Parasites and parasitic diseases of cattle in Puerto Rico


Material Information

Parasites and parasitic diseases of cattle in Puerto Rico
Series Title:
Bulletin / Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
26 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Van Volkenberg, H. L ( Horatio Luther ), 1893-
Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication:
Mayagüez, P.R
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Cattle -- Parasites -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by H.L. Van Volkenberg.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613888
oclc - 21270204
System ID:

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Full Text



m :. .: October 1934

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By H. L. Va V.oLKINBEx parasitologist
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Page Page
t P id .effets of para- Disease of cattle caused by protozoa.-------. 9
.......... .... 1 Piroplasmosis, tick fever, or "Fiebre
parasite 1 Tejana"- .--------------------.. 9
.2........... 2 Anaplasmosis-. .----........... 11
--- 2 Coc --dlo----is----------------------- 12
S- --------. 2 Worm parasites-....----------------..---.. -- 13
alstes----.---... 3 The stomach worm...----------..------- 13
a.ii. dtopit aphy onT The nodular worm...-----.---------.... 15
S 3 Hookworm------------------------ 16
.bl'ieoEk kimprove- Thread lungworm----------------------- 17
4 Liver fluke, "lingua" or "cuearacha"_.. 18
laem.real ---...... 5 Tapeworm.-.....------------------ 19
---------- .. 5 Other worm parasites------- --------- 20
uparasitecontroL.. 5 Exteinal parasites----------------------- 21
-. .......... 6 Cattle tick or garrapata...--.-- --------- 21
.a:,ini r young stoeak.., 7 Hornfly....................----------............ 22
.- 7 Other external parasites-----.--------.. 23
mius..---..---.....- 8 Eradication of parasites...---.------.. ----.-- 26



.. parasiite as- used here refers to lower forms of animal
L ori"tB purpose of livelihood, exist on or in the bodies
ai sT, which are known as host animals.
n -ie dividd -into three general groups: (1) Protozoa,
ta roniPs as' th hemosporidia and coccidia, the former
i W'; Iodstream, the latter in the intestinal tract; (2)
hi.iig ulrkes, tapeworms, and roundworms, located usu-
j itti tka'tract, lungs, or liver, although mature worms
ll.i spec ies or their larvae may invade other organs and
:i.the bod-; and (3) arthropods, including ticks, certain
iad d::te lrr dted usually on or in the skin.

tt: oescrib~e it this bulletin have been identified by members
aM V ..oqn Bueauof Animal Iindustry, and the external parasites have
fBlbe of t*BiartU of Butetntolgy, U.S. Department of Agricultnre.
Elat I at: e espe~ al of the constructive and very helpful criticism of
lpt l Dr. Maurie C. .Hal, Chief of the Zoological Division.

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The seriousness of paaet n the%:n or M s
numbers present as vi ofantime Ofthe an,"al
feasted. Parasites ma caus In death to the hook in
mome of the following as 1) aof blood; (2i)er
with digestion;. (By' daag or tissu
excretion of toxins wihmy be showorbed 'by the* ;
stant irritation, itchng pa etc.; (6) tranamionik of,
directy or inirectly.
The death rate. from parsitic infostations may not be
loss results from slow an tinted growth, unecon-omical um I
lowered capacity for wo reduced production, and
the meat carcasses in whoe or 'in part. A heavily P&
mial is likely to be moe suscptible to bacterial 1d 0cin
diseases, and such an anma becomes a poor risk "when
is attempted with drugs an biologist.
a8 = "Yd TO PAR&Strf=
The damage from Prstes 'is greatest as a rule ammoog,
animals, as they. seemt become more easily infested ta
animals, and young tisse are more easily injured. As gri
be made in youth and canot be made up later, it isunra
pay special attention to h care of young stock.
In Puerto Rico calve sufer more from Parasites than a
eases due to other causes with the possible -exception of mr
editions caused by improe feeding. Mature cattle arminu
external Parasites and piomdnil diseases, but are lesssuepi
the worm parasites. Teliver fluke seems to be theonya
worm parasite of older ctle.
The symptoms of parasiic worm diseases are usually less
able than those from infecious diseases caused by bac b
the onset is seldom noiea ble and the symptoms are
vague. The presence of orm parasites mayv be s
there is a lack of growtho a loss in weight, distended boe
diarrhea or constipation wth little or no fever.
Anemia and edema ar characteristic of the bloodsuckne
. ~sites. Anemia is shown by thinness of the blood and paea
whiteniing (of the mucous membranes revealed by examinmg t
side of lhe mouth and iner surface of the eyelis dm
swelling caused by an acmulation of fluid in the tissues, a
in the pendent- portionso the body such as undret the j
in the lower abdo-min-- regon. H-eavily aaiie works
such as oxen -and hores tire easily and fquetl are ua
stand heavy work.
Protozoan diseases ar more like specific bacterial diseaes i
they usually run a more deinite and acute course and show c
tersti smptms Stckmn re of orles fmilar
arhrpos rexeralpraits ndte njrisprduedb

iflditions than are the fresh ova or intermediate stages.
larvae of several species are capable of crawling up the
when these are wet with rain or dew. The host
iiested by grazing or by ingesting contaminated
forage or by picking lip the infective'stages that
..on the floors and walls of the pens or stables. Con-
re concerned with breaking this cycle of development
:nfestations or by eliminating the worms from the

ip prat8te zones, the freezing' temperatures have a very
i ef;let in limiting and destroying pasture and field infes-
iath rasites. In the climate of Puerto Rico there are two
i.ting....g factors. One is a lack of moisture and another
Sof moisture. The dry season provides a limiting factor
of moisture. The southern coast, during 6 months
is segiarid, and parasites do not thrive under arid
:ih heat and drying tend to desiccate the worm eggs
Sgrdoso that, practically speaking, pastures and
as.far as parasites are concerned. This is as
i~w ass asfreezing temperatures elsewhere. In por-
t&ibioas.ta areas, with a few inches of rainfall dis-
L a peid" of several imonths- and with the amount of
a feeding the precipitation, similar although less notice-
aut over a shorter season.. In those areas, such as on
i s wher the rainfall is more evenly distributed
Lih year an. where the rate of evaporation is lower, this

