Experiments with fertilizers for coffee in Porto Rico

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Title:
Experiments with fertilizers for coffee in Porto Rico
Series Title:
Bulletin / Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
34 p., 3 leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McClelland, T. B ( Thomas Brown ), 1886-
Publisher:
Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication:
Mayagüez, P.R
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Coffee -- Fertilizers -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by T.B. McClelland.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029614712
oclc - 21270053
System ID:
AA00014652:00001


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Full Text










UTEPIURAL PEIMENT STATION
x, .. ...... .. : ... ,
: :: Upder the mpervision of the
i T:3.. STATiS DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BULLETIN No. 31


November, 1926


F7i
:w. ...
:34..
:. :! .'"ha
i .,..f ;


WITH FERTILIZERS FOR COFFEE
IN PORTO RICO


T. B. McCLELLAND, Horticulturist


CONTENTS


depts ..-- -------
JField plats ---------
Ka:it, Erecta plates .a
06o of amrgonium Sul-
i sodium nitrate--_-
ii0nts Inn liminfg --- -


Page


Pot tests- ------------- --
Complete and incomplete ferti-
lizers --------- --__---
Comparison of ammonium sul-
phate, sodium nitrate, lime,
and sulphur ------------
Sr1mma1nir nrl i ao o ti nn


Page
21
21


occupies a prominent place in the agriculture of Porto Rico
&f .e large area planted with the crop, the many people
inits cultivation, and the income derived from its exporta-
iPomodaction per acre is generally low, however, and planters
in learning how to increase yields. Requests are fre-
Sreceied at the station for information as to the use of chem-
i*rs for coffee. This bulletin gives the results of experi-
iet made during a series of years at the station and elsewhere in
SiRimo to determine the effect of fertilizer on growth and yield of
4adi covers many of the points in question.

.. FIELD EXPERIMENTS
S *;. :...:..+ SOUTH FIELD PLATS

i tPortb Rico coffee is usually planted on steep slopes. Such loca-
ii'atre not as i'ule, suited to coffee planting for comparative
s, since variations in topography cause a high degree of
Ability in growth and yield of crop. To eliminate this disturbing
9 a strip of apparently level land was selected as the site for
Jtrk. The land bear by slopes toward the river and furnishes
it'wil be good drainage were it not for the nature of the soil,
xh 'is a heavy, almost impervious brown Adjuntas clay.1 The
.- o: *i: :" .et'.i. .o : ,. *~ ..i '+ n ,_ ta l..-1 h R .
a.L u type of hell is dlemeribed in detail in Porto Rico Sta. BiWl. 14, The Red Clay Soil
0' Q -. .... .. o.. .. ..


oA: D. C.


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ima'


eqialeed
were S4
*the plat an,
-wise the
each of
i -Complete fmi
at for each
Where I
actualed that d
sing 0 Ite
I defim
io
A-1 t6 t e recei
most eastern or
*s4as given the xn,
0MUSSIon the, terpi
Ah"
A
P14t fro ea-6h
a AoOle terin
from
nitro en eitheirm
reOes f aiT- n7 to
the'llelter No 01MIS
K.,

ap
rate Ot 1''
h4
fift t
lem naticms of,
#Ahe Complete



li"P Ina
t4oy
pp
ILI


Phwia,
pp
were 'ammomum,


A7









MiSvmes elOngaon, Trom uCtooer, i Yk, wnen ;ie Lrees were;
p most ses than 2 feet high, to October, 1917, when they
i .to &i high, and most of them had borne two crops of
Fsema rements failed to show any consistent and signifi-
encs attributable to the kind of fertilizer applied.
thought that trunk diameters furnish the most accurate
nts of growth, and, consequently, the most reliable index
rformance.2 In November, 1924, measurements were taken
k diameter at 3 inches above the base. The average trunk
rfor each plat is given in Table 1, which shows that, when
divisions are considered as a unit, nitrogen and potash in
n, either with or without phosphoric acid, produced a very
e increase in growth, but that nitrogen alone or in combi-
tWith phosphoric acid, but without potash, produced a growth
ably below that of the check group. Ten of the 40 plats
the highest check plat, and all except 1 of these received
Sd7 received both nitrogen and potash.

Average diameter of differently fertilifze coffee tree trunks at 3
i*whes above base, November, 1924

Rate of Plats receiving-
fertilizer
fioneper K -P N NK PK NP NPK 0
: tree '

Pounds Inches Inches, Inches Inches Inches Ines Inches Inches
-- 2.3 2.0 2.1 3.1 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2
----------------- 2.4 .2.3 2.8 2.6 2.5 2. 3 2.8 1 2.4
----,. -------- 1 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.9 2.4 2. 4 3.2 2.7
-..----- 2 2.7 2.9 2.3 3.1 2.8 2.5 2.9 2.8
.. .------- 4 3.0 2.7 1.8 3.4 3.0 1.8 3.3 2.8
i ._..------------------. 13.0 12.3 11.6 15.1 13.0 11.2 14.5 12.9
:ures in this column represent the rates of application of complete fertilizer. The single elements
Insi *btions of two elements were applied at the same rates as in the complete fertilizer.
re 1 graphically averages the trunk diameter for each plat.
l ring the plats of each division in relation to their respective
~s* plants only, it is seen that 17 of the 40 plats surpassed the
s _. Of. these 17, all except 2 received potash, and 10 received
i trogen and potash. All the NPK and NK plats surpassed
checks in trunk diameter, whereas this held true for no other
... er. combination or element when applied singly. The growth
.3Wd to show benefit from adding phosphoric acid to the NK
~ination. Fifteen plats fell below their respective checks in
ia.. diameter. Of these, 4 received nitrogen alone, 4 phosphoric
alonen, and 4 nitrogen and phosphoric acid in combination.
injury done by nitrogen, either singly or in combination
Wk4phosphoric acid. only, in very heavy applications was evident
jn:4he. very poor growth made by the plats so fertilized in the
M division. Plant growth on plats receiving identical quantities
Sitrogen to which potash was added appeared in strong contrast.
i4 r, U. P., and' TUKEY, H. B., TWENTY-FIVE YEABS OF f TILIZBB IN A NEW
Mrrnh oem&CAD. N. Y. State Ar. Expt. Sta. Bu. 516, p. 16.

iii i .... .. .












