Learning what life is like for an insider while remaining a 'lekgowa': A Participatory Approach to Understand Local Adap...

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Title:
Learning what life is like for an insider while remaining a 'lekgowa': A Participatory Approach to Understand Local Adaptive Capacity and Resilience in Nokaneng, Botswana
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Project in lieu of thesis
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English
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Bong, Indah Waty
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University of Florida
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Abstract:
Using a resilience model, this paper assesses local adaptive capacity to manage environmental, social and economic stresses occurring at varying individual (women and men), household and community levels in Nokaneng, Botswana. In this model, resilience is shaped by what resources are available in the community, its vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity. Primary field data were drawn using a participant observation approach that included a series of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, gender-disaggregated mobility mapping, and seasonal, gender-disaggregated activity mapping and a historical timeline. I used the collected information to: 1) explore resources available in the system (Nokaneng) and compare the differences in mobility and access to resources between women and men; 2) analyze current livelihood strategies, historical exposure to stresses and level of sensitivity (intensity of impacts) to identify and compare vulnerability of individual women and men, households, and community in general; 3) analyze the community’s responses (coping/adaptive strategies) to multiple stresses to better understand its adaptive capacity; and finally 4) to assess the potential use of a participatory approach as a tool to understand resilience for sustainable development.
General Note:
Sustainable Development Practice (MDP) Program final field practicum report
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.

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Learning what life is like for an insider while remaining a lekgowa : A Participatory Approach to Understand Local Adaptive Capacity and Resilience in Nokaneng, Botswana By: Indah Waty Bong Committee Members: Dr. Grenville Barnes, School of Forest Resources and Conservation & Dr. Renata Serra, Centre for African Studies A f ield p racticum r eport submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of S ustainable Development P ractice Degree At the U niversity of F lorida In Gainesville, FL USA May 201 3

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1 Table of Contents Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 1 List of Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 2 List of Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 2 List of Photos ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 2 Glossary of Setswana Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 4 Abstract 6 1. Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 7 2. The conceptual framework: A resilience model ................................ ................................ ................... 7 2.1 Understanding resilience ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 8 2.2 Vulnerability ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 8 2.3 Adaptive capacity ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 8 3.4 Relationship between resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity ................................ ............ 9 3. Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 10 4. Field work ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 11 4.1 Field area: Nokaneng ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 4.2 Local stakeholders ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 12 5. The methodology: Participant observation ................................ ................................ ....................... 14 5.1 Focus group discussion (FGD) ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 17 5.2 In depth interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 17 5.3 Mobility mapping ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 17 5.4 Seasonal and livelihood activity calendar ................................ ................................ .................... 18 5.5 Historical timeline ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 18 6. Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 18 6.1 Understanding the integrated livelihood system ................................ ................................ ......... 18 6.2 Mobility and access to resources ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 6.3 Livelihood activities ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 24 6.4 Historical exposure to stresses and sensitivity (intensity of impacts caused by stresses) .............. 26 7. Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 28 7.1 Contemporary livelihood strategies ................................ ................................ ............................. 28 7.2 Vulnerability ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 30 7.3 Adaptive capacity ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 30 8. Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 32 Reference ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 35 Annex 1. Seasonal calendar (PILUMP workshop on 19 July 2012) facilitated by Kalahari Conserv ation Society (KCS) and Southern Africa Regional Environmental Program (SAREP) .......................... 37 Annex 2. Description of key events in the Nokaneng historical timeline (1930 2012) ............................. 38 Annex 3. Photo d ocumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 40

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2 List of Figures Figure 1. The conceptual framework: A Resilience Model ................................ ................................ ........ 9 Figure 2. Map of Nokaneng and its associated localities ................................ ................................ ......... 12 Figure 3. Participant observation framework ................................ ................................ ......................... 16 Figure 4. The Integrat ed (crop animal forest) livelihood system in Nokaneng ................................ ........ 19 Figure 5a. Women's mobility map ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 22 Figure 5b. Men's mobility map ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 22 Figure 6. Nokaneng's historical timeline ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Figure 7. Proportion of interviewed households in livelihood clusters and respective mean livestock value for each cluster in Nokaneng ................................ ................................ .......................... 28 Figure 8. Resilience and participatory approach for sustainable development ................................ ....... 33 List of Tables Table 1. Study side description: Nokaneng village ................................ ................................ .................. 11 Table 2. Household cluster based on major livelihood activities for 18 interviewed households in Nokaneng ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 29 List of Photos Photo 1. My host family (Ditiros sister and her children) ................................ ................................ ....... 14 Photo 2. Collecting thatching grass with Nokaneng women ................................ ................................ ... 15 Photo 3. River and flood plain field ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 20 Photo 4. One of the crop pests: Elephants ................................ ................................ ............................. 21 Photo 5. Nokaneng women in t heir way to collect thatching grass ................................ ......................... 23 Photo 6. A wedding party in Nokaneng ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 23 Photo 7. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) decontamination post to control disease outbreaks ............... 31 Photo 8. Milk and cattle, two important sources of food in the village ................................ ................... 32 Photo 9. Edible wild fruits (mokolawne) ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 Photo 10. Children in Nokaneng ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 34

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3 Glossary of Setswana Terms1 Dikgakololo = Spring Ipelegeng = A short term job provided by government as part for poor, unemployment people Kamanakao = A cultural event celebrated by Bayei tribe K gotla = A public meeting, community council or customary court Kraal = An enclosure for cattle or other livestock Lekgowa = A white person or outsider Lethatula = Autumn/fall Mariga = Winter Mocaba = A type of edible wild fruits M okolwane = A type of edible wild fruits M orula = A type of edible wild fruits M otsaudi = A type of edible wild fruits Molapo = Floodplain or flood recession farming Nokaneng = A small river Selemo = Summer Tjingerene = A cultural event celebrated by Bandero tribe Tsie = Grasshopper Tswii = Water lily 1 The Setswana words and their definitions are based on my field notes as translated by Ditiro and other local people in Nokaneng.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank individuals and organizati ons that have been very helpful and who gave me valuable assistance and support in the course of my field practicum in Botswana. I know it is impossible to adequately mention all of you. However, I would like to give my profound gratitude to the Ford Foundation International Fellowship Progr am (Ford IFP) for providing the scholarship for my master stud ies at the University of Florida (UF). I am proud to be part of the Ford fellow family! My thanks also go to the Institute of International Education (IIE) New York and the Indonesian International Education Foundation (IIEF) for supporting me since the beginning of my studies and to the John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and UF Center for African Studies (CAS) for supporting and funding the fieldwork My sincere thanks to our local partner The Southern African Regional Environmental Program (SAREP) for h osting the Botswana MDP team in its local office in Maun and to its staff for be ing very helpful in supporting our field activities. I want to use this opportunity also to pas s my gratitude to Dr. Kutlwano Mulale from the University of Botswana and his students, our field partners, Abraham Botlhale, Lilian Pelane, Tshoganetso Masunga, and Te bore (Tebi). My thanks also go to Shylock Muyengwa (UF) for his valuable discussion on c ommunity based natural resource management in Botswana. I especially want to express gratitude to Kalahari Conservation Society (KCS), specifically to Thokomelo Phuthego and Ishmael for facilitating my field work in Nokaneng. To the Nokaneng Working Group and community of Nokaneng in general for letting me be part of your community and allowing me to learn from your lives and wisdom, thank you is not enough. Specifically to my host, Moadirwo Ditiro and his family for hosting and having me as part of your family, your hospitality made me feel like I was at home with my own family. I would like to express m y sincere thanks and appreciation to my mentor and adviser Dr. Grenville Barnes for guiding me through the entire preparation, field practicum, poster development and writing of this report. I also owe special thanks to my committee member Dr. Renata Serra, for your in valuable inputs and support in the preparation phase of my field practicum and development of my pos ter and final report. My sincere th anks also go to Dr. Brian Child for your valuable role in the Botswana field practicum project I would also like to pass on my thanks to faculty, staff members, classmates and graduate students of the Masters of S ustai nable Development Practice (MDP) Program and from other departments and research centers at the University of Florida for the invaluable knowledge and skills I learned and the friendly learning atmosphere. My special gratitude goes to all members of the MDP for welcoming and supporting me during my study time especially to the MDPs director and program coordinator, Dr. Glen n Galloway and Cindy Tarter, to my MDP Botswana team: Dave Pittman, Nicola s Vasconcellos, and Ramin Gillet for being such a

