Vanilla

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Material Information

Title:
Vanilla a promising new crop for Porto Rico
Series Title:
Bulletin / Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
32 p., iii p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McClelland, T. B ( Thomas Brown ), 1886-
Publisher:
Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication:
Mayagüez, P.R
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Vanilla   ( lcsh )
Vanilla industry -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by T.B. McClelland.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 020026590
oclc - 21269928
Classification:
lcc - S181 .E2 no.26
ddc - 630.7 ǂb P82b, no.26
System ID:
AA00014648:00001


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ORTO RICO AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,
D. W. MAY, Agronomist in Charge,
Mayaguez P. R.

BULLETIN No. 26.


Under the supervision of the STATES RELATIONS SERVICE,
Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture.


VANILLA:


A PROMISING NEW CROP FOR

PORTO RICO.


T. B. McCLELLAND, Horticulturist.


Issued April 17, 1919.


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WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1919.


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PORTO a'lxtr AkGt c0 'T1 'A
of

E. W. ALLEN, Chief of Ofi, 4x ernt Statit'
WALTR. HI. EvANs, Chief of. Diiision of _Intla tti Office of
STATIONSAF
D, W. MAY, AgronomistinCag,
-l/

T. B. McCLEMLLAND, Rortclult
W. V. TOWERp, Entomolgs.
F.- E. KE~MPTON,'an Patoloist
L. G. WImLis, Chemist.
H. C. HENRICKSEN, Spe s i amm Ggantg9wt,
W. A. MACE, Agricultura Tekooist.
J.0. CARRERO, Assistan heit 1*i
W. P. SNYDER, Assistant inPln Breeding.
C. ALEMARY Jr., vlerkV.


LETTER. OF TRANSMITTAL.


Popmo Rico AGRICLTUAL EXharmaT STA7toW
-`:ayguez, P. R., September 1#1,
SIR.: I submit herewith a manuscripton vanill owing in. Porto Ried.
embodies the results of several -years' experiene the rather extended in
having: been necessitated by the fact that vry lite had'been done in'the,
study- of this exotic*, Though its value. dped ipon the careful ramn
bean in the curing process, so much is frequntl left tp chance thatgea
often results in the product found on the mre.r AS. shown herein,
promising introduction into Porto Rico, as it ma e employed by the
of he slnd to' diveHiy Without in nn n i xigthi main cropv4,
furnish employment for the women and hildre.f the rural population,
I recommend that the manuscript be publishe as Bulletin. No. 26 of this
Respectfully.,
D. W. MAY
Agronomi4st in

Deprtmnt f Aricltue aington, D. C.
Publication recommended.
A. C. WagE Vf60tOr
Publication authorized.
010







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VANILLA: A PROMISING NEW CROP FOR
PORTO RICO.
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iiCONTENTS.
Page. Page
todnotlon.......... ... 3 Careofplantation......... .................. 16
ri: ketprospects ........................ 4 Blossoming and pollination.................. 18
i astory. of experimental planting at the sta- Picking--.................................-.. 27
in....................................... 5 Curing....................................... 28
tarting a vanillery.......................... 8 Preparation for market...................... 30
i A14vtii gation................................. 10 Summary.................................... 31
ain ing..................................... 15

INTRODUCTION.
For many years Porto Rico has produced only a limited number of
crops for export, the market fluctuations of two or three staple prod-
i cts meaning prosperity or ruin for the island. In an insular com-
Hmunity of this kind, where interchange of products is necessarily
( Mtore restricted than elsewhere, the chances for the introduction of
new crops are relatively small. The money crop of one island may
Sbe almost unknown or entirely ignored on another with almost
identical soil and climatic conditions. Thus vanilla, a successful
crop in many tropical communities resembling Porto Rico, has so
Sfar made no headway here.
S Vanilla is produced commercially from within a few degrees of the
equator to more than 200 north and south of it. It is planted from
near sea level to altitudes of 2,000 feet or more. With the exception
of those in Mexico, all of the most extensive plantings have been made
on islands. Porto Rico, as an island bisected by the eighteenth
parallel of latitude, should furnish conditions suitable for commercial
Vanilla growing.
So far as the writer has been able to ascertain, vanilla .growing
on a commercial scale had never been attempted here prior to the
present time. In fact, the species of economic value are locally
almost unknown. In a very few scattered gardens over the island
vanilla is to be found as a curiosity, but to the general public it is an
unknown exotic. Wild vanilla has been noted in the vicinity of
KBayam6n, Dorado, Lares, Maricao, Mayaguez, San German, Guanica,
and Guayanilla. This in itself is an indication of the suitability of
Local conditions for the vanilla plant.
(3)







*Vanfia is a climbn orlifd, one of th4,JovItii
valued for reasons otertan. the aftvy S
cured pod, or beanath fruit'is caled from ito extera
to a -bean pod, a flavrn extract is obtained of 4MhiclAia
times 4s much is tonsun4 a of Al 'dd ~l~dvors
extract is used pro m g-cnfectiiondycooae
pIerumery, and for Ioring deserts and soft drinks. Th6
vanilla as a flavoring aent was one of the gifts of the Nim
to the Old, as the prouct was unknown-to Europelans a
Span1iards introduced t they having found the Aztecs in Mexico,
it inthe preparation ofchocola1te.
MARETPROSPECTS
The prospective planer of vanilla is of course most itn
the possibility of selln his product At a fair profit. To f,
opinion on this, he wil want to know the quantity which the
demands and the price paid.
The price of vanilla bans is t o-ay much less than forrrv
is to be attributed to increased production and the.man
synthetic vanillin. Sythetic. vanillin, which is identical
natural product, is nw produced- 'on a large- sca~leo,
eugenol or oil of cloire, though it can: be obtained r&
substances. For somI purposes vanillin is a. satisfactory.$11
for the extract made fo-m vanilla beans, but for other p
the best vanilla can b used. Th~e vanilin content of
which -ranges UL the n icpeisfrm1to 3 erce
determine their value as the hget priced beans ame shid
contain the MOBtva n It s ciedtat the superiorit'
extract of vanilla bean to a siple solution of vanillin is
secondary aromatic faoring compounds. wich are presen-
bean in very small amounts.
.While, the discover of the sythetic pearato ofv
syin














primary flavoring compound of the v ail been hs unquetia
greatly, reduced the pie, of vanilla beans, the consumption
latter is increasing grealy, as shown by the quantity ipr<
the United States.. Figre 1 shows. theofluctuations invalue'a
.quantity- imported.
Even while the average valuation per. pound for the total
imports. has f alen as lwas $1.33, the"Mexican. vanilla hws p
never fallen below $.8, a fact showing "ht a product
I U. S. Dept. AV,, Yearbook, 190,P. 3=3
2 Dean,'IT, R.., and Schlottwer ,J. o. Vanmla extract Jour. lfidztly and Ungkb3
No. 7, p. G0O&
3 Yewrs ending.June 30. Data copied from U. 13. Dept. Agr., Bur. Statistics BvlIS 74
and Beet, Foreign Markets Buls. 17n19) and 24 (1901); and Iro= ooirespomodence wtte
Esimte o te eprten o Ariiur ad heBuea o Frop ndD mes
Depatmet o Coerm






Pr 5

qi..aifty will always remain well above the average valuation. It
i.s may, of course, never reach again $9.05 a pound, the price of Mexican
: vanilla in 1900.
R :early all of the vanilla imported into the United States comes
h rom Mexico, from French possessions, or through France. Mexico
is reputed to lead as to quality, but French Oceania leads in quantity.




FI. 1.-- Vanilla beans imported into the United States.



















ia 1913 vanilla beans to the value of more than $2,500,000 were
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ported into the United States. As- there is an import duty of
30 cents a pound on vanilla Porto Rican vanilla will have exactly
that advantage over the imported product.

HISTORY OF EXPERIMENTAL PLANTING AT THE STATION.
I It I II


















In December, 1909, a collection of cuttings of miscellaneous vanilla
species was received from the Subtropical Garden at Miami, Fla.
As many of the species are of slight or no commercial value, it
was thought advisable to work principally toward the establishment
of Vanilla planifolia, this being the species which produces the most
valuable bean. The cuttings of this species had been received at









the Subtropical Garden from a vanillery some 10 or 12 miles from
Papantla, Mexico (as S. P. I. No. 14442), and as well as could be









Traced, from an importation into Hawaii from the Fiji Islands. No
varietal difference whatever has been seen between the two.

