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ii Agricultural Experimen
J. G. SMITH, SPECIAL AGENT IN C]
PRESS BULLETIN No. 10.
- T PINEAPPLE SCALE.'
By D. L. VAN DINE,
Entomologist, Hawaii Experiment Station, U. S. Dep't of
This pest of the pineapple is a scale-insect2 which, because
of its special fondness for this plant, has received the common
:_ name the "Pineapple Scale." The insect was first described
by Kerner in 1778, and besides attacking the pineapple, is
widely distributed on various plants in greenhouses. It has
been reported from the countries of northern Europe; from
Massachusetts, Washington, D. C., Ohio, California, and Flo-
rida in the United States; and from Mexico, Jamaica, Cape
Colony, and Natal. Prof. V. L. Kellogg of Stanford Univer-
S sity, to whom the.writer is indebted for the determination of
the insect, says: "Probably bromeliae (pineapple-scale) will
1Reprint from THE HAWAIIAN FORESTER AND AGRICULTURIST.
Vol. I. No. S. May, 1904. pp. 111-114.
'For a general discussion of scale-insects see Press Bulletin No. 8
of this Station.
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._ _. ^ _^ ._ ,
PL. I, THE PINEAPPLE SCALE
ii .. i
be found in time wherever the pineapple is grown." Other
food plants are ivy, canna, hibiscus, acacia, olea (olive), bill-
bergia, and certain varieties of greenhouse palms. The writer
took the first specimens of this scale from a pineapple planta-
tion at Wahiawa, Oahu, on October 26, 1903, and since then
has observed the pest in every plantation visited on this Island
and the Island of Hawaii. Although occurring generally
throughout the Islands, Mrs. M. E. Fernald does not record it
from Hawaii in her catalogue of Coccids,3 nor is it found in
Mr. Kirkaldy's recent work on Hemiptera in Fauna Hawaiiensis.
Mr. P. H. Rolfs4 says regarding the appearance of this insect
in Florida: It has been found repeatedly on plants imported
from Hawaii, and has been disseminated to many parts of Flo-
rida." Dr. L. Reh of Hamburg, Germany, also records5 the
pest as common in these Islands, having collected specimens
himself at the Government Nursery on Feb. 28, 1902.
Prof. F. V. Theobald, an English authority on economic
entomology, says: Pineapples are frequently damaged by a
scale insect, which now and then causes the fruit to rot *
This scale is the Pineapple Scale (Diaspis bromeliae, Kerner.)
The scale is thin, circular and pure white-the females yellow
or orange. Like most Diaspids, they burrow beneath the epi-
dermis of the plants and become almost entirely hidden. It
chiefly attacks the leaves, but now and then the fruit. It
should be destroyed as soon as the fruit is cut.""
Dr. Reh in describing the work of this scale states that it at-
taches itself to the plant on the base of the leaf, spreading from
there to the stem and eventually covering the entire plant,
which it kills. On the fruit it attacks principally the green,
3A Catalogue of the Coccidae of the World. Fernald, Bul. 88. Hatch
Experiment Station, 1903.
'Pineapple Growing. Rolfs. Farmers' Bulletin No. 140. U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, 1901.
5Zeitschrift fuer Entomologie. Jan. 15, 1904, p. 30.
"First Report on Economic Zoology. Theobald. 1903. British Muse-
unripe portion. A symptom of an attack is rust colored spots
on the leaves. Dr. Reh says further that milk of lime was
used as an insecticide for this pest in Berlin and Russia.
These small, scale-like insects are very conspicuous, be-
cause of their color, and not easily mistaken for other forms.
The scale and not the insect itself is the object commonly
seen. The insect is found beneath this secretion, which serves
as a shield. In the case of this insect the scale or protective
armor is made up partly of a waxy secretion of the insect and
partly of molted skins. .The insect itself in the adult stage is
quite well buried beneath the epidermis of the plant and hence
the necessity of combating the pest in its early stages.
The pineapple scale can be controlled by spraying where it
occurs in the field. The cheaper and easier method is by
proper preventive measures to keep the pest from gaining
a foothold in the plantation. These measures are to burn all
leaves where the pest is at all evident after harvesting the
crop, to dip young plants in an insecticide before plant-
ing and to produce the maximum vigor and health of the
plants by thorough cultivation and fertilization. In the ques-
tion of the control of the insect pests and diseases of plants, no
one point is more important than vigorous and clean cultiva-
tion and the proper supply of plant food and moisture. It is
an accepted fact in applied entomology that a healthy growing
plant is capable of offering resistance to the attack of an insect
Dr. L. O. Howard, entomologist of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture, mentions' a Hymenopterous parasite, Aspidiotipha-
gus citrinus Craw., bred from the pineapple scale at Washington.
The remedies advised by Mr. Rolfs in his Bulletin on Pine-
apple Growing, have been verified in experiments at this Sta-
tion and on our recommendation have been tried and reported
as successful by the managers of two pineapple plantations.
'7nspct Life, Vol. VI., p. 231
Whale-oil soap (or any hard soap shaved fine)...... j4 pound.
W ater ......................................... 1 gallon.
Kerosene (coal-oil)............................. 2 gallons.
Dissolve the soap in the water while it is boiling over a fire.
When the soap is well dissolved, remove the solution a safe
distance from the fire and add it to the coal-oil. Churn the
mixture, using a strong force pump, for a few minutes until it
has a creamy consistency. If the emulsion is well made the
oil will not rise to the surface on standing. This is the stock
solution and will keep for several weeks. When wanted for
use dilute one part of the stock solution with ten parts of water.
Dip the plants in the emulsion before setting out in the field or
apply as a spray to infested plants in the field. When applied
as a spray in the field do not treat the plants when the fruit-bud
is forming-do the spraying either before the fruit-bud starts
to grow or after it is partly grown. Use only enough of the
mixture to wet thoroughly the scales. If too much is used it
will collect at the base of the leaves or run down about the
crown and it is apt to injure the plant.
R esin ..........................................pounds. .5
Caustic soda (crude 78 per cent.).................. ..1
Fish oil (whale oil soap).. .... .. .. .. .... .
W ater...................... ................... gallons..20
Full directions for the preparation of resin wash are given in
Bulletin 3 of the Hawaii Experiment Station.
In using the resin wash follow the directions given for the
The emulsion, being a more permanent mixture, more easily
prepared andequally as efficient, recommends its use in place
of the resin wash; however, the use of either mixture is a point
for the planter to determine to his own satisfaction.
The question of ingredients and proper spraying apparatus
is a very important one. Failure is in the majority of cases
due to poor material or insufficient apparatus. A cheap pump,
which soon becomes useless, is always more expensive than a
well-made outfit at whatever cost. For field spraying where
the ground is rocky and uneven, a compressed-air knapsack
sprayer will be found suitable, while on level land, which will
permit a wagon passing through the rows, a barrel outfit will
be found the more desirable. These are points which only a
knowledge of local conditions will permit definite advice
being given. Further information will be gladly given. Ad-
dress Mr. Jared G. Smith, Director, Hawaii Experiment Sta-
tion, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Honolulu, August 11, 1904.
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