Syllabus of illustrated lecture on farm architecture


Material Information

Syllabus of illustrated lecture on farm architecture
Series Title:
Farmer's Institute Lecture / U.S. Department of Agriculture. Office of experiment stations ;
Physical Description:
19 p. : ; 26 cm.
Wilson, Elmina T
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Farmhouses -- United States   ( lcsh )
Farm buildings -- United States   ( lcsh )
Outbuildings -- United States   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 19).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Elmina T. Wilson.
General Note:
Title page has number "1039" in upper left corner.
General Note:
With: Report of the Joint Commission created to direct and supervise the completion of the Washington Monument. Washington : G.P.O., 1877. Bound together subsequent to publication.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029618819
oclc - 229344982
lccn - 2008570382
lcc - Z5943.F3
System ID:

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Full Text

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ormerly Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, Iowa State College.




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This syllabus of a lecture upon farm architecture, by
Wilson, C. E., formerly assistant professor of civil engWinriing
State College, is accompanied- by 48 views illustrating t ::
The syllabus and views have been prepared for the purpose
farmers' institute lecturers in their presentation of this
before institute audiences. .
The numbers in the margins of the pages of the syab
similar numbers on the lantern slides and to their legends :
in the Appendix; those in the body of the text refer to
authorities and references, page 19.
In order that those using the lecture may have oppma I
fully acquaint themselves with the subject, references to it:s O
literature are given in the Appendix. .:iii
Farmers' Institute .S.p.i..
Recommended for publication.
A. C. TRUE, Di rector.

Publication authorized.
JAMEs WILBON, Secretary of Agriculture.

WASHINGTON, D. C., August 28, 1907.
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IsT: the construction of buildings a civilized community view.
iites a very large share of its available resources, and once
cted these buildings exert a constant influence on all
:A.ll in and about them. Whatever may be the charac-
j,.public buildings, provided for occasional visitations
the people, the good or bad character of the homes where
llpL, rest, and sleep may be said to practically deter-
jWvthe character and happiness of their occupants. (Ref.

Italth and happiness in the home are not marketable com-
6i but profit would nevertheless result indirectly from
bi hmisehold investment as would provide healthier condi-
j0j mand insure a healthier population. Increased vitality
ir :: not only diminished doctor bills but increased use-

imre is no attempt to say that these are the "best" houses;
eY are houses that seemed representative and typical of
b.ican country-house building. These houses are safe
iduls and guides for prospective builders. While the price
l"". each house has strong and absolutely simple main lines.
~Iiateipt has not been made to make a wide display in the
U rt of expense, but rather to obtain tasteful architecture
B the minimum expense.
VWi hin the restriction imposed by money available for
Sio, there is little opportunity for ornament and enrich-
Ri."i. Our houses must depend for their beauty upon graceful
portions, well-grouped windows, good color, and textures.
o'Jbuilding, unless well proportioned, can be saved by orna-
tio. Jig-saw ornament, mill-made brackets, cornices,
and railings, tower and cupola tacked to the house
iere they mean nothing decoratively and serve no
u popse, should be avoided.
a See lit of references, p. 19.
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rooms on eacn noor coua uDe aaaea winen more iieAil
needed. Porches are built over the entrances, but ..t"
paved terrace is substituted for the customary eiwgt
randa. This terrace can be covered with vines or an
in summer, and the sunshine will not be shut out in thfint
For exterior plastering the wood framing is built:
usual manner and then covered with metal, wire, or:i
8 wood lath.. (Ref. 3, p. 1.) The careful treatment i
plaster around window frames is essential. The flain
be carried in behind the lathing. In half-timber contql 4
a key must be provided for the mortar to prevent open bA
(Ref. 3, p. 13.) For fireproof construction the reintfore,
create dwelling is less expensive than the one made of id
stone. Metal meshwork or steel rods are used to takb ahi
aile stresses, and all compression is taken by the ooq
(Ref. 4, p. 647.)
4 This house, the property of Mr. Spiers, of Pasdea
furnishes an interesting example of a shingle howse w
gambrel roof.
Its quiet surfaces and long lines rest the eye. The
roof are covered by California redwood shingles, whicda

