Coffee varieties in Porto Rico

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Title:
Coffee varieties in Porto Rico
Series Title:
Bulletin / Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
27 p., xi p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McClelland, T. B ( Thomas Brown ), 1886-
Publisher:
Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication:
Mayagüez, P.R
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Coffee -- Varieties -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by T.B. McClelland.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029614742
oclc - 21270034
System ID:
AA00014651:00001


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t ; UNITED STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
^':::" .' :.iEt T :' ^ N t '.... *
.... '" B' '"BULLETIN NO. 30

DQ. C. ... June0 1924
d ..i .'. ,.. ..,
a J !: 'a. .. .
O VARIETIES IN PORTO RICO.-.
'B1 l : i 'By T.B. MCCLELL AND, Horticulturist.
.... :..E..-. .
: *CONTENTS.
U.
Page. Page.
eoftes-------------------- 1 Kinds of coffees-Continued.
group ------------- 2 Robustoid group-------------- 20
S1ou.---------- 1 Summary -------------. 25


wt 20-year period 1901 to 1920, the three principal articles
i.f Porto Rico were, in the order named, sugar; 'coffee,
While; sugar held first place each year, coffee, held
w3i ple for 1i of the 20 years and for the period as a whole.
47i 4YIe Qe anual prts aggregated -35000,000 pounds, with
.l.n.An anpal exportation, of; over 51,000,000 pounds. In 1920,
iW% .;..-.ponds of coffee, valued at more than $9,000,000, were
|^iz rtod. This valuation is the highest since the American occupa-
'0ThCe; coffee crop thus holds a very prominent place in the
ture of Porto Rico, is one for' which another .crop can not
substituted, and is peculi ly adapted to the mountainous
S..,ther inaccessible. regions in which it is grown.
7!i 1rto Rico Experiment Station, since its establishment, has
iat:4esa reasons been doing everything possible tow develop the
Apyly'by prompting better agricultural methods among local
trSand introducing and testing numerous varieties'and species
melygryown on the island to ascertain which are best suited
r:..nditions. This bulletin gives the results of some of the
Noik., r that, growers contemplating planting new varieties
p ,know with what success they have been grown at the station.'

.f ,, ... KINDS OF COFFEES....
..- ." :i*" "* : :: "- "." :" .'
.ix1 hfes of commercial importance fall into three groups,
biahe Liberian,-and the robustoid. To the. Arabian
1A. .belong the coffees known as Porto Rican, Padang, Bourbon,
ted. Iourlon, .Erecta, Columnaris, Maragogipe, San Ramon,
and species haying little or no economic value on the island are-not discussed
" .. .... ..
...... .. .. W3 a 4 -
"nh"S::' a j.1


































































....... ...... .......



















S'lwlo rIT&is usually. ot) megt two weexs. i abe -I gives
ii, apsqoa nfoe Porto lican coffee, as :shown by the harvest
Sof bvea year from experimental plats located T miles
i age and for other varieties grown at the station.


a *.. ? ,a : ,
ONI"" #6%Z#QS pgd p~ereotutqrflajf oropi har vested each month foIr thsi
rrflrp8pect We vari etes


(( JL-t


4W 4




...............
""::'-.. +' -
ijd 4if lCW 4t -ww ^ *




trIF
A ". -d .........

.. .. 'J
.. .: .

. -f 4 ""


Ij ; > ....


Monthly quantity h rvested f6r the whole period.


Aug.1 Sept.I Oct.


', 4.
&
15

S14
**2





~I~"
*Y **f ;
h : ..


37
W
409
32
31
7-
-5
i-', J. --

'-- ---
( j... ,


P.t.d
- 52
427
.38

41

34
'N

p 3


^--.--


Nov. Dec. "Jan.


P. et.
6
S14

13
22
%21
t'37
"4f

13
7
6
1 44.


P.C'.
,3.

3
i 5
5
26"
18
22

20
19
26
* -9


L .4
4

.,6

.45
43
.46

5
5t
45


Feb.

P.S.

-".-2.





. iQ.
9
13
18.
20
526
5


Mar.,


P..(.--







2
8
9
9
16
28


Apr.

P. f..









. .T.

4
22. 4
22


May.

1,P.e








-.
.....1
18..


uJples of Porto Rican coffee gathered in the vicinity of
: i nfii~, 0 Chrt, rispe@liter 6
th anunb& ofcther per liter ranged from 330 to

n-a v.erage of5.
a Rico coffee is picked by the almud,T a measure of 20

tpity. The average weight of an almud of coffee cherries
aid 35 ounces as determined by measuring and weighing
t* 4j coffee cherries during a period of more than five
fl 2 thVes some idea of the size of the cherries of various
b*I upon the average number per liter.

