PRIVATE ITEM Digitization of this item is currently in progress.
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00015023/00001
 Material Information
Title: Haiti sun
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 46-47 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: R. Cheney, Jr.
Place of Publication: Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: Haiti -- Port-au-Prince
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began Sept. 1950.
General Note: "The Haitian English language newspaper."
 Record Information
Source Institution: Duke University Libraries
Holding Location: Duke University Libraries
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 32441147
lccn - sn 95058138
Classification: lcc - Newspaper 2117
System ID: AA00015023:00237

Full Text
.. . '. .- : : '

.,..:- .






NOVEMBER 8th, 1959 -

Port-au- Prince, HAITI No. 27 Ave Marie-Jeanne-Cite Dumarsa is Estime No. 1
------------ --- '- --- -------- r 'U

Election Of

6 Senators-
IS Polls open n in the Departments.of
..-the North, South and -West next
,;SundaylNovember 15th for the elec-
to'itsixh senators.
-hesix vacancies in the Senate
-?.came about when the Government
...-"*accused six senators of being in-
"olved in plotting the overthrow of
the Government attempting to as-
t abolishing g a communist regime and
.abandoning their functions.
:';-'": Electidns for three senators in
the West, two in --the North and
.S--onfe in the South will take place in
_-accordance. with the Military Junta
law. of. August 28.-1957 which dis-
-jpenses with the cumbersome and
-..costly practice of inscription before
-;.. voting.
One of the popular candidates for
i'.. -te Department of the West' which
j -:ncluaes Port-au-Pripce is Doctor
.'.Gbrard Michel.

-. he United States Marine Coris
...'.etachment in Haiti has chalked up
IP:--i's first casualty in ten months
i'w. .Captain Charles Williamson, Mar-
e. advisory chief in the Casernes
^^_.'Dessalines Barracks lost the tip
..'.--of his left thumb last week when
:.,.:.a marble tomb which he was help-
.'-._ing move slipped and fell on it.
The- 6mb contains the remains
.o'" Anmilie Cecilia Alexandre Pe-
-' ..ionr daughter of The FiTst President
,:of: Haiti. '
he died, prematurely in 1825 at
'Sf" the, age of twenty, and her tomb
S4,',. as.: placed in the basement of the
.R.-afional Palace after it was moved
S.from the 14ausoleum to make way
%.. Jor the remains of Emperor Jean-
STacques Dessalines.
The Haitian Army with the help
S ot.several Marines moved the tomb
out of the Palace basement as part
'-" of' palace house-cleaning. Its final
destination has not yet been decid-
-'.. Captain Williamson was given
treatment by the Haitian Army nme:
: al Corps.

.. arrant Against
.... chbishop Annulled
"-T'he arrest warrant of August 20
%., '-. h'ginst Archbishop Mgr Francois
.' lrier has been annulled accord-
W 'tig ta the Catholic daily La Pha-
.. ange, quoting and authorized. sour-
S'ce 'in Saturday's edition. The war-
reht had previously been only sus-

Congress authorized the tax on
gasoline, submitted by Finance Mi-
m. ister Andre Theard Friday.
The new tax hikes the price of
gasoline a gallon by two cents ma-
ing it $0.45.

axes And Trim. Budget

)w Haiti Can Help Sel

I~~~"~~~~~~~ Mr. Atwood pauses during hi
Mr. Atwood pauses during his tour of ICA projects here to talk with

a Haitian agronomist at a Pote Cole Cacao nursey located hear Grande
Riviere du Nord. With the Latin America ICA chief are, right to left:
Harry Yoe chief of the operations here, Earl Finnle executive officer of
the ICA's Latin American affairs in Washington and U.S. Embassy
Economic officer David Thompson.


Tremendous Progress

Rolin Atwood of Washington, D.
C., Point Four director for Latin
America, inspecte'a Haiti this week
for the first time in a year.
After touring Point Four projects
from Aux Cayes in the South to
Cap-Haitien in the North, Atwood
said in an interview: "Judging from
one year ago I would say they have
made tremendous progress."

Atwood's trip to Haiti .and his
evaluation illustrate the increasing-
ly important part Point Four eco-
nomic and technical assistance, ad-
ninistered by the International Co-
operation Administration, is playing
here. At the invitation of President
Francois Duvalier, Point Four has
stepped- up its help on easing the
Republic's present and long-range

Uncle sam's Point Four force
here today totals 66, more than
twice the number of two years ago.
The newest arrival is Miss Patricia
Hertert, rural education expert who
transferred from Saigon.
In addition to American, some
3000 Haitians are employed in Point
Four projects as technicians, office-
workers and laborers. Point Four
headquarters occupy the s e c o n d
floor of the Willys Overland build-
ing on Rue Pavee in down-'

town Port-au-Prihce. A spacious new
building is being constructed be-
hind the Union School off Harry
Truman Blvd. lor permanent Point
Fouy headquarters.
Since July 1, 1957, ICA has ear-
marked $15,350,000 for economic and
technical aid to Haiti. Most of the
(Continued on page 4)

Haiti Wants

TO Reequip

Its Army
Haiti 'will ask" for United
States Military Aid to reequip-
its entire army according to Pres-
ident Francois Duvaler.
Haitians -want to have a single
modern rifle instead of seven types
now used by their 4300 soldiers in-
cluding many weapons dating back
to Spanish American war. They,
communications.- Reequ i p n e n t
want walkietalkies and jeeps for
might cost less than one million
dollars,. -
. The United States mission grown
to forty marines and eleven Navy
and Coastquardsmen has been train-
ing Haitian Army .and Coastguard
this year:
Marine Colonel Robert D. Heinl
Junior, mission chief says "We are
interested in developing Haitian
forces that are suited to the real
requirements of the country -.pri-
marily an internal security force
that can maintain Haitian peace
and order and protect the integrity
of Haiti's frontier and coastal wat-
ters against anything short of a
serious invasion which would re-
quire action by Organization of Am-
erican States."
The Military mission has produc-
ed smart drills and weekly parades
on grounds in front of the Pal-
ace. But it is only one aspect -of
United States aid programs that
have increased spectacularly in
Haitian terms at least in two years
of Duvalier's administration.
In effort to build better living
for Haiti's poverty-strickeni 3,5000,-
000 inhabitants, the United States
International Cooperation Administ-
rtion -Point Four- has sixty-sev-
en Americans and three thousand
Haitians working across. the coun-
try or wide variety of projects.

(Continued on page 20)

At the National Prison five captive Cuban Invad rs survivors of the
31 who landed August 13 on Haiti's Southwest coast.

In Interview
President Francois Duvalier is
proposing a dozen new or increas- .
ed taxes, and cutting Haiti's bubd-:'-
get 14 per cent. His aim is to shod -Y
Haiti canr help itself. ....-
In an interview Thursday night, -,
he declared that a fight ag'6iift~
unemployment and the illiterMc- -
rate of nearly 90 per cent were l -4
"No. 1 problem." '.--
Political',conditifons, he said, have,,
improved. It is, up to Congress% toi..
repeal the continuing state of siege' -
he said, but "we don't need .thatL "
The state of siege has been in -
effect -since May 2, 1958, sqspendfA'
ing Constitutional .guarantees on'
search, arrest, freedom of spee. ..,h: .
and trial by civilian courts. .
The President asserted he..at
never sought reinstatement ot .tht
dictatorial power by which.'e-ri-.
ed by decree for six months ezia 4-
ing last Jan. 30. It was a -mistl-
derstanding, he said, when the-Si-'..
ate voted him decree powers; firI
one month Sept. 19, and hi.notWd'-%2
the Chamber of Deputies said e'h
did not need such power, and (tity "
never become effective.
The government irs present ig a;'
dozen tax proposals to ,Congies.j
These are unofficially estimated-to -1
raise $1,000,000 to $1,500,000 to bb)
ance a forthcoming budget that. I.e.'
President said will propbso $27,800j.'.,
000 in expenditures.. "-
Spending Jor the fiscal year e `,"4
ed Sept. 30, President Duvalier said,'
was $33,6000,000. The country .balr-
anced that outlay only tbrough- a6.j
$6,000,000 United States budte;.
Dr. Duvalier said it had .been
"a very bad year," with a severe
drought and bad .crop in tlog-ba.ie
coffee crop, and the Intrmmationi.-
Monetary Fund "was n6t .very sa^i
tisfied." Haiti has drawn $5,400,Q ,0
in foreign- exchange from that Unit- '.
ed Nations agency under pledge $
for government austerity. :.
Government circles, pietate th"
new taxes as temporary. Studies
are under way with aid of United t.
States Government experts and fl-
Washington firm of Klein & Sas,--
as Haitian government advisers; toa' ZiV
work out long-term reforms. '
These envision greater dependen- .
ce on income taxes, now providing
only 7 per cent of revenue, and a
turn away from nuisance taxes hit- :.
ting hardest at the poor. 1
The emergency levies proposed.'--
include increased taxes on liquor,:-:.:
cigarettes, the costlier cars, foreign .
businessmen, commercial documents..,'
and gasoline. A new tax .would' hit ."'
luxury foods, among which are con-
sidered canned goods. Tolls are "
(Continued on pae 2)



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.,. . .., . .. ,



Tourism Dressing Up For

A Record Winter Season

Bon Dieu est bon," philosophizes villages, markets, and voodoo cem-
the happy-go-lucky peasant of this eteries, is the four-year-old Kyona
French-Creole speaking oldest re- Beach Club. The owners Pierre and
public in the" Americas, even in Future D'Adesky have incorporated
times of distress which makes them with American capital and are
among the most hospitably good- pushing a giant expansion program
matured people on earth, that will include cottages, a main
Their optimism has rubbed off 'on hotel and. restaurant and land
the builders of Haiti's tourism, and sports (golf and tennis, bowling)
with, one of the slackest summer and every conceivable water sports
seasons in their ten-year-old indus- Kyona today has won a reputation
\ try history. behind them, they are with its lobster dishes. While
plunging into the refurbishing job swimming, water skiing or skin
and new projects as' never before, diving, the tourist can'observe lob
To ive Haiti its first complete stermen go aftel- a catch on a near
.4ech project there is a friendly by reef. Kyona's chef, Jacques, there
competitive, battle afoot, turns it into a delicious "homarc
Architect Robert Baussan, first b.oucane". The establishment is op
tourism Cabinet Minister (the port- en all week, an entrance fee o.
folio created in 1948 has now been one dollar is paid by non-members
dissolved to make way for a five- and luncheon or dinner may be had
Wan board of one-dollar-a-year for two dollars up. Half-a-dozer
men), builder and owner of Ibo rooms are available for this season
-Lele Hotel is realizing a ten-year- for tourists wishing to stay over
old dream: the converting of a six- by the sea.
t-acre island in, the bay deross These new beach resorts are ex-
from Port-au-Prince, the last Ara- pected to induce many mor& visit-
wak Indian refuge, into a chic hav- ors to Haiti annually.
en for tourist from the cold North. But long-staying guests who get
Mr Baussan's believes "Cacique beyond Port-au-Prince have found
Island Beach Club" will surpass that the island is by no m e a n s
anything in the Caribbean. Bunga- short on beaches. In Cap-Haitien,
lows suspended over the cliff, with the domain of King Henri Ghristo-
private swimming pool in the sea, phe which is often called the "Mec-
golf course, tennis club, yacht bas- ca of Haitian Tourism" because of
In, cockfight arena down to a mi- its historical relics. Nearby is lo-
dnature village style market. With. cated the famous "Citadelle", ;and
ia main restaurant and 102 rooms the "Palais Sans Souci" of the
the project is ear marked for com- slave who became King and esta-
pleted in 1960. For this season blished a remarkable Kingdom. On-
guests from hotels in Petionville ly the ruins remain of the beach
and Port-au-Prince will find a safe palace of the fabulous Pauline Bo-
sandy beach, cabanas and snack naparte, Napoleon's sister who flirt-
-bar, dancing and music, twenty- ed with the officers while her Gen-
five minutes drive from the Cap- 6ral husband, Leclerc, battled the
ital. The Island. formerly known as indigent troops of Christophe in a
"Ile a Cabrit", which the Architect vain effort to retain this part of
and his group are turning into a the island of San Domingue for "La
resort mecca one mile off shore France." The remains of once
is being operated under the name fabulous plantations that made this
"Haytian-American Corporation," the richest colony of France,
with Milton and M. Polakoff, of makes the imagination run wild.
475 Fifth Avenue, New York City, At Cap-Haitien, Haiti's second ci-
as B.ussan's associates, ty, three first-class hotels and a
Some twenty minutes drive fur- number of "pensions". renowned
" other up the coast, on the main high- for their excellent creole cuisine, are
-way from Port-au-Prince to North only ten minutes away from Cor-
Eaiti through plantations of bana- mier Beach where the Atlantic
nas, sugarcane and sisal, peasant Ocean provides a gentle surf and

Rm A

some of the finest sandy beaches
on the island.
Cap-Haitian is reached by Haiti's
domestic airline "COHATA", or by
road in U-Drive vehicles at $8.00
a day, plus ten cents a mile with
gasoline and oil provided. U-Drive
cars are becoming increasingly po-
pular with tourists finding their
way to pretty little coastal towns
where they find graceful living, un-
changed since the days of the. horse
and buggy.
Hotel El Rancho, in Petion-Ville,
is under lease by Westchester busi-
nessman,, Ben Shindler, and is be-
ing refurbished with' the ultimate
in service and perfection in culin-
ary arts, for the winter season. The
El Rancho has inaugurated a nite
club called "La Ronde."








I c

panty nights at which everyone is
welcome, and usually open with a
fashion show featuring Port-au-
Prince's haute couture which is now
vying with Paris. New laurels were
gained this summer by Haiti's art-
ists of needlework when French
film actress Martine Carol put aside
her special Parisian wedding gown
in favor of a Haitian number.
Hotel Oloffson is opening a new
Monday night show -a Creole, op-
era- while Bacoulou Night Club is
staging an extravaganza voodoo
production. And there is always the
voodoo service that a taxi driver
or friend can guide him to.
Gourmets can find a choice cre-
ole cuisine with dishes of "tassot"
- seasoned meat dried in the sun),
black mushrooms cooked with rice,
and "griot" (fried pork meat' cook-
ed crisp and served with "sauce
ti-malice), in the local restaurants
surrounding the Champ-de-Mars,
not far from the glistening white
"Palais National". for $1.00.
"Le Picardie," a small French
restaurant specializes in "escar-
gots" (snails) and other Parisian
delicacies, as does the "Tropica-
na", and the best in French wines
as priced in Frances Besides these
mountain restaurants, the famous
"Le Perchoir", reputed for its hun-
dred-mile view of Haiti from a five-
thousand foot perch, has as its
Chef and Manager, Andre Brous-
sard, late of New Orleans, and they
are adding a side-walk cafe for a
December opening.

Specihl attention is being given
honeymooners, especially by Port-
au-Prince's only department store,
"La Belle Creole" which makes a
gift of a bottle of champagne to
the honeymooning couples at their
hotel, while travel agents .are plan-
ning to give flowers.
With a record coffee crop coin-
ciding with this season's Carnival
and Mardi-Gras coming up the first
week in February, the three days
are expected to be even more jub-
ilant than in former years.

' Following in the wake of Mardi-
Gras comes the "Rara" which
brings out the people in gaily co-
lored costumes in street revelry.
The people dance all over the coun-
try. in city streets, down country
lanes, to the tune of the drums and
vaccines (large hollow bamboo)
which they blow through like horns.
More than sixty cruiseships are
due to drop anchor in Port-au-Prin-
ce this season and Haiti's tourist
bazaars are displaying keen com-
petition in advertising their Free
Port Prices. Besides the vast va-
riety of mahogany items and Hai-
tian handicraft, there are Swiss
watches, French perfume, China-
ware, crystal, beaded oags, gloves,
cashmere sweaters, with a saving
up to sixty percent on States' sige
One of the popular interludes is
a tour of the Cul-de-Sac Valley,


out from Port-au-Prince where a
stop-off at the Rhum Barbancourt
Distillery provides the tourist with
a treat and variety of rum punches
where he may drink as many as
he desires at a lovely stylized samp-
ling bar. "Barbancourt," Haiti's.
best-known and most popular rum
is sold for a dollar a bottle for the
three-star, and a dollar and -fifty
-cents for the five star. This nectar
is concocted from sugarcane juice,
and" not molasses.
In Haiti, the tourist can choose
the temperature in which he wishes
to reside by selecting any of the
hotels and "pensions" that may be
found in Port-au-Prince, and' plac-.
ed like stepping stones to an elev--"
ation of five thousand feet above
the Capital.
American expert, Philip M. Bott-
feld, has been retained by the Tour-
ist Board in the capacity of Con-
sultant, and will help plan a series
of festivals, to be announced at a
later date.
For the Mardi-Gras festival, visit-
ors can have a colorful peasant-
outfit made to order for a few dol-
lars to be in vogue for the numer-'
ous balls and masquerade parties
held in hotels, clubs, and private
homes into which tourists are often -
invited. ,
S'Bon Dieu est bon," the Haitian
philosophizes and everyone is show-
ing optimism, as the tourist season
approaches. I



SPAG. 9.

International Dinner

At Sans Souci

.... NOVEMBER 21st 7 p.m.

Fund Raiser For General Hospital

Maternity Ward

Tickets Available

At Hotel Sans Souci

/; I

..*- ...

**:, *

. .... .

' : '" .':^4

- .:

i .. . *
'. "











Hotel Montana, located between
the Capital and Petion-Ville has
been one of the most successful
hotels this. past season drawing
capacity crowds, to its Friday ,
night shows and dancing. The man- This "cool" Fraulein, a member of the German Auto group who visited
agement is planning the addition" Haiti last week, found the Haitian climate preferable to her native
of a Parisian-style "cave" igh unich. Angelika Zehetbauer, actress and model was snapped by Aubelln
club. Jolicoeur as she studied botany around Hotel Choucoune pool.
Seven major hotels have special

'I .., ~* 7 .I
*'"., *,,-. *_

.%, ,NOV., 8TH, 1959


____PAUE 3

.. siden t.Prescribes Year OfN

SEconomic Rehabilitation

-"This is tq le a year of National A major portion of the speech al creation of
S.Ecotiomic Rehabilitation," President dealt with the Government's econo- to faciiitato
:: Doctor 'Francois Duvalier told the mic. objectives and program for the local agric
-Nation in a radio address marking forthcoming year. The President re- markets an
A t-secoind anniversary of his inau- marked that his quarter of a cen- products;
g.guradn. tutry and more as a country doctor b) construction
The President also declared that had accustomed him to diagnosing ems and
the. time had come to expel from illnesses and prescribing cures. He sion; and
the seat of government those Hai- had applied this technique to the
..-tias who compete for the loftiest nation and was now ready to pres-
akf'rmation of all the vices: crime, cribe the treatment necessary to c) financial an
amltion, falsehood, cow- restore it to good political, economic ance to.ag
ricee" and social health. He noted that the craft and
The President promised "aus- easy way would be, of course, to ives using
Steri-y'- rational rearrangement of embark upon a program of public, ials.
e.'tax load to protect and ass- works, but international obligations, 2. Protect an
ist industries which are processing an empty treasury and a "budget using Haitian ag
Sprouts of Haitian- agriculture of poverty" ruled out that approach. 3. Systematic
proceed withotlt delay to a system- Consequently, it was necessary to or tne purp
I. -ic revision of customs tariffs in prescribe that the coming year be tonal industry
T. order to stimulate national industry dedicated to the task of attaining eign capital.
inid attract foreign -capital -. will stability and maintaining national 4. evise taxi
I undertake in connection with this solvency, by means of material re- vew to their m
j rogtani a general revision of the trenchment and reasonable contrac- button.
tax sysetm in order to-redistribute tion of etpendittures. The coming ment. of hoMaintain E
f- -the fiscal load more equitably." year, he an nounce d, was to be ment of honest
The President opened his speech known as the year of "National Eco- eminent official
by noting that the year 1958-1959 no m. i c Rehabilitation" during the prove the service
S,had been the year of the "Econo- course of which his Government ernment agencia
mic Battle' which should have been would undertake the following pro e the assistant
fought under conditions of internal gram:nternaiona or
and-external order, austerity and 1. Obtain, by an austerity to be
c: cooperation. On the contrary, how- enforced in 41l sectors of adminis- The speech co
ever, it had been fought amidst ration without exception and by peal- for support
"the criminal plots of the enemies the rational management of the in- s program whici
of order apd peace".. who... at- cidence of taxes, a surplus of pub- would succeed o
S tempted at. all times to plunge the ic funds available for investments willing to work
entire nation into ruin..." They had of great priority such as: peace, discipline
been and would continue to be con-
Squered, he promised, because he
.had the faith to accomplish his "sa- IN H
:.. cred mission of making the suffer-
ing, oppressed masses an organized
disciplined middle class educated -
to the conquest of true liberty, of 'rS
rights- and duties equal to those of
the elite, and of justice for all."
'hkelresildent devoted some little
time to this theme, of the esta- HAITI'S LARGEST
bli nent of a Government of the
middle class, which he called the SHOPS AND MA
central problerri of -Haiti. He ex-
pressed his conviction that with the 1) GALLERIES FISHER ACROSS F
". help of middle class groups and the
-. rural masses and a young Army 2) AR & CURIO SHOP FISHERS 1
he would continue to conquer those
opposed 4to the establishment of a
real middle class.. The Government' .SAVE UP TO 60
Ss-program. to attain this objective AT
was summarized as one of educat- /ND BUY HAIT
ing the illiterate, developing and STRAIGHT FRO
intensifying agricultural production,
increasing the effective participat- ON THE R
i-..on of middle class groups and the (AM. EPR. AND D
peasants in .the progress of the na-
ti; on, and establishing' the founda-
Stion of a national industry,

I 'y-- "CSS J

Super Convair luxury flight at 5:10 pm features
French cuisine and vintage wine... connects with
non-stop f ',ts t.a New York and Trinidad

Super Convair luxury flight at 12:35 pm features
French cuisine and vintage wine... connects with
p''' non-stop flights to MIAMI TAMPA NEW ORLEANS

T tket Office: Jos. Nadcl & Co. Bldg, -
.. Jos. Nodal & Co., General Agents, A*
or see your Travel Agent
Lb ,,


a network of roads
e the movement of
cultural products to
id replace imported

of irrigation syst-
prevention of ero-


id technical assist-
tricultural, h a n d i-
industrial cooperat-
Haitian raw mater-

d assist industries
ricultural products.
ally revise tariffs
s of stimulating na-
and attracting for-
Lt. Col. Edmund Dollard
es generally with a U.S. Army Military Attache he
ore equitable distri-
With all the "Semper Fiqelis"
stability of employ- ound the arrival of the new U.
and competent Gov- Army Attache here several mon
s and strive to im- back may have gone un-noted.'-
es provided by Gov- Lieut. Colonel Edmund J. Doll
es, utilizing to this who has replaced Captain Jc
ce provided by Point Fahy he re as Military Attac
Nations and other is no toy soldier. The quiet spoke
ganizations. officer is a veteran of General P
ton's Second Armoned Divis

included with an ap-
of the Government'
h the President said
only if everyone was
in a spirit of order,
%and sacrifice.