-tiBonand chimneys are of dark-red brick. The large
Sid chimney forms the "feature" of the design, expressing
A ido se the idea of cheerful open fires within. Although
ek d for a suburban lot, it would be even more suitable
k!co untry site.
S ,ngles make a warmer house than siding, there being three
ssese of wood at all points, while with wood siding there
ywactically but one thickness. Wall shingles are applied
I.same as on roofs, but a greater exposure is permissible.
Share usually laid 5 or 6 inches to the weather.


hviere a cottage is desired, the lines should be horizontal, 5
g a low and snug effect. (Ref. 5, pp. 1-9.) The founda-
.andd chimneys of this cottage are built of field stone ham-
Bed off to form beds, with exterior surface left rough. To
i a chimney of this character, flue linings of vitrified tile
irtlbe used to prevent flames penetrating to the woodwork
se of loss of mortar from a joint in the stonework. The
are of extra wide clapboards, left rough, and stained with
oipte shingle stain before putting in place. The roof is of
IJ shingles dipped in linseed oil, to which a small amount
Sled has been added, just enough to give a rich red-
p .. color with age.
IS plan formed of a simple rectangle gives the most room 6
S Least expense of any form of house. The bedroom
Ices may be omitted. However, a fireplace is most
l:b.e, as it solves the problem of ventilating the room.
h6at-water boiler is located in the bathroom, thus helping
eat the room as the temperature of the water rises.
bhe interior finish is a good grade of soft wood, painted in
ann, bath, and bedrooms, and stained elsewhere. The
I~te"a of sand-finished plaster. The windows are divided
Y ~mall. panes of glass, which keeps the whole in scale,
kd being a means of economy.

i -selecting a design the idea should be to build a house
:is suited to its location and the surrounding country.
Iouse at Magnolia, Mass., is very attractive and home- 7
i. i.sthe kind of a house that the "children's children"
.~to call "The Old Homestead." The simple out-
a oqt only economical; it is dignified as well. The bed-

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your working drawings are to oe maae. me logiame;
procedure in designing any building is to fist woik ..
ground plan, then the elevation, although the genra
8 of the building as a whole must be kept in mind.
metrical plan makes the most comfortable and
house. Those parts of the house most used or ejoyjed l
have the pleasant exposure. Each room should be ...i
to receive, conveniently, its furniture.
A finished first-floor level about 2 feet 8 inches abo .
general finished grade will insure a well-lighted colh;er.
cellar floor should be water-tight and the foundatj;il
drained. (Ref. 6, p. 13.)
Furnaces appear to be gaining favor for warming Ji:
moderate size. If a good furnace of sufficient size is :
located and well put up there will be no cause for'ec
(Ref. 7, p. 38.) The hot-air pipes should be as short ap.
9 location of the registers will permit. The reg ters J
lower floor are often placed in the floor for convens
piping, but the wall register is the best and should 4 ::
wherever possible. The cold-air pipe should be ampil
and provided with a damper near the cold-air..window, I:
cold-air connection to the furnace should always be di
at the rear. (Ref. 3, p. 36.) The advantage of the fi
system of heating is its direct supply of fresh air. A fcio
nation hot-air and hot-water system which furnishes wa
to a number of rooms and direct radiators to others a..
efficient, but more expensive.
A hot-water system is similar in construction and opera
to one designed for steam. It is regarded by many per.
10 as the best method for heating residences. The water Mi
from the heater in the cellar to the radiators and is reti
to the base of the heater, the change of temperature car
the circulation. The two-pipe system is more economic
fuel, but more expensive to install than the overhead sy
(Ref. 8, p. 821.)