,,......' ,,"of cherries per liter of different varieties of coffee.
.!? :.. : .,.- ** .. .
B~ai~ji..__._________________________-._________________________________ ______* ________-
I f" AvenLge Average
n-:., v ,,.., number'
.. ... lVariety.
|Tt ..1-'"^ of cherres Vnt.of cherries
I per liter.& perditer.a
S .....--.-... 139 Columnaris. -------------------------- 388
l ....-. ........... '209' Excelsa .......... ................. 410
-----------":~San Rams---------------515
f. l),. .... ....... ..........................
& ii. .- 2. 'Moc.h........ '... I Mol a i................... ... .... .
.,- ............ 328 RoDusta ............................... ..
.... '32 Conge.sis hybrids- ...............:.-- ......-
Ca.e.h.f.... ... .4
.j ........... .. ... 35 f Q ll hybr.s.... ... ...... ............ ".
"^;.."i~~~35 3Qu-.l ;; *.^---o--n:-------------------- ---*?* **.-si
lBultld ftm tib boit of cherries in 4 to 21 liter measures, excepting C. d ewi tree No. .510.
ioeflmatlng s im for other varieties this number is, for purposes of comparison, arbi-
..-to bt -be TApremnet&tir ef ous of JPorto. Rican coffee cherries as grown in

4i.. c e. 9 yields nt 6 pounds o. arketabia coffe. On p ofud
al ut (22. pound of marketable coffee, and, 1 liter ef cherries about 0.8
iMrketable coffee. Approximately 800 pounds of marketable coffee iW 9preded
4'Ylu O Port ico per annum.
....:.... ... .
S'' P).
b!mlL?'u":htI.E: ". I: : .


.1 .
June. July.

P. .t 'P. d.
...... ......

...-.. -......
-;....... ....
------ ------
-.... ......
-...-.. ......
c I t l
...... -.....
'"-- 1E-EE

---,-.. ..-...

5 -7




























00

dam




Uf
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IN,
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*0
".CW


114k 4 l



ox&opt4m 4H,

'144
f 0 J, 4,






*004 oo, 4x



............ ......... r4,






A- Wr
gooAs llyb
b- b


1 4"r: r, e,- r7%, 4 vm 'f T, IF V,'W

0 4.15 pet Nat' wwol othm itit w4s
dii iftlb
mm*Vj












lj IM t-iwim..iiaa ,uuv .vmmw, wht* 't r.uuu :VlWit3 ll. 1,i1W inUUiS,:O
"w'wncu "."lrfdum' *' ., .J t -
k." ei 9, p occurring during preparation for
0.t .. ZIC. i .. t *: )I. .. ...

AlNEb 01*otordliig to ratioof weight or- cofee cherry to weight of 'leuef&beaa.]
i ....... I-



K K .Frost ,' yPr1esh. weight i,, '
i* *Sit of sun- of coffee from dry
~ amudofcleaned required
I :. ." .. "i :coffee fo m nt to
cherries.'. iad cleaned
'Pounds. Pot :- .~~A 4)'' -, ; _,




..' 1 ,. .. ,. .... ... ... ..... .. .. 72 12
hybrids ...... ......................... ... 7 t2 13

T-V '... 2 M 6,. 1 4 1
::. .. .. .....:!~ .: .! ,, ,, ...... ...... ... 2, 5'jip t'eight









i)p|.wc ^f~ ........h.........cOk for 17^
St........... .... ... .. ............................ ......... e wh e
..i .a ..) o e.. oAp5-t-- -
.. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. 28 5 5.7 i8
.... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 28f 41 6.3 19
almuod 7 cne.......................e28j o6.3 16
.... 2A +6.6 18
.. .......................4. .eries



Sft four from 500 gras each of parent coffee rather than from the almud. A
w favorable ratio, surpassedtin 17t theits'gou b
asi, eek~.p~'a~ntao.. n t 7 bees east f EayagUeZ wr te ln
9d! trd* a coffgp~t7~ bu7 lwe h adI





1A3 TB~~H ;1Te
jpBp & ,tr- :. orable ratio, s rpassed'in this group by

Jll wj,4 adF, i- 11 '1
'st~ta *. CJ(AEACTERI8TICS ot PORTO RICAN corinc.
.V. ....r. ..
Ri" -: OHM.t ba' be'n p:'ua ]Erp but is.1ito know















MorQ iiwuvtt years past France hs difered. the best market in Europe for Porto
!iW Nf) coffee and ranks,;next to Cubwhich takes the bulk of the crop. *, *
S 'e current retail p 'tl for a good grade of Porto Rican coffee is 7.7 cents
yv p.1216. For purpos of comparison It may be stated that the retail prices
0 9Vr'omdnfifbr othet coffees. are tow as follows, in cents: St- Marc, 32.2; Mala-
.t...... Sntos 8I.S 31.3; Gonaives, 81.83;Mocha, 86.; Java, 36.8 ; Bo-
Tbeg m7t Port Rican coffee it highly regarded in France and is frequently
M .4 .. *.: - '- -













yihln~cadi Qwith >Mocha in^ equal proportions.' *
*.. .The- sper'ior grades of coffee from Porto Rico now .rank -among
lw,b,,..t(.igbowths produced, anywhere.. .....' 1
.... ..
llm~~~ i 1'

*l~l a zoa rte rn'pt '.~ "'1 *: "
i^SSa .y iwo^ J iti s.o asbout H astA Prace Dalyz where: hand i


l E: t^...:. o j ~ ~ i i 'p .... : ... ..... *^ ;











7:,asi,
.. ..
,!a1t :









































........




