Proceedings of the eighteenth annual convention of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stat...


Material Information

Proceedings of the eighteenth annual convention of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations held at Des Moines, Iowa, November 1-3, 1904
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations ; no. 153
Physical Description:
138 p. : ; 23 cm.
Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations
True, Alfred Charles, 1853-1929
Beal, W. H
White, Henry Clay, b. 1848
United States -- Office of Experiment Stations
Govt. Print. Office
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural colleges -- Congresses -- United States   ( lcsh )
Agricultural experiment stations -- Congresses -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references and index.
Statement of Responsibility:
edited by A.C. True and W.H. Beal, and H.C. White.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029606208
oclc - 71447438
System ID:

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A. C. TRUE, Director.









A. C. TRUE and W. H. BEAL, for the Office of Experiment Stations,
H. C. WHITE, for the Executive Committee of the Association.





A. C. TEUE, Ph. D.-Director.
E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D.-Assistant Director and Editor of Experiment Station
W. H. BEAL-Chief Of Editorial Division.
WALTER H. EVANS, Ph. D.-Chief of Division of Insular Stations.
JOHN HAMILTON-Farmers' Institute Specialist.
MRS. C. E. JOHNSTON-Chief Clerk.


E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., and H. W. LAwsoN-Chemistry, Dairy Farming, and
W. H. BEAL-Agricultural Physics and Engineering.
WALTER H. EVANS, Ph. D.-Botany and Diseases of Plants.
C. F. LANGWORTHY, Ph. D.-Foods and Animal Production.
J. I. SCHULTE-Field Crops.
E. V. WILCOX, Ph. D.-Entomology and Veterinary Science.
C. B. SMITH-Horticulture.
D. J. CRosBY-Agricultural Institutions.

W. O. ATWATER-Chief.





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Washington, D. C., March 15, 1905.
SIR: I have'the honor to transmit herewith for publication Bulletin
No. 153 of this Office, containing the proceedings of the Eighteenth
Annual Convention of the Association of American Agricultural
Colleges and Experiment Stations, held at Des Moines, Iowa, Novem-
ber 1-3, 1904.
Respectfully, A. C. TRUE,
Secretary of Agriculture.

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S Officers and committees of the association ..... .. .------.------------. 7
List of delegates and visitors in attendance ............--------- -----.. 9
Constitution of the association -------------..--..----------------------- 11
Minutes of the general session --..--------------------------------------. 15
Resolution relating to Association of State Universities ...---.---------..-- 15
Report of the executive committee ...-----...... ..... .-. ......... 15
Report of treasurer -------.--. ..--------- --------------------- 19
Report of bibliographer ---- ----------------... --------------- 20
Collective college and station exhibit at St. Louis --..............------------ 25
Communication from National Association of State Universities-----.. 28
Uniform fertilizer and feeding stuff legislation ......------.. -------- 28
Methods of seed testing -------------------...... -----------...............--------- 31
Military instruction ------------------------------------------- 31,63,69
Indexing agricultural literature ---.--------------------------------- 32
Annual address of the president of the association ------.------------. 33
Death of Major Alvord_ ...------ -- -- ----- .--------------------- 42
Adams bill and Mondell mining school bill ----------------------- 43
Standing committees.. -------.---------------..--------------------- 43
Methods of teaching agriculture-The teaching of agriculture in the
rural schools .-------.-----------------.- ------------- 43
The social phase of agricultural education -----.----.--------------. 56
Cooperation between the stations and the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture .----------- --.-------------------.. -------------.----- 62
Graduate study -- .--------------. -----------.---.--------. .. ---- 63
Resolution regarding Hon. H. C. Adams ------..................---------------..---64
Extension of franking privilege -------.-----..--------------------. 64
Resolution regarding Hon. F. W. Mondell --------. ----------------- 64
Resolution regarding Maj. Henry E. Alvord --.--------------.. ------- 65
Election of officers._ -- -..---------------.--- -----.-----. ---------- 65
Meeting place of next convention ---------.. ..-.... --.--------------. 66
Rural engineering.... --------------..--- .----- ------------------- 66
Animal and plant breeding-American Breeders' Association -------- 68
The upbuilding of agriculture --------------------------------------- 69
Indexing agricultural literature --------------------------------.... .. 76
Resolution regarding Director True and the Office of Experiment Sta-
tions .- ..-- --.-----------..- -... ----------------------. --------- 77
Resolutions of thanks ...----------..-------------.----------------- 77
Minutes of the sections .------------------------------------------------ 79
Section on college work and administration_ --------.-.------------- 79
Elementary instruction in land-grant colleges ---.-------.--.---. 79
Military instruction ---- ----...----..---------------------.---- 91
Degrees in land-grant colleges .---.-------------.. --------....... 101


Minutes of the sections-Continued.
Section on college work and administration-Continued. Page.
Election of officers-----...---.--... ........--- .------..---....... 106
Action on resolutions ---------- .-------------. ----.--------. 106
Technical agricultural education. -_---------------------------- 106
Section on experiment station work ----------------- ---------. ----116
Organization of a section on botany and horticulture ------------- 116
Federation of agricultural organizations -----.------------------- 117
Uniformity of terms used in agricultural analysis -.....------- 29,117
Nomination of officers -----. ---------- --------- -----_ .---. 118
Topics for discussion next year_ --. --. --------.-------.-------. 118
Plant breeding -----. -------------.----- --------------- 117,119
Methods in Breeding Hardy Fruits........................... 119
Improvement in the Quality of Wheat ..--------------------- 119
Animal breeding-- -.......---.-- -------------.. -----------------. 124
Teaching by station men_----. ------- --- ---- ---- ---- --- 130
Index of names .---.........----........... .----------------..------------ 137





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E. B. VOORHEES, of New Jersey.

J. C. HARDY, of Mississippi; C. D. WOODS, of Maine;
K. L. BUTTEBFIELD, of Rhode Island; E. R. NICHOLS. of Kansas;

Secretary and Treasurer.

J. L. HILLS, of Vermont.


A. C. TRUE, of Washington, D. C.

Executive Committee.

H. C. WHITE, of Georgia, Chair.;
J. L. SNYDER, of Michigan; C. F. CURTISS, of Iowa;
W. H. JORDAN, of New York; L. H. BAILEY, of New York.


College Work and Administration.

R. W. STIMSON, of Connecticut, Chair.; K. L. BUTTERFIELD, Of Rhode Island, Secy.

Programme Committee.

R. W. STIMsoN, of Connecticut; K. L. BUTTERFIELD, of Rhode Island;
E. R. NICHOLS. of Kansas.

Experiment Station Work.

H. J. PATTERSON, of Maryland, Chair.; M. A. SCOVELL, of Kentucky, Secy.

Programme Committee.

J. F. DUGGAR, of Alabama; C. D. WOODS, of Maine;
M. A. SCOVELL, of Kentucky.


Indexing Agricultural Literature.

A. C. TRUE, of Washington, D. C., Chair.; W. M. HAYS, of Minnesota; a
T. F. HUNT, of Ohio; E. DAVENPORT, of Illinois;
JOSEPHINE A. CLARK, Librarian U. S. Department of Agriculture.

"Now Assistant Secretary 1. S. Department of Agriculture.

Methods of Teaching Agriculture.

A. C. TRUE, of Washington, D. C., Chair.; H. T. FRENCH, of Idaho;
T. F. HUNT, of Ohio; H. H. WING, of New York;
J. P. DuGoGA, of Alabama.

Collective College and Station Exhibit, St. Louis.

W. H. JORDAN, of New York, Chair.;
A. C. TRUE. of Washington, D. C., Secy.;
H. J. WATERS, Of Missouri;
W. M. HAYS, of Minnesota;
H. W. TYLER, of

W. E. STONE, of Indiana;
T. F. HUNT, of Ohio;
C. F. CURTISS, Of Iowa;
J. K. PArrEBSON, of Kentucky;

Graduate Study.

L H. BAILEY, of New York, Chair.;
J. E. STUBBS, of Nevada;
Mi. H. BUCKHAM, of Vermont;

A. C. TBUE, of Washington, D. C.:
R. H. JESSE, of Missouri;
W. O. THOMPSON, of Ohio.

Uniform Fertilizer and Feeding-Stuffs Laws.

H. J. WHEELER, of Rhode Island. Chair.; C. D. WOODS, of Maine;
H. P. ARMSBY, of Pennsylvania; E. H. JENKINS, Of Connecticut;
M. A. SCOVELL, of Kentucky.

Military Instruction in Land-Grant Colleges.

0. W. ATHEiTON, of Pennsylvania, Chair.; H. H. GOODELL, of Massachusetts;
ALEXIS COPE, of Ohio; R. H. JESSE, of Missouri;
H. C. WHITE, of Georgia.

Cooperation between Stalions and U. S. Department of Agriculture.

E. A. BRYAN, of Washington, Chair.;
W. A. HENRY, of Wisconsin;
H. H. GOODELL, of Massachusetts;

H. J. WATERS, of Missouri;
L. G. CARPENTE, of Colorado;
B. T. GALLowAY, of Washington, D.-C

Pure-Food Legislation.

W. A. WITHERS, of North Carolina, Chair.; W. FREAR, of Pennsylvania;
H. J. PATTERSON, of Maryland; H. J. WHEELER, of Rhode Island;
A. T. NEALE, Of Delaware.

Animal and Plant Breeding.

W. M. HAYS, of Minnesota, Chair.; T. F. HUNT, of New York;
C. F. CURTISS, of Iowa; L. H. BAILEY, of New York;
H. J. WEEBER, of Washington, D. C.

Rural Engineering.

W. E. STONE, Of Indiana, Chair.; S. FORTIER, of Montana;
A. R. WHITSON, of Wisconsin; C. F. CURTISS, of Iowa;
ELWOOD MEAD, of Washington, D. C.

Methods of Seed Testing.

E. H. JENKINS, Of Connecticut, Chair.; F. W. CARD, of Rhode Island;
W. R. LAZENBY. of Ohio; E. BROWN, of Washington, D. C.;
A. D. SHAMEL, of Washington, D. C.

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Alabama: J. F. Duggar, C. C. Thach.
Arizona: K. C. Babcock.
Colorado: W. L. Carlyle, L. G. Carpenter.
Connecticut: C. L. Beach, E. H. Jenkins, R. W. Stimson.
Delaware: G. A. Harter, A. T. Neale.
Georgia: J. M. Kimbrough, R. J. Redding, H. C. White, Mrs. H. C. White.
Idaho: G. A. Crosthwait, H. T. French, J. A. MacLean.
Illinois: E. Davenport, W. J. Fraser, C. G. Hopkins, E. J. James.
Indiana: W. E. Stone.
Iowa: R. C. Aulmann, H. P. Baker, G. W. Bissell, F. W. Bouska, R. E. Buchanan,
A. N. Carstensen, G. I. Christie, C. F. Curtiss, W. Dinsmore, C. O. Dixon,
C. E. Ellis, A. T. Erwin, C. W. Gay, B. O. Gammon, W. Gammon, P. G.
Holden, J. J. Hooper, T. S. Hunt, J. W. Jones, L. S. Klinck, E. E. Little, G. L.
McKay, J. H. McNeil. M. L. Merritt, L. H. Pammel, R. Rueda, W. J. Ruth-
erford, W. H. Stevenson, A. B. Storms, H. E. Summers, O. W. Willcox, C. J.
Kansas: E. R. Nichols, Mrs. E. R. Nichols, R. C. Nichols.
Kentucky: J. K. Patterson. Mrs. J. K. Patterson, M. A. Scovell.
Maine: G. E. Fellows, C. D. Woods.
Maryland: J. R. Owens, H. J. Patterson.
Massachusetts: H. Hayward.
Michigan: C. D. Smith, J. L. Snyder, L. W. Watkins, Mrs. L. W. Watkins.
P. H. Wessels.
Minnesota: W. M. Hays, Mrs. W. M. Hays, W. M. Liggett, Mrs. W. M. Liggett,
M. H. Reynolds, H. Snyder.
Mississippi: J. C. Hardy.
Missouri: R. G. Finney, G. G. Hedgcock, R. H. Jesse. M. F. Miller, F. B. Mum-
ford, C. Wells, F. S. White, W. Williams.
Xontana: R. W. Fisher, J. M. Hami'ton, F. B. Linfield.
Nebraska: E. B. Andrews, E. A. Burnett, A. Keyser, T. L. Lyon.
Nevada: P. Frandsen, G. H. True, Mrs. G. H. True.
New Hampshire: W. D. Gibbs.
New Jersey: A. Scott, E. B. Voorhees.
New Mexico: L. Foster, Mrs. L. Foster, F. Garcia, J. D. Tinsley.
New York: L. H. Bailey, B. von Herff, W. H. Jordan.
North Carolina: C. W. Burkett, F. L. Stevens.
S! North Dakota: E. E. Kaufman. L. Van Es, J. H. Worst.
Ohio: A. Agee, J. E. McClintock, H. C. Price, W. O. Thompson, C. E. Thorne,
A. Vivian, F. L. West.
Oklahoma: J. Fields, A. C. Scott.
Oregon: A. L. Knisely.
Pennsylvania: H. P. Armsby.


Rhode Island: K. L. Butterfield, F. W. Card, H. J. Wheeler.
South Carolina: C. E. Chambliss, P. H. Mell.
South Dakota: J. Chalmers, J. W. Wilson.
Tennessee: B. Ayres, C. A. Keffer.
Utah: J. A. Widtsoe.
Vermont: J. L. Hills.
Virginia: E. A. Bishop.
Washington: E. A. Bryan.
Wisconsin: W. A. Henry, G. N. Knapp, E. P. Sandsten, C. R. Van Nise.
Wyoming: B. C. Buffum, F. M. Tisdell.
United States Department of Agriculture: E. W. Allen, E. Mead, of the Office
of Experiment Stations.
Government Board, Louisiana Purchase Exposition: W. V. Cox.
Ottawa, Canada: W. Saunders.
Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba: N. S. Mayo.










This association shall be called the Association of American Agricultural Col-
leges and Experiment Stations.

The object of this association shall be the consideration and discussion of
all questions pertaining to the successful progress and administration of the col-
leges and stations included in the association, and to secure to that end mutual

(1) Every college established under the act of Congress approved July 2, 1862,
or receiving the benefits of the act of Congress approved August 30, 1890, and
every agricultural experiment station established under State or Congressional
authority, the Bureau of Education of the Department of the Interior, the
Department of Agriculture, and the Office of Experiment Stations of the last-
named Department, shall be eligible to membership in this association.
(2) Any institution a member of the association in full standing may send
any number of delegates to the meetings of the association. The same delegate
may represent both a college and a station, but shall vote in only one section and
shall cast only one vote in general sessions. Other delegates may be designated
by any institution to represent it in specified divisions of the sections of the
association, but such delegates shall vote only in such divisions, and no institu-
tion shall be allowed more than one vote in any sectional meeting.
(3) Delegates from other institutions engaged in educational or experimental
work in the interest of agriculture or mechanic arts may, by a majority vote, be
admitted to conventions of the association, with all privileges except the right to
(4) In like manner, any person engaged or directly interested in agriculture
or mechanic arts who shall attend any convention of this association may be
admitted to similar privileges.

(1) The association shall be divided into two sections: (a) A section on
college work and administration, (b) a section on experiment station work.
The section on college work and administration shall be composed of the presi-
dents or acting presidents of colleges and universities represented in the associa-
tion, or other representatives of such institutions duly and specifically accred-
ited to this section, and no action on public and administrative questions shall
be final without the assent of this section.
The section on experiment station work shall pe composed of the directors or
acting directors of experiment stations represented in the association, or of other
representatives of such stations duly and specifically accredited to this section.



(2) Members of these two sections (and no others) shall be entitled to vote
both in general sessions and in the section to which they respectively belong.
The representative appointed by the U. S. Bureau of Education shall be as-
signed to the section on college work and administration; the representative of
the Office of Experiment Stations to the section on experiment station work;
and the representative of the U. S. Department of Agriculture to either section
as he may elect and the section by vote authorize; but such election once made
and authorized may not be changed during the sessions of a given convention.
Each section may create such divisions as it may from time to time find do-
sirable, and shall elect its own chairman and secretary for sectional meetings,
whose names shall be reported to the association for record.
(3) Each section shall conduct its own proceedings, and shall keep a record
of the same, and no action of a section, by resolution or otherwise, shall be !
valid until the same shall have been ratified by the association in general ses-
sion and, in the case provided for in the foregoing paragraph (1), shall also
have been approved by the section on college work and administration.


(1) This association shall hold at least one meeting in every calendar, year,
to be designated as the annual convention of the association. Special meetings
may be held at other times, upon the call of the executive committee, for par-
poses to be specified in the call.
(2) The annual convention of the association shall comprise general sessions
and meetings of the sections and provision shall be made therefore in the pro-
gramme. Unless otherwise determined by vote, the association will meet in
general session in the forenoons and evenings of the convention and the sections
in the afternoons.

(1) The general officers of this association, to be chosen annually, shall be a
president, five vice-presidents, a bibliographer, and a secretary, who shall also be
treasurer; and an executive committee of five members, three of whom shall be
chosen by the section on college work and administration and two by the see-
tion on experiment station work: Provided, however, That a member chosen by
either section need not be a member of that section. The executive committee
shall choose its own chairman.
(2) Each section shall, by ballot, nominate to the association in general ses-
sion for its action, a chairman and a secretary for such section. i
(3) The president, vice-presidents, secretary, and bibliographer of this asso-
ciation shall be elected by ballot upon nomination made upon the floor of the .
convention, and shall hold office from the close of the convention at which they
are elected until their successors shall be chosen.
(4) Any person being an accredited delegate to an annual meeting of the
association, or an officer of an institution which is a member of the association
in full standing at the time of election, shall be eligible to office.


(1) The officers of the association shall perform the duties which usually
devolve upon their respective offices.
(2) The president shall deliver an address at the annual convention before
the association in general session.
(3) The executive committee shall determine the time and place of the annual ,
conventions and other meetings of the association, and shall, between such con-
i entions and meetings, act for the association in all matters of business. It shall



Issue its call for the annual conventions of the association not less than sixty
days before the date on which they are to be held and, for special meetings, not
less than ten days before such date. It shall be charged with the general ar-
rangements and conduct of all meetings called by it. It shall designate the
time and place of the convention; it shall present a well-prepared order of
business-of subjects for discussion-and shall provide and arrange for the
meetings of the several sections. The subjects provided for consideration by
'each section at any convention of the association shall concentrate the deliber:i-
tions of the sections upon not more than two lines of discussion, which lines a
far as possible shall be related. Not more than one-third of the working time
of any annual convention of the association shall be confined to miscellaneous
At every annual convention the association, in general session, shall provide
for obtaining the funds necessary for its legitimate expenses, and may, by appro-
priate action, call for contributions upon the several institutions eligible to
membership; and no institution shall be entitled to representation or participa-
tion in the benefits of the association unless such institution shall have made
the designated contribution for the year previous to that in and for which such
question of privilege shall arise, or shall have said payment remitted by the
unanimous vote of the executive committee.


