Losses in boiling vegetables and the composition and digestibility of potatoes and eggs

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Material Information

Title:
Losses in boiling vegetables and the composition and digestibility of potatoes and eggs
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of Experiment Stations. Bulletin
Physical Description:
31 p. incl. illus., tables. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Snyder, Harry, 1867-1927
Frisby, Almah Jane ( joint author )
Bryant, A. P ( Arthur Peyton ), b. 1868 ( joint author )
Publisher:
s.n.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Eggs   ( lcsh )
Potatoes   ( lcsh )
Nutritive Value   ( mesh )
Vegetables -- chemistry   ( mesh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By H. Snyder, B.S., Almah J. Frisby, M.D., and A.P. Bryant, M.S.

Record Information

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029392213
oclc - 28170421
lccn - agr09002604
System ID:
AA00014661:00001


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BULLETIN NO. 43.


U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE.


OFFICE OF FXPRI:RTMI1NT STATIONS.






LOSSES IN BOILING VEGETABLES



AND THE




POSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY

OF POTATOES AND EGGS.



BY



H. SNYDER, B. S., ALMAH J. FEISBY, M. D., AND A. P. BRYANT, M. S.


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-1897.
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



1 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
; Washington, D. C., May 15, 1897.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the loss of
nutrients in boiling potatoes, carrots, and cabbage, and the composi-
tion and digestibility of potatoes and eggs, by Prof. H. Snyder, Almah J.
Frisby, M. D., and A. P. Bryant, M. S. These investigations consti-
tute a part of the inquiries made with the funds appropriated by Con-
gress "to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to investigate and report
S upon the nutritive value of the various articles and commodities used
S for human food," and were carried on under the supervision of Professor
Atwater, special agent in charge of nutrition investigations, in accord-
Sance with instructions given by the Director of this Office.
The greater part of the food of man is prepared for use by cooking,
yet the changes which various foods undergo during the process and
the losses which are brought about by cooking have been little studied.
This question has a wide practical application as well as scientific
3 interest. In determining the nutritive value of various articles of food,
I digestibility is an important consideration. Perhaps no feature of the
subject is more discussed. Nevertheless very few experiments with
man to determine the digestibility of various foods have been made.
Almost all information has been derived from artificial digestion experi-
ments which approximate more or less closely digestion in the body.
It is by no means certain that the two processes give the same results.
S Digestion experiments with man were believed to be necessary, and
S a diet in which potatoes were the chief ingredient was selected for
experimental purposes.
Professor Snyder's work was carried on in the laboratory of the Col-
I lege of Agriculture of the University of Minnesota; that of Dr. Frisby
and Mr. Bryant in the chemical laboratory of Wesleyan University,
Middletown, Conn.
This report is respectfully submitted, with the recommendation that
it be published as Bulletin No. 43 of this Office.
Respectfully,
A. C. TRUE,
Director.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture,
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CONTENTS.



Page.
LOSS OF NUTRIENTS IN BOILING POTATOES, CARROTS, AND CABBAGE. By
H. SNYDER, B. S.....................................-----............-------- 7
Introduction....................---- ...........................---------- 7
The three principal classes of nutrients in foods...................... 7
The effect of cooking on the nutrients of foods.........-........---.. 8
Experiments with potatoes.----.......................---........------........---. 9
Composition of potatoes ....----..----...........---..........--............-----. 9
Cooking tests..-........ ......... ... ... .. ... ..... ...... ........-- ... 11
Discussion of results................................................ 13
Conclusions ..................--.....................................------14
Experiments with carrots --....--..---------....--...---..--..---------..--- 15
Composition of carrots......................-- ....................... 15
Cooking tests -..... ...---.-......-..... .-.... -..-----.--........ 15
Conclusions ......................................................... 17
Experiments with cabbage...-...-.........-....-.... ..............-..-- 17
Composition of cabbage.......................... ...----.. ...... 17
Cooking tests......................................------................. 18
Conclusions ........-- ..................----....----.. -------....-- 19
General summary.............................................- .....-.. 19
THE DIGESTIBILITY OF POTATOES AND EGGS. By H. SNYDER, B. S.-...... 20
Introduction-----------------............-----.....----------------......-- 20
Digestibility of boiled eggs in pepsin solution..---.----.....----....... 20
Digestion experiment on man with a diet of potatoes, eggs, milk, and
cream ...............................------------------------.............. 21
Discussion of results.................................................... 23
THE COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE POTATO AND THE LOSS OF
NUTRIENTS DURING THE PROCESS OF BOILING. By ALMAH J. FRISBY, M. D.,
and A. P. BRYANT, M. S-- .-.....--.....-- .....--......---...- .-- ........ 25
Introduction.--.....---- .......................--..................... -25
Composition of different parts of the potato........................... ... 26
Sampling ................................. ................. .... .... 26
The analyses...--..-- -...----..--.---...---......... .......------..- 27
The protein factor ..----. ....... ..-....------.....-.......---.. -----28
Amount of solid matter in the juice of the potato.................... 29
Loss of nutrients in boiling ..............-.............................. 29
Conclusions--------------------.......-----------31
.onclus s......................... .......... .................. 31
N~ip ".:.5


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ILLUSTRATIONS.



Page
FIG. 1. Cells of a raw potato with starch grains in natural condition........ 8
2. Cells of a partially cooked potato.-....-.......... ...........-....... 8
3. Cells of a thoroughly boiled potato ............. ........------------..--- 9
4. The composition of the potato and the loss of nutrients when boiled
with the skin removed ......-...-- ....-...................-.....--. 14
5. The composition of the carrot and the loss of nutrients when boiled.. 17
6. The composition of the cabbage and the loss of nutrients when boiled. 19
7. Transverse and longitudinal sections of the potato...........--- ........ 25















LOSSES IN BOILING VEGETABLES, AND THE COMPOSITION
SAND DIGESTIBILITY OF POTATOES AND EGGS.



LOSS OF NUTRIENTS IN BOILING POTATOES, CARROTS, AND
CABBAGE.

By H. SNYDER, B. S.,
Chemist, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, and Professor of Agricultural
Chemistry, College of Jlriculture, Unirersity of Minnesota.

INTRODUCTION.

| THE THREE PRINCIPAL CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS IN FOODS.
The nutritive ingredients of foods are commonly divided into three
general classes, namely, nitrogenous substances to which the general
S term protein is applied, fats, and carbohydrates.
The nitrogenous substances.-The nitrogenous substances include (1)
the albuminoids, of which egg albumen is a well-known example; (2) the
so-called gelatinoids, of which gelatin may serve as a type; and (3)
the amids; i. e., synthesis and cleavage products of various kinds.
The vegetable albuminoids are to a large extent different from
those found in animal foods. They appear to be more variable in
composition, and less is known concerning their chemical composi-
tion, structure, and digestibility.
The fats.-The amount of dry matter dissolved out of a substance by
continuous treatment with ether is designated as fat. It forms a large
part of animal foods, but in vegetable foods, with the exception of some
seeds and nuts, the proportion is very small.
The carbohydrates.-This class includes the sugars, starches, woody
fibers, cell walls, etc., of the vegetable foods. Carbohydrates are found
S in but few animal foods, with the exception of milk, and when present
are in very small quantities. In vegetable foods, on the contrary, they
S form the major part of the nutritive matter. The principal constituent
of vegetable carbohydrates is starch. The starch grains are usually
[ inclosed in thin cells, the walls of which may be composed of more or
less fibrous material.
The digestibility of the carbohydrates depends upon the proportion
of sugar and starches to cell walls or fiber. The sugars are more easily
digested than the starches, since the latter must be changed to sugar in
the process of digestion before it can be assimilated by the body. Both
..... 7


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the starches and the sugars, however, are probably completely diges i
but the cell walls, the framework of the substance, are not so eaily;,I
digested; in fact, while 98 to 100 per cent of the starches and sugars :
may be digested, the digest-.::
ibility of these cell walls, or
fiber as it is called, may vary
all the way from 30 to 70 per
cent.
THE EFFECT OF COOKING ON TMB
NUTRIENTS OF FOOD.
Some of the albuminoids
are soluble in water, and
a nearly all in dilute saline
S, solutions. Heating coag-
lates the albuminoids and
a renders them insoluble.
Cooking, therefore, preserves
albuminoids from loss. If
meat is put into cold water
Fir. L.-Cello. tr a raw jitato with starcla grai. in natural and then brought to the boil-
ing point more or less of the
albuminoid material will be dissolved and some of the most expensive
part of the food will be lost unless the soup is utilized also. If put
directly into hot or boiling water the soluble albuminoids on the surface
will be coagulated, and this
loss will be largely pre
vented.) The same princi-
ple is probably applicable
to vegetables also.
Besides rendering sol-
uble albuminoids insoluble,
cooking makes others of
the nitrogenous substances
more digestible, and in the
case of meats loosens the .
fibers of connective tissue,
rendering it tender and
more palatable. Unless the
degree of heat is great
enough to cause scorching,
fats are doubtless little af-
fected by cooking. FD,. 2-Cells of a partially rooked potato.
The carbohydrates are
much more easily digested in the cooked than in the raw state. In the
raw food the sugars and starches are inclosed in cells. Very little of
'U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bal. 34.