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Th earcit, 6f, Ptopagating materAs'get ly 9" rei, h
.the summer of 10 12, the- ortigninil planting ad grwnt,
to furnish short cuttings for a small ne'w planting 10M~
year, 19 cuttings' of the Mexican. Vauila: planifolia woee
Tomake the material go as. far.a osbe the average o
of -only 4 or 5 nodes. Subsequent plintings have, shown 0",tA
opmelit from such short cuttings is much slower than frmont
ones and that these vines were. aordingly under "an initi
vantage. Four' of these short Cuttings, had to be replaced6 in
as they were dead or nearly so.
Two 'vines flowered at two 'Years froma planting, openi
blossoms from April 1 to May 15 and producng five clusters.
pods were allowed -to develop from each cluster. Tepods
mature ranged in length from 51, to 8-4 inches-
.Before -the third-year crop, could be produ~ce64 one of the 19, 6
had been almost destroyed by a, failing tree and, two Pthms,
removed as diseased or lacking vigor'. Fifteen of the -re 4
blossomed at three years from planting, the blossoms opening
late March to the middle of June. The one which failed tob
had grown better than' the average in this planting, z
feet of vin'e in December, 1914. The :crop was picked from
13 -to January 3. It consisted of 1,0.20 pods produced -in MU6
ters, the pods ranging in lepgth from 3 to 9 inches. Some-
curing molded and could not be use4. In April, 973 pods,
after -curmig weighed 51 pounds, were sent to: a Philadelp
handling vanilla beans exclusively, which reported on, the gi
as follows:
While the flavor is very pungent, being very similar to the IMv variety-, 1weR
that results from same would prove very satisfactory'. Any
vanRila, so long as it is of sweet. flavor and sound. keeping quaities, -is alw
ketable. Regarding the vanilla sent us, value of same comapears f%
with Bourbon or Java vanilla in same grades, or of the vanilla Produced i`
toupe. We are allowing you V2.50 per pound. -
On the above basis, the value of the crop per vine at 3 j
from setting averaged 87.5 cents.. These vines wore set 9 byl'..
or at the rate of 537 vines to' the acre. Excluding thevn
dentally demolished,. if raised to the acre ..rate with flve-sixthe
planting in production, as *in this instance, the gross valuea*5
crop of vanilla beans would have amnounted-to xealy $400,
The 1916 blos sorming began in Janiuary and .c..ontinued~iath
The crop picking was from, October 23 to December 26* A
the 4-year-old plants blossomed, p'roducing 936. pods in 233-o
After curing,' this amounted to about 81 pounds of cured,
beans, or an average of more than half a pound per plant.








Instead of selling this crop it was divided into small samples which
-" were sent to prominent American wholesale houses handling vanilla
-'beans and to extract manufacturers for examination. Extracts from
their reports follow:
These vanillas have a very nice aroma, resembling somewhat the vanilla beans
known as South American, but originating in the island Guadeloupe an
excellent appearance, and were of fine flavor. An extract made according to the
Requirements of the National Formulary IV was examined at our research labora-
tory and the analysis showed a vanillin content of 0.096 and a normal
lead number of 0.43. While the vanillin content only approximates that of the
Tahiti vanilla beans, the flavor is excellent and does not resemble that of the Tahiti

The manager of the vanilla department of the house making the
above report, in a conversation with the writer, stated that he con-
sidered that this vanilla would probably approximate in value some
Guadeloupe beans for which he paid $3.60 a pound.
The A1 bean is sweeter and would be worth from $3 to $4 a pound, according to
moisture, etc. The bean marked B seems to have a sour odor, and I would not look
upon it with a great deal of favor. However, it may work out better than it looks,
:but without a larger sample it would be impossible to make a fair test.
We find that the vanillin content of a number of beans runs spasmodically from
year to year. They can not always be depended upon. There is no doubt
::i t i world that a ready market for these beans exists in this country. *
S vanilla beans are coming in from Madagascar and other French possessions at prices
!..:. ngig from $1.50 to $2 per pound for import.
.;. : .Mexican beans are much higher. They vary in price from $3.75 to $5.50 per
: pound, according to quality, etc. The South American is a very
i fine bean and if properly cured is as good as the Mexican.
We are very anxious to get about 100 pounds of vanilla beans as per samples sub-
mitted, so that we could work them up as under actual working conditions.
SWe will pay you a high market price for them. We have no idea what price they
are selling at.
We think the quality would compare favorably with the vanilla from the island of
Guadeloupe, French West Indies, in which case it would be valued in normal times
at about the price of ordinary Mexican vanilla beans, or the better quality of vanilla
from Madagascar.
Just at the moment values are showing greater difference than usual. Mada-
gascar vanilla is low and worth to-day $2 per pound, on account of the smaller con-
: sumption in Europe, while the Mexican vanilla, owing to the short crop, the general
scarcity in this market, and the desire of the consumers not to change their formulas,
is worth.to-day for the low grades $4.75 per pound. ) If the Porto Rican vanilla were
properly cured we could pay to-day $2.75 per pound, New York.
S If you can produce vanilla in sufficient quantity to make it worth while, we would
be glad to send a competent person to Mayaguez who could superintend the curing.
SI ind that the beans were very good indeed. Sample B was the better of the two
Sand was equal to any Mexican that I have ever seen, both in general appearance and
I especially in the high quality of the extract obtained from them. Sample A wag
about equal to the second grade Mexicans. It had a rank odor and taste that made it
unsuited for the finest uses.
SLetters refer to samples cured by different processes.




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VANILLA BEANS PRODUCED ON ONE-TENTH ACRE AND SOLD FOR $6109.31.


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FIG. I.-VANILLA ON DWARF BUCARE.


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FIG. 2.-VANILLA GROWING IN FULL SUNLIGHT.
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Fla. P.--V ,NiLLA GROWING IN FULL sUNLIGHT.




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j.tiht bad imeposed places this should be supplemented by a special
i'n';dbreak on the windward side.
leva' n ., ahilla can be planted on scattered trees just as they are
Si::; t is a crop which requires so much attention that everything
i*: i plify and systematize the necessary labor should be done.
:ii i greatly facilitated by. planting in as regular order as the
,,::.. d;Fi6atation of the site permits. On sloping land the rows should
.ii;:..... 't i the contour lines of the slope. The ground should be cleared
:l..... ::i. trees and undergrowth and then systematically staked off and
-ith the trees which are to serve as supports for the vines.
~ r be used, but they are not satisfactory as they are soon
by white ants or decay. A tree suitable for carrying
: must branch sufficiently low for the vines hung over its
K': to be within easy reach. It should also be of rapid growth
^laflasily propagated. The dwarf, red-seeded bucare (Erythrina
o) has proved well adapted for this purpose. Its low
A .ching habit and rapid growth in full sunlight commend it. In
its development is less rapid. In good soil it requires fre-
prumings to prevent its shade from becoming too dense, but the
i::gow!th which is superfluous as shade serves a useful purpose in pro-
i ritag material for mulching the vanilla roots. It is preferable for
Sit p O g r to be planted a year prior to setting the vanilla cut-
tings, but both can be planted simultaneously when an earlier plant-
ing of shade is impracticable.
Many different spacings are in use. The vines in the older station
Tan illery (P1. II, fig. 1) were set 9 by 9 feet. This furnishes an
Sample area for root extension. Though the maximum root extension
I measured in the station vanillery has been to a distance of 5 feet from
Sthe base of the support, the roots rarely extend so far. Wide spacing,
SBowever, simplifies the removal of diseased plants without disturbing
: neawr-by healthy ones and should retard the spread of root disease.
:, ft:has given very satisfactory results in the station planting. A
iawr planting has been made with the vines set 5 feet apart in rows
l:i eet apart. This wide spacing between the rows facilitates the
trinjging in of manure or leaf mulch and would perhaps prove prefer-
;tle to others for terraced plantings on steep slopes. Some practical
growers elsewhere plant their vanilla 4 by 8 feet. These three
: i pacings give 537, 871, and 1,361 vines, respectively, per acre. As a
.anifi a vine with roots starting from many points somewhat resembles
a.. colon. rhic -may make unlimited development under favorable
conditii say hard and fast rules for spacing can not be laid
Down as f.P knt which are strictly individuals and for whose best
S.'.ta more or less known amount of space is requisite and
I h ey will not develop. Closer plantings mean larger
~1... ... .. .. .. ~1







eryreuurns, bo- OWe sphngaould hbp
veine of the workers. T ni
Avery practical beg'inngfoetblig '
tbste selected for the vanillry is to plan*Ot t0
Eryfisiw coallodendron) 3 or 4 feet, in length
diamter considerably closer than those required for"
vanil year or-more in advance of phduting the. -vanOas_
Atth station spaced 5 by 5 feet has made so dense a
month that almost no weeds would grow under it. nohI
wedsw~hich can survive ,this heavy shade are .oeily 9
The at setting the vanilla.the shade trees can be thioned
-srbe degree furnishing mingled sunlight and shad. _AA
fluusgrowth should he. cut up, and piled at the base of the xv
tree to fuimnish a mulch for the vanila roots. -Stock ateln
leavs of the dwarf bucare. =4nd ust be ,kept off the, land, r
tim of planting the supports for the Vines.:

PROPAGATION
van',l -is Propagated .,by means. of cuttings. These,
takn from the most vigorously growing vines available.
Sort v. long puttings.--The length of the utting has, 4
proounced influence on the development of: the in.To a -pert
tis effect the following experiment was undertaken:.
Eghty cuttings -were made in four goprespectively,, of2, A
an 12 internodal. lefigths of vine, no tep~ter tip be'n used., AM an
i onitons ot soil, leaf mulch, and light -were uniform for th*o
grops. Thei*growth of this planting is shown ..in the 0ok
tal, with a graphic representation infiue2
Affect of levfgth of cutting on grotot of vanilla vines.

