Farmers' institutes

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Title:
Farmers' institutes history and status in the United States and Canada
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of Experimental Stations. Bulletin ;
Physical Description:
34 p. 24 cm. : ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Bailey, L. H ( Liberty Hyde ), 1858-1954
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington D.C.
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural education -- Canada   ( lcsh )
Farmers -- Canada   ( lcsh )
Farmers -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by L.H. Bailey.
General Note:
At head of title: Bulletin No. 79. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations.
General Note:
Reproduction of original in: Library, Agriculture Canada.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029390682
oclc - 83498520
isbn - 0665066031
Classification:
lcc - S544.5.C2 B244
System ID:
AA00014621:00001


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BULLETIN No. 79.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
A. C% TRUE, Director.


FARMERS' INSTITUTES:





HISTORY AND STATUS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ANADA.





BY





L. H. BAILEY, 1M. S.,
PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURE, CORNELL UNIVERSITY.


WASHINGTON:


GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.


1900.


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
....Washington, D. C., February 16, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith an article on farmers'
institutes in the United States and Canada, prepared by Prof. L. H.
Bailey, of Cornell University. There is an increasing demand for
information regarding the various means which have been adopted for
extending our system of agricultural education to the actual tillers of
the soil. This article gives brief historical and statistical informa-
tion regarding farmers' institutes, which constitute one of the most
successful of these means. I therefore recommend its publication as
Bulletin 79 of this Office.
Respectfully,
A. C. TRUE,
Director.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secret y of Agriculture.




I- -1"d~l'~ -----1


CONTE NTS.


Page.
General and historical survey .................................-............. 5
Statistics of the States and Provinces ....................................... 8
Alabama..............-...------- --------------.-------------------..-----... 8
Arizona ................................................................. 9
Arkansas ............................................................... 9
British Columbia ....................................................... 9
California .............................................................. 9
Colorado............-...------.....------......-----..---.......---------------------...--...--...........------..---. 10
Connecticut ...........---..-------.....------........--............--------....--...-..--.......-...--. 10
Delaware --............................................................... 11
Florida ................................................................. 11
Georgia ................................................................. 12
Idaho.....................................----..............---.....-----..........----------------------------------. 12
Illinois ....-.....----------.......--.-------------.....--......-.........--------..............---------.......-...-------12
Indiana....----.....------..........------------.....--....--------......--.....-.....-.........---------...-----------.... 13
Iowa .............................................................-------------------------------------------------------...... 13
Kansas ...--...--..-.........-------......-----...----.....-.......------------..........-------.........---....-------.. 14
Kentucky---..---....-------.... .--------..-----..-----... .-----..... ............----------..........----. ..-... 14
Louisiana ...-----------------......----......--.......--.........---..-------------....------....-......-..-- 14
Maine ....................-...----............---...------------------...---------------.....------......-.....----..... 15
Manitoba ....------------------------.......---.......---------.......-....-----------..........------..... 15
Maryland-----..-----------------....................------------------.........--------..............--.-..-..... 15
Massachusetts ...................------....---------.............-----------....----------.....----------...--- 16
Michigan ................................................ .............. 17
Minnesota .....---.........-------------------...........------------......----------..--.......-----..........--...... 17
Mississippi ...... ..-.. ..----....-.......--.----.....--.........-------..---................... 17
M issouri ................................................................ 18
Montana.............................----......------..---..-----.....--------................... 18
Nebraska ............................................................... 18
Nevada............------------------.............---------............------.....--....--.............-------.... 19
New Brunswick.----...---.......-..----------------------.........--------...........-------.............. 19
New Hampshire ......................................................... 20
New Jersey ..-....----------------..------...............-......----......-...............--------------------.. 20
New Mexico ............................................................ 20
New York .............................................................. 21
North Carolina ......................................................... 21
North Dakota ........................................................... 21
Nova Scotia.........................-.................................... 22
Ohio-.................................................................... 22
Ontario..--....----......---------------....----------..........----------......................--------------............ 23
Oregon .--......---.......---......--......-.........-------------------------------------............................. 25
Pennsylvania --.---.------............----------------.........-------....--....-------...--..........--........ 25
Quebec-: ............................................................... 25
Rhode Island ........................................................... 26
3










Statistics of the States and Provinces-Continued.
South Carolina .--......-.....--------.......--.......----------........-..........-------.........
South Dakota-...........................................................
Tennessee...........-----....----......--..-..--..---......----------------------------...............-----
Texas..--.---------------...........--...--.----------.....--------..--....---..-............--....
Utah ...................................................................
Vermont-................................................................
Virginia................................................................
W ashington ............................................................
West Virginia ..-......................................................
Wisconsin ....------------...-----....-....----.......--.....-..-....--------------.....................
*W coming ...............................................................
Summary ..---...-------........-----------...........-------------.....-----------............--......................
Officials in charge of farmers' institutes in the United States-.................


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FARMERS' INSTITUTES: HISTORY AND STATUS IN UNITED
STATES AND CANADA.'


GENERAL AND HISTORICAL SURVEY.

The history of the origin of the farmers' institute is obscure, but it is
certain that the movement began earlier than we have been led to sup-
pose. The movement is an outgrowth of farmers' societies of various
kinds, many of which are of long standing. It began to assume definite
and separate shape early in the seventies, when several States under-
took to hold farmers' meetings on essentially the same plan as at
present. As early as 1869 and 1870 such meetings were held in Iowa
. by Welch, Roberts, Bessey, Jones, Matthews, and Mrs. Tupper, the
expenses being met by the community in which the institute was held.
In 1871 an account of "farmers' institutes' was published in the report
of the board of trustees of the Iowa Agricultural College,2 in which it
is said that "the experiment of holding farmers' institutes in different
localities in the State, for the purpose of giving familiar lectures on
prominent topics in agriculture, was tried last winter with very grati-
fying success. Institutes, lasting three days, were held at Cedar Falls,
Council Bluffs, Washington, and Muscatine, at each of which points we
found an enthusiastic gathering of farmers." Vermont, Michigan,3 and
some other States inaugurated institutes about this time.
The origin of the itinerant lecture system for the instruction of
farmers is to be sought long before this time, however. As early as
1842 or 1843 such lectures were inaugurated by the New York State
Agricultural Society, and these were so successful that the society
adopted the following resolution at a meeting held in Albany, January
20, 1848:
Resolved, That the plan which was adopted by the former secretaries of the New
York State Agricultural Society (Daniel Lee, Joel B. Nott, and Benjamin P. John-
son), in addressing, at suitable times, county agricultural societies, meets the decided
approbation of the committee, and they trust it will be continued hereafter; and
they recommend the adoption of the resolution.
Massachusetts early took steps to inaugurate a series of farmers'
institutes through the endeavors of the State board of agriculture.

'For a previous article on this subject see Experiment Station Record, 7, p. 635.
2 Country Gentleman, 1887, p. 873.
SFor a history of Michigan institutes see Rpt. Mich. Bd. Agr. 1875, p. 72.
5








The first reference to such meetings is to be found in the records of t.
secretary of the State board of agriculture under date of January.2
1859, when it was voted by the board "to appoint a committee to o:
sider and report upon the propriety of instituting meetings similar to d.:!
teachers' institutes." This committee reported February 3, 1859, ti
favor of holding such meetings, and recommended that they be com ,
mence(I as soon as possible. February 1, 1871, the board voted "that H
the various agricultural societies of the Commonwealth be requested 5
to organize an annual meeting for lectures and discussions at such
time and place as may be convenient for each society; these meetings
to be denominated 'The Farmers' Institttes of Massachusetts.'" Feb..
ruary 7, 1878, it was voted: "That the agricultural societies receiving
the bounty of the Commonwealth be requested to arrange and-hold
one or more farmers' institutes each year within their limits; and that
they be informed that the board will render all the assistance in its
power to make such institutes instructive and useful to the public.l
February 6, 1879, this vote was amended by substituting the word
"required" for "requested," and changing the number to be held each
year from "one" to "three." February 5, 1880, it was voted: "That
in the opinion of this board it is expedient that the secretary attend as
many farmers' institutes as the other duties of his office will allow."
February 3, 1887, it was voted: "That the rule requiring societies
receiving the bounty of the State to hold at least three institutes dur-
in the year be restated and enforced." February 7, 1889, the board
adopted the following rule: Each agricultural society receiving the
bounty of the Commonwealth is hereby required to arrange and hold
not less than three farmers' institutes each calendar year within its"
limits, and the board will render all the assistance in its power to make
such institutes interesting and profitable. The secretary is expected to
attend as many of these institutes as is compatible with the other.
duties of his office, and he will provide lecturers for the institutes as
far as the appropriation for this object will warrant. And the several
agricultural societies are earnestly requested at their annual meetings
to fix the dates at which they will hold the several institutes required,
and the subjects they desire to have discussed, and at once notify the
secretary of the board if they desire assistance in the procuring of
lecturers. Societies may arrange and hold more than three institutes
if they so desire, and the secretary of each society is required to certify
to the holding of each institute, upon blanks provided by this office."
During the calendar year 1890,36 societies held 129 institutes. No
regular amount has been, or is now, appropriated by the State to pay
the expenses of these institutes. The State grants an annual bounty
of $600 to each incorporated agricultural society complying with the
law and with the regulations of the board of agriculture. Since 1863
the board of agriculture has held an annual three days' country (pref-
erably public winter) meeting in some section of the Commonwealth








