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Issued September 17, 1914.
PORTO RICO AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,
D. W. MAY, Special Agent in Charge,
Mayaguez, P. R.
Bulletin No. 16.
H1 E EFFECT OF STRONGLY CALCAREOUS SOILS
ON THE GROWTH AND ASH COMPOSI-
TION OF CERTAIN PLANTS.
P. L. GILE,
I, C. N. AGETON,
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
U. B. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OPFIOE.
PORTO RICO AGRICULTURAL EXPERMET STATIOI
flUnder the supervision of A. C. TRUE, Diretor of the OMeie of Experiment ftatios,V
Depwrtmet of Agriculture.]
W~vr~ H. E~ws, hief.f Division of Insulr stations, Offee of Eceie
D. W. MAY, Special Agent in Charge. 4
P. L. GmILE OAMemit.-.0.
G. L. FAWCE.Tr, Mant Pathologist.
C. F. KINxAN, Horticulturist.
R.- H. VAN ZWALUWEBWIUUG, Enternolopt.
T. B. McCL)tern, A4sisistnt Worticlturist.
W.E. HESS, Expert Gardener.
W.ALEXAR, J~r., Clerk.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
PORT Rico AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,
Mayaguez, P. R., February 13, 1914.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a manuscript by P. L.
Gile and C. N. Ageton on The Effect of Strongly Calcareous Soils on
the Growth and Ash Composition of Certain Plants. In plant pro-
duction we have tried' and measured and weighed many results
obtained by methods more or less uncertain and inexact. It is
becoming increasingly evident that we must go farther back and
Seek for principles in order that our efforts may lead to more exact
Sand concordant returns. This bulletin throws some light on the
V. relation of certain elements in plant growth and will prove of value
in further researches.
I recommend that this manuscript be published as Bulletin 16 of
D. W. MAY,
Special Agent in Charge.
SDr. A. C. TRUE,
Director Office of Experiment Stations,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Recommended for publication.
A. C. TRUE, Director.
D. F. HOUSTON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
HHHHHHHHHHHHB HHBB HHH BBB'at' BB
I' Introduction.. ........................................................... 7
Previous work-........... .. .... .... .... ..... ............................. 7
On the influence of carbonate of lime on the growth of plants............. 7
On the influence of carbonate of lime on the ash composition of plants.... 8
Plan of the investigation... ............. ........ ...... ...................... 12
',V'.Materials and methods employed--------------------12
i Materials and methods employed............................................ 12
G growth and composition of various plants on the calcareous and noncalcareous
s oils.............-------------- ..................................---- .-- ... 15
Bush beans..---.. ---..... .....-- .....-----------........ ........--.. .. 15
Soy beans.......................... ......-..........................--. 18
Sunflowers....--...........--------- ..----.--...------.......-....-.... 19
Radishes......... .. .........------------ .. ..- -- ---.. -----....... ...... 22
Sugar cane ......--............... ..--..... .......--..............-- -.. 25
Sweet casava.......-- ...----- ........----.......--................--... 26
Upland rice .................. ........ ........... ......... ............ 29
S.General summary of experimental results..................................... 33
The effect of carbonate of lime on the growth of plants.................... 33
The effect of carbonate of lime on the ash composition of plants ......... 34
The effect on growth compared with the effect on ash composition........ 37
Discussion of results............................................ ......... ... 38
Sum m ary..; ...... ............. ......................................... 44
PLATE I. Arrangement of plats on which plants were grown................... 12
II. Fig. 1.-Sweet cassava grown with no lime, Plat I. Fig. 2.-Sweet
cassava grown with 5 per cent lime, Plat II ...................... 12
III. Fig. 1.-Sweet cassava grown with 18 per cent lime, Plat III. Fig.
2.-Sweet cassava grown with 35 per cent lime, Plat IV............ 24
IV. Fig. 1.-Rice grown without lime, Plat I. Fig. 2.-Rice grown with
5 per cent lime, Plat II. Fig. 3.-Rice grown with 18 per cent lime,
Plat III. Fig. 4.-Rice grown with 35 per cent lime, Plat IV.... 24
THE. EFFECT OF STRONGLY CALCAREOUS SOILS ON
THE GROWTH AND ASH COMPOSITION OF CER-
SMany soil troubles in Porto Rico appear to be due to an excess of
lime or to the acidity attending a deficiency of lime. In a previous
Bulletin of this station attention was called to the action of an
.excess of lime in rendering soils unsuitable for the cultivation of pine-
apples. Besides pineapples, some other crops refuse to grow on the
excessively calcareous soils, or else give evidence of nutritional dis-
turbances by the chlorotic appearance of their leaves. Since a con-
Ssiderable portion of the arable land of Porto Rico is moderately or
excessively calcareous it is believed that investigations to determine
S the cause and cure of these disturbances are important: As a part
Sof such investigations, a study has been made of the effect of varying
amounts of carbonate of lime in the soil upon the growth and mineral
cornppsition of various plants.
Since the nutritional disturbances of some plants on the excessively
S calcreous soils are evidently caused by the chemical and not the
I physical character of these soils, it was thought that a comparison
Sof the ash contents of plants grown on a normal and on a calcareous
'soil might indicate the nature of the disturbance. The data reported
S throw some light on this specific problem as well as on the more
general subject of the effect of the soil on the ash compositionof
ON THE INFLUENCE OF CARBONATE OF LIME ON THE GROWTH OF
There are few quantitative data on the effect of strongly calcareous
soils on the growth of plants. The results of ordinary liming experi-
memts, which show the effect of alterations in the soil reaction, do
nob apply to this investigation, except that plants thriving best on
S acid soils must be expected to show a depression on strongly cal-
1 Porto Rico Sta. Bul. 11.
S Wheele, Hi t., et al., Rhode Island Bta. Rpts. 1899, pp. 224-252; 1894, p. 152; 1895, p. 205; 1896, p.:l42;
S107, p. 202; 1898, p. 144; 1899, p. 171; 1900, p. 293. Coville, F. V., U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant Indus.
SBo. 193; U. B. Dept. Agr. Bul. 6.
'Asw h~evr exesaentretp
su lt-5forL the most part
onth occurrence o nonioccurrence of plants 46Aai
7hse studies-, whic have -afforded rather clonflictlng ea
-so that the" re A very few plants, which,00Ver'
al'crous 6ol h bservations do not show
whtherlti is dne o he yica 1,'Or. chemical charseter .0of
Tee are also srme future experiments which show 'Wat
certain varietieso lupines,'z. sphagnum moss, sberrad
apes,.5 etc., are i o.r -nt.of calcreu soils.
ne many studied on the chlorosis -of fruit trees andg
fio that many, cxous -soils are not adapted for certai*i
anvines.- A paxtartview-of the lIiterature on lishe-induce~d dl
isgven i' the bullei of 'this. station, refered to above. tA
-the whole thit erature: -shows that some plants,-r
inolrant of much caboate Mf liei he soil, some' ame
adotherg.'require cosiderable carbonate of. li*.me to ,mek,,
ON:TE09 INFLUENCE OFCARRONATIKOF LIME ON _THEI ASIG01)
No comprehensive studies have been made' to deter-mine
t mineral compostin of different plants is affected in a
stan manner by lage amounts of carbonate of lime in the
soework has been dne along this Eino.
Fiche arid Grandeu analyzed. the ash of the maritime- pinoe
stnaer), the chestnt (Ca~staiea vesca,),: and, the: bean tree'.(
-sbuum), fro~mca: acous and noncalcareous $oils. '11e C&
sol contained 3.25 percent. of lime *in the surface soil ail&2
centW the subsoil, whle the siliceous or noncalcareous soil co
0.5per cent of lime i the surface soil and 0.20 per cent in th
sol.The bean tre grewsequally well on the two classes ot,
whl the chestnut admaritim e pine grew -well on the S'iliceous 4
bu eveloped very porly, showing strong chloroio theb Cale
sol.Analyses, by Flche and Grandeau,6- of samples from re
1 ygrd, X. W., Soils, Now or and London, 1906; Proc. Sooc. Prom. Agr. BeL, 7(1886),p11$.
H..= adw. Ver. tat,, 13 (1,. 269.i Braungart, R.., our,. Lndw., 28 (18), p. 155 IO34,*
TrWdes Rapports des Plane av.e le sol et de la Chlorse VWgt~ale, Paris, 1900. Kraws; G.,,B
A' x iep. 23. 'Schhimpr, A.F ., Pfazngorpi dPhysioogischer Grandkog, 5tia)
2o86 REe~*I., Mergel Und Meln~, Berlin, 18M. Pfeiffer, T., snd Blandkf B.) M04.La
Brau 6 (1911), No. 2, p. 273
S au, HI., Ber. Deut. Bot. Ges., 24 (1906), p. 148.
4 eer, D. Die Kalk und geiadungfing,.Berlin, 1910, p. 61.
G ~, P. L., Porto Rieo St.Bl 11.
Sthe same age, grown on the calcareous and noncalcareous soils, are
given in Table I.
TABLE I.-Ash analyses by Fliche and Grandeau of trees from calcareous and siliceous soils.
Maritime pine-- Bean tree-
Siliceous Calcare- Siliceous Calcare- Siliceous Calcare- Siliceous Calcare-
soil. ous soil. soil. ous soil. soil. ous soil. soil. ous soil.
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Percent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Aohin dry matter....... 1.32 1.54 4.80 7.80 4.74 5.71 1.19 1.39
3: sphrianacid (POs).. 9.00 9.14 12.32 12.50 4.53 4.27 16.74 11.57
Ifmri (esOa)............ 3.83 2.07 1.07 -83 2.04 1.27 3.05 2.74
ime (CaO) ............ 40. 20 56.14 45.37 74.55 73.26 87. 30 27. 15 29.23
lagnsia (MgO)........ 20.09 18.80 6.63 3.70 3.99 2.07 17.76 12.31
.Potash (KO).........- 16.04 4.95 21.67 5.76 11.65 2.69 23.77 24.50
Soda (Nasq)............ 1.91 2.52 3.86 .66 .00 .28 3.05 12.68
Sulphur trioxid (SOs).-. ......--- ...-- ...-.. 2.97 .00 1.43 .64 4.52 3.73
Silica (SiO) ............ 9.18 6.42 5.79 1.46 3.08 1.36 3.96 3.24
Chlorn (Cl) ....-...... ...... .... ..- .. .30 .52 .......... .08 ...................
They concluded that the maritime pine and chestnut on the cal-
careoum soils absorbed an undue amount of lime, which caused a dim-
inution in the other elements, notably in potash and iron; the increase
in lime and diminution in potash and iron caused the poor growth of
these trees on the calcareous soils. They further state that the
presence of an excess of lime in the soil appears to be always un-
favorable to the absorption of iron. It will be noticed that the bean
tree, which grew equally well on the two soils, showed practically the
same content of lime, potash, and iron in the ash when grown on the
calcareous as when grown on the siliceous soil.
Wolff reports analyses by Zller, K6chlin, and R6the of barley
seeds, madder roots, and bugle weed from low-lime and calcareous
soils.1 Unfortunately the comparative growths of the plants on
the two classes of soil are not given, so the results are not particularly
illuminating for our purpose. Nor is it evident that the comparative
samples of plants were grown under like climatic conditions. The
barley seeds were grown on soils containing 1.55 per cent and 23.04
per cent of CaCO, but there was no difference in the ash content
and ash composition of the seeds from the two soils. The madder
roots from the calcareous soils contained one-third as much Fe;O,,
ClI, and SiO2 and one-half more SO, than the roots from the low-
lime soil. The bugle weed (Ajuga reptans) was grown on soils con-
taining 0.14 per cent of CaO and 37.16 per cent of CaCO. The
plants grown on the calcareous soil differed from those grown on
the low-lime soil in containing twice as much magnesia and chlorin,
one-third as much silica, and one-fourth as much soda.
