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Haiti sun

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Haiti sun
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 46-47 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
R. Cheney, Jr.
Place of Publication:
Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Subjects

Genre:
newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Haiti -- Port-au-Prince

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began Sept. 1950.
General Note:
"The Haitian English language newspaper."

Record Information

Source Institution:
Duke University Libraries
Holding Location:
Duke University Libraries
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 32441147
lccn - sn 95058138
ocm32441147
Classification:
lcc - Newspaper 2117
System ID:
AA00015023:00159

Full Text





Weekly
-Everday
Sunday


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PO'T-AU-PRINCE, HAITI Avenue Marie-Jeanne -..CITE DLrUlARSAIS ESTIME Phone'-2061 -- Vol XIV SUNDAY IMAY 2iIh. 1961 No. 28


Episcopal Church President Takes


100 Years In Haiti Oath For New
06fhFr e


The. 15 Iells in Holy Trinity
tower will chime forth the 100th
arnivrersary of the Episcopal
Church in Haiti this morning at
9 o'clock. Inside the cathedral,
,.oild famous for its primitive
murals, trumpeters and. organ
Aill open the Solemn Procession
led by the Rt. Rev. Arthur C.
Lichtenberger, President Bishop.
and the Rt. Rev. C. Alfred Voe-
geli, Missionary Bishop of Haiti.

Cross-bearers, tot ch-bearers,
andil thurifers with their swinging
incense, will lead the procession
that will include the Sisters of
St Margaret, Haiti's 20 native.
priests, and six Bishops of the
Church.
The Bishops include Spence
Burton, S.S.J.E., Lord Bishop of
Nassau and Suffragan Bishop of
Haiti from 1939. to 1942, Paul


Lady Chases
Haitian iBirids

Harriet Burkhart, white-haired
lady with an itchy foot. steppe-
d',v. n on Haitian soil last Satur
day., with a bubbling enthusiasm
i: investigate a few things herr,
in keeping with her work, he,
hubbies, vocations, avocationF
and various burning interests
That she got off on the wron;t
f..t didn't stop this enthusiasm
on- hit.
First of all, Harriet, who lha
tbi-rn living in Jamaica for two
earss and who is headed back tp
the U.S. on vacation, had cabl-
ed the Chatelet des Fleurs which
(Coftinued on page 17)


Haitian Folk Mass
Opens Celebration.

Axtell Kellogg, Bishop of UWe
Doninican Republic, Albert Er-
vine Swift, Mlissionary Bishop of
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Is.
lands, and John Bentley, Vice
*President of the National Coun-
cil.


Following the procession three
priests, robed in the gold vest-
ments the church reserves for
festive occasions, will begin the
Mass. The Very Rev. Roger De-
sir, Dean of the Cathedral, will
be the Celebrant. The Rev. Fr.
N. Car.\le Spitz will be Gospel-
er, and the Rev. Fr. Luc Gar-
nier will be episteler.


(Continued on page 19)


Term A
PROGRAM OF MANIFESTA-
TIONS OF MAY 22nd AND
23rd 1961.
Monday May 22nd
0 hour.-21 cannon-salute from
Fort National
8:15.-Opening of the Extra-
ordinary Session of National As-
sembly, at Palais Legislatif.
8:30.-Arri al at Palais Legis-
latif of Honorable Heads of Di-


Legislature
Ratifies
2nd. Term

Sunday morning from 10:30 to
1:30 PM the first session of the
39th Legislature was solemnly
opened under the presidency of
Lue Francois and the Vice Pre-
sidency of Jean Julme with 56
deputies in attendance.
At the end of the roll call,
'fefy"Fritz'W*Iise asked for the
floor in orde@ to propose to his
colleagues '1the vote of a propos-
ed decree ratifying the popular
wish."
The speaker recalled that the
revolutionary government of Sep-
tember 22, conformed with the
popular aspirations, has never
ceased its steps towards prog-
ress for the good of all. "I ask,
said he, that my colleagues ac-
cord, in favor of this decree, the
benefit of urgency and imme-
diate vote.
Reaching the tribune, Deputy
Lavoisier Lamothe declared:
S (Continued on page 2)


monday
plomalic Missions accredited in
Haiti, members of the Cabinet,
high ranked officials, Officers of
Army Staff, newspapermen and
official guests.
8:45.-His Excellency Dr Fran-
cois Duvalier, on the invitation of
a delegationn of Congressmen ar-
rives from his residence at Des-
prez at the Palais Legislatif ac-
companied by Chief of Protocole.
Chief of Army Staff, Comman-
dant of Police Department of
Port au Prince, Commandant
and Officers of Presidential-
Guard, in order to take the
oath.
He comes into the Grande
Salle of Palais Lcgislalif and
takes a seat opposite the trl-
bune of the chairman of Nation-
al Assembly.
(Continued on page 18)

Declared Holidays
By a Presidential decree pub-
lished in the official gazette
"Le Monileur' Friday, May 22.
23, 24 were declared public holi-
days for schools, public employ-
ces and commerce.

$77,340 FOR FETE
A check of S77,340 was hand-
ed over to the committee res-
ponsible for organizing the May
22 celebrations by the commit-
tee of Industry and Commerce
who collected the funds from
business establishments in the
Capital.


158th. FLAG DAY
,,'^^. y *.L.' *' \ ; ." <


OBSERVED AT ARCAHAIE


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Speakers at .May 185tl Flag Day commemorative service: President Dir. Francois Duvalier, MImlster of National Education, Reo,'
..HuH ert 1paier1 Colonel Marcel Colon arid Admhustrator at the" Archdiocese, Rev. Angenor. (photo ) ,-ei)


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. Mgr Charles Allfed 'oegeli the Missionary,
.Bishop oi Uaiti since 1943.


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SUNDAY AI' 21ST, 1961


Legisla turie Ratifies



Second Term


(Contnued from page 1)
"The Haitian People have prov-
S e. to tme entire world that they
have attained a great mature
spint, in giving to their spirit-
ual leader the massive vote of
April 30. so that he could con-
f1inue his work of- union and
reace begun four years ago. The
act of April is a spontaneous
act. To guarantee and also res-
pect the popular wish, I ask my
honorable colleagues of the as-
sembly to give to the proposition
of Deputy Fritz Moise the ur-
gency and immediate vote."
The President of the Assembly
invited then a commission comp-
posed of the Deputies Lamothe
Cayard. Pierre-Paul. Chery, Ro-
senfort, and Adolphe to study
tie proposition of Deputy Moise,
The session was suspended
from 10-50 am till 11:30 at which
time the reporter of the com-
mission, Deputy Lessage Chery.
read from the tribune this im-
portant decree of the National
Assembly.
DECREE OF
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
In view of Articles 45. 55. 86,
87, 89. 98. 182 of the Constitu-
lion;
In view of the official report
by the Central Office for the
control of Electoral operations
on May 7, 1961;

Considering that the special
session called on April 30. 1961,
L. in accordance with the decree
.' of the Executive Power, concer-
ning the expiration of the depu-
ties' mandate and the caducity
of that of the senators of the last
legislature, the Primary Assem-
blies elected not only the depu-
ties of arrondissements forming
the legislative chamber, as
prescribed by article 48 of the
Constitution, but also elected
Citizen Doctor Francois Duva-
lier to the Presidency of the
Republic; -
Considernn that the Central
Office instituted for the control
of electoral operations, have, as
a matter of fact, proclalmc I
SCitizen Doctor Francois Duvr.-
-"lier President elect of the Repu-
blic, as per the May 7, 1961 of-
ficial report.
Considering it necessary to
determine the meaning and the
full understanding of that mas-
sive vote that the Haitian peo-
ple spontaneously- gave on that
historic day of April 30, 1961 to
Citizen Doctor Francois Duva-
her. -electing him President of
the Republic while still a Presi-
dent in office, this Citizen having
not yet reached the end of 'his
mandate given him Septembe:-
22, 1957;
Considering that the ultimar3t
effort of the Revolution of De-
cember 1956, besides electing
Citizen Doctor Francois Duva-
lier to the Presidency of the
Republic, 'also voted the procla-
mation of the Constitution actu-
ally in force, .which is the sup-
reme safeguard of the rights of
-. .


the Nation;
Considering, however, that
President DrI Francois Duta-
lier had to take tre oarnr of ot-
fice on an outdated Constitu-
tion, symbol of an abhored re-
gime: that until now, only tne
transistor organic disposition.;
of the 1957 ConstiTution -have
been applied: and that there-
from, the Governawea.t i
from the revolution constantly
facinF reactionary and subvers-
ive activities, appears to the
Haitian People, under the char-
acteristics of a quasi temporary
State apparatus, taking definite
steps conformed with the perma-
nent dispositions 'of the new
fundamental law;
Considering that the resigna-
tion of the Chamber of Deputies
and that of the Senate elected
under the August 28. 1957 de
cree, incited the population to
deeply desire to give to Dr Fran-
cois Duvalier. the true picture
of the Revolution, an identical
status to the one of the elected
members of the Unique Assem-
bly. who will have, from now
on, to run the Legislative power
In order that the .two political
powers of the State, have the
same start with the 1957 Consti-
tution, as far as its original
structure is concerned;
Considering that tle April 30,
1961 pole results thus constitute
the necessary reward of the Hai-
tian People's revolutionary ef-
forts, which tend, since the glo
rious days of January 1946, to-
wards obtaining political .life
conditions and social reforms
in accordance with the human
fundamental rights, these pole
results are nevertheless, a mean-
ingful manifestation of the Na-
tional Sovereignty;
Considering, in particular, that
the titulars of public functions
possessing a mandate ruled by
the Constitution or by the Law,-
are beneficiaries of new Consti-
tutional or legal mandates from
the time .of their last investitu-
re, if while in charge th6y are
oewly appointed by the compet-
ent Authorities:

Considering, furthermore, that
the Chief of State. elected, once
more during a constitutional
mandate, is in the position of
the one who would have 6een.
reflected by the Primary Assem-
blies convening in accordance
with the dispositions of article
99 of the fundamental law;
Considenng, furthermore, that
if the Chief of State can be re-
-elected in view of the future
tr mination of his mandate, or
a!,te. the vacancy of the Presi-
dency "by resignation' or by
any other ca';se", can .t'e Peo-
ple with its sovereign power.
give him a new mandate after
spontareously putting an end to
the proceeding one:
Considering, consequently that,
it should be remembered that
in electing Dr Francois Duva-
lier to the Presidency in the


Apn! 30. 19S! elections, the-Hal
ian People. using fully its co is-
-itutional pieiogati' es. 'a'lit tc
substitute to the Sept. 22. 1:5
mandate given to -this Citizen
a new mandates whose duratio'i
is, ret by article 87 of the f ;nd
mental Law.
TIlE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
STATES:
Art. I.-According to ite .sov
ereign will of the Haitian.People
expressed in the April 30, 1961
elections, to the mandate of the
President of the -Republic. give-i
to Citizen Dr Francois Duvalier
on September 22, 1957. it is an'
it remains substituted a new
presidential mandate whose dur
action, set by Art. 87 of the Cons-
titution, will extend from Ma
15, 1961 to Ma.y 15, 1967;

Art. 2.-Citizen Dr. -Francois
Duvalier Hill take the oath, May
15. 1961 at 10:30 AM, to the Na-
lional Assembly. the oath set by
article 89 of the Constifution;-
Art. 3.-The present decree
will, be published and executed.
Made at the Legislative Pal-
ace, in the 1581h year of our In-
dependence. .
This decree was discussed and
then voted by unanimity.
The Chairman chose the depu-
lies: Cambronne, Kernisant,
Obas, Blanc, Auguste as delega-
tes to present to Citizen Dr
Francois Duvalier, at the Na-
tional Palace, this act of the
National Assembly. The meet-
ing once more was adjourned
until 12:30 PM when the Dele-
gates came back.
It was Deputy "Kernisari's pri-,
vilege to tell his colleagues of
the President's welcome words.
Deputy Michel Auguste did .the
same And Mr Luckner Cam-
bronne, young deputy of the:6th
circumscription, stated: "I want
to repeat the Chief of State's
-exact words. He told us; "I
have closely -watched the -last-
events, I accept the People's
will, because being' a revolution-
ary I do not have the right not
to hear the People's voice. I am
satisfied with the Unique Cham-
ber's work. The Deputies under-
stand that it is their duty to
work -for the people and not for
their own benefits." The .speak-
er continued, reminding that be-
ing the representatives of the
people we have no right to ign-
ore him. You nust fight, he
emphasized, with the Chief of
State to nd this beautiful coun-
try of ignorance, poverty and
diseases which are man's sha-
me.
Our 'evolution is the revolu-
tion of the People, it must in-
clude the entire nation in its
-cope. The back country has
been neglected for too long. It
is time to think of the real coun-
try.
The real country understood
that,, this is-the reason why it
gave a new 6 year mandate to
ts chief, Dr Francois Duvalier".
These words were very much


President DIUVALIER talking tilt
bronne during the Arcaha



appreciated and applauded for
a long time.-
A few minutes later the Pesi-
dent of the Assembly read a.let
ter to addressed to t;h Chambe,-
*y the Chief of State. Congratu.
;ating and thankilrr the dppu
ties, he-.said, that he. w'il. take
oath before' the .National Assem-
bl-. May 22, 1961 at 10:30 AM-
(Tieavy applauses. -
The question being closed, De-
puty Gabriel? Auigustin took tie
staid to remind his colle'da


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- 9 *


h youthful Deputy Luckner Cam-
ie Flag Day celebrations.



gues that eveiy May 18. the
Legislative Power is represented
at the manifestations taking
- ace in Arcahaie for flag's day
A delegation to represent the
unique Chamber on flag's day
was chosen: Deputies Constant,
Kernisan, Cayard, Balczar, St.
Fort, Estriplet. Augustin. Moise
Oamy.. Lamothe, and the Cham-
ber's secretary Mr FeliL Bail-
lergeau.