i r lectures and discussion, the proceedings of which have appeared
annually in the Agriculture of Massachusetts. March 20, 1869, the
legislature approved an act which, among other things, authorized the
expenditure for other clerical services (over and above one clerk with
Fixed salary) in his office, and for lectures before the board of agri-
culture, at its annual and other meetings, a sum not exceeding $400.
In 1887 this amount was increased to $800 per annum. This amount
has been used each year to pay lecturers, stenographers' services, etc.,
at this meeting.
The legal authority for the holding of institutes in Michigan, in con-
nection with the Agricultural College, is held to be derived from the
following clause in the organic law of 1861: The State board of agri-
culture may institute winter courses of lectures for others than stu-
dents of the institution, under necessary rules and regulations." This
Michigan law possesses unusual interest, for it is probably the first legal
authority conferred upon an educational institution in this country to
carry instruction to farmers who are not students in the college. And
this recalls the fact that the farmers' institute movement is essentially
university extension, inasmuch as the greater number of the institutes
are held under the auspices of the agricultural colleges. The vital
connection which exists between these colleges and the institutes may
be learned from a study of the statistics presented on the following
pages; and it may also be said that even in those States in which this
official and legal connection does not exist the teachers in the colleges
are expected to identify themselves with the institute work. It is true
that the institute movement lacks much of the definiteness of specific
university extension, but the ultimate aims of the two are the same,
and writers upon university extension are recognizing this fact.
The institutes are now undergoing a transformation. Farmers are
constantly asking for more specific instruction, and courses of technical
lectures upon a series of intimately related topics are in demand. This
demand has given rise to itinerant "dairy schools," "schools of horti-
culture," and similar organizations in various States. The institute
bureaus in some cases publish a roster of speakers, with announce-
ment of their subjects, and from these lists the different localities
select their lecturers. The demand for definite and consecutive instruc-
tion in agriculture has brought forward a number of schemes looking
to the intensification and extension of the institute system.
The farmers' institute has exerted a most powerful influence upon
the agriculture of the country. It is in the highest sense a philan-
thropic and patriotic movement. In Wisconsin, for example, it has
met with marked success, and it is not surprising that a former super-
intendent of the institutes in that State, W. H. Morrison, should write
thus enthusiastically of the results:
I wish that you had the history of this movement in Wisconsin-how the institutes
have stimulated a pride and respect for agriculture, bringing farmers together to




'iiiii: :"' '








compare and pool experience. They give the farmer an opportunity to meet m ,i
in agriculture, men who make the business of farming a science and a life we ,
They build up and unite farm interests, energize and fertilize local thought, uab
men and women better satisfied with the farm, and will have the tendency to Ma
a fair portion of the best boys on the farm. They are revolutionizing agriculture Wt
this State, and their power was felt and heeded by our legislature last wiute.Yp (
Fortunately, our farm institute work is under the auspices of our State Universit'l
My office is in the same building with Professor Henry, director of the experiment:
station, and whatever may come from his experiments that will aid the farmers of....
the State is taken by our farm institutes and scattered all over the State. The f.t- l i
is, they are doing more for the State than the originators of the law ever thought',:i
or expected. They builded better than they knew. The institutes are edueati g
our farmers to better methods, and increasing the rewards of the farm. Seventy ,
to 75 institutes are held each winter, attended by an average of over 500 farmers,.....
making them a great feeder to all the courses in the university. And, lastly, theyQ.:
are advertising the resources of Wisconsin, as we issue annually 31,000 copies of a
farm institute bulletin.
Nearly $85,000 were spent in 1891 in North America for farmers'...
institutes. .
In the following review facts relating to farmers' institutes collected
in 18911 are summarized in connection with data gathered from official
sources in 1899. This furnishes a basis for interesting comparisons
between the movements in 1891 and 1899, and indicates the progress
which has been made. The information for 1899 attempts to answer the
following questions:
(1) Under what auspices are the institutes held?
(2) How many institutes are held each year, and what is the attend-
ance?
(3) How are the institutes distributed or located?
(4) How much money is available for farmers' institutes?
(5) Is there a State department of agriculture?
These statistics must impress one with the extent of the efforts which
are being made in all parts of North America to awaken and to educate
the farmer.

STATISTICS OF THE STATES AND PROVINCES.

ALABAMA.

1891. Annual appropriation, $3,000.
1899. In Alabama, farmers' institutes are held under the auspices
both of the State commissioner of agriculture and under the Polytech-
nic Institute at Auburn. They are distributed where applications are
made. The Polytechnic Institute (Agricultural and Mechanical Col-
lege) held 20 institutes in 1898-99, at a cost of $500. Fifteen institutes
were held during 1899 at which the total attendance was about 1,200 to
1,400.

SPublished in Annals of Horticulture, 1891.




a i :.:









ARIZONA.

1891. No provisions made for institutes.
1899. The farmers' institutes held in Arizona are under the auspices
of the Arizona Agricultural Association. From one to four have been
Sheld each year for the past three years, the institute movement having
existed in Arizona only for that length of time. The experiment station
assisted at seven institutes during the latter half- of 1899, the total
attendance at which was estimated to be about 700. The institutes
have been held thus far in Salt River Valley only, which is the chief
a agricultural region of the Territory. No set sum has been segregated
Sfor institute purposes, but the expenses thereof have been borne by the
agricultural college and experiment station. There is no State depart-
i.ment of agriculture in Arizona.
ARKANSAS.

1891. Farmers' institutes had not been organized in this State in
1891.
1899. There has been little direct institute work in Arkansas. Very
, recently the experiment station has been provided with a pomologist
who is to have charge of the work. It is the intention to hold at least
one institute in each county the coming season. There are many appli-
cations from farmers particularly from the cotton-growing sections.
There is a department of mines, manufactures, and agriculture, with
headquarters at Little Rock.

BRITISH COLUMBIA.

1899. The farmers' institutes of this Province are under the auspices
of the government, and controlled by a superintendent. The Province
is divided into institute districts, by act, and one institute is allowed
in each district. Two regular meetings, to which the speakers are
sent at the expense of the government, are allowed to each institute
each year; and as many supplementary meetings as the institutes
choose to have, they providing the speakers, except when speakers are
asked for, in which case the government pays the fares only. The
institutes are supported entirely by the Provincial government, 50 cents
per head being the per capital grant to institutes, and $6.50 per day for
speakers sent to regular meetings. The last year's grant amounted to
$3,000. The number of institutes held in 1899 was 105, the total
attendance 3,317. There is a Provincial department of agriculture.
CALIFORNIA.

1891. No farmers' institutes.
1899. The department of university extension in agriculture of
the University of California holds the farmers' institutes. The official
year ends July 1. In 1897-98, 79 institutes were held; in 1898-99,



A. .:






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86 were held. The average attendance at each of these institute TiiMI
estimated to be 200, making a total of about 17,000. It is the a.in i
distribute the institutes somewhat uniformly geographically, buti ti
determining factor is the spontaneity of the application and the w
ance of local preparation. The university carries an the work from .it'.1
own funds. In 1898-99 about $4,500 were expended, including t
salaries of two conductors. California has a State board of agrilt'ii
ture, the chief duty of which is the holding of fairs.
COLORADO.
1891. No direct appropriations were made by the general assembly
during this year for the purpose of supporting and conducting farme.rt .
institutes. The State board of agriculture set aside a certain sum to
be used for the purpose of defraying the expenses of professors attend-
ing such institutes held in different parts of the State. Since the year .
1888 a record had been kept of the amount expended for this purpose,
which is as follows: For the year 1888, $99.55; for the year 1889,
$56.60; for the year 1890, $121.80; for the year 1891, $90; for the year
1892 the sum of $500 had been appropriated for said purposes.
1899. All farmers' institutes in Colorado are held under the auspices
of the State Agricultural College. There is no definite number held
each year; they have varied from about 6 to 20. These meetings are
not regularly distributed over the State. They are held entirely in the
irrigated districts, and at least one-third of them are held in connection
with meetings of local Pomona granges. There are also several local
organizations which apply to the college for speakers to be sent to help
conduct the meetings. There is no definite sum available for the insti-
tutes; each locality is expected to pay the expenses of the room in
which the meeting is held, of printing programmes, and other local
expenses. The railroads furnish free transportation and the college
pays the rest of the traveling expenses; also the hotel expenses if there
are any, although the local people are very likely to take care of the
speakers while they are in town. On the average there has been less
than $150 a year spent by the college on these institutes. There is no
State department of agriculture. There is a so-called State board of
agriculture, but this is merely the legal title for the trustees of the
State Agricultural College.
CONNECTICUT.
1891. No appropriation. The board of agriculture held an important
winter meeting from its own funds, and about $200 per year was other-
wise expended for institute work.
1899. The farmers' institutes in Connecticut are held under the aus-
pices of the State board of agriculture, the State Dairymen's Associa-
tion, and the State Pomological Society. As many are held yearly
as the secretaries of these organizations may deem advisable, varying


h e i.ah.. .









somewhat with the funds available and the calls received. About
12 to 15 were held in 1898, not including annual meetings of each of
These organizations. The total attendance at institutes during 1899
i; i estimated at about 5,000. The institutes by the State board are
distributed chiefly according to applications received, while those held
by the State Dairymen's Association are distributed according to the
judgment of the secretary. There is no special appropriation for insti-
l tutes. The various State organizations holding the same use money
;i from their regular appropriations after holding annual conventions and
Sallowing for other necessary expenses. There is a State board of agri-
Sculture in Connecticut, appointed in part by the governor, and in part
by the legislature by counties.

