The edible passion fruit in Hawaii

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Title:
The edible passion fruit in Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
22 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Pope, Willis T ( Willis Thomas ), b. 1873
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Passion fruit -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 22).
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.T. Pope.
General Note:
At head of title: Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Honolulu, Hawaii. Under the joint supervision of the United States Department of Agriculture and the University of Hawaii.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029611331
oclc - 16324589
Classification:
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 64-85
System ID:
AA00014637:00001


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HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
HONOLULU, HAWAII
Under the joint supervision of the
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
and the
UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII

BULLETIN No. 74

Washington, D. C. September 1935



THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII
By W. T. POPE, Senior Horticulturist


CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction.--..-----------------------.... 1 General cultural requirements-Continued.
Botanical relations------------ .-----------. 2 Pruning.--------.... ----------- ----- 9
Pollination habits and unfruitfulness..-..... 2 Insect enemies and plant diseases-------- 9
Composition of fresh passion fruit (Passiflora Harvesting and marketing ----..---------- 10
edulis).----- ---------------.....-- --------- 4 Uses --------...--. -..------------------- 11
Passion fruit juice- ----------------------- 5 Descriptions of edible passion fruits---------- 11
General cultural requirements -------------- 5 Purple passion fruit .....---------------- 11
Selection of sites and soils --------------- 6 Yellow passion fruit-...------ ----------- 13
Propagation ------------------------- 6 Sweet granadilla or waterlemon -------- 13
Soil preparation------------------------- 7 Giant granadilla-....-------------------- 16
Trellises and planting .---------------- 7 Bell-apple-...---..--------------------- 18
Tillage_ --- ----------------------------- 9 Sweet calabash...------------------------ 20
Fertilizers-- ------------------- 9 Literature cited--------------------------- 22


INTRODUCTION

Possibly half a dozen species of edible passion fruit have been in
cultivation in Hawaii for the last half century. Several of these
species have been disseminated in certain localities and are now
growing as a part of the natural vegetation. Only comparatively
recently has effort been made to grow the fruit commercially in
Hawaii. Investigation has shown that it is of relatively easy culture
and is well adapted to Hawaiian conditions. The most useful species
grow best in the cooler, moist parts of the Tropics, although they are
not considered exacting in their climatic and soil requirements.
The relatively small amount of space required by the passion fruit
plants and their habit of fruiting early adapt them to temporary
intercropping with such permanent orchard trees as require 6 or 8
years to come into regular bearing and need their properly allotted
space.
The passion fruit may be used in many ways for food and bever-
age purposes and it may find a market both in Hawaii and on the
mainland of the United States.
No insect pests or plant diseases have yet been reported as seriously
attacking passion fruit plants in Hawaii.
144158*-35--1 1






2 BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION

The Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station has been conducting
experiments with the edible passion fruit since 1924. The first of
these was started at the central station in Honolulu, but field experi-
ments have also been carried on at the Kona substation, Island of
Hawaii, since 1931. In addition, many small field tests have been
made in cooperation with growers in various parts of the Territory.
Botanical classification, habits of.pollination, propagation, and
general cultural requirements have also been studied by the station
(12., p. 23; 17).1
BOTANICAL RELATIONS
All passion fruit species belong to the genus Passiflora. They are
woody, perennial climbers indigenous in tropical America. Most
Passifloras are ornamentals, but a few are cultivated for their edible
fruit. The edible fruit is similar in form to that of certain kinds
of melons and of the papaya. Striking examples are the giant
granadilla, muskmelon, and the common round-fruited papaya.
Early botanists recognized them as of the same great family. Pos-
sibly for other reasons, however, they are now classified in separate
families-Passifloraceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Papayaceae, respec-
tively. Practically all species of the genus Passiflora are character-
ized by either entire or lobed leaves arranged alternately at nodes
along the stem and branches and have simple tendrils from nodes
to hold the growing plants in place. The flowers are conspicuous
because of unusual form and varying combinations of beautiful
colors. The different kinds of edible passion fruit are not only at-
tractive in form and color but are generally pleasing in flavor. The
species having edible fruit, now growing in Hawaii, are as follows:
Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), yellow passion fruit (P.
edulis forma flavicarpa)2, sweet granadilla or waterlemon (P. ligu-
laris), giant granadilla (P. quadrangularis), bell-apple (P. lauri-
folia), West Indian sweet calabash (P. mrW iformis), red-fruited
passion vine (P. foetida), green-fruited passion vine (P. ciliata),
white-flowered passion vine (P. alba), and inkberry (P. suberosa).
The last four mentioned have little, if any, value for human con-
sumption but are eaten and disseminated by birds. The maypop
(P. incarnata) is mentioned as of early introduction to Hawaii by
Hillebrand (8, p. 139), but no recent reports have been noted.
POLLINATION HABITS AND UNFRUITFULNESS
Several species of Passiflora are irregular in their habits of setting
fruit in Hawaii. This is attributed to unsatisfactory pollination.
These species are evidently not in an environment similar to that in
which they developed in their native land.
The flowers are unusual in form, attractive in colors and odor, and
contain an abundance of nectar indicating that they depend con-
siderably upon live agencies to assist in pollination. The nectar is
so located that only certain kinds of pollen carriers, such as carpenter
bees (Xylocopa varipuncta), a species of bumblebee; large moths;
Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 22.
2 The yellow passion fruit was identified by E. P. Killip from specimens and photo-
graphs sent him by the Hawaii Experiment Station as a yellow-fruited form of Pasi-
flora edulis. Later it was described as Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa by Degener
(4).






THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


and several kinds of humming birds, are able to get it. These pollen
carriers are of such size that the parts of their bodies to which pollen
adheres will come in contact with both stamens and the stigiiiatic
parts of the pistil. These pollen carriers, in their eager quest for
nectar, visit many flowers frequently, and hence naturally have
ample opportunity to carry pollen to many receptive stigmas. In
Hawaii, carpenter bees are frequently seen visiting passionflowers,
moths are rarely seen, and humming birds apparently do not exist.
It is believed that dry sunny conditions, with breezy trade winds,
also aid in transmitting pollen from one flower to another and from
stamens to pistils of the same flowers. There are, however, failures
in pollination when both carpenter bees and breezes are present.
Even hand-pollination has failed. These failures have been reported
from many countries where Passifloras are grown. Investigation has
shown that some species often have protandrous flowers, that is, the
pollen of the anthers is ripe before the stigmas are ready to receive
it. The protandrous habit, no doubt, is a natural condition'of a
number of Passifloras and of some other kinds of plants. It is be-
lieved to have proven a means of bringing about cross-pollination of
species and possibly of varieties. The habit, in the case of the Passi-
flora, is closely associated with unusual form of floral parts, par-
ticularly of the essential organs (stamens and pistils).
The yellow passion fruit (P. edulis flatvrca.rpa) is the most im-
portant and the most variable of the passion fruits in its pollination
habits. Faulty pollination is undoubtedly a frequent cause of scant
fruit production.
The bell-apple (P. laurifolia) is a. prolific bloomer but invariably
fails to produce fruit in proportion to the number of flowers.
The large purple strain of P. edulis, grown at the Hawaii Experi-
ment Station, is a scant bearer, and some of the fruits are also defec-
tive in having a portion of the interior without seeds and edible pulp,
possibly due to faulty pollination. The size of fruit and defective
pollination habits are apparently transmitted in this seedling strain.
The unfruitfulness of certain Passiflora species is not peculiar
to the Hawaiian Islands. Macmillan (9, p. 207) states that P. lauri-
folia has been in cultivation in Ceylon and parts of Asia proper
for many years without fruiting. Popenoe (13, p. 242) notes that
P. edu.is, in some countries, fails to produce fruit. It has been
stated (14) that the large purple variety or strain of P. edulis
is a shy bearer.
The giant granadilla (P. quadrangula:ri), when grown in South
Queensland, Australia, is reported by Barnes (3, p. 675) as often be-
ing a shy bearer, and this he attributes to the flowers being protan-
drous. He suggests that in the absence of insects to transmit the
pollen from young blossoms to fertilize the older flowers, hand-
pollination be practiced. Protandrous conditions of the giant gran-
adilla have not been reported in Hawaii. However, cultivation of
this species is rare and but little study of it has been made.
Both the yellow passion fruit and the bell-apple grow mostly
at altitudes below 500 feet in Hawaii. A few trials have been made
at the Kona substation, altitude 1,500 feet, and in cooperation with
growers on the Island of Hawaii, at 1,000, 1,200, and 1,500 feet, but
a fair set of fruit is rarely produced. Heavy yields have been pro-






BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


duced near sea level on both the windward and the leeward side of
Oahu. Plantings farther inland at 100 to 1,200 feet elevation make
vigorous growth but rarely produce any comparatively large crops
of fruit. A small planting made at the central station in Honolulu
in 1924, at about 60 feet elevation, gave a heavy crop in the summer
of 1927. The plants blossomed abundantly once or twice in succeed-
ing years, but set very few fruits, even though carpenter bees were
observed visiting the flowers, which, in this variety, are open in
the afternoon only. Hand-pollination has given no better results.
These unsatisfactory pollination habits are no doubt due in part to
protandrous characters peculiar to certain species of Passiflora.
Good yields of this variety have been obtained by the station and
cooperative growers, mainly in hot, dry localities where the pollen
may have a chance to become relatively dry, so that it may be easily
transmitted by both the breezes and the carpenter bees, and where
the warm, dry air encourages early maturity of the stigmas of the
pistil before the closing of the flowers at nightfall. For good growth
and vigor under these conditions, irrigation would usually be re-
quired. Special attention must also. be given to the arrangement of
the rows in the field and to providing a type of trellis which will give
the plants a chance to expose all of the flowers to strong sunlight
and free circulation of the air. The warm, dry atmosphere tends
to ripen the stigmas before it is too late in the afternoon for cross-
pollination by natural agencies.

COMPOSITION OF FRESH PASSION FRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS)


Results of analyses of
ing tabulation:
Fresh passion fruit:
Rind------------------
Pulp (including seeds and
juice) -------------
Seeds _--------
Juice_---------------
Rind on moisture-free basis:
Protein (NX 6.25)-----
Crude fat (ether extract) _
Nitrogen-free extract -
Crude fiber_----------
Total ash____------
Calcium (Ca)-------
Phosphoric acid (P) -
Seeds on moisture-free basis:
Protein (NX 6.25)-----
Crude fat (ether extract) -
Nitrogen-free extract ----
Crude fiber_ -------
Total ash_------------_


fresh passion fruit are given in the follow-


Percent
51. 00


49.
20.
28.
9.
52.
30.
6.


12.
8.
18.
59.
1.


Seeds on moisture-free basis-
Continued. Percent
Calcium (Ca)-----_____ .03
Phosphoric acid (P) ---__ .66
Juice as prepared from fresh
fruit:
Water--.-------------- 79.80
Protein (NX 6.25) ------- .60
Fat------------------- 0
Crude fiber ______---0__
Ash_------------------- .48
Carbohydrates (by differ-
ence)--------------- 19. 10
Acidity (calculated as cit-
ric acid) .-----------. 2. 30
Calcium (Ca)----------- .005
Phosphoric acid (P)----_ 018
Iron (Fe)--------------- .00034
Calories per 100 g_ -----79


In a study of the nutritive values of Hawaiian fruits by the
Hawaii Experiment Station, it was noted that the passion fruit
has a comparatively high sugar content and is low in calcium, phos-
phorus, and iron.
Hare and his coworkers (7, p. 1149) state that several species of
Passiflora have some medicinal value, but give nothing on this
a Fruit pulp without seeds and juice. which consists of a few thin skins, not determined.





THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


point beyond the fact that an alkaloid had been reported. Merck's
Index (10, p. 385) states that the dried flowering and fruiting tops
of P. incarnata contain an alkaloid in small quantities.

PASSION FRUIT JUICE
Investigations as to the possibilities of extracting the juice of
passion fruit and demands for the product on the local market.
have recently been made.
During the past 5 years, a number of experiments have been
made in juice extraction by George Mellen of Honolulu, one of the
station's cooperative growers. Tests with various kinds of extracting
apparatus were made with both the purple passion fruit (Passifiora
edulis) and the yellow passion fruit (P. edulis flavicarpa). Some
improved apparatus was made for the purpose.
In 1933 and 1934, when the experimental passion fruit plantings
at the Kona substation were beginning to produce fruit, Mr. Mellen's
cooperation was secured in studies of extraction and marketing of
juice. In addition to these data, Mr. Mellen also made available to
the station records of his previous work in processing passion fruit
from various localities in the Territory. Table 1 was prepared from
these reports.

TABLE 1.-Results of extraction of juice fro-m tio varieties of Passiflora edulis

Weight of fruit Averae T e
Date juice Fruitsj e Total yield
Variety of passion fruit extracted Fruits juice per e
Total Average frii

Fluid Fluid
Number Ounces Ounces ounces ounce.
Purple--.----------------- Aug. 5,1933 775 1,240.00 1.60 0.3716 288.00
Yellow -------------------- Aug. 24, 1933 775 1,354. 25 1.75 .8300 643. 25

Results of an attempt to market the juice were as follows:
Six gallons of passion fruit juice, approximately 48 pounds, made
13.7 gallons of soda-fountain sirup, which sold for $2.40 per
gallon_-- _--------------------------- $32.88
Cost of transportation, processing of fruit, materials, labor,
etc --------------------------------------- $15.50
Grower's central expense, 30 percent----- ----------- 9.86 25.36
Return to grower-------------------------------------- 7.52
No doubt a saving could be made if regular factory methods were
established on a large scale and the grower could cultivate larger
areas near the factory by improved methods.
Sales of the juice were rapid and the demand for more has ex-
ceeded the local supply.

GENERAL CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS

Most of the edible passion fruits grown in Hawaii are indigenous
to tropical countries but some of them are now cultivated in such
frostless sections of the Temperate Zones as are free of any con-
siderable variation of daily temperatures. Unusually cool nights
during the active growing season are very detrimental. In Hawaii,





BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


the purple passion fruit and the sweet granadilla or waterlemon
have become a part of the natural vegetation in the damp woods of
practically all of the larger islands at altitudes ranging from 500
to 3,000 feet. In open forests, they spread over the treetops and
often yield large crops of fruit.
SELECTION OF SITES AND SOILS
Several of the chief localities where the purple passion fruit thrives
are a portion of the north slope of Mount Haleakala on the Island
of Maui; parts of the districts of Hilo, Hamakua, and Kona on the
Island of Hawaii; eastern slopes of the Waianae mountains on
Oahu; and in the Kokee section of the mountains of the Island of
Kauai. In the last-mentioned place, the crops are often large and
much of the fruit is eaten by wild hogs. The mountain soils of
this comparatively cool, moist locality are made up of decomposed
lavas which have a liberal incorporation of humus from the forest,
and with good drainage, form a very suitable growing medium for
the natural growth of this exotic species.
In selecting a site for passion fruit culture, the grower should
have in mind the species or variety to be grown. Both the purple
passion fruit and the sweet granadilla or waterlemon will fruit
freely up to an altitude of 3,000 feet, but on account of unsatisfac-
tory pollination habits, the yellow variety of P. edulis requires lower
altitudes, where the air is warm and comparatively dry, in order
that cross-pollination may be brought about by insects and sea
breezes (p. 2). If possible, the site for growing any kind of edible
passion fruit should be of such exposure as to allow the rows of
plants to extend from north to south, that both sides may get ex-
posure to the sun daily at blossom time. Where irrigation is re-
quired, it may be necessary to arrange the rows somewhat differently.
None of the edible species of Passiflora growing at the Hawaii
Experiment Station appear to be exacting in their soil requirements.
The soil may vary greatly in texture and composition. Sufficient
moisture and humus are the chief essentials. Wet or sour soils,
which usually result from lack of underdrainage, are unsuitable.
Passion fruit plants will withstand considerable drought, but
growth is greatly retarded and productiveness reduced. Altitude
is not so important from the standpoint of growth and prolificness
as is good culture in a moist and fertile soil. In Hawaii, it is usually
easier to select a moist and fertile soil at altitudes between 500 and
2,000 feet than to get the required cultural conditions on tillable
land below 500 feet.
PROPAGATION
Passiflora plants require considerable growth before they are set
in the field. The plants may be grown from seeds or cuttings. Most
growers, however, propagate from seeds. The seed should be selected
from the fruit of good quality, particularly such fruit as is free of
fungus diseases. Although no serious passion fruit diseases have been
observed or reported in Hawaii, the brown spot" Macrosporium sp.
(15) is a plant disease of considerable concern to passion fruit
growers in parts of Australia, and it is possible that this and several
other passion fruit diseases may be transmitted by the seed (3, p.
668).






THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


-7


The soft fruit pulp and juice are easily removed from the: seeds
after soaking in water for 24 hours. After being washed clean, the
seeds are dried in the shade sufficiently to prevent the growth of mold,
then stored in an air-tight container until needed. The seeds, even
when properly stored, lose their viability rapidly after the first year.
In fact, they give the best germination if planted soon after having
been removed from the fruit. At the Hawaii Experiment Station,
they are usually germinated in an ordinary propagating box about
14 by 20 inches and 3 inches deep, which will accommodate about 260
seeds.
Ordinary potting soil is generally used. It is gently pressed down
to an even surface and the seed are scattered over it at about 1
inch apart, then pressed with the flat surface of a block of wood
about 1 by 4 by 8 inches, such as is commonly used in propagation
work, and then covered with one-half inch of soil and firmed again.
The box is labeled with name and date and then set in partial shade
where it will get plenty of light, warmth, and fresh air. With a
liberal watering to keep the soil damp, germination will take place
in 3 to 4 weeks. After reaching a height of about 2 inches, the
seedlings are transferred individually to 4-inch plant pots for further
growth. After about 2 weeks in a partially shaded place, the seed-
lings may be placed on benches outside in full sunlight. In 3 or 4
months' time, the plants will be from 6 to 10 inches high and may be
set in permanent place in the field. Winter or spring planting is
satisfactory in Hawaii and makes but little difference in time of
fruiting. Winter planting, however, generally gives larger plants.
Raising of young plants in containers, in preference to the open
nursery, avoids some loss in transplanting and produces a sun-
hardened plant which makes more rapia growth in the field. In some
countries the seedlings are germinated in nursery beds and when
of sufficient size transplanted to the field. In Hawaii, conditions are
generally such that the pot-grown methods of developing the young
plants prove best.
SOIL PREPARATION
Thorough preparation of the land is very important for passion
fruit culture. It should be cleared of all undesirable vegetation,
stones, and the like and the soil deeply and thoroughly plowed and
harrowed to as near a perfect tilth as possible. This gives a.greater
growing medium in which the passion fruit plants may develop ac-
tive roots. It also increases the available plant food and insures bet-
ter drainage. In the preparation of the soil, as in the cultivation
to be done later, considerable organic matter, such as barnyard ma-
nure, panicum grass, old straw, and leguminous plants, may be worked
into the soil to improve and maintain fertility.
TRELLISES AND PLANTING
Previous to setting the plants, the prepared field should be marked
off in rows 10 feet apart and the trellises erected. Some growers
find more time for making the trellises after the plants are set; how-
ever, this method is more difficult because care must be taken to avoid
injuring the young plants.
There are several forms of trellises, the most satisfactory consisting
of hardwood posts 8 feet long, set 2 feet in the ground at 15 feet apart






BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


in the row. Soft redwood posts are unsatisfactory as they are often
seriously damaged by carpenter bees. The posts should be substan-
tially braced at the ends of the rows and at about every 200 feet in
the row. Each post should have a crosspiece of strong wood 2 by 4
inches and 2 feet long, spiked on near the top for the support of two
no. 8 galvanized wires which are strung tightly above and stapled,
one near each end of the top edge of the crosspiece, so as to form
horizontal, parallel lines about 2 feet apart (fig. 1).
The seedlings are set midway between the posts in the rows at
about 15 feet apart. In doing this, each plant is taken from its con-
taine'r without disturbing the soil on the roots and set in the moist
earth of the field. Several weeks after transplanting, each will begin
to develop several vigorous branches from near the ground, and





















FIGcas 1.-The purple passion fruit (Passiflora eduli)s in field culture test at the Kona
substation. The vines are set at 10 feet apart in rows and trained on trellises con-
sisting of two heavy wires supported at 22 inches apart on crossbars of the posts.
these are allowed to reach several feet in length. The strongest
one is then tied up to a temporary stake connecting with one of the
wires above and the remaining branches of the plant cut away
so that all of the plant food, absorbed by the root system, may be
utilized by the remaining stem to produce a vigorous growth. When
this growth extends to a few inches above the trellis, it is tied to
one of the wires and the terminal bud cut off to force lateral
branches. Only two are allowed to develop at this point, one reach-
ing to each wire where it may divide again, spreading both ways
and developing fruiting branches at intervals of about a foot. These
branches are trained alternately over the wires and allowed to hang
down. This arrangement distributes the weight of the vine over
the two wires, utilizes all of the space between posts, and tends to
give a comparatively open top for the circulation of air and the
penetration of sunlight.





THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


TILLAGE
The passion fruit field should be kept clean and free of weeds at
all times. This is done mainly with the cultivator and harrow.
Shallow cultivation is necessary in order to avoid injury to the root.
The disk cultivator and disk harrow are best for this purpose. Deep
plowing is not advisable except in the preparation of the land in
the beginning and before resetting the field with new plants. The
shallow cultivation also keeps the surface open for aeration and in
a condition to retain the greatest amount of rainfall with the aid
of the mulch turned under by the deep plowing at the time of the
preparation of the field for planting.
Short-period crops of garden vegetables can be grown in the
middle portion of the spaces between rows during the first year.
FERTILIZERS
The passion fruit species, which are heavy bearers, are naturally
heavy feeders. The well-prepared field may be sufficiently rich in
plant food for the first year or two but if the soil is very poor it
should be fertilized before planting.
In the passion fruit experiments barnyard manure was applied
previous to setting the plants, and this was followed by two appli-
cations of a complete fertilizer prepared especially for fruit-produc-
ing plants. This fertilizer contained 5 percent of nitrogen. 6 of
phosphorus, and 3 of potash, with some calcium in the compounds
carrying the 2 latter elements. The first application was 1 pound
per plant, and the second, applied about 4 months later, 2 pounds
per plant. These amounts should be increased considerably in the
second, third, and fourth years, when heavy crops are expected.
Reports giving recommendations in reference to use of fertilizers
for the passion fruit in Australia (3, p. 673) and several other
countries indicate the use of a complete fertilizer similar to that
used in the Hawaiian experiments.
PRUNING
Where the tops of the vines become too dense, portions may be
pruned out at certain seasons. This is best done when the plants are
beginning vigorous growth. Pruning during periods of dormancy
has proved unsatisfactory, particularly if considerable portions of
the vines are removed. In pruning, all dead leaves and branches
should be removed, as well as interfering branches, which would
tend to produce an unfruitful condition. Clipping excessively long
branches tends to force a number of short-fruiting laterals on the
remaining portions. Barnes (3, p. 672) states that pruning is prac-
ticed in Australia to bring in the crop at different periods of the
year when better prices may be realized.
INSECT ENEMIES AND PLANT DISEASES
Insect enemies and plant diseases of the edible passion fruit plants
are not numerous. In Hawaii there is as yet only one serious enemy,
the Mediterranean fruit fly. It has attacked the fruit of Passiflora
edulis in some localities at certain seasons, while in others the fruit
matures without blemish. The fruit fly punctures are made before
144158-35---2