/th Ir
e; 4s wre podU4aI

WWI '$ to
JL


NP W
WR/



i/ 4

rith 1'h
ei acvigt9tiik4Lt x t
to s*if uog
r~t 0 to Pl
.........

,L
|r t-(ldI i ,o ig6 ,i ;
h frgblY11 *~fP,
thb-Wei'htswo~e'ie~~e~ Wgtw*
// Avrg f0
kw if ivl~t o 5,khL
lhe' prchrno
freein 19,4vas he~q',u'"1nV4-tb
wltitttepitmet elLd 1011
ahof~ilAw- ~fior-92 *












S- : ':e Relative
I .Weig of Fertilizer of ti-
r.i No.'-izer ap- cherries
User ap- lizer ap-
.plied I plied '

Grams Grams
...------ 16 32,556 27 P --------...... ..-...- 2 12,294
.... ...------ 8 27,239 15 PK--__--......-_...- 1 12,102
... ......--- 8 27,211 26 K---------............. 2 12,064
-------- ..2 26,808 35 N ---------------------- 4 12,032
-------... 4 25,194 25 None---..------------- 0 11,845
-- ---- 8 24,782 51 PK.----...------------16 11,830
... 0 24,028 22 PK -------------------- 2 11,447
...----.--- 16 22,529 45 NP ---------.... -------- .8 11,014
S.S-.......... 16 21,692 54 Nane ....----..-...._._ 0 10,990
-- .... 4 21,075 11 K, ---.----------- 1 .10, 804
..-..'. ---- ,1 20,687 23 NP------.------------- 2 10,774
---------- 2 19,880 16 NP .....-.........- 1 10,663
..------- 8 19,874 41 P_-...-...------- 8 10,333
---------- 16 17,190 18 None----............ 0 9,447
...... 4 16,085 13 N----------........... 1 7,121
i'.......--- 4 16,009 38 NP,-------..-- ------4 5,696
--.. ..- 2 14, 335 12 P_-----.--------------- 1 5,145
c* -., ....--- 0 12, 943 42 N.---------- 8 .3,880
-- 7:,: .. N.. -- 4 12,540 57 N----. -----16 2,708
-''-'- ... 1 12, 524 52 NP-----.------....--_ 16 1,454

treem ether died or were so badly injured as to necessitate excluding from crop records. These
.soeah for the following listed plate: Division 1, NK, 1918-1924; PK, 1924; 0, 1919-1924;
1919-1923; N. 1918-1924; N, 1919-1924; division 3, P, 1918-1923; N, 1923; PK, 1918-1923;
*Ig 9-19rP>, 1921-1924; K, 1923-1924; PK, 1924; division 5, PK, 1919-1923; NPK, 1918-1923;
d in comparison with lowest quantity expressed as 1.

Sea ral trend of future performance was indicated in the
.i giving the heavier applications as early as the first impor-
R whichh was produced four years after seeding and three
r- setting. Here, it appears that potash, especially when
...addition to nitrogen, was effective in increasing crop yield.
n.. lown much more clearly in the curves for the 1924 crop.
b 11 plats yielded better than the best check. These agree
hrtic~~lar otnly All received potash, 4 received nitrogen only
i to potash, 1 received phosphoric acid only in addition
3wad 3 received both nitrogen and phosphoric acid in ad-
tah., MTable 3 shows the 12 plats of highest yield, ranked
o0f average production per tree.

ici sping 18 plats of highest yield, 1924, ranked in sequence of average
p rodotion per tree and their fertilizer treatment

Feri'le, .. Relative Y Relative
qtuntity Yied of quantity Yield of
er of fr- cherries Fertilizer offer- cherries
Stilizer per tree No tilizer per tree
Applied I applied 1

S. Grwas Grams
S ------ 9,95 46 NPK ---------------- 6, 421
--------- 16 8,4 53 PK--------------- 16 6,302
......' 'Y. 8 8, 3 5 8 1 NPK ................. 8 n 6, 802
,. .7A ... .3 13 6 NK ,---------.----------. 6, 271
S.8..... .... 7,415 14 NK.------------------ 1 6,038
-- ,.,-....* 4 6, 63 44 K ........-------------- 5,874
I PK- ....... 2 6,424 47 None.. -------.----- O 0 5, 811

l i syappieadin comparison with lowest quantity expressed as 1.
"- :';:t : :. "






























































































ol






. ........











Bul. 31, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station


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-. "77
pl,^


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A-118I


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SHOWING POOR GROWTH OF COFFEE IN SOUTH FIELD FOLLOWING HEAVY
APPLICATIONS OF NITROGEN ALONE, PLAT 42, UPPER LEFT, AND PLAT 57,
LOWER RIGHT; AND VIGOROUS DEVELOPMENT WHERE TO THE SAME QUAN-
TITIES OF NITROGEN, POTASH HAS BEEN ADDED, PLAT 43, UPPER RIGHT,
AND PLAT 58, LOWER LEFT
Photographed January, 1922


PLATE I


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ee beans with the parchment re-


SWR BY TREES IN
S.... i 3-4
W SM. e 7NE EW APPLIC4TION


4-5


: .." .. ... ... :m .::: ":. :- .l l l r.l a








mmee for the y itr 1017. Sbulh Field plats


Aa~-di .-.F:.th h -in the same division.
La ; ........ .... gr sr element with. tho-e not. +--
a- w-------++++++-
S...a...... m.. I ---- oooooooooo --








irJiid y per centk i the phophrivi io d section.


at, sad- the potash section surpassed
e .gives the average production for
:P "


:J

....ii ....