Le Noureliste, -May..-15, 1961.
-' 9- "- -


THE1. LETTER OF PRE$IDEN.T -DUVALIER
TO THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY


Mr The President
Mr The Vice President
I wish to acknowledge--receipt
iof your message of the date- ot
M4y iI, 1961- by wlch, you ,In-
vite me in conformity with. art-
iele 55, line I of the- present-
constitution -to oiome .1nd.' tak,
oath of offite-,May- 15th before
your -high Assembly. .
". .' "- ..,
I am honed -to have desery-
ed .the confidence of -the Haitiah
people, who have invested inme
a new six years term. Ip accepet-
-aried of .the decision of the S j'-
ereign, confirmed by the official


report of Central Census office,
li-ask you to assign the date of
,May 22nd for my taking oath
of office. .
SII seize this occasion 16 express
tq you the assurance of my very
high consideration. '
Doctor Francois Duvalier --
IPresident of the Republic -

Mr The President of the Nation-
al Assembly
Mr The Vice President of The
National Assembly
.- Legislative Chamber
City of thExp'position-
In Town.


WILSON


..-. -
-- ,- & .- tT.. -


Fred. PELRt

SPORT ARTICLES N W
' NEW


SPORTSHOP,


Joe ETIENNE


1377 Carlstroem St.


PORT AUl PRINCE.

HALi
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SUNDAY MAY 21S, 1961


*AHAITI SUN"*


PAGE r


1862-1962 A Century Of Rhum Making

,HUMiIi BARBAINCOURT THE this contact with 'the old..time: Rapidly, rhum Barbanco
FINEST- RUM- FROM planning and organization were' won the first, place on. the lo
SUGAR CANE the basis of the new enterprise, market "and was starting to
Besides these qualities essential *in France. But modificati
It was in 1862. that Mr Dupre to success, was a thorough know- brought to our commerce
3arbancourt established his dis-. ledge'of.the at that was about treaty with France chained
illery on "Habitation l'Etoile", to be launched. treaty of export development
loi far. from Damien. The old It was 'in Cognac, France, ,with this country..
ulans still exist in the records that Dupre Barbancourt had However, production was
,f the firm. learnt the principles of distilla- *. ready important.
tion. There, the old Charentaise At that time, the clairin w
We saw the first records of the methods had imposed a code of "furnished by the distilley es
st.-iblishment, w\e touched the principles which, adapted to the blished on "Habitation I'Etoli
id sheets upon which -t1ie first Haitian conditions, have gur- but the rhum was processed
ian of the distillery was drawn anteed, fiom the very beginning,, town. The sale-room was loc
Diether with all the detailed the excellency .and thd high ed in the same brick build
aliy operations, quality of the product from .the that we know today, at Rue
There is a definite feeling in Barbancourt distillery. Cesars.


urt
cal
sell
ons
*ial
the
ent

al-

ras
ta-
le",
in
at-
ng
les


Alter. Dupre Barbancourt's
death, "Habitation L'Etoile"
changed hands, and the rhum
was re-distilled from clairin obt-
ained according to strict specifi-
!cations imposed upon the supp-
liers.
I This concern of maintaining
the product's quality by apply-
""*F;-ing strict traditional procedu-
res, and by using choice raw
.materials, explains why the
number of customers kept in-
creasing with time. The plant
was modernized because condi-
tions, were favorable -after the
second world war and because
of 'the ever increasing demand.
These changes were also fav-
ored by the potentialities pre-
sented by the rum industry
which could be as profitable- to
this country as it is to the other
Caribbean islands where rum
ranks as a mqin export.
It is with great pleasure that
Mr ..Jean Gardere took us
through the elaborate set up of
the plant.
.The new Barbancourt plant
.Was erected in the."Plaine du
Cul' de Sac" not far from the
first place chosen by- the found-


NZIk~


01


It is evident that the success- the cane into pieces. This oper-'
ors took into consideration the ation facilitates the crushers'-
soil's influence' on the quality work, increasing the percentage
of the rhum. They already were of juice squeezed. The crushing
careful about the processes that of the cane is obtained through
made rhum Barbancourt fam- two sets of mills. After going
ous. In spite of the industriallz- through the first one, the bag-,
ation of the plant they maintain- asse is sprinkled with water so
ed the preeminent role of the as to increase-the second crush-
human element, such as the pre- er's efficiency. This way, more
vailing place 9f the distiller and than 90 per cent of the sugar
the one of the "chais" riaster. is extracted from the cane. The
It the qualities essential to the mills operate at a pressure of
rhum, which were acquired i and a half tons per square
through long experience, h.d to inch, their capacity is 7 tons
be kept, tasting should not and per'hour. They. work only 8
could not -be entirely replaced hours a day.
by the automatic control of the
stills and the laboratory tests. Coming out of the mills, the
*The.same century-old distillation bagasse is dry enough to be fed
process had to be used: the dir- immediately, as fuel, to the 200
ect use of the sugar cane juice, H.P. boiler supplying the plant's
fermentation by selected yeast power. It should be noticed that
tthe yeast is of local strains), it is the main source of energy
and double-batch distillation, for the crushing and distilling
The modern and the old meet operations.
in a harmonious, profitable and The bagasse arrives automati-
useful whole. call from the crushers to the
As a mater of fact, what strik- boiler by a chain conveyor. An
es the most at hrst sight is the operator is there to see that
plant's equilibrium, wide alleys the boiler is .not ever-fed and. "
serving on one side the arrival the bagasse in excess is stored
of the sugar cane, and all around for later use.
the main buildings these alleys
are opened to traffic. The juice is first roughly seiv-
This feeling of balance will ed when coming out of the cru- .
even be stronger as one enters shers. It is again thoroughly
the plant and while being ini- seived after pasteurization.
tiated to the different operations Pasfeurization is obtained at
from the handling of the raw 80 degrees C before clarification,
material to the refined product. which ts slowly done in large
It is an opportunity to praise settling tanks. The clarified
Haitian techniques. The design juice is then pumped into vats
and the erection of the plant where it is ventilated and where
were made by Louis Gardere, a it receives the first nutrients ,
graduate engineer of our engin- favoring fermentation in the
eering school, and by Haitian following operation.
specialists. This flawless realiz- From there, the juice is cool-
ations is a proof of what the ed on its way to fermentation
Haitian element is capable of in vats. There are 6 of these with
the industrial development of a capacity of 12,000 gallons each,
our country. totalling, 72,000 gallons. Fermen-
It was possible for us to visit station last 3 days at a temper-
the plant' in operation since it ature varying from 28 to 30 de-
is harvest time. grees C. This temperature is
The weighed sugar cane is obtained by water dripping along
directly transported by convey- the vats outer sides.
ors, equipped with knives to cut (Continued on page ) '






--PAGE I

i

$150 Million For Latins This Year


| Hemisph


Lendin!
*r


By RICHARD LAWRENCE

(In The "Journal of Commerce"
May 1st.)
Washinglon The Inter-Ame-
rican Development Bank will
lend Latin America close to
$150 million in economic aid this
calendar year, according to Fe-
lipe Herrera, president of the
bank.
As President Kennedy's chief
fiscal agency for Latin Americ-
a's new social development pro-
gram, IDB will also advance an-
other $39- million worth of cre-


"i HA II


SUN .


ere Bank


g Rises


dits over the next two years, MIr
Herrera said.
Since starting formal opera-
tion last October, the bank has
authorized loans of about $50 mil-
lion, spread over eight Latin'
American republics. The first
two were made in February.
The 38-year-old former Econo-
mics Minister of Chile, describ-
ing the great promise the bank
held for improving inter-Ameri-
can relations, termed IDB the
long-missing "vital link" need-
ed in hemispheric co-operation.
Bank Role Cited


Within ten years, he predicted,
Latin America's now-shaky eco-
nomy has a good chance of
reaching adhithood and he for-
esees IDB playing an important
part.
"The bank," he added, "off-
'ers no panacea, however, to La-
tin America's economic and so-
cial problems. Only a prospering
foreign trade will really guaran-
tee economic growth."
Mr Herrera emphasized that
a healthy Latin America de-
pends ultimately on fair and
stable prices for its raw mater-
ials. In the last five years, fal-


SUNDAY MAY 21ST, 1961 ;


ling prices have cost' Latin Ame-
rica $800 million, be pointed out
Self-Help .Factor
More investment, increasing
economic integration and full de-
velopment of Latin America's
Resources, he declared, are hard-
ly less essential to the twenty.
American republics, which belong
fo the bank:
All of this, he asserted, must
be brought about through "self-
help," a basic guideline to IDB
operation. ,
. The bank, Mr Herera said,
was embarking on no "giveaway
program" and that its primary
task was to "assist and help
sustain" Latin America's own
efforts towards gaining econom-
ic security.
"As a matter of fact," he de-
clared, "the Latin American
-'members are contributing '5
per cent of the bank'stbtal res-
ources, and IDB stand as one
of the few international agencies


li-I


where the, U.S. must not beat
most of the costs."
Mr Herrera said, "We- ill fIl-
low only the soundest banking
principles in granting our crel-
its. We want good risks who in-
tend to develop specific pro-
jects."
Soft and Haird Loans
This will hold true, he said,
for both "soft" and "hard"
loans. The hard loans, to be rr&
paid in the currency lent -usu-
ally U.S. dollars- will be drawn
from an $850 million fund. About
$150 million will be made avail-
able for loans repayable in local
currency.
Thus far, most of IDB's cred-
its have been granted to local
development banks,, which in
turn invest in relatively small-
scale projects in industry, agri-
culture and mining. Mr Herrera
expected this trend to continuWe;
if no tgrow. -
(Continued on page 8):



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M CASR 'OIL,. IN5URPNCE O




.r4
.FOR: REVAs..0 ,MAS" AN. SUGGESTED HWEB S, WBITE OR CAB .E

A S ,4 .. CAR, R.JENT A.L S
-:.. .. 02. PORT-AU-PRINCE HAITI.. .
'" i.''n:'5 .. .. .. ; .: ,,. ': / .:: .... .'. .:2 -,.. :' .,, .-. '::. : i .. : ... : ': 2


- -


1 _____ __ ____~I __ __~I________






I -SUaNDAY .MAY ZiAT


S. "HAITI SUN"


S 'AITI S U N
..BE HAITIArr ENGLISH LANGUAGEE NEWSPAPER
dmmublty Weeb uby Publighed llndp. Morning
dlitor-IPabUlalbor \ BERNARD DIEpERICH
; Geraint.-esponsable MAUCLAIR LBE8E
MEMBER OF THE INTER-AMERICAN PRESS ASSN.
ESTABLISHED IN 9


SUEST"h if -,


Agricultural Education Given To Future Priests
S At The Grand Seminaire Notre-Daiie-

IN LE JOUR
'

To permit our priests of the future to better intergrate into the
milieu where they are to exercise their holy functions, it has been
agreed upon to provide Seminarists'at the Grand Seminaire Notre-
Dame, in Tnrgeau, with theoretical and practical education in
alarming. Lessons are given by technicians of Dept. of Agriculture
and our siemlnarlsts are porfoi ming their training in a vegetable
garden around Villa Manrese. This week, they are going to start the
reforestation of "La Grotte", on lorne I'Hopital. This project is
under the supervision of Forestry Serviep agents of Damlens who
provide the seedligs.
It's an excellent idea to instill in our future priests a minimum
of agricultural knowledge; they will be' able to help our poor
communities where Itey have to practice.
-.. .... .