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5 great team and sharing the unforgettable moments and experiences together with me, an d to the other MDP Co 2 fellows, Marliz, Stephenie, Sydney, Sky and Sheldon, you guys are the best! Finally and most importantly I want to give my greatest thank and dedicate a ll of this work to my mother, Bong Lian Kian, the woman who I look up to and whose dedication and simplicity inspires my life. To my belated father Lie Djun Tjin, who waited f or me to be back home from my field practicum for our last chat and togetherness, I want you to know that your special relationship with wildlife and forest s is always my inspiration. To my belated biggest brother, Heri Susanto, who left us when I was still in Botswana, I want you to know that you are and will be always in our heart To m y brothers, Erwin Susanto and Heman, and the two little ones, Iyu and Randy who just lost their father thank you for always being there and being the strongest ones when we needed it the most, and for your in valuable love and support to me.

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6 Learning what life is like for an insider while remaining a lekgowa : A Participatory Approach to Understand Local Adaptive Capacity and Resilience in Nokaneng, Botswana Abstract Using a resilience model, this paper assesses local adaptive capacity to manage environmental, social and economic stresses occurring at varying individual ( women and men ) household and community levels in Nokaneng, Botswana. In this model, resilience is shaped by what resources are available in the community, its vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity. Primary field data were drawn u sing a participant observation approach that included a series of focus group discussions in de pth interviews, gender disaggregated mobility mapping and seasonal, gende r disaggregated activity mapping and a historical timeline I used t h e collected information to : 1) explore resources available in the system (Nokaneng) and compare the differences in mobility and access to resources between women and men; 2) analyze current livelihood strategies, historical exposure to stresses and level of sensitivity (intensity of impacts) to identify and compare vulnerability of individual women and men, househol d s and community in general; 3) analyze the community s responses (coping/adaptive strategies) to multiple stresses to better understand its adaptive capacity; and finally 4) to assess the potential use of a participatory approach as a tool to understand resilience for sustainable development.

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7 1. Introduction HIV/AIDS was first discovered in Nokaneng in 1995, and from 20002005 it killed almost half of the village population (500750 lives approximately )2 and infected many other young women and men. The disease has affected the community at varying levels and intensities. The vi llage was filled with sick people and c hildren were left without parents. Relatives and grandparents took over the child caring. W ithin households livelihood productivity decreased significantly as sick familys members were too weak to work. The b urden was increased for healthy individuals, particularly women who bare most of the responsibility for household tasks and additionally to care for the sick ones HIV/AIDS represents one of many stresses that has affected the lives and livelihoods of the community, households, and individual women and men in Nokaneng As a system, t he comm unity as a whole, households and individuals in Nokaneng responds to these stresses differently and their response depends heavily on its resilience as defined by what resources are available, its vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity (Maguire and Cartwright, 2008). In this paper I will explore the pro cess of using a participant observation approach ( in which I lived with and learned from the community and actively participated in their daily activities) to g ain a better insight into the lives o f women and men, households and the community as a whole, their livelihood ac tivities, and how they respond to various stresses. I used a resilience model to frame this work because it allowed me to focus on the inherent capacities and dynamic characteristics of the community and the environmental, social and ec onomic interactions within the community. Integrating a participatory approach and resilience perspective provided me a better understanding o f the local adaptive capacity and resilience. In the context of sustainable development, this understanding is c ritical to address the cross scalar environmental, social and economic changes on a system caused by stresses and/or implementation of development initiatives. My hope is that this work can contribute to our understanding o f the local adaptive capacit ies a nd resilience in Nokaneng. Furthermore as an approach it can be used as an assessment tool to identify and plan effective sustainable development strategies and to assess impact and the process of change in the community brought about by development initi atives (Severi et al., 2010) 2. The c onceptual f ramework: A resilience m odel The livelihood system and the interactions between its environmental, social and economic components are complex and dynamic. A resilience perspective can be used to 2 In one of in depth interviews, the resource person, a head man in the village, mentioned that there were about 2000 people in the village before 2000 and by 2005 it decreased to 1500 people (approximately 500 live lost), while in another in depth intervie w, the interviewee, a young man, said it was about 750 people died. Both mentioned that the live lost during 2000 2005 was close to half of the village population.

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8 capture and better understand these processes and interactions in the system (Folke, 2006) I used the resilience perspective because it recognizes the diversity at varying level s of individual women and men and households in a community and the diverse environmental, social and economic components in it. In this paper, resilience refers to social resilience which is the capacity of a community to cope with stresses and to maintain their adaptive capacity. It covers ecological, economic, politic al institut ional, spatial, and social dimensions of a system (Adger, 2000). 2.1 Understanding resilience There are several definitions of resilience; three that are most commonly found in the literature refer to resilience as the buffer capacity to return to a pre existing state (Folke, 2006), resilience as the ability to bounce back or the speed of recovery from a stress to its original state (Maguire and Hagan, 2007) and resilience as the capacity to respond to a stress adaptively (Maguire and Cartwringth, 2 008). T he first two definitions portra y an individual, household or community to have inherent capacity to cope with stresses, thus impl ying its resilience or not resilience to changes T he last view sees re silience as a transformation which take s into con sideration the dynamic process of change, components and interaction of a community. Whereas all three perspectives see resilience a s the ability to resist and respond positively to stress, resilience as transformation recognizes that because of the dynam ic characters of community any experience of stress can change or transform the state of functioning in the community. A resilient community is able to respond and transform itself adaptively in time s of stresses. It focuses more on adaptability (adaptive capacity) rather than vulnerabilities of a community which allows the people to develop and innovate in response to a stress. 2.2 Vulnerability Vulnerability is commonly seen in three ways: as a state where existing factors in a community such as socio economic conditions affect the degree of vulnerability of a community (Brooks, 2003) in relation to a hazard where vulnerability is seen as an outcome of a hazardous event (Turner et al, 2003 and Brooks, 2003), and as inherent components of a commun ity (Fenton et al. 2007). While v ulnerability as a state and hazard outcome excludes the resources and capacities of a community to cope with stresses, vulnerability as a component of community is seen as one part of a dynamic and complex system that defines the way a community is able to respond to a stress. 2.3 Adaptive capacity Adaptive capacity refers to adaptability or capacity of a system to cope with, manage or adjust to stress (Smit and W andel, 2006). It is closely related to the idea of adapta tion which includes any measure taken to reduce vulnerabilities and increase resilience. Adaptive capacity is t he ability to realize those measures (Smit and Wandel, 2006). Adaptation and adaptive