I Wolff, E. Aschen-analysen. Berlin, 1871, pp. 18, 116, 138.
Kind ~ I ofpWn
Cruciferm (6 qaalyses)............... .... .. g g
Leguminosm (6 analyses) ................... 0............. ....... 40,26
Dip aea em 5 nal ses ..... ................................ ........4
Malicacex,, Populus (5 anal~yses) .........................- .. 6&.87,
Average ................... .............. .......... .........7
In five species of plants the lime, soda nj poah Mi the soh
also determined, as shown in Table III
T",EII.Analyses b Maauian u rfwild patfroi arer
-CsO inash of plant:sO i plntI Nas insh
grown on-- i- grown,
Species of plant.
Cal- Ton Q& n Cl
careous calcae caeou caaro&- careous
Sc. oui soil. 'soil. out ()L
Per cent. Per cent Per cet e cent. per Obt. per 4
Braefe clraes...... ................ 27-98 13.2 ......... ....
Brwgsca napm ............................ %43.60 19.48 12.3 25.42 S W ,
Trfoism rtne............ 43.32 29-7 9.0 27.20 4:80,
Prifolists tnearatum ------_--------------. 36-18 26-6 19. 28.74 13. 80
Seabibsa arvewsis......... .................. 28.6o. M1 6 ....... .. ... ... --- ------- -
D cyisw glomera .a.................. .226 62 40....44.....
Qufe ft uka............... 7.14 540 11.0 9.0.3 i.'19
Aveage ............. ......... 3,4.83, 2..... ...... .... .......
It o'the has analyzed the' rupture-wor (it iriq'ggbira) fe
silica sand and dolomite sand -The dollm~te: ad contained a 4
56, per Zsent CaCO. and 43 per cent NMgC. Th iliga sand was
up of quartz and feldspar. The plants frm th wo soils- con
abouit'the same amount of. 'Crude ash, btthe s of, the plant
the' dolomite'sand differed from the ash*fth chek "Plant, in.c'
taining one-third as much potash, twice asmup&Bme, thre-fth
much iron, three times asr much magnesa one-tefth as much.
and one-seventh as much potassium ch iW. Tetwo samples
taken frmdfeet Ilocalities and it not stae rhehrte
were of the same age or not.
SSome results secured by Haselhoff in studying the decomposition
dtf certain rocks are interesting in this connection. Peas, beans,
lupines, barley, and wheat were grown in rocks powdered to a fineness
of 5 to 0.5 millimeter. Two of the rocks used were sandstone (Bunt-
sandstein) and limestone (Muschelkalk). The sandstone contained
no carbonate of lime and the limestone about 94 per cent. Barley
and wheat, which made almost no growth on any of the rocks, con-
tained no more lime when grown on the limestone than when grown
on the sandstone. Peas, beans, and lupines, which made a relatively
good growth on the sandstone and a greatly diminished growth on the
nlimestone, contained respectively two, five, and three times as much
nme in the dry substance when grown on the limestone as when
grown on the sandstone. These results are not conclusive in con-
nection with our work, however, as the plants were grown on pow-
dered rock without any addition of fertilizers. Thus the growth of the
plants was limited mainly by the ease with which the different rocks
afforded the mineral nutrients, and any effect which the other char-
aoteristics of the rocks could have had upon the plant growth was
probably obscured. The results, however, when compared with the
data in the following pages, where much smaller increases in lime
were induced in the plants, suggest the idea that the presence of an
abundance of nutrient salts probably decreases the percentage of
lime in the ash of plants grown in calcareous soils.
Studies of D. Meyer 2 and Lemmermann et al.3 give data showing
the influence of the lime content of the soil upon the lime content
of the plant. The plants were grown in pots with additions of
nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid.
Lemmermann et al. worked with six soils, five of which contained
from 0.08 per cent to 0.85 per cent of CaO, while the sixth soil, evidently
calcareous, contained 9.25 per cent of CaO. Rye, barley, and oats,
grown on the calcareous soil with 9.25 per cent CaO, contained less
lime in the dry substance than when grown on the soils with 0.53
per cent and 0.85 per cent of lime. There was no depression of
growth on the calcareous soil as compared with the other soils. Clover
grown on the calcareous soil contained the same amount of lime as
when grown on the soil with 0.53 per cent CaO. The growths on the
different soils were about the same. Mustard grown on the calcareous
soil contained the same amount o'f lime as when grown on the soil
with 0.85 per cent CaO, the growths made on the two soils being
approximately equal. Vetch grown on the high-lime soil contained
more lime than when grown on any of the other soils, although the
growth varied but little between the soils containing 0.53 per cent,
0.85 per cent, and 9.25 per cent CaO.
1 Haselhoff, E., Landw. Vers. Stat., 70 (1909), p. 53.
2 Meyer, D., Landw. Jahrb., 39 (1910), Erginzungsb. 3, p. 254.
Lemmermann, 0., et al., Landw. Jahrb., 40 (1911), No. 1-2, p. 173. _
47 it re,-PO h ,
isa a xce aie t.er s
Qiiiiiiiiroii iotask, and si;;;;; ;;t;;;;;;;;;;
.......................... .. ........ 0 0V V V $ T t
bre! h .ln.oie
a O lit-1
wm to acuiPiro' ad h'l
-,in ftopat.frmtedfeetp I
grw h*pas i'' e!ttms a-O
'Sn teo!6to teivsito at
:,h,abnt flm- uyo h r~rh ~
to!h'lns t:ws tepdkteflwa
-wr ihr4 adeuph-,(a- i
abefr hii' rw4 hnte-
-tesm u!iyO'wtrwsadd-t "
L r n
in-s1ge ,ei n ee o,,cuso) e o
4, -_ o ndit o n s .
4nA, _,* .. *
,. ,Ri~ WFF -i.ql~~y, :.-~~. o
ARRANGEMENT OF PLATS ON WHICH PLANTS WERE GROWN.
Bul. 16, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station.
FIG. 1.-SWEET CASSAVA GROWN WITH NO LIME, PLAT I.
PIN r.A kfl
.4 .. ,: ., :. : .
.a.. :. ..,.
Fie. 2.-SWEET CASSAVA GROWN WITH 5 PER CENT LIME, PLAT II.
Wpach plat. These holes were filled with clay, sand, and dis-
ted limestone in such proportions as to furnish soils of approx-
dqual texture and with the above percentages of calcium
ie. Plat I was made up of approximately 33 per cent clay
g l &t.per cent sand; Plat II of 34 per cent clay, 60 per cent sand,
0:per: cent limestone; Plat III of 33 per cent clay, 47.per cent
..i. 20 per cent limestone; Plat IV of 32 per cent clay, 30 per
and 38 per cent limestone. The soil in each plat was made
%y long-continued mixing. The texture of the soil in Plats
KiId III was practically equal, that in Plat IV was somewhat
....'although good. As the four plats were surrounded by a
heree was no drainage or wash from one plat to the other.
.. limestone used was the finely disintegrated material formed
$E breaking down of coralline rock.1 The acid analyses of the
i ithe four plats are given in Table IV.
S TABLE IV.-Analyses of the soils of the four plats.
.f': Plat I. Plat II. Plat II. Plat IV.
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
i .att -.....- ---....------------------------ -. 65.69 59.09 50.74 38.07
ti ... _............................................. 8.43 10.97 16.17 23.08
P-.(-iE-a)....---.------- ----------.. -----...-- -.. 11.97 10.82 9.26 6.96
fidi (AlOa).......................................-. 11.39 12.78 12.11 9.10
....-----.................................... .. 1.03 4.06 10.90 21.24
).... .........._. ---------------------------------L37 L65 .79 1.51
7 --...... ." :::-- .10 .21 .15 .17
'ntoxid (PO.)................. ....... .09 .07 .05 .09
i .............-.-..-- .---- .----- .-..... ..------ ..- .. 100.07 99.65 100.17 100,22
......................................... ......... .09 .08 .07 .07
('C) -.......................................00 2.18 7.84 15.35,
a bon ate (CaCOa)............. ..................... 00 4.97 17.83 34.88
t litmus...... .................................. Neutral. Alkaline. Alkaline. Alkaline.
& -S. :._ .. : -..-.
Ue these soils were of good loamy texture, they were very low in
n matter, and were purposely kept so by removing the roots of
e vatnous crops, since in the work previously reported 2 there was
enoe to show that in -the presence of a large amount of organic
Sthe carbonate of lime would not exert its characteristic effect
i.e plants. Nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid were applied
antfly and in such quantities that the growth of plants was not
"g by a lack of these elements in any of the plats. Water was
T i ppied when the rainfall was insufficient. In these plats the
were grown under natural conditions of soil temperature, root
A a nd water supply, and the growths made were fully equal to
adi tainted under ordinary field conditions.
Aipoll UsU wand description of this material is given under sample 216 in Porto Rico Sta. Bul. 11, p. 22.
i:R Ft'o RBico Sta. Bul. 1L
I .:[[E.: .:... I "~
Eight spOcies Of -lnsrprsnigsix
Iasi, namely: Rice, sov beans, Lush, be) s
sweet cassava%, sugar pane) and pinevpplesq, qF yd
each plaint were. grow At: various times du -n thp-A
the investigation was m. progress, so, the results.rers
made under average Weather. conditions. It is believed,,4t
. e weights of the 'six crops. represent within an~acr
per cent the compparative growths madeo::n the differens4.
since the purpose of the investigation. was to determse-
ofa sonl constituent upon the ash composition of the
necessary to out the.:plants before; they reached com~plt-
If harvested at complete maturity, variations in the ash
the soil might'have been obscured by losses in the ]PUI",O
ents which take place in the later stages of maturity_
our -purpose the seeds or fruits from the plants, on the,
were not so, important Las the stems. and leaves, -since h
stion of the seeds is less affected -by, the, composition of h
the vegetative portion of the plant. While the mijacal
the stems and leaves is assimilated from the soil the minral
of seeds comes from Ia tramalocation of the ierlmatter
the vegetative parts of the plant.?,
Soy beans and bush beans were harvested in flower, bl.
leaves were still sound. Radishes Were grown to the proper,
able size and not to seed. Sunflowers were grown until t,
had formed, but were cut before the seeds were -filled, in-
secure unwithered leaves. Some of the rice was grown to m
while other crop-s were cut at a very early stage and when the
were just appearing. This crop was analyzed at several t"
growth. Sugar cane was grown for 148 days and sweet c,
122 days. Pineapples were grown ten months. In prarW-.
samples for analysis none but sound leaves were used, snet
content of withered leaves is probably dependent more o h
ing to which they'have. been subjected than. to Minfen o hoc
The methods used for the analysis of the plant ashes e
tially those of the Association of Official Agricultural. Ce
9M'tion of the dry substance was carried out at a low
without the addition of calcium acetsate, as the lime i*'te
substance could be determined more accurately without'ts'
Comparative analyses made of the dry substance ignit
I Wilfarth, R~mer,, and Wimmer (lA~ndw. VesStat., 6a (1905)o No. 1-2) have shown b
loame of potash and nitrogen octur during the rmipnng of wheat and barley. Le CI.arde
Dep. Agr. Yearbook, 190M, p. 389) have alsosahown that there is a loss of mineralen
at-maturity, due to the leaching action of main or dew.