This constitution may be amended at any regular convention of the associa-
S tion by a two-thirds vote of the delegates present, if the number constitute a
quorum: Procided, That notice of any proposed amendment, together with the
full text thereof and the name of the mover, shall have been given at the next
preceding annual convention, and repeated in the call for the convention. Every
S such proposition of amendment shall be subject to modification or amendment
in the same manner as other propositions, and the final vote on the adoption or
rejection shall be taken by yeas and nays of the institutions then and there

(1) The executive committee shall be charged with the order of business, sub-
ject to special action of the convention, and this committee may report at any
(2) All business or topics proposed for discussion and all resolutions sub-
mitted for consideration of the convention shall be read and then referred.
without debate, to the executive committee, to be assigned positions on the
(3) Speakers invited to open discussion shall be entitled to twenty minutes
(4) In general discussions the ten-minute rule shall be enforced.
(5) No speaker shall be recognized a second time on any one subject while
any delegate who has not spoken thereon desires to do so.
(6) The hours of meeting and adjournment adopted with the general pro-
gramme shall be closely observed, unless changed by a two-thirds vote of the
delegates present.
(7) The presiding officer shall enforce the parliamentary rules usual in such
assemblies and not inconsistent with the foregoing.
(8) Vacancies which may arise in the membership of standing committees by
death, resignation, or separation from the association, of members, shall be
filled by the committees, respectively.


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The convention was called to order at 10 o'clock a. m., in the banquet room of
the Hotel Chamberlain, at Des Moines, Iowa, President W. O. Thompson, of Ohio,
in the chair.
Prayer was offered by J. Chalmers, of South Dakota.
On motion the following persons were voted the privileges of the convention
-under the clause of the constitution which provides that "delegates from other
institutions engaged in educational or experimental work in the interest of agri-
culture or mechanic arts may, by a majority vote, be admitted to conventions of
the association, with all privileges except the right to vote:" N. S. Mayo, Central
Experiment Station, Cuba; H. Hayward, Mount Hermon Institute, Massachu-
setts; G. G. Hedgcock, Missouri Botanical Garden; L. W. Watkins, Michigan
Board of Agriculture; W. V. Cox, secretary Government Board Louisiana
Purchase Exposition.

H. C. White, of Georgia, on behalf of the executive committee, offered the fol-
lowing resolution, and asked immediate action:
SResolved, That the Association of American AgIicultural Colleges and Experi-
ment Stations extend to the National Association of State Universities, now in
session in this city, a most cordial greeting in recognition of common and mutual
S endeavors in the cause of learning, and in assurance of fraternal admiration and
Resolved, second, That members of the Association of State Universities be
invited to seats on the floor during this convention.
The resolution was adopted, and the secretary was directed to transmit it at
The report of the executive committee was presented by H. C. White, of
Georgia, chairman, as follows:
SYour executive committee, appointed at the seventeenth annual convention
of the association, held in Washington, D. C., November 17-19, 1903, met imme-
diately upon adjournment of the convention, and organized by the selection of
President H. C. White, of Georgia, as chairman. Acting under instructions of
the committee, the chairman issued and posted to each member of the associa-
tion, under date of December 15, 1903, an abstract memorandum of the proceed-
23880--No. 153--05 M- 2



ings of the convention of 1903. The proceedings in full were edited by the
chairman, and placed in the hands of the Office of Experiment Stations, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, for publication, January 10, 1904.
Six subsequent meetings of the committee, at each of which a quorum was
present, were held as follows: At Washington, D. C., December 18-19, Jan-
uary 18-20, February 19-20, March 17-19, and October 1, and at Des Moines,
Iowa, October 31. Five circulars of information concerning the results of these
meetings were issued and posted to members of the association. Other busi-
ness was transacted by correspondence or by attention of individual members
of the committee. The call for the eighteenth annual convention (1904) was
issued July 1, and the programme for the convention, as arranged by the com-
mittee. October 22.
In ol-edience to the instructions of the association at the last annual conven-
lion, your committee continued the efforts to secure favorable action by Congress
on the miining-school bill and for increasing the annual appropriation for the
experiment stations. The character and results of these efforts have been in
part made known to the members of the association through the circulars
issued by the committee. Meeting in Washington shortly after the convening
of the second session of the Fifty-eighth Congress, in December, your committee
secured the consent of Mr. Mondell, of Wyoming, to reintroduce and endeavor
to secure favorable action upon the bill for the endowment of schools of mines
in connection with the land-grant colleges and other institutions, which had
failed of consideration in the Fifty-seventh Congress. The bill was practically
identical in wording with that previously introduced by General Grosvenor, which
had received the endorsement of the association. The National Association of
State Universities and the National Association of State Mining Schools proposed
an amendment to the bill, which your committee thought inimical to the interests
of the institutions represented in this association; but after conference between
your committee and the executive committees of the other associations named
the amendment was abandoned, and these organizations came cordially and
actively to the support of the original bill of this association. Your committee.
appeared before the Committee on Mines and Mining of the House of Repre-
sentatives and secured a favorable unanimous report on the bill, and it was so
reported to the House and placed on the Union Calendar February 1, 1904.
Guided by the wise counsels of Mr. Mondell, whose efforts in behalf of the
measure were most sympathetic and energetic, your committee employed its best
efforts to secure consideration for the bill, but without success. Failure we
believe to be attributable mainly to the shortness of the session of Congress and
a disinclination to enact legislation of this character on the eve of a Presidential
election, and not to opposition to the bill on its merits. Impressed with the
importance of the measure to the land-grant colleges, and having faith in
ultimate success in its passage, your committee earnestly recommends continued
efforts of the association in this direction.
Before the meeting of your committee Mr. Adams, of Wisconsin, had intro-
duced in the House of Representatives a bill providing for increased appropria-
tions to the experiment stations. After conference with Mr.' Adams and the
suggestion of several desirable amendments, which were accepted by him, your
committee gave its hearty and active support to his bill, and aided him to the
extent of its ability in furthering its progress. A favorable report was secured
from the Committee on Agriculture of the House in February, but it was found
impossible to secure consideration for the bill before the adjournment of Con-
gress in March. Mr. Adams was most energetic, wise, and able in the conduct
of his measure, giving, indeed, the major portion of his time and attention in
Congress in its interest. Iie has expressed his firm conviction-which your
committee shares-that an overwhelming majority was favorable to the pas-
sage of his bill could consideration for it have been secured. The bill is still
pending in Congress, and as its terms are in the main quite satisfactory to our
institutions your committee recommends the continuance of the support of this
association. The report of failure of its efforts in connection with these im-
portant measures, and of repeated failure in case of the first, is unpleasant and,
to some extent, mortifying to your committee. But when it is remembered
that failures many times repeated met similar efforts in connection with the
Hatch Act and the act of 1890 before these were carried to final successful
issue we are encouraged to believe that similar persistence in these present cases
will eventually be crowned with similar success.
Immediately after the adjournment of the last annual convention your com-
mittee called upon the honorable Secretary of Agriculture, at his request, and


enjoyed a most cordial and frank conference on the subject of the cooperation
between the Iepalrtment of Agriculture and the agricultural experiment sta-
tions. It was known to the Secretary and to your committee that some friction
had arisen in several of the States because of an overlapping of tile lines of
: work of the Department and the stations, and the hick of cooperation and a
Mutual understanding necessary to preserve the interests of all concerned. It
was felt that. in order that the association's standing committee ,on cooperation
between the stations and the U. S. Department of Agriculture should be in Iosi-
I tion to advise the association from time to time, (oncerning tle extent and char-
acter of this cooperation, a full and complete understanding between the author-
ities of the Department and the association should be secured. Your commiittee
considered it within its duty to attempt to secure such understanding and a recog-
nition of the broad and general principles which should guide such cooperation.
The Secretary of Agriculture expressed his desire that conferences to that end
'should be freely held with the appropriate officials of the Department and desig-
nated a committee of chiefs of the bureaus of the Department, consisting of
Messrs. Galloway, Whitney. and True, to confer with your executive committee
with a view to arriving at a basis of cooperation mutually satisfactory. Three
personal conferences of the two committees were held, characterized oil the part
of all concerned by cordiality, frankness, and an earnest desire to asce'rtfiin and
provide for the removal of possible causes of friction in the work of the Depart-
ment and of the stations. During the progress of the conferences your commit-
tee, through correspondence, solicited the views of the station workers in the sev-
eral States and Territories upon the matter at issue, and a large contribution of
facts and opinions in the premises is new in possession of the committee. For
various reasons it has not been found possible as yet, as h result of these con-
ferences, to reach a concrete conclusion in the matter, such, for example, as
might be embodied in a code of written regulations defining the legitimate work
of the Department and of the stations in colmnon territory, but your committee
is of the opinion that much has been accomplished in the direction of mutual
understanding and of the establishment of a modus vivendi which will afford
hereafter large opportunity for the association's standing committee on coopera-
tion to advance the interest of the experiment stations through cordial and
sympathetic relations with the Department of Agriculture. Your committee
recommends the continuance of these conferences, understanding such to Ie also
the pleasure of the Secretary of Agriculture.
Meanwhile, during the progress of these'conferences, a rather startling inci-
dent related to the subject-matter occurred. The Committee on Agriculture of
the House of Representatives, during its consideration of the agricultural appro-
priation act, carrying the annual appropriation to the experiment stations,
inserted a clause in the act, authorizing and directing the Secretary of Agricul-
ture to "coordinate the work of the several stations, and the work of the stations
with the Department of Agriculture, to the end of preventing unnecessary dupli-
cation of work, of increasing the efficiency of the stations and the Department
of Agriculture, and to unify and systematize agricultural investigation in the
United States."
In the haste of disposing of necessary appropriation acts, this bill was re-
ported and within twenty-four hours passed the House of Representatives (with-
out a dissenting vote), and before your committee became aware of the exist-
ence of the clause referred to. Learning of itsexistence, your committee immedi-
ately communicated by wire with the chairman of the Senate Committee on Agri-
culture and received assurance that the Senate would reject or modify the clause
as passed by the House. Having its own opinion of the objectionable character
of the proposed legislation strengthened by numerous telegrams and letters
from members of the association, your committee subsequently visited Wash-
ington and after conference with the chairmen and members of the House and
Senate Committees on Agriculture, secured without difficulty a rejection of
the clause by the Senate and unanimous agreement to the rejection by the con-
ference committee of the two Houses.
This incident and the large and careful consideration given during the year
to the relations of the experiment stations to the Department of Agriculture,
lead your committee to report frankly to the association that, in its judg-
ment, a grave situation has arisen, involving the entire future of agricultural
research work in the United States. For many years after the establishment
of the State experiment stations these were the main-almost the exclusive-


instruments through which research in agriculture in this country was prose-
cuted. No one conversant with the brilliant achievements of the State stations,
and the beneficent influence of these upon the economic agriculture of the coun-
try, may doubt the effectiveness of the stations as agents in agricultural
research. During this period the stations had a right to expect and they did
receive much valuable aid from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, particu-
larly through its ability, as a great department of the National Government, to
give wide circulation to and general acquaintance with the results obtained by
the stations. Within a few years past, however, a number of bureaus of purely
scientific research, as related to agriculture, have arisen within the Department
of Agriculture, and have been maintained by generous appropriations of money
from the National Treasury. The Department has therefore entered upon-or
at least been engaged in to a far greater extent than heretofore-a field of en-
deavor which formerly was occupied almost exclusively by the State stations.
This statement of facts is made by your committee in no spirit of complaint-
certainly in no spirit of sensitiveness to rivalry. It is freely conceded that the
agricultural research work of the Department of Agriculture is of high quality
and value. It is as stoutly maintained that the work of the stations is at least
equally so. But, with two agents operating in the same field, common prudence
and regard for effectiveness dictate that care should be taken that each singly,
or the two combined, should operate with maximum economy and for maximum
results. Considered from the point of view of the country as a whole, and bear-
ing in mind that the whole is but an aggregation of parts, if a particular
research may, all things considered, be undertaken to the best advantage by a
local station, it should be given over to the station; if by the Department, it
should be given over to the Department. There would probably be no dispute
of the soundness of this proposition, but there is one factor in the case which
seriously disturbs the clearness of vision in discerning the relative suitabilities
of the station and the Department in the premises. The Department is com-
parati ely rich, with a readily approachable and generous Congress at its doors
and the resources of the Federal Treasury at its back. The stations are com-
paratively poor in money, without hope, and perhaps without expectations, In
equity, of large aid from their several States, widely "scattered and far removed
from the ear of Congressional committees. It would not be surprising, there-
fore, if mere possession of the financial ability to do it might lend the Depart-
ment to undertake some kinds of research work which the stations are other-
wise better qualified to do. There is also danger perhaps that the inability of
the stations to compete with the Department in the matter of compensation
offered qualified and desirable men may lower the standard or impair the enthu-
siasm of service at the stations in such manner as to disqualify the stations for *
work which otherwise, by reason of their local conditions, they should be better
able to do than a single Department at the National Capital. In fine, it is con-
ceivable that a rich and central agency of research might so overshadow poor
and scattered agencies as to seriously impair their standing and efficiency.
Your committee, therefore, commends to the serious consideration of the asso-
ciation the whole question of the relations of the State experiment stations and
of the Department of Agriculture to the research work in agriculture, which
must continue and increase in this country if science is to be made contributory
in the fullest measure to our economic agriculture. With a view to laying in
some measure a foundation for effort on the part of the association in what
would seem to be an appropriate direction, and in order that a proper balance
between the two great agencies of research might be preserved, your committee
suggested to the chairmen of the House and Senate Committees on Agriculture,
at the last session of Congress, that it might be well for the institutions repre-
sented in this association to be heard before these committees when the appro-
priations to the stations and to the research bureaus of the Department of
Agriculture were under consideration. Both gentlemen heartily approved the
suggestion, and gave it as their opinion that an expression of the views of the
stations would be most acceptable and helpful to the committees. Your com-
mittee respectfully recommends that instruction be given your executive com-
mittee to make clear to the proper Congressional committees, if hearings may
be secured, the important part taken by the State experiment stations in the
agricultural research work of this country, with a view to securing for the sta-
tions some measure of equity in the appropriations made for this purpose from
the National Treasury.
The post of Assistant Secretary of the U. S. Department of Agriculture fell


vacant through the death in July last of the Hon. J. H. Brigham. Sharing the
opinion expressed in numerous coinmunications received from members of the
association, that it would be of advantage to both the Department of Agricul-
ture and the land-grant institutions were the incumbent of this office a person of
scientific attainments, personally experienced in scientific work related to agri-
culture, or having Intelligent sympathy therewith, your committee respectfully
requested of the President of the United States (in whose hands the appoint-
ment lay) an opportunity to present their views in the premises. A prompt
i and cordial response was made to the request, and on October 1 your com-
mittee enjoyed a personal interview of most satisfactory character with the
President., Refraining, as was proper, from suggesting any individual for con-
sideration, the views of the committee were fully presented, and emphasis was
laid upon the extremely satisfactory character of the services of Professor Wil-
lits and President Dabney, incumbents of the office in previous administrations,
as indicative of the type of man i ho might with advantage be selected at the
present juncture. The President granted the committee a most kind and atten-
tive hearing and expressed his sympathetic accord with the views presented.
Your committee is abundantly satisfied that, so far as other necessary consider-
ations will permit, the President will gladly meet the wishes of the association
as expressed through your committee in making this appointment.
Numerous matters of detail, concerning which no report is necessary, have
received the attention of your committee during the year. Proper representa-
tions were made as directed to the Secretary of Agriculture concerning the
desire of the association that the Experiment Station Record should contain,
more generally, brief extracts as well as titles of the publications of foreign
agricultural experiment stations and kindred institutions, and the importance
of appropriations for extending the work of the Department in the line of rural
The funds of the association have been economically administered, and the
report of the treasurer will show a satisfactory balance in the treasury, with
no outstanding obligations.
It is with sincere sorrow that your committee makes official record of the
death on October 1, 1904, of Maj. Henry E. Alvord, one of the founders of this
association, a former president and for many years the able and efficient chair-
man of its executive committee. The association will no doubt be moved to
express in suitable manner its regret for this sad occurrence, and its apprecia-
tion of the character and services of its late honored member.
H. C. WHITE, Chairman.

On motion of H. P. Armsby, of Pennsylvania, the report was accepted, and the
executive committee was instructed to arrange for the discussion of the subject
of relations of the stations with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, raised by
this report, in connection with the report on cooperation (see p. (;2).
On motion of H. C. White, the request of members of the association, previ-
ously constituting the section on horticulture and botany under the old arrange-
ment, to be allowed to form a division for horticulture and botany in one of the
sections of the association, was referred to the section on experiment station

The report of the treasurer was read, as follows:

Report of treasurer of the association, November 17, 1903, to October 31, 190..


Amount on hand November 17, 1903 ---------------------- $263. 26
Amount received from dues ------------------------------ 1,525.00
Amount received from National Association of State Universities for
services of the joint agent of the passenger associations at Des
Moines ------------------------------------------------ 6.00

Total-- ------------ ----------- ------ ----- 1, 794. 26

20 I


Expenses of the executive committee__---- _----- -------------_ $1, 123.85
EIlxpienses of the secretary and treasurer (postage, printing, telegrams,
etc.) _----------------------------------- 19.49 '
Services of the joint agent of the passenger associations at Des Moines 17. 00 :

Total_ --------------------------------------------- 1,100.34

Balance on hand October 31, 1904--------------------------- 633.92
E. B. VOORHEES, Secretary-Tr'easurer.

On motion, the report was referred to an auditing committee consisting of
J. L. Hills, of Vermont, and E. A. Bryan, of Washington, which subsequently
reported, as follows:
Your committee on auditing the accounts of the treasurer respectfully reports
that it has surveyed the books of that office, finds them well kept, finds receipts,
expenditures, and balance as stated in his report, and finds proper vouchers
supporting all expenditures.
Con mmittee.
On motion, the report was adopted.


