Syllabus of illustrated lecture on farm home grounds

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Title:
Syllabus of illustrated lecture on farm home grounds their planting and care
Series Title:
Farmers' institute lecture / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations ;
Physical Description:
16 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Fletcher, S. W ( Stevenson Whitcomb ), b. 1875
United States -- Office of Experiment Stations
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Farm layout   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by S.W. Fletcher.
General Note:
"Issued March 22, 1912."

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029618063
oclc - 166048336
System ID:
AA00014638:00001


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Imued March 22. 1912.
SU. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
OIOB OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS-FARIERS' INSTITUTE LIOTURE 14.
A. C. TRUE, Director.


SYLLABUS OF ILLUSTRATED LECTURE

ON


FARI
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HOME GROUNDS-THEIR


PLANTING AND CARE.





BY


S. W. FLETCHER, M. S. PH. D.,
Director Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE





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ing and Care, by S. Fletcher, S., Ph. D.,.diector of the :.
ginia Agricultural Experiment Station, is accompanied by 51 view
lustrating this topic. The syllabus and views have been prepared for
the purpose of aiding farmers' institute lecturers in their presentationn.
of this subject before institute audiences.
The numbers in the margins of the pages of the syllabus refer to
similar numbers on the lantern slides and to their legends as give~r
in the Appendix.
Jo dx thu roI"

Recommended for publication.
A. C. TirEu, Dirtor.

Publication authorized.
JAMES WILSON, Secrafary of Ariculetutm.

WAsmwNGToN, D. C., December 1, 1911.
No. 14
'" ii






















in the Appendix. Jo. ,M

Fannert Inditute Speduit. :

A. C. TiwE, Director.



WASHINGTON, D. C., December 1911.
No. 14 (.) '




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FARM HOME GROUNDS-THEIR PLANTING
AND CARE.


By S. W. FLETCHER, M. S., Ph. D.


INTRODUCTION.
View.
; We are influenced by our environment often more than we
S know or are willing to admit. Children especially are sensitive
I. to their surroundings. The unattractiveness of their homes has
;i iven more country boys to. the cities than the hard work of
the farm or its restricted social life. This unattractiveness of
~his ome surroundings and lack of the common comforts and
S xianveniences of life within it has made many a farmer's boy
SatIe the farm and led him to the city as soon as he was of age.
U, Te farmer owes to his wife and to himself, but chiefly to his
..,,! ldren, the best that he can do toward increasing the attrac-
i" tiveness of his home. This does not necessarily mean a large
p .;nenditure of money; in fact, the best results are often
e,. .. red with no expenditure except a little time, and time
t .prvan to making the home more attractive is well spent.

SA HOUSE AND A HOME.

The views which will be shown illustrate some of the im-
? potent points to be observed in improving the appearance of
the farm home. These improvements involve little or no
expense in their execution and may be accomplished in the
time that the busiest farmer and his family can easily find if
i1 ibhey have .an appreciation of their importance and a disposi-
i. -ItfP. to undertake the work. The heart of the subject is
J ,i: ustrated in the first two slides, which show the external
S.. 40ierence between a house and a home.
S T!'is is a picture of a farmhouse on a western prairie. It 1
.;i ^.ooIb like a new and very comfortable farm "house." Doubt-
S,'4yl,.abthe farm is productive and the family prosperous. But
:Io mething is lacking; it does not look homelike. You would
catAre tolive there.
M29SQ. W-12 (3)

