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S. U.S. DEPOSITORY
,awaii Agricultura Experiment Station,
.:.... ~ -HONOLULU.
E. V. WILCOX, Special Agent in Charge.
PRESS BULLETIN NO. 31.
d; Instructions for Farm Butter Makers.
:Fii.. A. CLOWES,
SUPERINTENDENT HAWAII SUB-STATI *
E.t| ? The Territory of Hawaii consumes annually alf 50,0QQ .
this, there is an enormous amount of "Island" butter sold. House-
well made butter is not equal to the demand.
SIsland butter does not keep well. It is the purpose of this
Wlletin to give simple rules for producing good flavored butter
that will keep well.
FLAVORS ABSORBED FROM OUTSIDE.
Ri.k .and butte are much influenced by odors in the air. If the
iltking is done in a bad-smelling stable, the milk is almost sure to
wb A'it. For this reason the place where the milking is done
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should be kept clean. The milk should be removed from the
stable as soon as possible after milking into a sweet, clean place.
FLAVORS PRODUCED WITHIN THE MILK ITSELF.
If milk is kept free from bacteria it will never sour. There are
few bacteria in milk as it comes from the cow, but they multiply
very rapidly. Dust dropping into the milk from the air carries
multitudes of them. When the sun shines through a crack we
see myriads of little specks of dust floating in the air. These
little air-ships are in dry air at all times, and are constantly rising
and falling. Each one carries perhaps a hundred germs. Many
of these are good germs, but most of them will give trouble to
the butter-maker. Cow hairs are loaded with undesirable germs.
When hairs get into the milk, they introduce into the milk count-
less germs to make trouble for the careful butter-maker. So it
is with flies, poorly washed milk buckets and utensils, and dirt
,,- of'ahy, kind. Many of the bad flavors and other troubles of the
t40 jii- es are caused by bad germs. The careful butter-
. maker nlu$ t'carefully guard his milk and cream against undesir-
able germis9 nevertheless in spite of all that can be done, cream
74f will have "uClirable germs in it. It is customary therefore, at
creanwries. I pasteurize the cream as soon as it is separated.
This cla b7qne by heating the cream to 1500 F. or 160 F. and
S.. then cpolinigI down as quickly as possible to the souring tempera-
j ture,' ~idh is usually about 60" to 70* F. Pasteurizing kills
,' ,,nalyal germs.
THE RIPENING OF CREAM BY DESIRABLE GERMS.
Now comes the time to take into account the desirable germs.
Scientists can show us under the microscope, minute organisms,
of a certain species which produce the most desirable flavors in
In large modern creameries, these germs are carefully reared
and introduced into the pasteurized cream. This process is too
elaborate for the farm butter-maker, but similar methods are
used by many farm butter-makers. It is a common practice of
good butter-makers to add to the sweet cream 24 or 48 hours
before churning, some sour cream or milk or some buttermilk.
This "starter"*1 as it is called, must be of a pleasant acid taste,
or it will do more harm than good. About one part of starter to
ten parts of cream should be used, if the cream is to be soured
The Most Sanitary Style of Milk Bucket
*1 There are two different classes of starters-the NATURAL, in-
cluding sour milk or cream, buttermilk, or whey,-and the COMMER.
The natural ones usually contain several species of bacteria (some
good, some bad)-while the commercial starters are divided into "pure
cultures" made up from a single individual of a single species, and
"mixed cultures" containing different species, but only those whose
action is known to be beneficial.
A more varied product is made from the use of the natural starters,
while with the commercial as long as they are kept pure-a very uni-
form article of butter can be secured since these contain only those
germs which give to the butter the proper flavor and keeping quality.
The product from use of Commercial starters probably excels
that from use of natural ones as much as the latter excels that made
in the old-fashioned haphazard way.
Ref.-Wis, Bul. No. 246,-Iowa Bul. No. 103,-Wis. Bul. No. 181.
in 48 hours. When a longer time is to be allowed, less starter
will be needed. It is a good plan to get some butter-milk from'a
neighbor who makes good butter, if a good starter cannot be se-
cured at home. This method would be farther improved if the
cream were pasteurized before the starter were added. The only
instrument needed for this is a common floating dairy ther-
mometer, which can be bought for about twenty-five cents from
any dairy supply house. Simply put the cream as soon as sepa-
rated or skimmed, upon the stove and heat it up to 150" F. or
160 F. Then cool it to the temperature at which it is to be kept
until sour, and add the starter. Of course where the cream from'
three or four separations is to be mixed together, the starter
need be added only once,t but each lot should be pasteurized.
By pasteurizing the cream and using a starter, the butter will
be found to keep better than if the cream is allowed to sour by
chance. The most common complaint against island butter is
that it does not keep. The above method will remedy this evil.
As a rule it is best to keep the cream at such a temperature that
it will be ready for churning in about 48 hours, but where few
cows are kept a shorter time is permissable.
Cream or milk should not be kept in shallow pans. These pans
expose a great amount of milk to the air and this permits it to
absorb bad odors, and also gives great opportunity for large num-
bers of germs to enter the milk. It also allows the top of the
cream to dry out and become tough. This tough cream causes
white specks and a mottled appearance in the butter.
The cream should be set in deep tin cans, as shown in the illus-
tration. These are easy to clean, easy to handle and expose very
little cream to the air. They should be lightly covered, with clean
paper, cheese-cloth or a loose fitting cover.
t At the Hilo Boarding School, it was found to be better to add the
starter to the second of four lots of cream.
WHEN TO CHURN.