DELAWARE.

1891. "Annual appropriation of $200 to each of the three counties.
In an act providing for the holding of farmers' institutes, passed March
29, 1889, the object of the institutes is defined to be "the discussion
Sorally, or by written essays or papers, of agricultural or kindred mat-
I ters, and for the dissemination of agricultural knowledge among the
f farmers of the State."
1899. Each county receives $200 if it organizes a body technically
Known as an institute. The officers of this institute 1" shall be a presi-
dent, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and executive committee of
five to nine members." This institute for the election of officers is prac-
tically a mass meeting of the farmers of the county. The officers serve
one year without compensation The institute may hold as many meet-
Sings as it choose, "at such times and places as the members *
may determine." Sometimes 8 to 12 meetings may be held
in a county. About 56 such meetings were held during 1899. The
total number of farmers attending was probably 2,000 to 2,500. There
is no State department of agriculture, although the new State constitu-
tion provides for the organization of one by the legislature.

FLORIDA.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. No farmers' institutes were held in Florida previous to the
past collegiate year. Institutes are now held under the auspices of
the department of agriculture of the Agricultural College. One is held
in each county of the State annually, provided local parties request
the same. They are held only upon request from-the different counties.
In the event that requests are not received from certain counties and
more requests are received from other counties, more than one institute
may be held in any given county, provided the total number of insti-
tutes in the State does not exceed the total number of counties, aggre-
gating 49 for the State. Fourteen institutes were held in 1899 with
an average attendance of about 300. There is no money available for

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12

institutes specifically outside of the regular educational income of i'
college. The railroads in the State cooperate in the movement,
-ever. There is a State department of agriculture with a commissio
of agriculture, elected by the people, with headquarters in Tallaa ,il
GEORGIA.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. In Georgia farmers' institutes are conducted under the s al"
pices of the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. Bec0ause'i
of lack of means and time the institute work has been irregular of late.
About 18 institutes are held annually on an average. They are irregu.-i
larly distributed, being given where there is particular demand for:ii!
them. Aside from the official institutes, the various officers of theii:
experiment station give aid to meetings whenever they can. During-l:-i
the present year another institute movement has been prominent. It isi
established and maintained by the Atlanta Evening Journal, and is per-:
sonally superintended by its editor. During the summer of 1899 this :'ili
gentleman conducted about 50 institutes. The State has never appro-:,
priated money for institute work, but the college has been in the habit:
of giving from $200 to $500 annually for the work. The State depart-
ment of agriculture has been organized for many years at the capital, 2
the official head being the State commissioner of agriculture, who is
one of the governor's cabinet. In 1898 the office of State entomologist
was established, which is under the direction of the commissioner of
agriculture. The State entomologist has attended farmers' institutes
whenever practicable.
In place of short institutes held for a day or two at a time in various
parts of the State, there has now been projected a localized or continu-
ous institute to be held for nine months each year in connection with K
the model farm of the State University at Athens. This movement is
equivalent to what in other States is called a short course or winter
course in agriculture.
IDAHO.
1899. Farmers' institutes are conducted under the direction of the
experiment station.
ILLINOIS.
1891. In 1889 the thirty-sixth general assembly appropriated $100
per annum for the use of each Congressional district in the State hold-
ing farmers' institute meetings. There being twenty Congressional
districts, the sum appropriated therefore amounts to $4,000 for the two
legislative years. There was paid to the districts holding farmers'
institutes from said appropriation the sum of $3,000. The thirty-
seventh general assembly, 1891, passed an act appropriating the sum
of $50 annually tbr two years to each county farmers' institute. There
being 102 counties in the State, the appropriation therefore amounts to
the sum of $10,200. Few of the counties held meetings.



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1899. One institute is held annually in each county under the
auspices of county organizations. As already stated, the State makes
I an appropriation for each county institute of $50, but for the ensuing
two years $75 are allowed to each county. In addition to this, the
State appropriates $8,000 annually to the Illinois State Farmers'
Institute, which is an official board. The State institute has an advi-
p sry influence over the county institutes and holds annually a State
I meeting of three days' session. The institute inaugurates various
educational work. The board of directors of the institute is composed
Sof the State superintendent of public instruction, president State
Dairymen's Association, dean of College of Agriculture, president State
Board of Agriculture, president State Horticultural Society, and one
Member elected from each Congressional district of the State. There
is also in Illinois a State board of agriculture. Its principal duty is to
manage the Illinois State fair and collect quarterly crop statistics.

INDIANA.

1891. An annual appropriation of $5,000.
1899. The farmers' institutes of Indiana are provided for by a State
appropriation, and are held under the auspices of Purdue University.
Each county in the State (92) holds an annual institute under State
auspices. In a large number of cases a second meeting is also held if
the direct apportionment of $25 for local expenses is not all used on
the first meeting. Over one hundred institutes under State auspices
are held annually (103 during 1898-99), and about 25 independent
meetings. These independent meetings are held by the same local
organization which has charge of the annual meetings under State con-
trol. The meetings are distributed by counties. The general average
attendance is about 250, making the total attendance probably 30,000 to
35,000. The sum of $5,000 is appropriated annually for this work.
The State board of agriculture in Indiana corresponds with the State
agricultural society of Michigan. It has in charge the State fair, and
publishes a report of the fair and of the various industrial meetings
held at the statehouse. There is no State commissioner of agriculture.
The local organizations which cooperate with the superintendent of
institutes in holding the annual institutes in the several counties have
been organized, with the exception of two or three cases, for the express
purpose of arranging for and holding farmers' institutes.

IOWA.

1891. No appropriation. During the winter of 1890-91 the State
agricultural society and the agricultural college appropriated a small
S. sum. Institutes were held at this period but they were supported by
individuals or societies.
1899. In most cases one institute is held in each county; sometimes


p .. ...








two. They are held under the auspices of the local institute oz ...
of each county. State aid to the extent of $50 is appropriated to ech
county, of which there are 99. There is a State department of
culture, but it does not govern the institutes.

KANBAB.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. Up to 1899, no State funds were available for institutes, but '
from $400 to $500 have been taken from the college funds annually.
In 1897-98, 30 institutes were held; in 1898-99, 63. During the yew'ar!;
1899, 135 institutes were held, the total attendance being about 20,000.
Now a State appropriation of $3,000 has been made, and it is expected .-
that 300 institutes will be held and that one or two professors will beI
sent to each. The meetings are held where applications are made.
The work is in charge of a committee made up from the experiment...
station staff. Kansas has a State board of agriculture.

KENTUCKY.

1891. The first appropriation for State institutes was made in May,
1890, when the legislature passed an amendment to the law creating
the bureau of agriculture, and requiring, among other things, that
institutes be held in different parts of the State. The total appropri.
ation to the bureau was $13,000, but no definite sum was specified for
institutes. Five institutes were held in the fall of 1890, 9 in the spring
of 1891, and 9 more were planned for the winter of 1891-92. The cost.
of these institutes averaged about $100 each, so that about $1,000 may '
be said to have been spent for them annually.
1899. The institutes in Kentucky are conducted under the provi-"
sions of the law above referred to by the State commissioner of agricul-
ture, labor, and statistics, aided by the advisory board, of which the
director of the experiment station is a member. Twenty-one were
held during the winter of 1898-99. During 1899, 44 institutes were held,
with a total attendance of probably 3,500. The institutes are dis-
tributed over the State as equitably as possible, the location being:
influenced to a considerable extent by local applications as showing
local interest. The commissioner of agriculture, labor, and statistics
is elected, like the governor, for a term of four years, and is ineligible
for reelection.
LOUISIANA.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. The farmers' institutes of Louisiana are held under the aus-
pices of the State commissioner of agriculture and immigration. As
many institutes are held each year as there are parishes or clubs re-
questing them. These meetings are distributed by counties or dis-
tricts, and sometimes where parishes apply for them. Thirty-four


~







i 15

institutes were held in the State in 1899. Fifteen hundred dollars is
annually appropriated by the State legislature for the purpose of
defraying the expenses of the workers in the institutes. The scientific
men of the experiment station and the State University and Agricul-
tural and Mechanical College render assistance, together with local
talent from each neighborhood.
MAINE.