-... : -.---..--------------------..-----------------------. ................................ -----

... .... .


;ie cellulose of the cell walls is digested by man. The cell contents,
therefore, are often excreted unchanged. Cooking bursts these cell
w: alls, thus exposing the inclosed sugars and starches to the action of
Sthe digestive juices. The starch granules also swell up and burst on
cooking, exposing more surface to be acted upon. Starch is to a slight
extent changed to dextrin by dry heat, and possibly, also, by heating
with water. Since the majority of vegetable foods, however, consist
Largely of starches and
have very little sugar in
Stem, the loss of carbohy-
drates would presumably
not be very great during O
boiling.
The effect of boiling upon e
Sthe cells of the potato is
shown in figs. 1, 2, and 3.1
Several years ago Kath
:erine Williams reported2
an extended study of the
composition of a number of
cooked and a few raw vege-
tables. Ultimate and prox-
imate analyses of the vari-
ous vegetables were made
and the fuel value deter- Fia. 3.-Cells of a thoroughly boiled potato.
mined. Many cooked veg-
a aetables have been analyzed in connection with the food investigations
u undertaken by this Department and by other investigators.
Comparatively few attempts have been made to learn the changes
which take place in vegetable foods on cooking, or the extent of these
changes. As the water in which vegetables are boiled is usually thrown
,away, any matter which was in solution would be wasted. Experiments
; were therefore undertaken with potatoes, carrots, and cabbage for the
purpose of studying the loss of nutrients when boiled, under a number
i of different conditions. These vegetables were selected as the best
. .representatives of tubers, roots, and pot herbs.

i EXPERIMENTS WITH POTATOES.
COMPOSITION OF POTATOES.
:According to Lawes and Gilbert,3 the composition of the flesh of the
to differs from that of the juice. Although the flesh contains 85
tcent of the total water- free substance, it contains but 15 per cent of

I. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21, p. 88; from Miircker's Stu-
Sin der Spiritusfabrikation.
aJoi. .Chem Soc. [London], 61 (1892), p. 226.
"On the growth of the potato," p. 26, Rothamsted Memoirs, vol. 6.



$i: :
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10

the nitrogen. The remainder, 85 per cent, is in the juice. Of this 4
per cent is in the form of albuminoid and 36 per cent in the form .o#
nonalbuminoid nitrogen.
The proportion of albuminoid and nonalbuminoid nitrogen varies.:
greatly according to different writers. E. Schulze and Barbieri' and
E. Schulze and E. Eugster' give, as the result of five analyses, from 85:
to 56 per cent of nonalbuminoid nitrogen. 0. Kellner3 gives 44 to 58S
per cent of nonalbuminoid nitrogen, and A. Morgen 3 from 30 to 52 peir
cent, making 45 per cent as a fair average of the amount of nonal-
buminoid nitrogen and 55 per cent for the amount of albuminoid nitro-
gen present in potatoes. In the experiments here reported the figure
obtained were nearly the reverse of these latter, as the average of the
two analyses made gave 40 per cent of albuminoid and 60 per cent of
nonalbuminoid nitrogen (see also p. 29). It is evident that in boiling
the loss of a considerable portion of this albuminoid nitrogen may
occur.
There is also a possibility of loss of inorganic and organic salts dur-
ing cooking. Probably about 85 per cent of the potash of the potato,
as well as the larger part of the citric acid, is in the juice. The total
amount of citric acid, however, is small. While potash salts and cit-
rates have no real nutritive value, they appear to be of some considerable
medicinal or tonic value and give "relish" to the food. No attempt was
made to determine the loss of fat and fiber in boiling. It would be
presumably, very small.
Three experiments on the effect of cooking on the composition of pots-
toes were made. In the first experiment (A) the skins were removed and
the potatoes soaked three and five hours, respectively, and cooked in
distilled water, which was cold at the beginning of the test. In the
second experiment (B) the skins were removed and the potatoes, with-
out previous soaking, were cooked in (1) distilled water (soft water),
(2) alkaline water, (3) limewater (hard water), which was in each case
cold at the beginning; in (4) distilled water, (5) alkaline water, and (6)
lincwater, which was in each case hot at the beginning of the test.
In the third experiment (C) the potatoes were not peeled and were.
cooked without previous soaking in distilled, alkaline, and limewater,
which was cold at the beginning of the test, and in distilled, alkaline,
and limewater, which was hot at the beginning of the test.
About two bushels of potatoes of a uniform character were divided
into lots of about a kilogram (21 pounds) each. An analysis was made
of the whole potato, including the skin. This was assumed to repre-
sent the composition of all the potatoes used in the experiments except,
those which were soaked before boiling. In this latter case half of each!
SLandw. Vers. Stat., 21 (1878), p. 63.
2Ii., 27 (1882), p. 357.
: K6nig, Chemic der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, 3d ed., II, p. 631.









Sof the peeled potatoes used in the experiment was taken as a sample
and analyzed.
The methods of analysis used were substantially those adopted by
the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, and were as follows:
S Nitrogen.-In order to ascertain the relative proportion of albumi-
noids and extractives or amids the nitrogen was determined, (1) as the
total nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, and (2) the albuminoid nitrogen
by the Stutzer method. The results for albuminoid nitrogen are with-
out doubt too low, as the copper proteid dissolved to a slight extent in
the moderately warm solution when filtered and separated out on stand-
ing. If filtered when cold the filtration was so slow that fermentation,
with a consequent loss of the copper proteid, would begin before the
filtration was completed.
Starch.-Starch was determined by inversion with boiling hydro-
chloric acid and water and estimating the amount of copper in Fehling's
solution precipitated by the resulting dextrin.
Fat, fiber, and ash.-These were determined in the usual way in the
fresh material.
The accompanying table shows the composition of the potatoes used
in these experiments, and gives also the composition as obtained by
former.analyses at the University of Minnesota,' the average of all
American analyses,2 and the average of European analyses.3

Composition of potatoes:

Carbohydrates.
Num- Albu Total --
er of Water. minoid nitro Pro- Fat. itro Ash.
analy- nitro- tein. Fib Starch. gen-
sea. gen. gen.free ex-
tract. a

Used in Experi- Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per el. Per ct. Per ct.
ment A ......... 1 78.0 0.15 0.35 2.2 ........ ................ ....... 0.9
Used in Eperi-
ment B and C.. 1 77.2 .15 .40 2.5 0.1 0.2 16.4 19.3 .9
Average other
Minnesota anal-
yses---............ 20 75.5 .20 .40 2.5 .1 .3 19.9 20.9 1.0
Average all Amer-
icn ana alyses ... 86 78.0 ........ ........ 2. 2 1 ............... 18.8 .9
Average Euro-
pean analyses .. 178 75.0 b.19 .34 2.1 .1 .7 ........ 21.7 1.1

a 109 less the sum of the percentages of water, protein, fat, and ash.
bCalculated, allowing 45 per cent to be albuminoid.

COOKING TESTS.

SThe potatoes were boiled in a metal kettle over a gas flame at
about the same rate as when cooked in the kitchen. The uncooked
-potatoes were weighed, and the water in which they were cooked was
ilso weighed and analyzed. The total amounts of dry matter, albumi-
.3noid nitrogen, total nitrogen, starch, and ash that were removed in

I Minnesota Sta. Bul. 42.
'From an unpublished compilation of analyses of American food products.
I aGnig, Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, 3d ed., II, p. 626.








12


cooking 100 parts of fresh potatoes was then calculated. The re
of each of the three experiments are given in the following table:


Loss of matter in cooking potatoes.


I Loss of matter in fre
N potatoes.