2,See Fittbogen, I., Landw. Vons. Stat., 6 (186IV p. 474; quoted. by Dikaw, A..Vx JV
(1M9), p. 134.
there was no volatilization of phosphoric acid at the temperature at
which the ignitions were made. The separation of lime from iron
and alumina was effected by precipitating the iron and aluminum
phosphates in acetic acid solution without addition of ferric chlorid,
as this method possessed some advantages over the official method.'
The iron was determined volumetrically with potassium perman-
:l: ganate. An aliquot was twice evaporated with sulphuric acid until
fumes tf sulphuric acid appeared. The diluted solution was then
reduced with iron-free zinc, filtered, and titrated with y\ or --h normal
potassium permanganate. Tests with potassium thiocyanate showed
that between the final filtration and titration with permanganate no
ferric iron was formed.
For the calculation of the results the sum of the constituents found
in the acid solution of the ash was not taken as the amount of carbon-
free ash, but the total ash was determined absolutely and the percent-
ages of the various constituents calculated from this determination.
The percentages of the constituents in the ash are thus dependent
upon the accuracy of the determination of the carbon-free ash, which
is probably subject to an error of about one part in a hundred. The
inorganic elements present in the dry matter of the plant were cal-
culated by multiplying the percentages in the ash by the percentage
of carbon-free ash and dividing by 100. In this process the percent-
age of ash eliminates itself, so the percentages of the constituents
found in the dry substance of the plant are more accurate, being
independent of the determination of carbon-free ash.
GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS PLANTS ON THE CAL-
CAREOUS AND NONCALCAREOUS SOILS.
The growths of the various plants on the different soils and their
ash compositions are detailed in the following pages. In all the
tables Plat I refers to the check plat, containing no carbonate of
lime, and Plats II, III, and IV refer to the plats containing, respec-
tively, 5, 18, and 35 per cent of carbonate of lime.
The results obtained with pineapples are reported in a former
bulletin of this station.2
Six crops of bush beans, variety Improved Golden Wax, were
grown at various seasons of the year. While the growth made at
different seasons varied greatly, plantings in March and April giving
the maximum growth, the relative growths made on the different
plats appeared to be unaffected by the time of planting. The first
crop of beans being grown to seed no data were secured on the weight
of the plants, as when the seed were thoroughly mature the plants
I A report on this method is given in Porto Rico Sta. Rpt. 1912, p. 21.
SPorto Rico Sta. Bul. 11.
had shriveled -and many leaves hid' dkoppdo1'9
gram Of shelled beftli 'Plat 1I 123 gramst and P O
The five succeeding crops ...were harvested in fort h
were still green. The absolute and relative, growtho is0
difeent plats are shown in Table V.
TABL'E; V.--rowth of bush.beans on plates with dierent amountg of C4
PWeight ot green crops. Relative wei st of crops fo
Plat No Pecos It9 B
0. in Soil., SM
P. ct. Gma. "ms. Gms. Gns. Gio. Gas.
I .......... None. 2,086 455 753 670 777 4,741 100 100 100 100 100
II........ 5 1,913 510 13035 740 776 4,:974 92 112 188 110 100
III........ 18 2,112 557 953 690 695 5,007 101 .123 12-7 103 90 J'
TV --------- 35 2,855 660 954 .615 607 M,2 137 145 127 92 82
It can be seen that the growth, of the bush beans -averaged, '* ,
allowance for the probable error, at least S per cent better on- h
soils continuing carbonate of lime.
Crop B from the fbur plats was analyzed alone, rosD andY VO
analyzed together, using a composite sample -made up of equal ph
of the twd crops. The whole plant above ground was 'used
analysis, stems, flowers, And leaves being finely ground up toget4byr't
In Table VI are given, the percentages of the elements: in the carbon-'
free ash and in the dry substance of the plantW from the four plats.
TABL-EVI.-Analyses of bush beans from plats with different amounts of Cocoa.
Analyses of carbon-free ash. Ash constituents in dry -substance of plant.
Plat CaCOo A 0
No. in soil. o 14 0 a
Pet. P.Ct. P.cet. P. d. P. d. P. d. P. et. P. et. P. t. P. ct. P.ct. P.Ot. P.C M P. d. P.
I .... None. 35-54 10.84 8.14 32.98 1.54 12.05 10.62 a, 77 1.15 0.86 3.50 03164 1.298 4.
I.... 5 29. 95 12, 31 7. 39 32. 38 1. 44 12. 85 11. 48 3. 44 1. 41 85, 3.72 .165 1. 48 -V
111.. 18 26.02 11.15 7.16 31-8 1.22 10.80 11.63 3.03 1.30 3.70,.4 1.2 1
IV.. 351 28.53 10.031 7.02 34.45 998631 12.05134 12 .85 4.15 .119 1.04X
OROPS D AND F.
I... None. 25-91 7.67 8.2 33.82 1.28 10.11 11.20 2.90 0.8 0.9 3.79 0.143 1.13 1
II.. 5 26.82 7.90 8'.3 31.851 .96 10.08 11. 2D 3.00 -.8 9W i3.57 .108 1 13
II.. 18 28.12 7.2 &,57 36.82 .88 & 97 10.82 3.1094 .7 .4 3.98 .095 :97
IV.. 35 25-5 6.30 7 .A94 519 .82 8.38 11.73 3.0 .74 :AA19 .06 .9
h' : bile the content of ash, lime, phosphoric acid, potash, silica, and
:.ir : gen was practically the same for the two sets of samples analyzed,
i magnesia and iron content was higher in crop B than in crops D
SiId F, and it will be noticed that this difference holds for the plants
ko wn on all four soils. These results are rather striking when it is
Considered that crop B and crops D and F were grown in different
years and that no magnesium was added in any fertilizer.
The extent to which the carbonate of lime in the soil influenced the
ash composition and amount of inorganic substances in the dry matter
i;:othe plants is better shown in Table VII. Here the percentages of
i;the dferent elements present in the plants grown in Plat I are ex-
pressed as 100, and the percentages present in the plants grown in
PlatsI II, III, and IV are expressed relative to 100. Table VII gives
1' only the average result of the three crops analyzed. In calculating
"the average, twice the value was given to the analysis of the com-
pomste sample of crops D and F that was given to the analysis of crop
B, so the average result gives an equal value to all three crops, B, D,
TABLE VII.-Relative ash composition of bush beans from different plats.
Relative composition of ash (percent- Relative ash content of dry substance (percentages
ages in plants from Plat I=100). in plants from Plat I=100).
i. -in O W 0 0 0
o g o g I o a
he0 0 6 s- a 0
Per f ..
: .... None. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
II.... 5 97 107 98 95 81 102 103 99 110 100 98 85 105 98
... 1897 98 99105 2 89101 97 9910 105 73 90 94
.... 35 93 8 93 104 64 79 108 99 92 100 112 69 85 98
-Prom Table VII it is apparent that the chief effect of the carbonate
Sof lime in the soil upon the ash constituents in the dry substance of
the bush beans or upon the composition of their ash lay in dimin-
Sishing the content of iron. The silica content is also considerably
diminished in the plants grown on the fourth plat. The content of
I lime, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen in the dry substance and in the
i? ash is remarkably constant for the plants grown on all four plats.
'6 I MY
60 o rlaiegrwhsW4,'(-,tmm~ur
TABL VII.-Gowthof a 'bm
Gfetwigto rp._dt" t
-Wcc 40 -
N n ol
Pe .GH .,G .G m G S W em'
1 ....N n 75 I 6 3 ,8 4 ,4 0 0 0 O
5 0 7 8 52 621 2 S 7 4 W 11
31. 8 75 145 60 124 577 1 D ,0 7 8 2 7
i-. 3 :64 1'7 30 162U
81 ,1 7 ,18 8 0, 7
Thmvrg eut hwta h etgot f sy
Maeo h ltwt ocroaeo ieteeWs
th rbakeroa 8t,1pe et er~e nF
2 -pr etderae n lt lyan t' 1 m m
T...e tIwo samples, composed of three crops each, analyzed very
l ly the same. The lime was a little higher and the potash and iron
e lower in crops A, B, and C than in crops D, E, and F. These
i.. d rences hold for all four plats, so they can hardly be chance
variations. It seems probable that they are due to climatic influ-
ences which affect the plant directly or through the soil.
I In Table X are given the relative ash compositions and the relative
.amounts of ash constituents in the dry substance of the plants from
the different plats, the percentages of the different elements in the
!plan from Plat I being taken as 100 in each case. The results are
Ainerage of the two lots analyzed, given in Table IX.
TABLE X.-Relative ash composition of soy beans from different plats.
Relative composition of ash (percent- Relative amounts ash constituents in the dry sub-
ages in plants from Plat I=100). stance (amounts present in plants from Plat I= 100).
I.'.. Nane. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 lO0
95 -124 103 10 98 99 97 9 128 10
Pin... 18 10 93 113 4 78 122 101 10 3 112 5 79 123 95
IV. .. 35 107 87 100 93 70 108 105 111 91 104 97 73 113 96
The carbonate of lime in the soil had little more effect in varying
4h tie ash content of soy beans than it had on bush beans. As with
pi; bash beans, the most notable variation appeared in the regular
decrease in the iron content of the plant with increasing amounts of
donate of lime in the soil. The other variations that occurred
are of lesser order, not exceeding 10 per cent except in the case of
silica. 0 There was a small but regular increase in the amount of lime
&" in the dry substance of the plant with increasing amounts of lime in
t fhe soil; in Plat II, however, the increase was not greater than the
Probable error. Proportionate to the increase in lime, there was a
,^ decrease in the amount of magnesia in the dry substance of the plant
with increasing amounts of carbonate of lime in the plats. The
remaining constituents in the plants showed no parallelism with the
I---None. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
5 98 96 96 94 95-124 103 101 98 99 97 99 128 106
II 18 109 93 113 94 78 122 101 109 93 112 95 79 123 95
35 107 87 100 93 70 108 105 111 91 104 97 73 113 96
The content of the of lime in the soil had l little more effect in the plants
as .. wn in the calcareous soil appears anomalonush beans. As with
Six cropbeans of large Russian sunflowers were grown. The regulants
rae in the iron conthe heads had formed, but beforeasing amountthe seeds were
carbonate of limo in the soil. The other variations that occurred
are of lesser order, not exceeding 10 per cent except in the case of
silia. 'There was a small but regular increase in the amount of lime
Sthe developed.ry substance of this stage the leaves were s increasing amount, exept a few
the soil; in Plesat however, the increase was not greater than the
probable error. Proportionate to the increase in lime, there wag a
-decrease in the amount of magnesia in the dry substance of the plant
with increasing amounts of carbonate of lime in the plats. The
: rwnaining constituents in the plants showed no parallelism with the
ime content of the soils. The greater amount of silica in the plants
grown in the calcareous soil appears anomalous.