TA iS AND FOREIGNN INVESTMENT
to W 1YMVWES, '. t *.'
S3 eatatie HRal Bggs, Democrat of Louisiana, his emerg:
ed afi'i psi tnti Che Congressional opponent of the Adminis-
trlatjidi prop60.fi ito.-dbig the deferral of United States ti ta-
tiqn p.ov .t earni by meran companies' subsidiaries in
advi~edp l.utjfi iU .c tidess, His argument deserves an answer.
A emPT ber 6t the.Ways and 'eans Committee, Mr Boggs argues
that ending this tax subsidy for: lm\estment in industrialized coun-
tries Will not spur American investment in under-developed couu-
tries. -This misses the -point,- we believe. The point is that no
national purpose is served by continuing to sulisidize through the
tax system American investment in countries ltht havyemore than
recovered firm World War' II and are now fully capable of gener-
ating their own capital supply:- p.it to end this subsidy. is not, to
prohibit Investeten in, -say, Wept Gperrhany or -Britain. later
It is to leave the',incentive for such'. investment to market- forcp..
that Ware ipdistorted by a subsidy element. .- .
We .would suggest there Is .one way in which the: p.o .
Srhaiig~itight he used.,diectl-y to stimulate investment in under-
developed- countries, Thius wouli-be by continuing the tix' deferral
privilege for profits earned by subSidiaries i lladvanced c o ntrics
andi ti reiyet'i, ih 0 length bf tmre under
deVil ut...- NEW Y.ORK TIMES)

.1A


9 May 1961 Wm Wh
HAITI SUN


`


- I --


I


- --- : I,- ; --


I


Editor
Port au Prince, Haiti.
Dear Editor:
Enclosed is a copy of a travel
story on Haiti which has just
been released to travel and feat-
ure editors of a number of lead-
ing paper_.throughout the USA.
We thought you would be in-
terested in seeing this evidence
of publicity for Haiti by Pan
American. It is part of our pro-
motional efforts to encourage
travel to- your country.
Best regards.
Cordially,
S Roger Wolin of PAA.

HAITI IS ROMANTIC SPOT
FOR HONEYMOONERS

Port au Prince, Haiti Fall-
ing in love is wonderful, as any
couple with a June wedding date
marked on the calendar will tes-
tify.
Falling in love with Haiti is
also wonderful and for a vaca-
tion or a honeymoon there is
hardly' a more romantic spot in
the Americas as those who have
been there readily testify.

Haiti, reached easily and com-
fortably via Pan American
World Airways, shares the is-
land of Hispaniola with the Do-
minican Republic. It is a many
splendored tropical land, the
world's first Negro republic and
in the Western Hemisphere, the
only French-speaking republic.


I]


-.J


Vacationists, including honey-
mooners, 'bring casual clothes,
shorts and swim suits for most
hotels have pools.
Golf is available. Shopping is
exciting for Port au Prince is
a free port. Danish silver, En-
glish china, French perfumes
are arrayed with countless other
items.. Haiti' itself offers superb
-handicrafts in mahogany, straw
and sisal:
For those interested in the un-
usual there is the Haitian .art
movement to investigate. First
that calls for a stop at the Cen-
tre d'Art, 15 Rue de la Revolu-
tion, where the work of a var-
iety of artists may be studied.
Then comes a visit to Holy Tri-
nity Cathedral on whose walls
have been painted a spectacular
mural affording an excellent op-
portunity to' study Haitian tal-
ent.
Then the traveler can start on
a tour of tne shops that carry
the output of artists. On occa-
sions small worthwhile paintings
can be picked up for as little
as $2.
After golf, swimming, spear-
fishing, sailing, waterskiing,
shopping or sightseeing in Port
au Prince, luncheon at Le Per-
choir is in order. It is located
3,000 feet up the mountain call-
ed Boutillier. The view of the
city, the dark mountains and
the aquamarine bay is breath-
taking. The food is delicious.
Then one should drive the rest
of the way up the mountain to
Kenscoff to see more view and,
on market days, to mingle in the
jumble of fruits, vegetables,
chickens and vendors.
Afterwards there is just time
to shower and change' for din-
ner and that gives the feminine
visitor, bride gr otherwise, an
opportunity to don party finery.
As there are numerous, places
to eat it, is wise not to'make
hotel arrangements that include
all meals.
Le Picardie is a French rest-
aurant and by 7:30 p.m., under
subdued' lghts; the tables begin
to fill.- If it is Wednesday or
Saturday, voodoo ceremonies are
presented at a small downtown
stadium and tickets may be pur-


the "veves" with flour on the,
dirt floor, while the measured';
gyrations and chantings of other .i
participants, stemming from, the .'
black heart of Africa, flow back.-'
and forth.'
On Wednesday and Saturdays ',
there is a midnight show and';.
dancing at the Club Bacoulou '.
and the Cabane Choucoune.
Both draw big crowds.
After that if the gay, mood
lingers, down near the Water- %
front is the Rendezvous, where
a juke box is stocked with songs
from Tin Pan Alley. Just a few,
doors away is La Fregate, a;:i
small hideaway decorated in .'
nautical style.
By then it could be three o'-
clock in the morning and time
for the mad whirl to end be-.
cause on the morrow is the trinp' 1
to the Citadel.
There is a $40 package tour
that can be purchased from a
travel agent in Port au Prince .
or in the United States beforer':j
departure through Pan Amerl-.
can or any travel agency.
It includes one way plane fare,.i
from Port au Prince to Cap-,Z-
Haitien on the north coast; re-a'"
turn to Port au Prince by car.':L
(164 miles); a horse and guide .
to go up the mountain on which .,,
the Citadel is located: a night's .
lodging in'Cap Haitien and three
meals.

The Citadel is the fantastic
fortress King Henri Christophe
built in the early 19th century.
It was never finished and the *
ruins are among the marvels of
the New World. At the base of
the mountain are the remains *"
of his Sans Souci palace.
Haiti was once the pride of /'
France's overseas possessions.,
It was the first country in Latin
America to seek freedom from
European ties. The struggle '
gave Haiti a turbulent history .'
and a heritage of problems still '.
unsolved. A lt h o u gh,.Haitians
could be crushed with what they
have to wrestle with, they have, i
this sentence printed on the en-'.
try card each visitor must buy -.
for two dollars upon arrive:
"Happiness waits for you .I
Haiti." And they are right.
- M lt "i' *'* *-
STEPI-JrJBROS

t .V. U WAfl.NH..H4 A:V
M. V.. Tr a nE


L'WL$NG AND UNOADDIG
ShkEA HAITI AND, FioR.IDA
fqrthnlglitly salling of the .-
Miamli-Porta-,t Prince '-Mia'lP -?
'MIAM ADDRESS:.
-- "Telephoo 'Hihiand 1 .77 '
S rFanlkin., 9-7u
Th( .











i: Rhum Barbd

(Continued from page 3)
After fermentation, the must
Sis" transferred into stills. There
i are 2 stills for the first distilla-
.'tion and one for rectification.
SThe fermentation vats are
sterilized after each operation
Sin order to control the vegeta-
tive elements of the fermenta-
tion.

If distilation is automatically
processed under a 'system of re-
gulators and control instru-
ments, it is nonetheless under
the distillator's vigilance: he has
to fractionate the "heart" of the
spirit from the heads and tails.
250 gallons of water per min-
ute are necessary during the
whole process. This water is
then used for irrigation.

Visit 01 The Aging
WAREHOUSES (CHAIS)

The rhum is then stocked to
age, This operation is done ac-
cording to the old tradition of the
establishment and has not been
replaced by artificial methods.
White Oak vats and barrels, im-
ported from France, with a ca-
pacity of 600.000 gallons, give
the finishing touch to'the rhum.
From exchanges between these
vasts and the liquid and through
a slow and continuous oxidation,
comes the metamorphosis of the
Colorless liquid rough to the pal-.
ate, into an amber colored li-
quor, naturally flavored. There
are great losses through evapor-
ation.
All the vats are connected to
the distillery and to the bottling
and packaging rooms by tinned
copper tubes. The bottling is au-
4iomatically done.
sM The ,plant lay-out gives, once
''/ore, the occasion to praise the
engineer and the specialized
Workers who assisted him in
Selecting the plant.
Sugar Cane Production
And Local Activities
The raw material comes from
S2 sources: the plant's own sug-








..


Zncourt...


ar cane fields, about 40 hectares,
and the cane bought from local
farmers which represents three
quarters of the total cane used,
about 5,000 tons at a cost of
about $25,000.
This is not the only contribu-
tion of the plant to the locali-
ty's economy.'
There are about one hundred
employees in the plant. At the
time of the sugar cane',harvest,
about the same number of work-
ers are hired. With the normal
Rotation in hiring daily field
workers, there are about 500
people and their families whose
total or partial incomes come
from the Barbancourt rhumery,
Barbancourt Rhum And
The Rhum Industry In Haiti
The Barbancourt r um not
only has increased the number of
local customers but has become
somewhat of an Ambassador of
the Haitian taste with the for-
eigners. All those travelling to
foreign lands know that there
is no better way to please a
friend or to start business than
by offering a bottle of this deli-
cious drink.

Certain adjustments in the
taxes, in view of protecting loc-
al products, may in the future,
give the rhum a stronger position
on the local market, while the
public authorities will make an
effort to help its export together
with other products also await-
ing such an opportunity.
The public authorities' steps
towards definite goals is certain-
ly desirable in the-rhum indus-
try.
In fact, sugar cane is a tra-
ditional culture of the Caribb-
eans and the former source of
wealth of our country. The sug-
ar cane is adapted to our clim-
ate, to our soil and to the so-
cial and economic structure of
our agriculture; it is widely
grown already under varied
conditions, in the plains, in the
mountains, with or without irri-
gation. The production, in cer-


Stain regions, is quite important
and sugar, syrup and alcohol
are waiting for a market. In the
meantime, it- contributes in a-
large part to the peasant's diet,
thus supplying a great percent-
Sage of his energy.
In many Caribbean islands 'su-
gar cane is the main soured of
the population's income and'
rhum is of prime importance.'

Possibilities Of Increasing
Rhum Export To The U.S.
And Canad&

We have already said that,
these two markets are the mqst
important prospects. What is the
true situation and the efforts
that could be made to penetrate
these, two markets?

American Market
Here are the taxes imposed
on the Haitian rhum on -this
market: $1.75 custom duties,
$10.50 federal tax, $2 to $3 State
tax. The Haitian rhum is thus
taxed a minimum total tax of
$14.25 per gallon, that is, $2.85
per fifth; while the Puerto Rican
rhum enters duty free, pays in-
ternal taxes according to its al-
cohblic strength. These taxes for
the Haitian rhum are based on
50 degrees Gay Lussac minimum
per gallon: The tax is the same
even if the alcohol Content of
the rhum Is less than these 50
per cent. This discrimination
plays in fact against the Haitian
rhum on the market.

It will be difficult to overcome
this protection given; to the
Puerto Rican rhum,.b)eiause any
concession made to us' will also
have to apply to all countries
producing rhum, in accordance
with the GATT agreement. The
only favorable chance our pro-
duct may have, would be for
instance that it be taxed in-
dependently as a rhum made
out of sugar cane juice; Haiti
is the only country- producing
commercially this .type of. rhum,
besides Martinique and: Glade-
Joupe who .also produce if .'in
,shall a.iount and without: Pging
It. Rhuin made out of sugar cane
juice being very much diff ernt
would .probably not affect the
hiarket of rholasses rum, hich
ireiidy has" its clientele.,.


much in our favor. Haiti at a
time imported respectively 8(
60 per cent of the Canadian pro-
duction of alewires and bloast-
ers. This export to Haiti is the
main" income of certain commVu
cities in Nova Scotia and New
Brunswick.

'All those. factors, whose .ef-
fects will be in otir favor, show
certain chances of success for a
common action within the. scope
prsugar cane development 'and
of the industrialization of its
products.

Side Effects On The
Tourist Industry

Again with a view towards
more advertisement of the rhum
Barbancourt to foreign clientele
a bar was set up near the
main buildings of the plant
where free rhum was offered tc
the visitors. We feel sure thai
they would take back with their


Comes from the hot and live
Ssoil of Haiti.
Our visit to the plant ce
tainly been Enstructive. It co
firmed the confidence we ha
Sin the virtue'of effort and or
Basically,. there are. thexp
rience accumulated from en
action to generation in
of distillation, a staff e
,ployees who.loe tlher of
selection of raw material- at
the natural aging obtained
Shaving large stocks on htind,.
Upon 'leaving, .we visuplize
in our country many similar e
amples of tenacious, corifinuo
and methodical effort.
And we hope that the stubbo.
energy of all of us towards
betterment of our counir's de&
tiny, brings closer the da/-whe
Poverty will be replaced'by we]
being in our homes. .
H We wanted to find out the e
) fort made so far in that,direi
t tion; we wanted also to estimate
Sthe extent of the useful and ni
ScessEry role that this enterprise
Swas playing in the rhunrrindu
try in. Haiti. -


.. ." e. *
One of Barbaficourts skilled and dedicated .employees.
-I I


Canadian .Markiet'

Sometime ago, steps were tak-
n. to increase our commerifiaf
relations with, Canada. The com-
'di'cial 'balnce being. unavor-
ble.to ...o6" coniitry it seemed
bedessary to compentsat by, 'in-
rasiwng, our exportss, to'Canada,
nd ri-um was- the first? products
chosen to balance. the ex.chan-

The. situation appeared v ery
favorable for us,,. because the
3ritish' Wdst Indids ''ere to be-.
come a Federation, members of
the Commonwealth; iue to gaia
their independency.. The prfer-
ential rate.in, force.would have to
be..modified, and Haiti could ne-
gotiate to obtain for our rhum .
the same treatment givqn to the "'
New Federation's ri-um. Further :. .
more, our hopes, were ,igh be- -; -
iause' the Canadian Govern- ..."
. met officials seemed Very '
S .,, The aging warehouses (dhais) :..
0. : ..., 1a. .'A, '-, .