11 The minimum size for the bathroom is 6 feet by 8 feet
eastern exposure is best and good ventilation should amS.
secured. If possible the floor should be tiled or of ::


'bli coved base; the walls finished in cement or hard "'.
Linoleum, laid before the fixtures are set, makes an
bummeial and sanitary floor covering.
Te~ essential fixtures are tub, lavatory, and water-eloset.
pigbod enameled iron tub and lavatory will last a lifetime.
bo, enameled ware costs about one-half that of porcelain.
I water-closet to-day is the siphon closet. This should
bit porcelain. The fixtures shown in this bathroom would
ust about $100.

pipes that carry the water over the house and those
remove it with its accumulated waste are included in the
bing. The service pipe should enter the cellar well below
frost line. (Ref. 9.) The pressure which forces the water
.T points where it is to be used may be procured either by
eu tic or an elevated tank. If a tank in the attic is 12
a direct connection from the supply pipe to the kitchen
furnish a fresher supply of water for general use.
Shot-water system shown is furnished by a boiler and
r-back attachment to the range. (Ref. 10, p. 13.) An
tional supply can be secured by installing a hot-water coil
W.teU furnace. The crackling noises in the hot-water boiler
Snipes are usually caused by poor circulation due to the
Sof the connection between the water back and boiler,
. else to overheating of the water from lack of use. If a hot-
~j faucet is left open a short time the snapping will stop.
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hiihe service pipe is usually of galvanized iron. Brass or
Spwer pipes are best for the hot-water system; the waste
ipe should be of "extra heavy" cast iron or of galvanized
pu Ight iron. The use of lead pipe should be restricted to
1w abhort branches of the waste pipes. The soil pipe should
in. tas straight as possible and be continued at least 3 feet
sove the roof. The main drain in the cellar should be kept
ihove the floor. Each fixture must have a separate connection
oii: .the main soil pipe and be provided with a suitable trap.
Al pipes should be exposed to view wherever possible, as open
mbing is cleaner and more sanitary. (Ref. 11, p. 27.)
, fa septic tank is used with an inlet pipe bent down below
w-:Water line, this forms a trap, and the main trap shown just
d. the cellar walls should be omitted. A septic tank similar
b- e one shown has been built for $23, including labor. (Ref.
r. 29.)
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The sink should be of enameled iron or porcelain sup ...
enameled iron brackets from the wall. It should havenowi
rim or inclosure. The drain boards should be of wit
with grooves and a "drip" cut under edges of boards.
or cement floor is not laid in the kitchen, the best sub
a white-pine floor planed smooth and covered with
before the piping to the sink is connected or the molding
14 baseboard set. A perfectly plain trim 5 inches wide.
edges rounded off is most suitable for kitchen, storeroomne ,
pantry. The cupboard shelves should be given three or i
15 white paint, and a final coat of white enamel. A dhi*
space should be left between shelves and wall. Flour, g
and meal may be kept in zinc-lined tilting bins, or the count
shelf can be hinged over a space large enough for the fl
barrel to be put in on rollers or a barrel swing. (Ref. 3, p. S
It is more convenient to have a storeroom connected to t
kitchen than to have a large kitchen. If the refrigeratori
an outside door through which the ice chamber is fill!
warm weather, in winter this door can be left open to -am
the outer air for cold storage. A serving pantry proiS
space for the table china and helps keep the diinng-room ..
and free from odors. The slide between the dining
sideboard and the pantry saves many steps. The lift, couba
weighted so that a touch will set it in motion, carries fruit i
vegetables from the cellar.
William Morris said, "Have nothing in your homes tha :
do not know to be useful or believe to be beautiful." Mi'
our homes are overfurnished, crowded with useful and i
things. Good furniture should have simple lines and beil
lutely free from useless ornamentation. Modeled after 4