FOR~ V




;'i'lmtl4K


"tV

Porto,
hm,






14




had drawn *16' "r
Mow
the, h
1911"


PAM 'I
.,Tra" lour (191
*ul
















.offe7ee plantation, and .it pibrer thawi on. many planta-
grove is located .on an elevation just above sea level,
are less ftavortble for;'Arabian coffee than is the
I .rADANe'tcYFF.EE.'^ : ^*

0:pflj highzl thought of in the wbrkds markets. .(In
.'#dvM-Ws quoted it 22 to 24tceits with, Pofto> Rieitn
ap u~iCL7. I ,-i,7', )
Ovilm iszasBumatrait rarity, theseed df which was- received
t 14 station from the Botanic flarl ns, ,Buitexizorg,
1.) n general appearance both tree,-aad bean
r|FibsPorto itiica MMoe- than 250 trees 'of Paing
leli planted ct 4th4; station .i Seed Was planted in' Deceta-
Stumd thin edlimgs were transplainted tb the fid to an area
qnqcre zthe followig August. They were 4, .d; 9, and 10
hitresptively,.xn MeaicA-f 1911, 19t, 1913, haX$ 1914.
weweiamidt bri hbth fertilized mandn .unftrtilized ground,
uriif4 91T cr op. The dferilised plat for the 11-year
l annually yielded an averaage of abdut &1 liters of
l4~pite.^aaxdntthe untrtiiid plat, approximately 2.7 liters
uu&t yit eld 'o^tMi-itetsY I -***-- / :p-. ;.*
flabian *varieties 'thk- Padang .'bean ranks next largest
4v|m S^i^adang loses considerably in' Weight'frmn 'cherry
di bhattwhen prepartd for market, theoe being mnch dess
teqfl tper. slinud than iiil case; of the Porta' Ricavn varit.
a *le 4 :.l I :. *i**.i H 'I .* f
.*:W ; 1ii 7^ >: *j* *B lUa a ON ..- .* *.. *'*- **[


I-*..,
A_ ..'L ;::.. _


Wi"nnanit says that Bourbon coffee, owing to its fine aroma,
b one of the most highly esteemed sorts. (Pl. V,
tb Li&&r' it is grncw in the depest"and rich-
Mt&Oii-fiPrhW ~plaoh f the State bf RSI PLO l6
>t' ~ i*&efaiitg In its tquiirmehlrts thanw 'the1 Ordi-

4r^Ibiithis .variety was received from J. 1i.,
. _.Er ar co.teI A& t tiouH at Santa Ana, Itepublii lEt
Afimcbt 'rot6 eiiigi:~.
takuBourbqn. I have Ipojqbon out in sun
Eb6P' places It loks weft, *Ad
Owve apod cro them" A.
Ubwfiaftayiesld of marketable coffee per tree, or per acre, arbitrarily gswum!
easily, be weitd, there are about 4 literrf eheIrest
litliflba~^ tt p ~ MYM a~^eoff&t beatgL' nit ** l^'
plaster tropiamis r 1
(8*6*11)} p. S9. Amour La11fre. 1909, p. 39.
Laflire


I


.:.::.







S


Bul. 30, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station.


PLATE I.


S:;,:* ,
W'
YN


r
k


FIG. I.-COFFEE FOLIAGE: I, PORTO RICAN; 2, PADANG; 3, COLUMNARIS; 4,
ERECTA; 5. BOURBON; 6, POINTED BOURBON; 7, SAN RAM6N; 8, MURTA;
9, MOCHA; 10, MARAGOGIPE; II, C. QUILLOU; 12, C. DYBOWSKII; 13, C.
LIBERICA; 14, C. DEWEVREI; 15, C. EXCELSA; 16, C. CANEPHORA; 17, C.
ROBUSTA.


s*O So*@fo
SpttlA ;.t*- ". *,* ". pf 7- ^ r- )L %~H'-^ ;


O O%0 O O oN oo oo
BRSCTA BYJQOW u'*', 3"; ^! ,'u ,*TA f' tA!.. '"1^^


S.
r* .'I
C DTL O-f'K .i I


C. L.EnFICA


* C. RMESTA C. CA4-%vl"^RA C. GOlILLOU C. CrVGDAIT Wi C% Hp: f: 3 1i3R;B
,,~~-- -O ----- OO


0*
-. 7s'-_-5A


FIG. 2.-COFFEE BEANS.


. l., rcm f.,T


0 6



















lw A W-ft




Mf.
It






OF
%vo 'je









I A
4L





ik







14





OK










. ...... .




I c 0













































FIG. I.-COLUMNARIS COFFEE.


FIG. 2.-MARAGOGIPE AT LEFT, AND SAN RAMON AT
RIGHT, WITH THE INTERMEDIATE AND PROBABLE
HYBRID FORM BETWEEN THE TWO.


| ...........
















lawi






4 'i %i







iiiiiii A

Mi
4iiiiiiii









A;*
grol
anclies frid"NvW the'-'
b,Ue,4. duaidn
-The, pro
'T ible,_ 6., ..... ..
ei4i *zkk E_W m4bAd 1mialt c6r- 6-- but Withfertil
47 tms st 14 Q k4
101 at ation inaximum for Arabiaxi coff* 8.4-'N
ep Both. cherry. and baaA ra*
P6it.6'-R.kai;-bUt-th-er.oducti'on'-ini wedight in the
repairati for ma4mt, was less f avora-ble than a*
"C__,The tw,,d. *Yb6 iiiiW f6.r ar'.