T.' The second storey view of the fermentation roomn..
. *. ., .. _: ..-


I~__~e_~~_l _.~_2_____C


_ ___~II __ _I_
























FREE-PORT SHOPPING CENTER
P. 0. Box 676, 'PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI


l ae0 d I


AROUND
MINTON, WEDGWOOD,
ROYAL CROWN DARBY,
R|QAL COPENHAGEN,
ROYAL WORCESTER,
ROYAL DOULTON,
S"RbOSENTIALE, SPODE,
- AYNSLEE, COALPORT,
'GUSTAUBEBG.


GEOkGE JENSEN,
HANS HANSEN, GEBO,
DBAGSTEI, GENSE.


.- -.


cr'^Th Finesat p FRBANCE.
ITALY, AUSTRIA,
}',' -'- 7 -' '-" *" ,, 'yI
LA, LIQUE, BACAR
SORBEFORS,
S C ''WEBB, & lLis TT .B :
S'VAst SOLABET,
STUABT, LEEIAN.


THE WORLD IMPORTS

JUVENIA TISSOT, BOREL,
AUDEMAR PIGUET, -
JAEGER LE COULTRE,
ULYSE NADIN, RIVO,
ATLANTA, STUDIO,
VULCAIN.
-:i .
^-'- *


KISLAV,
ENGLISH DOESKIN,
ITALIAN ANTELOPE.



PRINGLE, BALLANTYNE,
BERN HARD ALTMAN,
LUISA SPAGNOLI.


DANISH SILVER,
GOLD R SILVE JEWELRY
and RRAnr.AN GEMS.


Eut=mxo, UWUnVar.
CARON, CHANEL.
RAPHAEL, PATOU,
BALMAIN, WORTH,
REVILLON, VIGNYT
CARVEN, LE GALLON,
FABERGE OF PARBIS
JIAN D'ALBERT,
JACQUES GRIFFE
FATH, PIGUET.
.CORDAY,


MINOX,. ANNON


ROYAL COPENHAGENI
ROYAL DOULTON,
HUMMEL.


HARVEY'S BRISTOL
CSEAM, AU FRENCI.
bANISHi and
SPANISH LIQUEUR.


HAITIAN HANDICRAFTS


4 apj SCULPTURES


I i~Toofldoi

>&lis-


hhl.


ag


Factory OUlet
'MAHOGANY


RAFFIA BAGS
a SBOES


w~bLar. num9C
.-.U.Uesfrtupp io


T --)*,euDeed DOLLS
e I w o ggu .A, A .


S.-World Fa ins eRUS &'DBAPI '
-A--

.'^. i- -~laHitian RUM BABB ANCOUDTR

C::^ r: paIts end-gifts to your friends m ~-the U. iS, A.
f 0lldxou*r .quota.- See us for more information.

. a.. '. i.: a A..


v'p


I


'


i .,-


?tr;

I











P~I



-I-


-7 .
.- ,,
Slt pd in nde Sline, rtionie the ain ource of sa supply or the Repblc ,
Salt ponds in (;rande Saline, Artibonile the main source of salt supply for the Republce.


A I



.. ... .





n Members of the Fishing mid Electricity' Cooperathve of Grandp


don. Partly furnisnod. PFor lar-
g. bedrooms, large living and
dining room. Two bathrooms,
hot water in baths and kitchen:
Swimming Pool and patio, water
24 hours a day. Nice view.
".:iatact M .Siltclier -
SSource Turgean' No0 103,
..Tel: 5539 P. 0. Box 301.


HEMISPHE1
S (Cntiqued page .4)
.,Abut 500. applications, and. in-
quiries have been received by
the bank, Mr Heirera said, three
out of every four coming from
the private sector. Over 100 are
now receiving active considera-
tion.
Among projects that.have. won
IDB financial supportare an im--
proved water supply and sewer-
age system in Arequipa, Peru;
/the construction of a liulp mill
in Brazil, and loani.to .develd,
rent agencies in Paraguay, Bo-
livia, Nicaragua, Chile, Col6m-
bia and Haiti. ,
Supplementar y Aid
"We .intend. only to supple-
ment, not supplant, public and
private investment," Mr Herre-
ra stated. "Up to now, Latin
Americk: has provided 90 per
cent of its .own internal invest-
ment. There is much room for
outside capital." -
He said that he ivas convinced
that U.S. -and other foreign in-
vestment in Latin America
would soon recoer from its
recent slump- spawned by poli-
tical unrest in some parts of
the Americas.
1-.
TO RENT

-Beautiful large.house- in Boer-1


LE PERCHOIR


Regrettable news. of the dep-
-arture of Mr and Mrs BARCI-
LON, one of- thd most- capable
restauratdisr& -hat Mr 'NOOSTAS
brought' dowf 'tb Haiti. -*

' :In' view'ot this the Restaurant
LE .PERCHOIR informs its cli-
ents and fr-iends' at it closes.
vo ye i.eaae Bar will
stay: open- to: ris:e drinks and
sandwiches.- "


DISCOVER THEE FASCINATION


Through Its Postage Stamps
For complete information in Haiti
Stamps and other details wbich will be
furnished you free of charge, write to
P.O. Box 723 PORTT-AU-PRINCE


BANK..- % -


.~. .._.


'- r'ir AE.. -. ,
(Leaving~'-he country).
Buffet,. Maytag washer, Norge
automatic washer, two book-
cases, metal filing cabinet letter
size, kitchen pink and over 90,
feet. pipes, gas water heater -30
gallon size, Hot Point automatic
refrigerator, 18 cubic foot size,
carpenter tools, Argus Ca3cam-
era outfit, Voigtlander camera
outfit, Royal portable typewrit-
er, 3-speed all-metal.record pf yr-
er, Italian Accordion typically
treated, Rudy- Muck trumpet,
Underwood standard ypewriter.
and other articles. for -personal
and household use.

May be seen all day .
DAYS, and EVERY afternod
and evening, EXCEPT Friday
and Saturday.

V. R. LEBEDOFF
141 Source Turgeau,

S(Opposite National Museuni)






I I !D. iMY i1iT.-19.1 i U ATi "UN- -A U "


'B'j :
1?1'


SUMMERTIME INl HAITI

SPRINGTIME AT THE

Chatelet de la Montagne Noire

S, Ption-Ville -- Haiti (W. I)
BEYOND. WORDS BUT NOT BEYOND
YOURBUDGET :
From may 1st to Dec. 1st: ; 15.00 A DAY
BREAKFAST & DINNER INCLUDING A CAR
EVERYTHING WONDE'WiUL ABOUT HAITI
.is more so at
THE CHATELIET DE LA, MONTAGNE NOIRE
EVERY ROOM WITH A VIEW
EVERY ROOM WITH A PRIVATE TERRACE
..Montly Accomodations At Reasonable PreIces,


-U


FS HE R.. .

HAITI'S LARGEST FEE PORT PRICE SHOPS
1) THE-CORNS 0 S0wi BONNE FOL

2) ART. & CURI IBP FISHERS ACROSS FROM CU
S.STOMS. .- ../ .

i ND "UY HAITIAN HANDICRAFTS ^
', : 'y -- -"
SSTRAIGIT FROM I FACTORY
S. THE t .~i O&n QUAl
SE..... X AND D" g AC .PTE.D)

SAVE UP TO 60 Per-Cent ON' IMPORTS$
'II SH_~ MAHGiYJj


. n


- II


ONIONS
i:i o N s


3 Canadi(s t Leve nrtblon After,2 YIearn

bus' statue in Port au Prince
prior to their .departure for Chi-
S coutini, Quebec are Canadian
nurses (Left to Right) Monique
Hudon, Raymonde Martin and
-AW: ." .. .. "" .Bernardette Poire.
S Ending two years at the
Schweitzer Hospital in' the Ar-
tibonite Valley the girls returq-
f ied to Canada speaking creole
and.with the best impression of
the"country, "Nou rainnin Haiti
Sample" the three specialists in
pediatrics said.
Drive-In Theatre
Thursday May 25, 1961
tat 7 & 9:l00 PX
English Versioh
Columbia Pictures Presenti
WHO WAS
THAT LADY
Tony Curtis, Dean Martin,
Janet LUgh
When that lovely lady walks
.. ~ in all love breaks loose! It's
Sthe hottest comedy two lovers
ever ignited!


:OD V


A


Onions of first quality are available at the

sales counter of ODVA at the corner of Rue

des Cesare and Rue du Centre, at the following

prices:


10lbs.-Bags
'50lbs.-Bags


15 Gourdes
15 Gourdes


Wholesale orders will be filled on the basis

of Gourdes: 2.75 per 10lbs. bags (Minimum


10 bags) and Gourdes:
um 10 bags.)


14 per 50lbs. (Minim-


U'


Tlme takes on -a foy hu& "
through the sapphire crystal
lf your. Movado "Firmament" Wateh


The-Movado sapphire crystal
S' gleas with a rare brilliance.
Its hardness Is surpabssed -'
only by that of the diariondr
You will cherish your
Movado which offers.,yu.a.
precision thrice trlumni l C-
In three years (at the oI l-
Swiss Observatory at
-,Neuchatel)., -


Rel 2654.
"The oval look".
gold 18 of.,



gold figure dial
a-


MOVAD
'. '' -* -'^^ '" '*


ON


SALE AT MASON ORIENTALS.:


.I > ..AS AND LITTLE EUROPE

." .. ... -' .... ."-. ., -


.7j


i


u,.NDAY. MAY 21ST,, 1901,


:'''~tAtTf: g'~U.k"


PAGE a


FROM


A.l.I
. :1
*I


4
~~ ~~L


I
' .
1.
.- L.


r


































Cons are ba
Ises and ti
.nts. (3) Thi
:the combi
r that it A
on page 1






AIT1 SJ


-PAGE 12 -" "H



Agricultural Chang

(Continued from page 11) Mexico. Foster discovered that
impossible to see it still in oper- "the system of voluntary com-
ation in Haiti today. However, in munal labor costs more than
questioning farmers in many six times as much as *help hir-
parts of the country, the writer ed in efficient units.'
did not find a single individual An explanation which several


who preferred the-combite to pay
labor. Generally. the farmer's
attitude is that the combite is
inefficient, that members can-
not be relied upon to show' up
for work, and that an excess of
food may be prepared at no
small expense in anticipation of
a larger number of workers than
actually materializes. In addition
to their preference to pay for
labor, the farmers also stated
a preference to work for pay.
The general criticism met with
among Haitian farmers that
the combite is inefficient in com-
nprison with na\ labor- brings


to mind George F
ious comparative st
fIicncy of hir'd \
labor in house
among the Populac


farmers gave for the increasing
unpopularity of the combite was
concerned with the matter of fi-
nancial inequality. It is said that
a farmer who considers himself
a man of means generally with-
draws from reciprocal work
groups and hires the labor he
needs. In some cases he may
choose to participate by sending
his own laborers to work on the
farms of other members in-lieu


strictly economic considerations
es .by favoring the latter.- CeRtajnly.
the. most common complaint
against the combite, voiced by
for feeding the workers) is nor- both "rich" -and poor Haitian
mally balanced by that of reci- farmers, was the high cost of
procity. However, the benefits of'the fiesta and the-inferior quali-
reciprocity are seldom exactly ty of the work as compared to
equal, for not all work for each that of hired labor.
other in turn, some are more In any event; the failure in
capable of financing the food Haiti of extension-inspired work
and drink than others/and some cooperative based on the prin-
young men who are not land ciple of reciprocity seems to be
owners work purely for the drink due in large part to the current
and entertainment. According to trend towards "buying" and
Nadel, "A temporary inequality "selling" labor. 'Perhaps one
in the economic position and in substantiation of this has been
the ability to utilize reciprocal the phenomenally rapid spread
farm cooperation must, then, of credit union cooperatives
weight the scales against mere throughout Haiti in recent
reciprocity, in .favor of the months as a result of extension
strictly economic considerations efforts. Members of these coop-


of reciprocating personally. This, of "buying",and "selling" labor.
the) explain, is how the reci- The economic aspect will gain
procal nature of the- combite ascendancy over the aspects of
breaks down. Something of a reciprocity as soons as this tem-
parallel is briefly mentioned by porary inequality tends to be-.