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9 ca pacity can be seen from a communitys actual response to a stress (Brooks, 2003). A resilient community will able to draw on its resources and its adaptive capacities to cope with diverse stresses. 3.4 Relationship between resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity Each concept of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity has a number of different definitions and has been used in different ways for varying purposes. However all three are related to each other when we talk about how a communit y as a dynamic system cope s adaptively with environmental, social and economic stresses. I adapted Maguire and Cartwrights resilience model (2008) to frame my work because of the dynamic and context dependent nature of the system and interaction (see Figu re 1) : external processes (stresses) occur red differently between communities and within the same community, thus the ways the system responds to those stresses also vary (Brooks, 2003). Figure 1 The conceptual framework: A Resilience Model (adapted from Maguire and Cartwright, 2008)

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10 Specifically, t h is framework defines the following resilience components and its relation to each other (Maguire and Cartwright, 2008): Resilience is the ability of a community to respond to a change adaptively It is a function of a communitys vulnerabilities, resources and adaptive capacity. Vulnerabilities are the components of a community which may weaken its ability to respond adaptively to different stresses. They are one of component s in a community which affect s the ways it responds to stresses. Resources are the strengths and abilities of a community which enable it to overcome its vulnerabilities and respond adaptively to change Like vulnerabilities, resources are one part of a communitys characteristics which influence its response to stresses. Adaptive capacit y is the ability or capability of a system to modify or change its charac teristics or behavior to cope be tter with actual or anticipated stresses (Brooks, 2003 in Maguire and Cartwright, 2008) Response is coping or adaptive strategies to deal with stresses. It shows a certain degree of resilience, and is driven by its ability to build on its resources and adaptive capacity, and to translate the se into adaptation. Stresses are external environmental, political, social and economic pressures or shocks that influence a communitys response to change. It also affect s its internal vulnerabilities and resources and the way these are translated into adaptive action. 3. Objectives The general objective of this field work is to better understand local adaptive capacity to manage stresses from a resilience perspective at individual women and men, households and community lev els in Nokaneng, Botswana. Specifically, it aims to: 1. Better understand the integrated (cropanimal forest) livelihood system in which different resources interact with each other. 2. Compare the mobility and access to resources between men and women 3. Compare t he vulnerability of men and women through analyzing their current livelihood strategies, historical exposure to stresses, and level of sensitivity (intensity of impacts) 4. Identify the environmental, social, and economic stresses experienced by the community and their responses (coping/adaptive strategies) 5. Assess the potential use of a participatory approach as a tool to understand resilience for sustainable development.

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11 4. Field w ork 4.1 Field a rea: Nokaneng Nokaneng is a village of approximately 2,067 people (Central Statistics Office, 2011) located in the northwest district of Botswana. It is near to the Okavango Delta Ramsar Site (ODRS) which influences the type of livelihood activities in the village that is domin ated by molapo (flood plain/recession) farming. The other significant economic activity is pastoral farming. T here are at least five major ethnic groups that can be found in Nokaneng: Bayei, Basarwa, Mabandero, Herero and Bambukushu. There is no significant conflict between ethnic groups in Nokaneng recorded illustrating a good relationship between the diverse groups in the village Further details on the study site are given in Table 1 and Figure 2 below. Geographical location (VDC office) 19 39' 37'' S 022 11' 21'' E History of village F irst sett led in 1937, before it was a hunting and gathering grounds Population (Census, 2011) 2,067 Average number of people per household 7 Major ethnic composition (Appx.) Bayei (55%), Basarwa (20%), Mabandero (10%), Herero (10%), Bambukushu (5%) Main livelihood options Pastoralism (cattle, goats, sheep, donkey, horse), hunting, veld harvesting, small informal business, employment (government officers, ipelegeng /temporary work) Main food sources Cultivated cr ops (maize, sorghum, beans, watermelon), livestock, destitute rations, shop bought foods, meat bought from butchery wild meat and vegetables Water availability Water for household needs available from taps in almost each household compound, water for livestock available from surface water (rivers and seasonal ponds) Number of local governmental institutions 8 Number of religious/cultural organizations 12 Number of community organizations 3 Table 1 Study side description: Nokaneng village

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12 Figure 2 A participatory m ap of Nokaneng and its associated localities (adapted from PILUM Ps workshop report, 201 2 ) 4.2 Local stakeholders a. Southern Africa Regional and Environmental Program (SAREP) The Southern Africa Regional and Environmental Program (SAREP) is a USAID funded program that work s together with the Permanent Okavango River Basin Commission (OKACOM) and other regional stakeholders to improve trans boundary natural resources management in t he Okavango River Basin while also improving the livelihoods of its residents. The program aims to support transformation and focuses on capacity building of institutions and communities in the Okavango River Basin. SAREPs specific objectives are to build capacity for water governance, support basinlevel plans and priorities, and integrate trans boundary infrastructure and land use planning3. 3 This information is taken from SAREP brochure, 2011.

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13 The University of Florida, led by Dr. Brian Child and with the active engagement of a team of Masters of Sustaina ble Development Practice (MDP) students worked in partnership with SAREP from May to July 2012. Under this partnership, the UF team works to assess, strengthen and improve governance processes in communities with potential impacts on biodiversity, natural resources management and water supply and sanitation (WSS). This field work was one of the proj ects carried out by the MDP team within this broad team project involving a governance dashboard, livelihood surveys, and management oriented monitoring system (MOMs) in Botswana and Namibia. b. Kalahari Conservation Society (KCS) PILUMP Program Kalahari Conservation Society (KCS) is the oldest Botswanabased environmental non governmental organization (NGO) KCSs objectives are to promote Botswanas wildlife and environment through education and publications encourage and support research related to natural resources and conservation, and promote and support policies on the c onservation of wildlife and its habitat4. KCS is charged with implementing OKACommunity project under SAREP. One part of the project is facilitating the establishment of a Nokaneng Working Group and developing a village Participatory Integrated Land Use Plan (PILUMP). c. Nokaneng Working Group The Nokaneng Working Group consists of community representatives that work together with an Okavango Delta Management Plan (ODMP) focal person, the Village Development Committee (VDC) and other village committees to develop the Nokaneng PILUM. This process is facilitated by SAREP and KCS. d. Host family KCS facilitators introduced me to my field work area Nokaneng and the Nokaneng Working Group. One of the Nokaneng Working Group members, Moadirwo Ditiro, hosted me with his family (see Photo 1) and assisted me with translation and interpretation during my stay in the village. I stayed in a family compound co nsisting of a cement room with a tin roo f structure three mud huts with thatching grass roof, and no toilet facility. 4 This information is taken from http://www.kcs.org.bw/ accessed on 14 November 2012

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14 Photo 1 My host family (Ditiros sister and her children) 5. The methodology: Participant observation In my field work, I used a participant observation approach in which I lived with and learned from the community in Nokaneng and actively participated in their daily activities (see Photo 2) Participant observation is a process of learning about the activities of the people in their natural setting through observing and /or participating in those activities (DeWalt & DeWalt, 2002) It provided me an insight into the lives of people in the village and the dynamic existing at the individual and household levels.