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season is the torrential
action in wshg down and
as the egsadlarae 0of
either wase into streams
level lowlands. The abundant,
season of heavy raims is very isv
is during this time. that the heaviest
On the basis of variation Mi rainfall i
Puerto Rico may .be divided into three
of the north, east, and west the dry suhr
central mountain area subject t qrailrifl
district on the northern coast and the oat7
are"s, smaller. but similar to the ouhtnCO"dt
.In keneral, livestock of the W4tcatlplisaie
worm prites than those of the other -ras. h
ture and the more level lands which tend to retain
favorable for the. development of parasites. The
area is the most favorable for raising cattle.. Theda
its destructive influence on parasites, ixnd the rich
very favorable, especially for young growing
Mg am

appears to be especially suited as a breed*n r
dairy cattle. However, the light and varnbe an
the wet season in this area are favorable forseraspd
worms, and preventive measures and treatment arm,
ous infestations with roundworms =MMng calves of'"
been especially noticeable during and followingihle
rains of 1933.
The mountain areas where suitable rse r rw
abefor raising livesk .even thog th -earau*al
abundant. Hillsides or mutain slopes10 carry less i
bottom lands because theyI benefit by She cleansing 40io
and the following run-off,. as well as by holdingls
benefit of the natural advantages,: however, is often lost
the'young stock access to the stream beds and low area&,
A~s these differences in: the climate and topography rs
siderable variation in the prevalence of parasites &W.,
variation in the parasitic faunv the methods used i
parasites must vary somewhat in different parts of Uwj
at different times of the. year.
Stockmnen and both Insular and Federal Government,
imported livestock of the improved breeds in order to
and higher producing animals. New importations awnid
of those alreaady introduced are replacing the native
higher producing animals are very ucpil t aaiq
sitic diseases. The recommendations in regard t o
sites are directed especially toward the anhimaUs of,
breeds because of their rapidly micreasingr ntandis,,
and need for better care and management. Vfie-same
howeercanbe ued o avantge iththe atie sock

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Sthe direct or .indie of most of the common
s p: per~ disposal is an important factor in control.
"ae or unrotd manure from an open pile, from infested
ot be spread on pastures or on land which is to be
i aitiWally the smaller grasses, unless it is
i g buries the eggs and larvae and apparently
b5::d to the s rfac sufficient numbers to cause
I W:ors manure may be spread on pastures or grass
f*iy :cattle, and vice versa. With 1 or 2 minor excep-
* .l. .parasites of horses are not transmissible to cattle,
:hi bot susceptible to those of cattle.
priacti ce which is equivalent to feeding the animals
i:a manuire pile is sometimes followed. The forage is
l6 on the ground. The left-over grass accumulates and
l: with the manure. These piles retain moisture and
Ais. conditions for the larval forms of parasites. As
.ir: or heavy dew occurs the larvae may come to the
Winti the fresh grass. The forage should always
omaingers and any left over should be disposed of


i o livetock in. Puerto Bico other than pasturage
Si uslly a forage grass cut and fed in a fresh,
ibed 0or stored roughages such as hay and silage,
i..y'.little if any parasitic infestation, are not used to
iirefore the selection of the soiling grass is very
w:parasitological viewpoint.
I : k-growing grasses such as Guatemala, elephant,
Ito cirr very little parasitic infestation in comparison grasses such as malojillo (Para grass) or guinea
iwr similarr grasses even though fresh contaminated
prFed on the fields in which the larger grasses are grown.
.of these giant grasses grow upright and are compar-
la*Imber the-infective eggs and larvae of parasites are
be present on them.
ras is more apt to carry these infective stages than
weleau it grows in more direct contact with the ground
ily on marshy land very favorable for the development
Etio: of parasites. Malojilo fields cannot be protected
i aoina by the usual measures because infective material
r.into them with every fall of rain. Malojillo grass
. as- being unsafe to feed to calves. The cleaner
Sna.y be. fed to calves, goats, and horses, but malojillo
J;i W only to older cattle.
W" small grasses grown on fields which have
^itM ciow manureand where there is no
pt i bj irifmage n from adjacent land. on which
jel a tam y be fed to calves without danger

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Molasses o arages grand' (NMO4siwlntfs)i
that miay asis in parasite conmtr. M"e fie hiswt
m is covr and itssi e
cimbing upo the plant an. so act as a Weerett the
cattle tick. .
Statemin regard to pastures Spply prM^ncipallyIY
areas and mountain sections. Young calves Cannot be
sucessfully in te wet coastal are"s because of tho greate
of parasits Older cattle may be pastured in these we&
considerable saety, if proper measures are used in
liver fluke.
Overstockin of pasture, a common practice in Puerto
the infectiono animals by paaie.Reavy stocking
manure andti in turn result; in heavier concentration
eggs and lava. Animals 'rzn oil such pastures
opportunityfo picking up. prasite, eggs and larva.
overstocking sometimes a reltsive term. During the.
pasture mayb overstocked, but during the wet seswoq
heavier growt of grass the same pasture may havela
carrying capacty. The overstocin in the drU
cause the sam amount of infestation as a similar o
rainy season going to the presence of fewer paraites.
Pasture roaton is an excellent method of prst
prevent settn up dangerous infestations, it is dsbe
be moved evr 2 weeks to clean pastures,. duringth e
should not be rtrned to the same pasture for at
Such a system of management requires considerable"
more land thnis usually available. Consequently,
of this proga or other control measures areneesr
any rotation is valuable, especially with heavy sok
often calves a be moved into clean pastures, thb mart
infestation wilbe kept down.
Stock rotio is another means 'of helping to control
Horses and cate are maintained 'in separate pastures and
twice a year Theoretically the changes should be- nmade-
middle of bot the dry and wet seasons. ,The saymg ",Y4
pastures perpetate parasites ", applies bete as elsewherpe
as pastures intis climate are used throughout the Year,
are no cropso land available for temporary pasture&.
Location othe pasture is important in controlling
Pastures, especally for calves, should. be confined "4i'h
because bottom lands, being less thoroughly drained and*"
the wash from the hillsides, are likely to be more hihyi
egsand larva of parasites than the hill lands. Calveid
bge ept. awa fom low spots in the pasture by fencing sada
be Watered intoughs from which thre is no overflow.-
b~og surroundin a waterinV trough ospig ma rovik 48
moisture forth propagation of parasites and thus serve as I
estnt sonurce onfestition. The bottowmlands may e use nd
crpso i ncssryfr atuin atrectte


Sthe development of parasites. Therefore, the proper con-
4of pens for confined animals is an important factor in the
f parasites and disease. The open-shed type of building in
Iue is well-adapted for local conditions. Advantage should
|i of the fact that the sun shines nearly every day throughout
r in Puerto Rico. The sun's rays provide an efficient and
isive drier and disinfectant and are very destructive to the
3 larvae of parasites. The pen should face east and west and
lik and roof should be so constructed that the direct rays
.n can reach the entire floor space. Tight floors, preferably
et. with drainage facilities are essential. The mangers
d a" f ... ..