10


BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


the fruit has matured, apparently when the rind is tender. Further
growth deposits a stony mass on the inside of the rind, cutting the
puncture off from the pulp inside. No maggots are found in any
part of the fruit, and although the stony wall appears to prevent
decay it is detrimental as it prevents the development of pulp and
seed, sometimes to the extent of more than half the interior of the
fruit, and results in very inferior fruit. The fruit fly punctures,
which occasionally occur on the yellow variety of P. Edulis, also
fail to produce larvae, and the rind, which is thicker and harder
than that of other varieties, does not develop the stony obstruction
on the inner surface. The damage to this variety is mere disfigure-
ment of the outer surface of the fruit.
No fungus diseases have as yet been reported as attacking either
plant or fruit of any of the edible Passifloras in Hawaii. Several
serious diseases have caused much concern to growers in some other
countries (15, p. 564).
HARVESTING AND MARKETING
The harvesting of the crop is a comparatively easy part of passion
fruit production. It is also much less difficult than the handling of
most other horticultural crops. The grower of any considerable
amount of passion fruit should be either equipped to extract and
preserve the juice or be near a market which will take large quan-
tities of the fruit regularly. Gathering and handling should be
done while the fruit is cool. Fruit intended for shipment to any
considerable distance should be cut from the plants when it is just
approaching the full color of ripeness. For local markets or imme-
diate use, it may be fully ripened, when the flavor is best. Many
growers prefer to let the fruit ripen and fall to the ground, picking
it up each morning.
When the fruit has been gathered, it should be carefully laid in
padded field boxes of about 12 by 12 by 18 inches in size. Crinkled
and marred fruit does not sell well on the market, although it may
be good otherwise. It should be used for local consumption or
juice extraction. The juice keeps well and in good condition for
the market. Properly ripened passion fruit, like most other fruit,
has the best flavor. Fruit intended for market purposes should
not be shipped in bags, large boxes, or barrels. The best result in
shipping the fruit from the Kona substation to Honolulu, was ob-
tained by using strong paper boxes having a capacity of about 20
pounds of fruit each.
In a study of marketing Australian passion fruit, Gregory (5,
p. 43) found it highly important to handle the fruit carefully in pick-
ing, sorting, and packing, especially when intended for long-dis-
tance shipments. He also advises the growers to sort the fruit into
three grades as follows: Special-large and medium-sized fruit, full
of juicy pulp, and free of dummy, blemished, and diseased fruit;
Standard-large and medium-sized, slightly skin-blemished fruit,
full of pulp, and free of dummy and diseased fruit; Plain-small-
sized fruit and all sizes of crinkled and blemished fruit, free of
dummy and diseased fruit. Gregory points out the importance of
growers grading the fruit to some such plan as the above, as it en-
ables agents and buyers to understand the quality of the fruit they




THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


are handling. He describes simple equipment for packing and
different methods of arranging the fruit in the packing boxes, which
makes possible quick determination of size and number of fruit per
box.
USES
The uses of the passion fruit are numerous. The edible portion
of the fruit, consisting of pulp, seeds, and juice, is used in fruit
salads. The juice has a very individualistic flavor and is in con-
siderable use in making refreshing soda-fountain drinks (2, p. 272).
It is also used in making various kinds of cocktails, cordials, jelly,
sirup, sherbet, ice cream, flavoring for icing, candy, and cake.
DESCRIPTIONS OF EDIBLE PASSION FRUITS
PURPLE PASSION FRUIT
The purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is native of Brazil,
but has spread to many other warm parts of the world where, in
moist localities, it often thrives as a part of the natural vegetation.
It has been considerably cultivated in Queensland, Australia, where in
different localities it is known by such names as purple-fruited grana-
dilla, purple passion fruit, and as passion fruit. In India it is also
known as the "sweet cup (fig. 2).
The purple passion fruit was introduced into Hawaii about 1880,
where it soon became known to the Hawaiians as lilikoi ", a name
given presumably from the locality on the Island of Maui where
it was first grown.
There are several strains of the purple passion fruit distinguished
mainly by size of fruit, a characteristic which recurs even when
propagated by seed. One of these has larger purple fruit than that
of the original type, but it has not proven as satisfactory because
it is naturally a shy bearer. Another strain is more outstanding be-
cause the fruit is larger, of a yellow color, and the pulp and juice
are more tart than that of the purple form, believed to be a true
species hybrid between the purple and some other species, possibly
Passiflora ligularis. It is described as a distinct variety, flavicarpa,
in this publication.
DESCRIPTION
The woody perennial is a robust climber which, under favorable
conditions, may spread over a large treetop 40 or 50 feet high and
produce two crops of fruit per year. The seasons of maturity in
Hawaii are usually summer and late fall, depending somewhat upon
the nature of the season.
SLeaves.-The leaves are alternately arranged, one at each node.
The blade is cordate at the base, three-lobed, margin finely serrated,
and the upper surface glossy green. The short leafstalk contains
two semilunar glands or nectaries on the upper surface near the
junction with the blade.
Flowers.-The flowers are solitary, about 2 inches across, each on a
short stalk extending from a leaf axil. Inside and spreading above
the whitish petals is the crown or corona composed of two series or
rows of threadlike rays which have the basal halves purplish and
the outer, white. There are five stamens, each terminating with
heavy pollen-bearing anthers, and from the center of the flower ex-






BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


tends the compound pistil terminating in a three-parted stigma
adapted for pollination by both wind and insects.
Fruit.-The fruit is globose or ovoid. 2 to 2/2 inches long and
deep purple in color at full ripeness. Within the hard leathery


FIGURE 2. The purple passion fruit (Passifora edulis). The ornamental vine is vigorous,
flowers attractive, and the edible fruit is grown commercially in frostless countries.

rind are numerous small seeds, each surrounded by a yellowish,
aromatic, juicy pulp which has a distinctly pleasing acid flavor.
After the fruit matures, it falls naturally from the plant and the
rind shrinks and becomes wrinkled.