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15 Photo 2 Collecting thatching grass with Nokaneng women T here are several characteristics needed by a partic ipant observant to blend into a community including having an open, nonjudgmental attitude, being a good listener, an eager learner and being adaptive (Kawulich, 2005). Furthermore, Guest et al. (2012) provide three key elements for participant observation study: 1. Going to the field where activities take place. This also means being ready for any aspect or unexpected experience that may occ ur in the study location. For instance, when I wanted to learn and understand the religious life of the people in Nokaneng, I went to the churchs daily service with my host family in which ceremony required everyone who entered the church to be thoroughly sprayed with water, in spite of the fact t hat this was happening in the evening and during winter time. Another church service happened in the weekend in which people would pray, sing, an d dance all night long from 9pm to 6am. 2. Establishing rap port with the community. Trust and accepta nce is needed in order for people to act normally as if you were not there. As a participant observer, you expect people to act naturally so you will be able to better capture and learn about the ir lives and activi ties. I found that food and drink are a very good way to start this process of building rapport. Sitting together, eating the same food, and drinking tea bec a me a routine during my participant observation which brought me closer to the people I worked with

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16 3. Spending time as needed. P articipant observation by nature requires you to spend sufficient time for building rapport and observing and/or participating in activities to gather the experience and information that you need. This may stretch from days t o years, and it may require several visits to the field. The timing of my field work coincided with the winter holiday and thatching grass gathering season in Nokaneng which meant most of the people had gone to the cattle posts or to the thatching grass field. Going to the cattle posts, camping on the thatching grass field, and participating in harvesting thatching grass together with my host not only provided me with a great experience and enrich ed the information that I collected but also hastened the process of establishing rapport, and participant observation in general. I developed and used the following participant ob servation framework (see Figure 3) for framing my observation and learning during the field work : Figure 3 Par ticipant observation framework One important and challenging technical aspect of the field work is language. E ven though there are people who speak English in Nokaneng, many of the e lders only speak Setswana. I had one interpreter who work ed with me and also bec a me my host during my 10day participant observation in the village. Two weeks prior to the live in, I worked closely with the KSCs facilitator, Ishmael, collecting information, contacting my host and arranging the accommodation and more importantly defining the role of translator and interpreter during my field work. While a participant observation approach provides a direct and natural learning experience, some challenges remained W hen I got into the community as a participant Who? The person Wh ere ? The place What? The thing Space Actors Activities Objects Acts Events Goals Feelings ( Robinson, 1993) Individual Mobility Time utilizations (24 clock) Livelihood activities Timeline Household Dynamic of interaction and relation (gender, age) Division of labor (gender, age) Livelihood activities Community Dynamic of interaction and relation (gender, age, tribe) Community events/activities (village meeting, religious/cultural events, farming, market, etc.) Social organization Question What to observe Follow up: informal conversation, focus group discussion, in depth interview, mobility mapping, seasonal livelihood calendar, historical timeline

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17 observer, I also needed to fulfill my role as a researcher to take note s record sounds, voices and images, and to ask questions in such a way that was appropriate and allow ed me to explore and uncover the meaning behind particular behaviors or activities. In order to address the challenges and to enrich and deepen my experience and learning process, I also incorporated other participatory methodologies into my field work such as focus group discussions, in depth interviews, gender disaggregated mo bility mapping and seasonal, gender disaggregated activity mapping and historical timeline 5.1 Focus group discussion (FG D ) A focus group is a method in which one or more facilitators and several participants (usually no more than 10 people) meet a s a group to discuss a certain topic or issue (Mack et al., 2005). I conducted 6 informal focus group discussions covering issu es of tha tching grass harvesting cattle production, migration of people to the village village historical timeline and livelihood activities in general. I called them informal because the discussion process es ofte n happened without the common F G D preparation in which a facilitator prepares a venue, leads and has one other person recording the process. For instance, I visited group s of people in their work place su ch as a thatching grass field or cattle post and started first with a small talk. After the conversation developed and the people felt comfortable with my presence I asked their permission to ask questions about a certain topic that I want ed to learn more about In an other case, the discussions occurred when people gathered and enjoyed morning or evening tea with me in front of the fire (the family I lived with cook food outside over a fire they did not have a kitchen or stove ) Notes were taken and organized every night after I had time alone. 5.2 In depth interviews While the F G D allowed me to gather a broad range of opinions on a topic in quite a short period of time it was not effective for acquiring personal information or addressing sensitive issues such as personal history, experiences, feelings and opinions, and household socio economic condition s Therefore I conducted 18 indepth interviews with villagers from different socio eco nomic backgrounds (from the person who own ed no cattle to thos e who own ed around 100 cattle), gender (women and men), tribes (Bayei, Mabandero, Herero, Basarwa and Bambukushu) and age groups (from 2687 years old). I nformation collected included household demographic s main livelihood activities, involvement in orga nizations, and personal historical timeline s 5.3 M obility mapping Mobil ity mapping is a process of visualizing peoples movement within and outside their village. T his tool help s to capture the different patterns and intensities of mobility between women and men, access to natural resources and social services, social roles and functions, and involvement in institutions/organizations.