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4
View. 4I
2 The next slide shows a farm "home." The whole place looiiii
comfortable. It invites you to come in end sit with the family!il
by the fireside. It is a home; you would like to live there.m
A few trees, a vine or two, and some grass may make the dift:
ference between a house and a home. A house is merely :
shelter, a place where people stay. A home is a house, with eViiVi
dences in and about it that the people who live there love it.
They have taken the trouble to make it attractive and inviting
There are in this country too many farmhouses and too few!.a
farm homes. Yet no one loves his family more than' the
farmer or is more interested in their welfare. His neglect oa
their surroundings is not from lack of affection but lack of
knowledge and appreciation of the effect of shrubs, trees, :
vines, and a well-kept lawn upon the family life.
3 Farm homes ought to be the most attractive of all homes,
since they are in the open country where plants live and ar'1i
free to grow. Very few farms are as unfortunately situated
as that shown in this picture. This is a farmhouse on a cattle.:
range in one of the semiarid regions of the West, beyond ti&
possibility of irrigation. The landscape is drear and desolate..
Not a tree can be seen-only a waste of sagebrush and cacti.,
The desert has a charm of its own, but without irrigation thii
house can never be made homelike on the outside, whatever itJ
may be within.
4 How different is the scene in the next picture, which shows
farm home under more favorable circumstances. Gras s
trees, the two most important aids to home adornment, gr
luxuriantly. It is easy to have an attractive home under
these conditions. The great majority of American firmsa s
located where trees, grass, and flowers grow without aspei4.
care; if, therefore, the home is not attractive, it is.due solely :i
the negligence of those who are entrusted with its care.
FARE BUILDINGS.
5 Before proceeding with the details of planting the farm
grounds, a word should be said about farm buildings.
illustration shows a mistake common in locating the b
The house is set some distance back from the road, and
are about a dozen small barns, cribs, sheds, pigpens, and
outbuildings between the house and the road, all of
must be passed in going to the house. Under such comaA
it will be difficult to make this an attractive farm home."!
further disadvantage here is the fact that the house is ICA
in a hollow, close to a spring, and hence is shut off from Stfar i
No. 14 .
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5
View.
tive views. Nearly all the older farmhouses, in those regions
where the home water supply is usually a spring, are located in
hollows. But most farmhouses built in recent years are, or
should be, supplied with running water in the kitchen from a
reservoir filled by a windmill, ram, gasoline engine, or other
power, or even from a roof supply. Hence, in a rolling country
there is no longer the necessity for locating the house by the
spring in the hollow; it can be placed where it will command
a view of the farm and surrounding country, which will greatly
enhance its attractiveness.
The farmhouse should be of simple and dignified architec- 6
ture. It should be sightly as well as comfortable. The owner
Should avoid striving after elaborate designs. The "ginger-
Sbread" architecture of this house makes it ridiculous, because
it is out of place. The elaborate scroll-saw work is "fussy,"
and soon becomes shabby. How much more satisfactory is
the farmhouse shown here. Contrast its simple, straight lines 7
with the cut-up and artificial design of the other. It is beauti-
ful because it is simple; it looks homyy," and fits in wellwith its
surroundings. The other house merely copies city architec-
Stre. It might do fairly well in a city or town where every-
Ithipg is artificial and crowded, but it looks entirely out of
Space in the open country. In recent years too many farm-
Shouses have been built according to city designs. It is hard
Sto improve upon the beautiful, roomy, and simple architecture
Sof. the farm home of colonial days. The house shown in this
Picture may not exactly please you in all details-every one
should build a house to suit himself; but it illustrates the most
important feature of an attractive country home, no matter
ihow costly or how inexpensive-simplicity of design.
The principle of simplicity might well extend to other fea- 8
tures of the farm home besides the house. This "sunrise" fence
is an interesting piece of carpentry work, but one would hardly
call it beautiful or appropriate. A plain wire, iron, or picket
fence would be much better. Avoid such conspicuous things as
rows of whitewashed stones bordering the walks, whitewashed
tree trunks, iron dogs in the front lawn pointing at painted
iron partridges, and other curious, striking, gaudy, and in-
congruous effects.
OUTBUILDINGS.
The outbuildings should be in keeping with the house. This 9
shabby barn and slovenly barnyard are within 200 feet of an
expensive and really attractive farmhouse. The contrast is
striking and painful. How much better are the buildings on
No. 14




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6
View.
10 this farm? The barn and other outbuildings are nea"trli
painted and in keeping with the house, and one gets a favorblh'i|
impression of the whole place. Occasionally we see a fIt
with a barn that is kept in much better repair than the homt!ii
but more often the outbuildings are neglected, and thus thba
detract from the looks of the house.
VALUABLE TREES.
.. "
11 The whole farm, not merely the yard, may contribute '7 !i
the attractiveness of the farm home. A scene like thisW r i'1
financial as well as an esthetic asset to any farm. Aj
farmer should think a long time before cutting down any of tiI
trees that skirt the stream and fringe the meadow. A i
12 who has a noble tree like this anywhere in his fields should~ ioti
begrudge the ground it renders unfit for cropping; the stedfi'
13 is worth it. Especially should he protect fine trees like ti
that stand along the road bordering his farm. He can affonlr
to sacrifice the ground it occupies for the pleasure it gives to
his family and to the community.

NEATNESS.