-iw 0 a Perl ree-ardiediln T*41a 6
It for ttw.


re*741, frpng the.
IT $
y ... : I %
tO O
Fj disUfte-tive-lby, tis.vigorous growth; the free- may-'beeoide
ga japg Cblum age. A". h
Weaftble for dry climatm. 4C was... #WovereA by.:-A iN1 "si
his estate P4aiper,'
410, tx presummbly,7W, nantnfliis fNx*smd
tbo feld. Since f heo' ifoot ch
Pvp1w*dj bA;- dL# v&the- n
-W laueh. more t.h& Afto
WW f a VoLbreCh is less t.
appesmn e isthat -of coRemyradmeed An
T b sBv* eral thousand e
ition' f f L' IN Uunk Is ki
q",Oiry 1-ftb=1,sarwve-r I being 8.
On OCJ ij 'growths am Pr*-
4 T 41 ffi- many a ds
f he tramhqs ",ft dio #rokmdq orpaii49 a
grU AU Ir 1 lom
:, 0,znd.. i i stinct' a,
*e M *-
lx Th'
years as-- low6r lateral, arelost- and thetalft tru"k,
Asi, bpavy,:01*p, is: and conse mt production of- new up-
lar d should produce. big cro Dub to&,N
go an Ps;
:Pickin r* is difficult Th variety both, bloss6 *t
4&r in t ihan 46m thei typical, Arabiag 14
bv a m, onth or m: (Ste,
#0 'Aicsn variety mo
Wuumatis produced its first' Sm''RU crop in 19
Outoffee bega,
Arabi i6
_o-,Oaw_ average _,n to
= pbamd in X, 1913, bnd sef IA' tfie R
A
ing in .1919 -',w, th ewili
5 came i-o-to hfirinmj4g e malili
_War 1.
Ulii6li4 iety. Yields;
fS O -ar m
d &
ail 1. y so, nt mo

tA ftdioi4 -Pr, P.. Jr. S. kram*4r. Tea and CO* Tr








































































inlip










Mum a to o. ba to 1, gave b pounas ot marketable beans. (Table 4.)
iWy be mixed:with the Porto -Rican, from which it is in-
"i m'a&ppenDe.'. Its cup flavor is excellent.
is isreconmmended for planting because of its vigorous
Soall poducitiity, ii1atiVdy large bean, and cup flavor.
[I ..- -"A',. '* '"l : :' ". ". "" : : *, ;
MABAGOGIP&
'ittet Maragogpe was, discovered in 1870 near the
'tftbb same rmes in Bahia Brazil.: He also says that the
~*maiklly inpart*dant: alid has been rather extensively
t. fli na Seed of this variety was, received by the station
Sihtemnla and from Java& In September, 1909, 153 trees, pre-
pl r2S months from seed, were set in the field. Root disease
.w .in the soil has slowly and steadily reduced the number of trees,
the Col2Xnajrisplating.'
tpes' differs from typical Arabian in both foliage and :in-
eigttk, (PL M.1I, fig. 2.) The internodes attain such a
i^.limit, theibr-- productionon a. given area of branch and
treeJ.b pree a tragghling appearance. The longer
k the uprights may range from 7 inches to over a foot- in
j..is trim of the other varieties, the internodal length varies
l The.internodal lengths measured, from base to tip, 6,
t II46;1, ad,' 21-inches on a representative lateral branch,
..... .above a 9-inch internoda. The leaves of the variety
.i....athzb timeof, other varieties of Arabia coffee, some of
l| fgg .from?1.to 10 inches: in length and 3 to 4 inches in
rl ,Inthapexalso: ders,.being: lanceolate, with an. upper
it ripening season of Maragogipe is almost as late as that of
hfl| isri8:.(See Tahe. 1.) The record of yield for the 11-year
5S11915 19. is shown i Table In the last four crops are
deado yenger trees',i-t morethan 5 years old, which were set
qaded tIree Not only was the average annual yield for the
m period low, being 1.6 liters of coffee cherries to a tree, but the
i. average -annual yield was only 2.4 liters.
'es and bean of Maraggipe are the largest among the
iee H Ii. a cunim o# the cherries in 10 liters of each it
Jiioblyj59 per cent as: many Maragogipe cherries were
df PortojcaMnto fill the measure. The 1.000-bean weight
e a.,n-1ieaviet for Maragogipe than for the Mayaguez
tRi drto-fl ia: coffee., (Se Table 3.) From an almud of
W.. eoi. ounces of marketable coffee was obtained, and the
(niBduati si weighth, 5.5 to 1, was very favorable. The cup
tis much, more: distinctive than is true of the other coffee
L e at the station. Doctor Cramer' 19says that it is the
^R^^o.ee.kiown; it has a highly developed, splendid flavor.
S^ S.-*" 18L.... I" IrMdon. 1909, p. 16. _
B 'S^&]Dtch East Iadies. Dr. P. J. S. Cramer. Tea and Coffee Trade Jour.,
I' sm ..
II' :" r."