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18 In total, I produced 12 mobility maps from one to one interviews with 6 women and 6 men. A r ecall method was used to captur e mobility by asking about places visited and activities conducted as well as their frequency (how often) and approximately distance from the household in the pas t one month These maps were then grouped and compiled by gender to create two gender disaggre gated mobility maps. 5.4 Seasonal and livelihood a ctivity calendar A s easonal calendar is commonly used to see seasonal variations in activities of people in a village. This tool is useful to illustrate the relationship between various activities and seasonal changes that occur in the community. As a starting point I used the seasonal calendar produced by the community representations in the PILUMP workshop on 19 July 20125. This workshop was supported and facilitated by SAREP and KCS. I further devel oped the calendar and incorporated information from focus group discussions and indepth interviews to establish a seasonal and gender dis aggregated livelihood strategy calendar 5.5 Historical timeline A h istorical timeline is useful for understanding the important trends, events and problems experienced by the local community. This information usually passes from one generation to the next through oral story telling. This exercise records significant ev ents and keeps them in a written fo rm. A focus group discussion was used to list the p a st events such as village history, river and forest history, and diseases that the communi ty considered to be important in its history. Later on, to enrich the timeline and make it more comprehensive I utilized information from in depth interviews with the village elders and integrated responses to cope with the problems and bad events (stresses). 6. Results 6.1 Understanding the integrated livelihood system A livelihood system consists of the capab ilities, assets (resources and access) and activities required for a means of living (Chambers and Conway, 1992). In a household, decisions made on a combination of assets and activities are referred to as the households livelihood strategy. In rural comm unities such as Nokaneng, the livelihood system is often characterized by interdependent yet interrelated components of crops, farm animal, natural resources, household, government/agriculture agency, and market. These components (blue boxes) and its flow of interactions and provisions (red arrows) are shown in F igure 4. 5 The seasonal calendar produced in the PILUMP workshop is attached in annex 1.

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19 Figure 4 The Integrated (crop animal forest) livelihood system in Nokaneng The system illustrates the diversity of predominant natural resources available to the rural household which includes different types of land (flood plain or molapo and dry land see Ohoto 3) for farming (growing crops and rearing livestock) and resources for off farm activities (forest, river, bush, grassl and, and other town ). Land and labor are two essential resources, and constraints, in the farming system. Dry land farming has very low productivity due to limited nutrients and water shortage. However, growing crops in the flood plain is not always a cho ice for the households in the village because the availability of such land depends on floods from the Okavango D elta. The water level is linked to the amount of rainfall upstream in Angola and Namibia. The household is the main source of labor for farming activities. Every once in a while, particularly in the early phase of planting, external labor will be hired to help with the preparation of fields. The ability to hire additional labor depends on cash available in the household. Inputs for farming such as seeds, fertilizers and pesticides are highly subsidized by the government of Botswana which allows each household to acquire them at no cost.

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20 Photo 3 River and flood plain field Animals also play a big role in the farming system by providing traction for ploughing, transportation of harvested crops, and organic fertilizers (manure). Other important agrosystem resources are forest, river and bushes which provide fodder and water fo r livestock and fencing materials and water for the farm. Rainfall variation and unreliability are other challenges to the farms that rely on rain fed water like those in Nokaneng. Drought is one of the main causes of crop losses in this region. To redu ce the risk associated with drought and to diversify food crops, the farmers practice mixed farming. The common mixed crops include maize, groundnuts, sorghum, vegetables and water melons. Elephants are another threat for crops (see Photo 4) T he impacts of elephants extends not only to a significant decrease in agriculture yields but also to gathering of wild fruits because the elephants tear down and kill standing trees that produce wild edible fruits. Foot and mouth disease presents another common thre at for cattle in the area. So far, prevention and control is conducted through check points on the gates of the veterinary cordon fence. When an outbreak occurs in one place, the whole area/district will be designated as a red zone which means no meat or cattle are allowed to be transported out of the area. This affects the farming households because cattle are one of the major sources of cash income that can be used at the beginning of planting season. It is also threatens the hous ehold security because cattle are usually kept as a backup when bad events happen such as death and accident s

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21 Photo 4 One of the crop pests: Elephants 6.2 Mobility and access to resources The mobility maps (see Figure 5a and 5b) show how women and men move differently within and outside their village boundary. Spatial difference is evident as men traveled farther and visited more places outside their village than women. While six towns with varying distances from 15 km (Qwee) to 750km (Tonoto) were recorded in the mens mobility map, women traveled only to three other places outside their village with the closest is Gumare (35km) and farthest is Maun (200km). The purpose of travel inside and outside the village are quite similar for men and women from visiting sons and relative, buying food, attending funerals and weddings, visiting hospitals/clinics and churches, t o collecting natural products to attending meetings. The mobility maps also illust rate the variety of resources and how women and men access those resources differently. Women have a slightly higher mobility and access to natural resources as shown by places they visit i.e. forest (for firewood, wild fruits, palm leaves), thatching gras s field (for thatching grass and reeds see Photo 5), flood plain/molapo or dry land field (for reeds and palm leaves). This might illustrate women s greater dependency on natural resources as sources of livelihood.

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22 Figure 5a. Women's mobility map Figure 5 b. Men's mobility map

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23 In terms of human, social and institutional capitals various activities that illustrate involvement in organizations (k gotl a, PILUMP working group, and Kamanakao Association meetings), religious activities (churches), and social functions (wedding s and funeral s see Photo 6) were recorded in both maps Travels to cooperative and clinics/hospitals also represent access to goods and service. W omens mobility inside the village is slightly more intense (11 places) as compare d to those of mens (8 places). This might represent more diverse functions pl ayed by women in social relationship inside the village. Photo 6 A wedding party in Nokaneng Photo 5 Nokaneng w om e n in their way to collect thatching grass

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24 6.3 L ivelihood activities Gender division is clearly defined in several livelihood activities in Nokaneng. These activities are grouped into reproductive, productive, extractive, and cultural/social activities (see Figure 6) All the reproductive activities, except collecting fire wood, are carried out all year around by women Women are also dominant in extractive activities such as gathering wild fruits, reed, thatching grass and palm leaves while the other extractive activity, hunting, is carried out by men. In productive activi ties, even though both women and men participate in growing, harvesting and selling crops, several sub activities are obviously specified between genders. For instances, while activities to prepare the field for planting such as cutting trees and building shelter is done by men, weeding that require s less physical strength is conducted by women. Other productive acti vities such as making new kraal (an enclosure for cattle or other livestock ) making traditional chairs and ropes from animal skin s are mens a ctivities and making baskets and cooking oil from milk are womens. Differences are most evident in the types of animals they keep; men tend to keep big livestock (cattle) and women smallstock (goat s and chickens ). Seasonality is a significant determinant in the livelihood system in Nokaneng. In dikgakololo (spring) from August to October ( rain season ) the community prepares their fields for crop planting. There are two types of farming that have been traditionally practiced by farmers in Nokaneng ; dry land farming and molapo (floodplain farming). Even though the latter provides better yields (10 20 times more compared to the dry land farm), the practice depends h eavily on flood waters from the D elta. In spring w ild products such as reeds and thatc hing grass are ready to harvest. While some villagers are collecting these natural products for cash (selling), the others are mostly collecting for subsistence; reed is used for fences and walls while thatching grass is used for roofs. The government of B otswana is controlling the harvest of wild products to ensure the sustainability of those wild products by regulating the harvest ing time. At this time of the year, reed and thatching grass have passed their reproductive and seed distribution time s o it can be harvested sustainably without disturbing its reproduction cycle. Selemo (summer) from November to January is the time beginning of rainy season. People start growing crops such as maize, millet, sorghum, watermelon, cowpea, and sweet reed. Bot h women and me n are involved in this activity. Wild fruits are abundant and often collected for subsistence use and only as a side activity while working in the field. One important religious event takes place in this period, Christmas. It is a big event in the village and almost no other activity takes place for a week before and a week after this celebration. Lathatula (autumn) from February to April is marked by two productive activities, harvesting and selling crops and preparing new kraals Two cultura l events also occur in the middle of lathatula, Kamanakao (celebrated by Bayei tribe) and Tjingerene (celebrated by Bandero tribe). The Mariga (winter) season from May to July is linked with little activity in part because the cold weather limits the produ ctive activities. The men usually fill the time by hunting small animals. This is also a holiday time for students providing additional labor for household and livelihood tasks. The children and other household members often spend most of the winter at the cattle post helping with cattle rearing. In these months, wedding ceremonies also commonly take place in the village.