The most general and the most serious fault of Amic
farm homes is their unkemptness. Many farmers seemingly
are in too much of a hurry to stop to "pick up." Slove..
yards are far more discreditable than bare, unplanted ya
and the very best planting is spoiled by untidiness.
14 picture shows a farm home that is unattractive, merely b .ec
it is untidy. The most common criticism of our country
by European visitors is that so many of our farm homes,
those owned by prosperous farmers, are unattractive, beoa.
15 they are untidy. Dilapidated fences, broken gates,
lying around out of doors, the woodpile by the front
litter scattered around the yard-these and other evideaeul
lack of care can be seen in farm homes everywhere. v
16 the front yard is fairly neat the back yard is apt to look.
enly, and the back porch is apt to be "cluttered up."
these same places may often be found expensive tr~-e
shrubs, usually bought of a tree agent at an exorbitant
but it is clear that what the place needs most in order to
it homelike is not 50-cent rosebushes nor dollar weeping
17 lows, but simply a cleaning up. I do not know that
homes as a class are more untidy than other homes.
doubtedly they are more difficult to keep neat than
No. 14






7

homes, and their untidiness is certainly more conspicuous.
The average American farmer should give more time to pick-
ing up, not forgetting the barnyard. 18
WHERE TO PLANT.

Almost everybody loves plants and likes to set them out and
watch them grow. Nearly every farm home has plenty of
plants about it. The trouble is not so much that people do
not plant enough as that they do not plant in the right places. 19
It is as important to know where to plant as what to plant.
There are more than a dozen trees and shrubs around this
house, but they are scattered about the yard without any ap-
parent plan. The trees in front may be satisfactory for shade
in time, but nothing has been done to hide the most objection-
able feature of the place-the outhouse in the rear. In plant-
ipg the home grounds it is necessary to have some sort of a
plan, preferably on paper, but at least in mind. The main
Q object is to plant in such a way as to make the place look
homelike and comfortable. The next few slides illustrate sev-
eral ways of accomplishing this. If the farm home grounds
are not cramped for room, and usually they are not, plant trees
back of the house. When they grow tall the background of
trees will set the house off to best advantage. The farmhouse 20
shown here has not a very inviting foreground, but notice how
much the trees in the rear add to its homelike appearance. If
part of the trees are evergreens, as in this case, so much the
better. These background trees may also be useful as a pro-
tection from bleak winds.
A second principle of landscape gardening applicable to the
farm home is this: As far as possible, keep the grounds immedi-
ately in front of the house, especially as viewed from the road,
free from low-growing trees, shrubs, and flower beds. Let
this space be occupied by an unbroken lawn. Generally
speaking, at least one-half of the grounds should be in lawn.
The most common mistake in planting the farm home is to
choke the front yard with a miscellaneous lot of trees, shrub-
bery, and ornamental plants. This picture shows typical 21
farmyard planting-basswood, maple, and lilac, syringa, and
rose bushes-all huddled together at the front of the house
and giving a patchy effect. Contrast with this picture the 22
next, which shows a farm home with a beautiful expanse of rest-
ful, unbroken lawn.
In the great majority of cases most of the trees and shrubs
should be planted in the rear and around the sides of the place,
No. 14


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leaving a lawn directly in front of the house, with prhapi s
few tall-headed, deciduous trees for shade. The heaviest plaii-
ing, of course, should be on the side from which come the .it
annoying winds. If a good outlook means anything to the
farmer and his family-and most country people do appreciate
it-the border planting will be omitted at the points from
which pleasing views may be obtained. Very often this he y
front-yard planting completely shuts out the views of afl
23 farm and surrounding country that might have been enjoyed j
from the house. This slide shows a farm home so modesttb-
24 it has endeavored to hide itself from view. The next Alidl
shows a view of the farm that could have been enjoyed feftr M L
the porch of this house if the front yard had not been so chokedtA -
25 with trees, especially evergreens. The next slide shows one ':
way of improving the same home. Since the grounds ar i
quite small, most of the tall trees are planted back of the house,
giving it a background. The low trees and the shrubs ma
planted in masses around the sides of the place, and agalwt : :
the foundation of the house. The flowers are planted in the'
borders against the shrubbery. There is a good lawn. The
sketch does not show another much needed improvement-'
vine climbing over the porch. This sketch illustrates theaTilb
three most important points in planting the yard-the bsck-::
ground of trees, heavy planting along the sides of the yard.
and an open lawn in front of the house.
A few high-headed shade trees in the lawn immediately i.:l
front of the house are not necessarily a disadvantage, as
26 next slide shows. There is a nice open lawn beneath the tn ,2'H
and the house is not shut out of view from the road. Theaes
trees protect the house from the hot sun and bleak winds &a:i
give a grateful shade on the lawn. Shade trees like these sa
always desirable in the front lawn. If, however, this
yard were filled with evergreens and shrubs and were cut:
with flower beds, the effect would not be at all pleui
These should be planted along the sides of the yard, not i
mi.uddle.
Shrubs are also seen to advantage when planted against *
27 foundation of the house, as is shown here. The foundatiePti
usually not attractive, and the shrubbery hides it. The
also make the house seem less artificial; it appears to rise
28 of the shrubbery. The corer by the steps, which usuacll$i.
catchall for rubbish, may be made beautiful by filling it
plants.
No. 14