1891. Annual appropriation, $3,000. The secretary of the board of
agriculture and one member are obliged to hold two institutes yearly in
every county.
1899. Farmers' institutes in Maine are held under the auspices of
the board of agriculture. About 50 three-session meetings are held
each year. The meetings are distributed about the State by counties
as far as possible, and largely within the different counties, to those
who apply for them. There is $3,500 available for the purpose of hold-
ing these institutes. From 1890 to 1895 meetings were held, in 1899
the total attendance being about 11,600. The State board of agriculture
has its office in the statehouse.
MANITOBA.

1891. There are about 20 or 25 farmers' institutes in Manitoba, each
one of which receives $25 a year from the Provincial funds.
1899. The farmers' institutes of Manitoba are organized under an act
of the legislature. To give them a legal standing and entitle them to
a government grant they must have at least 25 paid-up members. The
yearly membership fee must not be less than 50 cents, and for each
paid-up member the government gives them a grant of 50 cents. Twice
in each year the department of agriculture of the Province sends out
lecturers to visit all the institutes, two lecturers attending each one.
A convention of delegates from all the institutes, known as the "Cen-
tral Farmers' Institute," meets once a year, and the addresses there
delivered are published by the department in the form of an annual
report. These reports are distributed gratis to all applicants and sent
as well to each member of the local institutes. In addition to the
addresses to farmers' institutes, meetings are frequently held under
the supervision of the department at central points throughout the
country where there are no organized institutes, very frequently under
the auspices of the local agricultural societies. In the year ended with
1897,.156 addresses were delivered at 48 different stations, afternoon
and evening meetings being held in many places.

MARYLAND.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. The law establishes a department of farmers' institutes, whose
director is appointed by the trustees of the Maryland Agricultural






16


College. One institute is to be held annually in each of the 23 co1ntj 'Ji
" and an additional one in each county if deemed necessary and d Hi
able." The attendance is probably 4,000 to 5,000. The sum of
is appropriated for the purpose. There is no State department i .f
agriculture.
MASSACHUSETTS.

1891. Each incorporated agricultural society in the State complying: I!!
with the State law and regulations of the board of agriculture
received an annual bounty of $600. Each society was required to
hold at least three institutes each year. In 1890, 36 societies held 19.:.:.
institutes. The State board of agriculture also held one public three
day meeting, for which $800 was expended. The State also appro-
priated funds for other general institutes, and for these institutes from
$600 to $700 was used.
1899. The basis of the farmers' institutes in Massachusetts is the
incorporated agricultural societies of the State which receive the State
bounty, amounting to $600 a year, and comply with State regulations
concerning the holding of fairs and institutes, as explained above.
The secretary of the State board of agriculture works in conjunction
with the officers of such societies, being consulted in respect to speak-
ers, subjects, etc. The secretary each year prints a list of speakers
and subjects. This list is placed in the hands of the proper officers of
the various societies, and from this list said officers generally select
speakers. When the selection is made, the secretary of the State
board of agriculture is notified, and he secures the speakers selected if
possible. The State board secures in this way one speaker for each
institute, and this speaker receives $10 and expenses for his services ,
(the society furnishing hall, advertising, etc.), this money being paid
out of an appropriation to the State board of agriculture for that pur-
pose. The officers of the local societies may engage other speakers if
they see fit, and if the speakers are approved by the secretary of the
State board he may pay said speakers as above indicated. The officers
of the local societies may also engage other speakers, thus having more
than one for a single institute, but only one speaker will be paid from
the funds of the State board. Farmers' clubs and granges also hold
occasional institutes, paying for their own speakers. Frequently a
local grange cooperates with the local agricultural society, the State
board of agriculture paying for one speaker for the society and the
grange paying for another. Each incorporated agricultural society
must hold at least three institutes yearly in order to receive the State
bounty. The stronger societies hold more than that number, some of
them as many as five or six. If the society holds more, it must pay
the speakers. There are 35 societies in the State, making, therefore, a
minimum number of 105 institutes. The institutes are held in such
towns or cities lying within the territory from which the members and

I







17


I exhibitors of the societies come, as the society may select. The selec-
tion varies from year to year, so that in the course of a few years
practically all considerable towns in the State are reached. The State
includes about 350 cities and towns, so all towns may be reached within
three years.
The board of agriculture may furnish institute lecturers to other
Than incorporated societies. The board held 125 institutes during the
Calendar year 1898, 122 during 1899. The total attendance at insti-
totes during 1899 was between 11,000 and 12,000. Lecturers were fur-
nished for 98 institutes, at a total cost of $1,469.94.
MICHIGAN.
1891. No separate appropriation, an item for farmers' institutes
being inserted annually in the appropriations made to the State board
L .of agriculture. This was first given in 1876-77, the amount being
: $164.30. It has varied from that amount to $750, which was the appro-
priation in 1891.
1899. Institutes are held under the auspices of the State board of
Agriculture by virtue of a special act of the legislature. This board
has charge of the Agricultural College, so that it amounts to a college
supervision of the institutes. The director of the experiment station
I connected with the college is superintendent of farmers' institutes.
SThe institutes are held by counties so far as possible. In 1898-99, 67
:two-day county institutes were held, 107 one-day meetings, and the
"State round-up" institute. The total attendance at all sessions of
these meetings was about 100,000. The legislature appropriated $5,500
for this work. A bulletin giving the proceedings of the institute is
published.
MINNESOTA.
1891. Annual appropriation, $7,000. The first appropriation, $5,000,
was made in 1887.
1899. In Minnesota farmers' institutes are held under the auspices
of an administrative board, consisting of three members of the board
of regents of the university and the presidents of the State Agricul-
tural Society, State Horticultural Society, and State Dairy Asso-
ciation. The minimum number is fixed by law at 40 annually. The
meetings are distributed by the administrative board upon the recom-
mendation of the superintendent, and his recommendation is based
upon the calls of the localities and knowledge of the conditions. There
were held during 1899, 59 institute meetings, with a total attendance
of 22,600. A State appropriation of $13,500 is made annually. Minne-
sota has no State department of agriculture.
MISSISSIPPI.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. The institutes are held under the auspices of the director of
i the experiment station, at places from which applications come.
: 17073-No. 79- 2






18
Is -~
Twenty-eight meetings, with a total attendance of 2,000, were held'6iniiii
1899. One thousand dollars a year is available for the purpose
institutes. There is a State department of agriculture.
MISSoURI.
1891. There was an appropriation, for each of two years, of $5,OO(
Expenses of members of board of agriculture attending meetings, pr
year, $500. Institutes were planned for 56 counties of the State dura-: *l
ing the winter of 1891-92.
The institute work was established in 1882 by Prof. J. W. Banbor,:
then secretary of the State board of agriculture. The board was then,
receiving $2,500 per annum to carry on all its work, and out of this
sum the expenses of a very limited series of farmers' institutes were.
met. By the aid of the members of the faculty of the Agricultural
College, who gave their time during vacations and when they could
be spared from their classroom work, and volunteer assistance from
public-spirited farmers, the work was carried on without any special
appropriation for the purpose from the general one made to the board,
and which at any time never exceeded $3,000 per annum. The work
progressed slowly from the time of its organization, and steadily grew
in popularity until the demand was so great for institute meetings that
the legislature recognized the necessity for making a liberal appropria-
tion for carrying it on. The institute work did more toward securing
the increase from $3,000 to $12,000 per year for carrying on the work
of the board of agriculture than any other of the lines of work which
the board prosecutes.
1899. Institutes in Missouri are held under the auspices of the State
board of agriculture. About 50 are held each year. The institutes are-,
held on request at places which have facilities for convenient access by
rail. The secretary tries to distribute to all parts of the State. About
67 meetings were held in 1899, the attendance at which varied from
60 or 70 to 3,000 or 4,000. Three thousand dollars is appropriated
annually for institute purposes.
MONTANA.
1891. No institutes at this date.
1899. Institutes in Montana are given by the officers of the Agri-
cultural College. About 18 were held during 1899, with a total attend-
ance of 555. There are no funds specifically available for the purpose.
The local expenses are borne by the various communities, and the rail-
ways give transportation.
NEBRASKA.
1891. No appropriation by the State. Institutes had been held for
ten or twelve years, however, through the efforts of individuals and
societies. About fifty institutes were arranged for the winter of 'j







19


1891-92, to be followed by a week or ten days' institute at Lincoln,
I: under the auspices of the State University. These were supported by
appropriations from the following sources: Board of regents of the
SState university, $300; State board of agriculture, $100; State Horti-
oIlntural Society, $100; State Dairymen's Association, $100.
1899. Institutes are held under the auspices of the University of
dNebraska. The board of regents of the university elects the manager
Sif the institutes, and upon his recommendation disburses the money
appropriatedd for institute work. The report of the manager of the
institutes is incorporated with the biennial report of the regents to the
I:governor, just as are the reports of the deans of colleges and directors of
!schools included in the university. There were 50 institutes held last
year and a somewhat less number during each of the two previous
:years. The meetings are held at points in the State from which
applications are received. Either the manager or a deputy visits the
points in the State where it is desirable to have institutes held, and
Works up an interest. It is not desired to hold a meeting in the same
Town two years consecutively, but this is sometimes done. At present
the number of applications has not exceeded the number of institutes
which it is possible to hold. In distributing the meetings, cognizance
is taken of districts and county lines, so that each part of the State
receives approximately the number of institutes corresponding to its
population. This is all at the discretion of the institute manager.
Sixty-two meetings were held in 1899, at which the aggregate attend-
ance was 26,800. There is $1,500 available annually for institute work.
This is appropriated by the State legislature, and is a part of the
appropriation to the State university. There is a State board of
agriculture in this State, dating back to a very early period in the
history of the Territory. It is a well-organized, self-perpetuating body,
and conducts the State fair and publishes an annual report.