Method of preparation and d
cooking. e CA a-
to 0



A. Skins removed : soaked be-
fore cooking.
Soaked 3 hours; distilled Grams. P. et. c. P. t. P. ct.
water, cold at start....-....| 753 1.45 0.035 0.161 ..
Soaked 5 hours; distilled;
water, cold at start.........: 603 1.40 .040 .202 ......
Average................ ........1.43 .038 .181 ......
B. Skins removed; not soaked.

Distilled water, cold at start. 943 .63 .007 .055 0. 16
Do ....................... 939 .74 .006 .080 .16
Average .......-....... .... .68 .006 .068 .16
Alkaline water, cold atstart.i 1,1651 .68 .016 .055 .15
Do ....................... 952 .67 .011 .061 .19

Average ....................... .67 .014 .065 .17
Limewater, cold at start 9.... 907 .70 .011 .055 .14
Do....................... 979 .79 .015 .0677 .17
Average ........................ .75 013 .061L .16
Average of 6 tests start-
ing with cold water ................ ...........

Distilled water, hot at start..1 939 .72 ...... .033 .11
Do ...................... 1,052 .52 .004 .027 .10

Average ...................... .2 .004 .025 .10
Alkaline water, hot at start.. 988 .71 .003 .033 .17
Do ..................... 970 .80 .004 .041 .19

Average ............... ....... 76 .003 .037 .18
Limewater, hot at start...... 952 1.15 .006 I .024 .26
Do ..................... 1,043 .78 .007 .038 .17
Average ....................... .96 .006 .031 .22
Average of 6 tests start- I I


ing with hot water........... ........


C. Skine not removed.
Distilled water cold at start.


943 i .14


Do ....................... 952 .11

Average ...............I ........ .13
Alkaline water, cold at start. 988 .08
Do ....................... 1,034 .12
Average ...................... .10

Limewater, cold at start..... 1,474 .04
Do ...................... 1 1165 .....

Average ...................... .04
Average of 6 tests start-
ing with cold water ..............


Trace
ITrace


sh


P. ct.
0.41
.28
.35


.18
.15

.16
.17
.17
.17
.18
.19
.19






.13

.19
.22
.21
.15
.19
.17


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Percentage los of eash Ca
stituent.


P. ef.
6.6
6.4


.14




P.et.
23.3
26.7


I
Nlp
v_
'U
14


Do-


P.a, P.-.
46.0 ......

S7.7 .-..


- I-j----J-h


6.5 25.0 51.8


2.8 4.7 13. 8
8.2 4.0 20.0
3.0 4.3 16.0

3.0 10.7 13.8
2.9 7.3 16.7
2.9 9.0 15.2
3.1 7.3 13.8
3.5 10.0 16.7

3.3 9.0 15.3

3.1 7.3 15.8
-i
3.2 ...... &8.2
2.31 2.7 6.7
2.8 I 2.7 7.5

3.1 2.0 8.3
3.5 2.7 10.2
3.3 i 2.3 9.2

5.1 4.0 .0
3.4 4.7 9.5

4.2 4.3 7.8


3.4 3.2 8.2


LO

1.0

.9
L2.


1.0

1.0
LB



1.0

.7
.



1.2

L1
L.6
1.0

1.3


I --- I I --- i I


.005.....
.004 ......


Trace .005 ....

Trac .004 .....
Traced .005 ......
Trace! .005 .....
.002 .003.....
.002 .003 ......

.002 .003.....

...... ..-- -- -


.03 .4 .3 1.0
.04 .5 .3 1.2
.04 .5 .3 1.1
.01 .2 1.3 .7
.......... 1.3 .8

.01 .2 1.6 .8

...... .4 .6 1.0


1...-...
I.
i *i
.1
.1

.1


i


P. i.
p.c

45.6

3.8



U.4
17.9

I&S
18.5

a.5

as4L



1 18
16.6











as
20.1



Its
2.5





I.T
2S.9














as
i;t
"3.
a,






S.4

3

3.8 jj

--a-fl

1.1.
TL !


- I _1


I -I


=1=--I


I







13

Loss of matter in cooking potatoes-Continued.

SLoss of matter in fresh Percentage loan of each con-
H:, potatoes. stituent.

ic. cooking. 6o a c .S I M .- .

fl CS S c b

SO. B in not removed-Cont'd.
PH Grains. P. ct. P. P. t. P. t. P. t. P. t. P. .t. P.et. P. .ct. P. ct. P.ct.
DI tilled water, hot at start.. 1,047 0.15 0.001 0.005 ...... 0.05 0.7' 0.5 1.3 ...... 5.4
Do ....................... 1,075 .16 .001 .008 ...... .04 .7 .5 2.0 ...... 4.4
. Average ............... ....--.. .16 .001 .006 ...... .05 .7 .5 1.6 -... 4.9
SAlkalinewater, hot at start.. 1,229 .10 trace. .003 ...... .03 .4 2 .8 ...... 3.2
Do ................... 1,04 .09 trace. .003 ...... .02 .4 .2 .8 ..... 2.2
Average ................... .10 trace. .003 ...... .03 .4 .2 .8 ..... 2.7
Limewater, hot at start.... 1,075 .04 001 .002 0.01 .02 .-2 .4 .5 0.1 2.2
P: Do-...................... 848 .06 .001 .003 .01 .02 .3 .5 .8 .1 2.2
Average ..................... .05 .001 .002 .01 .02 .2 .5 .7 .1 2.2
Average of 6 tests start-





ercentage of loss of that substance. These figures are shown in the
last five columns of the table. The same composition was assumed for
:the peeled potatoes used in Experiment B as for the whole potatoes
:-used in Experiment C. This may not be strictly accurate, since it pre-
supposes the uniform composition of all parts of the potato. As shown
on page 27, there is a slight variation between the composition of the
Interior and the part peeled off, but this probably is not great enough
Sto have a material effect upon the results obtained.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.

By reference to the table (p. 12) it will be seen that, as might be
expected, the greatest loss occurs when the potatoes are peeled and
soaked in cold water before boiling. In this case the loss of nitroge-
nous matter was from 46 to 58 per cent, depending upon the length of
time they were soaked. Of the albuminoids 25 per cent and of the
mineral matters 38 per cent were extracted by the water in which the
potatoes were cooked. The water would ordinarily be thrown away
d this material lost.
SWhen the potatoes are peeled and put into cold water, and heated
boiling as soon as possible, the loss is much smaller, being about 16
cent of the total nitrogenous matter (of which albuminoids form a
less than half) and about 19 per cent of the total mineral matter.
n the potatoes are peeled and put directly into boiling water the
:of albuminoid and other nitrogenous matter is only about half
4i of the last case, but the amount of mineral matter is practically






14

the same. The boiling water soon coagulates the albuminoids on 0it1
surface of the potato, rendering them insoluble. They fill the o i terz
pores of the potato, rendering the inner juices less liable to loss, although
not before a considerable amount of the salts or mineral matter hai
escaped. The relative amount of nonalbuminoid nitrogen lost is greater:I
than when the potatoes are put into cold water at the start. ThereI
seemed to be but little difference as regards total nitrogenous matter,.',
starch, and ash, whether distilled, alkaline, or limewater was used.
The limewater, however, seemed to have a greater solvent action uponi.
the albuminoids than did the distilled or alkaline waters. The solvent.::'
action of cold alkaline water was somewhat greater than that of dis-::
tilled water. Inasmuch as the albuminoid material of the potato is ia.
globulin,' and globulin are insoluble in pure watei but soluble in saline
water, this also is what would be expected. The salts in solution in the -
juice of the potato doubtless carry the globulin in solution to some
extent, thus rendering a loss possible even in pure distilled water.
SThe loss in boiling peeled potatoes is shown in graphic form in figure.

.. .--- ---



STARCH WATER I
b

-- -----------


FIl. 4.-The composition of the potato and the loss of nutrients when boiled with the Akia
removed: a, fiber, pectose, fat, etc.; b, nonalbuminoid nitrogenous matter; c, albuminoid aitrogexmus
matter; d, mineral matter. The hatched portion represents the loss.
It will be seen from the table that when the potatoes are unpeeled.'l
the loss of matter is very inconsiderable, less than 1 per cent of the i
albuminoid matter, only 1 per cent of the total nitrogenous matter, :
hardly a trace of starch, and but a little over 3 per cent of the mineralJ
matter being extracted. The different kinds of water had no effect
except on mineral matter. This was removed to a greater extent by:
the distilled water than by the alkaline or limewater. .i
CONCLUSIONS.
The conclusions drawn from these experiments may be briefly sumi.
marized as follows:
(1) In order to obtain the highest food value, potatoes should not be
peeled before cooking.
(2) When the potatoes are peeled before cooking, the least los~s
sustained by putting them directly into hot water and boiling as
idly as possible. Even then the loss is very considerable.