9
View.
A very poor way to grow flowers is shown here. A little 29
round hole has been cut in the lawn, and this has been filled
with geraniums and coleus plants that the housewife, with
much care, has carried over the winter in the cellar or by
the windows. During the summer a few sparse blossoms are
S borne, but nobody would dare to pick them, because that would
destroy the symmetry of the bed. Sometimes flower beds are
made in the form of crescents, snakes, flags, and other curious
and grotesque designs. There are at least three objections to
these flower beds, especially on a farm: They take too much
time, they do not produce enough flowers to be worth while,
and they are usually out in the middle of the lawn where grass
would be prettier.
A much better way to grow flowers, especially on the farm, 30
I. shown here. This is a flower border, not a flower bed. It
is along the side of the lawn, not in the middle. It is irregular
| and natural, not symmetrical and stiff. There are all sorts of
old-fashioned flowers here, and plenty of them, so that even
the children are not afraid to pick a handful to carry to their
I'' school teacher. Flowers should be grown not in little beds
Scut out of the lawn in front of the house, but in borders, along
the fences, in front of the shrubbery, against the foundation
of the buildings, and bordering the walks. This slide shows 31
S some beautiful china asters in a most appropriate place-
close to the house and peeping in at the sitting-room window.
S How much better they look here than they would out in the
middle of the lawn. Flowers may also be grown in a flower
i garden-a little piece of land in the rear or on the side of the
i place, given up entirely to growing flowers. The charm of the 32
H old-fashioned flower gardens of our grandmothers has not
passed away.
::.i. Vines are especially useful around the farm home for screen-
ing unsightly objects like fences and outbuildings, and also
for draping and softening the architecture of the house.
This slide shows the beginning of a screen for the outhouse. 33
In another year the whole fence will be covered. On a great
many farms this building stands out without any attempt to
screen it, which is little short of indecency. Tall shrubs or
S evergreens should be planted in such a way as to hide it from
Sthe road, and while these are growing a high board fence
should be erected and covered with vines, as shown in this
picture. Boundary fences and other unlovely objects may
also be covered with vines.
No. 14
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The use of vines for draping the house, especiky tiheipoi
or piazza, is the most common form of home adornmaite. ; -
America. The average farm home would be bare *iUNi
84 without Virginia creeper, mornin-glories and lnasmtirtiaiai
This picture shows a grapevine that not only adds grek atly
the appearance of the house, but also contributes to its alq
of healthful fruit.
Grapes should be cultivated for decorative purposes Bmmii
more than they are.
WHAT TO PLANT.
The preceding slides have given a few suggestions abs*l"
where to plant, which is of much greater importance than tf: i
selection of the particular kinds to be used. On nearly evry
farm it is possible to grow an almost infinite variety of plmtf
the question is which ones are best, because only a few canmbe
planted. It is impossible to give a list of plants that woutlE
35 be generally successful in all parts of the country. Here, iH!
example, is a home in southern Florida. These coconut palxid
which are so attractive in that semitropical climate, would' i:.:
be very successful in Michigan. Consult the horticulturist .:e.
your State experiment station for lists of plants especiaE:i
adapted for certain sections. A few general suggestions, hoie:r
ever, may help the home maker in making his own selection.i
(1) Plant chiefly the trees, shrubs, vines, and flowers thbj!,
are known to thrive in your locality without special care.
few novelties and exotics can be coddled, perhaps, but ti
main body of the planting should be of tried and proved s *r
This means that neighborhood experience is the best g~l
It also means that you will be most apt to be successful i
the kinds that are native to your own part of the mOU
This is especially true of trees and shrubs. Do not look
long upon the glowing colors and fascinating descriptioM
the novelties in the seedsman's catalogue. Those kinds si
as "Too well known to need description" are much more m '::
to please you than the more expensive novelties.
36 (2) Do not plant many cut-leaved, variegated, we4|0X'
and other unusual and striking plants. Most of the trees mii,
shrubs should be the kinds common to the neighborhood, i
perhaps a very few specimens of the curiosities.
37 (3) Do not plant many of the quick-growing, and theliCiS
cheap looking, trees, like the poplars, willows, white mai:
and box elders. A few of these can be used to advant : I`J
secure quick results, but they should be interspersed with'
No. 14