The report of the bibliographer, A. C. True, was presented, as follows: -
During the past year the Department of Agriculture has continued the publi-
catini of the index catalogue of medical and veterinary zoology and has also
issued special bibliographies of agricultural text-books, school gardens, insects,
etc. The usual annual reports concerning the literature and general progress in
chemistry. botany, zoology, plant disseases veterinary medicine, and other gen-
eral subjects have appeared. Among the list of bibliographies noted below
thee re are many important ones which deal pretty thoroughly with special fields
on which good bibliographies did not hitherto exist. Among these subjects we i
may mention the following: Molds pathogenic for ninils; The function of
salt in the animal organism; Sericulture; Effect of gases upon cultivated
plants; Economic value of birds; Insect eneiities of books; Hemiorrhagic septi-
cemia; Plant breeding; Blood immunity and blood relationship as determined
by Precipitin tests for blood; Parthenogenesis; The constituents of milk;
Texas fever; The feeding value of sugar-beet pulp and molasses; India rubber
and gutta-percha; Roup of fowls; Avian tuberculosis; and Drinking water.
On accountt of the unusual interest aroused in the subject of tuberculosis as a
result of Koch's theories, a great number of bibliographies relating to the differ-
ent phases c-:f this disease have been prepared and published in connection with
articles containing the results of the investigations. All of the bibliographies :
which have just been referred to are noted-mnore fully in the list of 68 titles
which follows:
ANM.REASCH, It., and SPIRO, K. Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der Tier-
Chemie (Annual report on the progress in animal chemistry). Jahresbericht
iiber die Fortschritte der rier-Chemie, 32 (1,102). pp. 1141. An extended ii
review of the literature of animal chemistry fur the year 1902..
BAILEY, L. II. )Develolp:ent of the text-book of agriculture in North America.
1'. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations Report
1903, pp). 189-712. A chronological bibliography of North American text-
books of agriculture is appended to a discussion of this subject.
BANKS, N. A revision of the Nearctic Chrysopidma. Transactions of the Ameri-
can Entomological Society. 29 (1903), No. 2. pp. 137-162. A list of 18 refer-
ences to the literature of the subject is appended to the article.


ABAnnAcc, Sumnnarlscher Bericht fiber die wichtigsten italienischen Arbeiten
im Gebiete der allegemeinen Pa thologie und pathologischen Anatomic, er-
schienen iml Jalire 19K)2 (The most important Italianm literature on general
Sathology and pathohlgicl anatonly published in 1!M)2). ('entralblatt fiir
Allgemeine Pathologi athoie un P thologische IAnatomie. 14 ( IN KI). No. 1l-17.
pp. 673-70.. A classified list is presented of Italian literature published in
1902 relating to technique. methods of investigation, tumors, cell structure,
hnuiunity, intoxication. infectious diseases. organic diseases, etc. A brief
abstract is given of the more important works.
BARTHELAT, G. J. Les imucoril'es p.:lthogl'nes et les mucormycoses clez les
animaux et chez I'lonine (Pathogenic miolds ;and imu-ormllycoses in animals
and man). Archives de Parasitologie, 7 (9!I):), No. 1. pp. 5-11;. A bib-
liography of 72 titles is given in connection with a critical review of the lit-
erature of the subject.
BAUIGARTEN, P. von, and TANGL. F. Jahresl)ericht iiler die Fortsclritte in der
Lehre von den pathogenen Mikroorganismen, 1901 (Annual report on prog-
ress in the field of pathogenic inicro-orgiismns, 1001). Leipzig: S. IIirzel.
1903. 2. Abt., pp. XII +1114. This report contains extended bibliographies
relating to pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. together with brief
abstracts of the more important articles.
BELL, C. M. Die Erniihrung ohne Salz und ihre Wirkungen auf den Organis-
mus, speziell auf die Assimilation der Nalhruigsmittel und auf den Stick-
stoffwechsel des Menschen (Diet without salt and its effect upon the body.
especially upon the assjn-ilation of food and the m(et;lbolismn of nitrogen in
man). Zeitschrift fiir Biologie, 45 (1903). No. 2, pp!. 182-222. A list of 2'
references to the literature of the subject is appended to the article.
BISSON, E. Elenco di pubblicazioni attinenti alin achicoltura, che vennero
fuori nel corso del 19u2 e 110i3 ( of publications relating to sericulture
issued during the years 1902 and 1903). Annuario d(-lla R. Stazione lB co-
logica di Padova, 31 (1903). pp. 119-139). A list is given of books and
Periodical articles on the various lines. related to sericulture as published
in different languages during 1902 and 1903.
BONGERT, J. Beitriige zur Biologie des Milzbrandbacillus und sein Nachweis im
Kadaver der grossen Haustiere (Biology of the anthrax bacillus and its
demonstration in the carcasses of the larger domesticated animals). Cen-
tralblatt fir Bakteriologie, Parasiteukunde, und Infektionskrainklheiten. 1.
Abt., 35 (1903), No. 2, Orig., pp. 198-201. A list of 77 references to the
literature of this subject is given.
Baizi, U. Sulle alterazioni prodotte alle piante coltivate dalle principal eman-
azioni gasose degli stabilimenti industrial (The effect of gases and fumes
upon cultivated plants). Le Stazioni Sperimentali Agrarie Italiane. 3I
(1903), No. 4-5, pp. 279-384. A bibliography of 101 titles is appended to tie
CHAPMAN. F. M. The economic value o'f birds to the State. Albany: New
York State Forest, Fish, and Gaune Commission. 1903, pp. 06. A brief bib-
liography of articles relating to the food of American birds is appended.
CORRENS, C. Neue Untersuchuiugen auf dent Gelbt der Iatardirungslclire
(Recent investigations in plant hybridization). lotanische Zeitung. 61
(1903), No. 8, pp. 114-126. A list of 22 references to tle literature of the
subject is appended to the article.
COULTER, J. M., and CHAMBERLAIN, C. J. Morphlology of angiosperms. New
York: D. Appleton & Co., 1903, pp. X -34S. The bibliographies, which are an
important feature of the work, are arranged chronologically at the end of
each chapter, and all the citations are brought together at the close of the
volume, the arrangement being alphabetical Iy authors.
CrosuY, D. J. A few good books and bulletins on nature study, school garden-
ing, and elementary agriculture for common schools. U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations Circular 52. pp. 4.
DANDENO, J. B. The effects of water and aqueous solutions on foliage leaves.
/ T.ransactions of the Canadian Institute, 7 1902~). II, No. 14. Pp. 237-350.
A bibliography of this subject is appended to the article and appearss on
pages 346-350. It includes 107 titles.
DYt, L. Sur les culicides (Observations on the Culicid;e). Archives de Para-
sitologie. 6 (1902), No. 3, pp. 359-376. The literature of the subject is
reviewed in connection with a brief bibliography.
ENRIGUEZ. E., and SICARD, J. A. Les oxydations de l'organisme (Oxidations in
the animal organism). Paris : J. B. Bailliere & Sons, 1902, pp. 87. A bibli-
ography of the subject is appended.

22 29

FRUWIRTH, C. Referate iiber nenere Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der Pflanzen-
ziichtung (References to recent work in plant breeding). Journal fir i
Landwirthschaft, 51 (1903), Nos. 2, pp. 223-230; 4, pp. 371-387. ReferenceA
are given to 48 recent articles on plant breeding, with a brief abstract of the 4I
article in each case.
GREINER, T. The new onion culture. New York: Orange Judd Co., 1903, rev.
and enl. ed., pp. 112. A list of station and Department publications on
onion culture is appended.
GUII.LEREY, J. Ueher den epizootischen Abortus der Stuten (Epizootic abortion
in mlares). Archive fir Wissenschaftliche und Praktische Thierheilkunde,
29 (1903), No. 1-2, pp. 37-68. The literature of this subject is critically
discussed in connection with a bibliography of 32 titles.
HEMENWAY. 1-1. D. List of articles published on school gardens. Transactions
of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 1902, II, pp. 249-254. The list
includes 65 articles.
IIERRERA, A. L. Bibliograffa relative A los insects que destruyen las cortezas
(A bibliography relating to insects injurious to bark). Boletin de la Comi-
si6n de Parasitologia Agricola. 2 (1903), No. 3, pp. 104-114. A list of arti-
cles largely compiled from publications of this Department.
HILGER, A.. and DIETRICH, T., ET AL. Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte auf
dem Gesantgebiete der Agrikultur-Chemie, 1902 (Annual report of the
progress in agricultural chemistry, 1902). Berlin: Paul Parey, 1903, pp.
XXXVI + 580.
IIOFFMANN. A. Untersuchungen iiber den Einfluss der Hetolbehandlung auf die
Implftuberculose der Meerschweinchen und der Kaninchen (The effect of
treatment with hetol upon inoculation tuberculosis of guinea pigs and rab-
bits). Archiv fiir Wissenschaftliche und Praktische Thierheilkunde, 30
(1904), No. 1-2, pp. 162-187. A list of 37 references to the literature of the
subject is appended to the article.
HOULBERT, C. Les insects ennemis des lives (Insect enemies of books).
Paris: Alphonse Picard & Sons, 1903, pp. XXXVIII + 269. A list of 94
references to the literature of this subject is given.
ISTVANFFI, G. DE. Etudes sur le rot livide de la vigne (Studies on the white rot
of grapes). Annales de l'Institut Central Ampelologique Royal Hongrois,
2 (1902), pp. 288. Numerous footnote references are given, which consti-
tute a very extensive bibliography of the literature of the subjects treated.
KELLERMAN. W. A. Index to North American mycology. Journal of Mycology,
10 (1904). Nos. 71, pp. 116-143; 72, pp. 182-194; 73, pp. 251-283. An
alphabetical list of articles, authors. subjects, new species and hosts, new 7:
names and synonyms is given in each number of this journal.
KIRSTEN. Die Varietiiten des Baciliis acrdematis maligni (The varieties of Ba-
cillus (wdcmatis maligni). Archiv fiir Wissenschaftliche und Praktische
Thierheilkunde, 30 (1904), No. 3. pp. 223-260. A critical review of the lit-
erature of this subject with an extensive bibliography.
KLEPTZOV, K. Z. K voprosu o passivnom immunitetye pri gemorragicheskikh ,
septitzeniyakh (Passive immunity in various forms of hemorrhagic septi-
cemia). Archive Veterinarnuikh Nauk, St. Petersburg, 33 (1903), Nos. 6,
pp. 553-581; 7, pp. 685-700; 8, pp. 781-815. The literature relating to
swine plague, hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle, and other related diseases
is critically discussed, in connection with a bibliography including 67 titles.
ILOCKER, A. Translated by G. E. Allan and J. H. Millar. Fermentation
organisms. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1903. pp. XX -- 392. A
bibliography of the more important works relating to this subject is given
on pages 347-381.
KOSSEL, H., ET AL. Vergleichende Untersuchungen iUber Tuberkelbazillen ver-
schiedener Herkunft (Comparative investigations on tubercle bacilli of
different origin). Tuberktlose-Arbeiten aus dem Kaiserlichen Gesundheits-
amte, 1904, No. 1, pp. 1-82. This article contains a bibliography of 194
KROMPECHER, E., and ZIMMERMANN, K. Untersuchungen Uiber die Virulenz der
aus verschiedenen tuberkulOsen Herden des Menschen reingezfichteten
Tuberkelbacillen (The virulence of tubercle bacilli in pure cultures from '
tuberculous foci in man). Centralblatt fiir Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde
und Infektionskrankheiten, 1. Abt., 33 (1903), No. 8, Orig., pp. 580-607.
A list of 18 references to the literature of the subject is appended to the


LAVINOVICH. M. Popultka lyecheulya sapa i immunizatzil protiv nego y koshek
i morskikh svinov (Experiments in the treatment of glanders and immuni-
zation of cats and guinea pigs against this disease). Archiv Veteri-
naruuikh Nauk. St. Petersburg, 33 (1903), No. 3, pp. 211-226. A list of 34
references to the literature of the subject is given.
MACDOUGAL, D. T. The influence of light and darkness upon growth and devel-
opment. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. 2 (1903), pp. XIII+
S319. The footnotes include over 200 references to the literature of the
I subject.
MARCHAL, E. Revue des travaux de pathologies vfgetale. 1902 (Review of work
on vegetable pathology, 1902). Bulletin Cercle d'Etudes des Agronomes de
I'Atat [Brussels], 1903, No. 8, pp. 379-389. A review of the literature of
this subject, to which a list of 49 references is appended.
MERBRII.L, E. D. Botanical work in the Philippines. Philippine Bureau of Agri-
culture Bulletin 4, pp. 53. A list of the more important books relating to
this subject is appended.
SMICHAEL, A. D. British Tyroglyphide. London: Ray Society, 1903. vol. 2,
pp. VII+183. A list of the principal books and papers giving information
Relative to the Tyroglyphidie.
MONFALLET, D. Bibliographie abrfg'e des infections (Abridged bibliography of
infectious diseases). Paris and Santiago: C. Goffi, 1903, pp. GO. In this
bibliography the author's purpose was to present for the practical investi-
gator and student a list of the most important publications relating to the
various infectious diseases of animals and man. The number of diseases
on which bibliographies are presented is about 90.
NAsMrrH, G. G. The chemistry of wheat gluten. Transactions of the Canadian
Institute, 7 (1903); University of Toronto Studies, Physiological Series,
1903, No. 4, pp. 22. A list of 35 references to the literature of the subject
is appended.
NUTTALL, G. H. F. Blood immunity and blood relationship, a demonstration of
certain blood relationships amongst animals by means of precipitin tests for
blood. Cambridge: University Press, 1904, pp. XII+444. The literature
relating to serum constituents and immunity is critically discussed in con-
nection with an extensive bibliography.
OTTAVI, E., and MARESCALCHI, A. Bibliographia agronomica universalis.
Casale: Ottavi Bros., 1903, Nos. 2, pp. 57-128; 3. pp. 129-176; 4. pp. 177-263.
This is a continuation of the general agricultural bibliography noted in the
previous report. The number of articles noted has reached 2,004. Articles
in Italian, French, German, and English are included.
PANOV, N. O bugorchatkye vuizuivaemoi u zhivotnuikh mertvuimi tuberkulez-
nuimi batzillami (Tuberculosis caused by dead tubercle bacilli). Disserta-
Stion, Yuriev, 1902, pp. 134. The literature of this subject is critically
reviewed in connection with a bibliography of 101 titles.
PEIRCE, G. J. A text-book of plant physiology. New York: Henry Holt & Co..
1903, pp. VI+291. References to literature given in footnotes serve as a
considerable bibliography of the subjects treated.
PHILuis, D. F. A review of parthenogenesis. Proceedings of the American
SPhilosophical Society, 42 (1903), No. 174. pp. 275-345. A critical review
is given of the literature of this subject in connection with an extensive list
of references.
PHILLIPS. W. F. R. Recent papers bearing on meteorology. U. S. Department
of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, Monthly Weather Review, 31 (1903), pp.
334, 373, 413. 473. 521, 509.
PREISZ, H. Studien fiber Morphologie und Biologie des Milzhrandbacillus (The
Smorphology and biology of anthrax bacillus). Centralblatt fiir Bakteriolo-
gie, Parasitenkunde, und Infektionskrankheiten, 1. Abt.. 35 (1904), No. 6.
Orig., pp. 660-661. A list of 23 references to the literature of this subject.
PRESCOTT, S. C., and WINSLOw, C. E. A. Elements of water bacteriology. New
York: John Wiley & Sons; London: Chapman & Hall. Ltd.. 1904, pp.
X X+1;2. A list of 180 references to the literature of the subject is given.
RABINOWITSCH. LYDIA, and KEMPNER. W. Die Trypanosonmen in der Mensehen-
und Tierlatlolugie, sowie vergleichende Trypanosomenuntersuchuingen
(Trypanosomata in human and animal pathology). Ceotralblatt fiir Bak-
teriologie, Parasitenkunde, und Infektionskrankheiten, 1. Abt.. 34 (1903)
No. 8, Originale, pp. 804-822. The literature relating to trypanosomata is
critically reviewed in connection with a bibliography of literature publishcl
during the years 1808--1903, The references given number 150.




RAUDNITZ, R. W. Bestandteile, Eigenschaften ujd Veriinderungen der Milch
(The constituents of milk-their properties and changes). Ergebnisse der
Physiologic, 2 (1903), pp. 193-325. This is a general review of the litera-
ture of this subject, the bibliography including about 670 references.
RJro.N. 11. Der akteriengehalt des von Rauschbrand befallenen Muskelgewebes
und der Rauschbrandimpfstoffe (The bacterial content of muscle tissue
affected with blackleg and of blackleg vaccine). Archiv fiir Wissenschaft-
lithe und 'raktische Tierheilkunde, 30 (1904), No. 3, pp. 261-280. A brief
bibliography of the subject is appended to the article.
SCH.:MIDT, A. Die Zeckenk rank eit der Rinder-Hmnioglobinremia ixodioplas-
natica boun--in Deutsch-, Eniglish-Ostafrika und Uganda (The tick disease
of cattle (h;emoglobinamiia ixodioplasmatica bourn) in German and English
East Africa and Uganda). Archiv fiir Wissenschaftliche und Praktische
Thierheilkunde, 30 (1904), No. 1-2, pp. 42-101. The literature of this sub-
jec;t is discussed with reference to a bibliography of 221 titles.
SCH.iMOEGER, M. Presslinge, Diffusionsschnitzel, Melasse (Beet diffusion residue
aind! Die Landwirtschaftlichen Versucbs-Stationen, 59 (1903),
No. 1 -2. pp. 83-155. Numerous references to the literature of the subject
are given in footnotes.
SEELIGMANN, T., TORRILHON, G. L., and FALCONNET, H. Translated by J. G. Mc-
Intosh. India rubber and gutta-percha. London: Scott, Greenwood & Co.,
190:, pp. XI+402. A bibliography of 404 references to the literature of the
subject is given on pages 385-396.
SERGE11, E. La lutte contre'lefs moustilues (The warfare against mosquitos).
Paris: J. Rueff. 1903, pp. 90. The literature relating to methods for exter-
'riiiating mosquitoes is discussed, and a list of 110 references given.
STILES. C. W., and HASSALL, A. Index-catalogue of medical and veterinary
zoology. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Bulletin 39, part 6. pp. 437-510. This part of the bulletin includes authors
whose names begin with the letter F.
STREIT, H. Untersuchungen tiber die Gefliigeldiphtherie (Fowl diphtheria).
Zeitschrift fiir Hygiene und Infectionskrankheiten, 46 (1904), No. 3, pp.
407-462. A list of 46 references to the literature of the subject is appended
to the article.
STUTZER. A. Die Behandlung und Anwenduug des Stalldiingers (The manage-
ment and use of barnyard manure). Berlin : Paul Parey, 1903, 2. ed. enl., pp.
VIII+168. A list of 102 references to the literature of the subject is given.
SrrTHINBANK. H., and NEW\MAN. G. Bacteriology of milk. London: John
Murray, 1903, pp. XX+-605. Numerous references to the literature of this
subject are given in tootiotes.
rTENNERT. UIebr Trichorriheis iJodosa mit spezieller Beriicksichtigung der
Aetiologie und Therapie (Trichorr/hexis nodosa, with special regard to its
etiology and treatment). Zeitschrift fiir Veterin:irkunde, 14 (1902), No.
8-9, lpp. 361-372. A brief bibliography is appended to the article.
THIEL.E, General-Register der Hygienischen Rundschan. Band I-X, 1891-
190O (Index to Hygienische Rundschau, volumes 1-10, 1891-1900). Berlin:
August Ilirschwald. 1904. ip. 432.
TRINK- ULND (GEBRAUCHSWASSER I Water used for drinking and similar purposes).
Zeitschrift fir I'ntersuchung der Nabrungs und Genussmittel, 6 (1903),
No. 22, pp. 1040-1059. Brief abstracts of and references to 60 recent articles
relating to this subject.
VANDEVELDE, A. J. J. Repertoire des travaux publies sur la composition, I'ana-
lyse et les falsifications des dendrees alimentaires pendant l'annee 1902
(Review of the literature of composition, analysis, and adulteration of foods
for the year 1902). Selprate from Bulletin du Service de surveillance de la
Fabrication et du Commerce des Dendrres Alimentaires, 1903, pp. 95. This
contains 691 references and is the third volume on this subject.
VIALA. P., and RAVAZ. L. American vines; their adaptation, culture, grafting,
and pro)agation. San Francisco: California Wine Assoc.. 1903, pp. 299.
A bibliography of the writings of 72 authors is contained in the appendix.
VINCENT. J. Notes bibliographiques sur les il;ges--classification et nomencla-
ture 4 Bibliograplhic notes on clouds-classification and nomenclature). An-
unaire met6orologique pour 1903. Brussels: Observatoire Royal de Bel-
gique. 1903. pp. 430-449.
1WATERHOUSE, F. H. Catalogue of the library of the Zoological Society of Lon-
don. London Taylor and Francis, 1902. 5. ed.. pp. 856. Titles are given
of about 11,000 works in the library of the Zoological Society, together with
a list of periodicals received.