SOsborne and Campbell, Connecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1895, p. 255 (E. 8. R., 8, p.




_I- w


h 15

(3) If potatoes are peeled and soaked in cold water before boiling
' the loss of nutrients is very great, being one-fourth of all the albuminoid
Smatter. In a bushel of potatoes the loss would be equivalent to a
pound of sirloin steak.

EXPERIMENTS WITH CARROTS.

A series of experiments similar to those just described was under-
tpken with carrots. They were selected as fairly representative of the
roots used for food. While in uncooked potatoes there is but a trace
of sugar, such roots as beets, carrots, parsnips, etc., contain a con-
siderable amount. This renders it probable at the outset that the
loss in the cooking of carrots would be greater than in the cooking of
potatoes.
COMPOSITION OF CARROTS.

Samples of the carrots used in the experiments were analyzed. The
results of these analyses, as well as the average composition of carrots,
including both American and European analyses, are shown in the
following table:
Composition of carrots.

o Carbohydrates.



S0. 0 0. b.
vergA 0.4 .
% Include fat.

P.et. I P. et. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P.ct. P.ct. P.ct. P.ct. P.ct.' P.ct.
Carrots ded in eep.xperiments..- 87.5 0.08 0.18 1 1 (b) 3.6 3.0 (b) 4. c0.6 0.8
Average 7 American analyses de 88.2 ..i 1.1 0 ...... ...... ...... ....I 69.2 1.
Average 35European analy see 8a6.l n a ... 1.2o 3 2.1 4.1 1.5 3.0 0.7 1.0

lO less the sum of the percentages of water, protein, fat, and ash.
lbNot determined.
c Includes fat.
dU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Station Bul. 28.
eKdnig, Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussrittel, 3d ed., II, p. 649.

'Although carrots contain less nitrogen than potatoes, they seem to
contain relatively more albuminoid nitrogen and therefore to furnish
mIore matter available for building muscular tissue. In tle carrots used
in the following experiments, 44.4 per cent of the total nitrogen was in
the albuminoid form.
COOKING TESTS.

In preparing carrots (sliced or whole) for the table they are put into
Either hot or cold water and boiled until they are soft enough to be
easily pierced with a fork. The water in which the carrots have been
kb-oiled is usually drained off and thrown away. This water is colored
yellow and has a very sweet taste, plainly indicating that some of the
$Ugar has been extracted and lost.
]In order to determine bow much food value was lost in boiling car-







16

rots under various conditions, twelve trials were made in which
water (hard water), alkaline water, and distilled water (soft
were used. The carrots were prepared for cooking in the usual wambr
washing with a brush, scraping, drying quickly with a towel, and et
ting into pieces. These pieces were wedge-shaped, usually about 4
inches long, and with three sides and a triangular base measudring"
about 14 inches on a side. In some of the trials the pieces were "'.a
smaller and in some larger in order to determine the effect of size o0nf1
the loss of material. As in the experiments with potatoes, the water
in which the carrots were cooked was hot at the beginning of the cook.-
ing period in some of the tests and cold in others. The carrots were o ;:n
boiled in a metal kettle over a gas flame under as nearly the usual
conditions as possible The loss of matter in cooking 100 parts of |
fresh carrots and the percentages of each constituent lost in cooking I
under the various conditions are shown in the following table:

Loss of matter in cooking carrots.

U2 Loss of matter in fresh Percentage loss of each coR-
carrots. stitnent.
..___ ___.______.
Method of preparation and S 6
i: -W "EEE
cooking. g .



A. Smna.ll pieces.
Grains. P. ct. '. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P. et. P. et. P.ct. P. L. I
Alkaline water, hot at start.. 358 3.68 0.006 0.063 2.18 0.31 29.4 7.5 35.0 83.0 4L
Limewater, hot at start....... 349 3.81 .008 .078 1.14 .37 30.5 10.0 43. 17.3 4.4
Distilled water, cold at start.. 399 3.55 .009 .064 ...... .31 28.4 11.3 35.6 ...... -4L
Linewater, cold at start------. 476 3.93 .010 .101 1.82 .43 31.d 12.5 56.1 87.t II .
Average ............... ....... 3.74 .008 .077 1.71 .36 29.9 10.3 42.5 36.0 47.8
B. Medium-sized pieces.
Distilled water, hot at start.. 494 2.93 .006 .048 ...... .12 23.4 7.5 26.7 ...... 1i i
Do....................... 480 3.70 .006 .047 ...... .30 29.6 7.5 26.1 ......
Liniewater, lot at start....... 444 2 72 i .005 .055 ...... .34 21.7 6.3 30.6 ...... 4S.
Alkaline water, hot at start.. 353 2.52 .006 .05 1.58 .33 20.2 7.5 25.0 23.9 44.
Distilled water, cold at start.. 580 2.68 .005 .050 ...... 1 21.4 6.2 27.8s......2.0
Alkaline water, cold at start.. 50:1 2.47 .005 .047 ...... 29 19.8 6.3 26.1 ...... 37
Do ....................... 403 :1.61 .003 .055 1.92 .43 28.9 3.7 i0.6 39.1 S7.
Average ....................... 2.95 .005 I .050 1.75 .28 23.5 6.4 27.5 20.5 387.
C. Largegrieces.
Linmewater, cold at start...... 499 2.52 .004 .036 1.02 .22 20.2 ; 5.0 20.0 15.5 328.

As will be seen, the character of the water makes little apparent
difference in the amount of nutrients lost when carrots are boiled. The |
loss depends almost wholly upon the size of the pieces. The loss of
mineral matter is large, being nearly one-half of the total amount.
in the case of the small pieces, and nearly one-third of the total wheoa'
the pieces were large. The loss of nitrogenous matter and sugar
also very large. With small pieces about 40 per cent of the total
nitrogen and 26 per cent of the total sugar is lost, or about 1 ponu
of sugar in a bushel of carrots. With medium-sized pieces the IQ.l
o 54


* ..... ...,.," .




F sow w. a


17


iltpgen is 27 per cent and of sugar 26 per cent. With large pieces
~b less of nitrogen is 20 per cent and of sugar 15 per cent. This latter
'loss is equivalent to over half a pouud of sugar in a bushel of carrots.
SOf the total nutrients 30 per cent is lost from the
small pieces, 24 per cent from the medium, and 20
per cent from the large pieces. In other words, as
ordinarily cooked carrots lose one-quarter of their
nutritive value. Figure 5 shows these losses graph-
I
CONCLUSIONS.


[ These trials suggest that in order to retain the
Greatest amount of nutrients in the cooking of
Carrots (1) the pieces should be large rather than
small; (2) the boiling should be rapid in order to
give less time for the solvent action of the water
to act upon the food ingredients; (3) as little water
as possible should be used; and (4) if the matter
extracted be used as food along with the carrots,
instead of being thrown away, the loss of 20 to 30
Super cent, or even more, of the total food value may
Sbe prevented.

EXPERIMENTS WITH CABBAGE.

Experiments analogous to those with potatoes
and carrots were made with cabbage to determine
the loss of food material during the process of
preparation for the table.
Cabbage may be taken as representing the class
of pot herbs in which the leaves are the edible por-
tion. It exposes more surface to the action of the
water than do tubers or roots.

COMPOSITION OF CABBAGE.

The composition of the cabbage analyzed in
Connection with these experiments, as well as the
average of American analyses of cabbage, is as
follows:
Composition of cabbage.


FIG. 5.-Tle composition of
the carrot and the loss of
nutrients when boiled: a,
fiber, starch, fat, etc.; b,
sugar; c, nonalbuminoid
nitrogenous matter; d,
alluminoid uitrogenuus
matter; e. mineral mat-
ter. The hatched portion
represents the loss when
medium-sized pieces were
boiled.


b used in these experiments ......
Sof 7 American analyses a.......


I Albu.
Water. minoid
r nitro-
I g'n.

Per ct. Per ct.
92.5 0.11
90.3 .......


Total Pro-
itro- tePro- Fat. Carbohy- Ash.
tein. rates.
gen.

Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct.
0.18 1.1 0.5 0.7 0.7
....... 2.1 .4 5.8 1.4


HI aU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 28.
2103-No. 43-2








18

It will be noticed especially that in cabbage there is, relatively,
much more albuminoid material than in either potatoes or carrots,te
albuminoid nitrogen amounting to 01 per cent of the total nitrogen.

COOKING TESTS.

The plan of the experiments was the same as that followed in the
experiments with potatoes and carrots. In each trial half of a solid:
fair-sized cabbage was used. The cabbage was boiled in a metal kettle
over a gas flame at about the same rate as on an ordinary cook stove.
The following table shows the results obtained by the different methods
of cooking:


Loss of matter in cooking cabbage.


S
I -
I -
Method of cooking. o |
4a
Iti


Loss of matter in fresh
cabbage.


C
a


Y &4
-1 0=c
II I
Is


.5
11
s^
cci
C'a
LI


Percentage lose of each con-
stituent.



i!
I-
jE
* 5-


0 -b
53'3


a
St
C;
5-


aI
0
Ta


I


Irams. P.rt. P.t.ct.t P.e. c. iP.ct. P.et. c. C. P. t. P.ae.
Distilled water, cold at start. 471.7 2.48 0.003 '0.062 1.76 0.33 | 33.2 2.7 34.4 3 1.1 47.1
Do....................... 390.1 2.6 .009 .055 2.01 i .34 36. 8.2 30.6 35.6 48.
Average ....................... 2.58 .006 1 .058 1.88 .34 34.6 5.5 32.5 33.3 47.8
Alkaline water, cold at start. 326.6 3.17 .009 081 2.39 .27 42.4 8.2 45. 42.3 38.B
Do ..................... 317.5 3.08 .013 1 .065 2.37 .30 41.2 11.8 36.1 42.0 4&8
Average ............... ....... 3.12 .011 .073 2.38 .29 41.8 10.0 40.6 43.1 40.
Limewater, cold at start ..... 331.1 3.17 .005 .087 2.23 .40 42.4 4.6 48.3 39.5 57.1
Do ....................... 240.4 3.05 ...... .078 2.20 .36 40.8 .... 43.3 38.9 51.4
Average........................ 3.11 .005 .083 2.22 .38 41.6 4.6 45.8 39.2 6&.2
Average of 6 tests in
cold water.......... ............ .. .... ....... 39.3 6.7 39.6 38.2 47.4
Distilled water, hot at start.. 435.5 2.17 1 .005 .060 1.56 .23 29.0 4.6 33.3 27.6; t.9
Do ....................... 367.4 2.22 .008 .054 1.65 .23 29.7 7.3 30.0 29.2* 04
Average ............... ....... 2.20 .007 .057 1.60 .23 29.4 6.0 31.7 28.4

Alkaline water, hot at start. 317.5 2.70 1 .008 .057 2.13 .21 36.1 7.3 31.7 37.71 30I0
Do....................... 263.1 2.79 .013 1 .076 2.04 .27 37.3 11.8 42.2 36.1 K3.
Average .............. .......I 2.75 .011 | .067 2.09 .24 36.7 9.6 37.0 36.9 1.S
Limewater, hot at start...... 330.7 3.05 .006 .071 2.21 .40 40.8 5.5 39.4 39.1 57.1
Do ....................... 689. i 2.82 ...... .068 2.04 .35 37.7 ...... 37.8 86.11 50
Average ..................... 2.94 .006 .070 2.12 .38 39.2 5.5 38.6 37.I 5.
Average of 6 tests in 1
hot water ................... .... ...... ...... 35.1 7.0 35.8.


Even under the most favorable conditions the loss during the cook-,
ing of cabbage is very great, being 30 per cent of the total dry matter
when distilled water is used and as high as 40 per cent when lime-
water is used. In the latter case over one-half of the mineral mat
and over one third each of the carbohydrates and nitrogenous matter
dissolved out during the process of cooking. The albuminoid mat...


-I-


1




S


19


' seems to be less soluble than any other of the substances present, there
Being but from 5 to 10 per cent of loss. Since albuminoids make up
61 per cent of the total nitrogenous substances, it follows that with a
loss of from 35 to 40 per cent of the total nitrogenous matter nearly all
of the nonalbuminoid nitrogenous compounds must be dissolved out in
the water in which the cabbage is cooked. It will be noticed that the
loss of albuminoid nitrogen was much greater where alkaline water
was used than with either
distilled or limewater. The
average loss in the cooking
of cabbage is shown graph- Aq' I
ically in fig. 6. /'


CONCLUSIONS.


The kind of water used has f ATERC
more effect on the loss of 1 \
nutrients in cooking cab- v
bage than the temperature
of the water at which the
cooking is started. In any
case the loss is large. In 100
pounds of uncooked cabbage
there are but 7j pounds of
there are but 7 pounds of 6.-The composition of the cabbage and the loss of
dry matter, and ot' this dry nutrients when boiled: a. starch, sugar, fiber, fat, etc.;
matter from 24 to 3 pounds b. nonalbuminoid nitrogenons matter; c, albumiuoid
nitrogenous matter; d. mineral matter. The hatched
are lost in the process of portion represents the loss.
cooking. This loss seems to
be unavoidable unless the cabbage is cooked in such a manner that
the water in which it is boiled is also used. This is frequently the
case when cabbage is cooked with corned beef.


GENERAL SUMMARY.


The losses which occur in cooking potatoes, carrots, and cabbage
Svary with the different methods of boiling followed, being quite con-
siderable in some cases. These losses must be take into account in
computing dietaries and made good by adding other materials to sup-
ply the nutrients lost. While the loss is not so great as to render
it imperative that people in comfortable circumstances should aban-
I don methods of preparing these foods which they consider make them
Most palatable, there are very large numbers who can not afford to
:permit even the comparatively small waste of food observed in these
I.experiments.
: The purpose of experiments, such as those here reported, is to learn
lrhat actually takes place in the process of preparing food by the com-
on methods. Those having charge of the preparation of food must
.rmine how far it is desirable under individual circumstances to
ply the information obtained,


:. ::. :.


i















THE DIGESTIBILITY OF POTATOES AND EGGB.
By H. SNYDZR, B. 8., il
Chemist, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, and Professor of Agrioalkranl
Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Minnesota.
INTRODUCTION.
There seems to be a very wide difference of opinion regarding the
digestibility of the potato, some considering it a very easily digested
food and others a food digested with some difficulty. The information .1
on which such opinions are based is comparatively limited. Our knowl-
edge concerning the digestibility of food is quite largely based on artift-
cial digestion experiments. The number of experiments made with man
is comparatively small. An experiment with man on the digestibility
of potatoes was made by Rubner and reported some years ago.'
More work of this nature seemed desirable, therefore an experiment
was undertaken with a healthy man in which potatoes formed the
principal article of diet. Potatoes being almost entirely a farinaceous
food, it was necessary to have some easily digested albuminoids in the
dietary and also some fat, since previous digestion experiments in this
laboratory have indicated that in order to obtain normal digestion it is
necessary to use a well-balanced ration supplying a sufficient amount .
of nitrogenous material for replenishing the waste tissues of the body.
To furnish this nitrogenous matter and fat hard-boiled, eggs were
added. Upon trial the diet of potatoes and eggs proved an unnatural 4
and distasteful one to the subject and it was found necessary to add Q
some milk and a little cream to the dietary in order to make it we ll:
balanced and palatable.
The digestibility of the eggs was first determined by the Stuater:
method of artificial digestion, to learn something of the effect of boil
ing for various periods. Such knowledge was considered essential in li
the interpretation of the results of the experiments with man. The 1
digestibility of the milk and cream were assumed as described beyond.:'i

DIGESTIBILITY OF BOILED EGGS IN PEPSIN SOLUTION.
Five experiments were made to determine the digestibility of eg
cooked under different conditions. A pepsin solution was prepare
consisting of 1.1 parts of pepsin and 7.5 parts of hydrochloric acid Il
]Ztschr. Biol., 1879, p. 147. U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations
21, p. 60. *..
20







S21

500 parts of water. This solution dissolved 50 parts of hard-boiled
Segg albumen in six and one-half hours at a temperature of from 380
to 400 C.
S Eggs were cooked for 3 minutes at 1000 C., giving a t soft-boiled egg,
and ibr 5 minutes and 20 minutes at the same temperature. One egg
boiled 3 minutes and digested for 5 hours in about 200 cc. of pepsin
solution as prepared above, compared with one boiled 20 minutes and
Treated in the same way, showed 8.3 per cent undigested nitrogen in
Sthe former, against 4.1 per cent undigested nitrogen in the latter.
Under similar treatment the egg boiled 5 minutes gave 3.9 per cent
undigested nitrogen.
S Another trial was then made, in which the eggs were cooked for
Periods of 5 and 10 minutes in water at 82.20 C. (1800 F.) In both of
these cases the nitrogen was entirely digested in 5 hours, The results
are given in the following table:

Result of digesting boiled eggs 5 hours in pepsin solution.