or Mission style, plain, strong, and tasteful, it will with- w".
hd the hardest wear and grow more beautiful with age.
Mr is one of the important elements in the selection of fur-
A room where colors of rugs, curtains, and walls
iLpharmonious is not calculated to soothe and rest the
An ugly room badly lighted, poorly ventilated, and
uately heated lowers the level of human life.
ere good pictures are not available, use wall decorations,
h render pictures unnecessary-e. g., wall papers of good
or some stenciled design upon kalsomined walls. Where
s are used, let the walls be plain. Do not use pictures
flowered paper upon the same wall. An effective dining
could have a tapestry odr colonial landscape paper with
cream ceiling and white painted woodwork; chairs and
Should be plain, of oak or mahogany. A high narrow
Sruanning around the room for plates or one or two hanging
.to racks are sufficient decoration. All curtains, covers to
Ward, serving table, and the like should be washable.
Hi- country houses sand-finished walls, either -natural or
With good strong color, flat woodwork of yellow pine, 16
s, or redwood stained and rubbed, not varnished, hard-
Sfloor stained to harmonize with trim, combine to give a
y hard to obtain in any other way. For interior finish
ea to be painted, use white pine or poplar, free from knots
A pitch. For staining or natural finish, hard pine, redwood,
, chestnut, oak, cherry or mahogany, ranking in cost in
bout the order named, are all desirable.
gThe living room of to-day is almost a necessity in family life. 17
Ai itss books, copies of good pictures, fireplace, and com-
able chairs, it makes the thought of home more attractive
id the hall bedroom of a city boarding house less alluring.
bedroomss should have hardwood floors with rugs, kalso-
.or painted walls instead of paper, and brass or iron beds.
wood floors should be stained and waxed or treated
ahellac and spar varnish. They cost very little more than
of soft pine and require only rugs instead of carpet, thus
g away with the most objectionable feature of house
as well as being handsomer and more sanitary.
e floors should be used wherever possible-the under
U spruce or common fence boards. The upper or finished
iould not be put in place until the plastering is thor-
dry and the standing finish mostly in place. North
.pine or birch floors are good and cheap, oak is better
riore expensive. If only one floor is used, it must be
to prevent currents of air. (Ref. 8, p. 314.)
11887-No. 8-07--2

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inure u&uWVy or ewgany unanmuutr, znnvuuau wtunmwer.wvlMg
facing may be used, or a mantle formed on Coloniae .M.L
marble, brick, or tile facing, and woodwork painted .ri..
pace of a mirror use a plaster cast or a good JW p in.l..jhJ
flush in & permanent frame formed of narrow flt
The fireplaces should be 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inchewiro
feet 6 inches -to 3 feet high and 20 to 30 inches dep. :
makes admirable hearths and will withstand heat qit
as tile or firebrick. (Ref. 13, p. 219.) A suitable ao
be mixed with the cement and the sand should .hnvm
color. A smoking fireplace is a never-ending source
fort. The diagram shows how the back and throat s
built; the throat forming a long narrow passage for tiS
not more than 3 or 4 inches wide. Two small steel a09
cast-iron lintel can be used to support the brick in fr
a bar at the back to hold the firebrick in place.

An inclosed porch is the connecting link between i'-.i
and the garden. The plan of the house can be so atti.l
this porch makes a convenient summer dining ro"iil
19 planting of the trees, shrubs, and vines should be" .d*sl
give it privacy and a pleasant outlook. There is'noAt.
a back yard should not be a pleasant place. The part dl
20 in daily use should be kept in a sanitary condition at
with proper attention, it can be made very attracti.
21 grass, decaying vegetables, weeds, and stagntant watr
mosquitoes, are surely unnecessary.

l6 possesses certain advantages as to location, viewJ expo-
i,0 the character and situation of the trees, and the like,
Sh calls for a particular means of emphasizing its good
Wand of evading or concealing its bad points. Many a
.difie' maker has sighed over some bare and ugly spot
R 0t otherwise satisfactory home and wished for time
to improve it. Here and there is one who sees what
y to be done; the ashes and tin cans are removed, the
Iddpnied, shrubs, vines, flowers, and grass are assigned to 22
r places, walks are built of concrete, brick, or cinders,
fal result is a lawn and garden worthy of the names.
S ei should be planned tq open off from the part of the
i'ito coidmonly used so as to be but one of the rooms into
oti step out of another. More use should be made of
i. Apart from the pleasure of gathering and caring
6frft*ers and vegetables, there is the pleasure of living in