| .A sanitary calf pen with movable .roof. Exercising yard in foreground.

i:hs should be protected from fecal contamination. A yard
Fis y be .used in connection with the pens, provided it is a
3 did, ad with good drainage. Young animals should
of exercise and direct sunlight.
type of such a pen (fig. 1) has been constructed for
rtb iSt&tio. The roof of this pen is built lower than an
SiI t .It 'covers one-half the pen and it is set on rollers.
ii the p&i is cleaned the roof is moved over to cover -the
SlUof the pe T al pats 'of the pen are exposed to
:ig:f .i.i b, al ternate days. Such a construction provides
.iltd' for this climate and allows the sun to shine directly
i f"rtlater Ilength of time than the ordinary type of


It .involved in the treatment of parasites, including the
nIb s.pecif drug to be used, the dose, and administration,
eqlri e the now edge skill, and also the equipment of a

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- ~veterinarian.L Ift atatail
his own judgmn gi whethermw Wt o
trouble and rd th .e 4

long-necked botte ywa fte mouth. The anie
on ill four leag it theha held horizontally &ad
the body. The p actc ofevatin the head as hik
twisting the neck, coing h nostris and then
rapidly into the mout a result4 in ill o h
into the lungs and eiher ug theannlr
Fasting or withholding foo for a certain. len69th Pf
before and after teadmi ration of w-orm xremodif4 ig
portant and should not bnelected. The bulk of ths
the digestive tracks therb reduced thus allo 'a
reach the parasite more cray an7 effectiivelyA
regular treatments sould beaoptedL Ther ;OWa pil
parasites of calves adgoasi to, dose one 8* mont
if necessary. Ju- gent bae r experience is imor
mny general rule.

From the st-pon oparstes and 'c
young animals shudb eaae fiom odr
are a few days ol n hol o came in 4otc i
animalscrr a ie and 'spageAnd
occupied by, ithe ar nfea The loeal cutm of
to start the milk flwan t.srip the, udder of t
the entire lactation priodic poor dairy practice aiA
the calf. Goats, bohyon ind old, shoduld beI
contact with calves asgot am usual infested with
and other worms comon toales. syra animals msy-
source of infestatin
Calves up to 3 or wees o age should be kept in in ai&
and may thn be lacd in lager pens wihother calves Of
age.. Calves raised w. P. t coastal. arm: should not be,
pasture until they are at les1 year of, age. At this ape
calf seems to have gini suficnat resistance. to the
that very little m*]uy is causd by them. However, if
this age or older ar for~a rason In poor physical di
resistance is reduid and Zemay sfer from, in
The practice of plaing o s less than 1 year 'of SOW,
and treating themreig,1y ith _anthelmintics ever few'
not been successful cales usually become heavily
injurious worms, suc as lnworms and nodular worms,
not readily destroyed by tratanat. Afew arCe Iav "
the difficulie of rang cave in the' wet coastal areasy
the ,a'Imas onasts inth dry areas or mounting etin
The pens andpee isingyr ds for. calves should be +
day im order to p th development of parasit eggs &d


spies Minerals that are often lacking in local soils but
t the calves from licking the walls and floors of
kin`g up parasites. and disease germs.,
Sand management, as well as parasitic diseases,
'~~~ inse iaition, and stunting in calves. Among the
setoraise normal, healthy calves is the common, prac-
them largely or solely on -fresh grass. The low-
forage gsesin common: use are unsuited to the
df the stomach of the young calf. These grasses
wxmpted with larger prop ortions of skim milk and
ere are more difficulties to overcome in raising young stock
-Aico than in. many other localities and climates.
is caused, -by Piroplaema big ium a microparasite
Alie blood -(64. 2, Aa). These organisms enter the red
les and cause them, to disintegrate.
ory -The proplasma, are transmitted by the common
Tetick becomes infected from the blood of an animal
the organism, and the infection is carried through the
young tik s of the next generation. These young ticks
any us"ptible, animal' (bovine) to which they become
.__;.Abouf one-third of the imported cattle from tick-free
1&0 said to die from this disease. Native cattle, especially
'-red, dairy cattle, suffer from the disease, although the
usually of short duration and death does not -occur
w.-The first symptom usually noticed is extreme dullness,
ite, and, in milking cows, a decided drop in production.
oms are a fever temperature, which may be as high as
Q, (107o to 1080 F.), constipation, and loss of flesh.
oodlytshef avl stainend wihebile a~ndc sometiomoersedwith
urine is characteristic of the disease.
Tesick. &nIm should be placed immediately in a
and the ticks removed -from the skin. The back and
I'may be covered with a thickness of burlap and
Gently -with water, Uninecessary driving or rough
d be avo-ided. A small dose of a saline purge may
is constipation. Stimulants to support the, heart
raveousinjections of trypanrblue have been used -lwith good
g Africa and, South America. The usual dose is I gram
min 100 cubic centimeters of a sterile Iphysiologic salt solu-
itshould I* administered as soopA as possible. after -the. symjp-
pesfos. Tis disease can be -eliminated by eradicating the
'Utcw* froin the, island (p. 22). Cattle become immune to tick
*IU mvrfrmiactatak.Tifathsldt

ofsvra ehoso muiig ate-t h


MOna 2,-Protozoa~n and external parasites of Puerto Rican cattle: A*. Red
showing tick-fever parasites (trom Stiles, 1931). Be, Med bkood cefteab
plasma (from Stiles 1931). 0, Cocecidia ftom cattle. XWO5 (from I
D, Cattle tick, enuege female,' X 4 (from Graybil). P. Horn@fl, X G
and Howard). 9, Exrcting a grub or warble from a cow's back fli
Lake, and Wells). ,Ta louse, X& 1. Short-nosed ox loner, X 8
unen orged with blood. K, Stable Mly, adult female, aide view- engrge
X 5 (from Blsbopp). A, Screw-worm nmaggot, aide view, X 5 (A.;
and Parman). AC Peoroptic manse mite, female; dorsal view. X 40 (fe