From the above it seems probable that while the method of cooking
has some effect upon the rate of digestibility it does not materially
affect the total digestibility. These results agree quite closely with
those obtained by Rubner.' In an experiment with man he found that
97.1 per cent of the nitrogen of hard-boiled eggs was digested.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT ON MAN WITH A DIET OF POTATOES, EGGS,
MILK, AND CREAM.
The subject of the digestion experiment was a healthy man, 22 years
old. He was a laboratory assistant, and his work did not demand a
great amount of muscular exercise. The experiment began with dinner
SMay 14, 1896, and ended after dinner May 18, covering 13 meals, or 4k
days. The weight of the subject (without clothing) at the beginning
of the experiment was 62.5 kilograms (1374 pounds) and at the end
S62.6 kilograms (137a pounds).
SThe daily dietary as finally adopted consisted of 1587.6 grams (34
pounds) of potatoes, 8 eggs, 710 cubic centimeters (14 pints) of milk,
Sand 237 cubic centimeters (J pint) of cream. The latter was necessary
in order to supply fat to raise the fuel value of the food to the desired

iZtechr. Biol., ]179, p. 128. U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul.
S1,p. 61.


14o. of Length Tempera- Weight Total Total Total Pepsin
t ture at egg used nitrogen undi- Tol
experi- of time which (without in fresh tested nitrogen solution
ment. cooked. cooked. shell). eggs. ntrogen.digested used.

Minutes. Deg. F. Grams. Grams. Grams. Per cent. Ce.
1 5 180 39.34 .944 .......... 100.0 197
2 10 180 47.02 1.128 .......... 100.0 235
3 3 212 38.67 .929 0.0768 91.7 193
4 5 212 43.80 1.050 .0408 96.1 219
5 20 212 40.64 .960 .0408 95.8 203








22


point. The approximate amounts and the composition of each
consumed per day are shown in the following table:


Amount and composition of preliminary daily diet.


Sattr. Nitrogen. Protein. Fat. Cro. Ash.
matterrF hydrates. Ask.
___________- Grmn. 'Nirt- -h^ I -
Graim. Grams. Grans. Gramsl. Grams. Oram". OglwaRil
Potatoes (1,587 gramm )....... 362.88 6.35 39. 92 0.45 209.38 14.51 ,
EKgg (W, ihard uIil..l)......... 113.40 8.16 50.80 48.99.......... 4.c iO
Milk (710 cublic c'nltimetcrs) 90.72 4.08 25.40 27.22 30.39 4.98
Cream (23-1 n liic ierellilll ntters). 40.82 .91 5.44 34.02 3.63 1.36
Total .................. 607.82 19.50 121.56 110.68 a33.40 j 24.83 I


This diet was given for three days before the experiment began is"l
order that the body might get into equilibrium with it.
After breakfast on the day the experiment commenced and after diM
ner on the (ay it closed some charcoal in gelatin capsules was taken,
in order to identify the feces belonging to the food of the experiment-
proper. The fiesh feces weighed on an average 204 grams per day and
the urine 1,108 grants. The food, urine, and feces were analyzed. The
composition of the total food eaten and of the total feces, together with
the nutrients contained in the food eaten and lost in the feces and the
percentage of each ilntrient digested, are shown in the following tables:

Weight and composition of food eaten and offeces for four and one-third days.


Weight.


Gran
Potatoes ................... 6,
Eg s ......................... 1,
Milk ......................... 2,
Cream ........................
Feces ........................ a


Ms.
380
800
722
908
206


Total
organic
matter.


Per cent.
28.'85
23. 86
12.27
17.41
82.33


Protein.



Per cent.
9.50
12.63
3. 25
1.69
26.56


Fat.



Per cent.
0.08
11.23
4.01
14.00
14.30


Carbohy-
drates.


Per cent.
19.27
..........
5.601
1.72
641.47


Ash.



Per cen
0.90
.86
.75
.60
16.27


Fuel
value
per

lated.

OatWim.
0.996
i.mTT
.757
1.4865
4.496


a Water-free substance.
b One and four-tenths per cent is allowed for biliary products. C carbohydrates= 100.00 (Proteia+
Fat + Ash + 1.40).

Weights and fuel rahues of nutrients in food eaten and in feces for four and meM-fAtid
days; and weights, fuel value, and percentages of nutrients digested.


Potatoes-----------------------------................................
Eggs.....................................
Milk....................................
Cream ..................................
Total eggs. milk, and cream ......

Total, from whole food............
Fuel value rf urea (435.9 <0.87).........
Net fuel value of food eaten ............
Feces, i.e., undigested residue ........
Amount dirested in whole food ........
Amount eggs, milk. and cream digested.-
Amount potatoes digested... ..........
Per cent digested of whole food ........
Per cent digested of potatoes...........


Total
organic
matter.


Protein.


Grams. Grams.
1, 394.0 159. 5
429. 5 227. 4
334. 88.5
158.0 15.3

921.5 331.2

2.315.5 I 490.7
-.......... ........- -
169.9 54.8
2,145. 6 435.9
882.1 321.2
1, 263.5 114.7
Per cent. Per cent.
92.7 88.8
90.6 71.9


Fat.


Grams.
5.1

202. 1
109.1
127. 1

438. 3

443.4
..........

29. 5
413.9
..........

Per cent.
93.3
..........


Carbohy-
drates.


Ash.


Grants. Grams.
1,229.4 57.4

.......... 16.5
136.4 20.4
15.6 5,4

152.0 42.3

1,381.4 99.7
.......... ..........
.......... ..........
85.6 33.6
1,295.8 66.1
152.0 ..........
1. 143.8 ..........
Per cent. Per ent.
93.8 (a)
93.0 ..........


a An unknown amount of salt was eaten, which renders the amount of mineral matter
somewhat doubtful.


value.

torw..



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12,-



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23


S In calculating the amount of nutrients furnished by the eggs, milk,
and cream that were digested, it is assumed that 9.7 per cent of the
protein and all of the carbohydrates (chiefly milk sugar) in these foods
were digested. Inasmuch as the amount of fat in the potato is so
extremely small, no attempt was made to calculate its digestibility.
The figures for the digestibility of the whole food (93 per cent) practi-
cally represent the digestibility of the fat in the eggs, milk, and cream.
The amount of nutrients digested in the eggs, milk, and cream
deducted from the total digested nutrients gives the nutrients digested
from the potato. The percentages digested were calculated from these
amounts. In calculating the fuel value 1 gram of protein is assumed
to yield 5.5 calories, 1 gram of fat 9.3 calories, and 1 gram of carbohy-
drates 4.1 calories. Nitrogenous matter is not as completely oxidized
.in the body as when burned in the air,' since it is largely excreted in the
form of urea. Urea contains some energy, which is, however, unavail-
able to the body. Briefly, the fuel value of urea is calculated as
follows:2
M protein
-- x 2.143 x 2.53=fuel value of urea.
6.25

This may be reduced to the simpler form, M protein x 0.87=fuel
value of urea.
More or less salt was eaten of which no account was made, therefore
the digestibility of the ash is not calculated. It is of comparatively
little importance. since to some extent at least the soluble mineral
matters, e. g., salt, pass directly to the kidneys, from which they may
be secreted within a few hours after being taken into the stomach.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.

From the results of this experiment it would seem that while the
nitrogenous matter is not very completely digested, the digestibility of
the carbohydrates is quite high. Since the potato consists very largely
of carbohydrates, it may be regarded, at least in the case of the per.
son here experimented with, as a food which is well digested. The
results obtained in this experiment agree very closely with those
obtained by Rubner (see p. 21), as will be seen by the following com--
parison:

The digestibility of potatoes as determined by American and European investigators.

Protein Carbohy-
;,: IProtein drtS
drates
digested. digested.

Per cent. I Per cent.
. The author's experiment .--...................................................... 71.9 93.0
R bner's experiment---------...................--.... --...-------- ------------------------..... .. 67.8 92.4

( U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21, p. 103.
I gConnecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1894, p. 125.