A) fi"ne w
"I I

H i !nci *V
-im o m im ta k 1 o U k" h 'it
i! emi w o .i mi A & s~


in is
iA
f 6Wi
196 90prC "C .lt
on-t- wt" ,4 s* 0
th a mIid 4 M O~~db j f~j%







1dre^p red while that over the convex face of the bean is
......The: e.rry- i" e considerably smaller than the Porto
". 14 pet cent more San Ram6n cherries being required to fill
:..easre thMan'of Porto Rican grown at Mayaguez. The dif-
i'ih aize of bean is less pronounced, the long dimension of San
bein shorter than that of the Porto Rican. This difference is
)Ileen to warrant any distinction in picking or marketing,
One thousand moisture-free San Ramon beans were found
8Ppier cent asmuch as thie Porto Rican (Mayaguez). When
i u.M padres ofR the two were compared, San Ramon yielded the
marketable coffee. An almud of San Ramon coffee gave the
-yield of marketable beans, 5 pounds 11 ounces, the most fa-
ratio of reduction in weight from cherry to bean, 5.1 to 1,
M ftaItst loss in weight, 15 per cent, through the removal of
|tuof any oftheArabian group tested. (See Table 4.)
alnnIs recommended for trial in exposed situations where
S.t..i.bian coffee does not do so well. Its stocky growth
uha v sting, but the small size of the beans is a disad-
.... .in marketing, as large beans sell at better prices.
&e San Ram6n planting at the station two trees are apparently
between San RamMn and Maragogipe. In form these
Iik^th& San Ram6n, having short internodes and dwarf,
4lveloprmeat, while in size the foliage and fruit closely ap-
ragXp&.. (PL III, fig. 2.) Some of the leaves are in-
between the two varieties in shape. The bean is fully as
J lt of Maragogipe, but somewhat shorter. It is, how-
4|| L-11bly larger than the other Arabian varieties at the sta-
.1 fact that this cross embodies a valuable quality from each
pIL.rent suggests the advisability of planting a few alter-
i rows of each parent in an isolated location and emasculating
| -$n6f-n Ram6n prior to opening, in order that first genera-
li3ns. in quantity may be secured with comparatively little
i-ii? *" ,' M A- -.'
AtliOle more than 200 years ago practically all the coffee exported
ma Arabia was shipped througW the port of Mocha for exporta-
m whence came the name "Mocha coffee." The production of
Aie Mocha is extremely limited and relatively insignificant in
Isutity, but, owing to the establishment of the name as a trade
-deididerjble quantities of coffee from various sources have been
a Mocha. Mocha coffee brought higher retail prices than any
U sort ov the New' York market on April 11, 1922.21 Mocha
Slebi quite& distinct itm typical Arabian. -Doctor Cramer22
Ii*t- that it is perhapss a distinct species (C. mokla)2" although
.iHsss-itts*,t Variety of 6.,drabica, of which usually it is con-
S .lof Mola: coffee was received by the station from Java, and
!$eptetber, 1909, 293 young trees, 12 to 18 inches high and pre-
Baly18 to 20 -onths-old, were'set in the field. Two years later
.c..iies unt: Wholesale and retail. Tea and Coffee Trade Jour., vol 42. No. 4,
|ii!P (1922.) -
B of the Dutch Bast Indies. Dr. P. J. S. Cramer. Tea and Coffee Trade Jour.,
=11 O4, p. 321.












































10


ofu

jltt 4,






box,


dmdrY., Arab

2'tflv"- j


je W
Co&ft Prodintion, tr&&, a
7% a ft,
*Oir RICO tu,%'p&.














'|( 6ot -1.br than 0.5 of a liter of cherries, the
ii t."ct 1.,a-t a liter, and the others only 1 or 2 cherries.
yiB. s .in tubsbquent years are given in Table 6. The
tEr0d~ution" was 1 small. .... .
15M V.easn for Murta. is about the same as for the native
"i e itry and bean of the two coffees are indistinguish-
Sip -pesranee. Murta is good in cup quality. Late-
.. w "ito bep.ring ahnd low yields- are disadvantages, but
i.... ..t. [ to the small size of the tree, is in favor of this
A'Mlt". distance of 4. by 6; feet is recommended for
.dt tMtlfough.close planting the acre yield may be
Iiwly for t:bhvatriety tp compare favorably with other
^ p 'i,"e ^ -'. ; .. .. -.. ... .. :..I .. ,; ..IA N ; W.-.-.: *. *
zi t aan",offee is considered inferior. in ..quality to
*. jiandfor it is .I limited. In growth this group
Xwhe 4rsbian, 4he plants assuming the proportions and
ree. atr. than of .hrubs. Harvesting is rather,
.i3mg o tl i U1t attained by :the trees., Liberian coffee
..... rwi .out shade in regions where Arabian coffee
SThJeq.jqs are large and stiff, and due presumably
AI0ItW1LII|rY textqre .are less susceptible to attacks of the
SP a.aPOee ode there two groups.26 In all species
1 "grpup, lIsaex ted, the fruit is large and the .
and firm, f6SuxPS whi.e. make removal of the seed

u $ ... u :.. .I .
:j~ ~ 'i ^, d ^'.*" '. /.. '* *. : .** .- .'*:. -' *'* -* : .. >"
jti ia, Orahan rites a..,f
i!E :. '. : I: _