H ".....



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of


red- (






















r ---------------------------
- - - ---- - -
-----------------------
------------------ -
-------------------
7 ---------------------







s-howo tm curw- imr'-


7 =7

A- X 1, a0qu of eba M
"Ca Mro


an
by 15, t
'Au"kin
IMS' oil ft re 6W
mid
t4l '19; to
as de the hydr*en4&


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+2.--'-- -------------- m'.4- ALI
----------
4- ----------
------------- ---------

triq

Tho sW+ rmetion wA the same

S6w ou Marl*



itIllaik Af lk

14b


1111 I'l, me in odffity over thi 0300












igBolno .funravoraDie effects on eitner grown or yleiu. -ne lengE
red for acidity to increase to the point of injury under continued
tloig has not as yet been determined.
et fertilizerq affected differently the physical condition of the
B bo* by the rate at which the soil particles settled when they were
i water. Acid phosphate was the most effective agent in floccula-
he ol particles, of samples from plats which were treated with acid
either alone or in combination, when well shaken with water settled

MS DETERMINED BY TRES /N
/-2 2-3 3-4 4-5
7T OF E RT/ iZECR PER TREE PER APPL/CrT/ON
J POUNDf A POUND40 /-2 POUNDS 2-4 POU OS

..P... CFSHWAMVS m \.,

4WE, t M-------------- -
..... .r -.m

IO.. ns--------++++++++++ X -

K V
SWw-------ooooooooo 0000000 f






















Krl-: ^ 4i -g; 4.-ir production per tree for the year 1924. South Field plates
S::...:.L:... :*. .: -. .L






,6. to 10 hours, leaving a clear solution above, whereas samples from the un-
mateplats were still muddy at 36 to 40 hours after shaking. Second to acid
biate plats came those receiving ammonium sulphate and potassium sul-
jt in combination at the two heaviest application rates, this effect not
i ftg the lighter applications, however. There was only a slight improve-
in:t i flocetlation in the plates treated with ammonium sulphate alone and
St~nprovem~ at in those treated with potassium sulphate alone.
PADANG AND srECTA PLATES

:contrast with the :niformity of slope found in the West Field
the IPadang and Erecta plantings are on rather steep slopes,










mamw








fl-
m7,


4.ON.
lo4
mG






ot dZ WE IN PORTO mWOO 11

divided the: tt~!to form platforms into which the fertilizer
uld be worked.. :
: El~' Ftoeta pl included a check, 1 plat which received com-
o. and .3 each of which lacked one element in the fer-

0..I 3 4 S 6 7
:: K P! IV AK PA NV PK 0


..... ... .. ...




NK PK NP NPK 0 K P IV
::.:. ......" ...





.. lle- i a.. ......
.. ... .l.......




'iE










P / NV NPKo d PK/

.. .. .. ..








9 8.-Total average yield per tree for the 8-year period 1917-1924, each line repre-
ei; zn$rg the production of 1 kilogram of coffee cherries. Flats arranged in relative
position in South Field
.. ........ .





11 N l A .. .....




combin4%tion. The Padang plats included a check, and 1
olh received the same kind of fertilizer as that applied to the
plat receiving complete fertilizer plus a liberal quantity of
*I .manure. Fifteen pounds of manure per tree were given in
r!,:'ii::': .
HI~i !! !i,, :...

















4 #






.
llggul044



t|
.

|v


z II I -









Pj~ui eramy C~ ~ WoLLn ra ang, ano wt a pronouncueu. uegre
ireEta. Were only the first four crops of the Erecta planting
asidered, it ght easily be inferred that nitrogen was the
eltient since the three plats receiving it produced approxi-
ite: to five times as great a yield as the check or the PK
'the NP plat leading. If the last six crops are considered
ti it seen that the NPK plat produced more than any other
.s combined, and the plat from which nitrogen was omitted
Sa.head of the other two plats receiving incomplete fertilizer.
K plat for the 13-year period as a whole produced approxi-
three times as much as the check plat, and sufficiently in
lef .the plats receiving incomplete fertilizer to indicate the
Yujpplying all three elements to the soil. Figures 8 and 9
show the yields, the effect of fertilizer on yield, and the
nationn in production from year to year.

W M ISS /6S/9/7 _Q /9/9 MO f /92 W2 /923 24





St o ftilir o sie o fit, c


Smade of samples of Padang chers at ite ls
p95W -- a----m---

:4.4






solving some 31,486 fruits. The average number of Padang
verge annual production per tree of Padang plates with and without fertilizer

determine the effect of fertilizer on size of fruit, counts per
S.,ye made of samples of Padang cherries at intervals during
and f sample of Erect cherries at interest ratin vals during four
.volvin -ome 31,86 fruits. The average number of Padang
Ies per liter from check plate differed from that of fertilized
i4qby less than 1 per cent, whereas those. from the Erecta plates
jtd by 13 per cent. The size of cherry, as indicated by the
wplb. in a liter, bore an interesting relation to the yield per tree
erpeiod involved. The total yield of the Padang plats showed
ierence of 5 per cent for the period, and the size of cherry less
... -per cent. The Erecta NPK plat produced 235 per cent more
a its check, and a liter of the former contained 13 per cent more
i1F : than were required of the latter to fill the measure. Simi-
.for the. five plate, the size of cherry was in direct relation to the
!,.,.a seqpenee of the plat yields.being the same as that of the
ge number of cherries per liter. In other words, the only
r : i''':..... .