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25 Figure 6. Seasonal and gender disaggregated livelihood activities in Nokaneng

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26 6.4 Historical exposure to stresses and sensitivity (intensity of impacts caused by stresses) Since 1930, the community in Nokaneng has been experiencing various stresses (see Figure 7) Most of the stresses are related to environmental changes (dro ught) and diseases that attack crops, livestock and people in the community. The most significant crop loss (100%) was recorded in the early 1930s when grasshoppers ( tsie ) ate a ll the crops, tree leaves and bush. Other crop pests, like elephants, are also increasingly affecting the community farms since the end of the 1970s. This may be due to hunting ban implemented by the government in 1970 to protect wildlife including elepha nts for tourism development purpose (see key event 28 in 1970 in Annex 2) that led to increased population of elephants Three major cattle diseases are tsetse flies, lung disease and foot and mouth disease (FMD ). Whereas the last tsetse fly attack record ed was in 1963, FMD cases were recorded throughout the time studied with the last outbreak occurring in mid of 2012 during the field practicum period. The l ung disease outbreak that occurred from 1994 1997 led to the complete extermination of cattle (100%) in the infected area which included Nokaneng. As for human disease, HIV/AIDS is a major stress with a prolonged effect on individual, household and the community in general. Almost half of the village population (500 750 lives approximately) died by HIV/A IDS during the period of 2000 2005.

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27 Figure 7 Nokaneng's historical timeline ( the description of key events is in Annex 2)

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28 7. Discussion 7.1 Contemporary l ivelihood strategies In a more holistic view, assets include natural, financial, human, social and institutional resources and access that are manifested in the chosen livelihood strategies, social relationships and participation in organizations. This implies that besides resource endowment and environmental condition, individual diversity (sexes, ages involvement in organization ) and household diversity (economic condition and household composition) play a significant role in determining a households livelihood strategy In analyzing livelihood strategies and vulnerability Sallu et al. (2010) grouped households in to three cluster s i.e. accumul ator s diversifiers and dependent s based on similarity or related livelihood activities in (1) ownership of livestock and employment, (2) cultivation of arable land and (3) dependency on social security scheme E ach of these characteristics represents important dimensions in assessing vulnerability as suggested by Fraser et al. (2010): access to assets, agroecos ystem capacity to remain productive, and institutional capacity in providing crisis relief, respectively. Figure 8 Proportion of interviewed households in livelihood clusters and respective mean livestock value for each cluster in Nokaneng (description of clusters is shown in table 2) From the 18 interviewed households, relatively small number of households (22%) ( see Figure 8 Table 2 ) could be clustered as accumulators. They ha d a tendency to specialize and accumulate large number s of livestock. Ethnic bias was evident as Mabandero and Herero are 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Accumulator Diversifier DependentMean livestock value (pula) Proportion of households (%) Household livelihood clusters Proportion of household Livestock value

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29 commonly known pastoralists in the area. Investment in farming was present by a Bayei accumulator. In the village they occupied important positions such as head of tribe or village chief. T hey were the part of the community with significant economic and politic influence. Following accumulator s are the diversifiers (33%) who also own ed livestock but in moderat numbers ( see Figure 8, Table 2). They had multiple livelihood strategies from ru nning informal business es such as making basket s government employee, farming fishing and veld harvesting. This clus ter was dominated by Bayei who are also the major ity group in Nokaneng (Table 1) followed by Basarwa, Bambukushu and Herero. The last and the biggest cluster are dependents (44%). They had no livestock and depend highly on various social security scheme s provided by the government such as pensions, orphan relief, drought relief and ipelegeng They often worked for other households, farms, or cattle posts and are composed mostly of the minority groups such as Basarwa and Bambuk ushu. Some Bayei were also fallen under this cluster, although it might be due to age or health condition. Household clusters Accumulator Diversifier Dependent Livelihood strategy Specialized strategy Diversified strategy Dependency strategy Major livelihood activities Livestock Employment/significant position, M olapo farming Employment I n formal business (making basket) L ivestock, F arming Fishing and/or Veld harvesting Dependent on pensions O rphan relief D rought relief I pelegeng, and/or L aborer activities Social identity Agro pastoralist Employee Agro pastoralist Hunter Gatherer Destitute Laborer Ethnic identity (#) Mabandero (1) Herero ( 1 ) Bayei ( 2) Bayei ( 3 ) Basarwa (1) Bambukushu (1) Herero (1) Basarwa (2) Bambukushu (2) Bayei (4 ) Livestock value : 1 cow = 1500 pula, 1 horse = 500 pula 1 goat/sheep/donkey = 300 pula 423,700 pula 114,000 pula 0 Average organization membership s (# adults interviewed in the cluster ) 2.8 (4) 3.7 (6) 1.3 (8) Table 2 Household cluster based on major livelihood activities for 18 interviewed households in Nokaneng

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30 7.2 Vulnerability Analyzing the current livelihood strategies and linking it to the historical exposure to stresses and level of sensitivity provides an insight into the vulnerability of the community, household as well as individual women and men. Nokaneng has been experie ncing multiple environmental changes from 1930 to the present At least 8 major droughts ( see Figure 7) were recorded during this period. This condit ion affects ecosystem services and related livelihood activities (especially accumulator household livelihoods) Farming and cattle rearing are two major productive activities that depend highly on the availability of water and are thus most vulnerable when extreme environmental changes occ ur Because women and men act ively participated in each or both of the activities ( see Figure 5), they are both evenly vulnerable to environmental changes particularly drought. Crop and animal diseases are also major stressors affecting household livelihood activities in farming and cattle rearing. Crop disease and pests (elephants) are the leading cause of crop failures and attack and damage have been increasing in intensity ( see Figure 7). Lung disease and foot and mouth disease have been significantly affect ed catt le production fro m time to time ( see Figure 7). These coupled stressors place the accumulator households and to a certain extent the diversifiers households increasingly vulnerable of losing their livelihoods. HIV/AIDS killed almost half of the village population from 20 002005 and infected many young women and men ( see Figure 7) This disease not only reduces their human capital and social capital (reduced family and community supports) but also disproportionately affects women because they bare most of responsibility in the household and at the same time have to take care of the sick. 7.3 Adaptive capacity Stresses such as droughts, crop pests (grasshoppers and elephants) cattle (FMD, tsetse flies and lung disease) and human diseases (tsetse flies and HIV/AIDS) have occurred at varying level s of intensity in Nokaneng. Using its resources and adaptive capacity, the community has developed copi ng strategies to deal with these stresses. In the event of stress, t he foll owing responses from the villagers, government and local institutions can be observed (figure 7) : Villagers resort to eating wild fruits and other wild products when crops fail (see Photo 9) They also survive by depending more on sour milk (See Photo 8) When the condition becomes very bad, cattle owners would start to slaughter their cattle for meat. Slaughtering cattle before they died due to e xtreme and prolonged drought is also