Col. Dollard wears the silver en-
gnia of a senior Parachutist aznd
a graduate of the U.S. Army's
clear Weapons Staff Officers
Prior to coming to Haiti he was
battalion Commander, 35th Infan-
y Regiment as a weapons Instruct-
, U.S. Infantry School.
The Colonel makes his home at
artissant with his wife and four
ildren: Mike 15, Mary 13, 'Sher-
an 12 and Pat 3. His french is
*e thanks he says to the 7:30 a.m.
asses at the Haitian Americen'
His staff is Sgt Everett IMorris
10o is here with wife Betty-Lou
d daughter Terry-gayle. -


Some five thousand odd spectat-
ors watching wrestlers Marcos
Brando and El Chileno flail iway
at each other in a "lutte. libre" at
Sylvio Cator stadium Saturday
night suddenly joined in th&
act and fought their way to out of a
panic that seized fans when two

which he joined in 1940. He saw home-made bombs exploded over
service in the European theatre of the grandstand.
War with several famous airborne One bomb exploded in the air
divisions and after participating in showing the crowd in the official
the Berlin Airlift 1948-49 went to tribune with fragments but caused
Korea. no injury. The other bomb exploded
harmlessly against the rear of th .,
stadium. The culprits were reported
as having escaped in the ensuing
momentary panic. Fans returned to :
their seats to witness the conclt ,
sion of the matches between wrest-
S^lers from Cuba, Dominican Repub-
Slie, Spain and Peru. A soldier was
|reported to have had his leg brok-
r PRICE en during the panic.
Earlier that day a man answer-
ing to the name of Durand Pierre
ACTORY was badly injured in the legs and-
right hand wh'n a- bomb went off '.
EMBASSY in the populous I'ortail St. Joseph .
district. -



' Washington, D. C. (PAU The
Pan American Union's Visual Arts
Section has just published. "ART
HAITI". This 59-page booklet is di-
vided 'in two parts: The first part
contains an introduction by the
well known H.a it i a n writer and
poet Philippe Thoby-Marcelin, who
explains the historical back-ground
of the different art schools adopted
by Haitians painters and sculptors
frorh the Republic's independence
to the present day. The second part
presents the art of Haiti in 28 black
and white illustrations. of oil paint-
ings as well as iron sculpture by
well known contemporary artists of
this island republic.

DAY: HAITI" is priced at 75 cents
per copy. It is available from the
Sales and Promotion Division, Pan
American Union, Washington 6, D.,


Friday the government introduc-
ed into the Chamber of Deputies ,
a proposed'law prepared by Fin- -
ance Minister Andre Theard hiking -!
taxes on rum, whiskey, beer and
other alcoholic beverages and ci-
garettes. I
The measure' explains that the -
new ta::e.- are necessary "to pro-
tect, safeguard and ease the na-
tional economy."




total -$11,870,000- has been allo-
cated in the last year and a half, P o n t F our
including a six-million dollar emer-
gency grant to balance the budget. Tren fendou
Point Four's largest field project
here, a joint effort by ICA and the (Continned fr
Haitian Gvt. to boost farm produc- want to export their produce but
tion, health, education and bus- heretofore have had no place to
iness growth in the once fertile "De- store or prepare it.
apartment of the North", is in full Pote Cole is improving abysmal
swing. The project called Pote Cole -road from San Rafael vegetable
(Creole for pull together) encom- growing center to the Cap-Haitien
passes three hundred square miles Port.
and 537,000 citizens. So far $3,720,- A school for nurses aides has
000 has been programmed for Pote 'been set up at Cap-Haitien. In a
Cole. The project was started in new school at Milot fifty youths
May 1958 at Point Four's suggestion are studying sanitation and will go
in order to concentrate work in out to villages and teach peasants
one area where noteworthy results how to build among other things
were deemed obtainable. The Ame- pit privies. Pote Cole will furnish
ricans and Haitians plan projects the cement for the privies.
jointly, and Americans keep an eye Pote Cole has drawn plans for
on spending through Point Four's water systems in 12 towns which
controller. The Government has two will be built in the coming year.
hundred agri cultural extension After that six more towns will get
agents working in Pote Cole. Near water systems.
Mlot in the shadow of the Citadelle At Gde-Riv. du Nord the project
and adjacent to a thousand acre is reconditioning and equipping an
irrigation project built by earlier abandoned hospital. Another dilapi-
ICA program. Pote Cole is building dated building in the town is being
demonstration school and seed pro- modernized' and expanded to serve
duction farm and community cent- as Haiti's second teachers college.
er for home economics club girls The present lone Normal school in
4 H boys._ The farm which occupies Port-au-Prince produces only forty
110 acres will p r o d u c e planting teachers yearly.
seeds and breeding livestock which-* Farm to market roads channeling
will be sold to area farmers at into the main Cap-Haitien Port-
cost. (Calves will be supplied by au-Prince route are being improved.
United States" Heifer Project in The Pote Cole people believe the
which American farmers send liv- project is stimulating private en-
estock free to worth y programs terprise. The West Indies Fruit and
abroad.) Steamship Company is planting 1500"
The project ha.s installed three Iacres of bananas and plans to ship

cacao nurseries and this year hopes
to distribute to farmers 200,000 ca-
cao seedlings. Cacao is a good mo-
ney crop.
In Cap-Haitien Pote Cole is build-
ing refrigeration and packing faci-
lities for area vegetable raisers who

them from Cap-Haitien. An order
of Catholic priests expelled from
Communist C h i n a w ill complete
their sugar mill with the help of
three million dollars from the De-
velopment loan fund. Nearby a new
cordage mill was opened last month


Chief Finds

zs Progress
om page 1)
to export baling twine made from
sisal produced by American owned
and operated Dauphin plantation
the world's largest sisal planation.
Other Point Four programs in-
clude an 8000 acre irrigation pro-
ject near Aux Cayes. ICA is also
cooperating in development of the
Artibonite Valley Irrigation project
which is channeling water from the
Peligre dam to 80,000 acres. Point
Four has programmed so far $500,-
000 for paralled projects in the
One of the Key point four men
in Haiti today is Nolle Smith. Point
Four boss Harry Warner Yoe terms
70 year old Nolle Smith as "one
of the outstanding American Ne-
groes." Mr Smith directed a tax
foundation in Hawaii for years, has
served as advisor to Virgin Island
administration and government of
Ecuador. From 8 a.m. to 1 p.m.
daily Mr Smith works in an office
in the Finance Ministry a few steps
along the hall from Finance Min-
ister Andre Theard. In the after-
noon he shuttles to Point Four head-
quarters to coordinate with Mr. Yoe_
and others.
Another key man is Roy Carlson
age forty-five one time Washington
State Police chief who now is help-
ing to improve Haiti's traffic safety.
Although Port-au-Prince is a com-
paritively small city it suffers from
disproportionately high death and
injury rate because of lack of dis-
cipline by pedestrians motorists. Mr.
Carlson maintains an office in the
Police Traffic garage at Bowen
Field and is often seen riding
through the Capital's chughuled





N O.,



Road maps,
information -
Pick-up and delivery
alfrom hotels, airport
and pier

Featuring Hillman High Style WEEKLY RATE

For Reservationsn Rnoad M an

P. 0. BOX 662
Writ Por Cable:
and Suggested Itineraries

Pis 64paWMile ,M


Port-au-Prince, Haiti



: ]!

streets on a Harley Davidson. Carl- President Duvalipr for a lenagtj
son-is distributing leaflets in french conference. Said Mr Atwood. "bus
and creole urging motorists to park inessmen in Cap-Haitien are ve.r
snug against curb instead of the optimistic. Things are picking up.
middle of the street. He has pre- He added enthusiasm for Pote Cole
pared a booklet on traffic directions 's high.
for study by traffic cops. He is LIST OF AMERICAN ICA
plugging for radios for Police mo- PERSONNEL OCTOBER a
torcycles more traffic lights, traffic OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR
signs, preparing pin map to re- Harry W. YOE, Director
cord accident sites and arranging Gerald M. STRAUSS, Asst. Direct,
to have capital streets numbered. Elizabeth A. BUELL, Secretary
Carlson has even taught patrolmen PROGRAM OFFICE
elementary first aid. Caspar D. GREEN, Program Offi-
Last week a team from Chicago's cer
Public Administration Service con- Bernard IMMERDAUER, Asst. Pro.
tracted by ICA to make sweeping gram Economist
study of Government tax, custom Charles R. M(C CORD, Proram:
and fiscal structure handed Presid- Intern
ent Dr. Francois Duvalier their re- Modeska V4. RULIS, Secretary
port and recommendations. Al- EXECTIVE OFFICE
though ICA would not reveal de- Palmer W. WARDMAN, Executive
tails of the recommendations it is Officer
believed they called for multiplicity Lester J. GOTTLIEB, Asst. Execut-
of tax forms be simplified that a ive Officer
real career system in government Martha E. BANEY, Personnel Of.
be initiated separating policy and ficer
nonpolicy positions and protecting Mary E.B. LORD, Record Super-
the latter. Creating a Bureau of the- visor
Budget which is called for by the Roland BISSON, Aspt. Gen. Serve.
Constitution but never has been Officer
ICA also contracted Metcalf and Lester C. FRANK, Controller
Eddy of Boston to Survey Port-au- Michael J. CARROLL, Deputy Con-.
Prince Water system -with an eye troller
to improving it. James I. BOWLING, Auditor
Mr Atwood arrived Saturday from Georges P. NEWTON, End-Use Of-
Trinidad and flew to Aux Cayes ficer
with Cohata to inspect the irriga- PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
tion project accompanied by 47 year Nolle R. SMITH, Public Adm. Adv.
old ICA boss Harry Yoe. He also J. Carl FULLER, Public Adm. Adv.
visited Jeremie where ICA is build- (Fin)
ing over a hundred miles of road. David J. KEOGH, Public Adm. Adv.
Nfonday he donned a ten gallon (Econ. Dev.)
Haitian farmer's straw hat and tour- Cecil MORGAN, Public Adm. Adv,
ed Pote. Cole and enroute back to tTax)
the Capital saw the Artibonite Val- Roy F. CARLSON, Traffic Advisor
ley project. Igor B. ALLAN,. Communications -i
Before leaving for Jamaica Thurs- Media Officer
day Mr Atwood was received by (Continued on page 16):



NDAY, NOV., 8TH, 1959

few Voodoo Book

zi. r- E... Alfred Metraux, the 'eminent
.anthrfologist,'author of the wide-
r<'.Sacclpiimed EASTER ISLAND has
.l '-.wO len a complete- study of the
Lt :ratioes And traditions of Voodoo
.as they exist within the- social
f;raewi;rk ot present-day Haiti.
_,.J)t etraux' book has been trans-
-'.lated from the French. to English
-an. is now available for $5.
io.. A member of the Americai-bu-
;... -reau of Ethnology "at the Smithson-
:.':ian Institution Dr Metraux who is
,{ presently. with the Department of
-. _; IScience of UNESCO ;has de-
*'S.-c.- dlicated his book to the "memory
r.s.-o Lorgina Delorge mambo, of La
Saline whose sacred name was
.-> $,Dje.'devant and to Madame Odette
.. eson-Rigaud certilled mombo
-.without--whose help the book could
7 -never have been written.
'r n. hi fprewprd Dr. Metraux had
0,. e to say: -
!Z ''. : ':Certain exoticc words are charged
i with?- evocative power. Voodoo is
-one. It -usually conjures up visions
:.6 mysterious deaths, secret rites
--' .pr,'iark saturnalia celebrated. by
i'bloof-maqdehed, sex-madde n e d,
K,.- "zg-- -inaddened' negroes.. The pict-
;'ure'. Voodoo. whichh this book will
*ve" i-y seem pale beside such
im.g-- ii ,
-:.- In fact what's Voodoo? Noth-
: ing more than. a conglomreration of
elie d rites of African- origin,
:-which,l..ing .been closely mixed
-"with Catholic practice, has come
S ..--'j. th. religion -of the greater
'- part of the peasants .and .the 'urban
.proletariat of .the black republic of
ai: "-i devotees ask of it what
S. en.liave always'asked of religion:'
4i, -*- ."-2 .repx'dpfor ills, satisfaction for
Sf ie.hope of survival.
close, Vpodoo has not
':- '0e orlid and .hallucinatory
r...' i er'w.ii.h books have given
-, talentedd but, rather fanciful
..-' Aineri'can. writer, W. 'H. Seabrook,
"- -4.>."- a&ven the -most complete acco-
S t-. li4.- the black legend of Voodoo.
S, bI."- at.lgend belongs to the past.
i ':; bio:- hgs .1o the colonial period
"'whenj it whs.the.fruit of hatred and
fear. Man is never' cruel and un-
S'just with impunity: the anxiety
S- which ..ros- in the minds of those
who abuse.-power often takes the
..- rm' of imaginary terrors and de-
. -.'mented -obsessions. The master mal-
.^treated his slave, but feared his
"hatred. He treated him.like a beast
A?' of burden' but dreaded the occult
f, l Jpoweos which he imputed to him.
And the greater the subjugation of
"f-the Black, the more he inspired
-.f ear;. that ubiquitous fear which
Shows in the records of the period
-..and which solidified in that obsess-
'on With poison which, throughout
.tihe eighteenth century, was the
Cause of .so many atrocities. Per-
S'aps certain slaves did revenge
themselves on their tyrans in this
$q7 .: '--ay.'- such a thing is possible and
.' ev&r probable but the fear which
.M igOied in the plantations had its
0. in deeper recesses of the
S & oit was the witchcraft of rem-
.'I'mysterious Africa which
S-the sleep of the people in

and branding were not
,.rederved f6r poisonerss' but
-for anyone'. -suspecled of bel-
:to the dreaded sect calleli
s-'''Eyen s6, the few allusions to Voo--
fI t Which may be found in docu-
and books little known to the
'public, could not have rais-
d this rural paganism into tfe le-
gtdryterror it becAme, had not
consul, Spencer St John,
7; Wten a book, HAITI OR THE
-"REPUBLIC (published in

1884) in which he described the
most blood-curdling crimes comm-
itted by the Voodoo sect. This'work
was widely read and for long has
been regarded as the main author-
ity. The degreelof its influence may
be judged from the fact that it in-
spired Gustate Aymard to write his
adventure story .LES VAUDOUX-a
book in. which the sect is described
as a lot .of fanatics thirsting for
blood and power. -'
Spencer St John's revelations of
alleged cannibalism in Haiti provok-
ed, according to his own admission,
very strong feeling in Europe andt
the United States. Although faced
with an. outcry in Haiti he never.
theless thought good to. repeat his
allegations in the second edition
(1886),-and even .to add new det-
ails. As a result several" writers
denounced Voodoo as a cannibal re-
[igion and from ,their writings, Haiti
came to .b regarded as a savage
country where, every year, chpdren
were sacrificed and. devoured _by
the monstrous worshippers of the
Serpent. '"
The occupation of Haiti by -Ame-
rican Marines resulted, amongst"
other things,- in a renewal of inter-
est in this African religion which
the White world saw in such a dark
light. The rhythm of drums which
echoed peacefully in the hills to
stimulate the effort of workers be-
came, for the occupying forces, the
voice of Africa, barba4c and inhu-
man, asserting itself over a country
which had been" seized from the
Whites and from their civilization.
I intend in this book to- discuss
Voodoo from the point of view of
an anthropologist that is to say
with method and prudence. If I
have been chary of the enthusiasrin
of those who, at'first whiff of an
exotic religion, are seized with a
sort of sacred vertigo and end by
sharing the gullibility of its dev'-
otees. r- have also taken pains to
avoid the attitude of those small-
time, niggardly Voltairians who nev-
er stop talking about pious fraud
*ith a good wink, of course.
My first, encounter with Voodoo
was in 1941. I had scarcely dis-
embarked in Port-au-Prince before
I heard of the campaign being wag-
ed by fhe Catholic' Church 'against
superstition'. Having once read sev-
eral papers on the suppression of
idolatry in the Spanish colonies I
took some interest in the methods
used by the Haitian clergy in the
twentieth century, and soon had to
admit, with a certain amount of
surprise, that-the Dominicans. and
Augustans who hunted down dem-
*ons' with such zeal in -Peru, would.
not have been ashamed of their
French successors. It was at Croix-
des-Bouquets, near Port-au-Prince,
that I was given a glimpse of the
vigour with which African cults had
spread in Haiti: an enormous pyr-
amid of drums and 'superstitious
objects' towered high in the court
of the presbytery, waiting for the
date on which there was to be a
solemn auto-de-fe. Pleaded for cer-
tain pieces, which for scientific or
aesthetic reasons, deserved to be
spared; but in vain: the cure ex-
plained to me that the honour of
Haiti was at stake and alL must
bb destroyed.
The scale of this offensive against
Voodoo, and the 'brutality of the
measures taken against its devo-
tees, suggested that its days were
numbered;, and so' I conceived the.
desire to study it before it was too
late. The Haitian writer Jacques
Roumain, who went with hte to La
-Tortue, was equally convinced of
the need to put on record the story
of Voodoo which seemed so gravely
threatened. To this end. and out




of our discussions, was born the
idea of a "Bureau of Ethnology"
for Haiti. -
When I returned to Haiti in 1944
the Bureau of Ethnology, founded
meanwhile by Jacques Roumain,
had managed to save important
collections from the flames and had
undertaken various researches into
little-known aspects of Voodoo.
Thanks to M. Lorimer Denis and
other members of the Bureau (Jac-
ques Roumain had now been dead
tor several months) I was able to
get in touch with several Voodoo
priests who had become friends and
collaborators. It was during this
period that L had the rare luck of
meeting Mme Odette Niennesson-
Rigaud.'Few Whites have ever sub-
ceeded in getting to know Voodoo
-as intimately as this French woman
who became Haitian .by marriage.
There. is not a single sanctuary
where she is not received qas -a fri-
end more aA an .initiate. Once
in the course of a Voodoo ceremony
I heard her "valiant" name ,men-
tioned among those of other priest-
esses of Port-au-Prince..The dedi-
catidn of this book to her is but a
small token df my. gratitude.
Mme Odette Mpnnesson-Rigaud in-
trodu'ed me to Lorgina Delprge
whose sanctuary lay in Jde popptl-
ar quarter Of La Saline, not far
from the place called'Tete de Boeuf.
NlLman Lorgina was 'a yell-known
priestess who, in spite of money
troubles', "respected" her Ina (spir-
its) and conducted- her rites ac-
cording to the tradition learnt fromn
her masters.
Although she was often carried
away_and looked terrible when i
trance, she was an excellent worn-
'an, benevolent and hospitable. I
frequented _her sanctuary in pre-
ference to any other and was thus
able to take part intimately in the
domestic life of a Voodoo temple,
Lorgina's welcome won me the
sympathy and -.confidence of the
whole fraternity. Although remain-
ing very discreet about certain cer-
emonJes and the initiation rites,
Lorgina and the people in her
house went to great- pains to satisfy
my indiscreet curiosity and always
took care to let-me know if a cer-
emony was 'due, to take place in
her sanctuary. My information
therefQre derives" to a great extent
from what I learnt from Lorgina
during my numerous visits to H-aiti.'
Lorgina died in 1953, I shall not
forget that she gave me the title
pititt- caye -child of .the house-
and that I called her maman.
My relations with the Voodoo so-
'cieties were not, however, limited.
to the Lorgina sanctuary. I knew
several hungan -in particular Ab-
raham who was one of the main
sources of information for Jacques
Roumain, when he wrote his cele-
brated monograph THE SACRIFICE
also present at many Port-au-Prin-
ce, ceremonies, at Croix-des-Bou-
quets; and in 1947 'I was able 'to
spend Christmas in a family panc-
tuary in the neighbourhood of Leo-
.Some of the stories-in the chapt-
er on magic I got from M. Thoby-
Marcelin; but it would "be impbss-
ible to list here the names of all
who generously provided me with
accounts of magic, metamorphosis
and encounters with evil spirits. I
regret the dimensions of this work
have limited me to the use of only
a few.
l As head of a sociological survey
of the Marbial valley I stayed in
Haiti from 1948 to 1950. Unfortun-
ately the region where I had to
work was the least fruitful for re-
(Continued on page 6)