F77


e AiI


/7/
-- 7-1 /

Pi.17Avm juulpouc 0tO
ofI






S0rmW 1 m:.o CorronFF IN PORTO Coo 15

Aih. b n theii~se with many other coffee plantings at the sta-
jdas ~~ili upper slope grew slowly, whereas those on the
t 1igorusly. That growth was greatly influenced by an-
as well was shown by measurements of height taken in
...t.(fig. 10), and of trunk diameter made in August, 1921.
..i treated. with ammonium sulphate except one surpassed in
.highest row treated with sodium nitrate. The total height
or was 28 per cent greater than that of the rows treated
rm nitrate. Figure 11 graphically shows the trunk diame-
d also the pronounced effect of the form in which nitrogen
plied. Use of ammonium sulphate resulted in an increase in
if63per cent for the 7-year period, and fully demonstrated its
ityover sodium nitrate under the conditions of the test. It
Skbwn what benefit may have been derived from sodium nitrate
tere was no unfertilized check plat. Table 7 shows the annual
o i the two plats.

4 :1--OmZporafti'e yields of Bourbon coffee cherries on plats receiving
a, mmnsiunt sulphate and sodium nitrate

Plat Yield of
lat 1' Plat 2, plat 1 in
Year slied ammo-
Year applied mm sodium percent-
sulphate nitrate age of
Lit ... ..: L* plat 2

SLiters Liters Per cent
U ..............................- ............ .............. 0.5 4. 2 14
i--- ------------ ----- ----------------------- ---- ----------- 5.5 4.2 131
--- ------------------------------------------------60.6 14.9 407
0. ----- ..--.---------.-- -152.3 88.4 172
---------------- --------- --------------------------- -- 2.89.3 57.8 154
-------------------------------------------------- 217.37 136.6 159
127.7 94.1 136
-- ---------------------------------------------------. 696.2 426. 1 163
-*i., -. :: -
... BISCHOFF AND LOPEZ PLANTATION PLATS

iy 'tests on the Bischoff and Lopez plantations were undertaken
setl; tain the effectiveness of sodium nitrate as a fertilizer for
t."' water comparative tests of ammonium sulphate were added.
In the Bischotf plantation two A-acre plats were fertilized with
pai nitrate at the rates of 150 (plat 1) and 300 (plat 3) pounds,
ietively, per acre per application. Between the two lay a 4-
lat.(plat 2), which was used as a check as uniform trees were
i~iivalabl for three A-acre plats. The soil was red clay covered
it.. an abundant natural mulch derived from a uniform and suit-
. :,hade. The coffee trees were said to have been set 4 years
qviously, and were apparently lacking in vigor. Sodium nitrate
a. applied in February, July, and December, 1916, and again in
| anwad December, 1917. Crop yields were recorded in pounds. In
_iaI_. of 1916, plat 1 yielded-an average of 2 pounds per tree, plat
Lielided s1. pounds, and plat 3, 2.2 pounds. In 1917, plat 1 yielded
,. average of 1 pound per tree, plat 2, 18 pounds, and plat 3, 1.2
rto Rieo Sta, Bul. 21, Some Profitable and Unprofitable Coffee Lands.
gI&lly aried on in cooperation with Chilean Nitrate Propaganda Agency.
.
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FIG. 11.-Trunk diameter of Bourbon coffee at 3 inches above base, measured August, 1921, relative positions of trees as in field




























































i i
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e ,


nitrate
phat" ..1
and po
plat 4. 4.Bi
'that of h

in the iei
-


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I.


. 1 ... W- ."" : "..:x .,


"(I
1"rC


I crop M 0:, Clht a d-,

V !4. ... .;: .' : ...:: ......'
.... .. .. ..:...I.A A ."
......." ..... ::;, ;';::ii' :"
P :f I
""..... ii ...; ."" .': ...
:... "" : .. :... .::::' '" iiii, : i"i iif ;
NI ME ,






y .O FeRTSRBS' FOR COEEr.f IN PORTO RICO


19


:i ~ae~ti.as pas the check each year in production per tree and
Ipl' ti -f .r the 1021-1924 period. The difference in production in
.iyea. ea of 1928. was pronounced. Evidently the complete
produced a decided increase in yield. The effectiveness of
m um sulphate alone was less pronounced and no benefit what-
observed asa result of using .sodium nitrate alone.


s 3 N /
S/ 2- 2
.-K4 d 4 K 4



:i -:~- '--- ------ ----------------+
.&s s i nv u.,e ++ I" .. ... ..U. .. .......




4 C:' _
M .... .. ...
r4
MI.ll." ; s*.; ,W ...l .V AA.




I 'K: *';' / / 3 3



4ii... WEST FIELD PATS
. ;'!:.. Il



i TIii. 1911 for fertilizer tests a planting of 33 plats of 18 trees each
a nMmade on an almost.level plain promising uniform conditions.
iE tets were discontinued in 1915,-however because of the unsatis-
factpr growth made by the trees owing to poor drainage. The
iMiekt 'featres of the test are given herewith:
J:'....f.e ai 'formula usdid -as -T 10y: 14 and the. rate one-half
pound per, ppjication. Five applications were made from 1912 to
I"1914 I d t tdompte feilize, -ombinationri of two ele-
its, %inglk ~ielements-limne, guano, coffee pulp, and manure were