probably the safest method for pu're-bred cattle is 4y in-
bloodfrom immune animals into those that are susceptible.
rethe Isuecess of this method, natural infestations with the
be avoided. It is recommended that animals from 6 -to, 15
,Of age -be: selected -for inoculation, as they are more readily
indthan adults. The treatment with trypan-blue should
,to ease the severe ,reactions and to reduce the.. losses result-
the immunization.
measure that has been tried in Puerto Rico, with vary-
tis to allow only a limited number of ticks to infest the
bleimorted animals. These animals are isolated, at the
arrialin a stable or-bare corral, and, sprayed every week
riih au arsenical solution. They become infested with a few
"ticks- for, 9 short interval, and the disease is- produced, but,
rtan of deaths is usually small when compared with the
among uncontrolled animals. The ticks infesting these
,are picked up from the, forage grasses. The animals should
diicnal. treatment as soon as they show signs of the
of I year-of geor less can be introduced with considerable
asthe disease is usually mild and less fatal in young ani-
,,The importation of mature cows in an advanced stage of
eyshould be avoided,, as they are likely to succumb to the
0ganis Arnalsm marginale associated with anaplas-
0 27 Be) appears in stained blood smears, as a small, dark,
'ect usually on the, margin of the, red blood cells. The
tefresembles piroplasmosis in many respects, and the two
are being confused.
hr "tory.-Tne- disease is spread by cattle ticks and other ticks.
Hecase of piroplasmosis, the cattle tick (Boophilus ansulatus)
on anaplasmosis carriers can transmit the disease to sus-
ianimals in the next generation. Various biting flies have
reported as carriers of the disease. In connection with
tasmssion. of this disease it should be mentioned that anaplas-
-tan be carried from one animal to another by instrum-ents
raii hypodermic needles, lancets, and dehorning shears.
partnce-Aparetlythis disease occurs much more frequently
ghative and acclimated cattle than does piroplasmosis. Among
&nIms tho -percentage of fatalities is low. The higher pro-
W ilk cows seem to be more predisposed to the disease and
Witaked at the time of parturition. Animals may recover
disease) but the milk production is lowered or may cease,
s aot resumed until the next parturition. As with piroplas-
Shedisease may spread rapidly among susceptible 'imported
Sand may result in a high mortality. As the period of incu-
:of anaplasmosis is longer than that of tick fever, an' imported
almav recover -from thie latter and then in a few .days or a
lrfekgs Wsufer from an attack of anaplasmosis.
IUsyptnmmae imla t tosmo tckfeere

&6uin s aeliifeer lodcooe, lhog i a

be drker tha" normal idgetim
, nneeof the diseae i
mif I

Tratment.-The nametadramt
saeas that recommend for piropleid
iso no value. There'is no knoiwn svpeio f
A aerinriman should be called at ence'as "lY,
det of sick animals
Pmwntion.--Susceptible imported *&",I, shudw -
descibed under piropasmosis. A37 Insrmn a h11--- 1
inoclate the fresh blood of one anuna into that of
deoning *instruments, syringe needles, ete., should bot
dM'~fsted after each operation. As the catrers ao A
im dectly known, the control measures tecommmne
ar complete.
Te preventioni of both anaplasoi and pirop-
cattle s practically impossible underexsm cn
reslt of lowered vitality caused by someote
tin or by exposure, privation, injury, and
immuity of the animal becomes reduce and,
on or the other of these diseases may occur. Often'
catio of an impoverished condition The most that c
to avid anything that may tend to lower the reILIncd
The hiah-producing milk cow should have a, long rast
shol dL fed well and carefully handled previous to
Th cattle tick should be controlled by frequent dipping.,

Tecoccidia 2.mri spp (fi .2,C), are mi
ova organisms whc attc the mucoss or liigof t
Lie histor.-nfection is- conveyed by co naminaed
wate. The cocci dis in the body multiply in large
&fa several generations an. encysted stage is produced
ou in the feces. The disease is self-limited and
in th absence of reinfection.
-Fportance.-Coccidia are often found in feces of ctl
durig and following the wet season. The finding of,
ism indicates that the animal has zoological
necesarily clinical coccldiosis as coccidis may occur iv
norma animals. Thi fs is usually a disease of young
occur in older -animals. This disease seem -tobea
althogh it is possible that it is not always recognized&
SmPtomw.-LCoccidiosis: is an acute disease and f*
faaly. The first noticeable symptom iis a diarrhea th
fee contain mucus and blood. Later. there is a lose of"a
los of flesh, and a slight fever. A "etd, bloody dar
raftmea4.-Preventive treatment beems to be the nl
progam known at present. Medicinal treatmentsol
a vtrinarian. As the seriousness of the diwsea de
abl on the number of organisms, taken into the y
shoud be taken to keep the numbers ingested at a,

ned'frm a bll'idor dry field soi efd
muzzed fte eaingand drikiking. Tepn
spryedwit a-:-ot disinfectant, and dred

res 't o odinay dsi fcates, bticand
d to iiii

,of ir~wter rom ls'nd arshes, mus be
o~bid caveg leangras clan waer, tand
mored sbioel injured

fouth stoac few somachm wofm 'catle .re
Te worm6 wttchs itrelare tho theliigo
-si srpingui.g pihpin smallere maltha
egg' ar asssdullntesfcs and unthron tihes
1 d e pers
aysorsonerth inecis lraes awln up onfta
when'threten is ''byo drew"..n wih al b-eom
by~~ eatin doaosaed for agcgalf mnts orfb
ae~~~ ~o -whch hv dvlpdidm adtindl dirty
wormis..ton of, -th motomimonandy 1
-`Wsof atte i upehRio Cgalve of lesstha
are moe sucpibethlnd 18moresberiously injuboeh
1hx oler nials.r 'Healthycavs f1nertf10

tJ lfedproerl, ecoe 'uit reisan t d to inferst o
--ian.- h womatcesisl oth iigo

The~~~~~~~ I is"pmtm. r ulesspand ulphaitiesto

satsfatoy teaten isby recrys wthl oa coner-
of Iprslht.Teds fracl otso
m1ees( ucsadfo ahadtoa ot
=15 bA tintroattertof-p om atl1/
.16"ud- I uiietmtrprkl-n 71v
Ifod e.wihel 8 ousb'og t-d ot
I-ecn ouino opr upaedsov 0 rm
s, aoM'11ltr o ofn ae nd!d-9htro
br*i h aea6e ot pudo:cpe ipaet

14 acLuawM B1k *O NMW*,e r a.

sulphate, discarding those that irs 1bO
enamel-were receptales should be etn
the solution, as it 'wil corrode met*W!It