NEVADA.

1891. No appropriation.
1899. Farmers' institutes are not yet organized in Nevada. Lectures
are given in various parts of the State by officers of the agricultural
college when applications are made for them.

NEW BRUNSWICK.

1899. Farmers' institute meetings are held under the direction of
the commissioner of agriculture. The number of meetings varies, but
runs in the neighborhood of 50 per year. There were 75 in 1899, with a
total attendance of about 3,000. The meetings are distributed as fairly
as possible throughout all the sections of the Province. The Provincial
government pays the cost of these meetings, which usually means
about $3,000 per year. There is a Provincial department of agriculture.






20


NEW HAMPSHIRE.
1891. About $1,000 was used annually for farmers' institute'
Previous to 1891 the amount averaged about $600.
1899. Under the auspices of the State board of agriculture 20.in4 t-I
tutes (2 to a county) are held each year. The total attendance in 10I
was about 8,000. In the work from $1,500 to $2,000, given by the
State, is expended.
NEW JERSEY.
1891. About $2,000 of the amount appropriated to the State board
of agriculture was used annually for institutes. The county boards of
agriculture held meetings which were of an institute character, and....
these boards received some of the general funds appropriated to the
State board. Sixteen county boards had been organized.
1899. Institutes are held under and by direction of the State board
of agriculture, officially under the direction of the executive committee
of the board, directly under the management and direction of the secre-
tary. From 30 to 40 are held each fall and winter. The total attend-
ance at the 30 institutes held during 1899 was 4,320. The organization
of the New Jersey State board of agriculture is somewhat peculiar in'
that there are county boards of agriculture which are auxiliary to the
State board. These are supposed to hold about four meetings a year,
at the beginning of each season's work, and they are of a semiinstitute
character. Lectures and discussions are had, bearing chiefly on the work
in the locality where the meeting is held. It is the aim to hold from
one to three meetings in each county. This has been done, with the
exception of three counties-Hudson, not an agricultural county; Pas-
saic, unorganized; and Ocean, having but a small part of its territory IL
devoted to agricultural purposes. About $2,000 per year are available
for the institutes. The total appropriation to the State board of agri-
culture is $6,000 annually. Out of this comes the secretary's salary,
stenogTapher's pay, postage, expressage, expense of executive com-
mittee, expense of other committees, expense of annual meeting, etc.
The executive committee endeavors so to regulate the expenses as to
have about the amount named available for institutes. No definite '
sum is specified by law.
NEW MEXICO.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. There are no farmers' institutes in the Territory. Three years
ago there was a farmers' institute at Mesilla Park, held in the college
building, directed by the college president, who was assisted by the '
station staff. There were few outsiders who took part in the pro-
grammes. This institute was repeated two seasons, when it was dis-
continued. There is no money available for farmers' institutes. There
is no department of agriculture in the Territory.






21
NBW tORK.

: 1891. Annual appropriation since 1888, $10,000. The first appropri-
I nation, $6,000, was made in 1887. From 70 to 80 institutes were held
ueach winter, under the personal charge of a director selected by the
State Agricultural Society.
Il 1899. The annual appropriation has been $20,000 for the past two
F.-ears. The work is under the auspices of the commissioner of agri-
ile0lture, Albany, who appoints a director of institutes. About 300
meetingss are held each year, in places from which applications come.
I'h:e attendance at the institutes is increasing rapidly and is now
probably 75,000 or more annually.

: NORTH CAROLINA.

1891. No appropriation. From $250 to $500 per year was devoted
to institutes by the State board of agriculture from its own funds.
SThe first institutes were held in 1886 or 1887.
1899. The department of agriculture, immigration, and statistics of
[ North Carolina is supported by a tonnage tax on commercial manures.
The department is under the control of a board of agriculture, one of
whose functions is to hold farmers' institutes. The board of agriculture
may use its discretion as to amount of money it will expend and num-
ber of institutes it will hold. The institutes have not been systematic-
ally placed over the State, but have rather followed the applications
and the routes which the institute workers have outlined as desirable
to follow. On these trips institutes are generally held at a county court-
house. The legislature of 1897 elected an institute holder. Now the
director and professors of the experiment station may be called upon
to hold institutes, but the work is officially in the hands of the board
of agriculture.
NORTH DAKOTA.

1891. No appropriation.
1899. Probably the first institute in North Dakota. was held at
Casselton in 1894. In the following summer institutes were held at
Mayville and Buxton, and each year since then a few institutes have
been held at different points in the State. These institutes have usu-
ally been secured by farmers in the locality who have been interested
in the work, assisted by members of the experiment station staff. Prob-
ably an average of five a year have been held.
There is a State department of agriculture and labor, but in the past
it has had no direct relation with institute work; but the last legislature
appointed an assistant dairy commissioner who is director of institute
work, and appropriated $1,000 for the expenses of the institutes for
the biennial period. This law went into effect the 1st of July. Eleven
institutes were held in 1899, with a total attendance of about 1,200.


1,1!.








NOVA SCOTIA.


1891. There was no regular organization for farmers' institna i
this Province in 1891, and no money was given by the govnmen1 i
specially for this purpose. Professor Smith, principal of the agriep"lj
tural school, held meetings in the western counties of the Proviac!
and one of the graduates of the school was employed to lecture in *!
Cape Breton counties during the winter. The expenses of these officem i
were borne by the government.
1899. Nova Scotia has not a department for agriculture, like some.:
other provinces in the Dominion, but the agricultural work of the .i
Province is done through the secretary for agriculture under the gov- i
ernment. There are no institutes as such, but agricultural societies
number about 120 in the whole province. These are organized in any
section where not less than 25 farmers unite and subscribe a sum of
not less than $40, which entitles them to be recognized as a society by
the government and to a portion of the grant to agriculture pro rats to i
the amount subscribed. The secretary for agriculture holds what
might be called institute meetings in various parts of the province
where in his judgment they are most needed, or by requests from lead-
ing men in the several districts. At these meetings he usually is
accompanied by the Provincial professor of horticulture and some other-
prominent agriculturist. The expenses are taken out of the grant for
agriculture, the total grant for the Province for all purposes being
about $25,000 annually. This includes aid to agricultural societies,
bonus to creameries, school and farm of agriculture and horticulture.

OHIO.
1891. There was no specific appropriation by the State for farmers'
institutes. The funds come from the county treasuries, each county
appropriating not more than $200 annually. For 1890-91 the total
fund spent for institutes in Ohio was $7,823.56. In 1890-91, 124 insti-
tutes were held under the auspices of the State board of agriculture.
In 1886-87 there were 50; 1887-88, 60; 1888-89, 62.
1899. Farmers' institutes in Ohio are held under the auspices and by
direction of the State board of agriculture, as provided by law. From
one to four institutes are held in each of the 88 counties of the State,
the number aggregating 274 for the season 1899-1900, with a total "
average attendance of 98,210. The number is limited by law to four in
each county. Some counties hold the full number allowed, others have
two, or three, and a very few hold only one. Societies make applica-
tions for meetings to be held in their respective localities, and many
more applications are received each year than can be granted under .
the present law. There is available for expenses of the institutes
$8,173.36, and for the payment of lecturers employed by the State board
of agriculture a like sum, this being the avails of a per capital tax of 6




I~w


F". 23

Smiles, no county, however, contributing more than $250. There is an
excellently organized and very active State board of agriculture in Ohio.
This issues a descriptive bulletin designating the institutes to be held
during the year and an annual report giving the proceedings. The
law governing farmers' institutes was passed April 26, 1890, and
Amended April 27, 1896.

SONTARIO.