... ... ....
p*i.r..;'. '4


Ux :


i ." '' :








m A4
Inle
Oixofthi o~en
t 00 W-
1hVT edCnc
Mu pat mk t jorm
01t ai kag n n"i
no oher:wit "WITIt
heve a6 2pud re ahaN
tretd:T&,cM t Irtli ith
p dP tti imte
PC oan h ltA
x tr 2.7irk!h
nit %On I
was edid,*herai,
Di v ,lt ffUdtek 'esrdi-
4B Vf
rec~jed. ~nmoiurd S~pate.'T-
b~z& anke firj forth ight, Al
teE te ors pas_~ve n M
orbuicslg.Th~porstpliwa~umt
Ioso lm. reo-, plt&vrg4
wheres thse onthe rL.-
tiie vrgd4'
Ada"u tote lt/,~o".X-*iM#W,
"---- ,0,sreeid W
VIN amonli
poahad1 epmiey'r
-wit ad popa *,wr

-whic eevdeu~ln
sbiuy nirt.`Teaeaehe4-etap,4
aMOIMlhLws4.44.,Aa Z ife
plat 'herets tha of he orreponingy ti ted










t*i:' total-of 1,285 cherries, which was less than one-ninth the
m.... ade by the ammonium sulphate treated plats.
productiono, as well as the measurements of growth, indicated
iW ..effect of the ammonium sulphate as compared with
one of sodium nitrate or lime.
EXPERIMENTS IN LIMING

wanting of more than 100 trees which were set in 1909 was
into two plats to provide a site for liming experiments.
the 1913 crop was harvested one plat was uniformly limed
y four-fifths air-slaked and one-fifth quicklime) at the rate
more than 3 pounds per square meter of surface. Previous
the soil was cultivated. Table 8 gives the yields during


STABLE 8.-Yields of cherries before and after liming

Yield of
average AAverage limed
*yield per yield per j plat ex-
SYear tree of tree of pressed
check limed in per-
plat plat centage
of check

-it Liters Liters
----------------- ------------------------------------ 1.08 1.18 109
tg --------- --------------------------------------------- 1.23 1.33 108
S- --.--- .----------------------1.85 1.55 84
-------- ---- ----- -------- -- --------- ----- --- 1.33 1.69 127
--------------------------- 2.38 2.29 96
irtf PPI19r 4-41917 period ---------------------------------- 6.79 6.86 101

:le year preceding the application of lime the average yield per
Sobof the plat subsequently limed surpassed that of the check by
$per cent. With the yield of the check considered as 100 per cent,
: yield of the limed plat for the years subsequent to lining was
!ii O per cent for the first year, 94 per cent for the first two years
lefmbined yield), 104 per cent for the first three years, and 101
(per cent for the first four years. The results failed to show any
ppreciable benefit froni liming.
"To other tests were made on a smaller scale, the trees being
J'tied annually at the rate of 1 to 2 pounds per tree. The results
I:,iar not in accord, one lot yielding more and the other less than its

POT TESTS
!;COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE FERTILIZERS

!. '' learn the effect of fertilizers on yield under more controlled
i&Miditions than were possible in the field, several tests were made
,it coffee seedlings set in 5-gallon containers. In March, 1924, heavy
IS 9ay soil, removed to a spade's depth from a hilltop on which
had ~ade poor growth, was placed in the containers, using
S Ip ini.the bottom for drainage... A vigorous seedling hav-

......... i... .












j
jjj
Ca tiON Wa %,ml
lbe % W" brin-alt, usia Wig,
el ent), and, pots*
Pide -fortilizer the, seedli4gv
tk 44
er was a Od'eih ,Ilt I
PP
4eme'n't applied U). ibe 06m, 14W
A
Th6'fqrtilizei 6iriierst,*6rO
arApoiisiuii, 'Chloride' in
RI
Phafe, acid' h&phate,'ahd',
quent applications. Each, tre#mtnt as-,
addition'to 'the reguJar ckck 1? thm-
J_
soit#ug abdift 50 yards"4iskut"Ift4m tjW
This Wis marked 0" 'in t e d'
AM,*he,,tW pf tho firsrt fer .'1`2Ier 4phpatiop
bined 1 hqght b etween any, 9, groups of -3. 1~
m6ng ihs later each group M111101VIng, -nio,
tht ,61.4eck in height and 411 others fell below, ic: e,
groups -averaged 97,inches high and the othdr,'fiva Eail
November 28, 1914, to February 27, 1916, eiw, h groyp 6
gen increawd _ih height betw"n 31,,anA &, ift
for the same period showed an increaise',6f
From -May 28 to August 28,1M,, Oe 4 iftitrogon,
.in height 13 14, 18%, and 19 inches, r ti 'W''ho
groups receiving-no nitrogen 3 increase'd a
tively, and 2 failed to in crease. The ffiffer-enoe ju
the check, and theother group's iw,8hovn, Iin T

TAarm 9.---Dfferenoo i* hvig*t b4toem dhe''wo 4",
VouoW coffw treesoach gro" i#
"1 11 1 t 1A ,
TWA

FerUlizer applied

Xxy 21 u4mg. 2$ N qV )FOq21--*4
r 37 f
------------------------ +1
P ------------ ----------------
------------------------------ +1 -3
---------------------------
-----------------------
PK ------------------------- +2 -4
+4%
"jA Y
N 77-,7 ; 4 L; *V
----------------- 740
ata,
---------- m.
It t t r+,, I ZMV

The efredt, 6f nift
Q$P+ onlic
h h
still, IkAhir% indit
44








ige i:he grotli.of the different groups is shown graphically in

.il, 191~Y5five noninterested persons who were asked to name,
Spiia the groups showing the darkest leaf coloring un-