Number of cut- Numbter 4
tinges~trting Of vints A
growth in- hetr IM51z
now Vine ofhe6
Length of Cuttings. s
months a
Three six after mnh
monthss: months. plant......t


2 de.................. ... ... ... ...... a 16 31
4 .nten des............ ........ ...................... 10 19' 102,&
8 inen des ............ ............................... 11 19 X16,T
12 in e odes..._...... -_-------------_.. .......... 16 20 4 01

Inthe -group of shortest. cuttings, two of *wicUh 0(
throgh the first year failed to start.,n grwth of
bu one of these stadrlted nria at.l i lttle more. than 15 anft








Eating vine growth. In calculating the average growth for the year
four were omitted. The relative growth of new vine at 4
ai ths from planting bore an interesting relation to the length of the
qi- ng, as the growth of each group more than doubled that made by

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a. .---Growth made by four groups, each o


f 20 vanilla cuttings, of 2,4, 8, and 12 internodal lengths,
respectively.


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the group of cuttings of the next shorter length. The measurements
at the end of 12 months showed that where cuttings of 3 to 13 nodes
are used, every advantage is with the longest cuttings.
In the blossoming season of the year following planting, at about
16 months, three plants of the group of longest cuttings flowered,
but no others. This indicates that in propagating vanilla long cut-
' tings are also preferable to short ones because they bring the vines
;I .nto earlier production.


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later 6ade a&averAgo 06*wth of, 61,7 161
;Ow, firpt 5 xaonths aft~r lnig
of 4 ntenoal lengths to have gvown more raid

"a things should always be6 used' provided niale
is~~ abnat. However, where this is available in only a
iout t might, be advisable to use, short Cattinpsi
.. vanllery ore q ica the growth mdi& 1b1
cuttlfts i greater in proportion to the length of the cutting
made bythe longer ones, but short: cuttingi- should bel
becausecoarcixity of planting material.
Soi-cvfed v. surface planting :of cuffings.--Ifflit
uttigsythe generally accepted method is to cover sevej~
idwr ods with oloreaf mold. .:The experience of the
has eenthat while in many instances, no bad reults-bv61 Y
obsered t follow this practice, at other times: the entir
tin f h cutting has rotted, even though no break or Minj~
be~fund n this part, the two uncovered ends of the cutin
gren ndunrotted. So -much rotting and disease of on#,-M
anthx as been observed to orignatelin a :covere"-ovr prk
vanflastm that after the cutting has been established tid aye
ofddtin al runners should always be Avoided as a potentiai4
of robl. A-correspondent from Dominiuca Writes that th'
pratic, which, is to lay- the cutting into. the gro-und an ib~
dep ora foot of length, will inot do for Dominic on e4
rotn. Instead, the vine is laid onthe surface secured-wt
crthe egs, and merely covered wiith virilted grs.Teo
*it -nAtng arises from- placing. below. the surf'c what is
&ft a4U rgan only.
Ta estpropagating by leaving the cutting entirely ,eldr b.(
2tpcuttings of 10 nodes e~ach were sml it
up~twith the bottom nod: 2: ih ove the mujlc.,
pushe v t at approximately 5, 8y, 11, 19p 15.1, 16,18 IS (OArP)v_
Wees, esectively, on nine cuttings; while at 27 weeks, at
tim th, fni4 data presented were taen, .threo ha4
no r~oot.0 seven of the rooted cuttings the, rookdevel,
the otto n,044 on one instance being supplemented by
tinl ot from the thir node; on the. other two cth
fromthesecond node. As aerially developed roots,40.ato
trve diectly toward the ground, but sometimes sti-
cniderale angle from. the erpendicular, they -eyn
legh ftiei wi t ag h mlh.11L=0





13

.in :. taces this was about two weeks, the mulch having settled 3 to 4
e below the bottom node. At 14 weeks no new vine growth had
started, but at 15 and 16 weeks the two earliest rooted cuttings had
Sas tedgrowth, followed by two at 21, two at 24, one at 25, and one
hiti ,20 weeks. At 27 weeks one rooted cutting had as yet failed to start
:sw, vine growth.
Simultaneously with the preceding test 18 additional cuttings made
January 3 were tied high above the ground against upright slats to
Sto watch the root development in air of cuttings of different lengths,
th e being six cuttings of 5, 10, and 15 nodes each. In the first
:Awmn weeks there was no root development, but in the eighth week
e of the long and two of the medium cuttings pushed out a root
the bottom node. At 24 weeks the former had lengthened to
itehes and the two latter to 27 and 31 inches. Measurements taken
weekly showed the weekly increase in root length to vary from nothing
4O more than 4 inches. Due to the greater rainfall in the latter part
Sdthis period the air was much more moisture-laden than in the
i-tier part, and the root growth was much more rapid, approxi-
Iately three-quarters of the increase in length being made in the last
seven weeks in two of the three preceding cases. In the seventeenth
week another medium-length cutting started a root, followed by two
of the short cuttings in the twenty-first week. At approximately
these same dates, judging from their development when first seen,
% two of the longest cuttings started roots, one from the sixth and ninth
Snodes up and the other from the top node. In the 24 weeks during
which these cuttings were under observation, half of the long, half of
'the medium, and two-thirds of the short cuttings failed to develop
roots. Those cuttings which developed roots became wrinkled and
shriveled as the root lengthened, while the others remained plump,
and all remained green.
SIn each of the two preceding tests, half of the cuttings had the lower
nodes protected from the light by wrapping in a yautia leaf, which
afforded shade until it rotted some weeks later, but no effect on root
development was seen from shading these nodes.
Where a piece of vine has been cut away, leaving a section high in a
tree and entirely unconnected with the ground, a root is sometimes
seen to have been sent down for a number of feet, even traveling a
:* greater distance than the length of the cutting from which it sprang,
Sin order to reestablish connection with the ground. This aerial
developmentet of root shows that vanilla cuttings need not necessarily
be planted in a medium of soil or mulch, but may simply be tied to
L their supports. The records of root development on cuttings so
Placed show, however, that the development of the cutting under
,:his system is very much retarded.







'A test, bns idokd && rr ftl& V In M-eATMI
nary manner of rating; as "46thr oi tal h
left- expCd when several nodos aboife ilsetdf
the cu'tA4it ake better growth in soil or 16td tld i ,
they should be ta.kein some dajrs before planting anrd
or planted immediately. Forty-eight tip cuttings, of t*
,inre tak on. the :same. day. 11alf of these werepin-f
diately, while the Others. were spread Min a fairly- -well, Aiad
and allowed to wilt for 12 days before planting,; wevint
weeueAtrecttings' being'set in each po It, *ith twopd
nodes of each cutting covered. ~i ght pot's wbre filled vihh
and forest trash 'collected -from an: old coffeee 'platttafiola,, tik'
eig-ht being filled with soil mixture of rivers saiid and clay
'parts. Tfhe pots were supplied with: uniform amounts of visft
06vered v. 'projecting aalip Th rcomnd'tion i
made that, in planting, the lower: tip: 61 the cutting- 'bele 1A
igabove the ground, as when thisjis: -covered decaylfrqu
travels along the stem', and pre6vents: the formiatio-r ofi
roots on the part of the cutting below ground.6 To Itet OfWs;'
tings were planted with the basal tip covered and, '4 vithi
projecting into the: air. In the table below, results, hre i4
with reference to this point, as no Notting from. covering h
end of the cutting was observed. Allowing the basal tip' to
iM the air is considered an expedient 'planting practicehwt
since, as even sound. stem in the grud rIn the MU16ih
susceptible to disease, -a out surf ace -Would: appear An oven i
likely means of entrance to organimns wich prduce docky.
Leaf mold v. soi for planting.--The roots were: very car
removed from the pots and their length measured to a qur
an inch. The results are shown in the foUowin:g table.
comparative growth of uiled vanilla cuttins and awoe plante immediately in
in leaf mold.