PAQ3D 65

tijoveph report


"Je renonce definitivement a nia popularity DONO plus deo-WoBE libre" .
an enterprising Taptap driver on, the St. Marc route has painted pv.
the rear of his camionette to discourage free loaders. Another St.-Mar .
cois with vivid imagination has inscribed across the front- of his .t.'
"Ma douce Simone enfin de retour". With unconcealed admiration i'oC
the French Police Lieutenant Jean Galeau is back from ten -month studw.
of criminology in France... Major Lionel Honorat has been appoint
assistant to 'the Army Inspector General... David Ades-has taken his law;4".i
and textile experience into the competitive New .York business g;world.
Tida is presently in Port on a fortnight visit... Leon Chalom after, i al
absence of six years running the family enterprise in New'York retim d,
home briefly last month. He expects to drop in agLin-for a longer vtit:-:!
next December... The Ameriea Women 'Assn. is collection; 'funds Vhr:;,I
a November 21 .benifit dinner at the Sans Souci. The funds iraised& wil-.
go-to the'General Hosital. t help especially the gver-eroWyed 'at
ward... Export director Barthier of Peugeot was welcomed here-.,
by local agent Henri Loustean and Sales chief Guy Hyppolite. -S-is
the French-made auto have clirribed during the past. year...-A;p6
visitor to ,Port-au-Prince and hotel Montana is handsome Klausi .
Aposberg or the Gerhman Embassy in, C.T. Klaus at'home in,'.Friic.
an ami of pretty Michele Fouchard... Tescq Malanager Cal ifi.r andwI
the family leave 'for a month in the States .prior to taking up a: new.4
assignment of Africa's Ivory Coast December 3..' U.S. Ambassado r.
rald Drew and Mrs Drey return from their two month New Jersey%.gaCa, ',
don next-week... Gaining success as a-singer at the Vipnnese Lantern-In k
New York. according to 'the daily Telegraph and Sun whichdi.rc
published her photo is Maryje pejoie eldest daughter of the former Pre-.
sidential Candidate... The reopening of' the Cabane Choucoune wil Bhe
10 1.
hailed with a grand ball the first Saturday night in Decembe r... The
Riviera Hotel. under the T &-T (Fritz Thebaud and David TAlamap man-!'
agement is getting alf spruced up for the winter season. In early' Decemnb- :
er the Riviera will attempt to regain its old.popularity %with nightly shows. ,
and dancing... Nobbe-Bondel expect to .hale the new airconditioriedL's
Rond Point restaurant finished for the wi..er season. A second star'
"fill be added next year... Robert S. Czuftin from-the promotion, (Ad) sidde6,
of the New York Times was in town this week-oi.his annual'trij in connect
with the Business Review' of the Americas. Lpcal representative -is A)d..:,..
Anderson... The ex-Brigadier General louis oumrain Junta forein_.Mii -;m.m
.. ,.. '
ister who was- fondly known to newsmen as the weathercock left Hati'!
with his wife and eight children last weekend to reside in Chicago...
Paramount is suspending the Wednesday english language movie. The
language of Haiti is still French and creole... The report that the missing.
Cuban Camilo Cienfuegos had turned up, in Port clean shaven was'proven', ?
false... Pierre and Future D'Adeskey are back from New. York .-
where they ironed out their Kyona Beach expansion plans.. At-.
tending the* Sandstone college on the Rue du Centre are Poet 4ea-.'
Brierre, Diplomatic reporter Gustave Borno and Veterinarian OCraani
Lunik Bar is the newest salon in -town it is perched closer. ',-
to heaven than Jo Beauboeul's. Both bars are located off the Rueit,.
Capois... Miss Nancy Hudson who recently joined the U.S.-consular see,. C
ion of the embassy is here with her mother... Major Pierre Holly onetime.'-i.
executive officer "to Gen. Maurice Flambert and head of the transport
division of the Army has been returned to civilian life... Jean Richardot
the new resident United Nabions chief was in Haiti some eighteen years, .i
ago for twelve months as assistant to thePresident of Standard Fruit... -,
New York Times top flight reporters. Peter Kihss visited Port this week,- '
and interviewed President Duvalier. Mr. Kihss the same week had an
audience with Generalisimo R. L. Trujillo next'door... The Sun Life has
changed hands... Ti Barbe Jerome Breltman Herbert J. Morrison return-
.ed from a month abroad this week... Claude Gentil'is in the States on
Vauxhall business while wife Marie-Therese visits her family- in Jeremie
...El Rancho's nightclub "La Ronde'. was enforme last Saturday nig.t. -
Plenty of gaiety, and meringing was parfait with a good orchestra... Scar-
city of certain tin foods is reported with merchants holding up their -;
orders till they see the wieght of the new taxes... Colonel Joseph. J. Famr- .
ley of Washington is a house-guest of old compaition in arms Col. Robert'-.
Heinl. Col. Farley will visit at their Gros Morne manor for three weeks...
The man the dog munched this past week was popular businessman' *
Ekkie Lemkie. Dog Shango buried his fangs into Ekkie and died. Babt
shots were specially flown in by PAA as a precautionary' measure. The
U.S. Aircraft Carrier Boxer is here on a long liberte. A Marine
fell into a rock that caused profuse bleeding on the .Harry S. Truman
Blvd after a visit to Christmas tree lane Friday afternoon... The Ji8
Stockholm put into Port Saturday with three hundred Toi:sts... The
show room of Haiti's first Television opened at 384 the Grand Rue. this
week opposite the Fire station. Morris Rosemberg is president and Andre
S. Apaid treasurer. T.V. is expected to be here bientot... .

.*." "'- ." -.

MAAw a

"-AumI SUN"

M UM..r ,, l I

SUNDAY, NOV., 8THL, 1959

New Voodoo
(Continued from page 5)


search into, Voodoo. The anti-supers-
tilon campaign had there enjoyed
.,an almost complete success. Those
i. who in their heart of hearts remain-
s- e4 faithful to the ancestral spirits
'. did not dare mention it aloud, still
t.v l s celebrate public ceremonies.
However, the talks I had with vood-
Soolts sub rosa taught me a lot ab-
ontWthe attitude of peasants towards
V: oodoo and about the colourful his-
tory of that religion. A recent trip
gpve me the opportunity of check-
ing my information and of work-
An .g in. the archives of the Library
1f Les Freres de I'Institution St.
Louis de Gonzague where there are
-.. real'documentary treasures. Let me
Shate extend to Frere Lueien my
a. warmest thanks for his help..
S Nor should I forget the young
; aijians Remy Bastien, Lamartinie-
I- .' Hknorat, Michelson Hyppolite. R.
Ebtrtel, Jeanne G. Sylvain- who



went with me to Marbial and took
part in research. Some of their obs-
ervations, and some stories which
they picked up at my request, have
been included in the text. I do' not
forget their efforts or goodwill.
The presentation of the material.
collected in the course of different
periods of residence in Haiti, has
not been easy. It was impossible to
describe, short of making this work
quite unreadable, even a small
fraction of the ceremonies I attend-
ed. The need to prune so many det-
ails will result. I fear. in the sur-
prised indignation of many Haitian
specialists who will search in vain,
through these pages for points of
ritual which they perhaps consider
vital. Again, ceilain descriptions
will seem to differ from what they
themselves have witnessed. May I
iemind them that Voodoo is a reli-
rcio-i which is practised by autono-

mous cult groups of which each oft-
en has its own peculiar custom and
tradition. Whatever anyone may
say to the contrary, there is n: Vo:)
doo liturgy and doctrine to wvhici
priests and priestesses are obliged
to conform. Such an idea is a wide-
spread illusion which we must avoid.
Just as the Creole language in
the North of the republic'differs in
many particulars from the language
used in the south and centre, so
Voodoo pi-acpised at the Cap-Haitien
and at Port-'te-Paix is not exactly
the. same as that which I studied
at Port-au-Prince and at Jacmel.
It is therefore Voodoo of the Capital
and the surrounding area which
forms the material of" this book.
There is no literature on Haitiin
Voodoo to compare, in scope and
quality, with that which deals with
the African cults of Brazil and Cu-
ha. Nevce- ,''e,- books and articles

on Voodoo keep coming out and it To Dr. Jean Price-Mars, today
seemed to me worth taking stock. Haitian Ambassador in France, be--
This work is merely an attempted longs the credit for making Voodoo.
synthesis in which I have tried to respectable and even endearing to-
include at least some part of all Haitian public opinion; he has ex-
the documents to which I have had orcized the bogy with which the
access. Naturally, I gave prefer- cult had become identified. AINSI
ence to my-own observations and I PARLA L'ONCLE will therefore re-
never had recourse to the work of main a great Haitian classic, less
my predecessors except when it perhaps for its rather too timid:
contained information which for one pages'on Voodoo than for the influ-
reason or another I was not able ence it had on a whole generation.
to collect for myself. It would be unjust not to mention
The great path-finder in Voodoo the name of Dr. Dorsainvil who, a-
research is Moreau de Saint Mery few years earlier, tried to interpret
who, in a celebrated passage, writ- Voodoo scientifically and explain
ten at the end of the eighteenth cen- away mystical possession as neur- *
tury, gave a summary but valuab- osis.
le description. Among the authors The work of Jean Price-Mar.
of former times who have written 'provoked a series of articles in loa-
seriously of the religion let us men- al newspapers and reviews. The
tion d'Aubin whose work on Haiti, Bulletin of the Bureau of Ethnology
published at the beginning of the offered a platform for the intellect-"
century, is too often forgotten. uals of Haiti -men like Francois
Duvalier (now President of Haiti),
Lorimer Denis, Emmanuel Paul,
Lamartiniere Honorat a rrd Michel
Aubourg who devoted themselveA to,
the study of Voodoo and certain
aspects of folklore.
Major Louis Maximilien's work
consulted with profit_ even if one
is not always in agreement with
the speculations of the author. Al-
though Milo Rigaud's book LA TRA-
DOO HAITIEN is dominated by-
occulist preoccupations and thus re-
mains outside the anthropologist's
scope, it nevertheless contains ex-
cellent descriptions of ceremonies-
and copious, very exact information .
not to be found elsewhere. .
Certainly Voodoo is still waiting
for its Homer, or more modestly
a good folklorist who will take, the
trouble to record the rich oral ira-.
dition of its pantheon. But an effort
has been made in this direction,
S.-. by M. Milo IMaredlin who has de-
voted two books to some of the
outstanding Voodoo gods.
Amopg the foreign anthropologita- .
who have concerned themselves
with Voodoo, Melville T. Herskov-
its appears in his rightful place as :
a pioneer. His book LIFE IN AN
HAITIAN VALLEY, written in.1936,
in still the best source of inforima-
hon on Voodoo, and if sulbsedlUent
works -notably- those of Mine Od-
ette Mennesson-Rigaud- have cornm-
pleted it on %several points, they
have nevertheless revealed no. mis-
taken observation or false fhterpre-.;.-i
The American lnusicologist,,j Ha-
rold Courlander, starting from study "'"
of Voodoo songs and rhythms, went
o06 to draw up a list of gods and
dances. The sociologist E. Simp-
son, also American, undertook the-

the author of many articles on Voo- '.,
doo rites as they were celebrated .
in the north. In this very brief cat-
alogue of our principal sources.',i -
very particular place must be.r.-
served for a book written by th-
American film camerawoman, Ma
ya Deren, who in DIVINE -HORSE-
MEN proved herself to be an ex-
cellent observer, though her book
is burdened with pseuido-scientifidc
considerations which reduce its Va)/'
ue. .

VoYdoo today ,is less friihtenig f
than it was. The Haitians look -"tI '
on it more and more as 'fbUdOdr'
-which sqems to dispel the haWr
those practices do to the reputati I.,
of their country. Has not e .'0:0.
country its 'folklore'? It i thie.
fore normal and desirable thatli- :
ti should also have Its own.
in other countries who say to
(Continued on- pa

,,. "NOV., ~8TH, 1959!


k ..lRoyal Netherlands Steamsh- ira, .Curacao, Aruba,. Cartage-
i.C-miatny,- popularly known here na, Puerto L i m o,n, Kingston
se .'.'Dutch. Line". has undergone and Cuba,'
.'t'-reotganization of its sailings 6) a 4-weekly service from Cana-
duringthe.past. several months,. Ge- dian ports (Montreal Que-
al;.Agehnts. fo the Compa.ry in .bee St. John Halifx)'.
c .aftlPrinee; ,Madsien Export-Im- In-addition to these numerous 'ser-
.4'S.A. ,anng~uneed this past week. vices, "La Ligne. Hollandaise" off-
4i'St-aimship Lihe is the b dest ers regu la r ly vesels in Port-au-
e4 g Haiti (1887) and has. been Prince and In all Haitian outports
? zeseteid by -Madsen and Com, for the export of Haitian products,
ehdy-sevepyears suchi aS ,coffee, cocoa, sisal, cgstwr-
M .(iirbi are no changes 'in jthe old beans tb Nfrth EiuropeaQ porti,.- to.
i0 '6il idstence for the past half New "'York,' Philadelphia ahd Ba-9
fittyU' and the company lists the tiinoire. td New Orleans, Houlton
pEal change as k new four- and Mobile in .the Gulf 'of- Mexidco
Wet service from Halifax: and to Canadian 'orts.
-servidee of the "Ligne Hol- "La Ligne Holiaidaise"- opened.
se" are: its first service to Haiti in 1887,; and
A' weekly direct service from since theri; almost without interru -
4-fNew York, -- tion, has linked Haiti with the great
:2) a, bi-weekly service from Phil- export and import centers of thp
adelpTir,.:;Baltindre ,arid Char- world.. "
eston' (South, Carolinia); Thei firm- .of Madsen have repre-
Sa.'-i)i.-weelly service- from' New sentdd- the "Ligne Hollandaise" for
Yqk-'and .Baltinihore to Cap-' ..
S.Hai:-an direct, .. S'-
^4aR ~eelly. service .from the a irib
.NoritEuropeaf pprts of Annt C ib ein C ns
SRotterdam, Amsterdam,
-r-ine-_ and-Hamaburg to Port- -Builders Of TI,
'. -Pa ierc -
4)-aa 4.-.w- service by passeng- G n Mana er.
a L cale a usGen. Manager:
ex i: ves..- -ls i :".fahje- JNassau"
a. P'ins D-er Nederlanden", -
frofi. and- to Eurbope ia-iva- Pkh ne: 3955.1
iT s -ports a in-G the arlbbean, -
C .,sucb-as Trinidad and -La QGua- .
..._ ., .. ..

. m ..... . .. .

more than 27 yearsand is widely At the height of the machine qge, "through it. There is one
known and reputed by all consignees the hand loom has found a new design in 'a combination of
and shippers who have entrusted welcome even in city homes. For and narrow stripes in the sh ;
their cargo to "La Lg '~ Hollan- the unique quality of hand woven and the colors are perfectly
daise": . fabrics and their reflection of in- geous,- green with a lighter'
dividual artistry have special ap- in..the center, brown, and hitt'
In,the Haitian outports "La Ugne peal for both contemporary and sweet. -
Hollandaise" is represented by the traditional tastes. Arid when you Actdally there is alnmo'ag.&t
following firms, who enjoy consi-, add to this, weaving with that long- ceivable-combination of colaoi
derable prestige and standing: lasting natural fiber cotton, you able, it would take days to-t.lJ
Messrs. can't lose. Cotton is soft and cush- all of,.them. But one trip to
J.B. Vital:" Co. in Jacmel iony and takes to hard wear' like store of.-P~ Belle Creole uli.
. Wiener & Co. .in Aux. Cayes. & a small boy to puddles: Whatsafire, vince you 4at least it- should'" "tt
Pefit Goave- cotton is so easy. to .Jean, ahd you must have a rug- of har.idM
"Lavaud Freres ini Jeremie tak6s dyes -with outstanding. clar-, en 'Haitian-grown cotton fibeli" 4
.Tovar .k Co. in Miragoane ity and brilliance.,. -S when you of the rugs have a'fringe arian
Usine-A Manteque in Saint Marc add up all of these things, you can and they're so texture-wise Vyom:ca
M'a d sen Export-Import S.A. in be glad you're in Haiti where you almost -feel it just walking.:..&'
Gonaives can..buy beautiful hand woven (and them; ..
L. P. Aggerhol & Ce in Port- from wild Haitian. cotton 'plants Certainly these rugs will-i.. d
de-Paix too) Arniand rugs priced just 85 the decorator to'ch yo'urzhonIm*Y.A.
Kngelucc'in CaD-Haitien -cts a square foot! have. lacked, and at the prict.
Hacor in Caracol can havh them for hetie, y f'
Plantation Dauphin in Fort-Liber- When you talk about co:ors you. preciate this beauty at. a,.sa.l.
te. have no idea what that can mean They're just 85 cents a s
until you've seen ,the rug collection, re6iember ;.
at La Belle Cre6ole.There are col- Stioll-about your house : N
o A rs there, and lo-icombinations and.check ove the igsial
t ucfiCH n Co. SAW" that could set decorators wild.... see.if yop couldn't use sonayilt
reaction Co. SA. -o o
these rugs just plead for a stietch- ness arid newness -0On .one
SMilitary City ing-out spot in a cQntemjporary floors. Measure the size .,youi.i
home. They'll make 'your ntire like, 'then stop-tomtrrow : -
Gerard THEA" D- room, they'll add color to an' other-a. A BEtL E t CRi
ierar ..i -w- wise gloomy spot, .or the'll- .color and Iia e "he t'im'e:ot'"!
accent some shade you've already life choosing a handsome; and.i
P. O. BO 2 4 ~ started throughout the house. They' ing new floor. 0overik :It:&-A.
P 0. BO 284 '* re as versatile as they ae long thing to give. ou ejoyhe .,
wearing, and their nubby, ,roug- v-ah day every stel~of the".wgA)
texture makes Tem 'as "of the- A
moment" as tomorrow's newspaper. 1.ME MAQ. OPENS_,_..
S. or- e "hot" colors and .the .N ,W:;:ARIB BUREA )
room with white wallSsay, there e-LOe has opened a hew'n
,. are striking rugs 4h- pink (a shock- b.en buai based in a
npink., really),#ange-nd purple has 'edosed. is bureau -in- Vien
Ss d Side by side' to ive a most -Dwight -tin' has switched frA
-- sfnp." bu"eu in"Viri"ia I
H I .h W' I dramatic effect. I particular breau c nna become
cbnibinafon, i, i'iA lb in either turelu chief i. _the-9aribbearlAi.
S'a wjde, .'~ strA. or a narrwer wll e the .f e. area, for
one. Thee-is a veritable "Joseph"' L ,f e, Fo. ne Sports, Illustrate
S rug, of so, m ,nnydolored stripe s House &, Home ..d-.Archite
iIEU i ^Bl~^'they're haid to tount-. amndseveal Fort '. French; German ,Mn
rugs take all the sea tfhes /or -Ch e sp qking Martin,.3,..-is-4
AND their nspiration. To are particu- eran foreign correspondent
aAN FAMOUS arlv eye-catchinge.. onevith green- mg ed throughout hear
Si ish-blu nd bluish- enis accet- s in Europe. -
ed with a bold sri'e bof fustd Brue Henderson- htfo er
Sftf .S. ,PHO. E i-(a 8 goldd. while the other rg hs a ve th e Caribbean
"bold chocolate brown ruling well as Central America- fr i-d
nama will occasionally visit thi
--'_ .-' _._" ate. aa. on 'special assignments,. :.J
., visited- P.ort-au-Prince"during. th..
course of the past week from Devili
Island and French. Gtidnea .