foster's ingen- Nadel for the Nuba of the Su- cme more permanent."
udy of the ef- dan. Among the Nuba the
vs. communal "strictly' economic aspects of While Nadel's argument is
construction group labor tthat is, capital out- very convincing, we would hesi-
ca Indians of lay in the form of surplus grain late to apply it universally. Re-
cent investigations by the writer
into the disappearance of coop-
erative labor in 'Colombian agri-
culture show that cooperative
farm labor has been abandoded:'
inm some cases without a corres-
ponding increase in the inequal-
i ty' oL the economic positions. of
the farmers. In many Colombian
"./ cohfee areas, for example, the
iiI relative size of land holdings, as
well as the relative economic
positions of. the individual. far-
mers, hai'e not-been appi;eciably
altered by the introduction and
rise to'importance of this cash
crop. All are enjoying higher
financial Seturns but without any
mounting inequalities of indivi-
dual incomes. Yet, within the
past, generation the coffee grow-
ers'. of Caldas' have abandoned
the custom of con;ites. Here, ,p-
parently, the factor.of historicAl
importance has been a change
from an agriculture production
destined primarily for local' and
subsistence consumption to one Is
destined for trinational and inter- -
national markets. The more va-.
.tried, i.f less intensive, agricult-
iure of ,the past provided the!,
farmer with a .fodF surplus
which could be converted into
~. labor'when 'l;he ie.dedd :t iost -
But as aginictllural productidoi
began to specialize more a dAd Ma
more around one:b sh crop,' :oqf-
'fe', -it- bdcamne ifi"reasingly ne-
cessai'y for farmers to purchase
food for the convite fiestas. At
this point the efficiency of ,the
convite in relation, to its cost
proved lower- than' Uat .of, hir-
ed 'labor. From this and another
Coombian examples, which it
is. not' ,our purpose to describe'
here,- it would seem that the re-
quirements of increased eicien.I
cy created by .a change 'from.Lky
subsistence-oriented to cothimer-
cial-oriented agriculture, may be
the 'under lying fadtor. of limital
tion which at g lents the piroba-
bility ..of the "disappearance of
oo~rative' tfhi Iab~ir ia'n i a -
jority df- .:Eenii.; 4 Nliba
example, Nadel points out 'that
.'t.e introduction of cotton as a
c5sh-crop .was alterihgcthe baU

t', ':r _~. .. ....m o,4.15 '-
; ,L ,,.--:, J .- ,? .' .-` "4' .
.. ., .. := ., : ., 2.,L._, .


eratives invest a minimum


in tiie of necessity or for t'
purchase of such things ass apnI
tools and farm animals. The
farmers are acutely conscious of
the fact that emergencies, .re-
quiring an -immediate outlay .ol.,
cash, place them at the mercy
of money lenders who may
cheat them of their land. Need
for credit at a fair rate.of in--.
terest would seeing to be a..prim--
ary reason for the rapid growth
of this movement. There,-,are
several other respects in which
this cooperative differs frorq
those that have failed. It in-.
volves neither.'reciprocal labor,
nor cooperative labor, nor joint
ownership; .it provides an oppor-,.
tunity for individual self-'expres:
sion at group meetings, study
clubs, and'in the election of offi-
cers; and it insures greater


amount weekly on which they permanency of mem b e r s h i p
can borrow at low interest rates (Continued on page 13)


- ---


'~~
I .


I





S -
21ST,. 196


"^HAA4^ &UN"


rsuE ii'
I


agricultural Changes...
-. : ,


(Continued from page 12)-
rough individual irivestment
savings. The gravest problem
date. has been the illiteracy
the farmers,' which places a
ge responsibility for keeping
e records and doing the ac-
untirig on the extension agents
id their' immediate supervisors.
'e ultimate success of the mo-
iement may well be decided du-
Ing the critical period of in-
loctrihating the members.
Jealousy Pattern
In all rural areas, but espe-
ally in the mote backward
es, thee is strong social pres-
re among the r rs to
maintain the status quo through
hat might be called' the "jeal-
s.y pattern". A successful in-
-idual who accumulates more
capital lhani;his neighbors avoids
ny stentatibos idhw of, wealth
nd attempts..to keep his finan-
al affluence a family secret.
hostility towards ,the individual
ho is more successful than his
Lows is usually. restricted to
e practice of black magic, al-
,oug. in sojne regions it may
asult i 'a tual. destruction 'of
property. This pattern has had
long 'past in Haiti as shown
y thehisttoiy;lof their attempts
) coaize freed American Ne-
roes :-.hotly before the Ameri-
an C-,iy1-ar,, '-Miny of these
hndi hal .,a~.tra j 0rced' to re-
urn to 'he-..S. lhen their more
uccesful.. a nrrt ng practices
ausede Jeal6oisy and destructive
retaliation on the'part of their
Saitian neighbors..
Thetredngth of.this "pattern"
h various. sections- of Haiti is,
however1 -variable..-It is strong-
st in 'morAsolated areas where
here .is ressconfact with 'rban
centers' or..where the financial
tatus of the various members
-I-


of the community isfairly equal, combination of both of the above
In urban centers and-even rur- factors.
al communities where there' are The program of one technical
enough "progressive" -individu- aid project in Haiti is fundam-
als tb find comfort in their owP mental education and extension
numbers, the "jealousy pattern" work, and.its location is such
has either disappeared or is in- that the toad leading to it had
effeotual; In such cases the ex- to b repaired and properly
tension agent, by working with maintained. Because of the road,
he "progressives;" is able to two merchants constructed cof-
institute some housing and other fee mills near the project head-
improvements into the commu- quarters and the local farmers
nity although more frequently no receive a better price .for
these changes -eventually follow their coffee an do not have to
their ability to pay for them as transport it as far as they did
well as their contact with the formerly. All this has revived
outside, regardless of extension interest in coffee planting and
efforts. it is..now easy for the extension
Effects Of lieifeasedff agent-to persuade many farm-
'Eroduction. Snd Commerce. ers to start' seed beds for coffee
In cases where exfension worik ahd shade trees. Thus the pro
has accotnpanied n' engineering gram of hillside reforestation
.project (for eriiapile, irrigation) has been given considerable im-
as compared .to those-where. ex- petus from an unexpedled quart-
tension work has been conducted er. the repair and maintenance
alone, the retention of new prac- of a road. In addition, the road
tices seems to, have been great- has stimulated bus traffic to the
r. 'Improved' plant species, new locale on market days, thus
plants, and improved cultivation bringing great numbers of cust-
practices, such' as spacing and
planting -in rows, etc., were. ret-
ained by a much larger propor-
tion of the population in tWb pla- .
ces where an irrigation -project
had accompanied the extension
work and visibly increased pro-
duction. There are two possible
explanations for this; First,
when a technical.--aid program
is investing considerable money
in an engineering project, mote
attention is given to the exten-
sion work and usually the best
agent available is assigned. Sec-
ond, the increased' production'
which accompanies an
irrigation.project creates a much
more favorable atmosphere for
the retention of new methods. ;
Probably the true explanation in
the' 'case observed -involves a


. ~, a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. n


QR R A C E LIN E
4' I FARE FOR HAITI .

OneCas

,-"'M::f1~i "'YdRX' PORT-AU-PRINCE (DEPARTURE-
I'-. ".- EVERY FRIDAY):

ARGO SHIPS (12 -PASSENGURS) -135 ALL YEAR
"/.4

;-"'-'6 iIsMtiSHiPs .f "A SSENGERS) FROM $155

O -T AVtPRINdC NEW YORK (C E T EVERY SUNDAY)

I U'XR-.Y SHiPS: SANTA $A'- SANTA' PAULA--
400 -PASSENGERS A. SE 'FROM $195.00,

FlR'.O INFORMATION -. ..




;oseph l av & Co

S-. TRAVEL AGE ,


omers :fo.r local' products from
a large town nearbyy and con-
siderably increasing' local com-
merce. To judge from our hasty
survey, it would appear that the
road is having a greater influ-
ence .for change In the area
than the fundamental education
program. We are therefore in-
clined to agree with Beals when
he says, "Ii f were to rate the
acculturative forces I have seen
at work in various communities
I think- I would suggest that one
road is worth about three schools
and about fifty administrators."

The Plow At St. Raphael
And St. Michel
S It was mentioned previously
That technical aid programs
have made several unsuccessful
attempts to introduce the plow
into Haiti. It is of particular in-
terest, therefore, to mention two
cases where plowing was bor-
rowed, although no attempt was
made in either case to purposely
introduce the practice. These
Cases are also of interest be-
cause they further illustrate se-
v\eral of the points made in the


story 'with which w
concerned dates bac
iod of only some 25 ;
possible at both place
chock several elderly
who were active pa
the events to be des
a trip was made t
coast of Haiti to
stories with that of
maican who had I
man for two of the
panics which accidE
duced the' plow int
Further checks we
(Continued


\liba4ce .qaiwnt Ce Ada


Ref. 737 t'NecPlusUlI '".-ifsel uTid.ing
watcbes 39 Jewels -'Gyotropn-poweted.
See 'the superb .1960 ,tirqrd-Perregaur3
* models at formob s jewellers. I


preceding sections.
Actually, the. intr
the plow at S Mic
St. Raphael does no
two entirely distin
for while the two'
separated by an an
tivated forest lands t
ly about 10 miles fr
other. The reader she
warned that the da
reconstructing this h
collected over a per
three days and the
information were ei
However, since the


;0 N A. L- E A.T :T

S'' ''' ,

S. ,.': ,


FIRE 1,1,15,111:IS 1,111 %'.V N OW W.
- .,. .w r r r .'. -' 2%,, 0 r r r r'n r r' ", '., '% ... w--' ,,',w :.* .-.: -..d I'-" .; ", "i
.& $ Y.. .. ,... .. '-
... ... ...'..
4 r .- t': ';'."rZ i4 'c ~ 24. '"."~ ~.j,j: !'.-4


__


=~~ [ .al


1!


oduction of
chel and at 'I
ot constitute
ct histories,
locales lare :
ea of uncul-
they are on-
rom one ah-
ould be fore-
ita used in
history were
riod of only
sources of
entirely oral.
.part of the
'e are most
:k to a per-
years, it Was .
ces to oross-
y informants
irticipants in
cribed. Also,
to the north
check their
a white Ja-
been a fore-
foreign cor- :
mentally intro. "'-':
to the area.
ere provided
on page 131






8-"*"~ s --"



-.'






1'1
S,= ........ -'\
















i-I




'Pi


I-







V..,

SAgricultural Changes..

S (Continued from page 13) pany departed in about 1926, i
S a e D i sold many of its used plows ti
by an elderly Dutchman n iPort its local plowmen who then be
: au Prince who had been a fin- gan to use them on their owi
ancial backer of one of the en- land. During the next few year
S terprises. their neighbors and friends eith
er began to pay them to plow
In about 1919 a foreign com- their land, or persuaded then
pany came to St. Michel to plant to teach them the new technique


cotton on a large commercial
basis. Around 1926, this compa-
ny was replaced by another
which operated a tobacco-plow-
ing project until 1930. Shortly
before this second company
withdrew, one of the foremen,
a white Jamaican by the name
of Foster (now deceased), mov-
ed up to St. Raphael to initiate
a tobacco planting venture


t
o
e-
1n
s
-
1


Whereas the company had us-
ed tractors and mules to do its
plowing, the local farmers had
neither tractors nor adequate
mules. However, sugar-cane
planting and cattle raising had
both been prominent in the loc-
al economy and the populace
was already familiar with the
practice of training and using


there. Foster and his backers oxen to power their crude wood-
lost money and the St. Raphael en sugar mills. Pairs of oxen
project ended in 1933. although already trained for working on
a few other foreigners tried on sugar mills were now trained to
a smaller scale, but with equal draw plows. To meet the pro-
lack of success, to raise tobacco blem of guiding plow-oxen, they
commercially at St. Raphael found it necessary to employ a
shortly thereafter, man or boy in every case to


During the seven years that
the first company at St. Michel
was operating its cotton planta-
tion, it employed and trained
several local men to plow with
mules. Although none of the loc-
al farmers attempted to ploW on'
their own farms during this pe-
riod, the practice had by now
attracted considerable attention
and discussion. When the corn-


walk ahead and lead the anim-
als. Apparently the second com-
pany, which operated the tobac-
co plantation at St. Michel bet-
ween 1926 and 1930, helped to
stimulate the spread of plowing
by employing it in the .cultiva-
tion of tobacco, a new cash
crop which often brought high
prices. Furthermore, this comn-
pany's adoption of the new local
improvisation of plowing with


Modern haitian


Paintings

GALERIE PINCHINAT

On Show Now At


By MAX PINCHINAT
106, BOIS VERNA

Just before you reach the "PONT MOBIN" bridge

This is an ART GALLERY, not a picture shop, ex-
hibiting over 100 of the most attractive FRAMED
i AINT'I.NGS made both in Port au Prince and Paris by
-r FAMOUS HAITIAN PAINTER MAX PINCGINAT
Siow 'in l"France.
The artist WHO HAS XMIBITED BOTH. MERE
I AND ABROAD for the pastl15' years, comes back to
Haiti every five years and forkl .to 18 months renews
Sthe contact with his people and his source 'of inspira-
t'' ion.
S In the GALLERY PINCHINAT are grouped
some paintings of the 15 years of work. by MAX PIN-
SCHINAT, from 1945 to 1960.' Prices have not been ar-
bitrarily basedd on beauty. if the painting, but'oh its
size, ju~t like Paris F, i ion for MAX, PINCHNl[ AT
and OTHIR WELL' KOWN ARTISTS. -isitors can
consult the paintings .price list if they wish to. *
SAll the taxi drivers know GALLERY lINCHI AT
SAND don't let anybody tell yoh that- the GALLERY is
dosed. It is not.
S The GALLERY PINCHINATi l ole represen-
tative pd safes agent of PINCHINAT's prtiigs, bas
exhibited a few samples'only at"'Foyer-do A s'-At Plas-
Stiques", "Galerie Brochette" and Galerle Stisse'".
Open from 10 AM to 5 PPM, and on appointment in
hp iveanig. ADMISSION FREE.