Mumas 3.---Worm parasites of Puerto Rican cattle: A# Stomac worap*
worms; (7, hookworms; D, lungworms; R, whipworma; P latrugeal
worm; H, i~ver Maen; 1, stomach flakes. All natural Ame..*

are to be treated the device described by Hall* 2May -be
stockmen that have a comparatively amasll number of
Bul. 330,54 p., ilus.1923


a,,owregularly,. a, concentrated stock solution may be
ol-ig200 grams of copper sulphate, in 1 Hiter- of
,vaerorrain water. Such a solution will retain its
''n~efniel. In making the dilution for administration,.
c cetimters of. the: stock solution to 950 cubic centimeters
or n'tis roportion.
ed calves should be provided with dry sanitary
fedonuncontaminated grass. Pastured animals
venw ide range on dry, hillside. pastures. If necessary,
ad astredanimls, should be treated. Periodic
e ery2 or, 21 Weeks;_ should be, given 'instead of waiting
io yptm Iof the: disease., On some pastures
4y'-'sockng is:, practiced, it is necessary to dose every 2
nw~,,,te-*t season.

with paperaw" 'or edematous swelling underneath the jawF. This calf
was infested with stomach worms.
louar won (Oesophagostomum radiatum) is about 15 milli-
"(fie~eghts of an inch) long. -It has a characteristic solid'
'66-y.Theadult -worms live in the large intestine. The lar-
ve renoles in the wall of the intestines and noccaion-
kether wy to -the mesenteric lymph glands, the momentum,
hv~r.The odules are usually found in the terminal portions

-hitor.-he eggs are passed with the manure and the young
are htche and undergo some development on the ground.
Swalowd'y cattle, the young worms enter the walls of the
andremin for a few days and then return to the lumen
.-,Ia-geinesine, where they. reach maturity. Following this
stae. n.the walls of the intestine, the nodules formed
rioei ieadcnanayloih'rgens' heyo

in the wet cooastoo smesndloe
cattle of the southern eastal
portant in this area.,iiart
are more 01u"'rptwol to and more
with nodular worms thnolder ateo
Symptoms and leafon.-Th, ]POW
ocenr largely from the nodule&.Th
ing from a heavy infestation prvtshero
propely, and they are a constant source Of.'.
tissue of the intestinal tract. Because ofthei
the nodules, :calves may recover slowlyabet
The symptoms arm dullneft, lack 46f hstandire.
Treatment.--Preventive measures mua- ;rled Out*#
this parasite. There is no known remedy that will
worms in the nodules. As the injury by'U th prsite'i
the nodules, medicinal treatment catnot relieve or, i'
edition. A drug to destroy the mature worms ini the
which is both e lcient adsaf oealehant
a drgwould be valuable in b w then
and thus assisting in the control 6f -Sl
Prevention.-Pastrimgyon leaves
for this parasite should not be attem 'ted.l
should be maintaie ondr sisds I it'
available, calves should be conffmed, duin ihe
calves can be protected from inestatioedn
or other clean grasses and by proi dr
Because this worm a -very common serious,
ment is unsatisfactory, careful, preventiviemesn

T he hook worm ( Bumostommer pAlbotm ) A
small i ntestine. The :female hookworm is b
(three-fourths of an inch) long, And the male is shorter
Life history.-The life historic similar to that Oft
worm. Infestation is by way of the mouth and psil
are capable of penetrating the skin.
Importance.-The hookworm is not as widely irbte
the stomach or nodular worms". Considering theis d
it is more common and serious among calves of the
area. This parasite shows a preference f or prous sis
guess, where the soils are mostly &:heavy d, the wozzgi
common among the calves raised on the san~y soils neut,
Symptoms and lesions.-The worm is a bloodsucei*, and
toms and lesions are similar to. those of the soahwrq
Treatment.-A solution .. the. copper sulphat4
as described for the stomach worm p.18). Combined `*t '
is effective for hookworms. To thisr solUtion4 AM' X
40-erentnictie Sllateto1 glln. f
(1 ubccetmtestoIlie) Tedoefo o

S.o uanpieasanm symptoms. It snoui not oe given
antimals nor to animals suffering from disease condi-
ian tio of parasitic origin. Calves which are in poor
ni~~ae of improper feeding and infestations with. para-
6b given small doses of this combination. The strength
lan ..s shoulder built up by supplying sufficient amounts
a cientrates. Animals frequently show symptoms of dis-
X:he first few dosings with this combination, but tolerate
SAlternating the use of this solution with the straight
phate solution is a-good practice.
8an as for the stomach worms and nodular worms.
or.1m (Didcyocaulvw viviparns) (fig. 3, D) is found in
:bronchi, and bronchioles of the lungs. They are
g worms, ranging from 4 to 8 centimeters in length.
..y.--The eggs hatch in the lung and the larvae ascend
Sand are expelled in coughing or swallowed and passed
eces. The infective- stage may be reached in 10 days or
idinecltivelarvae climb up the blades of grass when they
RJid ) the larvae of stomach worms andc here they are taken
`C calves and make their way to the lungs. Infection
obtained from contaminated grass and from the larvae
l eloped in damp and dirty pens. However, this is
lR. asture disease, and confined calves, regardless of the sys-
Wndage~ient, seem to be less subject to infestation with lung-
i t e'with some of the other roundworms.
v .r-Heavy infestations with this lungworm are not so
:as wi th some of the intestinal worms. However, on many
i#i .one of the most serious parasites of calves. Attempting
i~myyoung calves in the wet coastal areas usually results in
fesitations. In the dry" areas and mountain sections, calves
access s to low, wet pastures may also become heavily infested.
vki and lesiona.-The first symptom is a husky cough which
Si:followed by difficulty in breathing. The animal may die
eloeation, or a fatal pneumonia may develop. In the more
f prolonged cases, the animal becomes emaciated, anemic, the
kenw and there is loss of appetite. Diarrhea is a common
mWe-t.-Nursing treatment appears to be the safest and most
ibly, in most cases. Infested calves should be confined and
i with a safe drinking water and a plentiful supply of dry
lean gi-ass and concentrates. Sanitary measures should be
eventt fresh infestations in the pen. The animals should
i with the copper sulphate-nicotine sulphate solution to
tiie gastro-intestinal worms that are usually present with
~ ion.-Medicinal treatment, if attempted, should be given
b rrian. Inthe wet coastal areas, calves up to 1 year
ld: :be D confined. The confined calves should be fed on the :

...... : : ,.....

iiiiiiiiiiiii JiJill

giant grasses and provided with lekan, dry Paw- I
and mountain regions, calves should he attdon
and should not have access to wet or maskhy land.