in this. comxIry, know, as Coffea ,iberwoG, is cultivated very
iot,< .wo!4i .ost-vlaand. or on hills of no, great altitude. ,,. *
4nistt ..ten" attain a height of from 30 to-40 fet. The berry
.S.0j14--7 b.-40 r cent stronger in flavor, hence it is -used to a
5bt i:irendtng with Uild coffees. "
.. .b... t h. .. 0 '
f tjpiad. rr Iyw"ieasuxe 50 feet in'.height. It is better ,
mlgeraWitiltUs; tegf6nh near .sea level are the bedt. The -.
.b bi"e 'tle largest kiawn in coffee, 0. Th4 produce is' esttned
rn.ittpk of- its taste, having. little ,flavor but mu..ch ",body, a.nd ..t ,I
umedlor'blends withW highly flavored qualities bt lacking body, / *
.cftee has tieen practically given up here [rava], .
1 is miner causes large lomse in certain sections of the island.
Production, trade, and consumption, by countries. U. S. Dept. Ag.. Bur. Sta-
.. .. 9,. Q iQ ,.
of te Dutcl East Indies. Dr P. S. Cramer. Tea nd Coffee Tre Jour.,
2,..p. 23. 24. (1919.)
t_,,





















I-NA




rollo,
IX













ilop
- a

jQ0
. *
:2
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Bul. 30, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station.


FIG. 1.-BOURBON COFFEE.


AS
r.... ... .

.. ."i



rA
II


1 ,:


I


FIG. 2.-HETEROGENEOUS FORMS FOUND IN SEEDLINGS


PLATE V.


OF MURTA COFFEE.

















S-1
j-A


At
40






4 1 iA





rse


'OPW










I VV

44













lp
























































FIG. I.-COFFEA DEWEVREI; TREE No.
LITERS OF CHERRIES HAD JUST
FROM IT.


1007,
BEEN


AFTER 8 FIG. 2.-COFFEA EXCELSA WITH FRUIT.
PICKED


0
w
-o
0
*O

0
o
o
0
0


m
X
"o

U)

5-I
0



















'I
3










m





































FIG. I.-COFFEA EXCELSA AT A LITTLE MORE THAN 6 YEARS FROM PLANT-"''
ING SEED. ..:E.






I.
: [" '~~ ~


.... ....:.. ...
*::. : *:


lilJil



.. : "


-I'


FIG. 2.-COFFEA ROBUSTA AT 31 YEARS FROM PLANTING SEED.







iv

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ell
iv f












































































AL
pa
-4







lfiett' ofth&KLAiberian groizp of coffees $o
HM'lt'( at 's!tation[-. good' Vp qt-ality, vigorous ro*th,
4iWMtlin h (46: thi Liborian group) atio of reduction in
j i 4, i.i.ti...f ps'roditctivity, an& resistance to the leaf miner
dili for .trial;, titally in. locijities which suffer fnm
ISlmt .7 Mp511 i
A' &
.i : .. .. =.:. ....' .. .
r iA indigenobs& iir Afriapn Cong6, wence seed, was
iBexp1eA; 'staiii imbe 191. The sta-
tm~g> shows ail e~rtrekinef ~id6 tariatico iu type, and sug-
t heteroneous colectjon of several .vy eties, Individual trees
|asinen of foliage; in color of blossoms, some being white and
pale pink; in nui.ber of Reals flowers having five, six,
i^akza tha y as Mght etals; n siz shake and color of cherry;
,.-.. P u l p .. ..,0 .;t < ..
rotl wun, or flatness of nazi ;.in thickness of ulp; in
S6. rhi d!Wrskfn aId insh3p of l. :. b en.
'191 56'irees were 'ranslatdefroi..rm the nursery t1
d," ttees t beitm3iee ih. Twh yars later
n.......... i ttined an' average hght of f.eet, and annually
for five years they were 7f, 94, i1, andl, feet high, re-
In another' Wo years the svhrage he"s lj
|g^ + A wereus abut'2 eet high. (tfl f ig, .) uy
t_' lSiae, Said to attam.in a heigh 50,,feet. Some
Ma tall doflmnar; growtji ad develop rather
'It tiranhvhe, whij Oters spread eto pyramidal form and
.:^^ f i ." t jl ^j...... .. .. : f *' "' :.: ",t, ', ". ; 1. '. ., '. i ..'' ," ." t :- rf .< ,1 *
ji-'. '' ".S 3 V t" ..:*.i. "Etf" '*^?1(, "j". :" 1 ':, *- "t '' "<' .* '*. ,'i '" j'1 ^^ '' '*G:::::!"K i~ i' :+ik '~ti ": ; "j~ ,:l~ 'fv i.++ li ...^& irnth rfT^_ ^&i^ w/'I o t e snd 1 ra m*^ T .da lIn Tr fo r n
,*| : .,* .. ..t ., .. v. W ?r a A. .
A.s.t#4!,... ... i .. I" j.44 ttik ?sterla I hplanttiitm.t practice it is Td-
H:"!!!-:~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .",. ,,,< ,,..., ;~ +,,WSS .".,+ PLi ."+.. UJ 1H JLl:1dJ tlU .P. ..[il~-.. l. +. S~l
H+nite g t fot'i ligt to12' feet order' t, facitate picking.
.A. like ot6ths o1. th6 Li~iernau~tihp.ave dark green,
..y.ito ev14T h6iosh in length by 3Zj to 6
+~it fi. +"+ + breaid f fi^: eie';-n u tS l b in"- .... !Bnd in some instances
S... "..~~"'. In generalthb lMa, shape s sUbspatulate. with
....... ....a acute to obtuse apex, and has a slightly wavy
fooi dense, the
S:^. Te foag~e is dense, the tree fqomng a close screen.
-Pa ..... .I'' e +.r,: .. ... J ." .., ( f :
0 I tiast :O1le trees the cherries are more closely clustered and
their pulp is thinner than is the case with Liberian. Counts of 11
samples of cherries, picked from eight trees individually, showed
er 208 agid .329 specimens per liter, with an average, of 263
P.I...t Y, f.Sg.,I.)i color scheme the cherries are reddish-
S^pr&wmg in some a solid effect, or yellow striped with red.
4dferwiVdel in their season of ripening, and ma-
k4.ma be quadA o6t some trees during almost any month
A ." q d'' almost. any"+ "
The oifr pc r the crp has ripened in the winter
*tS rtIe spt op. -
Y.Acae into hearing in the winter of 1915-16. The. Aiver-
J ne .plautintmgas a whole and tli.eiiiual yield, f four
Aet tresfor that period., and for subsquent years, zs..pven
abel Onpysris bccasipns more than, an almu4, of 'herres
1iedfro. a single tree ft one picking. iTh 4rop, of
,,. iii ;M+^t^* t :.tj_- e, '+ ... ^ j ." 1. < ^ ; ~
a,. 4,i9., tBS 1 ,k. n togemieir towed &pn.g, !w-s- anap i I
h :' s aud PW. tree foi 3 per. cent of the trees. .
& "::"- 'i be4 is intpeTh te in, rize bewtion that ofthq +fara-
F" gogipe Laanlg. The ratio of reduction in weight for th6















































