garden should be inclosed by a hedge or a vine-covered
iaiid: fie flowers should succeed each other according to 23

t, which should always be simply formed and pro-
etF from the weather by a yearly coat of paint or varnish,
t conveniently played for resting where the outlook is 24
fl$~Jiasiig. A seat of barrel staves will be found extremely
nofrtable, the curves of the wood adapting themselves well
ihe body.
Tea paths bordered with flowers or low shrubs should lead
Wf.i.eto the house, ending in an arbor which will serve to 25
t~Pthe kitchen or enlarge the piazza and tie the house to the

l~ip shelters, back porches, and entrance porticoes may
tly improved in appearance by the addition of vines.
' lthee house is not supplied with a bathroom and a
'ii used, have the walk leading to it sheltered from view
l other and the building itself neat and well placed. If 26
h closet is used it may be located very near to the
b. (Ri4f. 10, p. 22.)
ibwlmamon error to give little forethought to the placing
Buildings in their relation to each other, to disregard the
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an estate will result m economy ana beauty when ti2qS
subsequently developed. If poorly planned it W. ii
tinued process of tearing down and reconstructing. '
The building in which the milk is handled should bq.
separate from the one in which the cows are kept$ q.
cleanliness is essential in the handling of milk and .th.
products, nothing absorbing impurities more readily..
28 14, p. 12.) The building should be well ventilated ad A
structed as not to be readily affected by changes ij l
ture. The windows should be so arranged that the q
may be freely admitted at least once a day. Provision
be made on the ground floor for cooling the milk rap
for the separator and churn, the cellar being used for r
ation and storage. The floors and walls should be ofi
composite material, so that a hose may be turned p..
and all thoroughly cleaned. The cellar walls may be fa J:
enameled brick. ..
This power house forms a part of the same buildiu
29 entirely separated from the dairy. The transmission :..
to the various machines of the farm is accomplib
using a dynamo in connection with the gasoline engine,
motors are located at the various points where power is da
The house and buildings may be lighted by use of th a
plant. (Ref. 13, p. 303.)
A poultry house should be isolated from other b
where practicable, built on dry, porous soil, conoi
80 access, and kept free from vermin. The house should bel
dry, and well ventilated, having foundation of concrete, b
or field stone grouted with cement, extending below fro6it
A cheap and efficient house can be made of two thick
of rough inch lumber put on 2 by 4 studs vertically, with 'i
building paper between. The inner layer of boards hI
first be put in place, the tar paper placed on the outtd
these, with well lapped joints held in place by lath and i
then the outside layer, covering the cracks with ordinary
for battens. The air space between the boards makes a .
warm in winter and cool in summer. The roof as

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""it"ed. with rough boards placed close together, covered view
th tar paper, and shingled. (Ref. 13, p. 192.) A good
nlMh for a poultry house is from 10 to 14 feet, length as
fired. The building should face the south and have plenty
I:.mal, low windows, so as to admit sunshine to the floor.
rientilator should be placed on the highest point of the roof,
ith adjustable openings, so that the temperature of the house
*y be regulated in winter. Perches should be low, not more
boA40 inches from floor, with a smooth, removable platform
breath to facilitate cleaning. Drinking troughs should
.:. : the alley separated from the house by slats. (Ref. 15,
ih$e *posts for runways may be 12 feet on centers. Common
Wgh boards may be used for base, which should be 24 inches
Above which 2-inch mesh poultry netting 36 inches wide
Sbe used, making a 5-foot fence.
J.t building an ice house the main object is to secure isola-
10 of the ice by surrounding it with an adequate amount of
conducting material. The house should have double walls
ked with sawdust, a drain at the bottom to carry off water
hout admitting air, and a ventilator at peak of roof to
w vapors to pass out. There should be no windows, and
:a door should be as nearly air tight as possible.
i sanitary and conveniently arranged barn costs but little
Than one unsuited to animal life. The conditions gov-
iing the planning are very similar to those for a house, i. e.,
air, sunlight, good drainage, and protection against sud-
l changes of temperature. The winter ventilation can be
i,:ded for by one or more flues so arranged as to allow the
ir to enter them near the floor line and to pass out through
itors on the roof, the fresh air coming in near the
(Ref. 20, p. 29.)
in the last few years a number of very sanitary barns
been built of reinforced concrete. This material is proof
fire, water, and vermin, needs no painting, little repair-
l is cool in summer and warm in winter. View 31 31
Group of concrete barns on a large stock farm near
I:Plains, N. Y. The barns have been designed and
to obtain the best possible results with the least expendi-
labor in the handling of the stock. The cow stables