Six crops of large Russian sunflowers were grown. The plants
Wareha~rvested when the heads had formed, but before the seeds were
tally developed. At this stage the leaves were sound, except a few
of the lower ones, which were not included in the sample fdr analysis.
rawjbt oII at-p6#e1t x
80ixoipta ny h t
Vws s gve i TaleXI
T~iBi& L-L-rawh o suflo~em-it lat
Gre egto rp.Rltv
I!,C~t g.Ks V s p
1_ Noe 7 : 1.0 58 .5 051EJW ]E
H 5.1.45 2.1 9-QV U.90 .2 6.5 8.1 104 1
II_ .1 49i22 0 05 952 26 4 9 8 18
IV.. 3 53 :2.2 7. .0 01 3 4, 6 W 8
Th vrgso h aiv rwb h-l wt
prbbe ro, osil, .*nres- o .to8pr ~t in
a dcre4 .
dereseo 1 t 1 ercet nPlt II nd0 i
pe cntMiPlt V': -hetoalegen eiht'oth ix
-u th aersls ecp htm lt 1teeias
'ista ofIIices oe lt1 Te vrg~ft
grwh spoal ar cuaet-ntettlwi&6,
crps sne hefrmr iesI neqalvlu t acIIp
Crp ws-l~lzd loe a& rosD n F IIe
toete i cmosteampe..I echcseteIIavs
wee nayzd eartey.Th, eul-%nIiiT
-Aay~ f-snk wsfot lt, ihdi -na|,q
TA~tzXIL fer O
a XI.-Analyses of sunflowers from platswith different amounts of CaCO---Con.
Analyses of carbon-free ash. Ash constituents in dry substance of plant.
E 'i''':. "T: "..!:
C) 0 'e Z
o o I
SA : A a5 0 0
o. in soil. o 'V
S I p ip
AH FA ci 0 &I
P. t. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P. ctP. P. ct. .t. P. ct. P. P.ct. cP. P.ct. P. ct. P.ct.
I.... None. 14.74 8.84 7.68 49.06 0.15...... 10.36 1.53 0.92 0.80 5.08 0.016 ...... 1.58
S--. 5 14.66 8.27 7.25 52.90 .21 ...... 12.31 1.80 1.02 .89 6.51 .026...... 1.74
*. 18 15.03 8.28 6.77 50.86 .13...... 11.28 1.70 .93 .76 5.74 .015...... 1.29
i 35 15.22 8.07 6.83 50.14 .14...... 10.77 1.64 .87 .74 5.40 .015...... 1.33
STALKS-CROPS D, E, AND F.
l None. 13.11 12.90 6.25 48.60 0.51 1.68 10.31 1.35 1.34 0.64 5.01 0.053 0.17 0.93
U H.. 5 10.94 10.59 4.82 44.29 .33 1.48 11.81 1.29 1.25 .57 5.23 .039 .17 .92
18 11.34 10.80 6.71 55.63 .41 1.90 10.22 1.16 1.0 69 5.69 .042 .20 .66
IV.... 35 9.71 8.66 4.88 50.51 .34 1.52 10.89 1.06 .94 .53 5.50 .037 .17 .73
The percentage of lime in the ash and in the dry substance of the
plant was somewhat higher in crop A than in crops D, E, and F,
t in all four plats. The ash content was about 50 per cent higher in
the leaves than in the stalks. There was about three times as much
lime in the leaves as in the stalks, twice as much magnesia, about
Ssix times as much silica, and two and a half times as much nitrogen.
The potash was some 20 per cent higher in the stalks than in the
The relative ash compositions and relative amounts of asn con-
Sstituents in the dry substance of the plants from the different plats
Share given in Table XIII, the percentages of the different elements
M.;in the plants from Plat I being taken as 100 in each case. In Table
XIII the results are an average of crops A, D, E, and F.
TABLE XIII.-Relative ash composition of sunflowers from different plats.
Relative composition of ash (percent- Relative amount ash constituents in dry substance
ages in plants from Plat 1=100). (amounts present in plants from Plat I=100).
o o A ?
Plit CaCOs A s b0
.2 ca -^ js
No. in soil. o .A a Mo Z
-.. None. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
n.... 5 113 94 88 110 134 120 112 127 106 100 123 149 135 98
IIn... 18 112 94 92 104 145 119 104 117 97 97 108 148 127 97
IV.... 35 117 85 78 102 123 102 100 117 85 78 102 122 102 10B
SNone. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 10
- .. 5 87 85 81 95 84 88 116 102 98 95 110 97 100 102
II... 18 90 87 102 112 82 113 102 92 87 105 114 85 118 74
IV.... 35 81 73 81 104 74 90 106 86 76 86 109 94 100 8U
A-eRt sreotakh, 40prcn ozr
hthk he leaves froin Plat Ithn an eua
ph'ophoric acidand nitrogen. The leaOveR kt
ibose of Plat I in contail-lng It p6r cent mQTre lia*1'
iron, 27 per cent more silica, -and 8 p~er -vxnt morem6
from Plat IV differed in containing 17 per en't woripds
less magnlesiay. 22 per cent less phosphoric 8cid, god V-2 e
The stalks 1ronm plat II differed from those of Plat I
taiing 10 per cent more potash; the stalks from Plat,11.
Containing, 8 per cet less lime, 13 per cent Iless maguesia,14'
Wore potash, 15 per cent less irony IS per cent miore ii
cent less nitrogen.; the staldks from Plat IV differed, inca
Per cent less lime, 24 per cent less magnesium, 14- per cn
phoric acid, 9 per cent miore potash, and 20 per cent lew A.
As the green weight of the stalks averaged twice the ed
of Ithe. leaves, it can. he seen that the lime content of-*the, 44
leaves and stalks from 'Plat 11L was A littehge than that
1I while the lime content of the leaves and stalks from Pit&r
IV Varied little from the lime content of those from Plat L-,
6onstitubnts 0A the combined leaves and stalks, of Plat Af411
from: the ash constituents of the leav-es and stalks of Plat, I n h
.ing about 10 per cent more lime, 15 per tent more potash, .20 "))
more iron, and 15 per cent more silica; the combined leaves anm~l
from. Plat III differed in contaminig some 8 per cent less maeq
per cent more potash 20 per cent more iron, 20 per cent more
and 20 per cent less nitrogen, the leaves and stalks foe
differed in containing about 20 per cent le'ss magnesia, 17'P
less phosphoric acd n percent less nitrogen,.
Long Scarlet Short. TOD radishes were grown to the xu
size, which took about 30' d~ays Roots and tops "Werewe
separately, but as the proportion of root to top was nfet
the different soils only the ,weights of the whole plants are r
ii'i:., .. '*
: TABLE XIV.-Growth of radishes on plates with different amounts of CaCO,.
;ii:: ;: .I:""..: ..
;, : ":,, _______________________
Green weight of crops.
- -II '- I I I
Relative weight of crops from differ-
ent plats (Plat I=100).
T, e growth of radishes seems to be unaffected by the amount of
S aCO, in these soils. Making allowance for the probable error, the
growths on Plats I to III were equal and there was a 9 to 21 per cent
increased growth on Plat IV.
': Crops A, B, and C were analyzed together in one composite sample
Ssid: crops D, E, and F in another. Leaves and roots were analyzed
separately. The results are shown in Table XV.
T BLE XV.-Analyses of radishes from plats with different amounts of CaCOs.
LEAVES--CROPS A, B, AND C.
Analyses of carbon-free ash.
Ash constituents in dry substance of plant.
- I -
LEAVES-CROPS D, E, AND F.
4.82 17.68 4.12 1.36 1.17 4.00
4.56 18.15 5.13 1.29 1.37 3.92
4.50 19.29 5. 22 1 .20 4.03
3.13 19.01 4.55 1.05 1.21 4.81
tOOTS--CROPS A, B, AND C.
I.-... None. 4.12 2.74 6.12 53.39 0.35 0.44 21.61 0.89 0.59 1.32 11.54 0.076 0.10 3.13
I.... 5 5.13 2.76 6.53 49.72 .33 .70 19.61 1.01 .54 1.28 9.75 .065 .14 3.22
I.... 18 4.50 2.52 6.65 56.58 .27 .55 19.83 0.89 .50 1. .22 .051 11 2.75
..35 4.30 2.44 6.05 57.67 .30 1.00 20.09 .86 .49 1.22 11.59 20 2.98
IL ROOTS-CROPS D, E, AND F.
None. 5.24 3.41 6.45
5 5.77 3.39 6.50
18 5.38 2.90 5.98
35 &.10 2.94 6.03
1.16 20.02 1.05 0.68
.82 19.90 1.15 .67
.85 20.88 1.12 .61
.58 21.55 1.10 .63
. ...: .
lj lo M I% I
4 1 1 f
81 0 oA
Bul. 16, Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Station.
FIG. 1.-SWEET CASSAVA GROWN WITH 18 PER CENT LIME, PLAT III.
FiG. 2.-SWEET CASSAVA GROWN WITH 35 PER CENT LIME, PLAT IV.
;r s;sil8;iliili~:;::;;i~i~i;; l~ ; ""'1"1;;"""~"""""""'~'' *"""" "'" '"""N-101,""
.Iii.so s iu;~i. i;i~i~~i;r igr, .i;;;;;~i;; I1 r ~1111~:i;;';"1~;'1; ~ 1~;ii I;i;i ll~:li;: r:~ii:,iiiTT li~;11"i~O
i!!~r~ii~i~iiii i ~irI~iii Iiiiiii!!;iiiii~liiiu i ~ii!iy ~lii" iiil.'!.iior
I;;; ; i8~ili "i~ i~iilil ;"' bi ;;...,;:iii"""" iorqt
ii ;r .~ ?i nllli~l iirul ie!~ !rlli~iiir'"t'::~~4 4;;" 7
ii ,i ;,,;a~iiiiii~~i,so,,,i~il~l~l;;;li~;;;I,. """"~ """ liP~l;"i~P; elli~i~t,,:i Ro~"";iil~~ii;li~lls;;
FIG. I.-RICE GROW WITHOUT LIME, PLT Is FIG. 2.-RICEGROWN WITH 5 PER ENT LIME, PLAT 11
.;;;; ;iiis~ iinli::i;~i:;;i iliiisvl
FIG. .-R E GRWN WTH 1 PERCENTLim, PAT Il. FG. 4-Ric GRO N WIH 35PER ENT "m"v LAW ,
1. 1 4A~i~rrl~ii ii!i isa~
WIP of the time necessary for maturity. At the end of *
i'etalks were forming but practically no leaves had withere.
lpres in Table XVII give the weights of the whole plants, leaves
aB XVII.--Gowth of sugar can on plats with different amounts of CaCO0.
:Et ./ ..*::= ....-------------------- _
Green weight of crops.
Relative weights of crops from difer-
ent plats (Plat I =100).
I I I I I I I --- 1- 1--------
average the growth of Plat II was practically equal to that
ibut there was a decrease of 21 to 27 per cent on Plat III
able decrease on Plat IV of 2 to 20 per cent.
,e cane when cut had short, poorly defined stalks, only the
r.. e used for analysis. Crop A was analyzed alone, and crops
a D were analyzed together in a composite sample. The
I re given below.
SIV..II:-Analyses of ugar-cane leaves from plants with different amounts of
SAnlyses of carbon-free ash.
Ash constituents in dry substance of plant.
.2 J--.--I-.-.I I *I I
CROPS B, C, AND D.
7.10 4.25 7.01 22.95 0.36 49.71 7.85 0-56 0.33 0.55 1.80 0.028 & 91 1.3
I 7.77 4.41 7.91 26.42 .38 47.27 7.78 .60 .34 .62 2.06 .030 3.68 1.46
8 .97 5.39 8.89 26.86 .58 45.51- 7.36 .59 .40 .65 1.98 .043 3.35 1.40
a 5&76 .72 8. 1 21.71 .39 50.32 8.10 .55 .46 .67 1.76 .032 4.08 1.
kIt' -1. J.