Cream is ready to churn when it has a pleasant acid taste
and smell, and when it pours like molasses. It requires skill and
practice to determine when cream is at its very best state to
churn. Even the most skillful and experienced person will make
A Handy Butter Worker for the Farm
mistakes. On this account it is advisable to use an acid tester to
determine the condition of the cream. The outfit necessary for
this can be purchased from dairy supply houses for about $5.00,
and the use of one of these outfits will do much towards pro-
ducing a uniform product. Sufficient directions come with the
outfit to enable any inexperienced person of intelligence to use it
with good results.
The barrel churn is the best churn for farm use. When the
amount of cream to be handled becomes too bulky for a large
sized barrel churn, it will pay to get a combined churn and but- ':
ter worker, and the latter will pay even with fifteen cows.
: .i2 i
The cream to be churned should be at a temperature of about
55" Fahr. If the buttermaker has a dairy thermometer and uses
it, he will soon determine the proper temperature at which he
should churn. If the churning temperature is too warm the but-
ter will be soft, and if worked in that condition will become
greasy, and it will be hard to get the wash water out. If the
cream is too cold the churning may be retarded.
PREPARING THE CHURN.
To prepare the churn, first pour into it a few quarts of boiling
water, fasten the lid on loosely so as to permit the steam to
escape. Revolve the churn a few times, and then empty out the'
water. The pressure of the steam will fill all the pores of the
churn with water, and the cream will not stick to the churn. The
churn must then be cooled off by putting some clean cold water
into it. Replace the lid and revolve the churn rapidly three or
four times. Empty out the water and the churn is ready to use.
The cream should be strained into the churn through a coarse
wire strainer. This will remove lumps of hard curdled cream
which cause specks in the butter. If butter color is to be used it
should be added at this time, before churning commences.
The churn should be revolved just as rapidly as can be done
without having the cream revolve with the chur. It is the
splashing which knocks the little globules of fat together so that
they are united, consequently the more concussions there are to
take place inside the churn per minute, the quicker the butter
comes. The wooden plug in the churn should be removed at
frequent intervals during the first few minutes of churning so as
to permit the gas to escape.
Churning should cease when the butter is gathered in little
lumps the size of rice kernels. The buttermilk may then be
drawn off through the hole in the bottom of the churn, using the
coarse strainer, before mentioned, to catch stray lumps of butter.
Let the buttermilk draw off well.
Pour into the churn about as much very cold water as there
was cream to begin with. Close the churn, and revolve it very
fast three or four times. Remove the stopper and let the water
4 '. V
A Cheap Efficient Butter Printer
Add to the butter about an ounce of salt to the pound of but-
ter. It may be necessary to weigh the butter before salting, but
always weigh and salt. Remember that salt is cheap, and that it
is poor policy to put in less salt than your customers want. The
salt should be very fine and should be sifted evenly over the
butter, either in the churn, or on the worker.
Butter should be worked till the salt is evenly mixed all through
the butter, and till the water does not show in large drops. Re-
member that customers have no objection to a small amount of
water in the butter as long as it does not show. If butter is soft-
when worked, the water will appear in large drops. Never give
a sliding motion to the worker or ladle. A sliding slipping
motion tends to give the butter a greasy appearance, which is
objectionable. The same thing will happen if the butter is too
warm. A wise maker will put his butter away till it is cold,
rather than work it soft.
For the island market butter should be put into pound prints,
and be neatly wrapped in parchment paper. Printers can be
bought from dairy supply houses similar to the illustration, which
are filled by pressing the printer into the mass of butter, and are
emptied by merely pressing the plunger. The butter should be
put up in attractive packages. It is the outside that sells the
article. Rectangular prints are preferable to round.
WASHING DAIRY UTENSILS.
Buckets, cans, etc., should first be washed in warm water and
then in water boiling hot. They should be so hot that no wiping
is needed to dry them. If they are washed in hot water first,
the milk will be cooked on, and they will be hard to clean. Boil-
ing water kills all the germs.
The churn should be wrinsed out with warm water after using,
and then with boiling water, after which it should be allowed to
drain and air out.
Sunshine is a great germ destroyer. Let the dairy utensils
have plenty of sunshine.
The regulations of the Board of Health about buildings are so
explicit that it would be useless to dwell upon that subject in this
Germs are the best friends and the worst foes of the butter-
It is one kind of germs that gives good flavor to sour cream.
It is other kinds of germs that make bad flavors in butter.
Do not take chances. Kill the bad germs and grow the good
germs. Pasteurize and use a starter.
A small speck of dirt, or a single cow's hair may harbor count-
less germs. See that your milk is clean.
No dairy utensils except the churn should be made of wood
I *~~~'.* **'~
A Strong Light Can In Which to Ripen
Cream. It is Easy to Clean.
galvanized iron or enamelware. Wooden and galvanized iron
utensils are too rough and full of cracks to clean well, and granite-
ware is good only when new and not chipped. Smooth, heavily
tinned buckets and cans with ALL SEAMS SMOOTHLY SOLDERED are
the only vessels that can be well cleaned.
Use a good brush for washing bucket and cans. Never use
the dish-cloth. Dish-cloths smear germs all over everywhere.
Dish-cloths do not clean corners.
Difficulty in churning is usually due to one or more of the
1. The cream may be too cold, too thin, or too thick.
2. The churn may have too much cream in it.
3. The cream may have been kept for too long a time.
4. A farrow (or stripper) cow's milk may be causing the
5. The cows may be getting feed which is too dry.
6. The butter-maker may be incompetent, and should consult
an expert butter-maker.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
11ii ti iLl 0911111111623
3 1262 09213 293
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