..i at "" ,L

"' C.'

,s~ ~

Its .Ea, For Eve#yone ,
To Operate A Wonderful New '
BELL is the afiswet' to
ALL Your requirements


Agents TIPCO,
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TIPCO Bldg. 'Phone 3216-3929







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U r'Ai ITS

, .9 . 1,'

crmrrn ________ _

The Plat

r Written For T

::- Port-au-Prince, the capital of the R
[. mountain, plain and sea. The plai
lch stretches from the sea's edge
,..:Sagmatre and the border of the (
f-.:orm the Massif de la Selle, whieh?
n*h.:southeast and southwest of the Cu
: back to the mountains, its right fla
;7 0,000 people inhabit" Port-au-
Prince. Few of them grow what
-!;..they -eat, yet most of what they
-t is grown in the soil of Haiti,
and reaches them daily from the
"' .hinterland. The produce is carried
-'" with some notable exceptions- by
'..aomen. In fact, the whole of Haiti
-is traversed by unending streams
.otfemales of all ages, selling, buy-
i ng, and reselling, in what seems like
a gigantic attempt to profit by a
variation on the theme of taking in
a4ch other's--washing. For a visitor,
the easiest places to see this activity
i e the three great city markets:
'Salomon, Vallieres, and Croix-des-
EB, eales. At first glance, these mar-
]ets seem quite alike, but in fact
,itere aie significant differences am-
-,' ,g them. .
'& 'Take Croix-des-Bossales, for ins-
,moee. This market lies near the
stll waters of the Bay of Port-au-

I "

, " .. "

S .. -


:e of the Internal Market System.

In The Haitian Economy

'he "Sun" by Professor

Sidney W.

Mintz, Department of Anthropology,

Republic of Haiti, lies at the juncture rather near the ground, and the carry sewers or mier, yams, pean-
in is the Cul-de-Sac, a great lowland ground is hallf-mud. There are no uts, ginger, and sweet potatoes. tish
'twenty-odd miles eastward to Lake public facilities of- any kind. and come from the boats which touch
Dominican Republic. The mountains there is no screening or protection shore at the city itself, but also
fills the Western Department, south, for produce Even for the visitor from the southern peninsula carry
il-de-Sac. -The city stands with its who may find Croix-des-Bossales salted fish, legumes and other pro-
nk to the plain, and its face to the "exotic," there will appear to be duce. They congregate at the city
little point in staying lqog. Women wharves, while the tough little buses,
Prince. The word bossal means a sit on the ground with tr'ys full of the (Frerich) camionettes, or (Cre-
fresh slave, a "Guinea Negro". It different sorts of rice and beans ole) karostri, brightly painted with
is said that, before the Revolution, and cornmeal and millet: or they the names of -their towns of origin
new slaves were put up for sale on make little piles of okra, peppers, and Biblical or profane sayings, pull
this spot -- whence the name. Un- sweet potatoes, irish potatoes, char- up in serried ranks behind the mar-
like the rather stately Iron Market coal and avocadoes. which they will ket itself. Especially important are
(Vallieres). which is housed in a sell by the pile: or they spread out the fresh fruits and vegetables,
complicated iron grillwork structure a pathetic display of thread, which are brought down from the
several' blocks nearer the heart of buttoms. neeklles, costume dewel- uplands of the massif to the south-
the city, Croix-des-Bossales is sim- ry. spices and perfume. east, and reach Port au Prince in
ply an expanse of rubble and salt The hubbub is enormous, a~n d large quantities, though carried in
flat, covered with rickety display everyone seems to be selling the small loads.
stands and great quantities of food same items to everyone else. Yet To meet this flow of produce to
and goods spread on the ground on Croix-des-Bossales makes sense, can Croix-des-Bossales come wholesal-
badketry trays and strips of burlap. be understood, and is well worth un- ers, retailers, and customers. And
Croix-des-Bossales might turn an derstanding. To it flow trucks laden throughout the market are the sell-
.uriprepared stomach. There are with limes, grapefruit, oranges and ers of kenkay (bricabrac). who pro-
stands lined with freshly caught fish shaddock from the north, around vide the visiting higglers from "out-
which, by the time they have soak- Haiti'st second city, Cap-Haitien. side" with cloth, spices, oil, medic-
ed up the sun for several hours, take From St. Mfarc and the valley of ine, tobacco, needles and other small
on a strange look and give off a 'the Artibonite, which lies forty miles but essential items, many of them
stranger odor. Sellers of prepared north of the city, come rice and on- imported. Sellers and buyers clash
meat -blood sausage, salted fresh ions -the area is the rice-basket together in a great wave, all day,
pork, an8 tripe- set out their wares of. Haiti. Trucks 1 from the south every day but Sunday. The clamor


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and the smells ,are .overpowering'.
But to one whowill watch tarefully.
and long, more overpower' yet
is the exercise of teq thousand men."-
talities, engaged in the intricate iro
cess of purchase and sale. With i
time, one notes that theU disorder'-"
seems to recede. In its place oe
sees regularity, the adroiitness-' .of
the entrepreneur, the commercial
lustiness of a people who- cannotl '
read or write but who calculate with
the speed of machines. :
Vallieres, also called Hyppolite, or
the Iron Market, is only- .few',
blocks from Croix-des-Bossales, .but'
its economic function is somewhat--
different. Vallieres is really qu.t
beautiful; it is a market for the&:.
bourgeoisie,- who would not. d iream.
of buying at Croix-des-Bossales, and`.
for the tourists, who mostly. want" -
'to look. One wing of Vallieres eoO-
tains the butchers, the fresh fruit
and vegetable sellers, and the mar-"..
keters of grains and dried legumes,..
The other wing is largely given over.
to basketry, woodwork and- tinker-:
ware.- utilitarian and tourist craft..:0
objects. Between these wings 'a&.-
handsome arcade houses sellers ..,'
cloth and clothing, a rather arist>-
cratic segment of the open market".
dealers. Vallieres is essentially a-'
retail market, and for the relativ.-
ely well-off or,wealthy buyers. Onei:':
can have a pair of sandals -soled
with rubber from automobile tires-.
made to .order there; ,or bqtSya a-.:'
chandelier fabricated f r om' .ti:,an-i
cans; or purchase an expertly .Con-;
tructed suitcase, which incideatally
advertises some well known. Anerien
can motor oil, since it is made .h .i'
sheets of oil can metal. -.
Outside Port-au-Prince, the
els are in one sense more. remark
able than in the city. In the ---t
one can see the demand sitce,titt
all, Port-au-Prince is a city.i~gt
turn -now to the -market pofh' -d.
des-Negres, eighty miles of-".uh l
road from the capital.-Fond-des-Nd 'I
gres has a street with three or t6ur.
tiny shops; but there is nothing else, .
visible to give the impression.of .'a
population center. The road, either i
muddy or dusty, cuts throughumass-.'."'
es- of coffee trees and palms, andi'-S
one sees occasional houses. Acro..a !
the street from the shops is anyenj.'..
ormous field of black imud -nothing
else. Yet every Tuesday nmornijig,
between three and four thoiusan"
women invade Fond des Negres
each carrying things to sell. They
come in camionettes, on burrs, '
donkeys and horses, and oL t .foi.
From dawn until late .afternoon, -.i
money and produce change hands,
while the burros nibble fodder .-at
the back of the market andl glong,
the road. There' is incessant conver-
sation; news is exchanged, bargain s
are made, decisions reached. The
sellers of akasan (a cornmealpOE.:".
idge which retains its African .ie,"i
but is advertised by signs` reaig,..'.
"AK-100"),- corn on the cob, sow-.l'
belly, and, the chestnut-lile seed
the Artocarpus inelsa (labapin) kffp.
the marketers and their cstoine
eating. Those who come\to .sell in-'
the market are taxed by the State t
the fees are tiny, but they are edl
elected from thousands of individiP
als, one hundred and four times'
year. Fond-des-Negres is eneOof .th
biggest rural markets of -.Hiaiff; f
the country has a dozen likeri
hundreds smaller. Each mazet.lP" )
Pond-des-Negres is the cerifr
cluster of smaller mar
market days vary, so that ot 1Cd,

(Contnued on

A NOV., 8TH, 1959


Eroix des.Bouquets Blacksmith

World Fame As Sculptoz

iaitian Art like Haitian
'Stark, symbolrich and
p'*ely dramatic.,When i
ai"bie almost breath
wJett vork of Haiti's be
hitive painter, the la
piEhte- (1894-1948), Wh
it 'often falls off into
ti&rekery or fluffy bits
ptic sentimentality
ktlief tourist trade. In
ijtattion to cater to bo
;i great, and few hav
mff- ore successfully
s most renowned
lptor, 59 year old .Geoi

' -


iautaud at work-in his r
before his Croiix des Bouq
b'-' home.
. .. "*


4:.;,' a,


n politics, Georges Liautaud is a gaunt, al-
often ex- most sepulchral figure with skin the
it is good, color and texture of ancient Cor-
aking, as dovan, hands as gnarled and twist-
est known ed as the roots of a Banyan Tree.
te Hector Under Liautaud's Hammer, Shears
hen it is and. Punch, Christ, crucified, is
contrived pinned to the cross with strands of
s of pseu- barbed wire; the spearhead of the
designed soldiers thrusts downward into the
Haiti, the heart, and from below the Adder
th catego- of Betrayal Crawls Upward. Liau-
v'e carried taud's animal figures stalk stilf-
than the legged from his. forge like' figures
ed metal from an ancient Egyptian Frieze.
rges Liau- The lines on some of his face masks
suggest to some critics the death-in-
life expression of Japanese Italics
Haniwa, Untalis Grave Figures, to
: I others the bold style of the famed
Ife Bronzes of West Africa. ,
Liautaud's 'work is best unders-
tood against the richly variegated
background of Haitian history and
culture. The African background of
Dahomey, the .Gold Coast and the
rest of the lands around the fabled
Bight of Benin there is also Haiti's
own more immediate historical nd
spiritual influenced, a heady com-
post of French Rule, Slave Revolt,
Voodoo and Roman Catholicism.
Liautaud was "discovered" only
six years ago when Dewitt Peters,
American Director and Founder of
the Centre D'Art in Haiti's Capital
of Port-au-Prince, came across one
S.of the Artist's Grave Decorations,
a wrought metal cross, in a nearby
graveyard.' Since then Liautaud has
produced some 200 works, and most


blood -through a metal tube from li
the tiny body of a child. tI
Liautaud's workshop is' confined a:
to a, rocky forge, battered anvil, ta
and several iron sugar syrup pots at
of colonial vintage set in a corner oi
of an ash-dry, sun-parched plot of P
land in the scrabbled village of h
Croix-des-Bouquets, some ten miles lo
from Port-au-Prince, at-the beginn- tt
ing of the bi s t e r.i n g .Cul-de-Sac
Plain. -
Hard by Liautaud's forge run the a
rusting, dust-covered rails of a nar- c
row-gauge railroad thaf bears cane a
to the Hasco sugar mill. During the--'
h a r v e s t season, Ebony-Skinned "
Children Loll on neighboring Caille b
Porches, Giggling Shyly %then for- I
eign visitors roll up to .Liautaud's p
forge in their Limousines. The beat a
is as intense as the outer rim of .a
Napalm Blast. Across Liautaud's
Barren courtyard, a gleaming- black a
scorpion scratches among burning r
rocks in search of food. h

The railroad has been a constant
symbol in Liautaud's life. The son t
of a shoemaker named Homera ,.
Liautaud and his dressmaker wife, hI
Liautaud proceeded through the very v
rough equivalent of two years of I
High School ,then went. to work 'on V
a German-Owned Railroad in the I
Cul-de-Sac. When he reached the I
maximum salary of seven dollars.i
a week, he worked on railroads for o
annlothern faew ears in the ne Thbor- ft

of them have been snapped up by .ing Dominican Republic, then re-
U.S. and Latin American collect- turned to Haiti and went to work
tors. Liautaud's "Crucifixion" was in the repair shop of the German
featured this month in the exhibi- Railroad' At the end of five years,
tion of Pan American Art at the Liautaud had achieved a salary of
Art Institute of Chicago. fifteen dollars a .week, and decided
to retire with his savings and set
Ten of his pieces are on display up Blacksmith's Shop at Croix-des-
at the Fifth Biannual Exhibition of Bouquets.
the Sao Paulo Museum of Modem "There was,plenty of work," says
Art which opened I a s t m o-n t h. Liautaud.
Next spring the Liautaud Collection .
from Brazil, supplemented by other Branding irons,, fittings and mech-
of his works lent by U.S. Collect- anical parts for Bullock Carts, and
ors. Will go" to Washington for a I best of all Iron Crosses and other
One-Man Show sponsored by thee decorations for the village grave-
Pan-American Union. yard." Thanks largely to Liautaud,
say his admirers, the Cemetery of
This week .Liautaud was hard at Croix-des-Bouquets is much more
work on a series of pieces for the impressive than the village itself
imminent winter r-Tourist season. A which is true, but which is scant
recent Liautaud now in the Port- praise nonetheless.

au-Prince Centre d'Art is a bizarre
figure of a Vampire, rigid bat-
wings extended its "beak sucking

Like many Haitians, Liautaud is
a devout, confessing Roman Catho-

c, discreetly.. avoids discussion of da
he' subtle and powerful Folk Reli- sir
ion of Voodoo whose influences ha
re so pronounced in his work. Liau- sp
aud's time is spent almost entirely pu
t his palm thatch shaded forge, ev
r on occasional trips to Port-an- ha
'rince to buy the raw material of tis
is art, rusting, discarded fifty-gal- do
on standard Oil drums. Price Li
three dollars each. do
"After my evening prayers," says o(
Liautaud, I lie in bed and think mj
bout my next work. Sometimes I tu
an see what I am going to do of
nd other times it comes from here, hi;
He says, "Pointing a veined
brown finger at his grizzled Temple.
awake at four in the morning and
'ray again to Jesus. Then I make
a pencil 'sketch of ,the project.

During this time I stay inside
ad work on the plan, and none of
my ten relatives who live in this
house with me ever interrupts ine."

Between now and the height ,of
he 1959-60 Winter Tourist Season,
iautaud will. produce twenty, per-
haps as many as forty pieces. Some
will be tourist gee-gaws, E. G., A .
Lautaud standard of "Serene", a
Voodoo Mermaid Figure, Cheap and
Much Favored. But Liautaud's ad-
mirers (Expert Dedwitt Peters, for
instance, ranks Liaataud as second
only to Hector Hyppolite) are hope-
ful that as much as two-thiirds of
his output this season will be of
Exhibition Caliber.

Liautaud's four daughters, pride-
ful enough of -his past successes,
are not so sur6 of the future. They
say there, have been only two re-
ally outstanding events in their .
father's life, one they approve of
and another they don't. The first
was in 1944, when Papa Liautaud
capped twentyone years of living'"
with their mother by finally rnarry-
ing her. A formality some Haitians
dispense with Church Service and
all, and Wlebrating the evenL with
a splenditl two hundred and seven-
ty five dollar Haitian wedding feast.


f. "i".'". "' "
The second event was earlier this .'
year, when Liautaud had luhis few &p- '
remaining teeth extracted and re-
'placed with a magnificent, com-
plete set of pearly-white new false Sculpto
ones. "It'sr perfectly horrid," said recent

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ughter Andree this week. "Ever. -
ice he got those new teeth, Papa ..
s been behaving like a goat in
ringtime, ogling young girls and
tting outsize bosoms on almost ,
ery figure he produces. He's be-
aving exactly like those tourist ar .
sts who Carve Phony Nude Voo- -..
o figures for the Curio Shops."
autaud's admirers and cronies
o not share this concern. "Papa.
isn't turned to Voodoo," said one
i friend this week after an ad-,
iring examination of the new den- '':
res. "He's just showing a'touch
Sthe old Adam. Probably lp '.
s work, too."


. L,

i..- 111ii



'By MIajor Jacob J. SLAGER
former Chief of IAGS in Haiti,
Major Slager's Successor is
Major Anthopy KUBELIUS.

S On November 7, 1958, the first in
a series of new 1:25,000 topographic
maps of Haiti was presented to
the President of the Republic, in a
Ceremony at the offices in Port-au-
Prince occupied jointly by the Haiti
Project of the U.S. Army Inter A-
S. merican Geodetic Survey and the
Service de Geodesie et Cartogra-
ble of the Haitian Government.
This map represents the culmina-
io. ... n of twelve years of intensive
S. effort, and provides the best cover-

ough a series of 1:50,000 sheets cov-
e. to d a t o f t e R e u b i .A t h -

.-' Expecte. .

, Expect e,


4',. i PLAE GEFFRAM) _
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.. *'..^ l
S U D A N O. .', q:p,
SUNDAY, NOV;.- 8!3: m |

ering about 65 per ceit of the
country was 'issued in 1953. these
maps had certain' deficiencies in
accuracy and classification, which
have been corrected in the new
Many factors have contributed to
the tremendous progress over "the
last five years. One of the more
important was the securing of com-
plete photographic coverage of the
Republic through commercial con-
tract with a private U.S. firm in
1957. The photography was flown
at 20,00W0' feet above mean terrain,
using distortion-free lens with six
inch focal length, thus providing
photographs at a scale of 1:40,000
In addition to the 11,000 square
miles of 1:40,000 photography, about
1,000 square miles of 1:17,000 pho-
tography of the plains areas was
provided. Kelsh diapositives of the
1:40,000 scale photography were
made by Army Map Service and
purchased by the Haitian Govern-
ment. Even though the. first air-
craft brought to Haiti for the pho-
tography crashed on the first mis-
sion (no fatalities or injuries), thus
delaying-the start for approximately
one month, the ideal flying weather
almost the year round enabled com-
pletion of the mission in record
time. I
A major assist must be credited
to the use of fixed and rotary-wing
aircraft in completion of field-work,
particularly classification and sup-
plemental control. Before aircraft
were in sufficient supply to allow
general' use, observers would "be
required to travel to observation
points first by" motor vehicle as far
as the scanty road system would

permit, then by foot, horseback,
or mule the-fifial destination. A ty-
pical round trip fo one of the high-
er hills might consume as much as
-eight days. After the project was
furnished a BelD H-13 helicopter and
a DeHaviland Beaver fixed wing
aircraft, they were used in tandem
to speed'the operation. The Beaver
would bring four or five observers
to a centrally Ilocated airstrip,
where the helicopter would pick
them up one by one and deposit
them on the observation points.
The next morning the procedure
would be reserved, the B e a v e r
would carry the observers to the
next scheduled area and the pro-
cess would .be repeated. It is con-
servatively estimated that the field
work was completed in fromm six
months to a year sooner than could
have been expected if aircraft had
not been used. At present the field
work is essentially complete, inclu-
ding the Isle de la Gonave and the
Isle de la Tortue, better known as
the pirate stronghold of Tortilga in
the lusty days of Sir Henry Mor-
Since 1956, the program has been
supported in part by the United
States Operations- Missibn to Haiti
(Point IV), as part of its program
for economic development. Since
accurate wrapping is so important to
economic progress, USOM officials
realized that the most economical
way to secure required mapping
and basic engineering data was to
utilize the existing IAGS Geode-
sie organization. A corollary bene-
fit ,of course, is the training of
Haitian personnel in napping tech-
niques, thus providing a cadtre of


d To Complete Mission'In 3

cartographers for the continuation
of mapping in Haiti.
Complete coverage of Haiti at a
scale of 1:25,000 would necessitate
approximately 320 map sheets; how-
ever, recently a change was made
in the original requirements for
1:25,000 coverage. No immediate
requirement is foreseen for the large
scale coverage in the peninsular
areas in the north and south of
Haiti, and on the Island of La Go-
nave. The area- generally west of
72o 45'-is-now to be mapped at 1:50,
000. although the compilation scale
of 1:15,000 will not change. When
the requirement for 1:25,000 cover-
age in these areas becomes appar-
ent, the materials for scribing and
publication at that scale will be
Compilation has been completed
on 50 1:25,000 sheets thus far; of
these, seventeen .sheets have al-
ready been published, mainly of the
Port-au-Prince and adjacent areas.
A contract has been let to a U.S.
commercial firm for the compilation
of sixty additional s h e e t s ; these
should be complete 'before the end
of 1959. The remaining 1:25,000
sheets, some sixty in number since
the change in mapping scale referr-
ed to above,, will be complete by
July of 1960. Thirty seven addition-
al sheets at 1:50,000 will complete
the compilation phase; it is expect-
ed that this will be finished by the
middle of 1961.
Reproduction of these .maps, as
well as all others from those Latin
American countries with IAGS pro-,
jects, has been accomplished by the
Engineer Reproduction Division of
the United States Army Caribbean,

located at Corozal in the Pana
Canal Zone. Liaison with. the Re.
production Division is effected
through the Operations Division of
the Inter American Geodetic Survey,
which also has its headquarters in
the Canal Zone..
Upon completion of IAGS parti-
cipation in the collaborative map.l
ping program, it appears that'the
Republic of Haiti will have a train-
ed organization to continue the car...
tographic effort. Steps ar. being t-
ken to provide necessary equipment
and to further the training of I-ati-.
an technicians engaged in the, po.;
gram. In 1956, the Haitian Govern-
ment purchased t wo W i 1 d auto-'
graphs, an A-7 and A-8,. and a -'.
ordinatograph. In addition to train-
ing in aerial triangulation, the u.
tographs have been used extensively'
m compilation, thus lessening the
workload on the Kelsh plotte'loan- "'
ed by IAGS for this work. 'Eighteen
Haitian technicians have been t7 an- .
ed in photogrammetry, compilation,
and other re lated earit6grkphic'...
skills at the Cartographic -School.:
operated by the Inter American "
Geodetic Survey in the Car al Zone.
Frequently, U.S. experts from -the .
Canal Zone visit Haiti io conduct
courses in scribing, editing,- cjnpi-,
lation, "and othei necessary proce. ,
dures. -'
It is estimated that the Inter.'
American Geodetic Survey will dolm-
plete its mission in Haiti 'within.
three years. After that time, it is
believed that' the Service de Geo--.
desie et Cartographie will be able
to maintain a revision program and ,'
initiate new mapping developments
as may be required.