WEBER. A., 1and IOFINGER, II. Die IIiilinertuherkulose (Avian tuberculosis).
Tuberkulose-Arbeiten aus demn Kniserlichen (esu.undheitsamnte, 1 4M, No. 1.
pp. 83-15.. A bibliography of 183 titles is appended to this article.
WEIGMANN, HiRT, an1d GRU'dER. Forlschritte auf del Ghebiete der Clhenlie,
Hygiene, uniid lkteriologie der Milch und ihlrer Erzeuguisse (Plrogress in
the field of the chemistry, hygiene, and bacteriology of milk and its prod-
ucts). Chemiker Zeitune. 2N (114M4). No. 10. pp. 2'2)-232. A sumnniary of
the literature during 1'903, 128 references being e iveii in footnotes.
ZEHL, A. Die Carlialbeule des Iindes unid ihre Ilehalldlung (Ilurs;al ell:arge-
ments upon the carpus of cattle and their treatmentt. Archi fiir Wissen-
schaftliche uud Praktische Tlierheilkunde. 20 (19 13). No. 5, lpp. 445-475.
A critical discussion of the literature of this subject, with a bibliography
of 81 titles.
The report was accepted.


W. H. Jordan, chairman, submitted the following report of the committee in
charge of the collective exhibit of the Association of \American Agricultural Col-
leges and Experiment Stations at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition :
Your committee deems it expedient at this time to make only a comparatively
brief report of the results of its labors. It is impossible to present now a com-
plete and final report of the exhibit under our charge. As the exhibit is cer-
tainly worthy of an extended report commensurate with the extent and dignity
of the display which has been made of the work of the institutions represented,
we feel that its preparation must be delayed until the final completion of all
matters coming under our jurisdiction. Our purpose, therefore, at this time. is
simply to lay before you a few general facts summarizing the results of the
effort which you placed in our hands.
In the first place, the committee desires to express its gratification at the out-
come of the decision to locate the main portion of this exhibit as a unit in the
Palace of Education. Considerable pressure was brought to bear upon us in
favor of locating the agricultural part of the exhibit in the Agricultural
Building, but your committee was unanimously of the opinion that there is no
good reason why agricultural education should maintain its class relations any
more than instruction in the principles of steam or electrical engineering. Pre-
vious exposition displays of the work of the agricultural departments of the col-
leges and of the agricultural experiment stations have been located in the Agri-
cultural Building, and so, for the first time. the work of these institutions has
taken its rightful place among the great educational efforts of our nation, and
in this way has secured a recognition that otherwise would not have been
There is one feature of this exhibit which we believe to be worthy of conm-
nient. It was not a show exhibit. Mere beauty or novelty of display was
not the main object sought. While every reasonable effort was put forth to
make it attractive in Its design, arrangement. and coloring. the materials whliich
were selected for display were those which are in actual use for the purposes
of instruction in the various departments of our land-grant colleges, or those
which represent with as much realism as possible the actual practical results
of research. We are glad to have been assured that the exhibit was found
profitable for study on the part of the real seekers after information, and that
it impressed itself upon intelligent observers as a worthy and consistent expo-
sition of certain features of education and research in the relations of science
to agriculture and the mechanic arts.


The exhibit in the Palace of Education has been installed practically in ac-
cordance with the plan presented to the association in the report of your com-
mittee at the meeting of this association in 1903. Fifty-one institutions are rep-
resented. In the preparation of the various sections 24 experts generously as-
sisted, who discharged their duties in a manner highly satisfactory to the com-
mittee. The explanation of the Palace of Education exhibit to the visiting pub-
lic has been accomplished by the use of expert demonstrators, generally students
or graduates of some land-grant college, 8 being on duty at one time.


The number of persons appointed to positions of one kind or another in coan-
nection with the exhibit as a whole and paid from the appropriation, either for
services or traveling expenses, has been 230, divided as follows::
Members of the committee 9--------------------------------------- 9
Experts in charge of sections--------------- _-------_-----------____
Expert demonstrators, inside exhibit-- ------------------- __--------- 26
Experts connected with outside exhibit----- --------_ 17
Lecturers connected with outside exhibit.----- --------------------- 31
Students used in outside exhibit demonstration------------------------- 50
Officers of administration, clerks, stenographers. janitors, guards, etc.-- 73

Total -------------------------------- ---------------------- 230

This seems to be a large force, but is really the smallest number with which it
has been feasible to install and maintain the exhibit as a real and live demon--
stration of our work. Your committee has used every reasonable effort to hold
the expenses for such services to the lowest possible practicable point. It should
be noted that when any expenditure was involved, no matter how brief the. serv-
ice, even if but for a day, an appointment by the Government board has been
necessary, so that the number of appointments is more formidable than the
actual expense connected therewith.


The financial situation is gratifying. Up to October 24 the expenditures were
approximately the following:
Preparation and collection of exhibit_--_ -- ----------------- $19,527.48
Installation ---- __--------_-_- _---_---_------_ 27, 439. 05
Maintenance ---------------------------------------- 8, 650.75
Administration ------------------------------------ 15, 388.01

Total ----------------------------------------------- 71,005.29
It is clear that the expenditures for the exhibit will come well within the
appropriation. In fact, it now seems likely that there will be an unexpended "
balance, a result neither anticipated nor desired by your committee. This is to
some extent due to the fact that the expenditures for the outside exhibit in
plant breeding and animal husbandry were less than was planned. Difficulties
which need not be mentioned in this connection. and for which your committee
does not hold itself responsible, were encountered in arranging for the outside
exhibit. and it was only by the most strenuous efforts that this portion of our
display was finally accomplished, and as a general result the demonstration work
of this division was necessarily abridged, the first period of two weeks, or one-
third the whole time planned, being necessarily omitted entirely.


The outside exhibit. as stated. was accomplished only after overcoming serious
difficulties: nevertheless it should be regarded as a useful and important feature.
It covered demonstration work in plant breeding, corn judging, stock judging,
and slaughter tests displaying the results of experiments in the feeding of ani- ,
mals. These demonstrations occupied two periods, the first extending from
September 11 to September 24. inclusive, and the second from October 3 to
October 16. inclusive. Approximately 50 lectures were given during these
periods by specialists on topics directly related to the subjects above mentioned,
a:nd in displaying methods of instruction 50 students collected from various -
institutions were in attendance on the exhibit from time to time.


It is not too much to claim that this exhibit in all its divisions has been fairly
Successful. This is evident both from the remarks which have been made con-
cerning it by competent judges as well as from the awards granted by the sev-

...a i!~Ei~i[


eral juries. These awards, exclusive of those granted to collaborators, are as
Grand prizes -------------------------------------------------24
Gold medals ---------------------------------------------_ 41
Silver medals --------------- ..---------------------------------- 35
Bronze medals -------------------------------- ---------------- 35

Total ------------- ---------------------- -------- 135


At the last meeting of your committee, held on June 27, 1904, a somewhat
unusual plan was adopted, but it is hoped an efficient and useful one, for exploit-
ing the work of the institutions represented in this exhibit. At that time ar-
rangements were perfected with a magazine writer of recognized ability to
present various phases of our work in some of the leading magazines of this
and other countries, the exhibit itself being made the occasion of these articles
and the center around which they are to be grouped. While none of these
articles have as yet appeared, they are in the process of preparation; and arrange-
ments are definitely made with leading magazines for the publishing of a por-
tion of them. It is hoped that in this way we may be able to reach that part of
the intelligent public, which now knows very little about our work, with digni-
fied and interesting discussions of what we are now doing and of the bearing of
our educational and research efforts upon the social and economic interests of
this country.

The next important question to be considered is what shall be the fate of this
exhibit which has cost so much effort and money. There seems to be a desire
on the part of some that it shall somehow be preserved in a permanent form to
be enlarged and improved as time and occasion permit. It is also suggested
that it be preserved for utilization at other expositions in this and foreign coun-
tries. The various articles may also be returned, with the consent of the Gov-
ernment board, to the institutions furnishing or preparing them. The final dis-
posal of the exhibit is a matter which your committee will have to consider at
no very distant date, concerning which we desire your advice and, if necessary,
your instructions.

Your committee deems it a pleasure to record in this connection its hearty
appreciation of the pleasant relations which have existed between it and the
Government board from the beginning of our official connection. Throughout
all this time this board has given to your committee the most prompt and effi-
cient support. The thanks of the association are due to the honorable Secretary
of Agriculture and to the Office of Experiment Stations under his charge for
indispensable aid in organizing the exhibit in many of its details. We are also
under deep obligations to the officials of the Exposition, especially to Mr. H. J.
Rogers, chief of the Palace of Education, for the facilities which have been
placed at our disposal and for the uniform courtesy with which we have been
treated. The loyal support of the institutions represented in this association
has been a main factor in the success of our exhibit, and we desire to especially
recognize the aid of those institutions which have so generously donated the
time and services of men and which have contributed to the preparation of
materials for display. Without such support from certain colleges and stations
your committee would have been unable to perform the duties devolving upon it.
Your committee deems it a pleasure to recognize in this public way the able
services of Mr. James L. Farmer, chief special agent of the Government board,
who has managed the business affairs of the exhibit with singular tact and
For the Committee.
On motion the report was accepted, and the committee was authorized to take
steps, under regulations established by the-Government board, to close up and
dispose of the exhibit.



The chairman of the executive committee read the following communication
from the National Association of State Universites:
The National Association of State Universities in annual meeting assembled'
sends fraternal greetings to the Association of American Agricultural Colleges
and Experiment Stations, and begs to express its friendly sentiment and its
cordial good wishes for a pleasant and profitable session, and to venture the
hope that these two associations through their annual meetings may be greatly
instrumental in promoting the cause of the highest and the higher liberal pro-
fessional and technical education in the United States.
G. E. MACLEAN, President.


H. J. Wheeler, chairman, presented the following report of the committee on
this subject:
In the course of the past year your committee, as heretofore, has been in cor-
respondence with parties in several States who were interested in the passage
of new fertilizer laws or in the amendment of existing ones.
Arizona, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah have not
yet felt the necessity of legislation in this line. In Colorado and Arkansas
recent attempts to pass such laws have been defeated. The following reports
have been received from some of the other States:
Ex-Director Huston, of Indiana, reports that the existence of the recommenda-
tions of this association was of much assistance in connection with steps taken
to amend the old fertilizer law in that State. Tie law as enacted was made to
correspond to the recommendations in certain particulars, and the other points
were practically all left to the discretion of the executive officer, thus rendering
it possible to make rules in accordance with the recommendations.:
Professor Ladd, of North Dakota, reports that at the last session of the legis-
lature in that State a fertilizer Iaw was enacted and that the bill was drawn
in accordance with the recommendations of this association, which, he says, were
very helpful in the preparation of the bill and in securing the necessary legis-
lative action thereon."
R. E. Rose, State chemist, Tallahassee, Fla., writes that the law in that State
has recently been amended to conform, in so far as possible, with the recom-
mendations concerning uniformity. He adds that the recommendations were
of material service.
Prof. F. B. Mumford, of Missouri, reports that the law in that State has been
amended recently and that the recommendations were of much assistance."
President McBryde, of Virginia, reported, July 4, 1903, that changes in the law
in that State were then being considered and that amendments in the line of
the recommendations were being urged. In conclusion he says: It follows,
therefore, that your recommendations will be helpful in securing the legislation
Director Arisby reports that the recently amended law of Pennsylvania con-
forms very largely in substance to the recommendations.
Director Soule, of Tennessee, states that a new law was passed in that State
in April, 1903. The law was drawn with the object of making it conform with
the recommendations of the associations, but a few amendments were made
not in harmony therewith which it is believed weakened the law. He adds
that it is hoped later to secure such amendments as will make the law conform
to the original draft, and that had it not been for the existence of the recom-
mendations it would probably not have been possible to secure the passage of
the present law."
Director J. F. Duggar, of Alabama, writes, under date of July 7, that in that
State the old law has been replaced this year by a new one which embodies
the recommendations of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and
Experiment Stations and of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists,"
and that "the recommendations alluded to have had much weight in securing
the revision of legislation along this line."
After careful consideration of the subject your committee submits the fol-
lowing recommendations regarding laws regulating the sale of feeding stuffs:


(1) That for the purpose of defraying the expenses of feeding-stuff inspec-
tion the State should preferably make a direct appropriation.
(2) That the following materials should Ie exempt from the provisions of
feeding-stuff laws: Hays and straws and whole unmixed seeds, such as wheat,
rye, barley. oats. Indian (corn, buckwheat. broom corn, pens. and the unmixed
meals of the entire grains of such seeds.
(3) The term "concentrated feeding stuff" should include linseed meals,
cotton-seed meals, cotton-seed feedss, pea mels. cocoanut meals. gluten meals,
gluten feeds, maize feeds, starch feeds, sugar feeds, dried brewers' grains.
Sdried distillers' grains, mnalt sprouts, hominy feeds, cerealine feeds. germ fCeds,
rice meals, oat feeds, corn andl oat chops, corn and oat feeds, corn bran, ground
beef or fish scraps, condiment;al foods. p ultry foods, stock foo d.-%. ptet(d pro-
prietary or trade-marked stock and poultry foods, and all other materials of a
similar nature not included in section 2 above. Where practicable the by-
products from the milling of wheat, rye. and buckwheat should be included
under the requirements of the laws.
(4) That a legible printed statement should be affixed to or printed on each
package containing a feeding stuff named in section 3, giving the net weight of
the package, the name and address of the manufacturer or importer, the name,
brand, or trade-mark under which the article is sold, and the guaranteed
analysis showing the percentage of crude protein and of crude fat and a
maximum of fiber which shall not he exceeded.
The law should provide that the chemical analysis, including determinations
of crude fiber, crude protein, 'and crude fat, shall be made by the official
methods of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
If the feeding stuff is sold in bulk or put 6if in packages belonging to the
purchaser, the agent or dealer shall furnish him with a certified statement of
the net weight of the lot. the name and address of the manufacturer or importer,
the brand or trade-mark under which said article was sold, and the percentage
of crude protein and crude fat which said article is guaranteed to contain as
determined by the official methods of the Association of Official Agricultural
(5) That a certified copy of the statement in section 4, above, be filed with
the executive officer each year.
(6) That the law should contain a penalty, by fines only, for violations of its
The committee recommends to the Association of American Agricultural Col-
leges and Experiment Stations the adoption of the recommendations 1 to 0, in-
clusive, with the suggestion that this or some other committee should be
instructed to use its efforts to secure the end in view by using its influence to aid
in securing uniform legislation in the several States.
Con mit tee.
H. J. WHEELER, of Rhode Island. At the meeting last year your committee
made certain recommendations in regard to feeding-stuff laws in the United
States. This recommendation went to the section on agriculture and chemistry,
and was referred to the general session, and owing to objections which were
made to one clause it was referred again to your committee. The committee
begs leave to report the recommendations made last year with the modification
of section 1. Section 1 read last year: "That for the purpose of defraying the
expenses of feeding-stuff inspection the State should make a direct appropria-
tion, or where this is impracticable a brand tax should be levied. In view of the
experience of Maine and Vermont a tonnage tax is not to be recommended."
Your committee now recommends that this read as follows: "That for the
purpose of defraying the expenses of feeding-stuff inspection the State should
preferably make a direct appropriation." In other respects the recommenda-
tions stand exactly as they did last year.
One other matter was referred to your committee, a communication received
from Doctor Hopkins, of Illinois, which I believe ,i'as presented to the section


on agriculture and chemistry: Shall we say ammonia or nitrogen, phosphoric
laid or phosphorus, potash or potassium?"
Your committee held a meeting in March, 1904, in New York, at which various
matters were under consideration, and at that time It was deemed by the com-
inittee inadvisable, in view of the fact that a large number of the States had
passed laws using the terms phosphoric acid and potash, to go back and undo all
that work and change to potassium and phosphorus.
C. G. HOPKINS, of Illinois. This matter of the terms to be used in connection
with fertilizers, as well as in stating analyses of other matters, as soils and ash,
is now also being considered by the Association of Official Agricultural Chem-
ists, having been taken up by that association at the St. Louis meeting. A com-
mittee has been appointed by that association to consider the entire question of
nomenclature of such materials as require chemical analysis and statement of
the constituents found, and I should be sorry to-see final action taken by this
association at this time. It seems to me it would be well to appoint a com-
mittee to act jointly with the committee from that association to bring in a
joint report at our next annual meeting, rather than to take any final action at
this time. I think our first duty as an association is to the American farmer.
The thing which will ultimately be of the greatest benefit to the American
agriculturist is the thing we should do. I realize we have considerable litera-
ture pertaining to soils and fertilizers in America, and that we have quite a
diversified system of naming the three principal constituents of fertilizers. In
the literature in perhaps one-third of the States they say ammonia, and in
two-thirds of the States they now say nitrogen, under State laws. In nearly
all the State literature we see phosphoric acid when phosphorus pentoxid is
meant, although in any of the other sciences--such as pharmacy and medicine-
when they say phosphoric acid they mean that. The literature which comes
from the U. S. Department of Agriculture says potassium, and not potash, and
it says PO, instead of PO,, so there is by no means perfect harmony in the
conditions we now have. It has seemed to me the longer I have studied the
question of soils and fertilizers the more necessary it is that we simplify this
unnecessarily complicated situation. I suppose many of you have tried to
explain to the practical common-sense farmer why it is we pay for potash (K0O)
when we buy potassium as chlorid (KCI). That is, we value potassium chlorid
on the basis of potassium oxid, although there is no potassium oxid in potassium
chloride. In my own experience I have found that the situation becomes
ridiculous to the common-sense farmer, and scientists are responsible for it.
We persist because it would require a little extra clerical work to go over our
. records and make some changes. Surely we must do the thing which is sim-
plest for the practical man. American agriculture is going to advance as the
farmer understands the business.
H. J. WHEELER. I wish to say that the committee is in most hearty accord
with Doctor Hopkins in his idea of simplifying matters. But this association
and the association of chemists made certain recommendations a number of
years ago and both have been working hand in hand to secure the adoption
of laws in the various States in accordance with a certain line of uniformity,
and many of the States of the Union have already, after long effort, been
persuaded to change their laws in accordance with those recommendations.
To make any change to-day would mean to undo all we have done in the last
eight or ten years. It is quite another proposition to take up the matter of
nomenclature in regard to ordinary station work. I therefore move that the
matter of the nomenclature used in the reporting of experiment station work
lie referred to the section on experiment station work for their consideration.
The motion was carried. (See p. 117.)