- t4




















At







































Al
fq% I-





a I., IV










#w t0 %%ty a FA ee- me pro 9Atiy a group :ot coIees
^E^BM~fw!~e^Be^Tr1^k1*a^rfbmi & pur ipecis -.;T JLrpdity'-witii
.potep h bepakpa ue.'.p -byYI:b JaIvan planters has
,WiM20.yea,= of its introduction, 298,774 acres,
..f theiptpl an incojteejthe Dutch East Indies
tpbusjwbilosy 191780 acrs, or 5.5 percent, wee
UII%(flq91W n#1 Poetpr Cramer writes as follows:4
!, :i tt j4 f .i# gr'gwth Wfly fruitting and high productivity,
9ll.4 t,,Ud..ater, eMiaI.y thoe: with regularly divided rains.
S a:taro3; sea S 1]eL, toq Rr. thn 3000 .e.t and in Sumatra
'i" Itud4a !Th. general altitude for it may be put at 1,000 to
abO' 'level." .. Itotuista 0lioes npt like wind, and surfers
li." eostinnohsy dwy winds; it require shadee; at least In higher
^" j.E II4W favorable coudo&ti; *ao, crop may be. 1,520 pounds
naia Tpouwdn Per acre.
Wt. nnnnd
Acrop comes In all the yecr rfid. in clUmates with regularly
W;Inthldi$ With a shaly"iljatked "dry season the crop
falt *tbkVacedrdlng -t b the'in Ki! Lmk
W" kIW. bedW-*e are neti t appreciated. as ether kinds.
K .. avv u r..g Sapt o. To clean the means s from: the
IlIH hp l/, 'pecbdd quality. obtained. Robusta is
l pro~ao Ubdf, n antannd: v.coffeea, taDny qnUEty: .- *
FQrousod cOT e hvyebeen received under such
|. Ca ,*M4C& (Co ~& 'ulfr4^ Cofa oaephora,^ Cofica
PI. prhe been applied ta
M Ahi^ he pla ntmgvs
fes whw were propagited by seed and
Shi. '.cr .s. s riine instances differences can be
%l *it*f fit Jiffdwent in name' i4 the only dissimilarity.
UIt O d.'lBsed it the otup known as iRobusta
r ai"4. 3didd the Station ,plantings from seed
.ndd# that h eadifn.
= .. .
'Maqtt g v t- An.:,, z w 4."r.; -I J.. .
U.t "' l A t.
p....... elee se.d of dth best %xt of ,o-busts, coffee wn


begOtit f' h e( was
24VPit9 A a 'rti eegi-feadh lot ereft 'lostw jitjij the

ernigingtbe^ bK5W sfir jt thle firt4 Wiiti of
-to th Ve height was onir&O 'ihsis&Ir thn
*^l~gj~ii!^ ]theil firbt^ ^(a^^sN1. *16fewi
,*he zih bt avera tge4
but'j~fhr~' as ontWl~g B K
W.J G'Iiel fi# tgra II~'IktI oks 1u~~.
!E u .'Ar I:) ,' ,Iu )r]qqI t h ,,S: .4 .. *j ii.f ,P Hijt
l||R~xMq 'I..dA1;.l:f~~i' hi yINjrji-sjR .1-i 74IW PJOPAmASh x"Po'. 4 P@Wio AN$


