The liver fluke (Faeciola he~pat (fig. 31 H7) is fout
the canals and ducts of the liver the flukes
wander*n paasites in the lungs abd e .This
flattend leaflike, brown animal about I inch long.
Life Mittoy-Th eggs pass out in, the feces and, if*
water, they dvelop in about 3 weeks and release a m
This embr 'yo swims about and enters a snail (Lymnaes
in which another stage of development takes place. A
like cercaria with a tall is produced in the snail, and th*"
emerges and swims about and in a short time encysts.
cysted form may float on water or it may become attached
When these are swallowed by cattle or other suitable hogi'
the larval flukes escape into the digestive tract and bore
through the intestinal walls to the body caviy As a rule,
forate the capsule of th~e liver and enter the bile ducts,
may perforate the diaphragm, getting into the lungs1
Importance.--The fiver fluke is a common adserious-,
cattle in the wet coastal and lower mountain areas. This,
also infests the goatpg horse, and man. Mature anml
as the young may suffer serious injury or die from'i
dairy cows there is a loss in milk production and breed in
Work bulls are weakened and made unfit for servime
another loss inI -that all infested livers arn condeuinead,
Symptoms and lesionw.-Ltoss of condition, anemia, and ea
associated with this parasite.- .The fluke causes consideral
age to the liver, which in cattle especially is of a per-manent Vs
since heavy infestation in cattle 'is followed by a calcification a
bile ducts. Complete recovery is, hardly possible because
permanent injury to the liver tissue.
STreatment.--No treatment is recommended for flukes m.
The permanent injury to theliver cannot be relieved or i
by treatment. Infections in cattle. may be controlled by dsr
of the snails responsible for carrying the, young flukes.
P~resetion.-The snail which is essential to copee.h i
cle of this fluke can be destroyed by proper drainage or by te
the water and mud with copper sulphate. This snail lives
mud, in stagnant fresh water. and in sluggish streams anddr
ditches but not in swift-running water or in gravelly stresa#
A mixture of 1 part powdered copper sulphate to 4 or 8pe
dry sand may be broadcast by hand over the snail-infestedar
the rate of 5 to 6 pounds of copper sulphate. to the acre.
The snails in streams and ditches may be destroyedbyp
a gunny sack containing crystals of coprper sulphate in t
waters. Damming the streams at interval aids in dsryg
along he baks. Te coper suphateis caable
snailsi in a tema a onastewtrrtisa

l to"; distribute evenly, it should be mixed with a carrier.
r sulphate is distributed uniformly, there is little danger
being poisoned by it.
season of the year for the treatment is a short time after
i ai o..f the rainy season. As the land gradually dries off,
Water tends to collect in depressions or pools and the
the water line and become concentrated in these centers.
iiitmeint is not undertaken, the snails disappear in cracks
.in the soil and canfrot be reached by ordinary methods.
nd -wide eradication measures are undertaken, it will be
'to repeat the operation every year or as often as the snails'
If live snails are found after an application, the treat-
t ,dd be repeated. Usually one treatment at the right time
r i sufficient for that year. At the experiment station at
S the pastures and malojillo vegas are treated some time
Siove1ber or December.
.tape worm..(Moniesa ewpansa) (fig. 3, G) is a whitish, seg-
*torm which may attain a length of several feet. It is found
MiS1 intestine...
i. 4nry--Unknown. ::;
Pe e.-This worm is very common in some districts. Of
t .l slaughtered at Mayaguez, this tapeworm seems to be more
..ia those obtained from the district of San Sebastian. The
st infestaations occur more frequently among pastured animals.
iFA:. calves that are kept in sanitary pens and fed on the clean
a.eoccasionally become infested.
Storms -and lesion&.-The worm causes obstruction of the intes-
qsA. rritation, and infested animals become unthrifty, weak, and
W*d.w Diarrhea is a common symptom. Occasionally the pres-
le: worm is detected by the passage of several or many of the
agents in the feces.
4m t---Various treatments have been recommended. How-
St of the recommended drugs are unsafe for the young stock
ia.rbor the heaviest infestations and are in greatest need of
iesut. Care must be used also in giving any anthelmintic, as
yi: the young animals besides harboring various kinds of para-
. :improperly nourished and thus are poor subjects for treat-
;with any potent drug.
Amiala administered in capsules in doses of 1 to 2 drams (4 to 8
:: for calves up to 1 year of age may be used. It should not
..6ito very young animals or to those in a weakened condition.
S treatment with the copper sulphate-nicotine sulphate com- ; recommended for the hookworm seems to reduce infesta-
Sthis tapeworm. :I2
aMion.-No dependable preventive measures against these
..s :can be recommended, owing to the fact that the life
'i]s unknown. However, as the ova are the starting point of

....H l i, : ':":: : : i :.i.; i|;.: .... ..... .. .. .. ..
.. .... ....., ,.. ..,...".

measich an Akeer
w ilai in preventing 1"4.aace W

il W
Tewhipworm. (Trihario (!!is) (fig. )i
intOeof cattle and goat&. This *or4 c#Aa
boyof the worm is t -ick, poeri pp'
te.antrior portion of the poybli' r 3 ~he
pweror portion. Whipworms set up-,a
likeihod of the lining of the int4M"ine bei
Becaue of their location, -tr-eatmenit with a
Thepreventive measures asgive VIN
p.1) and other worms should be followd.
S~gamosis caused .by the worm 8pganme
F)inthe larynx, occurs in cattle sind goats. *The wr
beduble-headed and Y-shaped because the shorter
to helarger female worm. It appears to give ruile
leinat the point of attachment. Infettosb ori
have caused considerable irritation. Th0om ses
rahr conspicuous -and, because of its location, stockmnift'.
tasribe to it, the symtom of lungworm ifsain
toach fluke (Ct:lpoo 'mylpore 1-
foundattached among the papillae of the rumen or*
Iisabout 12 millimeters (one-half inch) in ds
shape.This conical fluke is -found in the sme i~rw
flk.Similar to the liver fluke it is common in bt
matue animals. -It is usually considered as ot imA" rni
oftehost but massive infestations, which omtMes ce
etycause emaciation. Infestations can be prevented
th sails as described for the liver fluke.
Several other kinds of roundworms have been found int
(abmaun) and small intestine of 'cattle.Th pia
idetfied as Haemo"Achasimawi, O8tertagia osterka", A
gy1 aei, Cooperia punotata, Vapillaria:beieat
lode papilomm. These worms may be overlooked- if .
smllnumbers together with infestations of the more
stoah, worms or hookworms. Most of these worms,
a.1 them, are mijurious, but at present they are, so ai
of elaively less importance in compaison with soa
hookwrms, and nodular worms. Te method. of pe
reomended for stomach worms, and other worms, i
poet cattle from infestations with these: worms
Tebladderworm (Cysticerous bovi) is about the st
andisgrayish white 'in color.: It may be found Min n
uuly in the muscles of the jaw, tongue, heart and d
iisapparently uncommon locally in cattle and israe
inteslaughtered animal. The prevention of *infette
is epndent upon the proper disposal of the excrement-of
blddrworm is the intermdxxiate stage of the beef tnwr
wgnaa)inma. n uet Rcoth beftaewi
be or como tan hepor Wrm