& I I 1 I
:. .:':,1 : *
t tioAI MIAt
tac f'h evs.V ni7
wh ro rnhgh'n i
4i-Dlee ihri iF ~ an
Th vrg eaiecnpsiin-fte e* ,Vj
I0t sgvni al,'I.I acftn b
anlssgvninTbeXIIthe ie h
age inpat rmPat?=0) =0
IP-oe 0. 10 0: io 10 0 b: 0, 0110 16
5 1 0 0 0 510: Ia 11 0 f
18 10 1 2 1 1 94 '0 '9 15 14 12 1%
Ss 10: lo: 408 94. 1 90Il 1
Th mon. o h dfernas ostte~- n h-
th lnt peast b nffce 'b he ab
thsilny nteplnsfrm"PatIi teea
TA I XX.--Growth of sweet cassava on plates with different amounts of CaCo,.
Relative weight of from different
Green weight of crops. Relative w g fom different
r s plats (Plat 100).
r 0 in soil. A o a
vnO ; :r:mi. ..;r...........
ano of wth lae a a t a
.3....L 0 ..
*e gei ad XX (I III.) Fo te a g of th r t g
Pa Ca cs O ^J ^j *
W ana o e l aB. o cp A o
,i" Per c. Kgs. Kgs. Kgs. Kg. Kgs. Kg.. Kg.
ii None. 10.39 12.98 9 0. 3 8.22 3.08 8.13 50.51 100 100 10 0 100 100 100. 41
-5 324 10.20 12.93 6.43 6.95 2.74 5.98 45.23 98 100 66 85 89 98 894.
II --. 18 3 5.74 11.50 5.07 4.60 3.21 5.36 35. 48 55 89 52 56 104 87 7446
.:: 35 3 5. 76 7.28 3.30 2.72 2.44 4.77 26.27 55 56 34 33 79 78 56 4
;:i: V,-: C RO-:P AN::
;i: e amount of growth made varied greatly with the seasonal con-
W,-di:ti.ns; crops E and F, which only made about half the growth of
e'Msr0ops A to D, showed a corresponding smaller depression in Plats
i ":l and IV. (P1. III.) From the average of the relative growths
Sit appears that the growth of sweet cassava has been quite markedly
i depressed by the larger amounts of carbonate of lime and slightly
--::depressed by the smaller amount.
'The analyses of the leaves, stalks, and roots of crops A, C, and F
are given in Table XXI.
S"TAPBLE XXI.-Analyses of'sweet cassava from plate with different amounts of CaCO3.
Analyses of crbon-ee ash. Ash constituents in dry substance of plant.
... 7 o O... ,
(3aA P IP A P-0iA o 3 0
SLEAVES-CROPS C AND F
None. 29.27 :66 14. 01 30.60 0.68 7.16 9.22 2.70 0.61 1.29 2.82 0.063 0.66 4.04
5.... 5 29.92 6.04 13.09 27.16 .49 7.00 9.02 2.70 .54 1.18 2.45 .044 .63 3.94
. 18 31.52 6.58 14.22 29.41 46 6.22 9.46 2.98 .62 1.35 2.78 044 .59 4.08
V- 1 35 33.67 6.55 13. 89 30.80 .46 6.67 8.44 2.84 .55 1.17 2.60 .039 .56 3.93
None. 25.02 12.35 16.47 36.13 0.74 0.87 6.61 1.
.... T 5 27.30 11.14 16.83 32.91 .73 1.06 7.31 2.0(
ll... 18 26.98 11.73 17.01 35.73 .73 1.14 8.12 2.11
IV... 35 27.10 12.33 .53 34.01 .63 1.26 8.53 2.31
1..... None. 16.48 7.84 16.76 35.86 0.8 1.80o 3.70 0.61 0.29 0.6 0`
II.... 5 19.61 7.60 17.25 33.55 .86 1.77 4.14 .81 .31 .?1
III,.. 18 18.20 7.85 15.83 33.87 .87 2.06 3.70 .627 .29 ,9 a ..
IV... 35 21.00 8.71 15.89 33.46 .87 3.4 -3.74 .79 .t a. 1
---.-------..---.----..---:::.-- --:- -.---.-- ---
In the leaves and stalks there is a great vacation im ~t
content of crops A and C and F. This- difference, whiH h
all four plates, may be due either to different limatio E~exc di
ing at the time of growth, or to the cross being ce at d
of.growth, since this plant was grown for a certain u a.ibd.
With bush beans similar differences were obtained be.tiswi
nesia content of crop B and the combined crops .D anid& |
case the difference in the magnesia could not have ben
crops being cut at different stages of .devedlo.me .'a i
... .. ... ..:: ...
crops of bush beans were harvested in flower. ::
The average relative compositions of the three crps i i
ferent plats are given in Table XXII.
.. : i I
.. .. .. ... ...
4 .* *:
: it:: :.
+ : : : :: .: : i:i : .. i
,I.E:EIii .P f+E+, :i,,.
-: ..+,+:::+:++':+ m +:++ILI* +.++
STABLE XXII.-Relative ash composition of sweet cassavafrom the different plats.
Relative composition of ash (percent- Relative amount ash constituents in dry substance
ages in plants from Plat 1= 100). (amounts present in plants from Plat I= 100).
PIt CaGO A A
Pl.a ca P. c P P Pc a P P ? 11H
.No. insoil. 0O a0 1 1 1 0 1 1
Ir- g .s 5 10 99 91 5 8 92 7 6 5 1
*'- 7 ar
f:: :0 0 0 .. 0
18 108 108 96 92 85 87 106 113 114 102 97 1 89 101
IV.. 35 112 104 98 97 85 93 102 114 107 100 98 88 85 102
X I.-ea ao n ofC 1e .a fo CI Di p&itZ
None 100 100 10 1n 0o 0a 1100) 10 100 100 100 100 100 100).
I ... None. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
I.... 5 109 S9 111 91 100 153 106 115 93 117 96 103 157 99
-In..... 18 11k3 93 103 94 101 138 113 126 104 116 107 112 155 89
V.... 35 115 103 109 97 85 127 114 130 116 123 110 97 142 87
!I.... None. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 109
U .... 5 120 94 96 101 86 84 109 130 102 104 109 93 92 98
1i .... 18 115 98 96 100 110 99 104 120 102 99 104 114 107 83
V... 35 136 106 95 94 84 136 105 145 112 99 97 86 135 80
: The amount of total ash in the leaves, stalks, and roots increased
Sin all-the limp plats by percentages varying between 2 and 14 per cent.
Thi amount of lime in the dry substance of the plant increased with
i:the amount of lime in the soil in contradistinction to bush beans.
:agneeia increased with the lime, although in smaller proportion.
Phosphoric acid and potash remained practically constant in the
plants from all the plats, but in the stalks from Plats II and IV there
i was an appreciable increase in the phosphoric acid. In the case of
the leaves there seemed to be a tendency for the iron content to
: diminish with the increase of carbonate of lime in the soil, but in the
s.. talks and roots the iron content, though a little irregular, tended to
i be constant. For the plant as a whole, the iron content was little
Saffected by the different soils, except for a small depression in the
plants from Plat IV. The nitrogen content of the leaves was con-
i stant for all four plats. The nitrogen contents of the stalks and
ii roots from Plat II were the same as the check; while there was a
Depression in the nitrogen contents of the stalks and roots from
SPlats HI and IV.
I UPLAND RICE.
Of the seven crops of rice grown, six were grown for periods ranging
.I from 84 to 129 days and one for only 25 days. The crop grown for.
ayl,%ads"Wret appearing, uanda 2
,otj h heck pat. Tedata o h
-mLF TT ---Growth of rice on platb with difern mo
GMee _weiht of CrepS-
Pic 27 Pil OA201 3 8 56 0 2
Prth i~Gs. wGre am.u OWo ors Gm.e weksolm.om
H_ co 5 91 57de MR155hn8o 201s1'14 43t normal gr6h3Te aort
The average ofived reatogiv oe gotshow es tht hlorei wasI
dersso on altle gothe cacaeou Sisurvivingrowthanti Plata
onl abot abehird o thepant maein Plth -checkloaeri. The
Plas 1 to t IVweeqplaily delopmic tent chofo the lnts hy
when tepatsiwee abou itwo odrbl tohre yz te wek pld. t Somea
pant in PltsH t IV did.hwie anye oftew indviuas greown102An
olgreen coosadmaealmost normle growth. ueThe wa'Oithere
Plans hoe&Ad ved .h halon no aalyored for ress''hootn,
maigvery ittdl hih ee growth. Tpwt he sreri i npatsi
were soewatplehn the pantls is Plat fe. inve Rwhrin and v,1
Thi somewhat unequa deveorpmente of the saple. In atalthe,
: rypecfe tim 25adey ith advsale pato except the plants, as.
stages ofuroth. r Intefanlyes of the carbopst gown 102,t
days conld the groeeh stlsadlaeswre used, the ditheree ',
ben.discardedsand the hiea pltdhs not alyzed for0reasn WO
-rr. attislage enot hincorporated. riif thme saffpetd. Inr
th rpgon2 ay h hl lnexetteros a
thr egn edlae4Thsco hncthdjs
toso l h uwr fetso h-croaeo ie
ben hooi n h rwh ersed h ifrnc
plnt intelm lt a e eoe
howve, te lans ei rety fiforlyaffctd. Th E
ofth vriu cop aegieninTbl XX]V
R Tax XXIV.-Analyss of ice straw from plats with different amounts.of CaCO,.
CROP G (25 DAYS' GROWTH).
Analyses of carbon-free ash. Ash constituents in dry substance of plant.
Pliot CaCO A S .
n i o 0 o go- r- o. a
Per il:ct. P.ct. P.ct. P.ct. P. ct. P.ct. P .ct. P .ct. P. ct. P.ct. P.ct. P.ct. P.ct. P.ct.
SI... None. 3.22 2.96 6.14 17.50 2.76 60.94 22.29 0.72 0.66 1.37 3.90 0.615 13.58 ......
I [.... 5 7.43 4.04 4.98 19.88 2.11 54.76 17.69 1.31 .71 .88 3.52 .373 9.69...
i .. 18 6.00 3.42 4.65 20.40 1.58 60.49 17.74 1.06 .61 .83 3.62 .280 10.73......
E 4. 35 7.10 3.05 8.05 16.40 1.98 52.72 17.10 1.21 .52 1.38 2.80 .339 9.02......
::: CROP B (84 DAYS' GROWTH).
,.. None. 3.07 3.34 4.84 24.00 0.31 61.92 18.18 0.56 0.61 0.88 4.36 0.057 11.26 1.87
Si: ... 5 3.27 4.00 5. 82 15,89 .34 57.31 19.13 .63 .77 1.11 3.04 .065 10.96 1.93
I8 3.92 4.06 10.20 23.46 .27 50.47 16.61 .65 .67 1.69 3.90 .045 8.38 1.99
S. 35 4.19 3.70 12.04 12.70 .1850.75 16.82 .70 .62 2.03 2.14 .030 8.54 1.67
| 4None. 2.64 3.63 5.88 19.76 0.17 62.67 14.18 0.37 0.51 0.83 2.80 0.024 8.89 1.99
K0..... 5 3.96 4.47 6.85 24.24 .21 56.64 13.44 .53 .60 .92 3.26 .028 7.61 2.44
S.... 18 5.25 5.36 7.59 26.13 .29 52.08 12.90 .68 .69 .98 3.37 .037 6.72 3.03
iv. 35 4.51 4.61 6.82 25.26 .30 53.38 13.35 .60 .62 .91 3.37 .040 7.13 2.71
CROPS E AND F (129 DAYS' GROWTH).