1891. The number of farmers' institutes organized in Ontario, as
. reported in 1890, was 78. These each received a grant from the Ontario
government of $25, and a similar grant from the county council of the
municipality in which the institute was organized. Besides this, the
Ontario government gave $2,000 in 1891 to defray the expenses of
the professors at Guelph, who devoted the greater part of January to
attendance at these meetings. The Guelph officers divided up into
three or four groups, and took with each group a representative of the
Fruit Growers' Association and one or two representative farmers; and
they were out continuously for three or four weeks, going from place to
place, holding meetings which had been previously arranged for and
advertised. There was also a central farmers' institute, which held its
meeting annually in Toronto for three days, and at this meeting one or
more persons represented each farmers' institute in the province. The
government grant to this was $800.
1899. The institutes in Ontario are held under the auspices of the
Ontario department of agriculture, directed by an official of that depart-
ment, who is known as the superintendent of farmers' institutes. The
local institutes are controlled by rules and regulations that have the
sanction of the Ontario government.. For the year ended June 30,
1898, some 658 were held. During the year ended June 30, 1899, 677
institute meetings were held, at which the total attendance reported
was 119,402. The number of institutes varies from year to year, accord-
ing to the desire of those locally interested. The government pays the
traveling expenses and allowances of two speakers for two meetings in
each institute division, which is usually composed of four townships.
The government also pays the allowances of one or two speakers who
attend four supplementary meetings in each institute district. If they
want to hold meetings other than the six already mentioned, the local
institutes are required to pay all expenses and allowances. The Province
is divided into 96 institute districts, and the endeavor of the superin-
tendent is to have the meetings distributed evenly over these various
districts. The result is that all parts of the Province are reached. The
government appropriation for farmers' institute work is $9,900. This
includes the salary of the superintendent and the expenses of his office
(but this does not include the cost of printing and publishing the annual
report. This annual report goes out as one of the reports of the depart-






24


ment, and is charged to a special appropriation set apart for such dpo.1iyill
poses). The appropriation includes a grant of $25 to each institute,
conditional upon $25 being voted from the local municipality. T
provincial department of agriculture is presided over by a minister, :
who is a member of the government. This department is placed onthbes::.i
same footing as the other departments over which other miisters..4l
preside.
The history of the germ of the institute movement in Ontario (and in i"i
Canada in general) is given by C. C. James, deputy minister of agri- '
culture for Ontario, as follows:
January, 1885, was the time of the revival of farmers' institute work in Ontario.
It was the date of the beginning of the work under the name of farmers' institutes,
and the main inspiration for the revival of the work at that time was the success
attending the farmers' institute work in some of the United States. This, however,
was not the first time that instruction of farmers had been attempted. The original
agricultural societies of this Province, as well as of some of the other Provinces, had
made instruction through papers and discussions an important feature of their work.
Of late years agricultural societies have confined themselves to the holding of fairs,
and I presume that is one reason why farmers' institute work has been so successful.
In the earlier days our agricultural societies were accustomed to offer prizes for
essays on various subjects, such as the growing of wheat, the growth and manufae-
ture of hemp and flax, etc. These papers were read at the annual meeting and
discussed.
The first agricultural society in Upper Canada was organized in 1792 or 1793, and
we have reason to believe that the instruction of the members was of greater moment
than the holding of fairs. This society formed an extensive agricultural library
which was carried on for the benefit of its members for a number of years, until it
was finally incorporated with the public library of the old town of Niagara. In 1830
agricultural societies were especially encouraged by an act passed in that year, and
the first provincial fair was held in 1846. From that time forward these societies
were under the control of a board of agriculture, which was composed of a large
number of representative farmers of the Province. Prof. George Buckland was for r
many years secretary. He conducted a course in agriculture in connection with the
Toronto University, and had a small experimental farm within the present limits of
the city of Toronto. He was accustomed to make a tour of the agricultural societies
and address them upon various agricultural topics. In many cases these agricul-
tural societies devoted their energies and funds to the introduction of pure-bred
stock and seed grain, and in a few sections the desire for instruction not being fully
met by the agricultural societies, others known as farmers' clubs were organized.
The records of these are very meager. However, I have before me reference to one
which may be of interest. It is contained in an article written by Mr. Walter Rid-
dell, sr., of Cobourg, and refers to the county of Northumberland, abput 70 miles
east of Toronto. He says: There had been an agricultural society in this county
before we knew it. The first society was formed in 1824. It held shows and plow-
ing matches, and gave prizes for best managed farms, and for essays on wheat cul-
ture and other varying subjects. The farmers' club was begun in 1846, and though
often dormant, it took occasionally lively starts and held sometimes ten or twelve
meetings in a year. The subject for discussion at the next meeting was selected
and someone appointed to undertake it, which he might do either verbally or by
written paper. The subject was then discussed by the members. This has been
superseded by farmers' institutes."
At the time of the organization of the farmers' institutes there were active farmers'
clubs in Pushliuch Township, Wellington County, and at St. George in Brant






25


County, and the members of these clubs at once threw their energies into the farm-
ers' institutes. There were probably many others, but their record has disappeared.
My conclusion, therefore, is that, while the year 1885 may be given ais the year of
the revival of farmers' institute work and placing it upon an organized and perma-
i' neut footing, the germs of the work must be looked for in the farmers' clubs and the
agricultural societies, the earliest of which dates back for over ione hundred years.
The first agricultural society organized at Quebec, 1789, published a small volume
ea.ontaining special information and suggesting various lines of experiments. The
; 40ort was very much of the nature of the first report of the New York society, 1792.
OREGON.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. The institutes in Oregon are held under the auspices of the
,:Agricultural College. From 7 to 12, or even 15, are held each year, and
17 an effort is made to visit as many sections of the State as possible, at
the request of local granges and other organizations. At the 12 insti-
tutes held in 1899 the total attendance was about 1,600. There has
been no regular amount available for this work, but the expenses have
been borne by the Agricultural College and Experiment Station fund.
There is no State department of agriculture.

PENNSYLVANIA.

The appropriation for institute work was $1,000 in 1885; $1,000 in
1886; $3,000 in 1887; $3,000 in 1888; $5,000 in 1889; $5,000 in 1890;
$7,000 in 1891, and $7,000 in 1892, with the addition of $1,500 for
expenses of members of the State board of agriculture in attending
meetings. Each county agricultural society elected a member of the
State board, and each member was responsible for the institutes and
expenditures of funds in his district. In 1890-91, 61 institutes were
held.
1899. In Pennsylvania the institutes are held under the direction
of the deputy secretary of agriculture, who is, under the law, the
director of institutes. Last year (1898-99), 308 institutes were held in
this State, the total attendance being over 50,000. The meetings are
distributed according to the number of farms in each county: two days'
institute to every county having not over 1,000 farms, three days' insti-
tute to each county having more than 1,000 and not over 1,500; after-
wards one day for each 1,500 farms or fraction thereof additional. The
legislature has appropriated $12,500 per year for institutes, all of which
is available for the carrying on of the work. There is a State depart-
ment of agriculture, composed of a secretary, deputy secretary (who is
director of institutes), dairy and food commissioner, forestry commis-
sioner, veterinarian and economic zoologist. The institute work is very
thoroughly organized.
QUEBEC.

1899. The Province has no regularly organized farmers' institutes,
but it has farmers' clubs, which are, in a certain degree, a similar






26

organization. During the year 1898 there were 516 farmers' aclbs tii
operation. One can be established in each parish or township. A club.,
has seven directors. Its object is to promote improvement in agr-:ii]iTi
culture and horticulture, (1) By holding meetings for discussion an :l
for hearing lectures on subjects connected with the theory and praetiee.:il
of improved husbandry; (2) by promoting the circulation of agrieuli:
tural papers; (3) by offering prizes or essays on questions of theoretical '
or practical agriculture; (4) by importing, or otherwise procuring,
animals of superior breeds, new varieties of plants and grain, and seeds
of the best kind; (5) by organizing plowing matches, competitions
respecting standing crops and the best cultivated farms; (6) by pro-
curing books, reviews, and newspapers treating of agricultural sub-
jects for the use of their members; (7) by promoting and favoring
experiments in farming, manure, and improved agricultural machinery -
and implements.
The Journal of Agriculture, published twice a month by the depart-
ment of agriculture in both English and French, is sent to every
member of a club. The Journal penetrates now into every region of
the Province. Many of those clubs have several meetings every year,
in order to hear lectures and discussions on agricultural subjects. Two
lecturers are employed by the department to give lectures before those
clubs. Other lecturers also visit those associations. Besides the salary :
of the official lecturers, there is a vote of $3,000 to pay the traveling d
expenses of those lecturers. The salary of each lecturer is $1,000 a
year. The annual grant given by the Provincial government to each
club is from $25 to $50, according to the number of members. The i
total amount paid last year was $19,542.71. The number of their mem-
bers was 40,993; they subscribed $51,037.85. In 1887 they spent for .
agricultural purposes $85,747.92.
The lectures given before the farmers' clubs are popular and well j
attended. The institutes or meetings are generally under the auspices
of the farmers' clubs; sometimes the lecturers will hold meetings of
farmers in a parish or township where there is no club, but, in such
cases, the organization is not so good and the meetings are not so well
attended. The official lecturers hold every year about 200 or 300 meet-
ings of farmers. Many clubs hear lectures from persons not employed J
by the department. There are many lectures given every year by :
Roman Catholic priests who take an interest in agriculture. The exist-
ence and usefulness of many clubs are due to some of these priests.
The annual programme adopted by each club must be approved by the
commissioner of agriculture.
RHODE ISLAND.
1891. No specific appropriation. About 10 institutes were held "j
during the year at an average cost of about $40 each. These were held .:
under the auspieces of the State board of agriculture. For a few win-






27


ters previous to 1889-90 the State Agricultural Society held a course
of about 6 lectures at the society's rooms in Providence, the expense
being partly borne by the board of agriculture. Comparatively few
farmers could attend these meetings, and in January, 1890, the board
held an institute in Kingston, following the meeting of the State Grange.
: After that date institutes were held in various parts of the State.
1899. The farmers' institutes which are held in Rhode Island are
conducted under the auspices of the State board of agriculture, which,
by law, is directed to hold one institute in each county and as many
more as may be practicable. The State has 5 counties. As many
Sas 26 have been held in one year. They are often held in cooper-
ation with grange organizations. There is no specific sum set aside
Sfor institutes, but they are supported from the general appropriation
Sto the State board of agriculture. Three hundred dollars a year is
considered to be a short allowance.