--... , - ,, -- . .- .-_ . -- .. 4..
Ir.., .,-. ... *.,-

NDAY, NOV., 8TH, 1959


4' -- --

tUowli n tie text of the final
M.$ert o0 the sixteenth American
nbjy, held ,at Arden House
discussions on "The United
f -d. Ltin America":
$J n'importahce of Latin America
SUnited States needs public
'ias'and heightened awareness
h"g.t the area means to us po-
ic-,, economically _and cultur-
_.e are bound to each other
jepgraphical and historical ties
y many commonly held ideas
L': aspirations.
.Id.its relations, with Latin Ame-
im ,the United States must Set
anexample, of democracy, using
t fluence and resources Tor the
of all. countries in the lhemi-
%phe~ for basic moral values as
dwaseother reasons of long-range
l. ess. we 'participate whole-
f .Siearl.d" in determined attacks on
.qtinued widespread poverty am-
Lag; tin-American peoples, 'our
EvWgand our democratic' way
Se-wril be threatened. We .must
ientifY ourselves with the aspira-
tofn.o the JLatin-American peoples
.or:social reforms, higher stand-
hrds ol livig. and greater educa-
oal opportunities. We are in fav-
or of. genuine movements of social
which are'-consonant with
j .rep sentative democracy.
",:;.Latin America is our most im-
-. rtant investmerif'and trading prea.
to-way tade of some $8,000,
..-'000(0 a year makes each of us
S''the .other's largest trading partner.
:'"United States -.,rivate investments
t-.-, over. $9,00000000 and United
,''."States'.Goverrnmenif investments ex-
S..t eedi-,$2000,000,000 are paying a
i.irficant part- in Latin-American
.' nomic ..development.
Stra egblt Trade Noted'
.. :. at. 6'pur. trade -comprises some
." tirtystteicniaterials. In any but
a- ;:syift and completely destructive
'.nucar-war; inter-American coop-
4.eaonis vital to the survival of
estei'cvilization. The denial of
.products. to our industry, the
T.'.': e control of'-any -Latin Ame-
country, however remote that
v. e":a:ity eems today, would
't.ixt .up the necessity for coopera-
ion T'between Latin America and
U fUed States.
North mericans must realize
S t Latin Americans differ from
S.the United States in a number of
Suspects social, economic and
1'.:"oihtical. Latin America is an area
*-.fconsiderqble diversity, though
e ae certain features in com-
Ski.n. It is marked by great popu-
;tflton increase and is undergoing
"the earlW phases of an industrial re-
4.vI ution.
-The. -people of the region come
tpVxed racial strains of Euro-
ea, African aid *Indo-American
rn There is a sharp contrast
the cultural, social and
Tconomie conditions in the. cities
and the countryside. ,
There is a necessity'to learn ab-
t!'and ..understand Latin America
Mai'its beliefs, -ideas, emotional re-
o..tiosa and way of life. It was
:gBpd tiat Such knowledge is gen-
aRy ikidig, that the leaders in
:flis communications field
4" ud' provide, and the readers of
ap the listeners and view-
,rio(radio and' television should
more. information and
i ed inferpretatiori.
fr "consensus in the assembly
rI- s thatht there is a large public
.ichihtwould b6 interested. in more
ra erican news and comment
a4*thd. material were provided.. It
-.a stl-felt that in- many cases
t hie ichuinerest is absent, an
,itelai t public demand can be

Assembly Report on U

Latin Nations -

The assembly made various sug-
gestidns for remedying .these diffi-
culties. United States editors should
go to Latin America to learn about
the area at firsthand. Latin-Ameri-
can affairs and languages should
be taught more widely in our
schools, colleges and universities.
Increased travel by United States
citizens in Latin America is desir-
The exchange-of-persons programs
should be extended for university
students, teachers, journalists', trade
'union leaders and others, without
neglecting the arts and humanities.
For the same reasons, funds sliould
be provided to expand the activities
of private and public 'educational
agencies working in Latin America.
Economic Policy
An important objective of United
States', economic policies -toward
Latin America should--be- to cobp-
erate with ratin Americaifs in help-
ing .to raise their standards of liv-
ing. In this process the industrial
development and diversification of
their economies, the improvement
of their agriculture and the modern-
ization of communications are basic.'
Since many Latin-American na-
tions are dependent on'exports of
rawasmaterials, the heed for greater
price stability and tiore d'pend-
able markets in the United States
and elsewhere was recognized.
There was a consensus that the Uni-
ted States should participate in co-
operative efforts by Latin-American
countries to stabilize the prices iof
major primary products.
Fifteen Latin-American countries
are exporters of coffee. The recent
agreement of the Latin-Americdn,
African and European countries to
.regulate the sales of coffee in world
markets was recognized as an ach-
ievement of great potential Value
. in which United States government
support played an important role.
However, without effective control
of coffee production, the io.ig-range
benefits of price stabilization can-
not be maintained.
Considerable concern was express-

ed at the rising tide of protection-
ist sentiment in this country and
-of narrow economic -nationalism in
some parts of Latin America. If
these trends continue they will not
only impede trade between the Unit-
ed States and Latin America, but
.may also seriously reduce the ef,
fectiveness of United States coop-
eration in Latin-American develop-
It was emphasized that the United
States, should provide reliable ac-
cess to its markets for goods sold
by Latin Arperica. It was also noted
that- domestic policies that involve
.the subsidizing of United States pro-
duction, and particularly United
States ekpotts, should, be continuous-
ly reviewed in the light of their dis-
rupting effects on Latin-American
agricultural and 'mining programs.
SEconbmic progress to improve
standards 'of living In Latin America
will require massive amounts of
capital 1fo- investment which will
'have to be drawn from all possible
sources, private and public, domes-
tic and foreign. Private investment
in' large and small industries will
have to play the greatest role in
such development. .
Th& encouragement of such invest-
ment requires the creation and
maintenance of equitable conditions
and fair safeguards, including
prompt and adequate compensation
in -the event of expropriation, on;
which responsible private investors,
b6th existing and prospective, can
rely. In, addition, these nations
should continue to be' able to bor-
row from public and international
agencies for sound projects for
%which private capital is not avail-
There was agreement that the
movement toward regional economic
arrangemeAts such as common mar,
k"ets and educational cooperation in
Latin America should receive the
support of the people and the'Gov-
eiri-nent of the United States. In
this way these nations will be able
to expand their production and mar-

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The danger 6of communism in La-
tin America was noted. The best
answer to communism is to' help
raise the standards of living and
encourage social justice, democra-
tic governments and free trade-uni-
on structures. At the same time; we
are opposed to dictatorial move-
ments of any kind. The enemy is
totalitarianism at both extremes of
Left and Right.
On both sides of the Rio Grande
a better understanding of each oth-
er's attitude toward communism is
desirable. The world position of the
United States compels us to treat
communism as a primary threat to
the security of the free world. To
some Latin Americans-- this dangeF
does not always seem to have the
spme priority. Yet we all face .the
same ultimate peril from commun-
Awareness of the different appro-
aches 'toward meeting Communist
threats will make it easier. to. ach-
ieve a united front against .the com-
mon enemy's aim to cbmmuhize th'e
world.- A greater effort should be
made to stimulate a keener under-
standing of the immediate and 'long-
term tactics and dangers of com-
munism in Latin, America.
The nations of the Western Hem-
isphere share the same strategic
aim of opposing cQmmunism; but
the tactical-means of achieving this
aim may differ from country to
country. Organizations which are de-
veloping positive programs -against
Communist' infiltration were endors-
Sed by the assembly.'
The full scope of Communist ef-
fort to influence Latin America
through 'cultural methods has not
been realized in the United States
or Latin America. Communist China
and the Sbviet Union are believed
to' be spending more than $100,000,
'Q00 annually in Latin America in
furthering propaganda campaigns..
It was recognized that the Com-
munist argument that the rapid in-
dustrialization of.the USSR and Chi-
na should be models for Latin-Ame-
rican countries is proving effective
as propaganda. 'The destruction of
human values inherent in Commun-
ist methods must be exposed. At
the same time, it must be demonst-
rated that higher standards of liv-
ing 'can better be achieved through
the maintenance of free institutions
and the economic procedures. of the
free world.
Military Relations
It is believed that international
communism is attempting to pre-
pare the ground for' an eventually
decisive bid for control in Latin
America. In the near future, inter-
national communisni is likely to in-
tensify its efforts to create discord
between Latin Anierica and the Un-
ited States..
We consider that our military pro-
grams should place even greater
'emphasis on training, technical aid
and education of military personnel
and that the United States should



1 Ties to
encourage the use of Latin Ameri-
can military resources for support -. "
of economic and social objective ,
in so far as can be done, while car- .
trying out their security missions.
We believe the United States should
press more effectively against ina '
tenance of excessive or inapprol pr .
ate armed forces in Latin Amerlin ..
countries and should administe., 4
assistance programs accordingly '.
Political and Diplomatic Relat"'OgC, .
Consistent with the traditioi
American opposition to tyranny, .- ".
United States supports the strength-
enihg of democratic institutions, i- h -i .
clud.mng periodic free elections as
well as freedom of the press, assn
bly, religion and the development
of governments which respect ba .
civil liberties and the rule pofla',- -
which are representative in '10 .
and which fill the principles d -'
the-Organization of American Stateq.' i::
We should avoid helping 'regimes
which fail to observe' these rma- ...
pies but should, support polimes .-
which wi help raise the le I '.i
education'and health and'staridd / *
of living of people under 'these, ;rt -t
rannies. ,
Government officials ,and private. :-r
organizations, should avoid giving de- ,1C'
corations, honors and, unnecessary i LL*'.
hospitality and praise to aictatb r.,
or their military or civilian repre-
sentativyes. -
' The principles of the United States '/"
are .dear, but it Was- reb& nize&,,,msie
that i ou efforts,o encourage de.
mocracy we will' be faced wvith a'
variety of particular, situations re-; '.
quiring a choice and tming ot
methods. The .problerps .in each '
country may bedifferent, a .n4therte-''." ''
fore no' precise police. in this re-
gard could be formulated. > 4'
The as..mbly strongly supported. .-,
the collecLve security system of..
the Org:imzation .of American States
and its effective use to prevent and
resolve international contitveres ,
and threats to peace. It was felt.;
that this regional body could be
strengthened in other'fields to.a ..-
-ieve even better results in the fat-.
In order to meet the extraordinary ':
and complex problems of the TLa-,
tin-American nations, we ne the'd.
best people available to, represent V.j-
us unimportant positions in our em-
bassies and other Government' gen-
cies. Foa the majority of the 'liplo- -
matic posts, career diplomats should .
be appointed, but other qualified .:
groups should not be excluded. Ap-
pointments should not be made as
political rewards. The Latin-Ameri- -.
can countries being not only .so A
'important to but so different from '
our nations also require thdt all re -'
presentatives of the United State, i.
official and'unofficial, should be
especially qualified. -c
At all times our policy and our ac-
tions should make manifest that we :;
want for Latin Americans what they
want for themselves -'democracy, .
a higher standard of living;' indus- .
trialization, social reforms. In seek-
ing these goals the cooperation oft-.
all nations' of the Organization aof .
American States is required.

A- 12
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Upon-returning from a long trip we have plenty of time. We Haitians
abroad, we appreciate more than think very often of the creole prov-
-ever the charms and enticements erbe that says: "Trop presse pas
aof our magic Island: Haiti. Both faith jouI louvri" (too much hurry
in the new and the old Continent does not make daylight).
people give us the impression of It is rather difficult for an ame-
'being constantly" in a hurry and rican with whom mwe have a busi-
rushing towards a fugitive goal. ness appointment to understand why!
Here in Haiti, we always take things we often s t a r t the conversation
easy because we are convinced that with comments on personal matters
we have plenty of time for every- or even gossips of no interest to
thing. We do not believe that any- him. One way to explain that dila-
thing is so important as to deserve tory approach is that we do not
a rushed attention. For'instance, in think of time as money but as an
Europe or in America before a fri- expendable of which we happen to
end gets. to extend any courtesy to have plenty to waste.
you arrangements are made ahead This discrepancy in our apprecia-
ol time. In Haiih we are always rea- tion of time is found in most coun-
Sdy to spend any amount of time in tries with a backward economy.
the company of friend. Ask a per- However, that peculiar attitude does
son when you may see him, and not always work against our inte-
the answer will invariable be: 'Lo rests. Every situation has a bright
on vie" (whenever you please. Of side. Our proverbial hospitality, our
course this does not mean that you reputation of being perfect hosts,.
are going to see him at the time would probably not exist if it was
agreed upon, but you will see him... not for our "unconcerned-attitude"

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F : N ii CA
F r



A Clear Appraisal Of TheMale

Who / Makes Tourism Spin

known as the "HPBA" (The Haitian
Playboys Association) to quietly
devote an appreciable part of their
time charming and fascinating our
fair visitors, and by so doing great-
ly contribute to the expansion of
our tourist trade. Back in their
.country these ladies cannot forget
the suave and chivalrous manners
of our playboys, and their infatua-
tion is such that -they often repeat
their visit several times.
Durable and solid relationship are
quite often established between an
"HPB", and a visiting girl creating
an idyll which has often culminated
into a, happy marriage. Some people
not aware of the distinction between

Our playboy wants to be ,appreciat-
ed, liked, and to receive in exchange
of his devoted services the armiable
attentions 'of the girl. "Don Juan
greatest desire is to go from one
adventure to another. He just loves
to live dangerously. The "HPB"
wishes to spend some agreeable
moments in the company of his
compamon while telling her about
the enchantments of the Island.
There is never anything incorrect
in the gentle approach of our play-1
boys. They generally start by ask-
ing the girl if it is her first visit
to Haiti, how long she is going
to be here, and where she is stay-
ing. Well, if she is only staying a
day, or if she is the guest of fri-
ends residing here, this may affect
the interest of the HPB who
would certainly prefer to learn that
she intends to sojoIrn a week or
so in Haiti, and at a popular botel.
To the HPB, all exotic girls de-
serve his most tender atternons.
*He doesn't discriminate, and is nev-
er difficult. "Why should we be, a
very popular boy told us. "'MfoihI
vlul mange ze moin pas vini
conter poules" (I came to eat eggs
and not to count the chickens). This
is probably the, reason why in a
fashionable store a distracted "H
PB" paid twenty minutes court to
a dummy before realizing that it
.'vas a manikin. A homely boy was
akcd hliow he manage to pick up
these attractive girls he is usually
Cecn will Without a second of he-
silation he answered: "Pieds cour-
fes preud douvan" (short legs start
[irst), and added with malice: "nan
polio foupl blenr ligne qui pas jone"
t. ind a top properly and it will
NE'v me rn ie rs are constantly
joining the "tLPBA", and it is en-
,ouraging to note that their pre-

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SBy Fortune BOGAT Juan. Don Juan is out to achieve
lAuthor of "THE MACHO" a conquest. Our playboy only wants
Sbestselling tale of a to become the willing scort of our'
Haitian Don Juan fair visitors. Don Juan wants to be
loved, and in order to attain his
towards time By the same token, goal the most incredible stratagems
it wuniould be impossible to these boys come to the aid of his eloquence.

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sence is never obnoxious. Where
ever they are they add a note of
animation to the party.
In public the ."HPIB"' behaves
like a real french" gentleman dis-
pensing hand-ldkissings right and
left, hastening to light his compafi-
ions cigaretts, r u s h i n g to ope .
doors, seizing every., occasions to.'
give a song and dance. We do note"e
see how a girl can forget such sweet.-%
attentions, and not to dream with.L
that )women-haven. called Haiti. '.
When two or more playboys get _'
together they invariably talk about'
the tourist-season-versus kirls' Nap.
names are mentioned because .in-.
discretion is frowned upon, and..also.' '
because they just can't remember
so many names.. ,
In fact there is not much differ-
ence in the general behaviour ot.
the playboys. Those with a better .
education, who have travelled a..
lot are of course, more .sophisticate.,
ed and show more discrUminatiotn '.
in the choice of a would be company .
ion. Abroad the "HPBA" is quite
often the t o p i c of conversations. -f
among the ladies who have previ-...
ously visited Haiti. They recom- ...
mend the country to their friends, :
and send the girls to the good at- .,,
tensions of those "HPBs" whose re-
putation has advantageously cross-
ed the Atlantic. ..
\We are certain 'that not only these
ladies but all those who have visit,
ed Haiti talk with enthusiasm ab- ,
out its people, its mountains, its
flowers, and its beautiful sightsi._..
We do not know of any visitor, that,:
did not express the desire to come :
back. .