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31 common practice when cattle owners are unable to find water for their cattl e. In the e vent of conflict or disease villagers migrate to other places until it is safe to come back to the village. The g overnment provides support through programs such as drought relief, orphan relief, pensions and ipelegeng in the event of major dr oughts and human disease outbreaks (HIV/AIDS). The government also takes some preventative measures such as awareness campaign s and free medical check up s f or HIV/AIDS. Emergency response is also in place when crop or animal disea se outbreaks occur to prev ent further loss and wider effects by killing pest bearing trees and exterminating cattle Some restrictions are also implemented to isolate cattle in the red zone (disease hotspot). FMD decontamination check points are used for people who travel from and to the red zone to control spreading of this disease (see Photo 7) Nokaneng has quite strong l ocal institutions It can be seen in the village government structure that accommodates different tribes. Each tribe has a representative called a headman who represent s the tribe interest s at the village level and is responsible for re solving conflicts or other issues within their tribe. Only when the headman cannot solve the issue, or when the issue involves different groups and/or has a broad i mpact then will a k gotl a meeting that open to all villagers be conducted. The community also has strong kinship ties that became evident when HIV/AIDS killed most of the villagers. Grandparents or other relatives took over the child car e and/or collectively supported them. Traditional knowledge on edible wild fruits, curing some animal disease and methods to chase elephants away when they are damaging crop s are other example s of existing local institutions. Photo 7 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) decontamination post to control disease outbreaks

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32 Photo 8 Milk and cattle, two important sources of food in the village Photo 9 Edible wild fruits (mokolawne) 8. Conclusion Resilience and adaptive capacity by their very definition are embedded in the lives of people and dynamic processes in a community. An effort to understand th e complexity of this socialecological system its components and interactions and th e role of gender and varying liveli hood strategies pursued in time of stre ss require s in depth study and direct field experience. These can be done by using participatory approaches. I found that using a

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33 participant observation that included several other PRA techniques during my field practicum were useful for providing me a better understanding of the local adaptive capacity and resilience. In Nokaneng drought, crop and cattle diseases and HIV/AIDS are some of the most common environmental, social and economic stresses that have occurred throughout time and affected women and men differently. Nokaneng has been relatively resilient in responding adaptiv ely to stresses over time. These responses are based on its capacity to draw on the resources they have to cope with stresses. This rural community is characterized by a high dependence on natural resources for subsistence and livelihood strategies (some w ith a very clear gender division) and a strong sense of kinship in which local institutions and knowledge are embraced by its members. This together with active government support has allowed them to survive a number of serious stresses. In the context of sustainable development, this understanding is critical to address the cross scalar environmental, social and economic changes in a system caused by stresses and /or implementation of development initiatives. As an approach, resilience and a participatory approach can be used as an assessment tool for sustainable development in two ways ( see Figure 9). First it serves as a normative tool to identify and plan effective sustainable development strategies and second as an analytical tool to assess impact and t he process of change in the community brought by development initiatives (Severi et al., 2010). Figure 8 Resilience and participatory approach for sustainable development (adapted from Severi et al., 2012) The potential of using a resilience and participatory approach for assessment in sustainable development is dependent on its ability to capture the inherent complexities at varying levels of individual, household and community in a system as well as the environmental, SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES Normative tool to support RESILIENCE Resilience and Sustainability dimensions Analytical tool to improve PARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT

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34 social and economic changes that affect this system. The results from this assessment can be used to develop scenarios to understand how a stress might affect a community and how the community might use its resources and adaptive capaci ty to respond adaptively to this stress. A step further includes involving the community in analyzing these scenarios by utilizing participatory processes. Furthermore, these processes will lead to identification of effective development strategies that fo cus on strengthening the communitys resources and capacities. This approach also allows active involvement of the community in monitoring and evaluation of environmental, social and economic changes that might occur because of the implementation of develo pment initiatives or due to external stresses. The cross sectoral (social environment economic) nature of a resilience approach is in line with sustainable development dimensions, thus i t supports strategies that aim at sustainability. For decision makers, resilience is useful in defining sustainability policies and supporting implementation of sustainable development initiatives Photo 10. Children in Nokaneng

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35 Reference Brooks N (2003) Vulnerability, risk and adaptation: a conceptual framework (Tyndall Centre Working Paper No. 38) University of East Anglia. Norwich. Central Statistics Office (2011) 2011 Botswana Population and Housing Census. Government of Botswana DEA (2008) The Okavango Delta Management Plan. Department of Environmental Affairs. Gaborone, Botswana. DEA (2009) An introduction to The Okavango Delta Management Plan 1. Department of Environmental Affairs. Ma un, Botswana. DeWalt, K & DeWalt, B (2002) Participant observation: a guide for fieldworker s. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16: 25367. Geilfus, F. (2008) 80 tools for participatory development: Appraisal, Planning, Follow up and Evaluation. Assessment (p. 208). San Jose: Inter American Institute for Cooperative on Agriculture (IICA). Guest, G., Mitchell, M.L., Namey, E.E. (2012). Collecting Qualitative Data: A field manual for applied research. SAGE Publications. Kawulich, B. Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research North America, 6, may. 2005. Available at: < http://www.qualitative research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/466/996 > Mack, N., Woodsong, C., Macqueen, K. M., Guest, G., & Namey, E. (2005). Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collectorss Field Guide Family Healt h International (FHI) and USAID. Maguire B & Hagan P (2007) Disasters and communities: understanding social resilience. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 22: 16 20. Na tional AIDS Coordinating Agency (2008) HIV/AIDS in Botswana: Estimated Trends and Implications Based on Surveillance and Modeling, (July), 1 41. Retrieved from http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/epidemiology/countryestimationreports/20080 701_botswana_nationalestimate2007_en.pdf Sallu, S. M., Twyman, C., & Thomas, D. S. G. (2009) The multidimensional nature of biodiversity and social dynamics and implicatio ns for contemporary rural livelihoods in remote Kalahari settlements Botswana. Geography, 47, 110118. Sallu, S. M., Twyma n, C., & Stringer, L. C. (2010) Resi lient or Vulnerable Livelihoods ? Assessing Livelihood Dynamics and Trajectories in Rural Botswan a. Ecology a nd Society 15(4).