Number of roots or Length of Toot LtngM th mwu
root branches an growth made by got
S1t cuttings. six cuttings. si

soil. m4 & o L eaf. Gel

Cuttings planted irnnnedately: Ihe.Ich~ec. AIMae.
61 days after planting ................. 162 225 314- 10
73 days after planting. ................ .31279 W%0': S
COuttings ilte 12ftys
49dy atrplnig'.............. 12 11 80
61days ferlatn. .............. 219 227 733
Total for 24 cuttings......... 73 12AX9} 288(





15


..:.... he. measurements of root development show this to have been
5 Mper cent greater in leaf mold than in soil. The new vine growth
i :i lso considerably greater for the leaf mold than for the soil.
:!ii. i .clearly indicates the importance of keeping the vines supplied
a heavy leaf mulch.
:W::':ilting v. immediate planting of cuttings.-Some advise wilting the
S!uttintg 12 or 14 days before planting.1 In the test of this point,
which is summarized in the table above, the cuttings which were
wilted for 12 days previous to planting fell far behind cuttings made
t i ultaneously with them and planted immediately. However, when
( s wilted cuttings were measured 12 days later than those made
i:Etau.ltaneously with them and set immediately, both thus remaining
Bi I ted for an equal period of time, the growth made by the wilted
*i''tings exceeded that made by those which had been planted imme-
iat ely. As the growth under both systems was very satisfactory,
t -seems of little importance whether the cuttings are planted imme-
y or allowed to remain unplanted for a number of days, this
WiLng a point which may be left to the convenience of the planter.
Rapidity of growth of the newly planted cutting is thus seen to
Sdepend on several factors, of which the length of the cutting and the
Nature of the medium in which it is set are both important.
Preparation of the site for planting consists in leveling the surface
cf the soil around the base of the support and applying to it a heavy
n mulch.of-rotting leaves, dead grass, or forest trash.
S The cuttings should be tied to the supporting tree in such a way
that when new growth starts it will fasten itself to the tree or hang
i over a branch. It should be placed low enough for several node
to lie flat on the mulch. These should be covered lightly with leaf
i mulch or with grass, the stem being fastened in place with a crotched
stick when necessary and the basal tip left uncovered. If rotting is
prevalent, the covering may be made very light and removed after
the roots have started into the mulch below.
SHADING.
To test the growth of vines under varying degrees of light and
shade, a planting was made of 18 eleven-node cuttings, 6 of which
were in full sunlight and 12 were in four varying degrees of artificial
shade furnished by a white cotton cloth, a thin unbleached cotton
cloth, a heavy unbleached cotton cloth, and a thin black cotton
cloth. Other conditions were made as uniform as possible and
plenty of humus was supplied. From 2 to 18 months after planting
monthly measurements of growth were taken, but the differences
between individuals under identical conditions showed the number
of plants in the tests to have been too small to show definite differences
I Vanilla cuttings. Agr. News Barbados, 14 (1915), No. 333, p. 41.-

": at:: '







forw ea&h of tbp vari f h'
plaphs w''er PAV in two gro4p,1W Vh pa
lightly, shadedq tboing put ujder. the:, unblahdt i
which ,had- been nmore'heavily shaded unde;ther tfkgeI
The black cotton, though faded by sun snd& *xx hdt**w
-varying degrees oPf shade, always furni~hW, ense s hhde
unbleached cloth.
Thegrothmade by the IS vines in the firt year tavrae
221. feet per vine. The most heavily -shaded Ymies- madelihe
start, but their growth, 'was much more spindling, than tWat
others, with frailer Sitems-:havig: long internodes and. leavio
darker green- standing in .a more xearly, horizontal, platweje
growth, in fact, as may be seaen on. vanill uder. aheazvy
shade. At a year and a half their gro 'wth averaged less tAn 44 _
per -vine, while that of the other planf,s averaged. 48 feet. A*,
years the plants 'in full sun had made, very,, vigorous giowth,,
they were, rather. yellow and had suffered: severely frow'buri
the eastern side,. some. stems. burning in two: where they- bent.
the Pupport, but on the: wester sie which bad receive les
they continued to look very healthy and. vigorous ., The planto
the light shade. looked. best and had: the largest maWs of vine wh
the evelpment of those under the heavyy shadewsgetl eer
The' growth of, the vines indicated. that >while' vnilla ilat
plenty of light and will grow vigorouslywhnenirl unshaded'
II, fig. 2)y full exposure to the sun, burns 'the vines badfly -and, is1 T*
favorable to their development and well-being-thau a light.sad
The shade may easy become too dense, however,. for: the, best d
velopment of the vanilla if pruning is neglected.
in another plantiMg full'.hin very light and very:: denise, nal
shade the heavily shaded vines showed miuch. more spindling gro
than the very lightly shaded ones.
CARE OF PLANTATION,
Both shade trees and vines need fairly frequent attention. ift
soil is good, such supporting trees as Erytrina coralodendonz n
warily closely set to furnish sufficient supports. for the rises, wMl
a shade much too dense for the best development of the yapilla
given frequent prunings. In pruning the. shade, if alternote
rather than all trees are pruned each ltime, the: danger- of 'in' 4g
the vanilla vines through a sudden change from shade to
greatly lessened. Sudden exposure to strong Wnalig4
many leaves and cause them to rot .and. will also bumn thq
the vines.
In pruning the shade tries, forks through whih. the ie
hung should be left within, easy reach of. the hand, and ,iueh





17


s. A broadly spread fork is most desirable. One with a
crotch will be likely to pinch the vine run through it as
:Pbs increase in size, unless a stone has been placed in the
below the vine. All prunings should be cut up and spread
woppd the base of the vines as a mulch.
the value of a leaf mulch has been shown already in the much
itreater rapidity of vanilla root growth in rotting leaves than in soil.
The coarse, easily cut roots feeding at or very near the surface make
t cultisvation out of the question. What can be done is to provide
Frhl 'vines with plenty of humus-forming materials, such as forest
pigs, cane trash, or old well-rotted strawy manure, in addition
..the prunings from the shade trees. Where such material is not
*t:dant, plantings of a Stizolobium or other cover crop may be
:i de nearby and the growth cut and carried into the vanillery.
F"' eeds should never be hoed near the plants, but should be pulled
Ki l'i"y hand. Hoes and machetes should be used only on the land
F & is midway between the plants and thus not occupied by the
p a roots.
1^e rapid growth of the vines, the necessity of keeping them with-
I sienay reach for pollination of the blossoms, and their succulent and
rather brittle nature all combine to demand constant attention from
:tjfpl' anter. Several different systems of pruning or training the
v:iug's are being tested, but as yet only rather general recommenda-
itlon can be given. A vigorously growing runner will lengthen 2 to
i; : feet in a month's time. For easy handling of the new growth,
the vines should be gone over every six or eight weeks. If this is
done only at long intervals, the runners climb high in the trees and
are difficult to get down and easily damaged in the process, as a new
bend in a heavy vine is apt to cause it to snap in two.
The essential point is to keep the vine always within easy reach.
After ascending to a height of 5 or 6 feet, it should be bent over a
Branch and allowed to hang down until it reaches almost to the
Ground. A young vine, or one which has not some growth through
all the well-located forks of the tree, should be allowed after it has
reached almost to the ground to reascend the support. To accom-
plish this, the runner should be tied to the support at about 6 inches
above the ground. Raffia is excellent for tying the vine. Other
pendent vines may have their tips pinched off at about this same
distance above the ground. Just what proportion of the runners
should be allowed to reascend the support and what proportion
should be pinched back before reaching the ground has not been de-
termined. Those whose further elongation has been stopped offer
an advantage not possessed by the others in that after they have
fruited the then useless portion of vine may be cut away without
damaging the rest.
,s!:. :.
*..." "" ..:










portion hithe nt &'V

fruied ouldbe'inavisable, As' it would rd
beyod tat tothe condition of u cutting.
.LO&SOMING AN POIJANATION. J
Effd: f::Iegthofcutting on blossomng.-I~n' the,
ating (st in e-ruarxy .and reported- on p. 10), Of 80
rning in egth frm 2t t.12: igternedal lengths,, 3 of the 16--
ctings floeredi June of the following year, while mn
oter flwred tht season. This indicated,- -that -longer-.a
mybe execte to blossom sooner than shorter ones, A,
vgrous cuting, my blossom at 'a, year from- settn.I
tif 55 Cuttng Of 11 noes each, 23 plants, or 42
blsoed in the scond blossoming season, a item16e
. rand a-alf atrsetting.:: As planting material wassw
teearle plantns were made at -the station, Many of ihe
wer propaated fro cuttings much too short f or rapid earl
met, an so whr longer cuttbigs, are used eArler flowering
bexpbte -than was had Mn the folloin plantings. Of S2
fro cutig of Mscellaneous lengths, not included in thosq_
4 eI ns, o 17Per cent, blssomed in the
blsomng seao after, setting; of 48 pla~nts,_ 28,.. or more
pe.cent blssome in the third blossoming season; while6 all h
pnts udr obseration blossomed in the fourth,. fifth, and
sasns, h recor to date.
The bosming period.-The blossoming season extends ove
poracte period a fortunate circumstance, since hand-pol
mus be resrted t.
Arecor for thre seasons of the date of opening of the first b
ofte easonon eac of a number of plants showed this to'havve
r i n 4, mFebruary in 19, i' March in 41, mi April in'4, *t*
.M Yi inem2stances.
Th ollowing tale shows the average blossoming period f1.
pats: to hve .xeid'dover nearly 8 weeks-.
Daion of blosoming eawonfor 10 phlretsw.
Dte of Dur Ifation Daft of openfta.
plant of blos- Plant
No. snming No.
First blm. L -eambosz. season. First bloom. Last blaooon

Daga.
I Mar. 2....... Ma 7......... 43 7 Apr. 11l......... Mai 27......
2 Mum 28 .... 14_--.. 48 S Ap.1 .... J nt ... L
3 Mar.0 ...... .......... 66 9 Apr: 16...... Jun is,.....
6 Apr. a ...... u6i .....6 A venpr 1 0 plow fth .....





...* .. .

i:-1..-^ N
I1


Sce March is the month in which the greatest number of plants

to blossom and since the blossoming period for a single plant

.ii..y extend over a couple of months, plantings in the vicinity of

I. .gu.ez will need labor for pollination chiefly in March and April

: iii possibly for a longer period.
I' The following table gives the record of the blossoming performance

of eight typical clusters on a single plant, not the entire blossoming

-f that plant:

Blossoming record of eight clusters of vanilla blossoms.'


ar.2 4............ ..................
Mar. 25..----...-.....------..----....-------
ar. 25-- - -
ar. S...-.....-- --....--..............
r. .................------- -- .........

M r.2 s..............-. ... ...... ...... .. .
Ma.28---------------------------
MWr. 2----------------------
ar.....-------... ...-.........-------

Apr...-......-----...---------...............--
Apr...........-----------------------
A4t.4................................
Apr. -..............................
A------4-----------------------

Ap. -............................. ........
Apr.6 --------------------------

Ar.-..-....................--..-- ...
Apr.1. ..............................
A ....----------...........-------------
Apr..............................

Apr.20...............................
.Apr. ..............................
-:::::::::::::::::::: -::-::::-:::::-
Apr. ..............................
Ap. 15............ ................
Apr.15-------------------------
Apr. 17------......----.-----....-.-----
Apr. 18...-------.------------.------.
Apr. 1............... ........... .
Apr. 20.....---....----.-...........-
Apr. 21....--...--..-...- .........--.
Apr. 22. ----------------------------.--
Apr. 2.of intervening days on which
Apr.n b22.......s ................
Apr.25----------------------I
Apr.-21------ ------------------I
Apr.2................ .. ..............

Apr. 2tf.........f........ina.......
Apr.29 ..........................
Apr.30...............................
Number of days on which blossoms
opened.-...--..-.----.....-..-- .-
Numbir of intervening days on which
no blossoms opened.....---. ....
Number of daysbetween the opening
of the first and final blossom.......


Cluster-


No. 1. No. 2. No.3. No. 4. No. 5.

-I
........ .......: ........ ........ x .

........ x ... ... ........


x ...... ......... ........ x
..... .. -........ ........
X .............. .....
x .-......... x
K--------------- X -------- --------K



-..... XX ...... X X

x x ........ x x
x ........ x .. ...... .......

x x -... .. .. ....... .. x I
-x x J ---- x x K

........ x ........ ........ x
x ........ x ........ .
x ........ ......... ...x
....... ........ X ........ .

S -- ........ .. ......
.x ... ................... ........ x






I .i
X* -. -- -- -- --- -------. ... ... .- X ..

X, ...... ........ .... X




........ ........ ........ ........ ........ .





13 12 6 10 17

8 11 10 13 11

21 23 16 23 28


No. 6.


















x






x

x


No. 7. % No. S.





-..- -...... -...
-.------ --------
x ........

........ ........
x x


x ........
-----x- I.......-

x x
-- -- I------




x I x






x- ........
XIX









........ x
xix


K X


X X
X


x


I

20

11

31


Sx represents a blossom.


The above record is no way extraordinary, as clusters could have

been selected which in both number of blossoms and time covered

considerably exceeded any given here. These clusters averaged 14

blossoms each, opening in 13.6 days, with 10.9 days on which no

blossoms opened intervening between the opening of the first and the

I final blossom for the average cluster, a period of 24.5 days. The

erratic manner of blossoming is shown by a cluster opening two blos-

! I : II


19


. .. .. .. ... ..
I
.... .. .. ..










Oi niuevines blossoms hv pq4
growth ~ ine"'lte as the prec-eding 0,ctc
F~~~ -orcd486ences the buds of which'wer6 U5
onDcme 29., opened 'their first bosm lbay .
28 wil. f ix others breaking through on Jnur 4,
thirfrst bosoms on: March 5, two M6 Marh 7)'aaid'f
arh9 .d12.- This showed a period of rapproximHate
.t-ease beteen the pushing out, of the infloresmcne hue
,pnng ofth first blos$om.
Dacriptonof blossoms.-The Ilowers, are borne 1a
raeesomeimes branching and- forming &.,panicle.,'h
cenis oetrpetal and-usually axillary, butocsinlyi
alog ste, The *waxen, pale-grieen blossom is born at th
th oary wich is 4 to 51 centimae~rs lojig at bles
sbendedb an ovate bract about 5 milmten .long
meesh badat. the base. The five spreading segmentsa
anhare: rter similar' 6 Ato 64 centi Imeters. long', 113 f4-L1
metes brod unsymmetrical, elfiptical-spatulate, and not'
cuvd. Temidrib at the back of the t wo petals is Ahoittl
metrs short than the petal, its tip not adthate for I to 2 nli
an-recredn The trumppe,-haped labellum, or lip, whirh Me-
wtthe 6o.um is about 5 centimeters long and 1.5 ecutn
diamter. The disk of the lip is yellowish-green. and vvttaooean
a etral crs or tuft facing the.eissential organs.. The margin
1is urnevely dentate. The column ]is about5cntmtr
(MPLi Ily-ig. 1.)
Hand-- liat"o.-In order that the explanation of the
handpoll aion may be, more readily -understood, in Plate UI1,,
.2,a eare and MSgife column is -shownM in progesv
-oli4ion bgin-nine wi th the organs untou che at the left
gthe polintion completed at the right. A t the -apex- of14
1 ha.* te anther bending over the stigma, wh1ich :gdif
lag single loe representing one carpel- and two small r__
repesnd two carpels. The large lqob coven, the snialer--lif
prtrdes beynd them. As its dorsal surface is toward -the ,6
poln is efetually prevented'from reaching the *stgma;
sieaid. Te bristly crest or tuft within the lip and opdt
esetial oras is the provision for inducing departing inack &
tocrss th sigma and anther and, so, deposit and Colleb
aste vanil blossom does not attract inserA visitors, e&m~a
mut be reored to.,: 44"













Bul. 26, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station.


FIG. I.-FLOWERS OF VANILLA PLANIFOLIA.


FIG. 2.-COLUMN OF VANILLA SP. SHOWING STAGES IN POLLINATION.


PLATE III.































'i.'