None. 2.07 3.77 4.31 19.28 0.10 65.18 14.31 0.30 0.54 0.62 2.76 0.014 9.33 1.54
S 5 2.49 4.72 3.23 24.03 .11 60.68 12.51 .31 .59 .40 3.01 .014 7.59 1.91
18 3.83 4.37 3.11 23.20 .12 62.12 10.91 .42 .48 .34 2.53 .013 6.78 1.83
S 35 &35 4.22 3.44 23.04 .11 62.32 11.92 .40 .50 .41 2.75 .013 7.43 1.63
tIis probable that of all the analyses that of crop G, grown 25 days,
the most accurate comparison of the effect of the carbonate of
on the mineral nutrition of the plant. As already mentioned,
plants in the lime plats were somewhat slower in maturing than
those in the check. Accordingly the analyses of the 84, 102, and 129
day plants from the four plats would show variations in the ash com-
p3sitien that were induced partly by the chemical character of the
i and partly by the stage of maturity. The analyses of crops B
4d F also tend to show the ash composition of the normal or average
t in Plat I and of the resistant individuals in Plats II to IV, for
r.ihe lime plates the greater portion of the sample was afforded by the
k resistant individuals which grew well; the plants which were
~ affectedd died and did not appear in the sample. Sample G,
i wever, taken at 25 days, includes the less resistant plants and catches
-tU all at practically the same stage of maturity and yet at a time
piihei their nutrition has been sufficiently disturbed to be manifest.
C,~! ::reitn n iiul hihge el h lnswihwr
yea 40,*Q s o dORe mtstage -via ma
-om the analyses tose o
pf vo trw, aris-with its development, -1
thathee is acntan~t ecrease in -the percentage
aprachos full mturity.
lerelative.oposition of the differen-t crops hos
TABLE XRektive ash cOMompoiain 6f rime stra~wfrom he dT
CRO G(,25 DAYS' xR-OWTH).
Pla t. aO
I ---None. 100 lo 100 100, 100 '100. M 100 100 1100 100100- 1"0
5 231 16 81 114 7o 90: 79 182 108 64 0 O
18 186 11 6 11 7 99 80 1,47 92, 61 -93 40
M.- 35 220 13131 94 72 87 77 168 79- 101 72 $5
CROP B (84 DAYS, GROWTH)..
I.. None. '10100 100 100 100 100- 100 100 '100, 100\ 100 10
5 107 10-120 66 116 93 105 113 126 126 '7U 114 9
hi... 18 128 '42 211 98' 8' 82 92 116 110 192, 8% 79
35 136 Il249 53 58 .82 931512231 40 53
CROPS C AND D (102 DAYS' GROWTt).
L ..None.. 0. 100 10D 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 10) -1,00
5 150 IM 116 1I3 124 90 95 143 118 111 116 Ill
M.... 18 1,99 14, 129 132 171 83 91 :181 135 118 1IM 164
liv__ 3z 171 127 16 M2 176 85 94 162 M2 110 120 147
CROPS N AND F (12n DAYS' GROWTH).
I ...Nonie. 100 100 100 100 100 190 100 100 i 100 100 M00
5 120 2 75 125 110 93 88 1IM 109 -65 '99109
M ... 1IS 185 16 72 120 120 ..-5 76 140 89 55 M0 pl
IV.. 35 162. 1 80 119 110 96 83 M3 93 66 100 S
The youngest cop, G, seems to show more .istiurb~a0nd'
omosition tha the other crops. In this crop- the ms
efetof the carboate -of lime upon the plant ash has, beentingi
iicrasing the Amunt of lime .and in diminishing the samounit,
ttlash, and siia. The 'same, -althorigh less markedd.
ocr- i .n crop B sin crop G.Crops C to F on the'lim~e n
shwin their ash c position 4grenat inees in limea are
tini otlahan iiabtn dmntoni rn
SThe percentage of magnesia in the ash is higher in the plants from.
the .lime plats than in the check plants in all the crops. The phos-
: plioric acid, potash, and nitrogen show great irregularity, the plants
from the lime plats being sometimes much higher and sometimes much
Slower in these elements than the check plants.
GENERAL SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS.
THE EFFECT OF CARBONATE OF LIME ON THE GROWTH OF PLANTS.
The average relative growths of all the plants on the four plats are
shown in Table XXVI.
TABLE XXVI.-Average relative growths made on the plants by the different plants.
[Growth made on Plat 1=-100.]
t CaCOs in Bush Soy Sun- Radishes Sugar weet Rice
Plat No. soil. beans. beans. flowers, cane. cassava. Re
..................... None. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
II--.................... 5 1003 902 1044 965 978 89 4 62 5
11 ................... 18 1095 812 873 1005 763 746 386
IV................... 35 1178 953 913 1156 899 566 535
After making allowance for the probable error of the average results,
-it appears that the growth of bush beans and radishes was certainly
not depressed on the calcareous soils, but possibly slightly increased.
Soy beans, sunflowers, and sugar cane were little affected in their
growth by the calcareous soils of Plats II and IV, but on Plat III
their growth was unmistakably diminished, the decreases being four
to nine times the probable error. The growth of sweet cassava was
slightly decreased on the moderately calcareous soil of Plat II (P1.
II, fig. 2) and strongly decreased on the more limy soils of Plats III
Sand IV (Pl. III). The growth of rice was greatly depressed on all
Sthe lime plats (Pl. IV). In brief then, the tolerance of the plants
Sfor the different amounts of carbonate of lime was as follows: Bush
:l-- beans and radishes were unaffected even by 35 per cent of CaCO,;
: sunflowers, soy beans, and sugar cane were somewhat affected by 18
i:per cent of CaCO,; sweet cassava was somewhat affected by 5 per
I:e. nt of CaCO, and markedly by 35 per cent; rice and pineapples
I ii:were greatly affected by 5, 18, and 35 per cent of CaCO,.
|Riice and pineapples were the only plants that became chlorotic
I the calcareous soils, although the other plants whose growth was
But little affected were often a somewhat lighter green on the lime
Splits than on the check. In the case of soy beans, sunflowers, sugar
cine, and rice it will be noted that the greatest depression in growth
occurred on Plat III, with 18 per cent of CaCO, rather than on Plat
KiV with 35 per cent of CaCO,. As mentioned on page 13, Plat IV,
.alt-hough of good toxture, was heavier oht t
hearvier hyial condition may -have iflea4 d~w
bouste of lime, or the lime and physically cotditio* of
affected the plan t growth independ ntl and op*"4tel
more probable, however,. that the-phycal oi
.influences the effect of the carbontite of lime upon the
Hilgard observed that "the -greater the cloy Perce'
the more lime carbonate it must: contain. in. order to,
advantages of a calcareous soil."' And in the course of certaiA .,
experiments with rice, not reported hee where rceewsge
calcareous soils, we observed that on the heavier calcaroous at
growth was not depressed so much as on the more sandy wailst
THE EFFECT OF CARBONATE OF LIME ON' THE AMH OOMPOSWIDN
The extent to which the carbonate of Rine im the $oil influx
composition of the hsh and the quantities of ash colistituents in,
dry substance of the various plants is.'shown in Tables VIU 1
XVI, XIX, XXII, and XXV.
In summarizing the effect of the carbonate of lime in the soi
the ash composition -of the plant, it is assumed. that the
in. ash composition, which occur between the, plants growA
check and calcareous soils, have been induced by: the 8o4l
assumption is justifiable in so far as, other factors. tending to &
variations in the ash, such as differences in climate and d'f
in maturity Uf the plant, have been- equalized or elai4t a,.-
pointed. out in the previous pages, it is believed, thiat i* grow
plants and tak*n the samples these f actors have, been equ
except iW the case of -the samples of rice grown 84, 102, and 129
All the analyses of rice ure givibn in Table XXV, but M" the fo
ummary only the analysis om f the 25-day sample is: consw T
the reason given on page 30.
The -carbonate of lime in the. soil increased the percentage of liv*
in the ash of rice very markedly. The percentage of lime in thoe
of sweet cassava from Plat IV was also markedly mincresed.
beans, sunflowers (combined leaves and stalks), and sug', aoo
liowe-ver, showed very slight increases in the lime of the &4h.
the radish plants from the Plat with 5 por cent o-CaO there
17 per cent micrease of lime in the ash, while i' the, ashes off r
plants from plats with 18 per cent and 35 per cent of Osoop
were progressively smaller increases of lime.. This 'I's l
the results of Lemmerman et al. and Meyer (ep.11) With 0
The lime in the ash of bush beasmslightly depireas-ed rather
increased with increasing amounts of CaCO, i the soil.
The magnesia content of the ash of rice was considerably increased
Sthe calcareous plats, although the increase was not comparable
w.ith that of lime. With sweet cassava and sugar cane the magnesia
ip the ash was little if at all affected. With radishes, sunflowers, and
o g y beans there was quite a marked depression in the magnesia con-
Stent of the ash of the plants from Plat IV and slight depressions in
'the ashes of plants from Plats II and III. Bush beans showed a
I:depression in the magnesia in the ash in Plat IV only.
I The amount of phosphoric acid in the ash did not appear to be
i affected in any constant manner, in any of the plants tested, by the
: carbonate of lime in the soil. Variations occurred, but they were
Irregular, showing no correspondence with the lime content of the
The same tendency to constancy and lack of effect of the carbonate
Sof lime is apparent in the figures for potash.
|; In regard to the percentage of iron in the ash, bush beans, soy
Beans, radishes, and rice showed a marked and fairly regular decrease
With increasing amounts of lime in the soil. The combined leaves,
talksk; and roots of sweet cassava showed a marked decrease in the
wion content of the ash in Plat IV only. With sugar cane and sun-
$!o:flwer there was a tendency to a constant percentage of iron.
L: The percentages of silica are irregular, but on the whole they were
littlee affected by the carbonate of lime. Where large variations
occurred, the percentages of silica in the plant were very small.
i'::The amounts of nitrogen in the dry substance were fairly constant
or all the plants, so it seems very probable that the lime had no effect
:on the nitrogen. However, in the stalks of sunflowers from Plats III
: and IV, and in the roots and stalks of sweet cassava from Plats III
and IV there were noticeable decreases in the nitrogen; but the
leaves of both plants from these plats showed no decrease in' the
i. ni trogen.
The amount of total ash in the dry substance was slightly increased
in all the plants, except rice, by the calcareous soils. For the most
part these increases were only three or four percent, but they occurred
With great regularity with bush beans, soy beans, sunflowers, radishes,
I sugar cane, sweet cassava, and pineapples,' cane leaves from Plat III
Eping the only exception. It thus seems very probable that this is a
Several effect of carbonate of lime on all these plants except rice.
S Practically the same observations as were made on the quantity of
lim e, magnesia, phosphoric acid, etc., in the ash, apply to the quanti-
Sties of these elements in the dry substance of the plant. There were
some differences, however, between the relative ash compositions
and the relative amounts of the ash constituents in the dry substance,
II: See Porto Rico Sta. Bul. 11, p. 35.