SOUTH CAROLINA.
1891. The State Agricultural Society for a number of years, com-
Smencing about 1874, held summer meetings in different parts of the
State, at which essays were read and discussions had on agricultural
topics; but no funds were appropriated for this purpose until 1887 or
1888, after which amounts ranging from $200 to $300 were expended
annually for this purpose by the department of agriculture, until the
abolishment of this department, which occurred in December, 1890, the
duties of the department of agriculture devolving upon the trustees of
Clemson Agricultural College.
1899. About 16 institutes are held annually under the auspices of
Clemson College. They are held wherever applied for. The total
attendance during 1899 is estimated at 5,000. About $1,500 per year
is available for this work, the expenses of which are borne by Clemson
College and the experiment station.
SOUTH DAKOTA.
1891. The State legislature had authorized the board of control of
the State Agricultural College to provide for holding farmers' institutes,
but appropriated no funds for the purpose. Accordingly, the trustees
directed the faculty of the college to provide programmes and arrange
for a series of five institutes (luring December and January, 1891-92
As no funds were appropriated, consequently all expenses had to be
met by the communities where institutes were desired. The college
printed a roster of its officers who could take part in the institute work,
with the subject which they wished to discuss. Communities that
desired institutes applied directly to the college.
1899. All institutes are held under the auspices of the State Agri-
cultural College. There is a director of the farmers' institutes, who is
paid by the State appropriation. The number of institutes is not





: ...... ..






28


limited. About 35 are held each year. Any section in which sufficient i.
interest obtains can have provided for it an institute by making appli-.
cation to the director. The last legislature appropriated $2,000 for theii
farmers' institutes. This is for one year. There is no State depart: li
ment of agriculture in South Dakota but there is a State board of
agriculture, which has charge of the State fair.
TENNESSEE.
1891. There was no appropriation for the special purpose of organ-
izing farmers' institutes, but the commissioner of agriculture had
organized institutes in over one-half of the State. The work was done
by the assistant commissioners in connection with their general work,
and they were paid out of the general appropriation made for the
department of agriculture.
1899. Institutes are held under the auspices of the experiment stfa-
tion, about $500 of the station funds being set aside for the work.
This work was begun in January, 1899. During the year 13 institutes
were held under station auspices, with an estimated total attendance of
2,400. There is a department of agriculture in the State, which also
holds institutes.
TEXAS.

1891. Annual appropriation for institutes in this year was $500, to
be used under the direction of the Agricultural and Mechanical Col-
lege. It was expected that one institute would be held in each Con-
gressional district.
1899. There is no system of State institutes in Texas. A number
of institutes are held throughout the year, each independent of the
other. No record is kept of the number, but there are probably not -
more than 15 every season. It is estimated that from 20 to 25 were held
in 1899, with an average attendance of 35 to 45. The institutes are
spontaneous in the localities where held. No money is available for
institutes, strictly speaking. Experiment station officers often attend
the institutes, their expenses being met by the station. There is a ri
State department of agriculture in Texas, but for lack of appropriations
it is able to do little.
UTAH.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. Utah institutes are held under the auspices of the Agricul-
tural College. At least one institute per year must be held in each
county of the State, which would require 26, but a greater number than
this is usually held-about 36 in 1899. Besides the one in each county
required by law, the institutes are usually held at places where the
people apply for them. Fifteen hundred dollars is the permanent::
annual appropriation to meet the traveling expenses of those who take
part in the institutes. The professors are expected to contribute the :







29


time. An annual bulletin is printed, which contains the lectures given
at what is termed a central institute, one of which is held each year.
The institute law also makes it the duty of those conducting institutes
to encourage and assist the organization of local agricultural societies.
There is no State department of agriculture.

VERMONT.

1891. At this time there was an annual appropriation of $2,500 for
institutes. Every other year a report was printed by the board of
agriculture at a cost of $1,500.
1899. At present institutes are held in Vermont under the auspices
of the State board of agriculture, a body of six men, all gubernatorial
appointments. The number ranges from 25 to 40 a year. The law
required the board to hold at least one meeting in every county each
year. The meetings are placed more particularly in accordance with
local request, once the terms of the law are fulfilled; thus some counties
have but a single meeting, others, it may be, four. Five thousand dol-
lars annually is appropriated for this purpose. At no time has this
amount been spent. There is no State department of agriculture, as
such, in the State. The State board of agriculture is the central agri-
cultural bureau.

VIRGINIA.

1891. At this date there was no appropriation for farmers' institutes,
although the State board of agriculture used $250 of the general funds
for this purpose.
1899. In Virginia there is no regular institute bureau, nor any per-
son charged with the conduct of the institutes. The State board of
agriculture used to hold some half dozen or so institutes during the
course of a year, paying the expenses of the same out of its own funds,
but recently this has been dropped. There are, however, a number of
excellent farmers' clubs in the State which carry on the institute work
from year to year at their own expense, if they can not secure assistance
from the State board of agriculture, or from the Polytechnic Institute
(Agricultural College). It is the custom of the institute always to aid
them by furnishing at least one speaker. The number varies not
more than a half dozen in one year; but of lesser meetings not strictly
institutes, a considerable number are held over the State. There is a
State department of agriculture, which is charged with the fertilizer
control work, and has at its head a commissioner of agriculture and
employs chemists. By recent amendment of the State fertilizer law,
it is expected that the income of the department will be materially
increased, and the holding of institutes is to be made a feature of the
work of the department.

L ...


.. .. .....iii-;i. -- "






30


*WASB NGTON. ..
1891. No appropriation.
1899. Institutes in Washington are held under the auspices of tb
State experiment station. They are held as often as communities i!i
quest them and members of the staff can be detailed to attend them-...-.
usually 10 to 20 a year. No definite sum is provided. Expenses arWi
borne from the general State appropriation to the Agricultural College.i:
There is no State department of agriculture.

WEST VIRGINIA.

1891. No appropriation.
1899. All the farmers' institutes in West Virginia are held under
the auspices of the State board of agriculture. During the fiscal year
ended September 30, 1899, 67 institutes were held in the 55 counties of
the State, the estimated total attendance being 14,000. There is one
county institute, and then a second one in the same county when much
interest is manifested. Annual appropriation to the board, including
salaries, printing, looking after diseased animals, etc., is $7,800, about
$2,500 of which goes for institutes. The board may use more or less,
at its discretion.
WISCONSIN.

1891. Annual appropriation, $12,000. The first funds were given in
1885. The first two years the annual appropriation was $5,000. The
proceedings of the institutes were printed each year in a volume, of
which 31,000 are issued. From 70 to 75 institutes were held during the
winter, with an average attendance of over 500.
1899. In Wisconsin institutes are held under the auspices of the ,
board of regents of the State University. About 120 meetings are
held each year, distributed as evenly over the State as possible. The
number held in 1899 was 127, with an aggregate attendance of about '
55,000. An annual appropriation of $12,000 for their maintenance has
been voted by the legislature. There is a State board of agriculture
in Wisconsin which as yet bears no official relation to the institutes.
The Agricultural College cooperated with the institutes to the extent
of doing a limited amount of work at a few institute meetings. One of
the most important parts of the work is the publication of 60,000
copies each year of the Farmers' Institute Bulletin, which has proved
very popular.
WYOMING.
1891. No appropriation.
1899. Little attempt has yet been made to hold farmers' institutes
in Wyoming. At Lander, a few years ago, the farmers organized and
held a few local institutes. There is no State department of agriculture
or society pertaining to agricultural pursuits, except the Wyoming-i
Live Stock Commission. No money is available for institute work,|







31

unless it be taken from college or station funds. Agriculture and
horticulture are new in Wyoming; the population is small and widely
scattered; but it is the opinion of the station officers that the time has
oome to begin the institutes and to place the work of the station and
college before the farmers and ranchmen.

SUMMARY.