;*. '",.-- ----- ----
pronounced the four nitrogen-treated groups of darkest





















Color. Counts of the leaves per tree were made June 19,
S" .Number of leaves--













te ;* Varia- Percent-
rtizpped tionfrom age of







Tree Tree Tree a eck check







*No.l No. 2 No. 3










1.A groups receiving nitrogen showed a heavy increase in foliage.
S logths of 50 si tlarly placed leaves on each tree were meas-
o o i V beee e e a a
I. 4




.: Pi. J99AWM --------- o o o o o










colgroup ws s of the leaves per _tred no re laton culd be



etwee the kind of fertilizer applied and leaf-tlength. At
? "::; Tree Tree Tree Tt check check


----- ...p ....... 85-- ---- -- 117 110 312 +5 102
.98 104 105 307 0 100
P----- X--------- ----------------------..176 152 157 485 +178 158
-------------------------------------- .76 160- 165 401 + 94 131
82 114 108 304 -3 99
-------- -- -- --.....- .102 112 93 307 (1) 100
------------------85 so 90 255 -52 83
Chseiil, o k.


All groups receiving, nitrogen showed a heavy increase in foliage.
he lengths of 50 similarly placed leaves on each tree were meas-
d to one-eighth inch. Variation between the check and any
9ther g oup was less than T' per cent, and no correlation could be
Mae= between thekind of fertilizer applied and leaf-length. At

::y:. .. 9........


























!-Al







ARA




!f







Bul. 31, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station


COFFEE SEEDLINGS AT 18 MONTHS FROM FIRST FERTILIZATION. NITROGEN
HAS GREATLY STIMULATED DEVELOPMENT


PLATE 2


















































Ii




























' '









"ii
































































:. N




':i


- ... Ill













iorg .o. nitrogen averaged 150 grams. ::
S*were carefully washed and air-dried for several days
A Because of the heavy soil, it was impossible not
ne roots. The weight for all trees receiving nitrogen
SBgrams, whereas for the others it averaged 65 grams.
!test it was very evident that nitrogen exerted a marked :
t-.stimulating the development of the young trees as was
teir greatly increased number of leaves, amount of woody l
se ground, and root growth.
fQ0' AMMONIUM SULPHATE, SODIUM NITRATE. LIME, AND SULPHUR
Field plat tests the favorable effect of ammonium sul-
marked, but this was not true of sodium nitrate or of
up>hur was therefore further studied in pot tests.
Sof 5-gallon cans was lined with coarse pebbles to
7jjrainage, and the containers were filled with red clay
removed to a spade's depth from a hillside and thor-
In a test it was found that 0.992 gram of hydrated
uired to neutralize 1 kilogram of soil. The seedlings,
of a single tree, planted May 26, 1915, were each set "k' .
member 18, 1915. The treatment was given in tripli-
Sreceived ammonium sulphate (8 grams per can per
Groups 2 to 6, inclusive, sodium nitrate (4. 8, 10, 12,
respectively); Groups 7 to 12, inclusive, hydrated lime .i
i1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, 16,000, and 32,000 pounds,
teacre); and Group 13 was left untreated (check).
wplaspplied 5 days prior to transplanting the seedlings,
worked through the upper layer of soil. Over 4
'Mlfell before the trees were set. On account of the
of liming it was necessary, within the first month,
.Idn trees of Group 12, and to replace a second time
.... group, and two badly wilted trees of Group 11.
Is than 4 months, tree 1 of Group 10 was in so poor a 3
ihAtit also was replaced.
w::Was given in three applications six months apart, be-
Ijeks after the seedlings were set. Quarterly measure-
were made, starting two months after setting, and
for two years. Figure 15 graphically gives the
Atthe second and third measuring the two groups. ..
Slightest applications of lime led. The fertilizer
on the plants in leaf color before any effect appeared
I-da:,rk green of the fertilized trees contrasting strongly:
ih hue of the limed and check trees, the contrast being
ee in Group 2. Early in the-second year the nitrogen i-
hbegan to grow more rapidly, than the lime-trea ted|s
-.izth.rmeasuring each'group of fertilized trees siyi
k :in height with one -exception, which equkaed :i
*! ; :Pi .... ..
.... ... m :::[ ,,
..I. .... ... .. ...
iii :+i,;M+:: i:":;,: + ,ilia H N:..... ''+














orthat
i n h o*:h twore,
_0'P* lbwcbeck. In
dc'andit Septa
Were,`weig6d'. '!Wble 1!

TAwx 12.+-,WWt ',of ;W4AW4* Mm Ot

Fwtaiwr %PfOod gumber Olloiiw-

T Tr
S61 V lswlile% z


24 Id Ul
12 !Z 2W IN' 2W 'M ;4 1,4
24 3 177 t
4 4 Mll
1,07 Wl
:5.9 IM' 117 -UBVIM 211!li',_
23.4 -0 448- ""+W 41
46.9 AO, 12t. I'll' 126, '00
93.1 li '157 1U 441
A$7.4, 12 140 '14a -1(6 !YVOAy
Z4 o t hja g ,


we*hlug, and the welgUt at Wayts W4wpo4-,y grG
othe t-WO tiO4 'of ihe SAUW cmap.