F)H* nee-, the iarouit, 6`f lime in he iry, 4t
food leaves, staks, and roots) incregsoa`l6
IV40c the increase 'of lime, in the w&h wais a
frmPlat IV only. -There. were also moderate''4
amonts ot lime Mi the, dry, substance "of sunflowers (0oi
adstalks) -and radishes (leaves 'and roots) on Plats Al
I.But it should be noted that the8e increases wore'o
.m ntude: on the plats :with 18 per cent and 35 per cent of
thnon the Plat With 5 per cent; Mi fact, o th pltWit
o a.CO, the combined leaves and stalksofsnfowr cs
litl if -any more, lime than: on the Check plat. This would-so
pon to sunflowers and radishes having a certain -regulatorypa
th bsorption of lime from strongly Calcareous soils.
What was. true of the effect of the calcareous: soils on th4
of agnsiain the ash of the Plants bolds- also forth
tequantity of magnesia. in the-dry substance with slight
fiaions. Bush beans and soy bewis showed "only ..slightd
in thquantity of magnesia- Mi the dry substance on Plat IV.
sofowers and radishes there were slight decreases ia t~he ,a
oPlat III and marked decreases on Plat IV. Sugar cane, an'
casva on all the calcareous soil- -Contained slightly -more In
thnon the check soil.
Te quantities of potash and phosphoric acid in'the dry sub
ofte plants did not seem'at all affected- by the carbonate o
Asawhole, the results were fairly constant and where var
di ccur they were Irregular, pointing to neither'an increasingg,
With regard to the amount of silica in the dr-v substancee'there
&marked and significant decease with rice only.
The regular variations in ash composition and in quaj;titj
mnral constituents in the dry substance of the' plaiats that evroe
iucied by the carbonate of lime: are summarized below:
whbeans. Decrease xia Fe.O, in the ash and dry: substance,
Sy, beaus. Slight increase i~n CaO, slight increase in MgO,
mred decrease. i. MFeO, in the ash and dry sub .stance.
Suflowers (combined analyses of leaves and :'stalks).
i gO athd slight decrease m' P,205 in the ash, Slight de~cre4
M in the dry substance.
-Radishes (combined analyses of leaves and rooo~t).' Small in
in aO, decrease in1VgO, and marked decrea~se MnF,,i
Sweet cassava combinedd analyses of loaves, stalks, aad
Inc -ase mn aOde lc~rease in Feikt? (Mlt IV only) in the ash. Tatone
pily), and slight decrease in N (Plats III and IV only) in the dry
S." Rice. Large increase in CaO, smaller increase in MgO, and
|ylecrease in FeO, in the ash. Decrease in total ash. Large increase
ai: CaO, large decrease in Fe2,O and SiO, in the dry substance.
SPineapples.1 Marked increase in CaO and marked decrease in
S:MgO and FeO,3 in the ash. Large increase in total ash and large
increase in CaO in the dry substance.
i, In general the carbonate of lime affected the ash composition of
the plants in varying the quantities of lime, magnesia, and iron.
iAU the plants, however, did not show variations in all three of these
" elements. In regard to the variations in the percentages of these
Constituents in the ash, the different plants behaved as follows:
I:Bush beans, iron alone decreased; soy beans and radishes, lime
increased, magnesia and iron decreased; sunflowers, magnesia
decreased; sweet cassava, lime increased; rice, lime and magnesia
increased, iron decreased; pineapples, lime increased, magnesia and
iron decreased. In regard to the variations in the quantities of
these elements in the dry substance of the plant, the results were as
follows: Bush beans, decrease in iron; soy beans and radishes, increase
i in lime, decrease in magnesia and iron; sunflowers, decrease in
magnesia; sweet cassava, increase in lime and magnesia, decrease
in iron (in Piat IV only); rice, increase in lime, decrease in iron;
:..pineapples, increase in lime. Thus the plants varied qualitatively
Min. regard to which mineral constituents were affected and quanti-
!~ ttively with respect to the degree that they were affected.
S THE EFFECT ON GROWTH COMPARED WITH THE EFFECT ON ASH
In comparing the effect of the carbonate of lime on the growth
Sof the plant with the effect on the ash composition of the plant, it can
ii_.be seen that there was not always a parallelism between the two
I fects. For instance, the decrease in the iron content of bush beans
tn the calcareous soils was not accompanied by a depression in
.!growth; the slight increase in lime, the slight decrease in magnesia,
L :iud the marked decrease in iron in soy beans on the calcareous
l..: s9s were accompanied by a slight depression in growth, although
'P lat III where the growth was most depressed the changes in
tash composition of the plant were less marked than on Plat IV where
:ithe growth was very slightly if at all depressed. The slight increase
Slime, the decrease in magnesia, and the marked decrease in iron'
A' radishes on the calcareous soils were not accompanied by any
changes in the growth of the plant. The rather marked depression
-i df ehar CA o'PM IIIlt M
Whrt, however, th growth was very uail
Plata howedan obvious intolerance for tho
obeved with pnaspples: and rice, the marke~d
wa companies by marked changes in the't hhco
patse. T~he i ...es% in lime in the ash, and &ry Mub
adpineapples onthe calcareous soils were mc rae
use inli. dce inth oterplants whose growthi
Muioul &ted.: The mnarked'decreases in iron in u
EMand pineapple were not gr atehan -the decreasesm a
som6f the othe plants whose' 'rWth ere 110t dpes
trie and pinea des the largest increasein limeoccurrod,
Casva in Plas II and IV, -and on th wese lats the -4o
plns was markedly depressed. Bush beans, SOY beans, s
raihee, and sugar cane, which showed either'no decrease i
orasmaller depresion on the calcaieous soils than riel,
adsweet cassav, showed either -no increase or a smaller,
nin the p thn rice, pineapples, and swee~t cassava.
"DIBOrUSSION OF RESULTS.
Te results reported, seem to pomintto certain general fact.*
idv iduality of te various plants with regard-to 'the afect o~f
AWof lime on teir growth isvr aked, some plat
eqully: well T, the calcareous and nojacalcareous soils a
pats doing v: poorly on the calcareous soils. There I's
equa individualit of the plants in regard to the effect of oalp
oflme on their ah composition. This individuality, shownex
metally, has -a important bearing on the much discussed te
rgrding the- istibution of plants on calcareous aod Inonclo
Of the eight pans tested, only those plants which showed oby
ib-uy and depre&on in growth from the carbonate..-of lible s
antable increase of lime in the dry ~substance of the plant.-.
pats, as bush bans, -contained ,no more lime -ia the. dry asuI
whe grown on te calcareous soil containing 35 per cent o
tan when grow on. the soil that contained no .0 COM, a10l
1pr cent of CaO present as silicate. It thus appear hamr
thr is a certain ufficiency. of line in- the. soi it is useless to te
toicrease the lie content of some plants byling
'It also intersting to note that'while the Fume content- dfgi
apes increased with. the percentage of CaCO3 'n- the 8oil1 the d
cntp tof ,sunflowers was. greatest -on the soil vith 5 per oc (t
t o|be.ap"m fslbeIiemt adpbbyIcemtelm vl r4
eve whnOei Einyo iei h W
i3nd progressively less on the soils with 18 per cent and 35 per cent
:of CaO,, and the lime content of bush beans was practically the same
ln all the soils. Thus with regard to the amount of lime absorbed,
pineapples behaved similar to vetch as observed by Lemmermann
||(see p. 11), sunflowers behaved similar to oats and buckwheat as
observed by Meyer (see p. 12), and bush beans behaved similar to
clover as observed by Lemmermann.
The individual manner in which the different plants behaved with
Respect to their growth and ash composition on the calcareous soils
iis doubtless due to individual differences in the constitution and
Physiology of the roots. Since Dyer' found that the cell saps of
various roots differed in their acidity, differences in the assimilative
power of various plants for soil constituents have often been attributed
to differences in the strength of the acids excreted by the roots of the
,various plants. But because the cell sap is acid it does not necessarily
follow that the roots excrete an acid. Moreover, the only root
excretion that has been well established is carbon dioxid. Therefore
Sit does not seem justifiable to attribute the different behavior of the
various plants on the calcareous soil to differences in the acid excre-
tions of their roots. In the light of recent investigations on the
permeability of the membrane of plant cells it seems more probable
That the differences observed were due to differences in the nature
Sor reactions of the cell membrane.
S It appears that the diminished growth of some of the plants on the
Scalcareous soil is due to modifications induced in their ash composition
by the carbonate of lime. This conclusion is based on two general
Assumptions, first, that ash analyses show differences in the mineral
I nutrition of plants, and, second, that the plants which have made the
Letter growth have an ash composition more nearly approaching
Ithe optimum. Before detailing the modifications in ash composition
h that appear to have induced the injury in the plant, these two
sources of doubt in the conclusion will be considered.
In the first place, it should be remembered that an ash analysis
does not give a moving picture of the ash composition of the plant
during growth, but gives a picture of the ash composition at one
itiage of growth only. As the percentages of the elements in a plant
ry considerably according to the stage of development of the plant,
e complete picture of any one ash constituent would be repre-
seated by a curve. But an ash analysis gives only one point on the
parve, so we are really comparing similar curves by points. The
th analyses show differences in the mineral nutrition of the plants
the points compared occupy the same relative position on the
urves; that is, if the plants were analyzed at the same stage of
turity. As precautions were taken concerning the maturity of
SDyerB., ., Jor. Chem. Soc. [London], 65 (1894), p. 115; Biedermanns CentbL Agr. Chem-, 23 (1894), p. 799
Tesecond assumption upon which th46
naey, that the plant$ which have made ihe eOao
as ompositioA more nearly. appro aching the im
cosderable doubt because of our uncertainty concerson
adlaws governing the. ash composition. -of plants, Mn
glne at a collection- of ash ,analyses: of the same plant
th ame plant grown under. diferent conditions may, m
cl the same growth and yet, have P. very. different
itdes not. necessarily follow, however, that under like cond"
goth the ash composition of a plant can 'be varied without
Sme of the conditions. affecting the ash composition ofI
knw,, aind among these may be enumerated the f~ol
dity,~ ~~ inest flgt, -temperutue and all those
wih may be summarized as climate, the water coiatent of,
th character of the soil,2 the fertilizers applied," the stage of- n
ofte plant,4 and a great number of circumstances, such as tho,
vatn of the soil, the thickness of the stands,' and the time o
ig6which affect either. the climatic, or soil conditions. ,A
fatrs, of course) do not affect tht, ash composition ind-
bu nore or less interdependently, and therefore it is somewhq t
cl.to isolate and measure the effect of one factor.: Howeyer,
th studies that have-been made, it, appears that climatic "
haethe greatest effect on the organic -and 'inorganic compD
Itseems probable that for every set of climatic condition's
ptmm ash composition of the plant; and thatwe h
comosition is- varied from this optimum, by varying the ohe1.1
chrater, of the soil, the amount of nutrients available, Ote
goth is affected. .If this is so, variations in ,the ash com
ofpants induced 'by differences in the character'of the 8oil,
otewise like conditions of growth, are significant,...But var,
litbogen, J., Landw. Jabrb., 2(1873), p. 353. Langer, L., and Tollebis, IL, Your. Lead4*
p20.Dassewski,. A. von,: and Tollens, B.,' Jour. Landw., 48 (1WOO), p. M23 Wiblms,.J a
J.vn our. Landw., 46 (1898), p. 413.
Hl, A. D., Jour. Soc. Art&,[London], 52 (1904)p p.:881; Jour. Agr. &oL [Engl&Md) 1 (1*)Y, eo.
45M-Stahl-Schrider, M., Jour. Lanidw., 52 (1904), p. 193.