,,,,, s',.l V N


oxen apparently helped to esta-
blish it in general usage.. .
On moving to St. Raphal' i
1930, Foster took with him both
mules and oxen, as well as men
from St. Michel who knew how
to plow with both types of' ani-
mals. During the three years
he was at SL Raphael, no one
made any attempt to copy him.
But shortly after he left, two
farmers began planting tobacco
and plowing with oxen, and two
to three years later others be-
gan following their example.
Today at St. Michel nearly
everyone either plows or has
his land plowed by contract.
Farmers in the area claim that
the practice doubles their yield
and, as several expressed it,
plowed land is more "resistant"
to drought. According to one
old man, if one of two adjoining.
fields is plowed before planting
and the other is not, and the ini-
tial rains9 are followed by a
drought, the plowed land may
still yield a crop while the un-
plowed land will not. The reas-
ons given for the failure of a
few farmers to adopt the plow
were that their land was tog
rocky or that plows were diffi-
cult to obtain.

Planting practices rhayvegotu'
ally been little changed by the
plow, which serves only to break
up the ground. Beans; corn,.and
sorghum -are still planted \ith
a digging stick after plowing.
Land is plowed in March and
April and planting begins after
the 'first rains, which' usually
come in May. Corn, beans and
sorghum are plited together
on the same land whilee tobacco
is planted apart. In 'August the
tobacco is harvested and the
land replanted in sorghum with-
out replowing.

At St. Raphael only about 25
farmers own their' own plows
and draft oxen. Informants'es-
timated that some 50 more know
how. to, plot' but do not have
their- own equipment. 'The numh-
ber of individuals who neither
own plo'inwg equipMient _'r
know how, toTplow i be
Ificult o -i6 ate 'bit' air.%f
.those who do own equipment do
some contract plowing for others
,each year. Since plowing and
'tobacco entered the vicinity of
I'St.: Raphael at the same. time,
there is/a much clpseriassodia-
'tion between the two then at St.
'Michel where the first company
plowed for cotton. With few ex-
cejtions, those -who plow also
plant tobacco and those who do
'not plant tobacco dd-not plow.
'Fuithermore, in cdntrast'Ifo''S'
Michel, many who plow for' to-
:bacco do not plow for their own
crops. The original two 'farmers
'who began plowing at St. Raph-
'ael after F66tpt'left, 'did sb'brliy
'for tobacco.. As these two men
explainede. it, after pioinrg for
tobaccoo began to spread among
'the farmers at St. Rdphael it
was soon discovered that the
"sandy" ,soils of the region
Iwdul tobaccog ps wit
fb.ig4 .. while 'inf black
.s oils.'pldwing was only' n-
cessary for tobacco but* produc-
ed 'greater'yields of .con, -,beans
and, sorghum.' Some bf.th e reas-,
otis-given by farmers 'af St Ra:'
, i &A ,


phael for not .plowing were that
their gound asfo, rocky, that
vh'ymir@ef4ctnterested ij p4n-:
ti'g t'badco: tht' plowffig 'Eid'
not increase the yields enough
to make it worth the ,additional
expense, or. that plowing is not
particularly advantageous. un-
less accompanied by irrigation.
The last explanation is particul-
arly interesting in view of the
fact that Foster attempted to
irrigate his tcbacoo plantations
at St. Raphael by diverting' two
local streams. At St.. Michel,
where both companies did dry-
farming only, this association
between irrigation and plowing


does not appear to exist.. As
result f a tecet- goyvri

ael, more farmers .tle av
become interested in plowing
and the demand for rental plow.
has become greater than the"loc
al .agricultural -'extension -agen
can supply.
At bdth St.' Michel and 'Sti Ha
phiel, new 'plow oxen ;ar first
taught to .draw logs, then to
work in the sugar mills, andlfin-
ally to plow. In each case they
are 'yoked to another previously.
trained animal. A few 'special-
ists who train oxen.for sale 'at
(Continued. on page '15)


- /


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BM I IITAI A



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Ah y bay, the_ plain the mountain ..

l Deedious dontinenlai cuisine and superlb;''
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SPersonalized allention to ejery guest.

SSvimmin3 Pool vilbh L.uniheon ounge ,:
and Bay PanorarmaTerrode
Air-dondi;ioned de-luxe rooms- I



V EE1LY ENTERTAINMENT PRtOQRAM

TUESOD :lnormdl Creole 3ufe, andinfmrom
7:30 PM to' mdnig'rm
.Meringueie ,ntruehon' and dontest -
... 9:3o usuall cld s.1o a'dmibsion, ee ..
vJEDNEpAi: (emplimenlar get-togetherPunIbowl
Pa -romq tm otrmd7


... dmssion fee .
I LL OT1ER ;4JHT: Cck' l il OC lor fron 7 to 9 W)ilh
', native dombo .
"'*- _-* "*"l 1


.'w--w' 'eri w"'W' I


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yWet LIUQUEUgR made in Scotland on,


,XCLUSIVw


I1t


. I !


va,





.. ... ", ---1 I 1L A I A a a ,

seen to the north it was a high-
gf i.c ,l ,r l C h ne ly advantageous practice: They
U U ArEm complained, however, that none
did contract plowing so far
(Continued from page 14) preferred to valley oxen because south and that the price was
$10 to $20 profit may now be it is said that they are not al- more than they could afford
found, at both locales. One young lowed to range as freely, but anyway. Beyond this tobacco
man at St. Raphael-has recent- must be kept near the house margin, farmers expressed
ly broken away from the sugar- and their fodder carried to greater indifference. Some said
mill system of training on the them. They are therefore better their ground was too rocky,
grounds that oxen so trainedd fed and stronger, which in many cases may have
always want to plow in circles. been true. Others claimed that
He now breaks a new animal to Contract plowing has become they were primarily interested
the plow by yoking it to an ex- something of a specialization in in planting sugar cane, and since
perienced 'animal and working the area. A few men at St. Ra- they had no interest in planting
very. slowly at first, always, with phael, for example, who are con- tobacco there was no point in
a boy or man .walking ahead sidered to be superior or plow- plowing.
to lead the- tio animals.- How- ers, -are regularly contracted by
ever, none of the farmers has others to plow their land at The general effects of plowing
yet learned tg plow without a planting time. Plowing costs and tobacco planting on the area
guide to walk ahead.of the et., $12tto $20 a carreau (3,33 acres), were much more difficult to ap-
In fact, boys are trained to plow the lBoer figure being the price praise in the short time avail-
by first, teaching them to Jlead '.fr loose, and the higher for able. At St. Raphael, the two
the oxen and later to rui.dd tl rdefr;,oil." The daily rental local farmers who were the first
plow. The, guiding methods pe- price of a team of two oxen with to copy Foster are now the rich-
culiar to plowing with oxen. fp :- lat*;-;has also become standard- .est men of the village and have
ticed in Spanish America, such izedat a figure of approximate- bought up large quantities of
as calling to the animals, or ly $1. land. Although both were con-
striking 'them with a long pole, paratively poor when Fosteri ar-
were not learned dt St. Raphael Faimers both at St. Raphael rived, they were speculators
and St. MVichel, since the farm- and St. Michel claimed that to- and even then purchased crops
ers had only seen plowing done bacco planting and plowing had, when the market price wvas low
with mules, in general, diffused throughout and sold when it was high. It
the area together. There was was tobacco planting that actu-
-"i" W spe ilow -'g notsufficient -time available to ally made them wealthy, for the
new att.ention~ is being given to reconnoiter the frontiers. of the price of tobacco fluctuates great-
the caref#~aft oxen.l Allow- diffusion. area, d~buduring the ly. Land values have increased,
men arere'areful to see that drive southward" t'i Gonaives in- and at both St. Michel and St
their i are. well fed during quires were made among farm- Raphael farmers claim it has
plowi rin i ;nd the cost of ers living on the southern bord- become much more difficult to
fod .sugar-cane), is er. Here the planting of 'tobacco purchase land and in recent
figl into .the price for con- had spread a very.short distance years, sinpe more people are
-trat"' plowing. Trainers have further than the practice of 'interested in buying. This, how-
even .,egvelfpe,d a few criteria plowing, but not--ripre -than a ever, is a general complaint in
for selecting,,suitable oxen at the half a mile. These farmers were Haiti and is not peculiar to this
markets' Fo d :example, : oxen interested in Rlowin and stat- particular plow region. It does
frofi the ibout in regions are ed that from what tiy had seem true, nevertheless, that
many farmers who are now
Slowing set a much higher esti-
S_ mate on the quantity of land
'; -... thej feel capable of tilling as
CONS LT compared to farmers in other
areas. This in itself may be io-
.creasing the pressure to buy, as
d "f d ,,-' ... .".- i well as the feeling of scarcity.
S' Farmers at St. Michel also
architect U. of M. claimed that the popularity of
the reciprocal work group known
as the combine had waned con-
E siderably since 'the introduction
f the plow. As farmers in many
SdeOrao I parts of Haiti make a similar
claim concerning the diminisb-
o t ling popularity of the combite
CO,. Strucion during recent years, this'cannot
be attributed directly to plowing.
at c lbit The farmers themselves say that
the combite was already losing
"d 'n*' 'rmitnd when the companies first


1 p.m. 3 p.ni.


came to St. Michel; they soon
began to hire many local people,
an'd ever since then laborers
Pd.


have preferred to work for pay
even more than previously. Fur-
ther, they claim that more local
men have become "wealthy"
since plowing and tobacco were
introduced, and that these men
prefer to hire and supervise
their labor rather than use co-
operative labor, a\ condition
which they feel has also tended
to work against the combite sys-
tem. In short, informants felt
that plowing did not cause the
decline of the combite or the
greater pressure to obtain land,


but intensified a tendency that
was already present.
In reviewing this brief case
study, we find it illustrates many
of the points made in connec-
tion with the general survey.
Plowing and tobacco cropping
were adopted on a very empir-
ical basis. The farmers had
ample opportunity to observe
the benefits of both,, yet their
introduction was not marked by
any general rush to adopt them.
At both St. Raphael and St. Mi-
(Continued on page 16)


Port-do prince 000)n)








Served aexwsm r at Haiti's Lea
HOTELS & RESTAURANTS & BY CONNOISSEUR
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD "

WASH IT B f T! You cadt mar its Matchless
Aj nra n ,-.h^prj6.LIS


ding
IS ,


"1
I


'1




,ie



'":






ir







*I
?i





*.!Y


*-II
I;M






. --


Agricultural Changes....


S(Continued from page 15)
chel the great majority of the
farmers were content to wait
while a few of their numbers
successfully experimented with
the new traits and proved their
immediate utility. Those aspects
of plowing and tobacco cropping
most widely adopted were those
which offered short-term bene-
fits that were readily demons-
trable on the basis of casual
empiricism.

The complexity of the new
technique of plowing was reduc-
ed in part by the environment
and in part by the way it was
adopted. The existence of draft
oxen in the area, as well as the
past knowledge and experience
involved in the practice of train-
ing and using them for power-
ing sugar mills, simplified the
introduction of draft animals


plus plow by eliminating the
complete novelty of one of the
two major elements. In contrast,
the difficulty'of obtaining plows
has probably been one of the
strongest deterrents against its
further spread, Ip Spanish Ame-
rica, the phenomenal diffusion
of plowing into many backward
areas is unquestionably liked
with the fact that the Spanish
plow was wooden and that. the
knowledge of its construction
spread with it. For the farmers
at St. Raphael and St, Michel,
however, the plow is a manu-
factured implement which must
be purchased and its diffusion
is dependent upon the rate of
its numerical ingress into the
area. For these people the price
is high enough to be an' inhibit-
ing factor, to say nothing of the .'
sheer mechanical difficulty of
obtaining such implements in a


("Soaping" dulls hair-

Halo glorifies it!


country where they :are s
used.

The complexity of th
plowing technique was a
duced through the proc
borrowing. Not .only i
shown in the crude met
guiding plow oxen, but
fact. that plowing serve
to break up. the ground
which planting takes pl
the same hoe-and-dibble
as before.