wing is arranged for rorty cows. Tr zeeda trM gaX
concrete, with a water inlet at one end and outlet atl
so that they may be easily flushed out. The stalls a
of 11-inch galvanized pipe and fittings bent to.bili.
anchored in the concrete. The cows are fastened ....
side by chains to a leather collar. The windowsil
their lower edges and open into iron cheeks. Tn S
from the roof on either side behind the stalls are se
manure carriers. which run through the end doors aiil
into carts. Modern sanitation requires that the cowsmel
apart from the feed and the manure apart from tiAfheT
The concrete roofs are covered with a tar felt, washed
with tar and covered with slag, to make them wate4
In the floors a layer of felt and tar was placed for ad:
course. The feed room and grain storage room are a;l
junction of the two wings and the hay barn cnnnet
these. The hay barn, feed rooms, and silos have.::.
walls and shingle roofs. The silos have proved perfe i
isfactory. Another example of reinforced concrete o
32 tion is the stable built for Dr. N. B. Van Etten, of Newow
City. The walls, floors, and roof are no thicker than ro.y
when of wood, but are fireproof, and moisture does not"
on the inside of the walls, although no air space was left.
part of the stable can be cleaned by turning on water
Concrete is made of cement, sand, and broken stone,
or washed cinders. (Ref. 16, pp. 1-6.) Wooden forma"
33 constructed, and the cement filled into the spaces requird
34 the work progresses the lower courses become set and thse
ber of the forms can be removed and used over again. (6
p. 219.) The work must be carried on carefully and
gently, but it is not a difficult form of construction.
cess of the building depends upon the faithfulness-and
the workmen. After the forms have been removed the
can be given a mortar facing, it can be tooled to r
outer skin of mortar in which the form marks exist, or it ..
washed with an acid preparation to remove the ceme.
expose the particles of sand and stone, then with an
solution to remove all free acid, finally giving it a
cleansing with water. (Ref. 17, pp. 65, 99.) A pe
surface can be secured by using large rounded pebbles
concrete and when the forms are removed brushing the fi
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[iWaid from around the face 6f the gravel with steel brushes, v'
Atg about half of the pebbles exposed. After about
EtyafOiU hours the brushing can be carried on most suc-
ftly. (Ref. 18, p. 643.)
I~ .planning the barn, provision should be made for growth
: bth crops and animals. This can be accomplished either
I for the future or by so arranging the plan that an
Io bay can be added with little change in the present
SGreater comfort and better results will be obtained
iAbaws not over 35 feet wide than if built wider. If these
vP ged to partly surround a court open to the south they
~jove very satisfactory.
|~iEi barn should be built to store abundance of provender;
i e the mow should be without crossties through the middle
Astwct the hay fork, the trusses being placed about 16 feet
S:.eaters. It is often found convenient to have a barn for 35
y with. the stock barns grouped around it. The practice of
pering buildings over the farm has been found more incon-
[oient and expensive than to group them near each other, as
Ithe buildings are more or less dependent. Scattered build- 36
4i a:d much to the labor of doing the work.
o9t foundations should extend well below frost line, the
iW8mat posts resting directly upon the foundation piers
ot wood sills at the grade line. The floors of all barns 37
i sheds should be dry and well drained. The best and most
sunomical floor for a dairy barn is of concrete. The ground
bit should be raised enough to give a good fall in all directions
t the. barn. In the construction of stables for live stock, 38
heially milch cows, the ventilation must be proportioned
|ihe number of animals; 500 cubic feet of air space per head
fthe least amount allowed in good designing. The stalls
blOUd have a slope toward the gutter of about 2 inches in 5
M:::l The fall of the gutter should be about 1 inch in 20 feet.
'!A example of good planning is shown in "Three Rivers 39
tt& the home of Mr. E. W. Rollins, near Dover, N. H. An
e:r extends from house to barn and the garden lies at one
itaf this arbor. The native trees have been used to give
and shelter, but are not allowed to cut off the beautiful
over the hills and river. The barns form three sides of
a convenient and labor-saving arrangement. The
n is exceptional, but the neatness of the yards and
need not be so.
lowa farri shown in the next view was started a hun- 40
'ears or so later than the preceding, and the details have
been so well looked after. The buildings have been