E. II. Jenkins, chairman of the standing committee on seted testing. submitted
the following report:
' Since the last meeting of the association the conllittee hial submitted its
revision of the rules for seed testing to a number of those interested in the %,ork
for further suggestions. :and the dual revision of the work has livcln printed
and distributed by the Office of Experiment Stations ais Circular No.. 34. r'visd,
pp. 24, with the title--Rules and1 Apparatus for Seed Testing. It is the lope
of the committee that the methods prescribed will commend themselves to tlose
who are engaged in seed testing and Ie :adopted by them.
The committee will gratefully receive any criticism of the metlods or sugges-
tions for their improvement.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. TI. JEYKINS, Chairnlan.
The report was accepted.

The following report was received from the chairman of the committee on
this subject through the chairman of the executive committee:
Several matters of special interest to all the institutions were referred to
this committee by the convention at its last annual meeting, but as they
appear upon the printed programme it is unnecessary to repeat them here. They
involve matters of the very highest importance to all the colleges in the asso-
elation, and I may be permitted at the outset to express my deep regret that I
am compelled to make only a brief and incomplete report. During all the early
part of the year the condition of my health was such as to keep me under a
physician's care for several months; during which time I was able to perform
only a small part of my own regular duties, and the only outside matters to
which I gave the slightest attention were in connection with meetings of the
executive committee of this association. This word of explanation is due to
my associates as well as to myself, and I hope the personal allusion may be
pardoned. In any case, it is difficult to secure meetings of a committee the
members of which are so widely scattered, and especially when those meetings.
in order to be productive of permanent results, must be made to coincide with
the convenience of officials in one of the great departments of the Government.
Such a meeting, in order to avoid waste of time. should have before it some
definitely considered body of proposals which had been previously submitted
to all the members and which might thus form the basis of definite action to be
proposed to the department concerned. Owing to my inability to give sufficient
consideration to the important questions involved to justify me in trying to
formulate such proposals for the committee no meeting has been called during
the year. but I beg to suggest that even this. unfortunate as it seems, may not
be altogether without its advantages.
The attention of all the colleges has been necessarily fixed to a greater or less
extent upon the working of the system which the War Department is now try-
ing to carry out, and all are probably in a better position to make an estimate
of its advantages and disadvantages than they were a year ago. Considerable
correspondence has been carried on with different institutions relative to special
cases as they arose, and a number of important suggestions have been imuade by
them, some of which may form the basis of future deliberation and action. To
President Fellows. of Maine, special thanks are due for the valuable work that
he has done in this connection.
The chairman of the committee has had two prolonged interviews with the
Chief of Staff of the Army. the first of which resulted in an extension of the
detail of military officers to colleges from two years to three, and the second in
a better mutual understanding of some of the points at issue between the col-
leges and the Department. The position of the Department. stated in the
briefest form, is this. that, since the Government furnishes officers and equip-
ment for giving military instruction, it has a right to expect both a hearty
23880-No. 153--05 --3

- -- -- - -- - - - -

32 "

cooperation and an equivalent return from the colleges; that, since military
instruction is the end sought by the law and by those who are charged with the
administration of it on behalf of the Government, that instruction should be
made efficient, and the colleges should, as far as necessary, organize their ,
schedules of work accordingly; and, still further, that, while these details are
of great advantage to the individual officers concerned, and thus to the entire
military establishment, yet the primary need of the Army is to have its officers
directly at work with their respective commands. The force of this last consid- i
eration will appear when it is stated that 20 per cent of the officers of the Army
are now absent on detached service, and it can be well understood that this fact
is an occasion of very grave concern to the head of the Army. It also serves to
explain the reasons for wishing to detail to colleges no officers but those on the
retired list. a policy which. however desirable from the point of view of the
Army, is utterly impracticable from the point of view of the colleges. There is
one other point up)On which the officers of the Department feel that the necessi-
ties af the situation are not always sufficiently considered by the colleges; that
is, colleges in a few instances have insisted that if they could not have some
particular officer detailed they would prefer to have none at all; and, while the
Department is desirous of considering the wishes of the colleges as far as pos-
sible in each case, it feels that a specific insistence of that kind, without regard
to conditions which may exist in the service, is not reasonable or justifiable.
In response to a suggestion from the chairman of the committee that a meet-
ing of the committee of the association with the Chief of Staff and other officers
ot the War Department might result in a better understanding and more har-
monious action, General Chaffee expressed his very cordial assent and his
willingness to arrange for such a meeting.
GEO. W. ATHERTON, Chairman.
II. C. WHITE. At the last convention the following matters were referred to
the committee on military instruction:
Resolced, That the committee on military instruction is directed to try and
secure some modification of War Department General Orders, No. 94, relating
to military instruction in the land-grant colleges, abolishing the fixed five-hour
per week requirement for military instruction, and allowing such colleges larger
liberty in arranging their programme of weekly exercises.
Resolved. That the committee is further directed to submit to the association
at its next convention a draft of recommendation to be, if approved, urged upon
Congress looking to more complete provision for the military instruction
required of the land-grant colleges.
The report was received and referred to the section on college work and
administration for consideration (see p. 91).


In the absence of A. C. True, chairman of the committee on this subject, his
report was presented by W. M. Hays, of Minnesota, as follows:
WV. n. HAYS. I want to premise this written statement prepared by Doctor
True by stating that this conimittee has been in existence twelve years, and
two of its main objects have been achieved. One is to secure within the Depart-
ment of Agriculture a scheme of indexing agricultural literature; the other is
to have the Library of Congress do the printing, so that institutions and indi-
viduals desiring indexes of different classes of agricultural literature may
secure them at a nominal cost.
The formal report of the committee follows:
The past year has been marked by two important events in the progress of
the work of indexing the literature of agriculture and agricultural science
by the Iepartment of Agriculture: (1) The printing of the first installment of a
card index of agricultural periodicals by the Departnment Library, and (2) the :
publication of a general index to the first 12 volumes of the Experiment Station
Record and Experiment Station Bulletin No. 2, by the Office of Experiment
The card index of agricultural periodicals comprises author and subject i
indexes and already about 7,000 cards have been printed. The periodicals thus

.I .Pi


far indexed are Annales de na Science Agronomique, 1S.S4-1903, Landwirth-
schaftliche Jahrbiicher, 1872-1902, and Die Landwirthschaftlichen Versuchssta-
tionen, 1859-1902.
Any number of copies of each card can he purchased as desired. Arrange-
nients have been made with the Library of Congress for the printing and sale of
these cards, but the indexing and proof reading are done in the Library of the
Department. Circulars of information concerning this work were widely dis-
tributed last March to libraries, institutions, and to individuals interested in
agriculture and related sciences. The result is a list of subscribers which war-
rants beginning the work. and it is hoped that the list will lie greatly increased
after the cards which are ready for distribution have been examined.
The publication of the card index for Department publications has been con-
tinued during the past yeir, ;s usual, and now numbers 7,483 cards in each set.
Libraries and institutions throughout the country continue to apply for the
cards, and frequent letters of ap!preiation of their usefulness are received.
The general index to the first 12 volumes of the Experiment Station Record
and Experiment Station Bulletin No. 2 is a subject index which makes a volume
of 671 pages.
"The index contains about 125,000 entries, arranged under nearly 55,000
divisions and subheads. It covers all of the experiment station and Department
publications received for abstracting up to the beginning of January, 1901, and
nearly all of the foreign literature up to that time It therefore brings the
index of this literature practically down to the close of the year 1900; and, as
it dates from the beginning of the experiment stations under the Hatch Act, it
covers a period of the greatest activity in the development of agricultural
science." The preparation of this index involved a vast amount of painstaking
and tedious labor on the part of the editor of the Experiment Station Record
and his associates, and its successful completion is a very considerable achieve-
The importance of this great work to students, teachers, and investigators is
very great. The demand for it has already exhausted the first edition of 1,000
copies, and a second edition is being printed.
The card index of experiment station literature issued by the Office of Experi-
ment Stations has now reached 25,600.
A list of publications of the Agriculture Department 1862-1902 with analytical
index (pages 623) has been published by the Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office.

Mr. HAYs. It is my private opinion, not a part of the committee's report, that
this association ought to take some active steps through its executive committee
to push matters both as to preparation of the cards and as to their publication
by the Library of Congress.
The report of the committee was accepted.
The convention adjourned to meet at 8 o'clock p. m.


The convention was called to order by J. C. Hardy, of Mississippi, the second
President W. O. Thompson was introduced, and delivered the annual presi-
dential address, as follows:


I. I propose for our consideration this evening a very plain and I trust a
very practical theme, upon which I desire to offer a few remarks suggested by
my own experience and observation. No effort will be made to discuss in any
theoretical way the many interesting questions that pertain to education, but



rather to take a broad and comprehensive view of the field and the institutions
we represent, with such suggestions as may be helpful.
(1) I assume that there is no lack of appreciation of the fact that these in-
stitutions now represent the great national movement in'which both nation and
State are cooperating with a clearly defined purpose of providing such a type of
education as can be readily justified by its relation to the development of our
country. Education is strictly a developmental function in which the State
seems inevitably to take a larger and larger part. Here the logic of the situa-
tion will become sufficiently manifest to warrant a larger participation on the
part of the nation as a matter of national development. If such larger part
should be taken by the nation, the manner in which such increased expenditures
would be made is a matter not now possible of forecast. The varying and
sometimes conflicting interests would probably effect such compromises in legis-
lation as to divert the efforts from what might be regarded as in accordance
with the most approved theory. It. is not necessary to produce here an array of
figures prefaced with a dollar mark in order to assure us of the greatness of our
work. The contributions made by the National Government in the original
Morrill Act have been more or less efficient, depending largely upldn the wisdom
of the States. After all has been said that can be said on that matter, it
remains true that that original act is the foundation on which the colleges
stand. The second Morrill Act is a very clear and definite contribution, in
which there is a renewed and enlarged participation on the part of the Govern-
ment. It is not assumed that the national grants are adequate to the main-
tenance of such colleges as are needed. The smallest States, or the States with
the least amount of undeveloped resources, will find before them problems too
large for an adequate solution with the limited means at their hands. Indeed.
the States where conditions are most unfavorable form the strongest argument
for national aid. Here it is that undeveloped resources are few. and here it
is that existing resources need to be most carefully husbanded. If the National
Government can be justified for undertaking what may be termed the develop-
mental functions of government-and I take it that the history of the past
seventy-five years justifies such undertaking-then it would seem the part of
wisdom to protect the whole country, and to see to it that no portion of the
country is to be so depleted in resources that the maintenance of a population is
impossible. It would seem, therefore, that the National Government might
with every propriety interest itself in the development of the least fertile and
most unlikely portions of the country for the general reason that the nation's
interests are as wide as her territory. This phase of the problem is the more
urgent because it is here that States will be slow to take hold of the problem,
chiefly because they lack the knowledge needed in order to direct them in the
wise application of scientific methods to the problem, and further because such
States are not usually sufficiently aroused as to the relation of research to state
development. On the other hand, the States having a large amount of unde-
veloped resources can readily see the advantage of development, and are so
moved by the prospect of assured profit that they readily make appropriations
for investigation and research as an investment. if not in the interest of science.
(2) We are well aware that there is a great diversity of interest shown among
the States. This interest has manifested itself in some cases by large and gen-
erous appropriations and in others by rather meager provision. There can be
no question about the individual State's right, and I also believe of its duty, to
take up the developmental functions of government and give its own territory
most careful consideration. It is not that in the support of what we would term
" technical education," industrial education," or perhaps better, "economic
education," the State will receive immediate returns upon its investment, for that
is not always true, but that in such long-time investment, calculated to perpetuate
the resources of the State, and to keel the legacy of our fathers as valuable for
our children as it h;as been for us. the State will find ample justification for its
expenditures. Men often debate the constitutionality of certain measures, the
wisdom of them or the. political effect of them. but when they have once been
made and men of a later period see the wisdom of such public enterprise, there is
little disposition to criticise the action. The present movement in agricultural
education has some immediate returns that are a justification, but the complete
justification will be at the hands of our children. It is worth our while to keep
clearly in mind that this expenditure must inevitably increase. I do not suggest
that it will increase with great rapidity, but that the increase of expenditure for
education will go with equal step with the increase of the efficiency of our civiliza-
tion. Indeed, civilization itself as it progresses makes increasing demands upon


the citizens. Irimitive life is very simple and beautiful under primitive condi-
Stions. but under the conditions of a highly organized civilization primitive life
would be decided evidence of degeneration. Civilization brings not only its
opportunities, but its duties as well. Education is therefore a coniitantly expand-
ing problem. These colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts must recognize
that up to date their work is only outlined. They must. then, not only as the
Spreservers of the past, the protetors of the future, but as the designated
agencies of the State, stimulate and develop the possibilities of both land and
men. These institutions therefore stand in a very important relation to society
and must help to solve the problems of practical living for the millions ,f our
industrial classes.
It is not unnatural that in the presence of this large expenditure of money
and of the tendency to increase this expenditure of money as time goes on the
l: thoughts of men should turn to a consideration of the results of this national
movement in education. I have no desire to enter into a discussion that might
S be tabulated in figures. For our purpose here this evening it might be well
to remind ourselves, however, in the tirst place, that this national movement
has given great importance to work in agriculture in the United States Gov-
ernment. The Department of Agriculture now stands as the nation's testimony
Sto the importance of the problems with which it deals. Apart from the move-
ment for these land-grant colleges, it might be seriously doubted whether there
could have been such a development of the nation's work as is now organized
in the Department of Agriculture. We recognize the importance of the work
undertaken by the Government and also the generosity toward the States as
shown in the two Morrill acts. We can not fail to recognize the helpful coop-
eration of the Department of Agriculture with the colleges and stations. Too
much could not easily be said in praise of this work. On the other hand, we
are quite as much under obligation to recognize the helpful attitude of the sev-
eral States in making possible the highest efficiency of this national movement.
They have gone at the matter with a steady purpose and a steadily growing
Enthusiasm. The movement has not been by any means a rural one. Our city
populations have come to see the intimate relation between the development of
agriculture in this country and the prosperity and safety of much of our com-
merce. They have seen how it affects tile quantity of our food supplies, the
health of our people, and the permanence of much of our prosperity. Those of
us engaged in the agricultural colleges recognize, therefore, that our work
could be so incomplete as to be extremely unsatisfactory but for the logical
development at Washington. It is also true that they without us should not
be made perfect. Indeed, every enterprise of this association has made mani-
fest that the interest of the nation, of the States, of the colleges, and of the
people are all one. the work of investigation, the work of supervision, the work
of stimulating and aiding the local enterprises all unite to emphasize to us the
fact that the nation has been pretty well aroused. The further development
of this work must inevitably emphasize the common interest of the entire
country and so lead to an increasing intelligence as to the real unity of the
country. In the large and broad field of the nation's interests the Depart-
ment of Agriculture in its several fields of work may be regarded as the logical
outcome of the Morrill Act and also as the nation's appreciation of the impor-
tance of the colleges and experiment stations. Without design on the part of
anyone there has gradually grown up an institution at Washington which gives
expression to the national ideals, just as the local college expresses the ideals
of the community in which it is located. I am disposed, therefore, to say that
the colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts have fully justified their exist-
ence by the national influences that have been set to work as a consequence
Sof their founding. On the other hand, the results in a local way that have
been realized from these colleges are by no means to be despised. They have
wrought out local problems and stimulated local enterprise. They have trained
some valuable citizens and produced some etficient men and women. This in
itself would be ample justification, but through the agency of these efficient men
and women the resources of the country are not only being perpetuated, but
increased, so that both local and national governments are finding their patri-
mony undiminished. These institutions, while devoted to the cause of educa-
tion, have pointed out the possibilities of increased revenues and trained men
to protect themselves in the strenuous struggle for existence.
The results realized from the establishment and maintenance of these land-
grant colleges are not to be looked for entirely in the graduates of such
institutions or in the renewed interests that may be aroused in either agri-