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36 Smit, B., Pilifosova, O., Burton, I., Challenger, B., Huq, S., Klein, R.J.T., Yohe, G., Adger, N., Downing, T., Harvey, E., Kane, S., Parry, M., Skinner, M., Smith, J., Wand el, J. ( 2001) Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity. In: McCarthy, J.J., Canziani, O.F., Leary, N.A., Dokken, D.J., White, K.S. (Eds.), Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Smit, B., Wandel, J. (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16 (3), 282 292. Sever i, C., Rota, C., & Zanasi, C. (2012) The Resilience Approach Contribution to Rural Communities Social Assessment for Social Sustainability Based Strategies Implement. International Journal on Food System Dynamics. 408 419. Turpie, J., Barnes, J., Arntzen J., Nherera, B., Lange, G. M., & Buzwani, B. (2006). Economic value of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, and implication for management. October. Gabarone: ODMP. Retrieved from http://www.car.org.bw/Documents/Final ODMP Economic Valuation Report.pdf Vogel, C ., Moser, S. C., Kasperson, R. E., & Dabelko, G. D. (2007). Linking vulnerability, adaptation, and resilience science to practice: Pathways, players, and partnerships. Global Environmental Change, 17(3 4), 349364. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.05.002

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37 Annex 1 Seasonal c alendar (PILUMP workshop on 19 July 2012) facilitated by Kalahari Conservation Society (KCS) and Southern Africa Regional Environmental Program (SAREP) 1. Dikgakololo (Spring): August, September, October 3. Lethatula (Autum ): February, March, April Preparing mouldboard for ploughing Celebrating cultural event/Kamanakao (Bayei) Cutting trees in the field for crop planting Celebrating cultural event/Tjingerene (Bandero) Collecting reeds Growing n Harvesting crops Building temporary field shelter Consuming harvested crop Grazing to other places Making new kraals for cattle Transporting and selling harvested products Cattle post 2. Selemo (summer): November, December, January 4. Mariga (winter): May, June, July Growing crops (maize, pumpkin, watermelon, sweet reed, sorghum) Collecting thatching grass Weeding Hunting Cutting trees/bush for fence (protecting crop from cattle) Wedding ceremony Gathering wild fruits (e.i. Mokulwane) Making traditional rope from animal skin (free time) Building/renovating house Making traditional cooking oil from sourmilk (Baherero) Making basket (free time, about 2 hours a day, 5 active days) Celebrating cultural event/Tjiserando (Baherero) Making traditional chairs (free time, in the morning) Cattle post Celebrating religious event (Christmas) Cattle post

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38 Annex 2. Description of key events in the N okaneng historical timeline (1930 2012) Years Key events 1930 1 Civil war in Namibia. Mabandero and Baherero migrated to Nokaneng. by 1932 2 People scattered on their cattle post, grew maize, watermelon, pumpkin, sugarcan, sorghum traditionally, collected water lilies ( tswii ), reed, and fished in nearby small river. Nokaneng means small river 1932 1935 3 Grasshopper (tsie) attacked and ate all the crops, trees and bush. 1936 1948 4 Prolonged conflicts between Bayei and Batawana over land. by 1937 5 The first Nokaneng inhabitants came from Qexini led by Chief Mogalakwe Montsho. Qexini itself that time was under the highest paramount chief, Chief Moremi III. The early village composition consisted of people from diverse tribes (Basarwa, Bayei, Bakgalagedi, Baherero, and Baxbereku) 1937 6 Nokaneng started to develop. Mr. Wright, Mr. Vulture, and Mr. Kayse were the first traders who came to the village 1937 7 An agriculture demonstrator, Gilbert Molaba, came to the village and grew oranges and sugar can. The area later on was called Molaba. 1937 8 Ngamiland Trading Company started to buy cattle in Nokaneng. 1938 9 More Basarwa people came from Qangwa (142 km from Nokaneng). 1940 10 Martin's Company (white man) made a canal and removed papyrus (koma) to flow water from Karongana to Tsao. 1940 1947 11 World War II. England collected people from Nokaneng to be sentt to the war. 1943 12 Gilbert Molaba's death. 1943 13 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak. Many cattle were infected. 1944 14 The first clinic, then called dispensary, in Nokaneng established. 1945 15 Some men returned from the WWII. 1945 16 Witlwaterand Labour Association (WNLA) collected and sent the people to work at mines in South Africa. 1947 17 Tsetse flies attacked cattle and human. The flies were nesting in trees. They sucked blood from cattle and human causing sleeping sickness.

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39 1948 18 Bayei won their issue over land against Batawana. 1957 19 Tsetse flies attacked cattle and human. Mr. Brown's company hired by the government sprayed the area and killed the flies. 1962 20 The river was dried out. 1962 21 Villagers started to dig wells, but still not enough to fulfil the need. 1962 22 Elephants attacked more often, more crops were destroyed. 1962 1963 23 Tsetse flies attacked cattle and human. 1966 24 Independence. The official government started to develop the village. 1966 25 The government changed 'di s pensary' to 'clinic' 1967 1968 26 Civil war in Namibia. Bambukushu migrated to Etsha (Botswana) and from there distributed to Maun, Shakawe, and Maun. 1968 27 The government introduced the drought relief program by supplying food to the people. 1970 28 Hunting ban. The government protected giraffe and other wildlife for tourism development purpose and arrested people who hunt. 1974 29 Heavy rain. Water started to fill the rivers. 1974 30 Flies ( letebo) sucked cattle blood and caused deaths. 1974 31 Agriculture demonstrator came to the village and taught farmers a new method of ploughing (harrow/row planting). Farmers learnt but not implemen ting. 1977 32 Drought and no rain. Karunga and Thaoge rivers dried out. 1977 33 Elephants attacked more often, more crops were destroyed. 1980 34 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak. Many cattle were infected. Cattle owners couldn't sell their cattle. 1987 1988 35 Civil war in Namibia ended. Some Baherero went back home to Nambia, some remained. 1994 1997 36 Lung disease attacked cattle. The government killed all the cattle. 1995 37 First AIDS case was discovered in the village. 1999 38 Water filled Karunga and Thaoge rivers again (not much). 2000 1005 39 HIV/AIDS killed many people (most of them were young people with small children). 2007 40 FMD outbreak. 2011 41 Rivers filled fully with water. Hippopotamus and crocodile were spotted. 2012 42 FMD outbreak. The disease became stronger than before.

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40 Annex 3 Photo documentation 1. A t ypical road and mode of transportation in the village 2. A h air cut kiosk

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41 3. My day s started and ended with tea times in this kitchen 4. Boiling water for bath ing

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42 5. A t ypical house in the village, thatching grass roof and mud wall 6. One of the cattle post approximately 9 km from the village

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43 7. We had to cross at least 3 rivers with chest high water to reach the thatching grass field (the harvesting season is in winter time) 8. One middle age woman working from 8 am 3 pm could collect around 5 bundles of thatching grass per day. One bundle worth about 30 pula ($4 USD)

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44 9. We were camping near a cattle post and had maize porridge with sour milk for dinner My interpreter, Ditiro, is a Bayei (sit in the left front). 10. A flood plain a long Thaoge river about 13 km from the village

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45 11. Nxamosie Xawe and his sons. He is the head man of Basarwa/San people 12. A Mobandero family. They are known as pastoralists.