HI;


:i



aE .n
jM I;





21

'BIn such instances as have been noted in which the blossom has been
utilizedd with pollen taken from the blossom of another plant of the
Mt::ine species, no noticeable difference has been observed between the
veelopment of the resultant pods and those from close-fertilized
ossoms. The pollen mass is easily dropped, and the use of pollen
Sfom a different blossom would greatly complicate and retard hand-
pollination..
A small splinter of bamboo, a stem of stiff grass, or a sharpened
.match or toothpick is a satisfactory implement for the pollinator.
The lip of the blossom is torn down with the thumb, and the index
finger of the left hand is placed behind the tip of the column, with
Sthe other fingers back of the flower, steadying it. With the splinter
I: held in the right hand, the large lobe of the stigma is lifted and pressed
into the cavity back of the anther and held there by the thumb of
the left hand placed lightly above and to the left of the pollen sac,
while the point of the splinter is gently pressed against the pollen
n:ibe to force the pollen out upon the stigma. With a slight upward
: Assure of the splinter as it is removed'the anther rises and the large
: beof the stigma descends to the original position, shutting in the
pollen mass between the lobes of the stigma.
SHand-pollination is a quick and easy process and should be done
by women and children to whom heavier work is less suited. The
Writer, working steadily for an hour, pollinated 237 blossoms, or
i: at the rate of about 4 a minute. This did not allow time for the
proper selection of blossoms, since many through their position are
Undesirable. The most desirably placed blossom is one whose
S ovary, the small green pod resembling a flower stalk, is attached to
the lower side of the inflorescence stalk and will later hang perpen-
Adicularly toward the ground, forming a perfectly straight pod.
: Those attached to the upper side should be left unpollinated, as
they will form very crooked pods, which will be difficult to bundle
and present in an attractive and easily handled form.
Tests of different hours of the day for pollination.-Contrary to the
S behavior of most orchids whose unpollinated blossoms remain fresh
: for days and even weeks, the vanilla blossom begins to close early
in the afternoon of the same day on which it opens and by the next
H:N morning it has withered. This early closing and brief existence of
Sthe blossom made it desirable to find whether pollination should
be practiced in only certain hours of the day. The failure or suc-
cess of pollination is indicated by the early dropping of the blossom
From the ovary, to which, on the other hand, "if fertilization has
taken place, the column clings for an indefinite period, sometimes
:even until the pod is sufficiently mature for picking. Of 200 blos-
I some hand-pollinated at intervals from 8.15 a. m. to 5 p. m., only
S15 dropped within one week of opening, but their dropping showed
nio relation to the hour of pollination. In addition, blossoms were









be WMas early and continued as late m v4
of ollnation havi ngo effect on, the eumber
as hesepals, and petals begin to close around %
afenoon, the morning hours permit basier mimore
ita:the. afternoon,. andO' for thiis reason work should "b6
eryas possible.
n~rty blossoms pollasted'in. the late, -aftornoon after
skshowing that a rain prior t~o pollination need, do *no,
Me.the essential organs are well, protected by 'the 4ip.
Comparative dropping of hand-pollinated blossom and
ha. ollinated.-The 200 -,blossomns. 4f the :above, test we",
prd with M0 which We"e not hand-pollinated,' with the res
925per- cent, of. the hand-pollinated blossoms remained
toth ovary'afte-r an interval-of one .week.. while onli 1.5
oftose not hand-pollinated remain-ed. N blossom's of
hddropped by 4.30 p, m of the day f:1ollowing -opening
blsoms which dropped within 'a week. of opening more~r
pe ent had dropped by-noon and nearly 98 'per cent by 4.30-
ofte second day following the opening of the blssom.
lnaor thus. sees within a few days after, plinating just wd
hv.set and so is enabled .to discontin~ue pollinating Ws soon'4
desrd number has been obtained., there beig prcialno c
ferilzation.
Polination of early opening v. Wae opening Wilosoms of a -c
Todtermine whether the earlier opening blossoms of a clusterA
an advantage over those which open- later,, Measurementsw
tkn of the length of the pods in 100 clusters which had de'vel0
topods each. In 57 instances the longer pod had developed
th earlier blossom, in 8 the poswr1o0hesm length, 4no,
3the longer pod had developed from the later blossom. q
Aavy v..light pollination.-With few crops is the grower able tp~l_
deiitely determine the: size of his harvests. Yet withince
limths is' true of the vanilla grower. As 'the vanilla vine*ir
dcs a mucwh greater number of blossoms than. it is able to de* 0.
pd, it lies with the pollinator to say how many pods hall We
ducd. .With the object of detemnn 19omethg of the efcecI
th ize of the. pods- of heavy and light pollination's, the follow
epriment was undertaken with the 1917. .crop in thea 6an
aillery:
Sthe plants differed ina Oun f viM0e g-rowth, the produe
adeinite number of pods per plant would. have imposed a.





B 23

i4BAve been entirely too heavy or entirely too light a production. It
;pla thought that the nearest approximation to the proportional
Sbiliaty of the different plants for fruiting was indicated by the
~:iaj nber of flower clusters produced. The plants in the vanillery
r, e classified in three groups in which accordingly 2, 4, and 6 pods
i:::"rpectively per cluster were allowed to develop. Each group is
i designated by the corresponding numeral 2, 4, or 6. The groups
w... ere made up of plants in alternating rows to insure as uniform a
Distribution as possible. As in some instances the clusters failed
to produce the requisite number of blossoms or the pods failed to
Iset, the average number of pods produced per cluster was slightly
below 2, 4, and 6 pods, respectively. The actual production of
pods per plant was in the ratio of 2, 3.4, and 5.4 for the three groups.
Bl ij ad the number of plants in the test been greater the ratio of pods
: per plant would have more closely followed that of pods per cluster.









GROUP 2.'

















s ............................ ............................... 1915 22 413 18.8

107..- --------------------------------------- ---- ------------- 1913 62 971 15.7
4,.



















10. 5-.. ... -.. -- -.......... -. -.._ _...r_... 1913 7G 1,112 15.9r.
i ..................... 1912 80 1,397 17.5
..' "I : 1913 17
47...................F. 3.-Weight of pods as affected by number produced


3.pod are shown graphically for the three groups. In the table follow-
gTotal, the production of the individual plants is given.
r; ield and siz of pods of 1917 crop of vanilla.
k GROUP 2.

Pln N.Yero Number Fresh Average
Plant No Year of 'of ods weight of fresh
planting. a' pods per weight


Av15... er ............................................... .... .. 1915 22 413 18.











I Set in 1912 but almost totally destroyed by falling tree in 191.4, so considered as of lter year.
13- .... .. ............ ...... .... .. ................ .-........ -1913 40 642 16.1
16 .................. ........ .-........................ ..... 1912 40 710 17.8
: _t7- .......................................................... 1913 49 797 16.2
127------------------------1913 49 797 16. 2
107............................................................. 1913 62 971 15.7
45-...-.. ...... ... ........................... ........ -1912 65 1,241 i9.1
105 ..................... ...... ........................ 1913 70 1,112 15.9
... ....................................................... 1912 74 1,303 17.6
.............................................................. 1912 80 1,397 17.5
108.................. ... .................................. 1913 84 1,452 17.3
7........................................... ....... ...... 1914 85 1,552 18.2
135............................................................ 1913 89 1,176 13.2
5............................................................. 1914 90 1,457 16.2
dM-................... .............................. ......... 1912 109 1,971 18.1
: 06....................................................... 1913 163 2, 704 16.6
S Total ......................................... 1,122 18,898 ........
| Average...................................... .................... 74.8 1,260 16.8
1 Set in 1912 but almost totally destroyed by falling tree in 1914, so considered as of latter year.

















'14... ...... .. .. .... ...... ,-..-. ..., ..... .:: ...


. .. .. ... .-- ....6.. .. 1IU9tz ,
s.. .. ,.... .. ..-a. .* ... .... ........,

To a l. .. .;: .':.. ..:.. .. i ..
... .. ... ... ... ... .. .. ... .,. .... .... :'. ... ..". ":..:.. i :;;



......... .... s : .
1; 8.. ... ... ... .... .. .. ... ...... ... ... ... < ...




... ... .. .. ..... ...... ......... ...... ..., ,
126 ... ........... ..... ..... E'.
125 ... ... ...... ... '. ...... .... ... .. .. ........... ,. ...in',:,, Q

9ST. A A .. .; .......... ..... ".. ....




98 .. .. ........... ..... ... ... ....... ....... .. : ..:
GROUP ,. .. ... ..


.... ....... ..... .... ..... ..... ... ,.... ; ... ; .....
2 9. -. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... a -.. .. ` f c
85.. ................... ..... .......... .. ..... ....... .. .