36 j

culture or mechanic arts. This system of education, which in a way is dif-
ferent from anything else ever undertaken, guards peculiarly the country's
ideals concerning the permanent welfare of the masses of the people. 1 do
not think it could be proved that these colleges came in response to a demand
from the multitude, but they came rather in response to a demand on the part
of a few farseeing men. These men recognized, what I think all now can
readily see, that such institutions would be an efficient agency in cultivating
on the part of the masses of the people an appreciation of higher attainments
and greater excellence in the useful industries of life. It is impossible to
measure the value or the power in such enlightened appreciation. It has
been truly said in connection with the significance of an educational system
in its relation to the progress of civilization, and concerning the duty toward
the government of those receiving it, that we can not appreciate it except by
considering it from the collective point of view. That is to say, in another way,
that the whole people must encourage and maintain a system of education in
order that the individuals may be brought to a greater appreciation of it
and thus saved from their own tendency to degeneration. This elevating I
influence of the land-grant colleges is by no means their least valuable result.
It is not to be forgotten that the benefits of an education to the individual are
proportionately less than the advantages to the other members of a com-
munity. I think we are prone to look upon education from a purely individu-
alistic point of view. We are prone to measure it exclusively for what it can
do for the individual, forgetting oftentimes that what it does for the individual
is but the beginning of its real service. We have not yet entirely escaped
the fallacy that agricultural education is for the farmers only and that the
work of the experiment stations is for the rural districts. It is true that the
primary benefits will be realized first among the people in the rural districts,
but it is equally true and highly important that we recognize the truth that
education of any sort is a social process the benefits of which can not be
confined to the persons engaged in it. Agricultural education touches vitally
every interest of society both urban and rural. The experiment station is the
guardian of the avenues as truly as of the fields.
Since, then, we can not find the full fruits of our system of education in the
fields or in the individuals, we would do well to study its wider importance
and deeper significance. In this connection, permit me to say that the very
creditable exhibit of the colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts at St. Louis
has, in my judgment, been a demonstration of the unity of all education, and
in so far as an exhibit could testify, this one-the first one-has shown that
the type of education in these colleges has not only ample justification, but
occupies an important and hitherto neglected field.
In the phase of education now under discussion there is a manifest tendency
to emphasize the materials of education rather than the results of it. It is so
easy for us to fix our minds upon the importance of luxuriant yields in the har-
vest, the splendid types of-live stock, or the margin of net profit that producing
these things will realize. No doubt these are important considerations. I
would not in any degree minimize their importance. Indeed, if we can not
exhibit these as among the results of our education there would be great diffi-
culty in justifying such a movement as a new departure in education. When,
however, we have done all these things we have not received the most valuable
results. It is when the pursuits of life have been made more efficient, and
through the efficiency of these pursuits men are made more efficient, and through
the greater efficiency of men society itself is more efficient and sthble, that
government finds its beneficent purposes realized and its investments justified.
1 regard it as of the highest importance that these ideals shall become the com-
mon property of our people. It is no small problem for these land-grant col-
leges to recognize this problem and deal with it effectively. Our banner must
float in full view of the civilization which we encourage.
II. Turning now from what may be called the problems of ideals, I desire to
give some attention to the more practical problems of operation, and here I bring
to our attention the conditions in farm life that influence for good or evil the eff i-
ciency of agricultural education. These conditions, I dare s;iy, are familiar to
Phe members of this association, but are worthy of a quiet hour at our annual
meeting. Many of them are general, in the sense that they are to be found
wherever agricultural colleges occupy the attention of men. Some are local, in
the sense that they are iuore noticeable in some communities than in others, or
in the sense that they are peculiar to particular communities. I make no effort
to distinguish these, but call attention to such as are within the horizon of my



own observation. These conditions in themselves present a very serious prob-
lem. Indeed, they are a series of problems, some of which seem inevitable and
perhaps incapable of satisfactory solution. Among th. we I mention:
(1) The tendency away from the farn, which is so manifest as to ie the
cause of great anxiety in many communities. There can he no doubt that our cities
have had a large accession of the best material in the rural districts. These
persons, with a certain moral superiority and excellence of natural endowment.
and with manifest inferiority in education, have forced their way to the front
in the cities and have become the living examples of the splendid quality of
body and mind and heart produced on the farm. This efficiency is to be
accounted for in part on the theory of personal taste. Not every person born
on the farm is adapted to farming pursuits. People are disposed to follow their
likes and avoid their dislikes. Th-? ambitions of men oftentimes reveal their
cherished ideals. This, however, does not completely account for the marked
tendency away from the farm. We must recognize the prejudice there is against
the drudgery associated with much of rural life. We must also recognize the
fact that the American people regard the rural accumulations as inadequate
and oftentimes as too slow. We recognize also that the rural population has
not cultivated a just appreciation of its own importance and of its own dignity.
The proverb has it that "every man wants to live in the-next county." This
restless discontent and unwillingness to solve the problems of life in spite of our
surroundings is an evil that grows by what it feeds upon. Something is to be
said also concerning the failure to give young men and young women proper
opportunities for personal advancement. The young business man feels that he
can win when he has opportunity. The business world recognizes that no loss is
sustained by giving such young men opportunity. I do not undertake to discuss
the reasons in the case, but I thins we shall agree that the facts warrant the
statement that many a farmer's boy lacks the opportunity for individual initia-
tive so essential for independent positions. The prospect of dependent subor-
dination being continued too long naturally arouses a young man's ambition for
a position where he can do for himself. He desires to be his own man and to
conduct his own business. There can be no just criticism upon that kind of
ambition. It is essential to the perpetuity of a free people. These several
items named above operate to help the young man in his decision toward the
business world and away from the productive world. The agricultural college
has been unjustly charged with educating young men away from the farm. We
may as well recognize, however, that in spite of the agricultural colleges this
tendency continues. It is no small part of our work to cultivate such a senti-
ment as will retard this tendency. We should not fail, however, to recognize
that under absolutely perfect conditions a large number of rural people should
find their way to the city. We can not make lawyers out of all sons of lawyers.
Just now the ministry is decreasing in numbers, but we can not look to the
manse as the only base of supply. Farmers should not expect all their children
to follow the plow or be queens in the kingdom of domestic economy. Such an
ideal, if realized, would encourage the class system and open the way for a large
amount of inefficiency while closing the door to many and making impossible
some of our greatest achievements. There should be a free movement toward
the city and an equally free movement toward the farm. In other words, farm
life must not be the last resort; it must not be the refuge of necessity; it
should be the life of choice, and I may say of enthusiastic choice. It is evident
that it has not always been such a choice, but in many instances men have
dignified themselves and the farm by deliberately choosing to lead an inde-
pendent life rather than to rush into the miserable artificialities of much of our
city life. It is to the population capable of such a choice that we must look for
the elements that will check the too strong current away from the farm.
(2) This tendency is increased, in my judgment, by the fact that fewer men
are needed in agricultural pursuits. The improvement of machinery has done
something to intensify farming at certain periods of the year and rendered it
unnecessary to keep a large force of men constantly available. The law of
supply and demand would therefore cooperate to reduce the rural population.
On the other hand, the multiplication of machinery in civilization has increased
the demands for men through the opening up of so many new methods of
business. The modern methods of transportation have reduced the hours of
labor, and the specialization of labor has combined to give the laboring popula-
tion a larger share in the earnings of society and a wider distribution of these
earnings. We must recognize also that the improvement of farm machinery
has greatly increased the investments necessary for successful farming. Not


every man can afford these investments. He may not be prepared to use them
intelligently and therefore profitably. The result is in many communities that
we have a large number of sales annually. Men whose lives have been spent
in rural pursuits restlessly turn from the farm to ordinary labor as a means
of livelihood. The result is an absenteeism on the farm. City men and men
of some means have been buying land either as a safe or speculative investment
The result is a species of landlordism on the one hand and of inferior farming ,
on the other. Under such conditions it may not be expected that renters' sons
will remain on the farm and become the sturdy yeomanry of the country,
Neither is it probable that the children of these people will manifest any
great interest in agricultural education. There is a manifest tendency toward
intelligent farming. It is evident that the old methods are often expensive to
the point of wastefulness. Men lacking education are not profitable even as
employees. Much less are they capable of satisfactory service as farm mana-
gers for owners of land. Such people are now moving to our cities for ordinary
day labor, in the hope that their children may sometime become clerks or sub-
ordinates in the great whirl of commerce. They are unfit for the farm, are
prejudiced against it, are unwilling to fit themselves for it, and eventually
swell the population that inhabits the cheapest quarters in our cities or ekes
out a miserable existence in a small village. Such people are not needed on
the farm, and eventually they become superfluous in the town or city.
(3) A third specification among these conditions lies in the difficulty in bring-
ing town or city people to rural life. They are quite willing, many of them, to
live at a convenient distance from the city with a large investment in a small
area of ground for personal comfort nnd a certain type of luxury that only the
country can bring, but they are not easily brought to do the actual farm work
necessary for the development of agriculture. We can not conceive of a country
as a city, made up of town lots of 10 to 20 acres in area. The truth is that the
city-bred people have little conception of what rural life really is. Many of
them have an exaggerated prejudice concerning it. The training in action, asso-
ciations. exciting aniusements, ard all that go to make up the externalities of
city life unite to unfit an individual for the peaceful pursuits of rural living.
Whatever hope there is, therefore. for the rural districts must eventually come
from the rural districts themselves. It is to the population on the farm that we
must turn for the perpetuity and improvement of rural life. The record made
in the past by choice rural individuals in the city has greatly helped and im-
proved the city. I see no evidence that the city will ever help or improve the
country. The agricultural college. therefore, will find one of its most pressing
and important problems in the country itself. It may be very entertaining and
quite fashionable to chat in a city parlor about the beauties of agriculture, but
the real problems of agriculture are on the farm and not in the drawing room.
(-) A fourth specification is the question of profits. There is no doubt that
men desire to make money and that the profit in farming determines the atti-
tude of many for or against this pursuit. Many young men leave the farm
because they see that their fathers have spent a life without accumulating much
money and because the fathers oftentimes complain that they have not made
money. It is not uncommon under these conditions to see a greatly impover-
ished farm associated with an unfilled purse. As an individual question, we
can not blame any man for having a desire for an improved condition. We
can not ask him to stay in a place where there is no prospect of improvement.
If he were willing to do this lie would be fitted neither for a farmer nor for a
business man. It is not, therefore, the personal phase of this question that I
am now suggesting. It is rather the general question of profit in farming as
having to do with the tendency away from the farm. We recognize that the
speculative values in farm lands constitute no part of ordinary farming. The
man who buys cheap land at $10 per acre and holds it for ten years and finds
it worth $30 per acre has not made money by farming; he has made money by
speculative investment in farming lands. As soon as it is realized that this
speculative value is an uncertain quantity the attractiveness of such investments
ceases. Multitudes of farmers can not be and ought not to be speculators; they
should be farmers, and the problem is to make them profitable farmers. In the
consideration of this question we must recognize the impoverished condition of
much of the farming land of our country. To be sure we have recognized this
as a fact. I appeal now to recognize it as a condition; a condition that threat-
ens the permanent usefulness of the farm and the farmer. I find a very wide-
spread belief that much of our faring land never can be made profitable for
the individual farmer. If this is a permanent condition our colleges and experi-


ment stations should take the lead in making those things known and in bring-
ing the Government to a realization of that condition. Surely this impoverished
soil has some place in the national economy. There is some way of turning it to
good account. The law of diminished returns as set forth in our standard
works of political economy makes it entirely clear that the scale of wages is
determined hy the land cultivated without profit, or, to put it in another way, the
land cultivated at the highest rate (if expenditure. In imy judgment the per-
manently profitable condition of farm land is considerably menaced by tlie area
of impoverished soil in the country. So far as my observation goes, but little
attention has been given to this condition as influencing the general conditions
of rural life. I am persuaded, however, that it not only tends to keep down
farm wages, but that it harbors an inferior population and from nearly every
point of view threatens the most important conditions of rural life.
I recognize. however, that not all of this impoverished soil is hopelessly so.
.This leads me to say that intelligent operation of the farm is necessary for any
S margin of profit. This intelligent operation and management is impossible with-
out education. Some farmers have learned the lesson of profitable farming
after an experience of twenty-five years. That experience was valuable, but a
very expensive education. The purpose now is to give to the young farmer,
while in his teens, an education that will enrich him with the experience of other
men gained after a long period of years. In other words, he is asked to invest
very much less money in his education than he will pay for his experience. At
the same time his era of profit will begin at 25 instead of at 50. The movement
for agricultural education is still in its infancy. We are still in the apologetic
stage. We need a propaganda accompanied by a demonstration that shall con-
vince men that intelligence properly applied will produce results on the farm just
as certainly as elsewhere.
As bearing upon this question of profits I recognize that there are other ele-
ments. The question of markets, their availability, the long or short haul, good
roads, methods of transportation, and similar elements often enter into the ques-
tion of the profit of agriculture. The tendency up to date has been to lay the
entire burden of all these things upon the local community. It may be that it
shall always remain so. This may add to the expense of local production while
not making it clear that some obscure places are in any better condition.
The above-named particulars are sufficient to arouse our thought as to the
seriousness of the condition that confronts a growing civilization. If conditions
were not serious there would be no necessity for much ado about the importance
Sof agricultural education or the necessity of government aid in such matters.
The seriousness is not a new phase of the condition. The only thing new is that
the recognition of this condition is more general than heretofore. The awaken-
ing among us of our convictions upon this subject, accompanied by a general
desire to make such improvement in conditions as shall largely justify our
efforts, is a most encouraging feature. This is justification for a stronger appeal
that I can not make to the representatives of the great cause of technical and
industrial education. Let me bring renewed emphasis, therefore, upon one or
two things as we move along.
II. I refer to the well-recognized problems of connecting education with farm-
ing. All here agree that we have passed the time for unintelligent farming.
Indeed, it would have been better if we had never reached that time. The fact
remains, however, that a large portion of the agricultural work of the country
has been a blind trust in the moon, or in Providence, or in luck. The multitudes,
however, have long believed that the farmer's boy needed an education if he
proposed to be a lawyer or a minister. We appeal for an equally abiding con-
viction that the boy who is to be a farmer must have an education. The one
idea seemed to be that the only way to learn to do a thing was by doing it in an
unintelligent and expensive way. The modern idea is that we shall learn to do
things by doing them under competent supervision and in a most economic way.
The agricultural college therefore is an expensive thing in itself, because it
centralizes all the expensiveness of ignorance under an organization that pro-
jposes to remove ignorance and supplant it with intelligence and skill. The
fallacy that unintelligent men can do farm work needs to be entirely removed.
The truth is that it requires less intelligence to dig a ditch for a sewer in the
city than to prepare for a tile drain on the farm. In the one case there is an
association with other laborers, the foreman, and a large amount of concen-
trated supervision. In the other case there is no such association, but a demand
for intelligence that can supervise itself. Even the ordinary operations of the
farm require men who are equal to their own emergencies and who can assume


40 *

their own responsibilities. In the larger questions of farm economy, farm
management, and the many problems that have been so interestingly discussed i
in the meetings of this association there is call for a grade of intelligence, of
executive ability, and of management much higher than is ordinarily appreciated,
1\. Another phase of this appreciation lies in working out an educational
programme that shall do the thing desired. This association has already dis-
cussed and in general decided the main features of what, in its judgment, an
agricultural education should be. Considerable time and labor have been spent
upon the classification and adjustment of subjects and the time to be given to
these several subjects. There is now general agreement that this work has been
well done. I do not look for any serious or revolutionary modification of this
programme. The problem seems to be one of natural and, as I think, necessary i
expansion. I should not ignore the criticism that has been made of agricultural
colleges, although I do not desire to be understood as supporting it. Some of
it has been intelligent, wise, and helpful, but much of it has been erratic, l

well adapted to the ends desired. It has been intimated that our courses of
study do not carefully conform to the spirit of the Morrill Act. It has been said
also that they do not meet the most pressing needs of the agricultural classes.
These are serious statements and in a way constitute a charge against intelli-
gence or the intelligence of those to whom the oversight of these colleges is
intrusted. So far as these objections have any force it may be found that a
more generous provision of money would remove most of them. Agricultural
education is working under ver) serious limitations. Most people and a very
considerable percentage of legislators have failed to appreciate that agricultural i
education is of necessity expensive. It is to be expected that every effort,
however sincere, can not always be wisely directed. We may therefore look
for some unwise use of money and for the abandoning of certain lines of work.
Making due allowance, however, for all these things, there remains the out-
standing fact that the limitations of these colleges have been a serious handicap.
Those in the association who have had most generous support have proved to
be most largely serviceable not only in their own States, but to the general
cause of agricultural education. In the present programme of this association
we are to discuss a number of the questions that bear upon this very problem.
Whether these colleges shall do elementary work or whether they shall do more
advanced work will in many instances resolve itself into a question of money.
There is a sentiment in the country that these schools should confine themselves ,
to what might be termed "practical education." We hear it and read it in the
press that there is no great demand for scientific agriculturists-at any rate, that
such demand could be met by a few colleges. We are told that the higher and
more scientific pursuits should not be abandoned, but that the more important
and practical phases of agriculture should be emphasized and the work in that
direction greatly enlarged. Certain phases of agricultural effort, like the agricul-
tural institute in Iowa and the winter schools in Wisconsin and Minnesota. have
attracted considerable attention and called forth much praise. The tendency,
especially in the West. to take active interest in stock exhibits is quite marked.
On the other hand. severe criticism has been brought upon agricultural colleges
for experimental feeding, which costs three or four times what the stock market
will support. We have heard it said that such education would pauperize every
farmer in the State.
I mention these things not for approval or disapproval, but for the purpose of
calling attention to the fact that the programme of the agricultural colleges is
not yet in its final form.
I call attention to another fact in connection with it, that all these special
features are expensive. The taxpayer is not exclusively devoted to the cause
of agricultural education. We shall probably not reach a point very soon where
we shall be free from adverse and oftentimes captious criticism.
V. As bearing upon this general topic and as Lpresenting another specific
problem, I make reference to the movement for agricultural education in the
rural schools. In general this is the outgrowth of the agricultural college and
follows the line of other educational development in that most improvement has
come from above. The highest education has stimulated the elementary educa-
tion. It is natural, therefore, that the agricultural college should stimulate the
elementary education in the rural schools. This is more than a passing phase
of the subject of nature study. The local influence of a school should always
be for the improvement if its constituency. There is no place where more wide-
spread good can be done for agriculture than in the rural schools. What might