\Ve are often questioned about '
the infatuation of our boys for the' ,
.exotic girls, m o r e s o that the: -,
seems to be a unique sort of zest- :-..
seldon matched in our tropical:4.
beauties. We can. think of many-.'
good reasons for that infatuation,:
But for the time being we shall-<
mention the absence of a CHAPT--;',.,
RON, a system that did not disarp---':"
ear with the emancipation of oq.
women. To the "HPB" that creat-'.
ure is a serious nuisance. -



bigger more powerful

stronger than ever

. MAURICE BONNEFIL, Manager. Chancerelles

;NOV., 8TH, 1959


P- o

'il _different, market each enterprise is mo
, 1 .., almost beyond 1
Sferssuch'as Fond-des- who descend
ear to be regional mar- from Kenscoff"ar
s.Others-serve primarily carry' up to sixth
iots'.for goods mov- heads: They db r
~Tki..' s Croix-des-Bou- mile trip frdrn
a few miles north of capital -alone c(
lYrn.ce, is a'major way sta- cents- and so
capital. Produce streams When their sell
in 'from lthwe plain of the go home again.
,.:westward to. it from the Petionville,_ or K
c, nd.-southwestvard to it they walk.. These
i nehra Plateau. The Ar- picturesque sigh
'tilpes rice and some ve- but 'it is wiser '
Cul-de-Sac supplies sely. A twentaj
i.d fish. from Lake Sau- balanced easily
.the Central Plateau sup- seem t& make f
atIe.and other livestock', to- ,at least for a wl
ais nd corn. From Croix is sharply incre
these and endless oth- posture is less
flow into the city. And panied a good f
ove from the .ty ou0.- only hotel-keepei
market, to another, and. his own produce
he consumers themselv- recent f.isit to
hired a young gi
rketing system of Haiti is et as he 'made
'ting organism. It eqcom- produce slowly '
(alley. ad plain,. dry and et, as she stooc
'..\and :low, city and town, picturesque qua
iass" and middle class and -As, the weight
cassg. Because Haitian topo- no longer kept
S'S~-. rainfall and climate sides, but used
Ao t.tthe iis great variation in balance and add
i.-'production. There is as neck, rather t
;some variation in' the praduct- the weight, settle
tI'ilitaian craft items; partly shoulders." Her
t ecogical dlifferebces, per- and her steps
'ar 'atyas well to flistorical' When we unl
Because of these "variations, pounds of veg
sib-rlgirfis.of Haiti form aE mo- she staggered a
of. '.prod.ttion. The producers But anecdotes
sev "_s _Iust-:sell some part of of labor invest
hey. -'pjbdue'4to, obtainT cash ure is plain .,
.ihich to-ibpi thKose things they mind that peop
ot V produ ~e-,them:seves: The duce, flow into
e .itS.g syste.m--is. thus a 'circul- that produce is.
y' -.mIechaiqm, .iirough which small quantities
:,; ov ,.Were. it not. for the long hours
e,.' commodities would dozens or score
epb.ldlf their 'seasonal and usually only afti
and imported goods itional labor.
m to flow in- more often th
J-rio-food-producer would brought to ma
ceive od, and the peasant marketer-d
e;ie'sabl ..to obtain the
e cto-buy what he can-
.Goods flow from
a ,so m market center, from
V, -*{cen ter, and fi-
'i ".'thee city or to
Eins. Goods -mainly
: bwfr~iom the city out-
Sonce re. -Exchange is fre-
ibt, of ewourse,; between class
engage distribution. It is
,don as when .imported
dsaipe broken i' L Uik; whole-
li re d, and finally
EBd-fid.is 'also upward, when
.the countrymen to
Sm and 'to the. tourist
ftimrket system brings
fl.~ais9ses into contact.
that the, markets
vertically (in terms
and horizontally (in
g -i&g-..graphy)I of course,
I two-way circuits in both

;.view a visitor may have I
a rlarkting. -other than
SCroix-des-Bossales on
tMe airport- is on
; 'ascent from the capital
ei or to' Kenscoff, ab-
Me and Kenscoff are
y'.towns to the south, charm-
umtil s for tourists and for
i 'i in Port-au-Prince who
"ftb live above the city's (V
g or descending, one .
'"se ...marleters --al-
.them women- going
i.U'. returning home. Many
a 1,w en (revendenses) nI
^ b "0tffe city to the Kenscoff fWY
-i- tt re a load aof prod- R
Jeaale "en bas"- in the
alor "investment in such

Internal Market System
(COntinued from page 8)

bst considerable -
belief. The. women-
i to 'port-au-Prince
nd Petionville may
ty pounds on their
not ride -the-four-
Petionville to the
costs ten American
they anust walk.'
ing is over, they
And if home is in
;enscoff, or beyond,
se women make a
t as they 'descend;,
not to look too clo-
pound load can be
arid well, nd does
or queenly posture,
dile. But if the load
ased, the effect on
atttractije. I accom-
riend ---perhaps thq
r m Haiti who buys
e in -market- on a
Valleres. There 'he
rl to carry his bask-
his purchases. The
mounted in the bask-
d .patiently by. The
lity soon dissolved.
increased, the girl
her' hands at her
them constantly for
litional support. Her
han arching under
led deeply upon-her
to&s turned inward,

weight of the marketer Herself.
This is true for all headloads, of
course, and will hold even for some
loads carried .by individual market-
ers who travel by camionette or
boat. In addition 'to the great labor
investment, nbte must be taken of
certain other costs in the process.
Vehicles which carry as much
poundage in human flesh as in pro-
duce are in one.. sense Ihalf empty.
If no produce returns ..with them
-though this, is only rarely the
case- but the same amount.of hu-
man weight, they are in-one sense
two-thirds; .empty for one round
trip.. But the labor investment is
-much -more awesome than: the in-
vestment in other ,factors. Since al-
most all produce is conveyed in
small' quantities, the number of in-
dividual sellers engaged in' the. pro-
cess is of 'course enormous. Estim-.
ates are never trustworthy, but one,
would confidently suppose that at
least 3(1,000 women are engaged in
sale and resale 'n a busy Saturday
in the'capital. And the,countryside
of Haiti possesses hundreds of mark-
ets. Hence the investment in. this
process, of toil, and.of'intelligerice,.
is staggering.
Haiti is a land of' small farmers.'
Exactly how many small farmers
(and tenants) and how.much land
each of -them has "or works,' is not
really known. Siuffice it to say .that

became 'mipcing. most Haitian peasants have', too
loaded oer "sixty little land to support themselves and
tables at.., the car, their families properly, and that
s if she were drunk. something in excess of'eighty per
provide no measure cent of the total population is di-
lent. The real meas-. rectly dependent on agricultural ac-
when -one keeps in tivity. In Puerto Ridbo'iCuba and
ple, not merely pro- elsewhere in the Caribbean, subs-
a the markets, and tantial portions of the arable lands
.normally carried in are taken up by plantations. These
s1. acquired through are large-scale enterprises, .o f te n
of search, carried owned and financed by foreign cap-
s of miles, and sold ital. B1ut in Haiti almost all farm-
er long hours of add- ed land is .held in small., holdings.
*Often -probably Less than ten. per cent is- planta-
an not- the goods tion land, and that mainly .in sisal,
arker by any 'single grown in areas so dry .that custom-
lo nio t exceed t he ary peasant cultivation would be



NLobt &co.tAb ocaihoo

6 Tfour V SiacaieuJs

looklg4 the cay ,ve entee G4,

e oCanap4 Vet anc th

bejen AEM.eNs AmS Po.eRTf c I


impracticable. Since the Haitian Re-
volution, and especially after the
second decade of the nineteenth cen-
tury, agricultural land has been di-
vided and subdivided, with only oc-
casional reverses. Haiti, is' for this
reason the most authentic and tho-
roughgoing peasant economy in the
Caribbean. The individual peasant
generally grows' food for his family,
provides some of the same items
for sale to the internal market, and
perhaps one itentor two otherwise,
for export. .ifs production of ex-
port crops --notably coffee- un-
derwrites the national economy.
Were it not for his coffee, the cane
he sells to the mills, sisal and,._a
few other agricultural items, Haiti's
capacity to buy abroad would sink
'almost to the vanishing point. And
though' the scale, again, is minus-
cule, the Haitian peasant provides
a wider variety of export items to-
the world market. tha6 his count-
erpart anywhere in the 4ntilles.
Prom the sale of export items, "the
peasant gets some part of the 'cash
he- needs. But he also receives cash
for the' sale of 'his food surplus.
("frplus" is perhaps an .unfortu-
nate word; it might be better to
say that he sells some part-of his
subsistence production tb increase
this cash income). One might justi-
fiably argue that, by producing foir
sale to the internal market, the
peasant ,gets back some part of
the, money he has paid out in the
form of taxeiFson his coffee -and ot-
her export crops. .
The two major sources of cash
for the peasant -export items and
internal market itemns- represent
two different trapsctional. streams.
Sugar, sisal, coffee, etc. .'produced
by" the.peasant for export -or pro-
cessing are handled ,by special
means. But the sweet potatoes, ma-,
oni.c, arrowroot, fresh vegetables,
legumes, etc. with which he supplies
the local markets mostly move in
the ways described: in small quan-
tities ,in .ixed loads, on women's
heads and burros' ,batks, to be
sold and resold and perhaps resold
again and again, before reaching
the boards of the rich or the homes
of other peasants, a hundred miles
away. The marketer who buys from-
the peasant, for resale may be a
professional middle woman (reven-
deuse) who will scour a sector. of
countryside and return to her town
or village for the market day. Or
the peasant's wife, or the wife of
a neighbor, may be a middleman.
She goes to market whenever she
can put a load together sufficient
to make her trip worthwhile.- The.
produce these women accumulate,
sell and resell is usually varied in
character. This is partly because it
is rare-to harvest enough of a sing-
le item at one time to -make a trip
profitable. But it may also be true
that such marketers, unless' they



Through Its P

For complete inf

Stamps and other d

furnished you free
P.O. Box 723 -V Po

IP.O. Box 723 Po

have some wholesale arrangement,
carry diversified loads to avoid
being" caught in a market situation ,
where the item they may carry is- "
in oversupply. Thus it is that the
markets of Haiti fill up each mark- -
et day with dozens, or.-score or .
hundreds, or thousands of' individu-
al sellers, competing for the a'ail-
able buyers, and adjusting their t
prices to those of. their neighbor'., '
and to the apparent-demand-(which .
is practically the 'same 'thing- said
differently). '
The superb. greens of Kenscoff,
.the .citrus of Cap Haltien, and "thp
rice of the Artibonite reach middle-
class homes, and tourist hotels. But
most of the produce of Haiti .which
gets to. the market -at least the ..-
bulk- ends up in the homes f
people little superior economically,';.
if at all, to the peasant himself "-
."i .- ,:
The buying habits of 'the Haitian ;-'
people are" neatly congruent witi
the patterns of production and dis '
tribution: small farms with diver%-.
fied production; s iall loads of
highly diversified produce;- anEM'"'.
thereuponn, small purchases, misce
llaneous as ell. Buyers normally. .
buy only enough for one- or two .
meals. Even low-bulk manufactured,
products- are 'carefully subdivided:-:.
matches,, cigarettes, perfume, etc.',
Food .staples ari likewise handled,
in- ssmall quantities. Grains, flour,
,dried legumes and meals are' sold
by. the "ti-marmit" -a unit of-yol-
ume, not weight- represented by ,
a one-pourid-size tin (in which 'Un-'
ited States lard was originally
packed). Liquids, particularly oils .,
are sold by ..the "ti-glos" appro-.'
ximately three ounces: (The name .
derives, from -the f4ct that;the, t-'.-.-'.
les ,now a standard unit in--Hai-
tian markets, originally contamnetti-":-.'
shoe polish:'. Having achieved the.
status of standard measures, jihe,.
containers' themselves are now .
b bottle sellers" and tinkers.) On :"-
imay buy a banana; enough a 'i'
coal (about two cents' worth)' to,
cook a tiny meal; or anionion. O .
"course, the buyer pays a ppce- fr
buying, on !fuch a' scale. A. sin .
'onion will-sell/at a price. roughly .
-fifty per cent higher than if- one,'-
,were to-buy oni9ns by'the marmnit,::,
'and the mark-u,. on cigarettes sold '
from the broken pack is sometimes '.
about fifty per cent. ... '.'
It is not wholly clear why .the.. :i3P
consumer always" buys in small,' i,
quantities. Of course, he- rarely .has .
much cash at any one time.. Of
course, he usually lacks means of. '
storage and preservation. Bit one .'
wonders whether there is not a
strong .customary sense operating
as well. Apparently the practice of
buying in small quantities is not res-
'tricted to the poorer classes alone;

(Continued on page 1M)



stagee Stamps

ormation in Haiti

details which will be

of charge, write to


_C~ L



;ip '*'---^ r ;:^ -';: ,--rr'^' ;t .-:- -.- . : ..-.. :
,..'. . . . ,.
S .. .'
-~ ~ r. ,-r w-x n~w7-

PAGE 14 .
"; ... I '..' ..-


One day, Bouqui came to his
young brother, Malice, and said:
"My dear Malice, mama has been
dead now two years. As an inher-
itance, all she left us was an oak
'tree. Ho* can we divide it?" -
"The best thing to do," answered
--Malice, "would be to chop down
the oak tree, burn it, make is into
charcoal; then, we can easily share
the inheritance."
"Agreed," Bouqui told him.
They immediately pet the day
for these operations and separated.
At last the day Bouqui had wait-
ed for came. The three was cut
down, burned.'
Malice piled the charcoal on one
side.; and on the other a large
mound of ashes. Then, speaking to
SBouqui, he said:
"Brother Bouqui, here are two
lots; (designating the charcoal).
This one here Is small. The other
s larger Ithat is to say, the ashes).
Which one do you prefer?"
o. "Mom pi grand passe ,ou, map
prend pi gros lot-a (I am older
Stian you, so I'm taking the largest
pile) answered Bouqui.
"That's perfect," replied Malice.
... Then Malice quickly, picked up
the lot of charcoal and left the
ashes for Bouqui.
S "-' Two days later, Bouqui rented a
pavilion and installed himself in the-
market; displayed his lot of ashes
and cried out for all to hear: "La-
dies, see the beautiful ashes for
sale, the price is not dear. Fifty
centimes-only for'a can."'
The people of the market, imag-
-ining the boy to be going crazy,
s hurried to summon the Police.
Meanwhile, a violent win swept into
the ashes. It was a case of "sauve
S qui peut" (get out the- best you
couldd. Everybody was covered
with ashes. The mix-up took on a
veritable air of panic. The Police
came and placed Bouqui under ar-
-rest for inciting the people to rev-

As a preliminary lesson, Bouqui
... received a good whipping with the
"coco-macaque" (hard wood stick).
He was released four days later.
Immediately, he set out to find the
source of this wind that had caused
the trouble.
The "hougan" (magician) was
consulted, and agreed, to take Bou-
qui to the "source of the wind."
In fact, after three days of painful
walking, they arrived at a dark
place where a large "mapou" tree.
The "houngan" said to Bouqui:
"You see the big hole at the left
side of the mapou tree? It is there
that the wind takes its "source."
II. you succeed in stopping up thatC
hole, you will be rich. I promise
you all my aid if you kre willingI

the oath: "Vierge pete ge'm en
cehdre." '.'Tonnerre craze'm." (May
the Virgin put out my eyes with
ashes! Thunder and lighting strike
me down!).
'"Take care!" cried the houngan
in a voice of thunder. "If you fail
to keep your word, twenty yards
of blue denim wouldn't be enough.
to make a pair of trousers for
U 1"

This said, the "houngan" accom-
panied him to his "houmfort"
where Bouqui had to spend eight
days laying flat on his stomach to
take baths with "zombie leaves",
lucky leaves, and "Mapou- Dempis-
te" leaves.
The ninth day, the "houngan"
handed Bouqui a large package of
rags and told him: "Bouqui, go
stop-up the hole in the tree where
the wind comes from. I'll be wait-C
ing-for you. Don't make me ash-
Bouqui left in a hurry. When he
arrived at the spot, he began try-
ing to stop-up the hole when a
voice cried out: "Stop! Stop! Do
not stop it up. I need to breath;''"
"Ouap betize!" (You are kidd-
ing!), replied Bouqui.
"Do not stop up the hole, I tell
you," the voice repeated. "I will

to pay me two thousand gourdes. ed."
What do you say?" The King. in the presence of such
"Go to work for me," -answered audacity, accepted the challenge.
Bouqui. "I promise you ,half of They sent for the Magistrates and

And to seal the bargain, he added of selected witnesses, they drew up/







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S. uTi7


(As Told By Mare PETIT)

5 _I 1_ _

lc~ .


Haiti's Internal MarketE
(Continued from page 13) '

In any case, there is a marvelous er: when labor is plentiful and ca- adequate evidence. '
consistency of scale in the conti- pital scarce, it is hard, and in fact, mass ofc.sue i lj
nudity from producer to consumer uneconomic, to invest capital to such as Haiti,r
and. the scale is almost microsco- save labor. The "more productive trimmings
pic when compared to developed ways" in which td use the labor technology&.aIn point :'
western economies. The investment 'saved must first be discovered. In- are few persls : o
of labor is indeed tremendous. But deed the cdst of effort is painfully goods, if any, .a
it should be Tioticed how labor is high. But to damn Haitian market- sive in Haiti thin. n J
used in place of capital in this se- ing is to dhmn Haiti for being poor States. Granted-that &i
quence.'The peasant- "saves" (or and unindustrialized. Until means mato, grapeuti
rather, handles the problem of not are found to increase the produc- may be slightly.-less
having) capital by working bard tivity of the total economy, the ing than its equinal etH
and long with a minimum reper- countryman's Wife and the wives rican supermarket;":
tory of tools, and by raising or of his neighbors will continue to that it is bought ,-t t&
making m6st of what he needs.- The move down the slopes of the mas- niment of stiret.
marketer does the' same, substit- sifts, out of the corners of the Cul- rather thah to the wii-ul.
uting her fantastic physical efforts de-Sac, southward %R the way from It is still true that, pa-
for capital and capital goods, and Cap-Haitien, and northward, from and taste. for taste e
contenting herself with -whatever as. far as Les Cayes, scouring the will get more for i'
margin of profit she can manage land in search of a razor's edge of Haiti. If the A riicai
to garner. The consumer, too. saves profit. prepared to fPay for .i.
capital, at the same time that he air-conditioning, si
(or whoever Mhops for him) uses There is nothing unique about the phane each tiine he
up labor in great quantities. Would markets of Haiti. They are parall- ofcabbage, that- is
it not be better to invest capital eled with considerable fidelity in business; but he ea i t o
and use the labor saved in more West Africa. Similar-markets ae time all consumes. *eei
productive ways? The question is to be found in Mexico and in Gua- share his extravagance?7
inescapable, and the answer is bitt- temala. Other Caribbean islands, economic terms o val4
such as Jamaica, haie like syst- for price laid, with value's
ems. And one can find many si- as what the-corisumer -get
milarities in the market histories for his mon th aitl
the condition of the challenge: -I of western Europe. There are well- gets more than thei
intended planners who yearn to re- the market woman wh-
the King is beaten, Bouqui shall be :h e market woman white
thProclaimed Kingifs beaten, Bouqurn shall be place .these mechanisms of distri- services in supplyfbg tiug'
proclaimed King; if it tunIs out b t glass-encosed freezing Hainde r the^f?*
otherwise, he is to have his chopp- button with glassenclosed freez in ai renders thmiB
ed off on the Public Square. units, air-conditioned stores, and sells her rabor more chlt
oo h uc u. cell5phane-wrapped fruit all grown her opposite mimbe.ia..
They even distributed hand Bills and graded to the same sie, weight, States. This, tob, 'a ~e.d '
and advertising to announce to the color, and price. One may symrpa- ic of -the economy in' gelrie
people:the sensational event which thize wth these aspirations, de- not of marketing m.parti
was to take place in a -week. The plore with their proponents the quite .
Diplomatic Corps, the Consular fantastic investment of effort tra-
Corps, The King's Court, the Offi- ditional market systems require. The Haitian marketing
cials. the Army ,all were invited. But before reform, it is imperative work' as it does betieuie
to known wheat, indeed, one is re- fully fills people's .. eds
The day arrived. Bouqui came, forming.' Those characteristics as- needs it fills could :be.
carrying the little stick under his sociated with the most modern mar- some more economic ;
arm. The King stood on the grand keting procedures of western Euro- -and still render an ae t
stand which had been set up for pe and the United States inevitably fit, surely there would-be
the occasion. Bouqui advanced depend upon enormous buying pow- neurs to make the innQo
slowly, taking his own good tme. er, high-pried labor, advanced in- when .opportunity so...
Then taking the little stick from dustrial.techniques, and heavy ca- changes will inevitably ..L -
under his arm, he cried in a high pital investment. To provide mo- seems. The meaning of.0
voice: -"Little stick, do your duty!" dern distribution, preservation, gra- the major need of an':e'o"
ding, packaging, and the like to as Haitt's is an increase:',
The King received a formidable consumers in an economy which is tivity. Once that increab "
wihippihg in the presence of every- not supported by a -tch industrial self, other aspectsir t
body. He then fainted base must of necessity mean drain- will change as they
"Stop!" cried again-Bouqui. And ing capital from sorfie sector where reform at the marketting-
the little stick ceased. it is more badly needed. In an eco- shaking all of the treeal'S
The King, ashamed, abdicated the nory such as Haiti's, one paved see if it will make; the'wnd
throne and Bouqui was proilaimdd road, one successful agricultural ex- It is in view of all tis
King.- tension center ,or one practical irri- may be so strieck by tlaielt
gation ditch is worth more to the that, for all of the critic
UnfQrtunately he died two hours nations growth than a dozen super- marketing s y s t-e m s ,ev
after from over-eating. markets anod wil cost one-tenth there is as yet nowh6re'.l
Thus ends the story of King Bou- as much. Economies grow uneven- erature of economics,
ui and his inheritance. ly, i is true; but planners must re- or social science in 'gr&i.ra
a i .concile their-dreams of modernity q u a t e descriptive and a
Yo bam:,you ti cou de pied yo %with harsh economic facts, treatment of .an inteini
*'oye'm juss la-bas. What is more. there is as vet no s s:tem anvwhLi-hr in-th 1i'.-

give you riches."
"Let's have it! Get yourself go-
ing quick! Or I'll stop up the hole,"
Bouqui replied. "
In fact, the voice handed him a
small stick, telling him: "Here
is your fortune." And to give proof
of it, the voice cried: "Little stick,
do your duty."
Immediately;- the little stick gave
Bouqui a good beating.
"An moue! An moue! Au se-
cours!" tHelp!-Help! S.O.S.), cried
"Stop!'.' commanded the voice.
And the little stick ceased whipp-
Bouquistill under deep emotion,
took the road back home, carrying
the little, stick under the arm. On
the way, he decided to go and ad-
minister a" "calle" (whipping) to
the King. He directed his steps di-
rectly to the Royal Palace and de-
manded to see the King. He was
admitted. The King was informed.
and came down to meet him.
"What do you wish, dear Mr.
Bouqui?", asked the King.
"With this little stick, I alone am
King of the country," announced

"How's that? You are crazy!
Bouqui," said the King.
And Bouqui answered: "No. I am
not crazy, Your Highness. I have
come to make a bet. If Your High-
ness is not given a good licking by
this little stick, may I be behead-


f. : l-

-~ I> ~

"OV.,' 8TH, 1959



- -------------- --

in Haiti

ig so that people are
vacations' as much to
Votlay glf, lounge in
Nr just relax. And, no
hen you consider the
t be had through Free
pping. A couple who
ly"ight spend $500 on
r gifts' finds-they can
moise gifts, in free-port
altavin-gs up to 60% of
prjes. 'So, for the $250
: g save, they. enjoy a
ifa vacation iri Haiti.
,sI;th most famous free-
p iin the world is La
Creole, located in the
df :fascinating Port-au-
.,yIitl.-..Heye -one can
"y-ritable wonderland
-the world's l most de-
nerchanidise..Swiss wat-
Mshmeres, Handipade
loves, Crystal, China,
Sn.ch Perfumes, Ca-
iioeurs and a seem-
idess array of native
aft .ke La Belle
eor' '.a shopping cen-
frdinary shop. Con-
iht'one ca buy the
teir: f iamous Swiss-
i9.,ate Philippe,
.. sse Nardin, Tissot,
Jg Le Coultre,
.:wtipa,. AudHemars Pi-
Q nu -of' sf 50% of
.'avertised prices,
Mi a wonder that La
,let.iolis, famous. The
is e ii e China, Crystal
itevery fine brand
ented. Before buying
e ,siv watch it might
t., your time to
to Haiti. -

ta,'resident of La
e nd Haiti's most
I.boter of tourism,
another reason for-
g J popularity of
?0Sippping. His ad-
.i.n- support of travel-
g ins' appeared in. most
SS. publications and
iUeS-to pursue a po-
.op.eatigg. with tra-
s'-i' tNesr various
s to increase tou-
g the most popular
S he has created is
of sending a bot-
r.,chamipagne to any
_1 -oti -who happens
lbotingl a wedding
'Oscr to be on a

~"'4 elle. Creole is
It'birhtmng a 10th an-
ildl l.ostas has
s ta efforts to make
d-co.scius of the
"s of "traveling-to-
'e tore .will hold a
Slong sale offering
^te'r discounts on fa-
a .d merchandise.
y elusivee items will
aed be sold to visi-
S CIBics that will as-
p.tB' No doubt thou-
tft1 his year will
rg1otn vacations in
n -m a way, than
I away.