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41 houses DUII or mne Keepmg or reeang or eewin ame
easily cleaned, well lighted, and well ventilated, Iwith I
feeding floors and sleeping quarters. The feeding foo
in full sunlight, should be of concrete, 12 feet wide SA-
as required, slightly sloping, about inch in 12 inches,
on one side. The feeding trough may be formed oaf
and should extend along one side and be protected by W1
ing fence from the hogs while being cleaned or filled. h
sleeping quarters, the "King system of ventilation" i H
42 lent. (Ref. 20, p. 29.) The pens, walls, aid floor may!
concrete, with iron doors, so that all may be kept cleat'1i
runs may be separated& by wire fences and should havEwi'
low concrete basin at one end, where the hogs may liheti
in the hot weather.
A good fence carefully built will add much to the appeal
of a farm. Wooden fence posts are becoming more expe
and cement or iron posts are often substituted. The c
posts may be made on the farm if sand and gravel can bel
43 obtained. (Ref. 13, p. 213.) The casting of orai't
shapes in concrete may be accomplished by the use ofia
wood or plaster of Paris molds. The concrete fence ,t,
Gedney Farm had the posts cast in position, with groo
each side, into which the rails were dropped and the g
44 filled with concrete. The rails, 4 by 9 inches and aboa
feet long, were cast in separate forms and put in place aft
concrete had thoroughly set. They have a 1-inch reinfol
rod in each corer with 1-inch stirrups every 2 feet of l

The farm shown in this view had been "running doW"
a generation before taken by the present occupants.
were no trees near the house, but brambles and weeds
45 everywhere. The untidy outbuildings were located on Jb
hillside covered with stones and bushes. The rickety
and general air of untidiness are typical of a certain a
farms. ".^

id soil, and seed. It was then possible to go all about the
ildings. The apple trees being pruned and cared for, took
, new beauties. Lombardy poplars were planted because
W are fast-growing trees. The elms and maples were trans-
ted while still small trees, and after five years made quite a 46
g. The flower beds are massed near the house; the
ta against the old brick walls seem to make the house less
trAve and more a part of the landscape. The new shed and
Sire, although not exactly in keeping with the old house, are
1 built, the terrace making an excellent outdoor living room
W covered with vines. (Ref. 19, p. 13.)
House was not chosen because of its architectural excel-
pe, but to show that no matter how unpromising a house
~y be it is possible to convert it into a comfortable home.
n well-kept drive and lawn give the-place a prosperous look, 47
Eie the two-storied porch means solid comfort in summer 48
ather.when inclosed with screens and utilized as dining and
mping rooms. The arrangement of the vines in front of the
si i tery unfortunate, shutting off the view from the win-
! they apparently do. Grown upon a trellis against the
b of the house or with the rocks as a background they
Madd be excellent.
Io improve the existing conditions upon a farm, development
additional resources are often unnecessary; much may be
omplished by a different disposition of materials already





No. of
1. Plaster house.
2. Plan for plaster house.
Original drawing.
3. Details of plaster construction.
Original drawing.
4. Shingle house.
5. Cottage.
Original drawing.
6. Plan for cottage.
Original drawing.
7. House at Magnolia, Mass.
8. Plan for Magnolia house.
Original drawing.
9. Furnace layout for Magnolia house.
Original drawing.
10. Systems of hot-water heating.
Original drawing.