be termed agricultural extension work might well be the subject for considerable
thought by every agricultural college of the country. If it he true, as I think
we all agree, that one of the great functions of the agricultural college is to
arouse and maintain such an interest in agricultural pursuits as shall commend
them to the rural population, I think we shall also agree that the teaching of
agricultural science in the rural schools would be a splendid appetizer for an
agricultural education. The need of this becomes more imperative when we
S recognize that agriculture differs from many other pursuits in that it is not
I disposed to take care of itself. The engineering interests of the country, the
banking interests, the business interests are alert and awake. We may depend
upon them to take care of themselves. Every college of engineering in the
country looks carefully to the commercial demands that are made upon its
graduates. The standard of education, the subjects to be pursued, the kind of
instruction to be given are largely determined by commercial conditions. If
this is true so far as agriculture is concerned, the country lhas not waked up to
it. It seems incumbent, therefore, upon the teachers of agricultural education
to carry on a propaganda. We can save the business of agriculture to our best
people only by putting it on a plane where the best people are demanded in its
management. The recompense of reward must not be entirely forgotten in the
adjustment of this problem. I look, therefore, for a future adjustment in our
programme of studies that shall make provision in our colleges for a depart-
ment devoted to the expansion of agricultural education among the rural districts.
This work will not be confined to efforts in the rural schools, but will be some-
what parallel to the correspondence work now carried on in engineering lines
and indeed in many literary lines. The problem of agricultural education will
not be solved until the agricultural colleges have been brought into close and
vital relation to the agricultural populations. This touch with the agricultural
population I regard as of more vital importance than touch with the schools.
VI. I suggest another phase of this problem in the adjustment of the subject
of military instruction in the colleges. I recognize that this subject is up for
discussion in the programme of this meeting and introduce it here with no desire
to encroach upon that discussion, but for the purpose of bringing it to your
consideration in some of its general features as observed in my own experience.
What is known among us as "General Orders, No. 65," has forced this question to
the attention of many of the schools. Reports from Washington are to the effect
that this order is not complied with in a number, of the colleges. An investiga-
tion into the work actually done raises the issue whether General Orders.
No. 65, is in accordance with the Morrill Act. That act, as generally under-
stood, makes military tactics mandatory in all these colleges. The extension of
the education therein provided is a matter of subsequent development and should
be given consideration in connection with the chief idea of the Morrill Act. It
seems incumbent, therefore, upon these colleges, and perhaps upon this associa-
tion, to seek for a clearer definition of the duties imposed upon the land-grant
colleges by virtue of the Morrill Act. The act provides that certain subjects,
including military tactics, should be taught. The Government has never under-
taken to determine in what manner any of these subjects shall be taught or the
extent of the teaching, or in any way to suggest a schedule, except in the case
of military tactics. This has been undertaken by the Department of War, but I
am at a loss to discover any warrant in law for much that is contained in the
. latest order issued to these colleges.
Without attempting to direct the association, I suggest that it is well to con-
sider here whether the general idea of these colleges be in industrial education
rather than military education. If I am correctly informed, a literal compliance
with General Orders, No. 05, will occupy about one-half of each day in the week
throughout the entire year. The assignment to colleges is usually limited to the
detail of a single officer. Where the attendance is large and where, as in the
case of the institution in which I serve, there are as many as S00 and sometimes
more in the cadet battalion, it is manifestly impossible for any single officer to
perform all the duties in connection with military tactics. The cadets in these
institutions are not competent to take the place of instructors. All that can be
expected of such cadets would be ability to control in the ordinary movements
of company and battalion drills. Moreover, there is necessity of a constant
change in the roster of the cadet officers, thus making their efficiency more ques-
tionable. The more theoretical and general topics suggested for instruction are
manifestly impossible for such officers. The instruction of the officers and non-
commissioned officers of the organization at the Ohio State University gives the
commandant a class of more than one hundred men. Manifestly that is more


than a single officer can do if he is to meet the requirements laid down. I .
assume that the idea of military education as set forth in the Morrill Act was to-
lay the foundation for the making of soldiers, and not the technical education of.U 1
nrimy officers. The amount of work, the kind of work required, and all other: ...
sul-li questions, therefore, should be determined not by an army ideal, but by t.:......:
conditionss under which these colleges must work. It would seem, therefore, twI
a complete military education is out of the question, and that the work shoulIW
confine itself to the teaching of the important and fundamental principles only.SMI
Not wishing to discuss this question at all in detail, I mention it here for
the purpose of suggesting to the association the necessity of a careful consid-
eration of the place that military tactics should occupy in our programme of
subjects. There is manifestly no uniformity of practice among the colleges.
Moreover, the War Department has insisted upon a strict compliance with
General Orders, No. 65. In former years this association has waited upon the
authorities with reference to this subject. It would seem now more than ever
incumbent upon us to make further investigation of the subject and for the
association to take up such methods as shall bring about a general uniformity.
This matter, in my judgment, should not be left to a single-handed controversy
between a particular college and the War Department.
By way of conclusion, I now desire to suggest to the association that the
expansion of the type of education for which these colleges stand is a pressing
necessity. The more civilization itself develops the more imperative will be
the demands for education. Moreover it is to be expected that with the devel-
opment of civilization the expenditure for protective purposes will relatively i
decrease, while the expenditures for the developmental functions of the Govern-
ment will steadily increase. Education is the most important of all the devel- Il
opmnental functions in which the Government engages. I lay it down, therefore,
as almost a self-evident truth that the tendency of the State in the matter of
education is permanent and that the extent of the work is sure to increase.
This applies to the movement for public schools, for State universities, and for
all other types of public education. Now, these land-grant colleges, whether i
separate institutions or whether associated with State universities, represent a
distinct type of education, whose importance will not decrease, but whose work
will expand with the development of our civilization. Indeed, a good argu-
ment could be made to show that these colleges are more closely related to the
progress of civilization than any other type. But passing that argument, I
wish only to impress upon ourselves at this time the fact that we are engaged
in a work that shall be greatly increased in the future. There ought to be,
therefore, more concerted action possible among these schools. At any rate I
suggest that there ought to be from this time on a vigorous discussion of our
relation to the expanding civilization in which we live and of the ways and
means by which these colleges shall be brought to the highest efficiency. The I
States should be brought to realize that all provisions for these colleges are for
the present only. They are a part of the State and of the nation and are truly.
national colleges located within the States for national development. Their
future is certainly an increasing one and their needs will steadily increase.
Let us appreciate our opportunity and bring to the people of this country a i
realization, not only of the importance of the work done, but the duty of giving
these colleges adequate support.
On motion, the convention adjourned to meet the next morning at 9 o'clock.


The association was called to order at 9 o'clock a. m. by the president.


H. C. WHITE. The executive committee called attention in its report yester-
day to the sad occurrence of the death of Major Alvord. I now move that a
committee of three, consisting of President Patterson, of Kentucky; Director i
Henry, of Wisconsin, and Director Armsby. of Pennsylvania, be selected to
prepare suitable resolutions of regret concerning the death of Major Alvord.
The motion was seconded and carried.

I. 43


H. P. Arnsby. of Pennsylvania. offered the following resolution:
RIcfmI'red. Tliat the executive cofmilittee he instructed to continue its efforts to
secure the passage by ('Cngress of the bill increasing the alppropriation to tie
agricultural experiment stations and the miniil! school bill.
On motion of W. A. Henry. of Wisconsin. the executive coinmittee was in-
Sstructed to appoint a tiue for the discussion ()f this subject (see p. G4).


The question of the status of standing cominittees was briefly discussed and
the matter was referred to the executive co'niittee for report at the next
S convention.

SThe report of the committee on this subject. which discussed The teaching
of agriculture in the rural common schools," was read by II. T. French, of Idaho,
in the absence of the chairman of the committee, A. ('. True, as follows:
In accordance with the apparent wishes of the association as expressed in an
informal discussion of the report of this committee at the meeting in Washing-
ton last November, this ninth report of the committee on methods of teaching
agriculture a is devoted to a discussion on the feasibility of teaching agriculture
in the rural common schools, and suggestions regarding the nature and extent
of such teaching. In this discussion. the term "common schools" is taken to
mean schools giving instruction in grades below those of the high school, and
the term "rural schools" will include not only the schools in extremely rural
districts, but also those in villages and small towns which draw largely on the
adjacent country for pupils and financial support. It should also be understood
that in this report attention is confined to matters relating to the teaching of
agriculture in the rural schools as ordinarily organized in our public school
system. We have not undertaken here to discuss the advisability of the estab-
lishment of county or district elementary schools of agriculture as separate
institutions or the courses of instruction suitable for such schools.

Industrial training as a subject for regular instruction in the common schools
has been until recently confined largely to manual training in the city schools.
and even in these schools it is still far from being fully developed. However, the
number of schools in which manual training (other than drawing) is given has
increased rapidly during the past thirteen years. In 18S0. when the Bureau of
Education first began publishing the statistics of manual training in the United
States, there were only 37 cities of 8,000 population and over in which manual
training was taught in the publ-ic schools; in 1902 there were 270 such cities.
SThe schools referred to are those in which other subjects than manual training
are mainly taught.b In 25 of these schools manual training is given in all
grades, including the high school; in 34 it begins wilh the first grade; in 33
it is confined to the high school, and in 206 (more than three-fourths of all the
schools) it is given in some of the grammar grades.
The introduction of manual training into courses of study which were already
crowded has involved problems requiring close and careful study of the needs
of the pupils, and has generally resulted in greatly increasing the efficiency of
the schools in which manual training is now taught. The effort has been made
to retain all the essentials of the branches commonly taught in such schools

a For previous reports see U. S. Dept. Agr.. Oflice of Experiment Stations Buls.
41, p. 57; 49, p. 29; 65, p. 79; 76, p. 39; 99. p. SG: 115. p. 59; 123, p. 45; 142,
p. 63, and Circs. 32, 37, 39, 41, 45, 49, and 55.
b There were also, in 1902, 163 schools devoted chiefly to manual and industrial


and add the manual training. This has been done by a careful grading of the
pupils, by securing better teachers and text-books, and by judicious and care-
ful elimination of the nonessentials in the various branches.
The time to be given to manual training, so that it will not interfere with.
efficient instruction in other branches, has been carefully considered, and
experiments with regard to this have been tried. Some idea of the time occu-
pied by manual triiuing in some of our larger cities can be gained from the .
following statements: In Boston 2 hours per week are devoted to manual
training throughout the fourth to ninth grades, inclusive, the boys having
drafting, woodworking, and clay modeling, and the girls sewing and cooking.
Manual training in the schools of New York City extends through seven
grades, with a total of 4 hours per week for both boys and girls during the
first 5A years, and -14 hours during the second half of the sixth year and all
of the seventh year. In the seventh and eighth grades of the Washington
schools the girls have one 2-hour exercise a week in cooking and sewing, and.
the boys a similar period in woodworking. In Allegheny the boys have shop-
work 24 hours and drawing 14 hour 'a week for 3 years, and a supplementary
course of 1 year. In Toledo each ward school has one manual training period
of 11 hours a week. The time devoted to manual training in Los Angeles is
two 20-minute periods a week through the first four grades, and three 25-
minute periods throughout the next four grades. The work includes paper i
folding and cutting, raffia work, reed basketry, cardboard construction, sloyd,
drawing, shop practice, sewing, and cooking. In San Francisco manual train- "
ing for boys includes one lesson per week of 50 to 60 minutes in the seventh
and eighth grades. Comparatively few of the schools having manual training I
give less than an hour a week to this work, and the great majority allow 2
or more hours for it. In most cases the work extends over 3, 4, or more
years. The average cost of the plant for manual training in the 270 cities
reporting work of this kind in 1902 (not including manual training high
schools) was $20,000, making a total investment for this purpose of $5,400,000.
The current expenditures for teachers, materials, tools, etc., in 1901-2 were'
nearly $1,000,000. .

More recently there has developed a movement to introduce the elements of
agriculture into the rural schools. This movement has been largely an out- |
growth of the nature study movement which for a number of years has been
encouraged by such agencies as the Cornell University Bureau of Nature Study
and the agricultural colleges in a number of other States, as well as by many
prominent educators connected with other kinds of schools and colleges. Then
came the school garden movement, and in this as in the nature study movement
the city schools have led thase in the country, partly because the children in the i
city schools have taken a greater interest in such work on account of its novelty
to them, and partly because the city schools through better organization and
equipment and special teachers have been able to make experiments of this kind
more readily than the rural schools. In these experiments, as might have been
expected, mistakes were made. Nature study, according to some of its advo-
cates, was to be elementary science, with a long list of scientific names, with
classifications based on stipules, scales, and caudal appendages, and with a
" why for everything. It involved such a universal knowledge of science that
teachers were appalled at the prospect of having to prepare for the innovation. i
On the other hand, some of the advocates of nature study would have no for-
inality, no classification, no plan-whatever came to hand was a subject for
nature study. Facts were to be learned, not because of any bearing that they ii
might have,upon the symmetrical development of the children's faculties, but l
simply'because they were interesting. There was no logical beginning to such
study, no pedagogical sequence, no end. Fortunately there were other teachers ''
and students of education who took neither of these extreme views, but who
saw in nature study an opportunity to bring the children into more sympathetic
and helpful relations with their natural environment, and at the same time
increase their fund of useful knowledge. These teachers, when located in city
schools, have brought to the consideration of their nature study classes the
trees, shrubs, flowers, and vines found around the city homes, in the parks, and ,
in the lawns, and have studied the insects, birds, and other animal life of the
city in relation to this plant life. In the country they have considered the
plants, animals, birds, and insects which surround the farmer and aid or hinder
him in his work, giving much attention to their economic importance and very


little to any marked peculiarities they might chance to possess. Such nature
study forms an excellent basis for the subsequent study of more formal agri-
culture. It has been tried in both city and country schools, and has been found
to furnish nit only a means for arousing and sustaining the interest of the chil-
dren, but also through its economic limitations an outline sufficiently definite
to enable the teacher to know where to stop, and yet sufficiently flexible to
enable her to adllpt it to I wIal conmditions.
Nature study such as this. having an agricultural trend, is about all that has
been attempted in the way of teaching agriculture in the rural schools until
quite recently. Within the past two or three years, however, State superinten,.
dents of public instruction, the officers of some of the agricultural colleges, the
National Educational Association, the American Civic Association, as well as a
number of other organizations and numerous individuals in various official
Positions have interested themselves in the introduction of elementary agri-
culture and gardening in the rural schools. The National Educational Asso-
ciation now has a special committee of educators of national repute considering
this subject. The American Civic Association has one department devoted to
children's gardens and another to rural improvement. Last June, in Chicago,
an organization known as the American League of Industrial Education was
organized to-
"conduct an educational campaign for an industrial public school system
which should include the teaching of domestic science and both agricultural and
manual training in all public schools; to promote the establishment
of school gardens in connection with all public schools, where every child would
be taught to be a lover of nature and of the country, and trained toward the
land as a source of livelihood rather than away from it; to advocate
the establishment of public manual training school farms in every county in the
United States and of as many such manual training school farms in the vicinity
of all cities, by State, municipal, and national governments, as may be neces-
sary to give to every boy the opportunity to learn how to enrn his living by his
labor and to till the soil for a livelihood and get his living from the land."
Some of the State school authorities, officers in agricultural colleges, and
county superintendents of schools have prepared outlined courses in agriculture
which have exerted a strong influence toward the teaching of agriculture in the
rural schools. Such courses have been prepared, for example, in Missouri,
Illinois, and Indiana, and for a group of schools under one superintendent in
Durham, N. H., and vicinity.
The Illinois course in agriculture was prepared by the dean of the college
of agriculture, and gives the following reasons for teaching agriculture in the
public schools:
"(1) To cultivate an interest in and instill a love and respect for land and the
occupation of agriculture.
"(2) To create a regard for industry in general and an appreciation of the
material side of the affairs of a highly civilized people.
"(3) To cultivate the active and creative instincts as distinct from the
reflective and receptive that are otherwise almost exclusively exercised in our
"(4) To give practice in failure and success, thus putting to the test early in
life the ability to do a definite thing.
"(5) To train the student in ways and methods of acquiring information for
himself and incidentally to acquaint him with the manner in which information
is originally acquired and the world's stock of knowledge has been accumulated.
"(6) To connect the school with real life and make the value and need of
schooling the more apparent.
"(7) As an avenue of communication between the pupil and the teacher, it
being a field in which the pupil will likely have a larger bulk of information
than the teacher, but in which the training of the teacher can help to more
exact knowledge."
The course is arranged by months, and gives suggestions for a large number
of experiments and observations bearing on all the divisions of agriculture.
Considerable reading along agricultural lines is suggested, as well as drawing.
composition, and other work intended to correlate agriculture with other school
work. All technical vords likely to be used frequently in this connection are
This course has been in the hands of Illinois teachers one year, and the
superintendent of public instruction reports "an increased interest throughout
the State in the study of agriculture." He says:

....... ......