a month, each containing many thousands of
S re infested by eating human excrement or by swallow-
in contaminated feed and water. All beef should be
cooked before it is eaten in order to destroy this inter-
1 or else subjected to adequate meat inspection by com-
r tmbrians.
ireadworm (Betaria ab iato-papilosa) is a slender, whitish
t to 5 inches in length. It usually occurs in the peri-
~ty. A few of these worms are often found in cattle.
S:do not appear to do much damage and are not known
y definite symptoms.
threadworm (Onchowcecad gutturosa) is found in the
t of. the neck. This is a slender, whitish worm from
o or more in length. Most of the cattle that are slaugh-
it ea-t purposes are infested with this worm. As far as can
..mined, this worm is not harmful to the animal aside from
1ilight local irritation.
AB. erican cattle tick (Boophilue annulatu) (fig. 2, D)
stih cattle tick (B. aMnnuatu australis) are found
riQthi e skin of cattle and occasionally goats and horses.
thte common ticks found on cattle. At Mayaguez, the
$eaity is more common than the other.
f :y-Both ticks mature on cattle and horses and the
tick matures on goats as well. The engorged female
~j animal to the ground where it may deposit from a
r-t more than 3,000 eggs. The eggs hatch in 2 weeks
i" spending on external conditions. The young seed ticks
i.:lof living 3 or 4 months on the ground, if they do not
d to a suitable host. After attachment the tick may
;iot.- re within 1 month. The entire life cycle may be
d within 6 weeks.
i.fase.-These ticks are very abundant and are one of the
ious parasites of cattle. In addition to causing direct in-
y f"kaansmit the diseases piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis.
I and lesions.-The direct injury by the cattle ticks is
diawirig of blood from the host. As a result, growth is
iirk animals are weakened, and milk production is

e ticks are controlled by "tickicides" used as
'sA 'present concentrated proprietary arsenical solu-
I almost exclusively. As these preparations and infor-
nmgin their use are readily available to stockmen, details
ig~atMent are not given.
iishould be used in the handling and dilution with
.he dips. Often animals are poisoned from too high a
of the arsenic in the solution. An animal may ab-


'' H


.:....: .,... .
I: ;::; .....
i ::'iiii; .. .... ,oo,
.:, :p ..: ... ..
: .':i r. ,, .. .:. .:.
.iiii :" ('i! "iii" ',, ii ..... :" ..

22BUelUMTI 3 $1. P
sorb sufcient Wrseniwrctb *Wam6w
..... ..ocuswhen the prepato isapiy sa-and

A wonended dilutino ato h stok lufti
of water is much less cnetadthnheIto ---
of a disinfectant ordinarl use intestbe
Prevention-The mos esbe mehdo control
reduce the infestations t:&mnumbroine di
as often as necessary. Iniida pr mcn be.
and maintained tick-fr-eb rpe ipm and qurgi
urges, but cattle raised mmd be nea
tick fever and thus the owerwudb hnicapped Min
mals other than for mea purpO
The complete eradicato of tectltikfrom the il
enable dlairymen to bring in pue-re anmls for
and to improve the natv stc wihu danger of
tick fever.
Further information conc tramn, eradicait
diseases transmitted by this -iviale in v.
published by the United SttesDprmn of

The hornfly (Haenudob sema fi. ( F) is a bl
that attacks cattle and als horses fly is aboat one-
of the common house fly It iseaiy det "ned by
by the fact that it always i..orsucks blo with its
and with the head toward the grun an i the sa*n
the hair of the animal. .i'is
Life history. -The fly deosits its egrM. cow
larvae remain in the manr fo 3 t 5 syshefore thhe'r
the drier soil underneath t pupae adlult fly
14 days after the eggs ar deposte.
l..inaydrtance.---Inthesouthem cata sma of Puerto"
fly is, very common and very srous'ps of cattle:
myriads of these flies ar ComM0a In h wet coastal
considerably less important, but iis oi mo at times, a
measures are necessary.
$Vmptoms and Wei~.-The puntres thy skijii
blood. The loss of blood is c le whre it- attac
number&. Animals sometimes laeatte skin of the
their horns while fighting the fy
Treatment.-A spray cosistng of a erseneexrc
thrum is very effective in -eto hs flies. Spr
in1 and evemngn protect the an frminfesfttion a
=eUce the number of fies
Prevention.-The manur collce fro stables sheuM
in fly-tight pits or bins orsprea imedaely on fields
U.aMnaca, W. P., ankd CHS IL M (ArW-VNV VkKR AND ml
cnsAmn. U.S R Trt. Agr. Eanim- Bal. 10 -2 PV, M=. 91
MOXR J R IC FVE.U.. ep.Wr fmer BL S=3
RM8,G.W, R.A.utammsixamu V Dp. gr IM

pwcn scab or "sarna" of cattle.-The mange mite (Psoroptes
lmas) (fig. 2, M) is found on the surface of the skin. It is a
nall animal, which may be seen with the naked eye if placed
4ak background. Psordptic mange is comparatively common,
9y climate of Puerto Rico it rarely becomes a serious disease.
heavy-infestations have been found among animals which
wwded together in small enclosures. The mite pricks the skin
k0ws the blood serum. The first symptom noticed is itching,
There is formation of scales and scabs and thickening of

or spraying with the lime-sulphur dip and the nicotine
7~ ip are effective remedies for this mange. Proprietary
of these preparations, ready for use, are available. Cattle
rie-dipped regularly for ticks do not become infested with
of mange mite. For eradication of the mange the treat-
bste repeated at intervals of 10 days. Two dippings may
ibez ::depended on to cure ordinary cases. Four or more dip-
nay be necessary in chronic cases. After treatment the pens
Housing the infested animals should be left vacant for a
i:should be cleaned and disinfected with a strong solution of
.rt0 M destroy the stray mites. Experiments carried out by the
IAf Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, in
rpon with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station have
.-that the longest period during which a pen remained infective

reppti mange caused by another variety of mite also occurs in
I:;.:ITis mite burrows into the skin, usually in locations where
ii is tender and the hair is thin. This disease is more serious
Ounmon scab because it is more severe in its effects and more
:i to eradicate. Sarcoptic mange of cattle is a rare disease,
, veterinarianss report that infestations have occurred. The
Sn is the same as given for psoroptic mange but it requires
itnt, thorough, and frequent application of these preparations.
rian should be consulted if the presence of this mange is