24 i

Tlue nitrogen balance.-The urine was collected during the period
ered by the digestion experiment, and the total of solids, nitrogen,
ash in it determined. In this way a balance of income and outgo.:
nitrogen could be obtained and the resultant gain or loss of
calculated. The amount of urine excreted during the period coe
by the experiment was 4,800 grams. It contained 6.18 per eent
water-free substance, 1.42 per cent of nitrogen, and 1.63 per centof aab
The gain or loss of nitrogen and the calculated gain or loss of proi
per day are shown in the following table:
Balance oj incorm and outgo of nitrogen and gain of protein.
I "
Nitrogen Nitrogen Nitrogen Nitrogean itr ogemn P
in food. in feces. digested. in urine. gained. pimle ;
Grams. Gra mas. Grams. Grmsw. Gramn. Brwm
utanttiie for whole period (41 days)... 78.51 8.77 69.74 68.16 L 58 It
antitie per lay ................... ... 18.14 2.03 16.11 15.74 .7 e ..

During the experiment the subject gained 9.88 grams (one-third oft
an ounce) of protein. Assuming that muscle contained 23 per cent of
protein, the subject gained 43 grams of muscle, or about 1 ounes.













THE COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE POTATO AND
THE LOSS OF NUTRIENTS DURING THE PROCESS OF BOILING.
.. By ALMAH J. FRISBY, M. D., and A. P. BRYANT, M. S.
INTRODUCTION.

The potato is composed of three parts, which may for convenience be
termed outer skin, inner skin, and flesh. The outer or true skin is dry
in appearance, usually grayish brown in color and corresponds to the
Sbark of the rest of the plant. The portion lying immediately beneath
the skin is slightly colored, containing whatever coloring matter may
be present in the potato, and is the part which turns green on continued










:7 *
a



% .. .. i ; : b
















FIG. 7.-Transverse and longitudinal sections of the potato (after Coudon and Bussard): a. skin;
b, cortical layer; c, outer medullary layer; d, inner medullary layer.

exposure to the sunlight, giving a strong unpleasant taste to the potato.
This portion has some resemblance to the skin in general appearance,
and is usually removed with the skin in preparing potatoes for the
table. Its true name is the fibro-vascular layer, but it is also some-
times designated as the herbaceous or cortical layer, subcutaneous por-
tion, and inner skin (see fig. 7). The main bulk of the potato is composed
I. :.25






26

filled with starch grains and a little nitrogenous matter, and may
designated as the flesh of the potato.
[Shortly after the completion of the present bulletin an extedd
study of potatoes was reported by H. Coudon and L. Bussard.' Tbe
authors investigated the botanical structure of a large number ofvd.m -
eties of potatoes and determined the relative composition of largyi
medium, and small potatoes and of the different parts of the tubers.:i
The taste and culinary properties of a number of standard varieti:.es
were also investigated. The potatoes were cooked in several ways,
Among the conclusions reached by the authors were the following: In
judging the value of a variety of potatoes analyses should be made r Er
number of entire tubers. The culinary value of the potato is directly
proportional to its nitrogen content and inversely proportional to its
starch content. The different varieties of potatoes were found to vary
greatly in their resistance to boiling, some retaining their form com-
pletely, while others were almost entirely disintegrated. In the
author's opinion the resistance to boiling did not depend upon the con-
tent of pectin or starch, but seemed to depend principally upon the
relative proportion of albuminoids present: No definite relation was
observed between chemical composition and early maturity. Generally
speaking, the early varieties contained more water and nitrogenous
material and less starch than the late varieties. The number of excep-
tions was, however, large.]
In order to ascertain to some extent the variation in composition of
the different parts of the tuber a quantity of smooth potatoes of aver-
age size was obtained and analyses of the different parts made. The
variety selected was that known as the White Star."

COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE POTATO.
SAMPLING.
Twelve medium-sized potatoes of known weight were taken. The
skin was carefully removed by scraping with a knife and the skin and
potatoes weighed. The sum of the weights of the scraped potatoes
and of the skins did not equal the weight of the potatoes at the start.
More or less water had evaporated from the moist surfaces. It was
assumed that half of the loss came from the skins and half from the
smooth surface of the scraped potatoes, inasmuch as the amount of
surface freshly exposed to the air was the same in the two portions.
The inner skin of the potatoes, or fibro-vascular layer, was next.
removed by scraping, care being taken to include as little flesh of the i..
potato as possible. The amount removed by this operation was weighed
as before and the loss of water during the process divided equal
between the part removed and the part remaining, i. e., the flesh. Tit
three portions were dried at 1000 C. and this partially dried mater.
1 Ann. Sci. Agrun., 1897, I, No. 2, p. 250.







27

of cells was analyzed. The weights of the different parts and their
proportion of the whole potato were as follows:

Proportions of different parts of the potato.

Weight Per cent
in grams. of whole.

Twelve unpeeled pntatoes......................................................... 1,633 100.0
SOuter, or true. skin-.............................................................. 41 2.5
Inner skin or fibro-vascular lavera................................................ 139 8.5
S Flesh .-......................--. ..................... ............................. 1,453 89.0

a Including a small amount of flesh.

TIHE ANALYSES.
Water, nitrogen, fat, and ash were determined by the usual methods.
Crude fiber was determined in the fibro-vascular layer and the flesh,
but there was so little of the skin left after making the other deter-
. minations that the estimation of fiber could not be made. It would,
however, presumably be quite high.
S The nitrogen of the potato is not all in the form of true albuminoids
or proteids, but nearly half is in the form of amido compounds, includ-
ing, principally, asparagin.' Inasmuch as the amount of nitrogenous
material in the potato is small, and the amido compounds can neither
build tissue nor repair waste as do the albuminoids, the nutritive
value of the nitrogenous substance (protein) of the potato is very small.
In the experiments here reported the albuminoid nitrogen was deter-
mined by Stutzer's method.
The composition of different parts and the calculated composition of
whole potatoes here analyzed as compared with results of other Ameri-
can and European analyses are shown in the followLng table:

Composition of the whole potato and its different parts.

Nitrogen. Carbohydrates.
Water. Alb- Pro- Fat. Nitro- Ash.
b in Totald tt. gen-free Fiber.
minoid.1
__________________________ ____ extract.

Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per et. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct.
Outer, or true, skin.........-...... 80. 1 0.25 0. 43 2.7 8 14.6 1. 8
Inner skin or fibro-vascular layer.. 8.-.2 .24 .36 2.3 .1 12.6 0.7 1.1
Flesh. .........-----... ..... ---... 81.1 .18 .32 2.0 .1 15.7 .3 .8
Calculated composition of whole
potato ......................... 81.3 .19 .32 2.0 .1 15.7 .9
S Average of 86 American analyses a 78.0 ........ 35 2.2 .1 18.8 .9
Averageof 178 European analyses b 75.0 .19 .34 2. 1 .1 21.0 .7 1.1

a From an unpublished compilation of analyses of American food products.
b Kiinig, Chemie der Nahrungs- und Genuasmittel. 3d ed., II, p. 626.

Although of fine appearance, the potatoes used in the present experi-
ment contained an unusually small amount of dry matter and a large
proportion of water, as will be seen by comparing their chemical com-

1Schulzo, Barbieri, and Eugster, Land. Vers. Stat., 21 (1878), p. 63; 27 (1882), p. 357.
See also K5nig, Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, 3d ed., II,
S p. 631.