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a.]ma sa aas

Harold H. WEILAND, Div. Chief
Clifford V. ALVIS, Equip. & MNint.
George H. SALLING, Public Works
Jack L. SPARKS, Water Resources
Glen W. MC DONALD, Div. Chief
Milton FEIER, Statistician
Eugne J. KELLY, Sanitarian
Claire MARTINEAU, Public Health
Edward E. MINTY, Business Man.
Thomas A. HART,. Division Chief
Charles C. BRIGGS, Deputy Educa-
tion Advisor'
Noble B. ARMSTRONG, Community
Education Adv.
Patricia HERTERT, Adult Educa-
tion Adv. (Area)-
Ber ice W. KING, Home Economist
Edward A. KINKAID Jr., Trade
Ind. Education Adv.
Leslie B. NEWHOUSE, Business Ma-
Hubert E. REEVES, Education Adv.
- Joe R. THOMPSON, Teacher Train-
Ing Adv.
George N. WAKEFIELD, Education
Advisor *
Cap-Haitien .
Albert C. SLAUGHTER, Operations
John H. MICNAMARA, Busin. Man.
Daniel F. STEMART, A)gric. Equip.
& Maint. Adv.

S Arlibonite Valley
Norman M. WARD,

Asst. Dierctor

Richard L. WINTERS, Food & Agr.
Merriam A. JONES, Deputy Food
& Agr. Officer '
Paul H. ALLEN, Extension Adv.
Harold D. BAUMAN, Econ. Adv.
Leonard D. BROCKS, Agr. Econ.
Paul J. BROWN Jr., Livestock Adv.
Ella M. CROSBY, Horpe Economics
Advisor ,
George HAGIWARA, Horticulture
Helen C. KEAVENY, Support Spec.


(Continued from page 4)

Arthur S. KILWELL, Entomology Le Percnoir (guests of01 LT eue
Advisor Creole) as they watched PAA plan-
Warren J. LEATHAM, Agricultural es land and take off three thousand
Engineer feet below on Bowen Field. -
Robert L. MCDILL, Rural Youth Islands on the group's itinerary
Advisor are the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica.
J.-Harvey. MCLAUGHLIN, Horticul- Dominican Republic and Puerto Ri-
ture Advisor Co.
Thomas W. MCKINLEY, Iorest
r Management Advisor The 10-day island tour, began Oc-
Thomas J. MOON, Extension Adv. tober 30, is part of Pan American's
Andrew H. PEYTON, Farm Ma- continuing p r o g r a m to keep its'
chinery Advisor sales representatives up to date on
Caribbean and other resort areas.
Staley L. PITTS, Agronomy Adv. Group travel, often involving lar-
ilCn ^ n t i.WL"LL, T agr A...

.iarence |t W. SITTELl., Ag-.- AdV.
Harlan N. TULLEY, Soils Advisor
E. Dean TURLEY, Business Man.
Jay H. HARDEE, Forestry Adv.
Jasper J. WALKER. Rural Youth
Walton SELLERS, Agr. Adv. (Res)

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15 Pan American World Airways'
sales representatives spent twenty-
four hours here this past week on
a ten day tour of six Caribbean is-
lands that handle in excess of five
million dollars each year in group
The PAA men visited as many
of the local hotel and tourist at-
tractions as time would permit.
Lodged at the El Rancho they were
guests of honor at cocktails and
buffet dinner Thursday night dur-
ing which the Tourist Board arr-
ranged for a folklore show. They
were invited to supper at the Villa
Creole and enjoyed breakfast at the
Montana. Luncllheon of filet with
wine sauce, lobster salad with
white and red wine was served at
I 1 .-:. 4! TN 1 -11


friends "Don't. go. to HE
is something diabolic, it
ship of snakes and bl
are becoming rare. D
disgust are giving way
which itself is gradual
into indulgent sympathy;
judice is tenacious. Onl
logy, in explaining the
of Voodoo and in thr
light on the facts, can
religion emerge from
shadows and free it ol
mares which it still
many honest but misinfc

Certain Haitians will
saddened that a foreij
they welcomed so warm
so many before him, fe
to wrife a book on Vo
they look upon as one
embarrassing aspects o
tional culture. Let them


ge corporation-sponsored sales. in-
centive contests and company con-
ventioris, ha s .b e e n promoted by
Pan Am with increased success ''
year after year. -
It has developed a type of busin-
ess that is particularly beneficial to
the area visited since it nearly al-
ways takes place during the off
Currently .Pan Am is airlifting
3,800 persons -U.S. air condition-
ing salesmen and their wives- to '
Acapul co, exidco. This group of
Fedders Corporation sales incentive
c o n t e s t winners has in previous
years been airlifted by Pan Am to
Ciudad Trujillo, Dormnican Repub- Father Ponliquin, op Cathohe l welfare receiving donation -fribm Sub
lic; Nassau. Bahamas, and twice to -
Montego' Bay, Jamaica. U.S. NY Submarine Sq" -io q:it-rs by Sub-tend r. B
No. H12based'at Ke West Flu, da nell
Headed by Phil Siefert, manager ,
of special events or Pan Am's U. sent a donation of food 'and cloth- The food and clothing wv ds
S. Sales, and Bill Roettgen, Latin ing to the needy people of Hait ed between the Church W'rld
American Division special events last month. vice and the Catholic Relief Sods
sales representative at Miami, the for distribution. U.S. Military A
group included Richard Tomkins, The 1600 pounds of food and 3-100 che Col. Dollard arranged for:f
Boston; Don Schickendanz, Chica- pounds of clothing %%as landed hereilanding of the *ift from the'
go; Don M ill e r, Cleveland; Ed. at the Bizoton Coast Guard he-ad- i men. -W
Zwerneman, Dallas; Murray Smith, .__
Detroit; Alden Marshall, Los Ang- -
eles; Fred Ashley, New York City; .
John" Frisbie, New York City; 1. "7
Hollister Young, Philadelphia: Ro- -
bert T. Halliday, San Francisco;
James L. Weiss, Seattle; Emil F. .
Klein, Washington, D.C.: Phil Sie- -T-.
fert, Lon g Island City: Wdilliam
Roettgen, LAD-Miarm; Bob Black,
Denver. "Ifl'N/flT333

' Dr Paul Perigord one time resid-
ent of Gros Miorne and professor
at the University of California pas-
sed away in New York Wednesday.
He was 76. His daughter Lorraine
Wallace, wife of the-famous Ame-
rican TV personality Mike Wallace
was visiting here -with the Rony
Chenets at the time of her father's
death. Dr. Perigord. was a sincere
friend of Haiti and at one time ass-
isted' the editing of the original
Port-au-Prince Times.


bPAG Ifi

Voodoo Bobi"
(Continued from page 6).,
aiti: Voodoo that I have not given.w to:a
is the wor- wish to exploit a"subje, .of w-.. -
lack magic' the mere mention is .
distrustt and stimulate the curiJo&ityi. F.
to curiosity tic; nor have I wihed; to
ally turning personal notoriety at e'
y. But pre- of their country, Througbout Uei
ly anthropo- domain of anthropology. Ila
true nature ways been interested by.,
rowing cold phenomena and in. the -4r
make this syncretic cults. Voodoo in
its cloaking pect proved a particular'
f the night- field, I am not its aplog
inspires in know that sooner or'late
formed peop- disappear. My purpose
to describe Voodoo a5 it
to me. It remains for ot
no doubt be pojogists to decide-if -waj '
gner whom en- or not: I shall feer .a
ly has, like in approaching .the st ,.
It the need doo seriously and with -. t
:odoo which have helped to ma kd-'
of the most ordinary people of the
f their pa- towns and countryside,-, w
understand learnt to -love and respect..*"

Y, NOV., 8TH, 1959



One quiet afternoon two months
ago. a shapely young brunette and
'-A muscular companion flew in from
.:. -Miami and brought Haiti worldwide
recognition as an island of rom-
.- ance.
Not since James (From Here to
.-'Eternity) Jones wed at the Oloffson
-nor French Actress Martine Carol
S"at the Ibo Lele has the Republic
e received such a chunk of publicity.
The curvaous French-speaking Ti-
n -my Van Nga in a clinging cotton-
nit dress won the scene from her
cleverly disguised dentist, garbed
S in the tradition of a rascal from
a silent movie spy thriller.
Adjusting his Pancho Villa mus-
tache, dark glasses and beatnik
Xk. -chp Miles Graham of Omaha Ne-
S'/.braska was' filling out his landing
. -card in the Bowen Field waiting
'-room when official Tourist Board
SI .greeter, energetic Aubelain J oli-
-coeur, a man not easily deluded,
- "_ popped up with a hail of "hello Mr
Marion Brando... Welcome to Haiti"
"Oh No, No, No," cried the Om-
.alia dentist.
"Please, please do me a favor


Weeks In Haiti For Stars

.o And France Nuyen Brought Publicity

Marion Brando and France Nuyen (World of Susie Wong) caught on arrival at Bowen Field by photographer Aubelain Jolicoeur. The man in
the dark suit in Naval Mission Commander Col. Robert Debs Heini Jr.

meals at the Picardie, dancing at
the Bacoulou, Montana, swimming
at La Mer Frappee. Kyona and
qpnit~ xrid thp t nmv~id in

.get me on the first plane out of an Auis U-drive
b here... I'D come back tomorrow or
here.. I'll cme back tomorrow or Except for a short blurb in Time
the next day incognito. If people Magakine which unmasked Timy as
know I'm here my vacation will France Nuyen of the Broadway play
e ruined," the tourist pleaded. "World of Susie Wong" they were
Assured of heavenly peace, pri- en complete peace of mind.
: .-vacy arid no publicity the vacation With their Haitian ovation d.over
,-as on again.
-was on agathe peace ended. 'Returning to Mia-
-'. ed mi a highly trained squad of veter-
-'Seldom Sighted an photographers were lying in
Lik6 a wartime U-boat in the ambush.
North .Atlantic Timy and Brando The result brought Haiti before
were only sighted fleetingly during millions of readers of Magazines
-their two-week vacation. They were and newspapers TV and radio au-
Sglimpsed presiding over gregarious diences as a romantic isle.

The first Jet Passenger Aircraft
to land on this island set down on
the DR's new Caucedo airport Oct-
ober 24th after a two hour flight
from Miami.
The big PAA Boeing 707 was on
a proving flight as a forerunner to
the tentative opening of a regular
jet service to the DR from Miami
and New York as of December II.
Aboard the proving flight was
Wilbur L. Morrison executive vice-
President in charge of Panama's
Latin America division.
The giant swept-wing jets can
span the 1,630 miles between C.T.
and New York in three hours fifteen
minutes cutting the former propell-
er driver aircraft flight time in

The Japanese government is send-
ing a trade mission to eleven na-
tions in'the Caribbean area to pro-
mote sales of Japanese products. *
The 10-member mission headed
by Fumio Miuran director general
of the Latin American Association
will visit Haiti sometime this month.
Other countries to be visited by
the mission are: Mexico, Guatema-
la, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Pana-
ma, Equador, Columbia, Venezuela,
Dominican Republic and Cuba.
The mission will emphasize ex-
ports of Japanese heavy machinery.

(Miami Florida)

Marion Brando's secret teenage
girl friend, trying to sneak into the
United Stated unrecognized, turned
wild-cat in Miami Saturday.
She bopped a IW.ami Herald pho-
tographer with her pocketbook and
beat him with her dainty gloved
The lady was the exotically beau-
tiful France Nuyen, 19, Broadway
star of "The World of Suzie Wong".
She and Actor Brando, 36, slipped
into Miamnu International Airport at
3 p.m. after a two week vacation
in Port au Prince, Haiti. The% hur-
riedly parted company when re-
While Brando bared a hairy arm
for a smallpox vaccination at the
U.S. Customs office, France scur-
ned unknowingly into the well-fo-
used. lenses of two photographers
waiting patiently in the lower lobby.
Startled. she threw up her arms
to hide her face, squirmed away
and then saw\ Herald Photographer
Doug Kennedy three yards away.
Her slanted, melancholy brown
eyes flashed behind dark glasses.
Squealing angrily in-her famed
French accent, she lunged at Ken-
nedy and socked him on the left
shoulder with a big white pocket-

Then she flew at him with her
fist and bopped his ears'
Kennedy shrank sheepishly and
asked, "Now. what do you want to
do that for?"
"I'm gonna get a cop!" shouted
the lady.
"Boys, let's not create a disturb-
ance," said an officer of the law
who arrived with dispatch.
Brando, meanwhile, aloof and dis-
dainful. mumbled unpleasantries in
his finest Stanley Kowalski style
and told a breathless twentyish au-
tograph seeker. "I only give auto-
graphs to children."
As to his'lovely companion. Bran-
do snarled at newsmen:
"I don't think that's any of your
He traveled as Dr. Miles Graham,
"an Omaha, Neb., dentist." The
dentist needed a haircut. France
Nuyen pretended she was "Timy
Brando used still another phony
name when he escaped Miami in
a New York-bound plane after a
race down the concourse. Little
France, billed in Hollywood as the
"Oriental teenager," vanished in
the hubbub and fled undetected.
Brando was divorced from shy
actress Anna Kashfi last April.




Z R~.NZ~j d.d




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I On Sale At: Canape Vert .

Aux Cent Mille Artic?:

Dadlani's Maison Orienlale

__ _.

Iq t~i'


The SUN returns to publication after a short interruption,
coinciding with the anniversary of its founding in Sept-
ember, 1950.
We do not, on this occasion, intend to list. the trials and
Stribulatqons involved in publishing a newspaper nor to detail
wfhat caused The Sun to disappear for the last four months.
But we do -want the people of Port-auJ-Prince and the
Republic of -Haiti to know once again that The Sun has
only one cardinal ,ahn. That is to encourage, heLp and -pub-
lih the. news of the n.arc of the 'Haitian people towards
la better, more prosperous and 'happy life.
'The Sun has ,been and always will be a newspaper
redlecting the interests of the Haitian community. It never
(his and never will serve the interests of any power-
seeking cliquee". Every Haitian has a rightful place in The

Our guidepost is the motto of the American press: "To
give the news impartially, without fear or favor, regardless
a way party, sect or interest involved."
There will, of course, always 'be some who will accuse us
pt veering from that dlearly defined road. The answer to
thee is that -the news columns of The Sun, w-ich cannot
be bought, are open to those who choose to disagree.
The Sun never 'has, and never will, accept subsidies or
money from the government of Haiti, any other state, or-
gtnization, group, or individual. It is the newspaper of the
fitian people.
t will never fear honest competition, for that is a con-
dition that fosters private initiative and enterprise, and en-
hBtuces the sacred trust the ,people should always have in
their press. The 'Sun will vigorously fight against any pu-
llicaJtion that violates that trust.
The 'Sun 'has an unshakeable faith in the future of Haiti
mid its people. It 'hopes eventually to publish a pictorial.
edition in Creole.
For the nine years that 'have passed and the tenth and
the other years ahead, The Sun gratefully acknowledges
the support of its advertisers 'and readers. It pledges itself
- to strive in every way to be a 'bigger and better newspaper.
bNothing could please The 'Sun more than to have nothing
to publish 'but "good news". But there always must be the
bad along with 'the good. Whidhever 'category into which
the news falls, it belongs to the 'people of Haiti. They will
a flys find it in the columns of this newspaper.
They will always find, too, that The .Sun, as in the past,
will. whole-heartedily support every move designed to
.Atrengithen the bloodstream *of the nation's economy.
That includes everything from boosting 'Haiti's tourist
attarctions, the products she wants to sell to the rest of
-the world, to obtaining substantially loans particularly
iram the United 'States aimed at achieving financial and
economic dtaibi'lity which in turn strengthens the government
mnd the nation's administrative machinery.
This is your newspaper. Every 'community gets the news-
malper it deserves.
The' Sun confidently 'believes 'that you -the people of
Eaiti- want it to be the best of newspapers.
Rt is there to serve you. It will never faster in that duty.
For the news --all of the newrs- belongs to the people.
The Sun wi wayss publish it knowing that a happy
mal prosperous future is assured in the hands of an en-
lightened people.


a rr-


Agent'Distributr: LA BELLE CREOLE
Agent Dis-tributor: LA BELLE O REOLE



Community Weekly Published Sunday Morning

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_-- -

176 Bleecker Ave.
Belleville, Ont.,
Oct. 28, 1959.
Haiti Sun,
Port-au-Prince. Haiti
Dear Sir,
I am a 19 year old Canadian girl
who would like to correspond with
some of your readers.
I have dark brown hair, gray
eyes and a fair complexion. I like
all outdoor sports and am especial-
ly interested in exchanging stamps,
postcards, and snaps with any and
all who will write me.
Yours sincerely
Miss Pat Rowland.

---- -WTCH

Coster Month In U.S.
This is Coster month in. the Unit-
ed States. N.B.C. monitor openedC
November with a taped inervMiew
with the famous playwright,'prbdu
cer and "metteur en scene",. ,
ger Coster of the Grand H6tel 01.
offson. Perhaps the biggest publi-
city plug n decades for Haiti. wi
be included in a six page'spfeat
in the Saturday Evening Post (over
five mlion subscribers) deVoted to"
telling the Coster story. Two pagei1
of the Oloffson's Coster will' be,:
Pin color. Rehearsal for think y.a.-
Oloffson Monday night shoi is-un-i
derway behind a tight sisal crtailF
Opening night is Monday Deoemn)-
er 14th at 10 p.m.

- i-I


AGENTS: TIPCO, Place Geffrard
TIPCO Bldg Phone: 3216, 3929

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Swim, Spearfish, Snorkle, Water-Ski

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Waters From Kyona


U. S. Barters Wh
In a 6,000, 00
In The New York Times
The United States
has concluded a barter deal by
which it will get $6,000,000 of Hai--
tian bauxite, basic material for
aluminum, for its strategic miner-
als stock-pile. It will give in ex-
change an equivalent value in sur-
plus wheat.
The deal was reported by Arthur
D. Haas, preside. of Caribbean Mills,
one of the wide-spread interests of
a Texas group headed by Clinton
T. Murchison of Dallas.

Mr. Haas said the basic contract
was between the Commodity Credit
Corporation and the Reynolds Met-
als Company, which for several
years has been mining bauxite ore
at a $10,000,000 installation at Mi-
ragoane, in southwest Haiti.