12





THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


YELLOW PASSION FRUIT

The yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa)4 is also
known by the common name of yellow-fruited lilikoi. Although ap-
parently closely related to the purple passion fruit, the two differ
considerably. The plant is more vigorous and the flowers are larger
and more fragrant, with stronger tendencies toward protandrous
habit.5 The fruit also differs in being of a yellow color at maturity
and the flavor of the pulp and juice is more clearly defined.
The Hawaii Experiment Station first received seed of the yellow
passion fruit from the late E. N. Reasoner of Oneco, Fla., in 1923.
Mr. Reasoner had obtained the seed in Australia when on a visit to
that country. A considerable number of plants were grown by the
Hawaii Station in the years following and distributed to growers in
various parts of the Territory.
DESCRIPTION

The woody perennial vine is very strong when grown in favorable
environments. It gives a light crop in about 18 months from seed,
and two crops per year, occurring in July and October, with possibly
some variation according to environment (fig. 3).
Leaves.-The leaves are almost identical with those of the purple
passion fruit but appear to be a little more vigorous.
Flowers.-The flowers are similar to those of the purple variety
but differ in being larger and more brilliant in color and more fra-
grant. They also bear two marginal glands on the outer fourth of
the three outside sepals.
Fruit.-The fruit produced by seedling plants varies in size and
shape from spherical to oval. The average fruits vary from 21/2to 3
inches in greatest diameter; light yellow in color at full ripeness; rind
leathery, 1/4 inch in thickness and white beneath the outer surface.
The central cavity contains many seeds, each surrounded with a juicy,
orange-colored pulp which is quite acid and of a decided aromatic
flavor.
SWEET GRANADILLA OR WATERLEMON

The sweet granadilla (Passiflora ligularis) has been fairly well
Imown in Hawaii for over 30 years. Wilder (18,,p. 214), in 1911,
stated that the date of its introduction to Hawaii, and by whom,
was not known. In parts of the Island of Hawaii, however, it has
been growing for many years as a part of the natural vegetation.
The species was erroneously called P. laurifolia in Hawaii. A
more thorough study of its specific characters showed it to be P.
ligularis. The common name waterlemon is also misused, as
long ago that name was applied to another species in some English-
speaking countries (2, p. 445; 9, p. 267).
In recent years the sweet granadilla has spread to many locali-
ties where there are warm, moist woods adapted to its natural
growth (fig. 4). Such conditions usually range from near sea
See footnote 2.
5The anthers shed their pollen before the stigmas are in a condition to receive it,
and without fertilization of the ovaries there is a failure to set fruit.





BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


level to about 3,000 feet in altitude. In season-July, August, and
possibly September-the fruit is frequently on sale in local mar-
kets and sells for a fair price. The fruit is of good quality when
fresh, and is wonderfully refreshing when eaten out of hand in the


FIGUEE 3.-The yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) is very exacting in its
requirement but is the favorite passion fruit of the sunny, dry localities at lower
altitudes in Hawaii.

wild, but soon deteriorates after being picked. Its main use is as
a dessert fruit. The fruit is grown to some extent in its native coun-
tries, Mexico and parts of Central America, and meets with con-
siderable favor in the markets of these countries.


14





THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


DESCRIPTION
The plant is a perennial, propagated mainly by seeds and climbs
by means of tendrils. Under good conditions, it is a vigorous
climber, and when allowed to run wild, spreads over trees, fences,


FIGuRa 4.-The sweet granadilla (Passiflora ligularis) grows freely as a wild climber
of the cool, moist woodland in Hawaii where the fresh, delicious fruit is highly prized.

and buildings, but is easily confined to a trellis when grown in cul-
tivation. It is valuable not only for its fruit, but its foliage and
flowers are ornamental. The stems are smooth, slightly woody at
the base.





BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


Leaves.-The leaves are large, light green, heart-shaped, and with
entire margins. The leafstalks bear three pairs of hgular glands,
i. e., glands mounted on ligules or strap-shaped stalks, hence its
specific name ligularis.
Flowers.-The flowers have a sweet musklike odor. They are
usually solitary, 3 inches across; sepals and petals greenish; the
corona white with zones of white and purple.
Fruit.-The fruit is oval or slightly elliptical in form, about 3
inches long, and of an orange-brown or sometimes partially purple
color and with numerous whitish specks. The shell is firm enough
to make it possible to ship the fruit long distances without injury.
The seeds are numerous, and .each is surrounded with a light-col-
ored, juicy pulp, which, with the seeds, is the edible portion hav-
ing a pleasing subacid flavor and pleasant odor.
GIANT GRANADILLA
This species of passion fruit (Passiflora quadrangularis) is native
of the Tropics of South America. It is now widely distributed
throughout the warm, moist parts of the earth, where it is grown
as an ornamental and for its edible fruit. The giant granadilla has
several other names, such as common granadilla ", the granadilla
vine ", and the "square-stalked passion flower ", according to Ochse
(11 p. 101). The word granadillaa is from the Spanish and is
applied in different parts of the Tropics to several other species of
Passiflora, all of which have less robust vines and comparatively of
smaller fruit. The species name quadrangularis has reference to the
four-angled stems (fig. 5). There are several strains varying mainly
in size of fruit. Formerly the strain with the largest fruit was
believed to be a different species and was botanically named P.
macrocarpa, but investigation has shown lack of sufficient specific
characteristics and the name is now given as synonymous with P.
quadrangularis by Bailey (2, p. 445). Popenoe (13, p. 247) recog-
nizes a form which has foliage blotched with yellow.
The ripe fruit of the giant granadilla makes a wholesome delicacy
by mixing pieces of the white, semisolid portion of the rind with the
juicy, purple pulp from around the seeds and serving with sugar
and cracked ice (11, p. 102). When fully ripened the giant grana-
dilla is one of the most highly flavored tropical fruits. It is eaten
either alone or used in combination with papaya, pineapple, and
banana, and with the juice of lemon or lime to form a fruit salad.
It may be used in making sherbets. Macmillan (9, p. 268) states
that both the preripe fruit and the root, which is usually fleshy, are
cooked and eaten as vegetables. Other uses of the fruit have been
reported (14, p. 55).
The methods of propagation are similar to those used for all
species of Passiflora bearing edible fruit (p. 6).
The giant granadilla is quite exacting in its requirements. For
successful growth it requires a deep, fertile, well-drained soil and a
comparatively warm temperature, varying but little from day to
night. In Hawaii it is occasionally found in home gardens up to
altitudes of about 1,500 feet. In parts of India it is reported to be
in cultivation up to 3,000 feet, and it is also grown to a considerable