28


position with that of average potatoes. Whether this was dae to
variety or to the-year is a matter of doubt. The skin, although ap
ently very dry, contained nearly as large a percentage of water as
rest of the potato. The portion immediately under the true skin, L
the tibrp-vascular layer, contained the .greatest amount of w
Payen' states that the epidermis and the herbaceous portion ime...
diately below it contain little or no starch deposit. The above resmlu
seem to be in accord with this, though no estimation of starch it"t
was made. It will be noticed that the skin contains'about 40 per enA
more albuminoid nitrogen than the flesh, and more than twice t &I
amount of mineral matter (ash). One of the most noticeable difNi f:
ences is the relatively large amount of ether extract in the skin-neariy'l
1 per cent. This had much the appearance of wax, and had an odorli
slightly resembling that of beeswax.
THE PROTEIN FACTOR.
The protein was determined as usual by multiplying the total nitro. -
gen by the factor 6.25. This factor is based on the assumption that .:
there is on the average 16 per cent of nitrogen in protein. In the case
of potatoes the results thus obtained are considerably too large. In I
the first place, the nonalbuminoid compounds have a much larger i
proportion of nitrogen than do the albuminoids, and consequently '
should be obtained by the use of a much smaller factor than 6.25. 1
Besides this, the albuminoids themselves contain slightly more than
16 per cent of nitrogen. Osborne and Campbell2 have investigated the
proteid of the potato, which they propose to call "tuberin," and find'
that it contains 16.24 per cent of nitrogen. i
For the present purpose it will be convenient to assume that all the :1:
nonalbaminoid nitrogen of the potato occurs in forms more or less sim-
ilar to asparagin. Asparagin contains 21.21 per cent of nitrogen. The
average amount of albuminoid nitrogen in potatoes is 56 per cent of
the whole, which is the same proportion as was found in the flesh of
the potatoes used in these experiments. Assuming 56 per cent of the;;::.I
nitrogen of the potato to belong to albuminoid nitrogenous matter
(tuberin) and the remaining 44 per cent of the nitrogen to belong to
nonalbuminoid nitrogenous matter (asparagin), there will be an aver. ,
age of 18.42 per cent of nitrogen in the nitrogenous substance of the
potato. This corresponds to the factor 5.43. ii
In round numbers, therefore, 5.5 may be taken as the factor by which ..
the total nitrogen of the potato should be multiplied in order to obtamtu.i
the total nitrogenous matter or protein. While the change made
using this instead of the ordinary factor 6.25 for calculating the protein
is slight, it would amount to about a gram of protein per day in the
case of a person eating 340 grams (Q pound) of potatoes daily. f
:Substances alimentaires, p. 305.
SConnecticut State Sta. Rpt. 1895, p. 255 (E. S. R., 8, p. 371).







29


difference in composition as computed by using the factor 5.5 for calculat-
ing protein instead of the factor 6.25 is shown in the following table:

Comparison of the composition of the potato when the factor 5.5 is used instead of the
factor 6.25 in calculating protein.

Prt. Carbohydrates by
Protein. difference

Water. Fat. When When Ash.
Nitrogen Nitrogen protein protein
S5.5. x 6.25. = N 5.5. = Nx 6.25.

Perct. Percent. Per cent. Perct. Percent. Per cent. Percl.
Outer, or true, ucin ................ 80.1 2.4 2.7 0. 8 14.9 14.6 1.8
Inner skin or fibro-vascular layer.. 83.2 2.0 2. 3 .1 13.6 13. 3 1. 1
Flesh.............. ............ --- 81.1 1.8 2.0 .1 16.2 16.0 .8
Calculated composition of whole
potato .....-------------------- 81.3 1.8 2.0 1 15.9 15.7 .9
Average of 86 American analyses.. 78.0 1.9 2. 2 .1 19. 1 18.8 .9

a 100 less the sum of the percentages of water, protein, fat, and ash.

AMOUNT OF SOLID MATTER IN THE JUICE OF THE POTATO.

When we consider the amount of water in the potato, it is to be
expected that a considerable portion of the ingredients may be in solu-
tion. If a potato be grated and the juice pressed through a linen cloth
a large amount of dark-colored liquid is obtained having an acid char-
acter. This acidity is commonly said to be chiefly due to citric acid with
more or less tartaric and succinic acids. The mineral water is very
largely in the form of potash salts, soluble in water. The asparagin
present is also soluble in water, and the tuberin more or less soluble in
the acid. The following table shows the percentages of the different
substances found in the juice of the potato and in the solid matter:

Distribution of material in the solid matter and juice of the potato. a

Nitrogen.
Dry Albumi- Ash.
matter. Albumi- Nonalbu- noid +
noid. minoid. nonalbu-
minoid.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Percent.
In solid matter.................................... 85 15 0 15 15
In juice........................................... 15 49 36 85 85
Total...................... ................. 100 64 36 100 10l

a Lawes and Gilbert, On the Growth of the Potato, p. 26, Rothamsted Memoirs, vol. 6.

LOSS OF NUTRIENTS IN BOILING.

Since 85 per cent of the nitrogenous matter and 85 per cent of the
mineral matter are in a state of solution in the potato, it would seem
quite probable that there might be a considerable loss of these sub-
stances during the process of preparing potatoes for the table. Experi-
ments were therefore made to investigate this loss and determine its







30

amount. Four trials were made, (1) with the skins removed, the
potatoes being put in cold water, which was heated at once o dr
moderate flame; (2) with the skins removed, the peeled potatoes pl
directly in boiling water; (3) with the skins on, the potatoes being p
in cold water, which was heated as in the first case; and (4) with th
skins on, the potatoes being placed directly in hot water as in the se;
ond case. Six medium-sized potatoes were used for each trial. Theyri
were boiled in one liter of distilled water in an aluminum kettle uutilt:
they were easily pierced with a fork. The kettle was then removed":
from the fire, the water poured off, and the potatoes rinsed with dis f lls!
tilled water. It was found that the potatoes in every case except the
second gained slightly in weight during the process of cooking. Thu:is:'l.
gain was evidently due to water absorbed.
The water in which the potatoes were boiled, united with that-
used in rinsing them after boiling, was made up to a definite volume
by adding distilled water. Aliquot portions were taken for analysis.
The cooked potatoes were also dried and analyzed. In most cases the
amount of each substance found by analysis in the water used in cook-
ing them, added to the amount of the same substance found in the
cooked potatoes, gave, within the limits of analytical error, the total
amount of that substance calculated as being present in the raw
potatoes. The weight of any substance found in the water used in
cooking the potatoes divided by the weight of that same substance
calculated as being present in the uncooked potatoes gave the per-
centage of loss during boiling. The loss of carbohydrates was eti-
mated by subtracting the sum of the protein lost (calculated by multi-
plying the total nitrogen lost by 5.5) and the mineral matter lost from.
the total loss of dry matter.
The following table gives the loss of nutrients when the potatoes
were cooked in different ways:
The loss of material during the process of cooking potatoes.

Nitrogen.
Dry .- Carbohy-
matter. Albumi. Nonalbu- rates.
noid. minoid. Tota.
Skins removed before boiling.
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Penr t. Per cent. Pr em.
Water cold at beginning of test ........ 3.7 4.3 12.9 8.3 2.5 17.0
Water hot at beginning of test......... 4.0 3.3 17.9 10.0 2.8 17.4.
Average ........................ 3.9 3.8 15.4 9.2 2.T 17.
Boiled iith ak-ins on.
Water cold at beginning of test........ .3 .6 .6 .6 .2 L ii;
Water hot at beginning of test........ 3 .4 1.7 1.0 .1 L:
Average........................ .3 .5 1.1 .8 .2 L

It will be seen that the loss of matter during the process of cooking.'
was confined quite largely to the nitrogenous substances and the
eral matter. The total loss of dry matter, however, was in some case








considerable, indicating a loss of starch and other carbohydrates. The
loss of nitrogen and mineral matter is easily explained by supposing
that substances which were dissolved in the juices simply passed out
into the water. The loss of the carbohydrates, on the other hand, is
probably largely mechanical.
It will be noticed that the calculated loss of carbohydrates was
Almost nothing when the potatoes were protected by their skins.
SWhen the skins were removed betbre cooking, more or less of the
softened and broken cell walls and swollen starch grains were abraded
during the process of boiling. Although this process is mechanical,
the material removed is just as truly lost as if an equivalent amount
of starch had been converted into dextrin during the boiling and then
dissolved. Possibly there is a slight loss of starch which is chemical
rather than mechanical. In roots, such as beets, turnips, and carrots,
there is more or less sugar which might dissolve out, but the fresh
potato contains practically no sugar.

CONCLUSIONS.
When potatoes are boiled with the skins removed, there is a very
considerable loss not only of organic nutrients but also of mineral salts.
These salts, while not nutrients in the sense in which this term is fre-
quently used, are nevertheless important in nutrition. They are of
especial value, because of the potassium compounds which they con-
tain, and are apparently necessary for health.
The greatest actual loss of nutrients seems to be due to the mechan-
ical abrasion of the soft outer portions of the potato while cooking.
In this case nearly 3 per cent of the carbohydrates and 4 per cent of
the available flesh-forming nitrogenous matter are lost. When the
potatoes are boiled with their skins on, the loss of nutrients is very
slight, consisting chiefly of nonalbuminoid nitrogenous substances and
mineral matter. It is self-evident that if it is desired to boil potatoes
with as little loss as possible the skins should be left on.

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