11


View.
slower growing but more substantial trees like the oaks and the
elms, and the nurse trees should be cut out when the perma-
nent trees need the space.
(4) Most of the flowers for the farm home should be hardy
perennials. When.once established these come up every year
without further trouble, except that they should be divided
every few years. They take less time and usually give better
results than annuals.
(5) Plant the kinds you like. The home grounds should
express the personalities and tastes of the family.
THE LAWN.
This is the most important feature of the home grounds
except the trees. Grass an&trees will make a fairly attractive
home, even without vines, shrubs, and flowers. The lawn 38
should occupy at least one-half of the yard, hence the impor-
tance of making a good one. The grading should be done
several months before seeding, if possible, so as to allow the
S ground to settle and to secure a uniform grade before seeding.
Prepare the ground deeply, fit it very thoroughly, and enrich
S it. Make a slight grade away from the house, to secure drain-
SAge, and leave no hollows. Seed very thickly and take pains
iito seed evenly. A mixture of 50 pounds of bluegrass and 5
pounds. each of white clover and redtop per acre gives excel- 39
lent results in most of the Northern and Central States. On
some sandy soils of the South, pieces of turf of Bermuda grass
must be used. Seeding is best done in early spring. Peren-
nial weeds, such as dock, dandelion, and plantain, should be
but out the first season. The annual weeds'will not give
trouble after the first year. If parts of the lawn get thin and
mossy scratch them with a rake, apply a fine compost, and
sow more seed.
The farmer will ask if a big lawn does not take a lot of care.
It is not always necessary to cut the farm lawn with a lawn
mower or even with a field mower. This slide shows a farmer 10
who makes the lawn pay by grazing cattle upon it. In this
case care must be taken to scatter the manure. Others find
sheep more practicable for this purpose. Sheep will keep a
lawn as trim as if mowed; but a farm lawn that has flower
beds and shrubs scattered over it can not be handled to
advantage in this way.
No. 14





12

WALKS AND DRIVES.
rimn :, .. .
Walks and drives are necessary evils, so far as the looks of. t
41 place are concerned. Therefore, have only those that a e
absolutely necessary. If possible, do not allow a drive Pto
bisect the lawn. If a walk is less than 60 feet long, make Ar::,i
straight. Make all longer walks and drives on a direct doafb'
curve; avoid serpentine curves.
WHAT WILL IT COST?
The first question that the farmer asks is: "What will :itl.i
cost feeling that these things are all very nice, but that he ili
can not afford them. Making a farm home attractive need not i
42 cost a cent. All it need cost is a little work. The first itemt of I
improvement, greater neatness, costs nothing but an eCoert.
The second item of improvement, the plan, costs nothing b ut
study. The third item of improvement, the plants, can be
mostly or wholly secured from the wild in nearly all parts of
the country. This is especially true of trees. Nothing is.
better for home planting than the common trees of the sur-
rounding woodland-elm, maple, oak, basswood, beech, pop
lar, hickory, black walnut, willow, ash, sycamore, pine,
spruce, wild crab apple, and the like. No shrubs purchased of
a tree agent are superior to the kinds native to a large part of
the country, such as the osier, dogwood, thorn apple, sumac,
witch-hazel, wild rose, rhododendron, elder, spicebush, and
43 viburnum. No bought vines can beat the wild Virginia -
creeper, honeysuckle, clematis, bitter-sweet, and grape.
Many of the choicest wild flowers, such as the asters, goldenrods,
hepaticas, and violets, do well when transplanted to the
flower border; there they grow much larger than in the wild,
so that they are hardly recognized as wild flowers. Some ofT1
the most attractive farm-home grounds are planted almost :
44 entirely with plants dug from the woods and fields. The wild
trees and shrubs do not usually grow as well for the first year yl|
or two as the nursery plants, but they soon catch up. Home..
improvement need not take money, but it does take interest.
45 The next four slides show what can be done when people as
really interested. This farmhouse certainly looks unpromwi .j
ing enough. It is ugly, unpainted, and without a plant in :
sight except a little grass. It is simply a house; you would
46 not care to live there. This shows the same place three yeas ,'
after. The house has been transformed into a home. A little'
paint, a few vines, a shrub or two, and some grass have wrought9':':
the miracle. Probably the whole improvement did not co I
No. 14