16





THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


extent in the Dutch East Indies, where in some particularly favorable
areas it grows wild as an escape. For good growth each plant should
have a space 8 to 10 feet. across. and in field culture the plants should


FIGUER 5.-The giant granadilla (Passiflora quadrangularis) is a coarse, angular-stemmed
vine with large leaves and fruit, the edible fruit often 8 to 10 inches long and weighing
as much as 8 pounds.

be set in rows 8 or 10 feet apart each way and trained on rather
open overhead trellises, which will give a horizontal spread at 6 or
7 feet above the ground, allowing the fruit to hang suspended be-
neath and have both space and protection for natural growth.





BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


DESCRIPTION
The plant is a coarse perennial with a more or less fleshy root,
woody stem, and green four-angled branches. It climbs by means
of tendrils.
Leaves.-The leaves are alternately arranged, 6 to 8 inches long,
yellowish green, ovate or elliptical, cordate at base and margin
entire; leafstalk angular, contains 3 pairs of nectaries or glands, and
the stipules are relatively broad.
Flowers.-The flowers are very attractive in color and fragrance;
4 to 5 inches across; flower stalk short and bearing 3 large green
bracts near the base of the receptacle; calyx segments 5, broad, thick,
spongy, greenish outside and white or pinkish within; petals 5, red
above, white or pinkish below; corona (a crownlike structure) con-
sisting of 4 or 5 whorls or circular rows of rays, the 2 or 3 inner
whorls very short and white blotched with red, 2 outer rows con-
sisting of coarse stringlike rays forming a fringe, reddish at the
base, the remainder cross striped with purple and white, and the
outer halves of the rays more or less crooked from having been
folded in the bud; stamens 5, rising above the central column, an-
thers broad and pivoted on the filament from the upper side. The
ovary of the pistil is mounted on a gynaphore (a stalk raising the
pistil above the stamens) and the style is divided into 3, sometimes
4 or 5 parts, each of which terminates into a rather large, globular
or reniform stigma.
Fruit.-The fruit is oval-oblong or elliptical, 9 or 10 inches long,
often weighing 4 or 5 pounds; skin thin, light green or yellowish
green when ripe; rind about 11/2 inches thick, central cavity con-
taining many seeds, each surrounded with a subacid purplish or
yellowish, juicy pulp of pleasing flavor. Seeds flattish oval in
outline, three-eighths inch long and of a brownish color.
BELL-APPLE

The bell-apple (Passiflora laurifolia) (fig. 6) has several other com-
mon names, as sweet-cup ", waterlemon ", Jamaica honeysuckle ",
" Pomme d'or ", and some have called it the yellow granadilla fruit"
(13, p. .248). These names tend to cause confusion. The entire, ellip-
tical leaves, unusual for Passiflara, are somewhat like those of the
well-known laurel which was probably the guide for the specific name,
as given by the botanist Linnaeus, who named it.
DESCRIPTION

The bell-apple plant is a handsome and moderately vigorous
climber which is most valuable for covering unsightly structures. Its
bright green foliage, beautiful flowers, and pendular, golden fruit are
very ornamental. In Brazil and parts of the West Indies, where it is
apparently indigenous, it is cultivated mainly for the fruit, which
has an agreeable subacid flavor. The plants are easily propagated by
seeds and by cuttings. In Hawaii, as in India and Ceylon, the plants
blossom freely but mostly drop without setting the fruit, possibly be-
cause of insufficient pollination (9, p, 267).


18





THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


19


Leaves.-The vine is a glabrous climber with alternately arranged
elliptical or long-elliptical leaves, each with pointed apex, entire mar-
gin, 6 to 8 inches long, and with a single pair of petiole glands near
the point of attachment with the base of the leaf blade.


FIGURE 6.-The bell-apple (Passiflora laurifolia) is an attractive arbor vine-the foliage,
flower, and edible fruit are very ornamental. It is interesting to note that the bright
orange-colored fruit is unusual in being surmounted with three rich green bracts.

Flowers.-The large, handsome, fragrant flowers are 3 to 4 inches
across. They contain a beautiful arrangement of green, white, pink,
red, and violet tints.





20


BULLETIN 74, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION


Fruit.-The fruit is ellipsoidal, orange-yellow, 2.5 inches long and
unusual in being surmounted by three large green bracts. The rind
or soft shell surrounds a white spongy covering of the edible portion
which consists of juicy pulp and seeds.