SPW worm.-The screw worm (Cocllioria americana) (fig.
fcthe maggot of a blowfly which may attack any open wound
ak.. The fly itself is not often noticed, but the maggots of
" are distinguished from the larvae of other common blow-
.... habit of penetrating practically sound tissue. The fly
it ggs in wounds, in masses of from 40 to 250 eggs. These
i 3i hours or less and the maggots burrow into the wound
rapidly and become completely developed in 4 or 5 days.
is due to the eating away of the tissues and also to toxic
pi produced by the maggot. There is also serious danger

.; i .....
,1 .L ....
"i "". '.: !.. E

. *

,. S

from hmrbge "nd iaftenim. aidkk
mnvocra t an. tim of Yheiyr b" at -
end of teriy saonm.
The betr wn o nifse oa
chlow later removs the magota =id,
pre t feh attacks. The. Burea Of
Dpartmn of Agrikulture, recommends the vweo
t ar oil wiha specific gravity of 1.065 to 1.086.Prb
the burow ane regarded. as inadvisable. All rk
be coae with pine-tar oil: to prevent ily blow. The,
at time birth as well as the inula of fresh cows h
afterbirt should be prtce from attack.
The mgots of other blowflies ma&y infest, thew
There aesveralvspecies of these flies in Puerto Rico
Of 1i MA *portance The maggots arn usuallRIyI X
ringerwounds or the young are deposited after a
in estd wit screw worms. The control is the same as
Ldrge W lome of &attl.-The suekba louse
tuberculah) (fig. 2, H) is found in -colonies Wn
tail. Onte cnintthis louse is called the
found onte American bison. It is blushin
in size ami parisn .with other lice heo
the tR my belined with the nits or ova.Ocai
arm foun attached to the hairs on the inside#'ege'
Heavy Inesations are found especially in dairy cows
that ar cofined 'in stables and corrahls This louse is
on catle of the southern cowst If the lict ane
abstract considerable blood and lymph from the hA"
itching an irritation and the formation ofarsd
ile ofcal arsenical solutions used for fattfle ticks
tive for dedicating lice. If cattle 'ame sprsayed the
of the talsould be imersed in the solution for a
as sprayn is not as effective in control: as dijoippmig.
men hav reported that this louse can be control ad b
keroseneprethrum extract sprays. To eradicate I&* A
necessary dip or spray at least twice, with an intd-val
days bewen applctos since theme preprtosci
paend upn to kilthe eggs. After treatment the stable,
shold bceaned and disinfected wit strong solution(
A4-,, -"w ox lous.:-A smaller sciglouse, H.
is someis found on.i.ote cattle and heavy *
found o nall on ve cattle. This louse is
body. Cdnies of the lice mbe found on the e~yds
The 8tbp .-The stbe nomoys wsesrnw)
is a bloodsucig :fly that reattackts horses and
also commn on cattle. Thisflrembeth o da
but, amon other differences, it has a long slender
ing dow and forward from the head. The fly depcmi*te
cow anurethte con~otains -atmen Ataw In t-mhe (it

jq is t same as for the hornfly (p. 92). All decaying
ateial around the stables should be cleaned up every
ild placed with the manure in fly-tight bins or pits.
rea.-Various species of mosquitoes attack animals, espe-
and: cattle. The actual damage caused by them is not
Iit my be considerable where mosquitoes are numerous.
t connected with the Bureau of Malaria Control of
bo have found by actual count that the two species of
transmitting malaria show rather a decided preference
Spoon horses and' cattle as compared with man. No
7Ithod has been found for protecting livestock from
Destroying the breeding places by drainage or treat-
.oi. l or paris green or by impounding water and using cer-
of small fish which eat the wrigglers or larvae are always
control measures for mosquitoes.
Incasionally fleas attack young stock which are confined,
nt numbers to cause considerable irritation and a loss in
i~. These pests can be controlled by spraying with kerosene
i th:e kerosene-pyrethrum extract sprays. First cleaning up
:r :and then spraying the floors and walls of the stable with
Wi ae also important control measures.
A or angwiuelas."--The leeches (fig. 2, J) should be
s.occ8asional parasites of some importance. They are
ant in swampy land. They attach themselves to any
iody of the host animal which they can reach, while the
i.standing_ in water, and occasionally enter the mouth or
I the animal is drinking.
i not only suck considerable blood, increasing enormously
~6 make wounds from which there is some hemorrhage after
irgo.d leeches become detached. Leeches can be destroyed

iraSnritting the liver fluke.
WiW cirtpropods.-According to the unpublished statement
a :iuthority,4 there are a number of arthropods reputed to be
.iOs, among which may be mentioned the so-called tarantulas
familyy Avicularidae; large centipedes; several species of
rws; and at least one species of whip scorpion known locally
Iguava'." The "guav is probably the most dangerous of
ap. Owing to lack of scientific investigations it is impossible
ny definite statements as to the exact degree of their ven-
uaities. However, there is little or no direct evidence that
qnots arthropods in Puerto Rico, except for occasional and
t injuries, are dangerous to cattle or other animals.
e parates.-Both external and internal parasites have been
Si:: ported cattle. Among these, the cattle grubs, Hypo-
::MM,, the larvae of warble flies, are common and conspicuous.
a or lumps are found in the skin of the back, which con-
:!ae (fig. 2, G). There is no authentic record of these flies
ffpjr duced themselves in this climate.

iasftorth, professor of zoology, University of Puerto Rico.

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20 BULIMEnW 34, PUMBTb Woo,
The only effective means of control, of some of the
&sites is byiland-wide eradication, eamnapmin 806
comparatively simple because Puerto nioa an i
tory to be covered is small. 'The cattle tick a-Ad li, 114
serious parasites that should be eradicated at ti
United States the eradication of the eatte tick i~s beinn$',
by proper dipping of all cattle and horses in a given
intervals over a period of 9 months. The Stale of
completed a, campaign of eradication of the liver fluke
destroying the sinail which transmits the parasite.
needs more and better livestock and a larger andbtt
dustry, and these objec ts can be promoted greatly by
the tick and liver fluke.



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