The most noticeable feature in the foregoing statistics is the fact that,
with about three exceptions, every State and province is making an
effort to reach the farmers by means of institutes. In most of the older
States the institute movement has passed its experimental stage, and
Sis so well grounded in public opinion and policy as to be a recognized
part of governmental or educational machinery.
The second feature in importance is the variety of ways in which the
institutes are promulgated and administrated. The machinery of
administration is of two general kinds-it may be directly under gov-
ernmental auspices, or directly in the hands of an educational institu-
tion. The governmental control may be of four general kinds-in
charge of a State department of agriculture, in charge of an independ-
ent State officer, in charge of county organizations, in charge of rural
societies which receive State or provincial bounties. Of the 47 States
and provinces reported in the foregoing pages, 24 have farmers' insti-
tutes more or less under governmental control, and 23 have them under
the auspices of the agricultural college or experiment station. The
greater number of instances in which governmental control obtains are
in the older States; and it is in the older States that the machinery
of governmental bureaus was likely to have been well established
before the colleges became thoroughly intrenched in public opinion. In
the Canadian provinces, the institute work proceeds directly from gov-
ernmental departments, and the same is true in the following States:
Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine,
Massachusetts, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island,
Vermont, West Virginia. These States number 19, and they comprise
all the States east of and including New York and Pennsylvania. The
States in which the. institutes are directly under the auspices of the
agricultural college or experiment station are: Arkansas, California,
Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan,
Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin. These States also number
19, and they are Southern and Western States. There remain a num-
ber of States in which the institutes are not well organized or in which
they are under dual control. Of the 19 States in which the institutes
emanate from Government bounty, three (Delaware, Illinois, Iowa) pros-
ecute the work on the basis of county organizations; in the remaining
16 the work is more intimately connected with a State department of
agriculture, and which has additional duties.

!.""-






32


Twenty-one States and provinces make stated and specific appr
priations for institute work, and the amounts aggregate $140,446.72.
the other States and provinces the amount of funds to be devoted
the work is more or less discretionary, and is derived from genor:
appropriations to the department of agriculture, from bounties dpen4V
ent upon the number of participants in the institutes, or from the funt!
of the college or experiment station. The writer estimates these annual i.
expenditures in the past year (1899) to have been $30,000. Nine Stateai
and one province make specific appropriations of $5,000 and moreI';:i
New York, $20,000; Ohio, $16,346.72; Illinois, $15,650; Minnesota,i
$13,500; Pennsylvania, $12,500; Wisconsin, $12,000; Ontario, $9,900;i
Michigan, $5,500; Indiana, $5,000; Vermont, $5,000. Altogether
there is a grand total of more than $170,000 expended for farmers~e'
institutes, or twice the sum estimated to have been expended in 1891.:" .
From statistics collated by the Office of Experiment Stations it isj
estimated that about 2,000 institutes were held in the United States.4
during 1899, which were attended by over half a million farmers.
The importance of institutes as factors in the general education of:.i
farmers in some of the States where they have been most successful
may be indicated by the following brief statistics:
In Wisconsin there are now annually held 120 institutes, with an.
average attendance of over 50,000 persons; in Massachusetts 125 insti-l
tutes, with an attendance of about 11,000 farmers; in West Virginia.
over 60 institutes, with a total attendance of 14,000; in Minnesota 50 |
institutes, of two or three days each, with an attendance at each of.:
from 300 to 1,000; in Indiana 100 institutes, with an attendance of over.
25,000; in Kausas 135 institutes, with a total attendance of 20,000; in r
Michigan institutes in nearly every county, and a total attendance .'
reported to reach 120,000; in Nebraska 60 institutes, with a total
attendance of over 26,000; in Pennsylvania about 300 institutes, with
a total attendance of over 50,000; in Ohio 250 institutes in 88 counties, .
with an aggregate attendance of about 90,000; in New York over 300
institutes yearly, with a total attendance of about 75,000; in California i
about 80 institutes annually, with a total attendance of 16,000.
One who considers these figures must be impressed with the large- j
ness of the effort which is being made to improve the agricultural
condition. Generous as they are, they are still greatly inadequate to the
work which needs to be done, and the next decade will see much larger j:
sums appropriated. Even without knowing it, the public is coming to
see that the mere establishment of agricultural colleges and experiment |
stations and State departments of agriculture is not sufficient to consum-
mate the education of the rural population; for farmers are a solitary
people and do not combine as readily as those of other occupations.








33

OFFICIALS IN CHARGE OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES IN THE
UNITED STATES.

ALABAMA .......-.I. F. Culver, Commissioner of Agriculture, Montgomery.
C. A. Cary, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn.
ARIZONA ...... ....R. H. Forbes, Director Agricultural Experiment Station, Tucson.
ARKANSAS ........ W. G. Viucenheller, Agricultural Experiment Station, Fayette-
ville.
CALIFORNIA ...... E. J. Wickson, University of California, Berkeley.
D. T. Fowler, Conductor Farmers' Institutes for Central and
Northern California, Berkeley.
A. J. Cook, Conductor Farmers' Institutes for Southern Califor-
nia, Claremont.
COLORADO ........B. O. Aylesworth, President State Agricultural College, Fort Col-
lins.
CONNECTICUT .-.. T. S. Gold, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, West Cornwall.
F. H. Stadtmueller, Secretary Connecticut Dairymen's Associa-
tion, Elmwood.
J. H. Merriman, Secretary Connecticut Pomological Society, New
Britain.
DELAWARE ........Wesley Webb, Superintendent Farmers' Institute for Kent
County, Dover.
A. T. Neale (Director Agricultural Experiment Station), Super-
intendent Farmers' Institute for Newcastle County, Newark.
S. H. Messick, Secretary Farmers' Institute for Sussex County,
Bridgeville.
FLORIDA ..........H. E. Stock bridge, Agricnltural College, Lake City.
GEORGIA .-..----..-....II. C. White, President State College of Agriculture and Mechanic
Arts, Athens.
Editor Atlanta Evening Journal, Atlanta.
IDAHO .-......-....J. P. Blanton, Director Agricultuiral Experiment Station, Moscow.
ILLINOIS ..........A. B. Hostetter, Superintendent of Farmers' Institute, Spring-
field.
E. Davenport, Dean College of Agriculture, Iniversity of Illinois,
Urbana.
INDIANA .......... W. C. Latta, Agricultural Experiment Station, Lafayette.
IOWA ....-------. G. Van Houten, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, D)es Moines.
W. M. Beardshear, President State College of Agriculture and
Mechanic Arts, Ames.
KANSAS ..........J. T. Willard, Director Agricultural Experiment Station, Man-
hattan.
KENTUCKY ...----.....L. Moore, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture, Labor, and
Statistics, Frankfort.
M. A. Scovell, Director Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexing-
ton.
LOUISIANA ........L. Jastremski, Commissioner of Agriculture, Baton louge.
MAINE ........... B. W. McKeeu, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, Augusta.
MARYLAND ........W. L. Amoss, Director Farmcrs' Institutes, College Park.
MASSACHUSETTS...J. V. Stockwell. Secretary State Board of Agriculture, Boston.
MICHIGAN....-.....C. D. Smith, Director Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricul-
tural College.
MINNESOTA ....-..... C. Gregg, Superintendent Farmers' Institutes, Lynd.
MISSISSIPPI........-W. L. Hutchins!on, Director Agricultural Experiment Station,
Agricultural College.
MISSOURI .........J. R. Rippey, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, Columbin.
17073-No. 79-3








34


MONTANA -........ J. Reid, President College of Agriculture and Mechanic A1ta,
Bozeman.
NEBRASKA-......... E. A. Burnett, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
NEW HAMPSHIRE. N. J. Bachelder, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, Concord.
NEW JERSEY ......F. Dye, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, Trenton.
NEW YORK ........F. E. Dawley, Director of Institutes, Fayetteville.
NORTH CAROLINA. S. L. Patterson, Commissioner of Agriculture, Raleigh.
NORTH DAKOTA ...E. E. Kaufman, Assistant Dairy Commissioner, Fargo.
OHIO-........-..... W. W. Miller, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, Columbus.
OREGON ........... J. Withycombe, Vice-director Agricultural Experiment Station,
Corvallis.
PENNSYLVANIA .... A. L. Martin, Deputy Secretary of Agriculture and Director Far-
mers' Institutes, Harrisburg.
RHODE ISLAND ...G. A. Stockwell, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, Provi-
dence.
SOUTH CAROLINA .H. S. Hartzog, President Clemson Agricultural College, Clem-
son College.
SOUTH DAKOTA ...S. A. Cochrane, Director Farmers' Institute, Brookings.
TENNESSEE ....... T. H. Paine, Commissioner of Agriculture, Nashville.
F. H. Broome, Secretary Agricultural Experiment Station, Knox-
ville.
TEXAS ............ J. H. Connell, Director Agricultural Experiment Station, College
Station.
UTAH .............J. M. Tanner, President Agricultural College, Logan.
VERMONT ...--.....--- C. J. Bell. Secretary State Board of Agriculture, East Hardwick.
VIRGINIA -........ G. W. Koiner, Commissioner of Agriculture, Richmond.
J. M. McBryde, President Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg.
WASHINGTON .....E. A. Bryan, Director Agricultural Experiment Station, Pullman.
WEST VIRGINIA. --D. M. Silliman, Institute Director, Charleston.
WISCONSIN........G. McKerrow, Superintendent Farmers' Institutes, Madison.






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