3 blner, 0., at al., Landw. Vers. Stat., 39 (1891), p. 361. Dikow, A. von, lour. Landw,, 39 (IM
M tterberg, A., lowr. Landw., 49 (1901), p. 97.
.4 Ukr, Q. M., and Tollens, B., Jouqr. Landw., 48 (1900), p..89. Aas~uhoft, E.,jand Werner, 8 4q
Jar.44 (1913), No. 4, p.651. Fliche, P., and Grandeau, L., Ann. Chim. et Phys., 5. ser., S(87
hifr, H., Ramer, H., aud Wimmer, G., Landw. Vers. Stat., 63 (1M0), No. 1-2.
68ehorst, C. vono and Panaotovic, lour.. Landw.., 47 (1899),* p. 379. Atterberg, A.po=, Jets
-ch de, .,Jour. Landw., 52 (1904), p. 131.
the ash composition of plants which are at different stages of
iurtity or grown under unlike climatic conditions are valueless as
wing the effect of the character of the soil.
B:;iut even under like conditions of climate, water supply, character
the soil, etc., the ash-composition of plants can be varied in some
sectionsns without affecting the growth appreciably. This involves
':te question of "luxus consumption." From studies that have been
I made of the utilization of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash by
-Athe plant, it is apparent that when there is an excess of these nutrients
h present a plant may take up more of these elements than are neces-
s ary for growth.1 If, however, a certain greater amount of these
6lA"ements is absorbed, the growth is depressed. Hence we may
I conclude that there is a minimum amount of an element required
i for a plant to make a maximum growth; that the plant can absorb
:uixus above this necessary amount without injury, but when the
|; excess absorption exceeds a certain point injury to growth results.
" On this basis some changes in ash are significant while others are
Snot. The greater the change in any particular plant, however, the
Greater the probability that it is of consequence. The same order
I of change is probably not equally productive of effect on all plants,
however, as some plants seem more sensitive to changes in their ash
V content than others. Nor is the same order of change necessarily
Significant for all the mineral elements.2
I: The question whether there are certain ratios that should exist
:. between the elements in the ash, also has a bearing on what changes
in the ash are significant. While it is well proven that sodium can
: partially substitute potassium in the plant, it has not been established
That there should be a definite ratio between these two bases.3 Ac-
:. qording to some investigators, lime and magnesia can substitute each
ether to a certain extent in the plant,4 while others are more of the
6:pinion that these elements should be present in a definite ratio.
: According to Champion and Pellet, the bases are more or less capable
:of mutual substitution but the sum of their chemical equivalents
h! ould be constant, each species of plant having a different constant.5
.In short, it is reasonably sure that the differences in ash composi-
S; on of the plants grown on the calcareous soils were induced by the
Wrii bonate of lime and not by some climatic or accidental factor. But
is not certain that these differences in ash composition affected the
oMwth, since we have no general knowledge as to what changes in
i composition are indicative of impaired nutrition. The most
l.ani, W. H., New York State Sta. Bul. 360, p. 76.
I:n the experiments of Dikow, Wilms, and Atterberg (loc. cit.), the P2O5 content of the plants showed
hv variation than the N and KsO content.
a if:rtwell, B. L., and Pember, F. R., Rhode Island Sta. Rpt. 1908, p. 243.
Ma.ilaguti and Durocher, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., 4. ser., 9 (1858), p. 222.
IChampion, P., and Pellet, H., Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], 80 (1875), p. 1588; Biedermanns Centbl.
Shem., 8 (1875), p. 242; 9 (1876). p. 118.
cologrOUS4 qoils *rP "fe, 0 e, d s i i iA-DD
and' that the so-11 pe,4'efion Oe ts the in -soaoi-,
through.. ip#Vq4o!ng, the abspr on,O bn 'no
UN .3 R.,
so,, the o-ecre#eA, fgotyth might not e due to but
rnod&'(mtiQnq in he a'A'..., r4
.4cqta n oiR rn ng
06MDpAti 044 Of to there iis, oonp iderp:ble do-Ai tp
t6 conclupleA ihaithe diuijj w*Jiej groWthof e -1* Is'
reous sq.4s jA due. tq.raofifioations in theiT piih co
j) t b ip N17-it
e, car, mate. of I pe th6se geqe-ral.do*
Appeaj f th,,eorboq46'ofl
I" t i of the lant M be I Ue
colic 4z ISlxl q Y N.
I I I 9!
ginod ns- in e PI
0Uo *&a4p th' ant:
la An, undue. p"creasp An. th lime.,c t t f th 01*f or-
AJiM-pW*,4*q4,.An elrqn, e 0 i0i
Pntent fthe Aant- or *J
n i, :d M em
3*1. prease. in the lime coi: bne with a d' re.s
Jud& edher6 'ebi(s *a
fropa tALe aq4 anopes report P
*ficiiit one kfr6lli
modificiWn is t& u b
direct ex E)rm" `vnth n6aples M e T ll*ane'4004
PP I I I -1
moTepi M of 400 Me that the carbo to'',
li6 different erei b en the
MAY 14P. .. r,:41$11.'p,", cipg
p l '': I ,
tion of pnopwti one way and another ,pecles In am
;t respe t to th' similation, of Wtiggon, PhO4646
potash it' is evident that the 0ax *0 of ha'd ii6o
e4ct, Even in the case of Ac e and Onoapples wheq-
P W94MV.paused a mitrifiofial iMslurbance; the.0
Pn s4qWec[ lu-kher p'prd:e:,nta' ;S ni ro, 0
acid and potash t a-, n Ck plantE ese r6111
; 10- I I
contiradip'tor Of con derable ace t
y -A vlew C &11 ce,
tu es of so plants al
the 4y me qnq 0
due to a t 6T
'Jash cont6te Vie, f aA
;oi" f .uch difstur anc64 ilo
is not a seciflc or'
Of cquse, te results,,Teport& kno**t'
el q;W e eet on the econoymnic Uti
gel, phosphoric acid ind potash, as those were apphed, a A
1, 1 fv .. 1 .1 .
ana in Aa'
Til he results for the phosphoric acid in the ash analyses would seem
r | cotradict the theory of Crochetelle,l that the carbonate of lime
I ires the plant by decreasing the assimilation of phosphoric acid.
,The. experiments of Priainshnikow with different phosphates also
Scontradict Crochetelle's assumption, as the availability of phosphoric
Sil in mono and dicalcium phosphate, Thomas slag, and iron and
Aluminum phosphates was not depressed by carbonate of lime,
although the availability of phosphoric acid in bone meal and trical-
cium phosphate was depressed.
When the results reported here are compared with the results
obtained by Fliche and Grandeau with certain trees,s striking simi-
larity n some respects is apparent. The bean tree, which was unaf-
fected in growth by the carbonate of lime, was unaffected in its ash
i composition except for a depression in the magnesia. The maritime
pine and chestnut, whose growths were strongly depressed on the
calcareous soils, showed a marked increase in lime and a marked de-
crease in iron and potash in the ash, when grown on the calcareous
Soils. All these trees contained a greater percentage of ash in the
dry matter when grown on the calcareous soils than when grown on
the noncalcareous soil. The above results differ from those obtained
Sby us in that a strong depression of potash was noted in the pine and
Chestnut on the calcareous soils.
The view that the injury to plants grown on calcareous soils does
I: not lie simply in increasing the lime in the plant seems to be borne
out by the direct experiments with pineapples and by experiments in
Progress with rice. It is also the conclusion arrived at by Fliche and
SGrandeau, and the opinion of Euler that der schid-
fiche Einfluss des Kalkbodens ein in chemischer Hinsicht indirekter
ist. Jost5 is of a similar opinion. Euler and Jost, however,
believe that the indirect action of the lime in injuring the plants lies
in depressing the absorption of potash, apparently basing their
opinion on the analyses of Fliche and Grandeau. From the results
Srep9 rted here it appears that the indirect action of the lime lies more
Sin affecting the iron absorption than in depressing the potash; since
iwhwen potash fertilizers are liberally used there is a depression in
Growth, but no depression in the amount of potash absorbed.
7I It should be borne in mind that the results reported here do not
I arrant a decisive conclusion that the diminished growth of all those
Si rde6teiD J:, Ann. Sci. Agron., 2. ser., 8 (1902-3), I, p. 43.
s:i:: lbni kow, D., Landw. Vers. Stat., 75 (1911), Nos. 5-6, p. 357.
4 E er, H. Grtidlagan und Ergebnisse der Pflanzenchemie. Braunschweig, 1909, pt. 3, p. 153.
Jost, L. Vorlesongen fiber Pflanzenphysiologie. Jena, 1908,2. ed., p. 111.
Pl n s mite........ ia
osltww Ms as caW
400ti~he ow SIoine '
!u Cnoes tlT with practical -0o h, g
But~ pl Ants which showed the gre~atest Xn u fa
ils ieapples and rice, showed the most mark4
Ash.The significant-chainges in- the ash compositions 0
weeapparently the Increase i' limde and decrease M4ia
Te results- :sh ow, in A soil well s~upplied with nitrogen
Sadand Ipotash, the effect of- 5,? 18, and 35 per dent f eb
lipupon the growth and tsh cofnposition of bush bet6
IsIfowers radish~es,:sugar cane,., Sweet cassaval",
agro'wths of bush bean's and radishes ot-
3.er cent -of CaCO,,. 'The growths of Sunflowvers, say b~i
sugarcane, were somewhat depressed by 18 pier cent of C4
hofswee cassava was somowha,: deprseby5pr
CSC, and markedly by 35 per cent of CaCO.;: the growth o0
pmapples. were markedly depressed W1t IThaperceob
b 18, and. 35 per centofaO.
..Te carbonate of lime apparently had' no effect on theas
nirgen, potash, and phosphor-ic -acid contained 'M' the various'"
bu did increase slightly the total, carbon-free ash in all t6e
ecpt rcadodified either the amount of lime, maoesa
Inte ash -of althe plants.
On the calcareous soils the lime in the ash of bush benAm wS
inrased, but there was a slight increase i' the amount 6f Blide iw
as o soy beans, sunflowers, and sugar cone. "On the plat wit-
cetof carbonate of lime, the lime i` the ash- of ra dishes ws mce'
abot 17 per cent, but on the plats with 18 and 35 per cent of r
-ieo lime the increases of lime in the aslb of this'plant were p
siey less. On the plat with 35 per cent Of carbonate of jit
amunt of lime in the ash and dry substance of sweet cassty.
mredly in-creased. On all the calcareous soils the amount,-O
Inte ash and dry substance of: rice and pineapples w",
Sme plants whose gowth was little affected by the -bakbohiw.
lm.(bush beans, soy beans, radishes, and sunflowors)- showedma
dceases in the amount. of iron or notice'able decreases in the
o aguesia. in the ash, when grown on the caleareous soils.
The plants.whose growths were most diapressed on the 7_lat
sis(rice and pineapples) showed the greatest increases inth mi
iofil lime in the ash and dry substance of the plant, and also a marked
i crease in the amount of iron in the ash.
If the plants which have made the best growth have an ash compo-
:;sition nearest the optimum, it would appear from these results as
I though the diminished growth of the plants most affected on the
i calcareous soils were due either to (1) an undue increase in the lime
content of the plant or plant ash, or (2) an increase in the lime
Combined with a decrease in the iron in the plant.
From these results alone it would appear as though the first suppo-
sition were correct, but from direct experiments with pineapples the
second supposition appears more probable.
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