A.....ve ge................... .. ..... .... .. ....... .. .. ... .... .
6grou.................................l r tha .t a si"g.
....... .. ... :.. ..
97. ... ............................................. ..... .. ..,: :"




average for gro....... fr.......
57. .. ............. ........ ... ................ .. +.. ..j. 12.- 7 i






y it l y 1 p d the; w4ith ne ei.e W i iii.t .n~" "...i4iRiN
-- 'Tel HE


r..6..-..heo t..e es..t in either .-..roup 4..r. .. ..:;

tion- ............. proce every plant of group 2 vea...... r........
In consider g the average fresh. wight per pod i i .:
that of a single plant in group 2 fall as low ithe.a
group 4, r that of a single plant e of grou 4 fae 1 a:t
average for group 8. If from group 4:, uanta binN S WfaI
be excluded on account of the sma nrodu. ib. of pS. ,
than half the average for group 2) as nd from group Bq
.itA Q .ly 1.1 pods, then with one except ..... vy i........
rasJaed ahead of the gest in either group t
tion the produce of every plant of group 2 averaged well ia
per page whereas in groups and ch the production of : 1iSp
hover, in somge 4 ins tances e.ven le was ac pai
reduced average weight per pod. -With the' dcla a
creased number of pods, as shown by the. 1.a verS 6 o~t

in value aper pounditi larger pods being .v ,bt,
was an increase in wnigh t W of, the .total production, : :
,The length of each Hp4... was measured to a qutfma
average production ofV*ods of ech length fo-, th O....
shown in figure 4 by the.'aitawce on anyh.
vertiCal4 *of the saerie:. group. ... ....N .ro.. ... N

.. ..e .' j .'.






25

Me, following table gives the number of pods of each length
odiuced by the average vine of each group, and the equivalent
rcentages for the same:

*ois&ion between length and number of vanilla pods in average production per vine.

8 "Group 2. Group 4. Group 6.
(74.8 pods per vine). (126.3 pods per vine). (202.3 pods per vine).

Length of pods. Average Percent- Average Percent- Average Percent-
number age of number age of number age of
of pods total pro- of pods total pro- of pods total pro-
per vine. duction. per vine. duction. per vine. duction.

..ti es............................ 1.47 1.96 2.42 1.91 10.87 5.37
..:J bss ..................... ..... .67 .89 3.58 2.84 8.47 4.19
l i~n es..-........ ............- ... .80 1.07 2.42 1.91 6.93 3.43
a ju es............................ 1.33 1.78 4.25 3.37 10.27 5.08
*a ,hes........................... 1.20 1.60 4.58 3.63 9.67 4.78
.......... .............. 2.47 3.30 6.42 5.08 15.07 7.45
S i hes......................... 1.87 2.50 5.50 4.36 14.33 7.09
ii .es... .................... 2.53 3.39 6.83 5.41 15.40 7.61
............................ 3.80 5.08 7.67 6.07 15.60 7.71
............................. 3.40 4.55 9.08 7.19 19.20 9.49
............................ 3.80 5.08 9.00 7.13 12.93 6.39
............................ 5.07 6.77 11.75 9.31 13.87 6.86
............................ 5.33 7.13 9.67 7.66 12.53 6.20
............................. 7.60 10.16 11.42 9.04 13.00 6.43
............................ 4.47 5.97 6.50 5.15 7.87 3.89
Laches............................ 6.53 8.73 8.75 6.93 6.53 3.23
jiahes........................... 6.07 8.11 6.42 5.08 4.80 2.37
S a ....es ......................... 5.67 7.58 5.50 4.36 2.20 1.09
inches .......................... 4.93 6.60 2.58 2.05 1.60 .79
ie i .es ............................ 3.07 4.10 1.42 1.12 .60 .30
8inles............ ................ 1.73 2.32 .42 .33 .40 .20
s ..iiich ........................... .73 .98 .08 .07 .07 .03
Si.gfinches ........................... .20 .27 ................... .07 .03
es.... ....... ............ .07 .09 ........... ........... ........... ...........


SIn comparing the yield of the average plant of group 2 producing
S74.8 pods with that of group 4 producing 126.3 pods, it is seen that in
W-very length shorter than 8 inches group 4 produced a greater number
i; opods than group 2, while of pods 8 inches and longer group 2 pro-
i;duced a greater number than group 4. Of pods 8 inches in length or
i Plonger group 2 averaged per plant 16.4 pods as compared with 10
i pods for group 4. Where the number of pods of each length was
i; reduced to terms of its equivalent percentage of the total for its
Respective group, it is seen that the. percentage of pods of 7 inches and
Longer in group 2 exceeded that in group 4 for every length, while with
J a single exception the contrary was true for all lengths shorter than 7
inches.
; In comparing group 4 with group 6, the average plant of the
i'latter producing 202.3 pods, it is seen that group 6 surpassed group 4
:in number of pods for each length below 71 inches, while group 4
: surpassed group 6 for every length of 71 inches and longer except in
[j the single length in which group 4 produced nothing. Group 4
diaveraged per plant a production of 25.17 pods 71 inches in length or
f:Jonger, as against 16.27 pods of corresponding length for group 6.
P'the percentage of pods for each length above 6 inches in group 4
Seceeded that of the corresponding length in group 6 with the one









evee ile the peentago op
shorter in gru as es than that of the crp
group 6 in ever instace.
These meauement show the importance of Olmtn the o
large, proportin of logpods is -to he had, as the iml
produced ha direct an most.p prnounced effect on lengt4 ot














C1









-11/ -1 -1/ -1IN ,"'

-1 "A




NI I-






Sof pdasfetbyne

In th table bew w h t
lengths it is seen tha one 'pd egsmoeta to -



produce an extvrac which huhnt-akdl ifrni
superior to tha from "tesore os.'Te1u e
ArL u./ S.Det A/V Bu.-hm u.IM(92,p 5






27


Jbndieed by weighing from 1 to 8 bundles of each length, each
containing 50 beans.

i Comparative weight of cured pods of different lengths from 1917 station crop.
Number Number
weight of pods The of pods
Length of pods. weight Lngth of pods. weight
per podL pmd per pod. po d.
: pound. pep pound.

..Gram. .Grams.
4 sbsas....................... 1.01 448 6J inches...................... 3.48 130
S nche...................... 1.16 391 6j inches...................... 3.91 116
f ich-...................... 1.39 325 7 inches-..--..---.....---- .... 4.03 106
i n ..................... 1.57 290 71inches...................... 4.69 97
S u ..--.................... 1.81 251 7tiches...................... 5.16 PS
inhes ...................... 2.11 215 71 inches...................... 5.61 81
Ses...................... 2.28 199 8inches....................... 6.13 74
iaes...................... 2.55 178 8j inches.....-----------------..... 6.81 67
& ....................... 2.83 160 8J inches.. ... ....... ... ... 7.04 64
SJinohes-.... ... ..... ... 3.14 143

S When a plant has been forced to produce an excessively large
lumber of pods the full measure of harm of overproduction is not
'-own by the inferiority of the ensuing crop alone but also by the
diiebilitated condition in which the plant is left after cropping, with
Sits consequent effect on following crops.
S It is then seen to rest with the pollinator within certain limits to
B determine whether the crop shall be of numerous or of few, of short
or. of long pods. In order to avoid the pollination of too many
blossoms, the loss of the plants' vitality in the production of useless
Blossoms, and also the loss of the pollinator's time in the frequent
examination of superfluous blossoms, it is advisable to go over the
'vines at short intervals during the blossoming season, clipping the
stalk of the inflorescence just back of the remaining buds, or clipping
the buds themselves on such clusters as have the desired number of
i;pods already set, and removing any undesirable pods. A suitable
implement for doing this is a pair of blunt shears such as orange
Stickers use.
S When fertilization has occurred the pod elongates at a rapid rate,
Sits length increasing in some instances more than an inch a week.
Full length is attained in 6 to 8 weeks.