13
View.
more than a dollar, aside from the cost of the paint, which pays
for itself in preserving the building.
Here is an humble cabin in a mountain clearing. There 47
would not seem to be much incentive to improvement here.
Yet the cabin looked like this a year later. This improvement 48
cost 10 cents for morning-glory seed. Was the money well
spent 9
SThese morning-glories were planted by the woman of the
home, not by the man. In fact, it usually is the woman who 49
takes an interest; the man is too busy planting, making, and
Harvesting crops to bother with such things. All honor to the
American woman, who, no matter how humble her home or
S how countless her cares, still finds time to keep a few flowers
blooming bravely in her windows and by the doorstep.
We are interested in making the farm home more attractive
S because it enriches our own lives; but, far more than that, be-
cause of the influence it may have upon the children in the
home. The most earnest desire of all normal fathers and 50
mothers is that the children may have more advantages and
lead happier and more useful lives than their parents. Nothing
S has a more potent influence in shaping the life of the child
S than the home environment. What are we doing to make our
own homes more attractive? If we will not take the trouble
for ourselves, we certainly should for our children, so that 51
when they leave us to make homes of their own they will
always remember with pleasure the old home on the farm.
No. 14


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APPENDIX.


LANTERN SLIDES.
No.or
view.
1. A bare, unattractive farmhouse.
2. An attractive farm home.
8. Desolate farmhouse in a treeless, semiarid region, without irrigation.
4. Attractive farm home in humid region.
5. Farm buildings between house and road.
6. "Gingerbread" architecture of farmhouse.
7. Simple and attractive architecture of farmhouse.
8. A "sunrise" fence; interesting but not beautiful or appropriate.
9. A shabby barn and slovenly barnyard, not in keeping with the house.
10. Neat outbuildings giving a pleasing appearance to the farmhouse.
11. Sheep grazing in the meadow.
12. Large elm tree.
18. Pine tree by the road.
14. Untidy front yard of a farmhouse.
15.. Dilapidated yard fence.
16. Unkempt back yard.
17. Littered back porch.
18. Tools and trash lying around the barnyard.
19. Farm home with an attempt at planting, but no plan.
90. A background of trees for the house.
2$. Front yard choked with trees and shrubs.
2St Farm home with open lawn in front of the house.
S3, Planting in front yard which shuts off view shown in No. 24.
24. Attractive view of farm not visible from house on account of planting in front
yard.
25. Sketch showing a better plan of planting the grounds than in Nos. 23 and 24.
26. Open lawn beneath shade trees in front yard.
27. Shrubs hiding the foundation of the house.
28. Planting in the corners.
29. A flower bed in the middle of the lawn.
30.. A flower border by the fence.
81. China asters near the sitting-room window.
8a. A flower garden.
88. Screening the outhouse.
84. Grapevine trained to the side of the house.
85. Grove of coconut palms in front of a Florida home.
86. Cut-leaved weeping birch.
87. Carolina poplar. -
88. Play of light and shadow, and children on the lawn.
89. An attractive farm home, largely the result of the good lawn and the single vine
of Virginia creeper.
40. Farm lawn being grazed by cattle.
No. 14 (15)
(15)


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1. Showig a adrve wim a gene airect-aoume curve, vita planting .....
42. Wild crab-apple tree in bloaeom; this tree was t~nplanted from the
48. Grapevine arbor; this grapevine wa dug in the woods.
44. Attractively planted farm-home grounds in which a the plant are tatihe ol
vicinity and were dug hro the wild. *
d6. Ugly, unpainted farm home and unplanted yard.
46. The house shown in No. 45, after painting and planting.
47. An humble mountain cabin.
48. The house shown in No. 47, showing the improvement wrought by
glories.
49. The woman on the farm; planting a tulip bed. .
50. Children helping their mother pick sweet peas.
61. The farm home on the hill. i..
No. 14





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