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11478. Geography.-Con :uction.-We are look-
ing south over the upper guard gate of the west cham-
ber of MAraflores Locks. Ships coming south from the
Atlantic, having passed Gatun Locks, Gatun Lake,
Cluebra Cut, Pedro Miguel Lock, will pass over Mira-
flores Lake to this guard gate. These immense steel
leaves-seven feet thick, sixty-five feet long and about
eighty feet high-weigh each from 400-600 tons; yet
they are so constructed that they would rise when the
water reaches the 87 foot level if the square holes we
see midway of each leaf did not let the water into the
honey-comb inner structure.
Protective Dcvices.-Transportation.-There are three
devices by which a ship is to be kent from doing dam-
S age to one of these costly locks: Of course no ship is
ever to pass the locks un:l'r her own steam. She will
be under perfect control, by the four towing locomo-
tives running on the tra ,s we see on either side. But
if a boat should get away from the engines, upon ap-
proaching this guard gate, she would run into a fender
chain which will be stretched across before it. This
chain weighs 24,098 pounds and is operated by hy-
draulic machinery in the walls which will drop it to its
groove in the lock floor only when the ship is ap-
preaching 'at the proper speed. If this chain should
fail and the boat rami the gates she could scarcely have
impetus enough left to damage the second barrier gates
we see partly open fifty, feet beyond the first. There
is, as a final precauti ,i., at the head of each lock series,
an emergency dam--a steel truss cantilever bridge-
that can swing around from its position on the walls,
drop down, and effectually block the entrance to the
locks in two minutes.
South over upper locks, Miraflores, Panama.
tud au delA des ecluses du haut, Miraflores, Panama,
Siidlich liber obere Schleuse, Miraflores, Panama.
Al Sur, sobre las compuertas superiores, Miraflores,
Sydlig utsigt 6fver ofre slussen, Miraflores, Panama.
IHa ior oTIb BepXHinxL ma.inoaoBs, Mulpatajopeci, IIaHaMa.
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