The marked effectof nitrogm onloliggo imndl,
trees ig very eVident as oow'pttred, -with r
-except two trees 'frui iv-191T. 'Orftp:16_fg
i" I
'yi* followed 14y* Grotip 'I. The YRWd4r#ft*tW*
VIOMWd the' samo-aV*r&'g'e' imwbord (4iftTift,.c*hOv
Ylidd frdm nitroph-trMted, trees -wag 8T +
To permit of -further cop"Tij* &e-
&hd Is6diiihi ititrate, ad't65, ej", w1b te Aiot*&
itid clitY soil -Which wA4-feni6 0
sereened, and thorktghl I
mi*edlp bi
were each planted with -2 goeahp ftbft a gh -4,
coffee, the. seed having beeft pbxl&,d* inlot
4 1 AM *,
groul k eo'll Aft
The test vms divi&d into 7 Obf
46ft t6 as A, 'che*, t:idOYQ
16
(8 and 12 griLins, &ti jA Wiwi
P11
tiligers wi&6 ap li'
-At two twd, if I k
atioli a pronou cd








SRgIa KMUaIisM- rsuIp.ua n groups appearing 1o oe aaversely
thodertilizer in proportion to the quantity applied.
blae however, these groups had a noticeably darker
ta;thrsothers, and a month later still this difference was

theeia.nonium sulphate seemed so much more favorable in
t i.. the sodium nitrate, it was deemed advisable to divide
p receiving the latter into two groups, one of which received
m nthe form of flowers of sulphur in January and May, 1923.
case of the two groups receiving the lighter application of
nitrate one application of sulphur was equivalent to the sul-




... ....O.S:.. .". .... .














a m sW-------- +++ + +++
= C





R ... ../ /











4 // 0


..*:...of lim e
. ...








.. application was made when the test was half over, and the total
entity. of sulphur applied was less than that carried in the series
i ammonium sulphate applications. For this reason it is not deemed


tofthose receive the matter farther consideration than to say that
Kreal t were not in agreement, the three groups receiving sulphur
isuperor to their checks, and the fourth inferior, on the termina-
ed ert:in September, 1923. The average superiority of the
treated plants over the check plants for the whole period was

i~c"c i':i:2C '3....









Bul. 31, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station


EFFECT ON GROWTH OF COFFEE SEEDLINGS OF APPLICATIONS OF EQUAL QUAN-
TITIES OF NITROGEN IN AMMONIUM SULPHATE AND SODIUM NITRATE


PLATE 3









































..". ^












: :',
-t


xr
: ii

































": ;

























ai
'"4
. .....:...;



























.. :.. ;


., ::

















',i














.. :.












































































... ..:||













lun mlrate group was neavier tan tne cnecK Dy a1 per .
the ammonium sulphate groups averaged 77 and 113 8
heavier than the check. The benefit from ammonium sul-
i0ost pronounced and that from sodium nitrate decidedly
tt.e, began in 1923 to compare further the effects of
iilphate and sodium nitrate and to show how frequency
ian of the latter and the addition of sulphur might affect
ree series of forty 5-gallon containers were each filled :
clay, river loam, and ocean beach sand, respectively. In ,,
seed from a single trpe of the Padang variety of Ara-
ewas planted, and in November, 1923, three seedlings (later
jt*io were set in each container. At three weeks after
IbMArved that many seedlings were damping off badly
I46Miai, blit that none were so affected in the sand or clay.
"sieediings i the loam had, therefore, to be reset.
iilgroup~ of40 cans comprised. 10 receiving 8 grams of
sg!i:Sulphate semiannually; 20 receiving the same quantity
in the form of sodium nitrate (10 in semiannual appli-
g0rams, and 10 in monthly applications of 1.7 grams);
... airing 10 cans which received no nitrogen. Half the
.l.i division, excepting that receiving ammonium sulphate,
eb, in. the form of flowers of sulphur, semiannual applica-
f sulphur-equal to that carried in 8 grams of ammonium
i.The semiannual applications were made from January
itoJanuary 3, 1925, inclusive, and the monthly applications
iMary3, 1924, to June 3, 1925.
gi: thaa two months after setting, the plants in sand were
stiory 8in appearance. One month following the first ferti-
pplcation the plants receiving no nitrogen were noticeably
ow iu contrast with the green of all others, including plants
Ig sodium nitrate in very small applications. At this time
iBl i clay made the best appearance, and those in sand the
|' At one year after setting, less than 1 plant in 5 of
a i san still retained foliage, and those which had not died
tiii vry little growth. In July, 1925, when the test was
t~:it lose, all plants in sand, except one were dead. The one
a red 138- inches in height, and had only four leaves.
k iiJ: ilh h)ad proved entirely inadequate for the devel-
Silug seedlings in sand.
... ... e readd disease infection in the loam, which
i.ill;many of the trees, the conditions for a
pn-tiv effects of fertilizer were much less uniform
it te healthy trees in the clay. Data from
althoughh less reliable, show some interesting
tthe former, and are given in Table 14.
i,, .i






















'ACT -n

S"um nitrate, ap
Sulphur -------- ------------------
0!;hing ( :cbe&)
Alijm6&dm ph"
Ildtr fff



I r4M
tmto

the 8q-.t1me5j#,o F
,rhofto pf th6 lw
grol",

the lpoi.




;l v 1A


7 7, t V 1 111
0
t0j:


Ao xn-iv bww
`4 AO 7- CVnW .....
Awl
AVWAWWA- AW
O'd









or, vea on, tmx
And addidoxi, Ot Ur-,
fr plicatlons were'&- e
Ap

FigIftre ly'show the
ro, u The tret%,,
.1 4 1 1 -. 'I
'e'' 1 h 6l 1
t t *tj but to i

were vory








a dium nitrate alone applied monthly was much
hen applied semiannually.
owing the first fertilizer application, the leaves
.aa. weighed, the heights were measured and trunks
Sand the woody growth above ground was weighed.
ra~heically shows the development of the young trees in
used in percentages of the check.
*i4trees grown in clay, the group receiving sodium nitrate
iatnd sulphur in addition ranked first in number of leaves and
ht of both leaves and woody growth. In height there was
difference between this group and the two groups receiving
oium sulphate and sodium nitrate, respectively, in semiannual
aions plus sulphur. Considering the data as a whole, it is
.l b-:these two latter groups tied for second place. The group
ing monthly applications of sodium nitrate but no sulphur fell