11. Bathroom.
12. Piping for hot and cold water circu-
Original drawing.
13. Plan and details of kitchen and
Original drawing.
14. Kitchen and gasoline stove and
15. Kitchen with range and water back.
16. Dining room.
17. Living room.
18. Designs for fireplaces.
Original drawing.
19. Inclosed porch.
Original photograph.
20. Back yard as it should not be.
Original photograph.
21. Back yard as it should be.
22. Summer house.
23. Garden fence.
Original drawing.
24. Pump shelter, portico, and seats.
Original drawing.
25. Rustic arbor.

."" '.... *.'"
* : .E .:

......- ^. :E
.. .:
-:. ; f ;.Q9

No. of
26. Arbsom sd dryet sitb
origis d.w.. .. .

Original dRaing.
; ...... "
28. Dairy and power-hou ~s"
29. Plan of dairy and po *t..
Original dawg .
30. Chicken and ice house.
Original drawing.
31. Group of concrete buiir.`, P
Original photograa. '
32. Concrete stable.
Original photoging. y
388. Reinforced concrete. .i
process of erection. A:
Original photograph. '
34. Construction of forima i rl,
35. Barn sections.
Original drawing.*
36. Stock and hay barp.., *
37. Plan of barn with open
Original drawing.
38. General plan of barns.
Original drawing.
39. General view of "Tl .i,
Farm," Dover, N. H...
40. General view of an Iowa
41. Frame hog house exterior.
42. Interior of concrete hog
Original photograph.
43. Designs for fences and g at :
Original drawing.
44. Concrete fence on GedaB:
White Plains, N. Y.
Original photograph.
45. New England farmhouaei;,
46. New England farmou t.'
47. House at Mancheter,.,
48. Remodeled houe at




:.. ,i


erican Domestic Architecture. By Stevens & Cobb. New York.
qitectural Review, Vol. 13, No. 4. Boston, Mass.
jArchitectural Review, Vol. 14, No. 1. Boston, Mass.
anitry Life In America, October, 1906. New York.
Th Model Village and Its Cottages, Bournville. By W. Alexander Harvey.
Lon:: don.
SSani:tation of a Country House. By Harvey B. Bashore. New York.
F! furnace Heating. By William G. Snow. New York.
SKidder's Architectural Hand Book.
, Modern Plumbing. Illustrated. By R. M. Starbuck. New York.
ijlModeirn Conveniences for the Farm Home. U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bul. 270.
iiianitary Drainage of Buildings. By Wm. Paul Gerhard. New York.
tet Healthful Farmhouse. By Helen Dodd. Boston.
JL BSa Buildings. Chicago.
Sli trying in the South. U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bul. 151.
iIUlAtry Management. U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bul. 287.
:eniient Mortar and Concrete. U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bul. 235.
.1iseatment of Concrete Surfaces.. By Linn White. 1907.
Wi aeical Hints for Concrete Construction. 1907.
A :i-6modeled* Farmhouse. Chicago.
i ventilation of Stables. U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bul. 190.

Some other books uponfarm architecture.
ii Country House. By Chas. E. Hooper. New York.
OIk'W Care of the House. New York.
rell's The Country Home. New York.
ert The Farmstead. New York.
m Mand Garden. By H. M. Bailie Scott. London.
die & Johnson's Home Building and Furnishing. New York.
PF plans and Outbuildings. New York.
nun House Plans. By S. B. Reed. New York.
am..Heating and Ventilation. By Wm. S. Monroe. New York.
Eram Plumbing, Steam and Hot Water Heating. By J. J. Lawler. New York.
Disposal of Household Wastes. By Wm. Paul Gerhard. New York.
iei ii Gardens. By Guy Lowell. Boston.
it' How to Plant the Home Grounds. New York.
ltg & Underwood's The Garden and Its Accessories.
ae Sanitation. By the Sanitary Science Club. Boston.
I (19)


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