But Thank God, the
Canal has been finished anc! blas3 become a blessing to the
world at large. A frca:.t a.conplinhl-ment, the work of a Great
Nation Ma'.y Cod Plesn A'.crica.
I t1 nk you
1iAI IGAi AUSTIN


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