.' TOTAL FERTILIZE PER CWV APPULED hV PEP/OD OF /0 /MONWS


"MamaE -WIW
sena0 ^ A

.Ram
/w/T~eirr. |J
soewsB|
ffJmi^WW^M
~elFTIP~jllW


ill


l/T.RATE
'U30 TMrCs It
wnevrmuaMS
f./0Mv/AZU".


eCdevr ar To irs FijwrR&z&e",aear


-I-j-.------.4 --- I 4 -


n t2


r--- *--u---n--r I u r-sr-- r y -I w


S 16 n I


S0U It


u
0D5 I
N fl I
n nnI


u || n |
2n-f4
fl4l4+


ii I II I


pg n uI

_na


smm


W/TATF It.
Mimi e'Awfs eq
sRig
S SullYf
Lgs^^grji .
g~TbiYgd/FlyWyk


SEI /T OF TREES


erm man HIMS imm mum
w,--------------

am ...-------ooo oo oo


U
n JJL4
-204--L


a.~..~-. t t _r U A I m I I & -


[ = 1 iU 11I1 o D U


Ill


0 U V 0 U I


l[1 U U 01


S18.-Development of young coffee trees as affected by the nitrogen carrier, frequency
I aplication, and addition of sulphur. Data expressed in percentages of the check
ikae .of test, July, 1925

bhw these three leading groups in weight of both leaves and woody
| &gl mnlad in height, but in every particular it surpassed the group
Ineiting in all an equal quantity of sodium nitrate given in semi-
E i rather than in monthly applications. The two groups given
tiygen ranked below all others in every particular, the differ-
i: i. number and weight of leaves and woody growth being pro-
The group receiving sulphur alone failed to equal the
though. this fact is presumably without significance.
ththe clay and the loam the group receiving sodium nitrate
itionrthly applications plus sulphur ranked first. Equal quantities
At sodium nitrate proved much more effective in small monthly than
Semiannual applications six times as large. The latter proved
siwh less effective than equal quantities of nitrogen in ammonium
p tate.-: Nitrogen was least effective in semiannual applications of
aWta. nitrate alone, and all groups given nitrogen grew better
t.n those to which it was not applied.


';*:' ;k-ssassfa *^

* I nafaJ^
-u


'Iia


Sn U I
tfir


sE n


7 ..


.'4t


7"':a:E<. I
*;.6 : ': "..
ir ... -it,.


aI;


rrff


---- -- --- ----


w' l,. i ... .. .


_ J-J I 1. J


Ij n I n n n11


~~~r~s~r~c ru~s.


: |


U


i.









l7"


05Zww

fsAO a

At,7



mo




lAl
tph w_,t









r 4plh in small monthly rather than in larger semiannual
n, dthe addition of sulphur proved beneficial. Monthly
eains of sodium nitrate with semiannual applications of sul-
r over more effective than semiannual applications of ammo-
Ssulphate. The latter, however, retained its established position
rity over sodium nitrate alone in semiannual applications.
yst and field tests failed to indicate any benefit from liming.
fe etvitdent that the coffee tree responds to fertilization. On cer-
lls #i large increase in production may be expected to follow
H location of suitable chemical fertilizers in sufficient quantity.
need for potash is particularly evident. This is in harmony
ianalyses of the fruit. Anstead and Pittock6 state that "when
Sical analysis of parchment coffee, or coffee berries, is critically
ed one fact at once strikes one as being prominent. *
is a dominant factor in the mineral constituents of the coffee
This is prominently brought out in the ash analysis where
: is more potash than anything else. This being so it is only
to suppose that a fertilizer containing a preponderance of
should help the coffee tree to ripen up and hold its crop."
....ther ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate may be used to
lpply nitrogen, but the employment of the former is preferable,
lcici in a majority of the tests it has clearly demonstrated its superi-
ority over sodium nitrate in semiannual applications.
.i:'the heavy clay soils so extensively planted with coffee in Porto
Aico are for months at a time washed by heavy and frequent rains.
ite surface is generally steeply inclined and subject to rapid drain-
ge.. Under such conditions it is probable that much of the nitrogen
irom large semiannual applications of sodium nitrate would be
washed away without benefit to the trees to which it was applied.
The beneficial effect of potash and nitrogen in combination has been
clearly demonstrated, but the most favorable ratio between the two
remains a problem for future investigations. Until further evidence
is obtained on this point, it is believed that a fertilizer for coffee
shouldd run proportionally high in potash, such, for example, as one
obtained by mixing ammonium sulphate and potassium sulphate in
"nal parts by weight and containing approximately 10 per cent
trogen and 24 per cent potash. This combination may prove ade-
~nate without the addition of phosphoric acid for certain soils. In
her cases it may be advisable to include phosphoric acid, adding to
Ite mixture an equal part by weight of superphosphate. It is sug-
ted that each planter who uses chemical fertilizers for his coffee
rine the need of his soil for phosphoric acid by applying to
mental plats each of these two mixtures. The plats should pref-
ly be adjacent and as nearly as possible alike in slope, soil, and
tion of trees. The fertilizer combination containing only the
elements'may be applied at the rate of 300 pounds to the acre,
.the other at the rate of 450 pounds.
TaD, D., and PITTOCK, C. K. THE VARYING COMPOSITION OF THE COFFEE BERRY
STAGES OF ITS GROWTH AND ITS RELATION TO THB MANURING OF COFFEE
lanters' Chronicle, vol. 8, No. 36, pp. 455, 456. Sept., 1913.
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