FICURE 7.-The sweet calabash (Passiflora mnaliformis) is very ornamental. The hard
rind of the edible fruit is difficult to open. The species is said to have particular value
in crossbreeding work.
SWEET CALABASH
The sweet calabash is botanically known as Passiflora maliformis
Linn. Popenoe (13, p. 2]9) states that it is native of tropical
America where it is called curuba or kuruba ", and that it is





THE EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT IN HAWAII


cultivated in the West Indies and Colombia. Wester (16, p. 7) re-
ports its cultivation in Brazil and Ecuador for its aromatic, palatable
pulp. Grisebach (6, p. 293), who made a considerable study of
Passiflora, describes the species botanically and gives its habitat
as the West Indies and New Granada.
The common English name probably originated from the nature
of its fruit, the outer covering of which is hard like the shell of a
gourd, and the specific name nualiformlis also has reference to the
fruit, which is shaped like the common apple (Pymus malus).
DESCRIPTION
In Hawaii the species has been grown in private gardens mainly
for ornamental purposes for which it is conspicuously suited. Each
bud is enclosed in a large bladdery covering formed by the three
bracts, which, upon blooming, open and form a cream white back-
ground for the more highly colored floral parts (fig. 7.) The Hawaii
Experiment Station is cultivating it for use in plant-breeding work
because the species has very prolific habits and is apparently quite
immune to the attacks of certain insect pests and plant diseases
known to infest some other passion fruit plants. It may be possible
to develop a hybrid having these resistant qualities and a better
fruit. The comparatively small size and hard shell of the sweet
calabash are objectionable characters, particularly when the fruit
is in competition with other species and varieties already being grown
in Hawaii.
Leaves.-The vine of the sweet calabash is relatively small and
slender. The leaves are from 4 to 6 inches long, ovate to ovate-
oblong, with an apex which terminates in a. small, sharp, recurved
point; leafstalk biglandular above the middle.
Flowers.-Tendrils and flowers arise from the axils of leaves,
flower stalk slim, flowers about 4 inches across, attractively marked
with tints of white, purple, and blue; sepals prominently keeled be-
hind, light green, and dotted with reddish brown in front; petals
rudimentary and essential organs (stamens and pistils) very similar
to those of other passion fruit flowers.
Fruit.-The fruit is oval, 1.75 inches long, light green turning to
brownish at full maturity and rind hardening into a shell; seeds
small, flat, and surrounded with a grayish juicy pulp of subacid
flavor.


21
















LITERATURE CITED
(1) ANONYMOUS.
1932. PASSION FRUIT GROWERS CASH IN. Calif. Cult. 78(12) : 272.
(2) BAILEY, L. H., and BAILEY, E. Z.
1930. HORTUS; A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF GARDENING, GENERAL HORTICrUL-
TURE AND CULTIVATED PLANTS IN NORTH AMERICA. 652 pp., illus
New York.
(3) BARNES, H.
1934. PASSION' FRUIT CULTURE IN QUEENSLAND. Queensland Agr. Jour. 41:
667-675, illus.
(4) DEGENEE, O.
1932-33. FLORA HAWAIIENSIS. Book 1 (looseleaf), illus. Honolulu.
(5) GREGORY, J. H.
1932. MARKETING PASSION FRUIT. Queensland Agr. Jour. 38:43-61, illus.
(6) GRISEBAOH, A. H. R.
1864. FLORA OF BRITISH WEST INDIAN ISLANDS. 789 pp. London.
(7) HARE, H. A., CASPARI, C., RusBY, H. R., GEISLER, J. F., KREMERS, E., and
BASE, D.
1905. THE NATIONAL STANDARD DISPENSATORY. CONTAINING THE NATURAL
HISTORY, CHEMISTRY, PHARMACY, ACTIONS AND USES OF MEDI-
CINES 1860 pp., illus. Philadelphia and New York.
(8) HILLEBRAND, W.
1888. FLORA OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A DESCRIPTION OF THEIR PHANER-
OGAMS AND VASCULAR CRYPTOGAMS. Annotated and publ. by
W. F. Hillebrand. 673 pp., illus. London and New York.
(9) MACMILLAN, H. F.
1925. TROPICAL GARDENING AND PLANTING, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
CEYLON. Ed. 3, 617 pp., illus. Colombo.
(10) MERCK & Co., INC.
1930. MERCK'S INDEX; AN ENCYCLOPEDIA FOR THE CHEMIST, PHARMACIST,
AND PHYSICIAN. Ed. 4. 585 pp. New York, Philadelphia, [etc.]
(11) OCHSE, J. J., in collaboration with BAKHUIZEN VAN DAN BRINK, R. C.
1931. FRUITS. AND FRUITICULTURE IN THE DUTCH EAST INDIES. 180 pp.,
illus. Batavia.
(12) POPE. W. T.
1934. PROPAGATION OF PLANTS BY CUT'PTINGS IN HAWAII. Hawaii Agr.
Expt. Sta. Circ. 9, 35 pp., illus.
(13) POPENOE, W.
1924. MANUAL OF TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FRUITS, EXCLUDING THE
BANANA, COCONUT, PINEAPPLE, CITRUS FRUITS, OLIVE, AND FIG.
474 pp., illus. New York.
(14) QUEENSLAND DEPARTMENT OF AGRICILTURE, FRUIT BRANCH.
1931. PASSION FRUIT CULTURE. Queensland Agr. Jour. 36: 51-55, illus.
(15) SIMMONDS, J. H.
1930. BROWN SPOT OF THE PASSION FRUIT VINE. Queensland Agr. Jour.
34: 564-585, illus.
(16) WESTER, P. J.
1931. EDIBLE PASSION FRUIT. Chamber Com. [Manila] Jour. 11(2) :7.
(17) WESTGATE, J. M.
1930-34. REPORTS OF THE HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,
1929-33.
(18) WILDER, G. P.
1911. FRUITS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. Rev. ed., 247 pp., illus.
Honolulu.
22


U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1935







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