Association of elements also
played an important role in the
diffusion ot plowing, especially.
at St. Raphael. The desirability
of tobacco as a cash crop en-
handed the value of- plowing,
with which it became associated
in this, area. But the facts seem
tor indicate that while the asso.
ciation of two or more elements
in a "complex" may- help to
introduce one of them, as tobac-
co cropping helped to introduce
plowing, it may also act as a
retarding factor in its further
spread. At St." Raphael where
the association is stronger, plow-
ing has not_ enjoyed the same
popular acclain and acceptance
as at St. Michel, where the'asso-
ciation of plowing with irriga-
tion also apparently reduced its
acceptability to. some. At this'
point, however, the importance j
of the time factor must also be
considered. Contact between the
farmers and the foreign compa-
nies at St. Michel, extended over
a period of some 11 years,, as
compared to a period of approx-'
Imately four years at St. Ra-
phael, which allowed more time
for local farmers at St. Mihel
to learn plowing techniques as*
employees of the 'companies.
'Furthermore, the farmers at St.
Michel began plowing aroymd
'1926, while those at St. Raphael
did not begin until -nearlyi '0
years:later.


-


Add


o little Apparetly, the introduction .of plow g to, c
aroasih Wa s"toCo)'' es .te ndis o6qiep i
edto increase the commercial- to' the -plow witljipo
ie new. ization .of agriculture and thus them fiirst.on sugar. iIills. M
Aho re- aided the further desintegration intensive ;cultvtiovao and greE
ess of of reciprocal, labor in favor of interest ii agricu~i e ha te h
s this hired labor..Plowing has also ed to'intenSify the' pressure
hLod of -ed (o new part-time specipliz the.-land, since, pl9wn.g ,has
Jn the nations such as contract ployi~g creased the amqouwtt .l o- nd
!s only and trainingaf.plow.oxen. Vir. average individual .ca .dlt.'civ
, after tuosity has resulted in such, re- as ell, appretly, ;as hisi
ace in finements as the extension o mat. p his own capabilities
fashion, .'
.


CALEDONIAN INSUBAN : T I '

S. -


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RONY CH T & SQNS
AGENTS FOR HAITI
ress Rue des Miracles Opposite Ndtpnal Ba
All


YoU know. : -.
9 a really f **







JOHNNIE ALH
R WAIERALKE

Mi ... .; ,..- '. "...:.:..


DISTRIBUTOR PREETZMAN-AGGERHOLM


.. '. ";' A 'A
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>ktel Sansouc


'" EyEIlY T9YSDAY NIGHT i ORALL "
COOKED TO ORDER" .- ,

B .ARBECiUE DINNER .-7.00 to 9:00 PM .

WITH THE SANS SOUCI COMBO -,".,
.INNER $20 er.Pe .. .,

S EVERY FRIDAY NIGHT- :00Pqi m... gh""
PUNCH BOWL, DNE
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AtHE 'FtFIm j

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'1 -, ,. i ;fa.. I ,- ..,a. ; .. _. : .. .. .
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---SunRE WOT. sIJ^J INSURANuE


.I I ..I






PAGE 11


LUDYMY21T 91'H IiS N


*


ff theTeledio

ATASITROPHY IN THE MAKING: That goony accident at Sand
ay last Sunday when the motorboat loaded with water skiers,
awking at tourists in bikinis, climbed onto the cockpit of. A sail-
oat,seriitig its. occupants..flying into the -deep. It skittered off
ithott dbing michi damage, hut the time is coming when some
gulations- will be necessary to avoid sudden death in the bay.--
HE CHAUFFEUR-GUIDES ASSOCIATION 'had better investi-
ate-oneeof their members who gave a white-haired' woman guest
t Castelhaiti a bad time last. weekend. His name is Lelio and
s isn't his. fist. offense. He's a self-styled -Don Juan, but he
Sresistible-&WHATIr WAS that four letter word (so easy to re-
ember) that John Sheldon was Morse-coding to the Coast Guard
ff Grand Goave: a couple of Sundays qgo?-VOLDROGUE is the"
West addition to the bar-restaurant openings. Owner is P. Thi-
ault, better known around town as TI BO, the little waiter. His
ew spot is on the Martissant Road next door to Casa Mary, and'
as the makings of a 'pop' joint. He opened Saturday a week ago,
despite the rajn.-ANDRE LETELLIER and Miss Darby of the
lairian & Co-Arts Association of New York were --back in town
st week with a load of medicines, etc., to distribute.-VICTOR
IEVERS CONSTANT's line of lights near the wivbrf on the bou-
vard Ipok- like a small ship, _all lit up for a celebration, from.
cross the Bay.-ROGER COSTER was heard to comment that
t. Thomas is full of tourists Ahops and homos.-BY THE WAY,
e's another-who-likes to-pour-rum- over ice cream. MacMacNeal
oes it all the: ine .tLATEST name for shutter-bugs hocus-
cus boyspr girls) .-MAJ. REDALEN's. helicopter is~"the best
arm cl iHall R'.--~T FIC TO MIRAGOANE is in. difficulty
gain. Ht a .iave so deeply gullied the rpadbed in'the
ills b etit.: and. Grand'Goave tha. small :cars skid "onto-
heir ,.iimmobilized until. human hands. get til m in traction
gain E B crabbens doff the. Fish AMarke A in."artissant
Sto r irbHirtaihdg stilts: -Aren't they afraid the crabs
di gambit wrong ,abaitTHE^- COASTGUkRD STATIN was
11 d i.ut- ini an'-blue lights for Flag Day, .- i a litio
ir alidess. r. it, BUT ;her dress Ywas..n:adIfeo tbe
me.,l .ag maia a l.---WHY, oh why, doesn't Tropigas put
auges o their gas tanks,, so you can tel when you're running
' rWA'T 'kit for now too many holidays this week.
By Kay Minor.

Caribbean Construction Co. SA.

Builders Of Ta 151::..
ha Miliaaaxay ~t


Lady With Wanderlust Chases
Haitian Birds

(Continued from page 1) New Mexico, where she will
was Lsted as an inn with the summer at the,home of her poet-
Jamaica tourist people. The ca- ess friend, Peggy Pond Church,
ble wasn't delivered until next whose Familiar Journey ranks
day, after Mrs Burkhart had her among the best of modern
made a fruitless tnp to Kens- poets.
coff only to find that the Chate- Mrs Burkhart has resigned her
let is now a private home. Back teaching job to catch up on two
.she came down. town and check- years of back work at her real
ed into the Castelhaiti. Her love bird banding. She is a
chauffeur then pressed a nite- licensed bird bander, of which
club tour on her, followed by there are about 700 in North
an incident when she insisted America. Their purpose is to
upon returning to the hotel add to the knowledge of bird
where she dismissed him. She migrations, their longevity, dis-
brushed that one off too and set eases, and variations in plum-
abour next day to follow her age. Mrs Burkhart visited the
pursuits and hobbies. Agricultural College at Damien
Mrs Burkhart is a writer of where Dr Leonce Bonnefil show-
nature stories, which she illust- ed her his collection of indigen-
trates herself with her own pho- ous birds of Haiti, and it seems
tographs, and is known as a con- likely that Dr. Bonnefil will be-
tributor to nature magazines, come one of the more than 300
Natural History and the Phila- correspondents Harriet Burkhart
'delphia Academy of Science pu- has in various countries around
blications.. She was on her way the world.
home from South America via The bird' cage at Castelhaiti
Panama two years ago, when was a favorite haunt, where she
she decided to visit a cousin liv- enjoyed watching the Weaver
ing in Jamaica. There she met Birds build their ingenious nests.
her cousin's best friend, Dr H6n- She is interested in learning ii
ry Fowler, th6 Head Master of there is a bird-bander in Haiti
Priory School. He talked her and would like to make it known
into taking over his classes that if anyone in Haiti ever
while he was on leave. She finds a bird, dead or alive, with
made a quick trip home to Union a numbered metal tag on its leg,
City, Penna., near Lake Erie, a report of the number, where
returned to Jamaica with 100 and in what condition found, etc.
pounds of books and little else, (or just the flattened band itself
-and has been teaching 35 class- from a dead bird), should be
'es.a week ever since. She visited sent to the organization known
Haiti on her way to Santa Fe, as Bird Banding, Patuxent, Ma-


ryland, a suburb of Washington,
D.C,
But that is not where the
lady's interests end. She's an
ardent gardener, is studying liz-
ard and frogs, runs two homes,
and at present is worrying about
her last income tax payment
which was delayed due to the
Post Office w workers' strike re-
cently in Jamaica. She is plan-
ning a return visit to Haiti, at
which time she expects to make
field trips to study Haiti's bird-
life, etc., etc. There just isn't
any end to her studies, and
that's what keeps her young and
interesting. Mrs Burkhart paid
a visit to the Cardozo flower
gardens and was sorry to have
missed meeting and talking with
Mrs Cardozo who is now in New
York. Nadule Cardozo showed
her around and they batted Lat-
in flower and plant names back
and forth..like ping-pong balls.

Completely furnished House
for Rent located at DESPREZ:
Four (4) bedrooms
Two (2) bathrooms
Two (2) kitchens
Bar Office
Diningrooni Li~ing room
Veranda Swimming pool
Garage.
Formerly residences of Peru-
vian Ambassador and Canadian
Charge d'Affaires.


BUILDING MATERIAL, PAINTS, HARD WARE,
HOME -DECORATING, ETC. CALL FIRST AT HAITI'S MOST
MODERN STORE, M & S RUE AMERICAINE


jute sw-imitary City
Gen. Manager: Gerard THEARD

Phone: 3955. P. O. BO.. 284




SAVE, UP TO 701 per cent ON


Ddty F;ee Liquor

VISITORS TAKE ADVANTAGE OF



Paquin's


FAST DELIVERY TO 16 STATES. .

PORT AU PRINCE'S

OLDEST. GIFT SHOP ri

OFFERS 60 BRANDS TO 't is a requisite for a house owner or anyone living in a house to visit M & S

CHOOSE FROM on Rue Americaine and see what .improvement you can make to your home. The
C mqsi revolutional store of its kind in the Caribbean, M & l his convenient spe-

51 Rue du Oua cial parking and a beautiful displayroom with all items clearly price tagged. Be-
:side the finest assortment of building materials, paints, hardware and household
acocessories 'M & S has the tools required. by any Do-it-yourself hobbiest.
It .i War-


.. I -,.,


o)UNDAY MAI 21ST, 1961


" HAI.TI SUN"






""** -I SO "


SUNDAY MAY 21T, 1i911


11Joseph report


One for the record. The electric company announced in the
dailies this ieek that owing to the delay in the arrival of spare
parts the rationing of electricity will not begin this week and
will begin at a later date... "I am called not N. V. Constant but
Victor Nevera Constant", the first deputy of the Capital said
tartly this past week at the swearing in ceremony at the Legis
lati\e Palace. "So there will be no confusion about my person-
ality", the omission has been correctly rectified by the commis-
sion sIated Le Matin... Pierre and Cenin Calman-Lev. fElew off
Tuesday for a two month visit to Miami, New York and their
native Puris... Lolely Gloria Noustas Babonn and her two child-
icn ri riurned to Mexico City Tuesday ending a month- vacation
,ith the family here. Grandpa Al Noustas began the hrst leg
of his business trip nursing grandchildren Tonio and Elizabeth...
Jisephl A.' Surkis consul general of Haiti in Lebanon arrived
FIrlday from Beruit to attend the May 2 cath taking of Presid.
Cet IDuialier... American Industrialist Anibroi-e -J. Harpnett ar-
:ivcr.l here [his week \with a groin of te-'hncrians. Mr Ilarpnett
-, interesting in building a sugar mill in the "riche et verdo.y-
anle" Torbeck plain along with a wharf according to Le Jour...
Air Ilaiti International which recently leased office space oi
Ihe( Rfue l'Pvee has cancelled the lease... Buteai's Bond. Point


It

jl
N

1


S PRESIDENT Staff of Haitian Armed 'Forces, ;lowers before the statii ofp 'tl
the Commandant of Officers of Empereur ...
TAKES OATH FOR Presidential buarncG, p1 go to Mlitary" ibnours.
the Square of Heroes of the Inde- Dress: White
NEW TERM pendence and lay a wreath of Direction ofi Protocole.
NEW TERM,

MONDAY.

(Continued-frod page 1) G lay te

Ceremony of the oath of Of- .
fice. Se.S Here As
Speech of the Chairman of the core s Ar
National Assembly
Speech of His Excellency the
President of the. Republic ,re at A r l ....,


To GivePublic Recital.Tuesday Next
, By JAN SWEELINCK Author-Composer ..




..


On his departure, the Chief
of,the State will be accompan-
ied to his car by the Chairman
of National Assembly.
Military salute will be given.
21 cannon-shots.
9:45.-Te Deum at Basilique
Notre Dame. On- his arrival His
Excellency the President of the
Republic will receive military
honors.
He is welcomed d by tlI Parish
Priest of the Cathedral.
PROGRAM
Seals are reserved in the
Choir for Diplomatic Corps high-
ranked officials, Members of
the Cabinet, the Staff of Haitian
Armed Forces. The family of
the President, high "Employees


liesminrant is opening "bientot" after being completely renovated of the Government, Press and
anid aiiuconditoned... Consul General in New York Andre .lie official guests have their seats
;iraii'%d in town tins %eeek and Rudy Balhoun consul general in in the nave as well as members
Mlarnm returned to his post.. Le Perchoir advised this welk that of Consular Corps.
Se After Te Dedm, the Chief of
Ite deluxe restaurant has closed down temporarily as its direct- Ate reeeesu oncte Chmore m
State receives once more mill-


orb Mi and Mrs Albert Barcillon are going to Boston. The
bar and terrace and shop will continue to function.. Billy Steed
ol the Slaughterhouse lHampcol returned to town after a visit
]home to Texas with his wife Michelle and son. Mare... The Mnui.


tary honors and goes to National
IPalace.
Dress: Tails.