Reynolds had found itself with an
oversupply of bauxite and the pros-
pect of having to curtail operations
in Haiti. Under the new deal it will
deliver 400,000 tons a year's out-
put to the United States stock-

. I



7,. ."."
eat for
0 Dollar NJ
The United States will
this with wheat rom its.
stock. Reynolds in turn will
wheat to Caribbean Mills, .i.I
since November, 1958, has Ieea
ning a $5,000,000 flour mill 'dt Iii
The effect, Mr. Haas said, will
be to improve Haiti's economy .b
doubling Reynolds employment to
perhaps 750 persons, and doublingW
or tripling royalties and incotfie t.
from Reynolds operations. d,
The Haitian Government had hadi
the right to tender wheat fromrn-ai
source for Caribbean t6 buy. UndeM
the deal, the United States-will SI-
the complete supplier for Carlbbea'
for the twelve to eighteen innthtAI
it will take to grind the..wHie.'ihxj
evolved, while disposing otf -hit
from its bulging surpluses. "'t','
Negotiations are unddr way for,
second similar one-year deal, follow-
ing the conclusion of the pri~&fit'
agreement, Mr. Haas said.
The Murchison interests have seuv-'
eral offer operations ufider way In
Haiti. Their Tecon Corporation &L
building a $300,000 wharf for th6;'!
coffee center of Jacmel, replacing"
a dock destroyed during a hurri-
cane some years ago. Funds f6r
the project were made available tb6
Haiti by-.advance royalty and. ta'r
payments from Reynolds Metals.'
As the Haitian-American Meat
and Provision Company, the irw.":
chison interests are joined .wit. two.
New York investment banking houts-.!
es Allen & Co. and Dancy Duva,.
& Co. in putting up a $500,000..,
meat-packing planT at Damien, near--!
Port-au-Prince. This is expected t.
go into operation by Dec. 1, and
enable the razing of an old muniuicl-.
pal slaughterhouse on the Port-Wa
Prince water-front.
Caribbean Mills, Mr. Haas said
has given a $20,000 p6wer plant aS
a gift to supply electricity for the
town of Cabaret, near its plant.
This is to be dedicated in the neti
thirty days. 21

Y, NOV., 8TH, 1959


Pr flh' ii

Elias Noustas flew to Mexico
,Tuesday to meet his first grandson,
I.strapping seven pound boy born
to.his daughetr Gloria last month. t
Gloria_ ind her husband Jacques P
flabun are making their home in
Mexido; 0
* 0
Mile Josie Malval is off to New
York to do some last minute shop-
ping. She will wed Roland Decatrel F
in December. 0

Mlle'Mreille Borno and busines-
man Jacques Dufort are planning
a December wedding. Miss Borno
daughter of Mr and Mrs Pierre
Bornmo of .Petionville completed her
studies in England and is now work-
inigfin the Leger Cabinet.
I* *V
Daniel Theard President of Auto
S.A. entertained British Ambassad-
or 4* Sydney Simmonds at an
eleven to one cocktail party in his
Company's Grand Rue office Fri-
day. The Ambassador ends his long
tour of duty here shortly.

Jacqueline Laraque the beautiful
daughter of Colonel and Mrs Gus-
tave Laraque was married to Ber-
nard Colliere at Saint-Tropez Sept-
ember 8th. E
House-guests of the David Har-
alsons of PAA Harry Wheeter
hi pretty Mexican-born wife Mane
Elena and their children Lina and
David. Mr. Wheeler is the assistant
station manager for PAA in San
Juan. They entertained friends at
a Mexican dinner last night at the
Haralsons villa in Tete de I'Eau.

Rony Chenet for thirty years the
Sun Life Assurance district man-
ager here is back from an extended
health trip abroad His son Ti Ro-
ly, wife Nancy and their three
children have resettled here after a
year in New York.

Walter (Tropigas) Pierce flew to
Florida on business Friday.

RCA assistant manager' Claude
Manuel is turning in his bachelor-
hood for the hand of Mile Marie-
Denise Celestin. They have set the
date for December.

Mr and M)rs William-Ellis of the
American Embassy entertained at
cocktails and buffet supper in their
Bourdon, villa Thursday evening.
Among the guests was Brigadier-
General Chapman youngest B. G.
in the United States Marine Corps.
The Ellis' comparative newcomers
Wre last stationed in Havana and
are at home in both Spanish and

qaeS Bayardelle was given a
t.I'ad off Saturday afternoon
hl. O flew off to New York.
Mrss Zaniel Cassagnol left yester-
day the States on a health trip.

* *
Dewitt Peters, director of the Cen-
tre d'Art returned from spending
Sthe Sumlme in New York.


home in Willy Lamothe village off
Delmas. Mr Martin returns to his
position of Managing director of
Sonaco representatives of Le Tour-
neau Westinghouse and G. M. Die-
sels this week.
* *

The Creole-French speaking Ass-
istant executive officer of ICA Les-
ter J. Gottlieb who spent much of
his four years here bumping around
the rural districts by jeep and bour-


Mrh and Mrs Jacques Martin re-
urned to the City today from their
Kenscoff honeymoon while their
veek-old wedding still reigns topic
of conversation as social highlight
of the 3ear.
Marie Josie Gentil, only daughter
of Mr and Mrs Marcel Gentil of
Port-au-Prince and Jacques Martin,
one of the Capital's most -eligible
bachelors, were married Saturday
n a Six thirty ceremony at the
Sacre Coeur Church in Turgeau.
The cure Rev. Father Nantin who
included in his sermon a message
as a friend of both families, perfor-
med the ceremony.
President Doctor Francois Duva- .
Lier was personally represented by
an officer of the Presidential Guard.
Even ailse space was taken up n
the church.

The bride was escorted by best-
man Lieutenant Cdmmander Mau-
rice Martin the grooms brother. She
looked ravissant in a gown of silk
with re-embroidered Alencon lace
(by her Aunty Madame Edouar'd
Gentd) wtth a scoop neckline and
long sleeves and chapel-length
train. Her heirloom lace veil was
attached to a diadem of pearls.
Matron of Honor,. the bride's moth-
er wore a gown of white peau de
sole cover with back italian lace
and a large black feathered cha-
The bride's father escorted the
grooms adopted mother Mile Ca-
mille i Mamie) Durand.
The bridesmaids and garcons de
honneur were Genevieve D'Adeskey,
Adrien Boucard Jr., Dominique Vi-
tal. Max Chauvet Jr., -Raphaelle
Vital, Pierre Chauvet Jr., Nonie
Lemkie, Hans Peter Hackembruch.
Joelle Leger, Dieter Schmidt, The-
rese Phipps, Serge Klang, Fran-
coise Borno Garry Klang, Regine
Boucard. Lilnel Mritin, Eric Du-
quella, Maike Heitking.
Witnesses signing the marriage
register were: Mmes Lionel D'A-
deskey, Hubert Etheart, Jean Clau-
de Armand, Claude Gentil, Jean
Vital, Frederic Martin, Vve Nela-
ton Camille, Melles Josiane Vital,
Camille Durand, MM. Henri Borno.
Darnel Brun, Fornme Bogat. Ar-
mand Mallebranche, Philippe Char-
lier i Mayor of Port-au-Princel I
Chrysostome Beaubrun, Jules To-
mar, Daniel Theard, Reguinald de
Matteis. Helge Madsen. Edouardito
Gentil, Edouard Esteve. Raymond
Flambert, Gerard Allen. Henri Wie-
ner, Roger Denis, Marcel VdIard.
Ekie Lemkie, Adrien Castra Jr..
Roger Chancy, Bernard Diederich,
Willy Koehler, Pierre Rourain,
Charles Dejean, Marcel Martin,
Willy Frisch. Me Georges Leger
Jr.. Drs Georges Rigaud and Elie
Villard. The wedding cortege was
a line of shiny new OPELS and
A sumptuous reception followed
the benediction nuptials at the Mar-
eel Gentils Debussy residence. The
celebration continued till shortly be-
fore midnight when the newly weds
were escorted under a traditional
hail storm of Artibonite rice to
the Kenscoff honeymoon villa am-
ongst the cool Pines at five thous-
and feet.
The Martins will make their

rique is returning to Washington
and reassignment today with his
wife and three soons, George (71,
Noel (6) and Danny (3). Les is
going to study at the Institute on
Development Programming at the
John Hopkins School of Advanced
Inter-national Studies in D.C. The
Gottlieb clan will be missed.
Skm and Celia Abitbol I are
home from their five month motor

After receiving the Benediction nuptials at the Sacre Coeur
Mr and Mrs Jacques Martin leave the altar.

arie Josie Gentil and Jacques Martin with matron of honor Mrs Gentil,
bestman Lieut. Commander Maurice Martin,
Mile Camille Durand and Mr Marcel Gentil.

Bride and groom surrounded by bridesmaids and garcons de
honnear at the Marcel Gentil home in Debussy.

tour of Europe and North Africa,
They visited with Celia's relatives
in Morocco and France.

Frank Kneller Colgate represen-
tative here for the past two years
returned from home leave in New
Jersey this past week with wife
Nancy to hear he has been trans-
ferred to Siam.
* *
Shell Manager in Haiti Douglas
Crew and wife Elizabeth return to
merry England this month for a
four month vacation. Mrs Crew has
recovered from a case of dengue

Major and Mrs O'Neal arrived
here this week for a tour of duty
with the United States Airmission.
The O'Neals are stopping at the
Montana with their clan; Roben 13,
Steven 2 and Babe 1 while they
search for a new home.
* *
Ham W2GBU Cliff Rigsbee who
saw service in Haiti as a Marine
during the occupation 1925-26 has
had the Haiti blues for years. He
keeps a nightly schedule from Had-
donfield, New Jersey with Jules
HH2T Tomar of Gros Morne just
to hear about the wonderful weath-

The Clark brothers are visiting
their Plantation Dauphin and Has-

Arehie and GJadys Spillitt threw
their home open to the younger set
most of Saturday with a farewell
party for the Ti GofUiebs.
Jaco Sassine returns to Miami
after a brief visit to Port tomorrow.
9 *
Mrs Rudy Baboun and her new
baby arrived home from New York




T he Canadian Government con-
tributed 125.000-pounds of dry skim
milk to UNICEF for distribution in
Haiti. Valued at $8,000 the ship-
ment is part of an allotment to the
West Indies. 20,000 pounds valued
at $1,400 went to Turks Island and
102.000 pounds valued at $7,100 to

The shipment for Haiti arrived
last week and was formally hand-
ed over to the Haitian authorities
in a symbolic ceremony by the Ca-
nadian Charge d'Affaires, Mr. Ful-
gence Charpentier. The Haitian Go-
vernment was represented by Dr.
Carl Boulos, of the Nutrition Divi-
sion of the Department of Health,
on behalf of Mr Elysee, Secretary
of State for Health. Also present
were Mr. Jean Richardot, Technic-
al Assistance Board o0 the United
Nations Organization; Dr. Jean
Bernadotte. Director of programs,
Nutrition Division; R. F. Pouliquen
of the Catholic Services, and Rev.
Mr. McConnell of the World Church

Dr. Boulos expressed the thanks
of the Haitian Government to the
Government of Canada for its con-
tinued generosity toward Haiti. He
explained that the powdered milk
will be distributed to the various
public schools in Port-au-Prince
and districts to be given to school
children who arrive at their
classes without having had suffici-
ent food.
Such distribution of milk will
help to balance the diet of children
lacking in protein and animal fat.
Mr. Charpentier mentioned in his
reply that Canada's gift was more
a gesture of fraternity than char-

'PA 1F in

- K.-...



Haiti Wants To Reequip Its.Army

extension program that goes out to investment bankers had, been ass-
s t r a w thatched uts to teaching ociated with this until last June.
such activintes as sewing.
The Klein Saks mission has been
The Duvalier Govt. has also re- working on tax reforms emphasit-,
tained the private American firm ing need for income taxation; new
Klein and Saks of Washington as law to make mining industry "mocr
economic and financial advisers. attractive for investors; helping] l,
This has two members Eugene tangle accounts of $40,000,000.
Grasberg and Alec Bacic working eign debt; and preparing- e iv.t
here. Lehman Brothers, New Yorkeconomic rehabilitation progranz"'.lyi

United States Technical Aid iL
spending four million dollars her
this year. United States provided
one million dollars surplus food thiE
year to help avert starvation in the
drought beset Nothwest. This was
in addition to six million dollars
budget grant that alone enabled
Haiti to pay its $33,600,000 national
budget in the year ended September
.During this year also the Develop
meant Loan Fund gave three loans
just starting to be paid in here
These lent $4,300,000 to complete
irrigation works in Artibonite Vail
ey 3 million dollars for sugar mill
at Welch in' the north and $300,000
for study of Southern road network.
The Artibonite Valley seems to be
awakening. The United States Exp-
ort-Import Bank loans had put $25,-
, 500,000 since 1952 into the unfinish-
*ed irrigation and power project. The
Project had put water on only one
third of the planned eighty thousand
Peasants cut ditches to irrigate
another third. In the last two years
people themselves have built up a
rice crop in Artibonite that amounts
to fifty thousand tons yearly. Haiti
hope eventually to save one mill-
ion dollars in foreign exchange it
now spends to imnprt rice.
The Haitian Army had one im-
A' portant military job in recent
months wiping out an invasion by
thirty-one foreigners who landed
from Cuba at Les Irois in the south-
west last August 13. In action last-
ing until September fourth, twenty-
six were killed and five captured.
The operation in which no memb-
er of the United States military
mission was involved saw the
Haitian Army fighting with Krag
rifles. It has one thousand Krags,
Spanish American war surplus gott-
en from United States in 1915. Its
other rifles are Springfields dating
back to 1903; World War .One En-
fields,' three kinds of Belgian Mau-
sers and few hundred-United States
M Ones.
Communications during the anti-
invasion fight were carried out by
dropping pouches with streamers
from airplanes while forces on
the ground laid out panels.
The Haitian Army lacks a single
field radio and has only a few com-
mercial type radio sets at princip-
al fixed posts. It has a handful of
The Airforce has four P-51S, eight
AT-6S and two DC-3 are used as
civilian airline under supervision of
the United States. Airforce mission
and finances the whole airforce. In
a country of remote 'mountain fast-
nesses the only helicopter belongs
to United States military mission.
The Haitian armed forces which
are also the nations police, comprise
5,100 men including 700 in- Airforce
and Coastguard and one hundred
special rural police.
When the United States Military
mission started real work last Ap-
ril it found the army in complete
unreadiness. The ammunition had
been so badly stored that it was
gratifying when two of five rounds
\ could fire.
y Colonel Heinl said the forces capa-
bilty "has gone up sharply due
to work we have done with them."'
The United States mission has
been unorking so far only in Port.
au-Prince area where it has train-
ed tuo battalions to be ready to

(Continued from page 1)
s rush to any threatened point in Other Pote Cole projects include
e Haiti. Members work with all ar- a youth center built by people with
d med force activities except aviation, earthen blocks, school on sanitation,
s Plans call for organizing a recruit nurses school, twenty bed hospital
e training depot. Nine army officers, operated by Mpennonite Central
s four medical officers and one doz. Committee of United States, Haiti's
s en enlisted men are attending mi- second teachers college due to be
d litary schools in the U.S. fished next year, farm to market
I The Haitian government pays roads to open up vegetable and
r most costs of the mission here. coffee areas, refrigeration and pack-
Chief needs. Colonel Hein] said are ing plant for vegetable export, and
- inventory of all materiel, organiz- -
s action of maintenance services and
stocking up with thirty caliber am.- P R f I
Harry" Warner Yoe, chief of Point
Four mission, said United States Better enforcement of the income
has been giving technical aid on tax" is to be sought by requiring
health in Haiti since 1942, agricul- presentation of identity cards for
. rure since 1944, education since '54 cashing checks and by streamlin-
- and public administration since ing of collection procedures. A spe-
- last year. The overall program is cal levy on letters -one cent do-
* third largest United statess has ev- mestic. two cents foreign- has
er had bn technical aid irr the West- been enacted to raise funds for the
ern Hemisphere surpassed only by campaign against illiteracy.
earlier programs in B o I i v i a and
Guatemala. President Duvalier ex p r e s s e d
Point Four, Yoe seeks to "bring hope that the new .taxes may bring
about conditions for private enter- in .enough revenue to provide for
praise to develop, both Haitian and some development projects atop the
foreign". For this it has been ad- scheduled budget. His long-term
rising the government on develop- program gives top priority to roads,
ing national institutions such as mi- irrigation, anti-erosion measures
nistries. schools, officials and help- a n d industries processing Haitian
ing Co provide specific projects, raw materials, including cotton, tex-
Of United States staff of experts tiles, vegetable oils and soap.
-slated to rise to ninety-two by the '
end of year, four are working in The Government is not asking for
Ministry of Finance. Point Four al- United States budget support for
so contracted with Public Adminis- the new budget. Pay cuts of 10 and
traction Service of Chicago, a priv- 20 per cent for the 27,000 govern-
ate agency w hic h has surveyed ment employees, started last Feb.
structural changes needed in that 1, are still continuing.
ministry and Public Works Depart-
nient. Notices have gone out in at least
In Interior Department, United the Department of Health that "the
States traffic expert is helping cope inefficient, irregular and indiscipli-
with increasing motor vehicles in ned who entrench themselves be-
this capital of tornup and rutted hind their Duvalierism will be fir-
streets. Other experts advise Agri- ed without mercy" if they don't
culture and Health Departments. do the work for which they are
Major development projects are paid.
being concentrated in Pote Cole co-
vering area of 350 square miles in On the political front, Pres
habited by 550,000 inhabitants in On the Political front, President'
the norti. iDuvalier charged that ''there is a6
Communist infiltration in Haiti.".
There last'year fourteen hundred He said he had been "obliged t '
farmers were helped to put out ake out of our educational system
hybrid corn on one thousand acres. take out of our educateonal st
They had yields three to five times some very actve elements.
those of ordinary Haitian corn and "This as 'a reference to dissolu-
helped bring down prices through- tion last summer of a secondary
out the north. Demand for hybrid school teachers association, and fir-
corn soared this year. ing as teachers members of the
Point Four experts are seeking executive committee of the prim-
to restore former Haitian cacao ex- prim-
ports. They set up three nurseries ary school union.
which this year provided 64,000 ca-
cao plants for northern farmers The President denounced terror-
who got credit to buy them. Plants ist bombings, although agreeing
are expected to pay for themselves with other sources that there have
in three years and to produce $350 been few in recent months. Some
an acre per year for export. Haiti's- "terrorists," he asserted, have gott-
major crop is coffee. But only ten en asylum in the Cuban and Vene-
to 20 per 100 is washed which fetches zuelan embassies. Bomb terrorism.
a price well above unwashed coffee. he said, seems to be "a new system
A $20,000 coffee washing plant got in the Western Hemisphere in sev-
under way at Dondon forty days eral .countries."
from the time a loan was assured
and is washing three thousand to The Cuban embassy, now in char-
five thousand bags yearly. ge of Mexico, Is housing four Hai-

tians; the Venezuelan embassy,
Another Pote Cole project is de- two: and the Mexican embassy,
monstration and seed farm at Gd. five. About thirty-six Haitians have
Pre. Pigs ,dairy cattle, breeding gotten sale-conducts to go abroad
jackasses. chicken and aa.. for Yom embassy refuges this year.
this have been donated by Heifer /
Foundation of Windsor Maryland.r Six Senators had been ousted \
Rabbits may help increase protein from office by Presidential decree
for Haitian diet and be cheaper last Oct. 9 on a charge they were
than chickens plotting to set up "a Communist

(Continued from
regime." Three are ii
embassy, and two are a
contention is that the
illegate Sept. 19 to
immunity for one mr

One of the six, Sena
manuel Moreau, a 31
testant Episcopal m
walks the streets her
science is clear." he
terview. "I have no r
I never engaged in
cies against the gove
lieve in freedom and
There have been ni
als since January.
valier denied a rum
might be as many as
in prison on political
confirmed that he had
dered release of a nu
individuals, but decline
report that the Unite
interceded on their b
"M11 habit is always
of jail. t6 release pe
took office," Presiden
physician, said. "Som
get crazy, they are no
and I am a doctor."

I page 1)
n the Mexican | He said he knew of oin.3t
broad. Their current political prisoners '
Senate voted Brierre, a poet and former a
lit members' 'sador to Argentine, and..
ionth. Borno, a reporter for Le Mat
sident Duvalier called M. B'r" e
ator Ivan Em- "an old friend" whom hei wn
)-year-old Pro- to release, but said "the P
minister, freely apartment asked me to walt.".-
re. "My cons- .
said in an in- President Duvalier asserted tli:.
eason to hide. was "no conflict" with theom n
any conspira- Catholic Church despite ouster lasti
rnment. I be-' August of two priests who he said
democracy." had been "involved in political mat-t
o political tri- ters."- His, he said, was the m-s
President Du- Haitian Govxerninent ever to i
or that there a priest as Minister of Educaitio
forty persons and to give direction of a,teachers'
grounds. He school for girls to Ronian Catholic
d recently or- nuns.
imber of such
led to discuss The President, 50 years old, ap-,
?d States had pears fully recovered from aea*
half. attack which incapacitated hbli
s to take out from May 25 to July 6. He spbke
?ople, since I in English during an hour and-&
t Duvalier, a half's interview. He seems io be,
e people can moving with greater delilberaten
At responsible, than before in his two years in

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