nib
ILI
X7l
ml bt fl

but a aV n pl
1+ N











*~ ...Si fro.. the trench Uovernment in' 1r90., has fruited
seasons, givng a maximura yield ot 44lAttersof ciher-
I(PR XI, 4figl7) aTwc pbmtin~s have been
'lkp4 '. f trees" from keed sown inthlast quar-
t 60 ties fr.n ,m e wtmvii w year' liter. Seed
tithe otrter ;ame fromnvle Sav Experiment
iof tw ) zptgds shvWun in Table 6.
ofli~ei eighg29 ?O dafttpiokin lrgave6 pounds
*nhitts 14 O rei6tion'! weight the ratioiof
4 4l:'. almud, piek6d in. a different season, weighAng 29
I^ ^ E a 7. poundit ound.es of markeable beans, or a
icght inthe ratio of4 to 1. Cotmtsof six samples
*|552. and 704 ah. -es.pe liter, ith an average of 654;
.%seleted: beans. from w ltke'an representative lot of
AVifld 6 te^r doff^ ICO MeU n utlfor purposes of
I 21w lexigthbresclthand tickas 6tbustd averaged
'millimeters .respetiv.y and Iv .ephta; 6.2: 6.6,f and
is istisly, sh~o in ,tb., latter, to be' the. smaller .in
ith:reeimensions.:.5 AS is tre 6 Robusta, thc silver skin
c*. to:, the sed.. f,'. eatphto rbut it is. more uniforxny
ioloW than is the former. .' ,<
r .Lzxamwit,..: :..
Li'.,' ::

Wuasde urti( i' j P No. 280804, which is culti-
g4Ji~ree State Airiua',and'ifaown ialso 4a. r6bwUstati
..i.....A.( P. .. A....hhas ot.bden: 16bserved to
EeB'fTbhit therdtRobustna coffees and, has'fruite4 4vexy heavily;
ani)Q...Cho. is Ma .,e.dn.. I' seasOn
* oag. it 4 iters~ a.a little-lesi thbxit 'a&talmkxd) 'of cherries.
^ajreMe sm te^shovtedv588I fl^ dt'hefre liter,
41.V .w:1~ 9ti dPIh *
: I ta'p "U ,:. .. h.I 'i i '> r j "" .j.. I %I .

4.Vi.imo iit a-V('.4a#M'I froi te Fhich ConI
tn~r~xerieat Sttiq, wicl Jaetdupple3 -the Por to
&....gi seed. Doctor Cramern states that under favor-
4,^ % 2 O pP ..b t r,.z4t-a coffee
W'dde .tVpbo.ic')jo:,PiS




iaujn 0Je 94 and
,. .,.,. ,.,, .ff 1 .+ 0.




4hA^#o^n4 oP 80 tree Ms
Dde I.5,:n~d set. in 4efil
S The derelopmeht has behSdwuq Us gopd sil.
g+.K5*~~ ;.: .,.. *h. Jba. J< ,A / Z ;< + +,K~ .' -L "- "s* *





R*pi~i^ rro tnosj otJaiup tntbte r more cQRi~pa4,
If I: ..nd.ia. Dr. P. J Cra. a, CeftepiiradeqJoar.
:;g> l!':r N B,. 120. ; ^ ... *,O i ,;!:,h ^, j..f^' ^'.. +, i,




lyN. B.- Ciim'r.' '" "
and. ;r ".0r.O
eAt" I.0, hPr
9' :.',: :, .:4
C:a ..'ed otr.raa ttsta ne ao






























.! ...
..I...

01
i rl I







Bul. 30, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station.


FIG. I.-COFFEA QUILLOU IN BLOSSOM, FROM ABOVE.


FIG. 2.-COFFEA ROBUSTA IN FRUIT.


PLATE I X.
































V

m



Fia. L-COFFEA LAURENT11 (S. P. No 28080)AT A Fla. 2.-OofFEA ROBUSTA IN BLOSSOM.
LITTLE OVER 4 YEARS FRO SE;;INQ.











Bul. 30, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station.


PLATE XI.
M_ a. ,


FIG. I.-COFFEA CANEPHORA BENT WITH HEAVY CROP.


FIG. 2.---COFFEA CONGENSIS HYBRID IN FIRST PLANTING.





















































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4 2.4
S WN
W f
Jc
P MW
4V
2.4 IL* Tqp
ww!
WX

q,
cr .
b. 13
0 pot..'
N A .......... .........
.. ... ... .. I



ON'



16 F W i,







41.



its A f IN
'L. ii A i 3 7p:...
HO i'
.14, A ivt

kv.

it
.. ......... .. g ...'

W. i.
log


MWI ib
wk Aw
4 '441 4?
7 00
MOM r AIT wr
'z L .1 1p .. ,
F.. Fk 19
mw ;::. ilw ri MR.
L

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r

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Mimi




















I less subject to leaf miner attacks, presumably on account
tyt-y ure of the leaf. Excelsa seems to be the most
Sef thisgroup so far tested. Certain individuals of
hie hwn themselves very prolific and give much

h&.-psad related varieties are planted in certain coffee-
b tes for their heavy production. While the average
ti s ~station has not been high; the tests have been of
tionh for the Arabian varieties. The yield of cer-
K, ih.Js been high, indicating either heavy-yielding
yields for plantings under favorable conditions.
te many points in its favor, Robusta coffee is
ality, V fact which should be borne in mind by
ipanting itc


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