TUESDAY MAY. 23rd
'ire 'elemaques expect to spend several years in Europe... Lieu- 9:00.-s Excellency the Pre-
leiant Robert Plummer and wife Florence welcomed their first sident of the Republic accom-
addition Tuesday 9th of May1 Their baby girl is to be baptised panied by the President" of Su-
"Regine"... Paul Faroud and Aliss Abilia Garib were married preme Court, the Chairrian of
at the Sacre-Coier last Saturday... New\sman Alan White is visit- Legislative Chamber, the me@-
hbers of his Cabinet, the Chief of-
iig Jall... E\elyn is the name of the newest beauty salon in Protocole, the Ce of Geeral
Protocole, the Chief of .General
town. Located in Bois Verna next to Pharmacy Bois V'erna... Staff and members of High'


4 A VA.| IWmai T L a Da#In. l..L.:L.: & r%, Vs..i Ds.L.. -.


brings a.
personality
anrd G Ili
ignite any
respect,
should be
ding such
prese'ntati
This 'ex
of live p
anr i


It is exciting to be in the pre-
sence-of a great artist who, hav-
ing spent decades of 'intamacy
with' music; sometime agoniz-
ing, sometimes-joyful, has rea-
ched that. assuredness that com-
es from work, suffering, and
transcending much of .life to be
one with his art.

SfT ;T is vPmin, lt in a diffp -


o ou ni e s i. uI riLio Fr uL Luy 1u a tt .uer- nat' e
uu UUU lilla IIL InIIILUIf ru[ IO Ur ent, way, to talk with a young rendering
And The Family? t with a solid measure of latti. Som
And The l achievement behind her and .a ,would. m
YOUK BEST BET IS: ; i bht future ahead. "Schtubrt
-i .5 MOLINO .' Such an artist is Gladys Steins, imposing
S,5 MOINOS who'-will play a public recital three dif
A -iL.,,i DUTCH POWDERED WHOLE MIL Tid`sday, May 24, at 5:30 pm. last year.
.----- WITH ADDED att the Haitian-American Instit- twice. A'pe
S' ute. Dr. John P. Wonder,, direct- as much
.. .. :-- VITAMIN D3 or, ias noted'that t'e concert could not
isfree and ppen to the public, composer.
n------ -.. all C!! ( Haitians and Americans who Mozart, ai
YOU Can Beat. It tv i o misic. each caf
NOW ON SALE Ai: Mrs_-Jules. Blanche;, one of cialist' 'in
.. :BOULANGERIE DE LA POSTE, Hati's -staunchest 'patrons of the.
BICHARA I MERY, -- arts., presented a quisical'ev n ca
BI-cHAR ]i Itr' _-' ing with Miss SteinA Thursdy: st2~rig.;
S M|ARC S TALAMIAS CO.,
S TALTAS i CO., ay 6of Miss Blanchet's pupils -ire, who-
SOULANGERIE ST. MAoR, *were on hdnd,and .several took time in
s* ^-y.. ALPHONSE M ARRi A, turns at the piano with: Miss full of dif
Boulevard Jean-Jacques Dessalines S Steins.. On Friday. morning an -In her i
SINTERA, POL. PICERIE .E, u impromptu concert was .arrag- Minor Son
.. ed for' 300-students of the Coll- herself no
GEORGES COLES, Lalue ege Si. Pierre and Noiveau Col- nically -
' HENRI RIGAUD, Petionvile. lege Bird. Miss Steins also -pre- style, 6ut
sented a concert over Tele-Haiti a freshne
. AGENTS AND DISTRIBUTORS: saturday high. "" then haun
SD "The pianist boasts an impds- guitar chi
ing repertoire;' Few artists so fullness v
Hispano-Ameri a Trading Co. Of Haiti-S.Ap young have such an extensivesed by V
: 9, RTUE D QUAIT :t* stockpile bf Scarlatti, Mozart, ved by.30
S-. RE Beethoven, Schubert, Copland, of whom
Gersh\win and i-lydan cerf, .arid
,., -. -. v v- To. her music Miss Steisna-ovation.
4--. ;,-.. .,' '- --- -.. Z1. .
.,. '- ; ". "'. l 2- '-.- ,- .-V ci.: ; s -'.""" -

ti:-.Cr44tS$!'At r' i


the. State Department
complimrhenid'tor 'seil-
a qualified cultural
)n to the Carihiean.
uberance and fullness
eermeated 'her music,
specially cleavPii' tIher' ,'
of'Schuberf and Scar-
e New York reviewers -
ake Miss Steins 'a .
specialist" since her-
Cartiegie Hall debut of
ficult- Schubetr, works
Yet, this is an injus-
erson who loves music
as Miss Steis.. does'
rest simply. with one
The worlds of Bach, 'j
nd .Beethoven call, and .-
quickly disarhi a 'spe-
anything. ..

ad!'.pf Alae5 is
This' pr-Barqque fig-
spent a great deal of
Naples -and Spain,. isii
ficult 'trills and s!kps.
interpretation of his C ,,
ata- Miss'Steins sho&vns
t "bnly adroit at tech- .
nasteiing' ?this subtle-<"
brings to 'the music.
ss .and the 'now an
ting joy of a Spanish'
ord. This richness and. i
was powerfully expres-'
iss Steins, and appro-,, j
0 school children, many .
head their first con- -
gave her a .stariding-
i


4

<
<
<


(


~'~'~'~~' ~ ~ 1--~


I




.7' .' ." i'


giS'NDAY -A 2iYST, 1961


" HAITI SUN"


PAGE 1I


Episco l Church finally a choral greeting to the
Episcopal Chiurc Emporer in Byzantine times, is
derived from a voodoo melody
(Continued from. page 1) the Rev. Fr. Henry N. Burrows, greeting the Loa, or God. The
The 15 bell carilloi; which an accomplished organist and Gloria is based on a popular
chimes'at noon and for most liarpsichoidist, will sing Fr. lullaby and other songs, includ-
,-:\ices at the 'owntovni. cathe- 'Spilz' "Hlaitian Folk Mass". T-e- ing the combine work melodies,
di1 is-oot the o jy new' addi- mass gi\es a liturgical setting find tteir place woten into t e
I ,-- :t' the Chluch's n aric pro- o Hiit-an Fo;k Melodies. Fo. .acieed seh-ice. T;he nl s .-
,-, :m. The ec7oir*, djrectel h1:, ,- 'rnmpl. lit I-.. .. 1 Eleison. or,- c.A'iue 1 I1. h" malu s, t',inn tsr .,,ll J
a lute in audition to e oil g .,
< -. .. _. .-sui~, e iifl g A. Liv u,: S,? ,., 1 ,ti in
Th -at" .a. C in the Cathedral, Fr. Spitz obs-
cred "the drulm says mie ,o
a Haitian tiDtn any otisr ,al.ic
al instrument It it has a richly
lacee at work, in the ro)doo
mp.e. aid in the total lile -of
the peasant, has it n6t also a
place in worship? We'use-beiL,
.-.ns. aid stained glass, s,'m
iioit iro.in oar caitiial he.;iage.
If tie Church is to truly speLk
to "all sorts and conditions of
men" It must purposefully Ji.
Incorporate what is most mean-
iigiul in a culture with its oln
message.
ED)'ing the week participants
Sin the annivsary program will
'isit missions at ,irebalais ndi
Leognc, attend a sports pro"r-
am at the College St. Pierre
,.n. Episcopal seco.d Ay se.: 'I
and see a Haitian folklore siohe.
the Theatre de Verdure.
On Thursday, .Mly 24 Solem
Eversong vill be chanted in th..
presence of the Presiding P,
shop. The canticles are in a set
ting .by Gelineau. These settings
considered among the most
beautiful examples of recent
religious music, are from the
Bible of Jerusalem, a transla.
ti6m of the .Bible into vernacul-
ar French. The program also
includes selections by Purcell,
Handel, Palestrina, Sweelinck,
and Ralph Vaughan Williams.
The Presiding Bishop and Bi.
shop Voegeli will call on'His Ex-
The Late Mgr Harry- Robert Carson DD who was Bishop ceilency Dr. Francois Duvalier,
Voegeli's predeces-or (1923-1943) President of Haiti, the following


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day.. The group plans to present lettered on a handsome scroll.
the President with a French From the work begun in 1861
translation of William Words- by a U.S. Negro priest and 110
worth's poem on Toussaint Lou- ininimigrants with him, the Epis-
verture. The poem J.,has been IContijned on page 20)


Mlgr Spence Burton, S.S...E. Loid B.shop, of Nassau and Suffra-
gai Bishop of Haiti rorun 1939-12, who is attending
today's ceremonies.

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SUNDAY MAY 21ST, 19dl


Episcopal Church...


(Continued from page 9)
copal Church in Haiti has grown
to a vital program involving 23
priests, 136 lay readers, 34,000
members, 76 missions, 94 Mis-
sion stations, 64 elementary
schools, a theological seminary,
the College St. Pierre, Vincent's
School for the handicapped, and
S three clinics.
How all this has evolved is a
powerful story of dedication and
determination during an epoch
of difficulties.
Cotton-growing indire ct I y
brought the Episcopal Church to
Haiti. Early in the U.S. War
Between the Slates, British text-
ile mills sought new cotton-grow-
ing territory. Hoping to increase
Haitian Cotton crops. President
Geffrard of Haiti invited U. S.
Negroes to immigrate. James
Theodore Holly recruited 110. IHe
was a young Negro Episcopal
priest whom the Board of Mis-
sions had already sent to Haiti
in 1855 to gather information on
the country.
Settling on the President's est-
ate, the immigrants used his
home for. church services. When
malaria and typhoid killed 13 of
them, some retur-ned to the Uni-
ted States, but 20 stayed on to


become citizens of Haiti and to
organize Holy Trinity parish in
May 1863. By 1874 there were
10 clergy working in 18 mis-
sions and stations, and Mr Holly
was consecrated in New York
City as bishop the first Ne-
gro bishop in the American Suc-
cession and the second in the
Anglican Commumron, the first
having been the Rt. Rev. Samuel
Crowther, Bishop of the Niger,
consecrated in 1864.
Bishop Holly led the Haitian
Church until his death in 1911.
harassed by Haiti's own econo-
mic and social conditions, by
lack of monetary support from
outside, by the fact that Holy
Trinity Church burned three
times. The Church became a
Missionary District in 1913, with
the Rt. Rev. Harry Roberts
Carson arriving in 1923 as its
first bishop, to be succeeded in
1941, by Rishlop Voegeli fiont New
Jersey, who had been for five
years Dean of the Cathdral at
Ancon, Canal Zone.
In 1927 the Sisters of St. Mar-
garet arrived to begin work that
now included operating St. Vin-
cent's School for the Handicap-
ped and Holy Trinity School for
Girls, looking after women's


work, and helping with religious
education.
Holy Trinity Cathedral was
Built in 1925, with its famous
murals by Haitian artists com-
missioned in 1949. The theolo-
gical seminary, reopened in
1945, moved in 1950 to Mont
Rouis, where its facilities are
also used as a summer church
camp. This place will now be-
come an academy for lay read-
ers and rural mission teaches,
as its six students will transfer
to the new theological Seminary
of the Caribbean to be opened
in Puerto Rico next September..P
College St. Pierre was esta-
blished here in 1956, and new
buildings for the college and for
Holy Trinity School were erect-
ed in 1958 with funds from the
1957 Mite Box Offering of Epis-
copal children. They were built
on land bought with grants from
United Thank Offering and Na-
tional Council funds. The college
has nearly 500 students and a
faculty of 31,'and 16 other tea-
chers conduct classes for 500
pupils in the school.
Ranging through the rural and
mountain regions, usually rid-
ing horses or mules, priests and
lay readers divide their efforts -- ,
among many congregations and Mgr Arthur Carl .Lihtenberger Presiding Bishop .of the Protean
mission stations. Often a lasy Episcopalian Church in the United States arrived here'Sati
reader serves as teacher- bnd
reade r serves as to re mter d boring for the Centennial celebrations and was not at tbe -a-..
first aid doctor, too, in remote. -
places. prt 'b Bishop Alfred Voegell and wenty Haitiafi ,ppess.-:
?




:4 ,..
,.. ., .


Jacques Theodore Holly, born in Washington D.C. was the founder
(1861) and first Bishop of the Episcopalian Church in Haiti (1874-


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The College Saint Pierre on the Champ de Mars" is the largest Episcopal school erected in Haiti
to date. The Highschool has four hunderd student is from all parts of Haiti mostly from poor fna-
ilies attending classes.
ilies attending classes.


FAMOUS

OVER

T he World.



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SHOES




FOR EVERY OCCASION

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