PICKING.
SThe pods are not allowed to mature fully on the vines, as they do
Snot mature simultaneously throughout their length, the apex turning
Yellow and splitting open while the base is still green. Split pods are
looked upon with disfavor by buyers. The pod should be picked
Just before reaching the stage at which it would split if left on the vine,
;'a condition usually indicated by a slight yellowing near the apex or
,; by the pod first becoming oily and later yellow in appearance. To
attainn this degree of maturity requires anywhere from 7 to 9 months,
Sor even a little longer. The time or order of maturing is-not in strict


.!... .... ..







amoth tbo Opeda~g- e the, blaowgy
sho.- na single cluster of four pods tp
Mach 31 and April 5. 6, and 8, respetel
latstpollinated had split by Decomber 26- 4i
an had not split. On January 1 a pod fromwC bi ps
Mac 28 had yellowed at the apex but had not split; of t
Sosof March 31 one had split nearly half its, length, Iwhile
col have been left still longer on the rise without danger o
tn; and one from a blossom of April 16 had splitonort
Teproper stage for. picking c=n be learned only -through o
ote appearance of pods, just before splitting.
Practice is also required, for skillful picking. A pod,
ray to pick can usually be removed unbroken by a 46ows
sueof the thumb placed at the base of the pod, bnt if tho'
twstd in removing or, if the pressure is not, applied dfirectY'
baeof the pod,'& break is apt. to result. When's small pioc6h
stlk.omes away: with. the. pod., it should be' cut away wih 04
knf t 'king care not to cut the bas of the pod-.
CURING.
Vnilla beans may be cured in many ways. The metho
attis station with the. 1917 crop was as- follows: The
plcd, in a wire basket and dipped three times in water
80t 850 C., being first immersed for 10- seconds, thenfo
fnly for 15 seconds, with 30-second intervals bete i
Wie still hot, they were closely wrapped *in' blanketas an d
set overnight. As the quantities dealt with, were, smal ,
hetwas -used- to aid in sweating. The bundled pods, hai
scling water poured over the blankets, were put in an
inuator set at about 430 C., but as the incubator faile to'
tana uniform temperature in accord with the regulator, h
onyan approximation of the actual. temperature. Th6g fol~
ngthe pods were spread on blankets in the sun. In th
nonthey were spread on shelves, in, the incubator and so loft
following morning,. when they, were again sunned, min tu
suseuent sunningos the beans being covered with a fold of n
Thsdrying was continued'for three or four days'alternating bt
inubtor and..sun, as no electric current through the morning
risin the afternoons made Ithe use of both expedient. After
th trying was completed on open shelves within doors at,
temerature., This: process gave excellent, results, the p0o"de I
well and crystallizing beautifully in drying.





29

dipping a thermometer must always be used, as the temperature
a most decided effect on the curing. Rabak states as follows:1
P urin g the beans at room temperature either without previous treatment or after
.Aitment with water up to 900 0. for a short period of time apparently produces
Mna of the best quality, as judged by the flavoring extracts prepared from the
B!0 a ples. It is, however, essential that the temperature (of the water) be not suffi-
II ntly high to destroy the action of the oxidase which is present in the pericarp. A
restriction of the oxidase would seriously interfere with the formation of the odorous
I,:stituents of the cured beans.
Dean and Schlotterbeck state:2
That the production of vanillin in the bean is an enzym action has been shown by
-obtaining two green beans from Mexico and heating one to 800 C. in order to destroy
: the natural enzym present, and then submitting both beans to a curing process.
SThe bean which had not been heated produced vanillin while the heated one did not.
SOf course, immersion in water heated to 800 or 900 C. for short
Periods does not raise the beans to this temperature. It should be
bornee in mind that the relation between the volume of water and the
quantity of beans dipped must be such that the dipping will not re-
Sduce too greatly the temperature of the water.
-. While hot, the beans are placed in a close receptacle to sweat,
Some growers use half-hogsheads with close-fitting wooden covers.
i he beans first being well wrapped in blankets. Sweating continues
until the following morning or even the morning after that.
It has been found in tests at the station that where only very
n -all quantities are cured, those wrapped in a blanket and furnished
::no additional heat from without do not retain sufficient heat for
proper sweating and that many beans develop watery blisters.
Placing the beans immediately after dipping in a heated chamber to
::!illin the drying process reduced the blistering to less than 2 per
:i ':ent, whereas under the system of attempted sweating of small
quantities without artificial heat the blistered pods in the different
lots ranged from 20 to 50 per cent. However, samples of the sweated
and the unsweated beans were examined by an expert in the manu-
facture of extracts and the unsweated beans were pronounced in-
ferior to the sweated beans.
On removal from the sweating box (in which the beans should
have changed to a chocolate color) the beans are spread for a few
Hours uncovered in the sun. After that they may be sunned under
blankets for from four to six days. One grower has used a glass
House with success, and he considers that this has greatly reduced
the expense of curing. Others, instead of sunning, use artificial heat
in drying, beginning with a chamber heated to about 1100 F. After
Sthe pods become somewhat wrinkled they are removed from this to
a less heated chamber for a short period. Whichever process is used
1 abak, F. The effect of curing on the aromatic constituents of vanilla beans. Jour. Indus. and Engin.
Chem., 8 (1916), No. 9, pp. 817, 821.
s Dean, I. R., and Schlotterbeck, J. O. Vanilla extract. Jour. Indus. and Engin. Chem., 8 (1916),
iNo. 7, p. 008.

.I :....






tI mo- d pt'I.


fieytl is o tho dysufiently pt nse
foWh ` ueoa f moenlydry, th enssO sil
Thinre fdictinesofdkuearly VMpee urn ste


tnsof th pod: slip along easdiy when 'pressed beween the
bt-he 'po shoula not feel soft and mashy. nho tilre
elasebetweenpickiing and 'becoming sufticienthy dxyfo
awyvane with the beau' this being for some very abort'thi
ol-about thee weeks, while very long fleshy pods =AY'-*
moethan thre month&,. Six to nieweeks would I*e aifaiw I

ponth completion of the dryinggproeess the beaxx4 are
in is wit cose-fitting tops and should be examined feunl
h eoalno f moldy pods. Many beaus which have tr
modmay be saved in part by cutting away the moldy *g
hesouni frgents from moldy pods should be inspected, froig
utlall wiharm not'going to keep welhave been discAr4d4ed
befoemaretng the -crop is kept several months after curiW,
ofth podshich axe apt to mold can, be seen -and remtoved
PREPAATION FORMAKT
villaa bins are sold by weight. The manner 6f presto,"
thmon th market varies with the source -of the beam.s, -some
sodloose i bulk, others sized and doite up into bundles of
90bans ec.
-Te rati o the weight of fresh to dried beams varies with. t
ues, andi said to range from 4, or even 6i to I In the _16
staio cro, the weight of the fresh beans was to them (ured weigh
a aprolu ately 4 to 1. The New Y ork dealer to whom Lthis cr4
wssbibtted reported it as very nicely cured but thought thai h
drig shol have been continued -until the beans were consider,14
fimr. 'Th number of beaus Per Pound for each length from 4*1
81iches 'I' sown in the table on p. 27.
Te beans make a better appe~arance-if.they r wp with a "aft
cohbefor budig but if- crystallization has begun the cry*4t l1
shud be lef untouched.
Sizig mus be done by. hand. A convenient measure &ir the
prose is mde by marking on a sheet'of paper a 7Sodal with quartp*
inhdiviso, between 4 and 10 inches. This is pasted to the low
sieof a paeof glass which can be' cleaned easily. TPhis ahoul&-bat






Sin orderly arrangement with the most common sizes nearest
i operator.
I bundling, the straightest pods should first be put aside. Sev-
of these are needed for the core, and others for the outside of the
dle, as a wrapper of straight pods gives a much neater appearance.
curving stem ends should be turned in as much as possible. When
ie final pod has been placed a few turns of cord or raffia will tem-
oirarily hold the beans in place until the bundle can be tied perma-
*iinently near the two ends.
IAs sizing, polishing, and bundling the beans must all be done by
.and, it would perhaps prove rather costly if the work were paid for
y the day.. Amateurs were timed for the different operations and
Mlit-was found that about 10 beans were sized in a minute or 9 beans
:polished, and that a neat bundle of 50 beans was easily done up in
15 minutes or less. Practiced hands should of course greatly reduce
the time required for these operations, and they should not prove
too expensive if paid by the job at so much per pound or bundle.
Neatly bundled beans make a much better appearance, require fewer
Sotntaners, occupy less space in shipping, and are more easily handled
ithai the loose beans, but bundling entails a considerable amount of
Jxatra labor. As vanilla beans of high grade are sold on the New
Ygrk market both bundled and in bulk, the preference of the buyers
wkt determine which method shall be followed by Porto Rican
a growers. It is reported from New York that the tendency
tl to sell beans in bulk and not to bundle them.
A Vanilla is generally shipped in closed tins which are packed in
wooden cases. Vanilla has a solvent action on several metals, in-
ling tin, but this action is much slower on tin than on a number
d the others. On account of this solvent action the beans should
protected from contact with metal by lining the containers with
taraffined paper or coating the inside of the container with paraffin.
SUMMARY.
In spite of conditions admirably adapted for the production of
vanilla, this crop has never been grown commercially in Porto Rico.
I While the price of vanilla is not what it formerly was, the con-
,: sumption has increased greatly.-
An import duty into the United States of 30 cents a pound means
"an advantage of exactly that amount for vanilla grown in Porto
Rico.
S Extract made from beans grown locally has been pronounced of
Ieix:xcellent quality. From the reports of dealers to whom beans have
Been sold or samples submitted, this vanilla is worth from $2 to $4
L. pound under the market conditions of the last two or three seasons.




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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 08929 1305




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