--------w------w^ ^
,, ,:i
,:" : ,


In nearly every county in the State a good beginning has been made, and in
several counties the interest and progress has been little less than remarkable.
In many rural schools the subject is being studied, following the outline found
on pages 166-180 of the Illinois Course of Study for the Common Schools. Some
of the graded schools are doing systematic and intelligent work along this line
and are conducting in connection with the schools successful school gardens..
That the interest is growing is shown by the many thousand requests for corn
aind seeds, which are received by the secretary of the farmers' institute."
According to statistics collected by the superintendent of farmers' institutes
*in Illinois, fourteen counties report that in nearly all the schools agriculture is
being taught as suggested in the State Course :f Study. and in fifteen other
counties a majority of the schools are attempting this work.
In addition to agricultural work in the schools of Illinois, considerable is done
by the State College of Agriculture, the superintendent and the secretary of
farmers' institutes, and county superintendents of schools to arouse an interest
in farm life by means of clubs of farmers' boys, which are organized in the dif- !
ferent counties for the purpose of conducting experiments at their homes in
testing improved varieties of corn and sugar beets: These clubs hold regular
meetings similar to farmers' institutes, and once a year are given places on the ":
programmes of the county farmers' institutes. Several of these clubs have had
lecture courses, with lectures from men prominent in the agricultural colleges
and experiment stations, and some of them have gone on excursions to different
agricultural colleges. Eight thousand of these boys exhibited corn of their own
raising at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and 1,250 of them drew prizes
ranging from 50 cents to $500. The girls have similar organizations, which are
devoted to the consideration of subjects relating to the farm home.
Similar organizations of boys and girls are also found in Iowa, Ohio, and
Texas, all of them organized under the auspices of the State agricultural col-
leges or of agricultural journals. The membership of the boys' and girls' clubs
in Ohio is nearly 2,000 and in Texas over 1,200, though the latter organizations
are little more than a year old. Everywhere that work of this kind has been
done it has seemed to meet with enthusiastic approval. The boys and girls
take pride in their organizations and in doing in a small way what their parents
do more extensively.
In Missouri the course in agriculture for the public schools was prepared :
several years ago by the State superintendent of schools. This course has been
superseded by a bulletin prepared by the State superintendent of schools and
published by the Missouri State Board of Agriculture in September of the pres-
ent year, entitled Elements of Agriculture for the Public Schools." This
bulletin advocates presenting the subject of agriculture "(1) by experiments
at home and in the field, (2) by studying facts as given in texts and bulletins,
and (3) by school gardens connected with school grounds."
"Teachers are advised to utilize school grounds or gardens near the school as
experiment stations, to have pupils experiment at home and make field observa-
tion.3. and to secure bulletins from the Department of Agriculture, at Washing-
ton, D. C., from the Missouri State Board of Agriculture and from the agricul-
tural college, both at Columbia. The school library should have copies of sev-
eral good texts. Appeal to the pupils' interests along all lines and enlist the
cooperation of the parents."
The course in agriculture, as outlined in the bulletin, includes (1) studies on :i
soil-origin and( composition, kinds, plant food. improvement, rotation of crops,
and experiments: (2) roads-value of good roads, road drainage, artificial
roads, good dirt roads, influence of roads. road laws, and experiments; (3)
studies on seeds and related subjects--germination. vitality, and parts of seeds,
with experiments in corn planting, corn growing, corn judging, selecting seed
corn. and observations and experiments with corn (similar treatment of
wheat) (4) studies of plants-their classification, relation to soils, buds,
twigs, etc.: (5) orcharding and gardening-apples, grapes, berries, home
gardening, commercial gardening. enemies to gardens: (6) study of insects;
(7) stock raising and feeding-horses, mules, cattle, sheep, hogs, and domestic
fowls. Numerous experiments and observations are suggested throughout
the bulletin. Two bulletins have also been issued by the College of Agriculture
of the University of Missouri which are intended for use in the public schools.
One of these is on Plant Propagation and the other on The Principles of Plant
Production-tlhe Seed.
The superintendent of public schools, the College of Agriculture, and the
State normal schools in Missouri are cooperating in agitating the introduction

.': :::
". :** :::aa


of agriculture into the public schools throughout the State. This is done by
addressing teachers' institutes, farmers' institutes, and other public meetings;
by condu'-tih;g summer schools for teachers at the (College of Agriculture. in
which special attention is given to courses which will prepare them for teaching
agriculture, and by conducting regular courses in agriculture at the three Stale
normal schools.
The State superintendent of public instruction of Indiana, in his State Manual
and Uniform Course of Study for the Elementary Schools of Indiana, 1904--5,
includes a nature-study course intended to acquaint the pupil with his environ-
ment and to train him to see and understand the relationship and meaning of
common things." and a course in elementary agriculture. The subjects sug-
gested for consideration in the nature course are largely the plant and animal
life of the farm and the garden. The course in agriculture is simply an outline
intended to guide the teacher, taking up for first consideration plant and animal
products; then the soil, its formation, nature, tillage, and enrichment; and,
finally, plant life. References are given to a number of bulletins and elementary
text-books of agriculture.
The department of agriculture of the University 'of Minnesota has been
actively engaged in promoting the teaching of agriculture in the rural schools,
and its officers have prepared a bulletin on Rural School Agriculture for the use
of the teachers in that State. In Wisconsin the State superintendent of the
public schools and the officers of the College of Agriculture of the University
of Wisconsin have done much for the introduction of agricultural teaching in
the country. One of the results of their efforts has been the enactment of a law
requiring teachers to pass examinations in agriculture. Similar laws have also
been enacted in Maine, Nebraska, North Carolina, South Carolina, and
The training of teachers along agricultural lines is receiving considerable
attention not only in Missouri, as mentioned above, but also in other States.
The College of Agriculture of Cornell University now provides a two-year nor-
mal course in nature study and gardening. In Michigan ten county normal
training schools have recently been opened for the purpose of training teachers
for the rural schools. The course of study recommended for these normal
schools by the State superintendent of public instruction includes agriculture.
The agricultural colleges in Connecticut, Nebraska, and North Carolina have for
a number of years conducted summer schools for teachers, at which more or less
attention has been given to nature study and agriculture. At the Nebraska
summer school in 1904 there were 23 students in nature study and 30 in agricul-
ture. At the North Carolina summer school for teachers in 1904 there were
enrolled 977 teachers, of whom 477 took work in agriculture. The summer
school of the South, conducted at the University of Tennessee with an annual
attendance of from 1,000 to 1,300 teachers from all parts of the South, gives
considerable attention to nature study and gardening.
One thing that has given a great impetus to the movement for the introduc-
tion of agriculture into the public schools has been the improvement of text-
books and works of reference. Within the last year or two a number of ele-
mentary text-books in agriculture have been published, and some of these seem
iery well suited to use in the rural schools. One of the indirect results of the
appearance of these text-books has been legislation in a number of States
requiring the teaching of agriculture in all the rural schools, and adopting text-
books for that purpose. State adoption of text-books in agriculture has been
made in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana. North Carolina, and Tennessee. Every
city and county in Virginia, a majority of the counties in Maryland, about 15
counties in California, and a number of counties in Florida have also adopted
text-books in agriculture for regular use in the public schools. It is estimated
from teachers' reports that at least 12,000 children received instruction in agri-
culture in North Carolina last year. Thus it will be seen that there is quite a
strong movement for the introduction of agriculture into the rural schools and
that this movement is rapidly gaining momentum.

There are many things which have a tendency to hinder the rapid progress
of this movement. One of these is the conservatism or apathy of school officers.
This applies not only to local officers but also to State superintendents of public
instruction, county superintendents of schools, and the officers of agricultural
23880--No. 153--05 ----


colleges in many of the States. Some of these officers doubt the possibility or
wisdom of teaching agriculture in the common schools on account of the lack of
text-books, or the lack of trained teachers, or for some other reason. It is,
however, a notable fact that in the States where such officials are cooperating ''
actively and earnestly in conducting a lively campaign along these lines, agri-
culture is actually being taught with considerable success, and teachers who feel
that they are unprepared in this branch are flocking to summer schools, where
they can make the necessary preparation.
Another difficulty is that the teachers in rural districts are mostly women
with little or no normal training either in the ordinary branches taught in the
common schools or in special subjects. There is no teaching profession in the
rural schools. The salaries are so low that they do not attract those who have
prepared themselves for the profession of teaching. As a consequence, most of
the teachers found in rural schools are beginners or those who have not been
sufficiently successful to be called to positions offering a higher salary. Most
of the men who are teaching in the country are doing so merely for the purpose
of raising money to go away to school or to go into business.
These conditions result in a rapid shifting of teachers from school to school,
which is another serious drawback to progress of any kind. Again, the terms
of school are too short. When a child can go to school only four or five months
in the year there is little time in the few years that he is in school for the study
of other subjects than reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and history.
Before much progress can be made in the introduction of agriculture into the
rural schools much must be done for the general improvement of those schools.
This improvement will be brought about partly by remedying the conditions
already mentioned in the school districts as they are now organized, and partly
through the consolidation of small districts and the organization of centralized
schools, including rural high schools where village high schools are not readily
available for those who can go beyond the grammar grades. The practice of
consolidating schools has already been resorted to in California, Colorado, Con-
necticut. Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Mich-
igan. Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North
Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Washington,
and Wisconsin. Notable movements toward the consolidation of schools have
recently been inaugurated in Louisiana, Missouri, and North Carolina. While
this movement toward consolidation has spread to all parts of the country,
there are relatively few localities in any State in which the system has been
adopted and brought into working order. Hence the full effect of this important
change in school policy has not been telt, even in the States where consolidation
is a feature.
In the localities where consolidation has been thoroughly tried, however, it
has usually met with general approval. It has enabled the school officers to
grade the schools more effectually, thereby opening the way to greatly enriched
courses of study; to lengthen the-term of school; to employ better teachers at
higher salaries and keep them for a number of years, and to employ several
teachers instead of one, each to give instruction in only a few subjects or to
only two or three grades, thereby opening the way to the more continuous and
profitable employment of the pupils' time. It is notorious that in the ordinary
country school, where the teacher has from 25 to 30 recitations in a day and can
not personally direct the study of the children, the latter waste fully half of
their time in idleness or mischief-making. This and many other defects of the
rural common school are remedied by consolidation, and the transportation of
pupils from distant parts of the district at public expense is accomplished at no
additional expense per unit of attendance. The Commissioner of Education, in .
his annual report for 1903, says: "The possibilities of consolidation in the way
of furnishing better and cheaper schools have been fully demonstrated, and such
being the case its general adoption would seem to be only a question of time." "
While consolidation opens the way for the more general introduction of
courses in agriculture in the rural schools, it does not help supply the demand
for teachers competent to give such special instruction. This can only be done
by a more general and cont-erted effort on the part of the agricultural colleges
and schools and the State normal schools, at present through the introduction
of short and special courses in agriculture for teachers, and later through
regular normal courses in agriculture.
Fortunately, the attention of the general school officers throughout the
country is now being strongly drawn toward the needs of the rural schools, and


in many States strenuous efforts are being made to improve tihe general condi-
tion of these schools. Our urban communities are coming to see more clearly
M. that their prosperity is vitally associated with the prosperity of agriculture,

rural as well us tie city schools. Advantage should be taken of the increased
prosperity of many of our agricultural regions to impress upon our farmers the
wisdom of building better schoolhouses, improving the school grounds, increas-
ung the pay of teachers, and introducing the teaching of agriculture in the
country districts as an investment which will greatly aid in perpetuating and
increasing the prosperity they now enjoy and make the lot of their descendants
more fortunate than their own. The agricultural colleges and the farmers'
institutes can have great influence in this direction.


Coming now to consider what should be the aim of instruction in agriculture
in the elementary school and how it should be related to the general scheme of
elementary education as formulated and approved by educational authorities,
we have for our guidance the report of the Committee of Fifteen of the National
Educational Association. In this report it is assumed and argued that the
studies of the school fall naturally into five coordinate groups: (1) Mathe-
matics and physics: (2) biology, including chiefly the plant and the animal
(3) literature and art; (4) grammar and the technical and scientific study of
language; and (5) history and the study of sociological, political, and social
institutions. Dr. W. T. Harris, U. S. Commissioner of Education, in a paper
discussing this report and the necessity for tive coordinate groups of studies in
the schools, says:
"Each one of these groups, it was assumed, should be represented in the
curriculum at all times by some topic suited to the age and previous training of
the pupil."
Continuing, he says:
"The first stage of school education is education for culture and education for
the purpose of gaining command of the conventionalities of intelligence. These
conventionalities are such arts as reading and writing and the use of figures,
technicalities of maps, dictionaries, the art of drawing, and all of those semi-
mechanical facilities which enable the child to get access to the intellectual
conquests of the race. Later on in the school course, when the pupil passes out
of his elementary studies, which partake more of the nature of practice than of
theory, he comes in the secondary school and the college to the study of science
and the- technic necessary for its preservation and communication. All these
things belong to the first stage of school instruction whose aim is culture. On
the other hand, post-graduate work and the work of professional schools have.
not the aim of culture as much as the aim of fitting the person for a social voca-
tion. In the post-graduate work of universities the demand is for original
investigation in special fields. In the professional school the student masters
the elements of a particular practice, learning its theory and its art.
"It is in the first stage, the schools for culture, that these five coordinate
branches should be represented in a symmetrical manner. It is not to be
thought that a course of university study or that of a professional school should
be symmetrical. But specializing should follow a course of study for culture in
which the symmetrical whole of human learning and the symmetrical whole of
the soul should be considered. From the primary school, therefore, on through
the academic course of the college, there should be symmetry and five coordinate
groups of studies represented at each part of the course-at least in each year,
although perhaps not throughout each part of the year."
Discussing the second coordinate group, the biological, Doctor Harris argues
h that it should include "whatever is organic in nature-especially studies
relating to the plant and the animal-the growth of material for food and cloth-
r ing. and in a large measure for means of transportation and culture. This
study of the organic phase of nature forms a great portion of the branch of
study known as geography in the elementary school."
While it is probably true that eight years ago, when this was written, geog-
raphy as taught in the primary grades of the best city schools included all the
studies relating to the plant and the animal that were at that time considered
necessary, it is also true that at the present time much of this study is iutro-



duced under the term "nature study," and the child's, knowledge of the phe-
nomena of plant and animal life is much clearer and more definite by reason of
the concrete methods employed in nature study.
In the average village and rural school nothing approaching adequate instruc-
tion in the biological group of studies has ever been given. Geography, as far
as taught in the primary grades, has consisted almost entirely of text-book
work, and has had in it very little that is concrete or that touches the experience
of the child. Nature study, on the other hand, begins with the concrete-with
the organic life of the school yard, the garden, and the farm. It has, therefore,
a very definite and useful place to fill among the culture studies, particularly
the biological studies of the primary grades. Elementary nature study, together
with an informal study of local geography, might well supersede the formal
study of geography during the first three or four years. This- should be fol-
lowed by Inore formal geography and nature study, the latter to be superseded
by the elements of agriculture when the child is eleven or twelve years old.
Agriculture should not be confused with manual training as taught in the city
schools. Manual training "relates to the transformation of materials such as
wood or stone or other minerals into structures for human use," and draws more
from the mathematical group of studies than from the biological. Agriculture,
on the other hand, is confined mainly to things biological. Its purpose in the
common schools is to awaken an interest in the work and life of the farm, show
the progress being made in the improvement of farming, indicate the rational and
scientific basis of modern agriculture, and give the pupil an outlook toward the
work of the experiment stations, agricultural schools and colleges, and other
agencies for his future education or assistance in his life work.
The motive for teaching agriculture in the rural school may, however, to a con-
siderable extent be the same as that for manual training in the city school-
namely, to bring the child into direct and sympathetic relations with the indus-
trial life of the community in which he lives. Undoubtedly, manual training in
the city school has an outlook toward the shop, factory, and kitchen, and in the .,
same way agriculture in the rural school should be directly related to the prac-
tical work of the farm.


Whenever it is proposed to introduce the teaching of agriculture into the rural
common schools the objection is at once raised that the curriculum is already "N
crowded; there is no time for more. This is true. There is no time for more,
but there is time for better. It would be undesirable and unwise to do away
with any of the studies now regularly taught in the common schools, but it would
be wise to make a more judicious selection of the topics to be included in the
courses in the various branches and omit much which now occupies the time of
the pupils but which is not likely ever to be of use to them. Prof. Frank M.
McMurray, of the Teachers' College of Columbia University, in a recent article
discussing Advisable Omissions from the Elementary Curriculum, and the
basis for them,a says, Life is too full of large specific ends to be attained to
allow time for work that has no really tangible object." As a basis for the
rejection of subject-matter from school courses he holds to the following propo-
"(1) Whatever can not be shown td have a plain relation to some real need of
life, whether it be aesthetic, ethical, or utilitarian in the narrower sense, must be
"(2) Whatever is not reasonably within the child's comprehension, likewise.
"(3) Whatever is unlikely to appeal to his interest; unless it is positively
demanded for the first very weighty reason.
"(4) Whatever topics and details are so isolated or irrelevant that they fall
to be a part of any series or chain of ideas, and therefore fail to be necessary
for the appreciation of any large point. This standard, however, not to apply
to the three R's and spelling."
lie does not favor the entire omission of any subject now taught in the ele-
mentary schools, but does recommend the omission of particular topics and
details. Omission, however, is not the only remedy that he suggests for the

a Ed. Rev., 27 (1904), No. 5, p. 478.

.. .:i

crowded condition of the elementary school curriculum. In the last paragraph
of this article lie says:
In conclusion, although some large topics should be omitted, reform in the
main is not to be effected by lopping off here and there. but by changing the
present aggregation of ideas in each study to an organized body of thought. It
is not the task of grade teachers nor of scientists. but of the most advanced and
ablest students of education, who are as well posted in subject-mnatter as in the
principles of education itself. Even these have more than a life problem in
such a task."
It is along lines such as these that the curriculum of the rural schools may be
so far improved that there will lie ample space for the teaching of agriculture in
an effective way. Just as the courses in the city schools have been improved
iand enriched by the introduction of manual training, so the teaching of agricul-
ture in the rural schools, when once parents and teachers are convinced of its
importance and benefits, will be found to lie both practicable and advantageous.
In a rural school having a curriculum extending over about eight years the
courses in nature study might follow in a general way the brief outlines given
below. In these outlines it is assumed that the nature-study courses will extendiI
over about six years, and be followed by a course in agriculture extending over
two years.

During the first two or three years in school the children should spend a
: short time each week in forming an acquaintance with the birds, insects, towers,
trees, and other animal and plant life of the school yard, the roadside,. and the
wayside pastures and wood lots. This very pleasant and profitable way of
gaining knowledge has been their principal occupation during the two or three
years that they have been running about out of doors at home, and they should
be encouraged and aided to extend their knowledge of the things in nature with
which they are likely to come in daily contact throughout their lives. The
teacher should go with the children on short walks around the school yard and
along the roads during occasional noon intermissions, or on longer trips in the
fields and woods on Saturdays. It would be well if only a few children were
taken at a time; ten or fifteen are all that one teacher can manage on such
occasions. Each trip should be taken with some leading object in view, such,
for example, as a search for cocoons,-or for grasshoppers, or for weed seeds;
but this leading object should not shut the eyes of the children to other things.
Let them see and hear and feel and smell; let them grow in strength as well
as in knowledge. Tell them very little; they should do the telling. Better wait
days and weeks for an answer from the children than tell them now and rob
them of the pleasuree of discovery, provided the subject is within their com-
Nature study at first should consist mainly of observations. The perceptive
faculties should be stimulated and developed. For this reason the exercises
should never be continued so long as to become wearisome to the children. At
first there will seem to be but little connection between the different observa-
tions made by the children, but the teacher should never lose sight of the fact
that very real and definite relationships exist between the different plants and
animals of a given locality and between these things and their inorganic
environment. Gradually, therefore, these relationships should be brought out.
The children should describe and draw the objects seen. This will lead to com-
parison and judgment. Suppose, for example, that the children examine two
trees of the same species, one growing in open ground with an abundance of
plant food and plenty of room for development; the other growing in a dense
forest with little room for either root or branch; one with short, stocky trunk
and dense, symmetrical top: the other with tall, slender trunk and small,
irregular top. By comparing certain well-known features of bark and leaves
the children will readily recognize the two trees as belonging to the same
species, but it will require considerable exercise of the reasoning faculties and
pretty good judgment for them to get at the causes which have brought about
the marked differences between them. Such opportunities to reason and judge
t are frequently offered in nature study, and the teacher should improve every
opportunity to place them before her pupils.
After the first year or two. the time depending on the progress the children
have made, more attention should be given to studying life histories of plants

1 *.


and animals (especially birds and insects), so that these may be recognized in
all stages of their development, and their economic relations determined.
This will enable the pupils to decide whether a given species is mainly
beneficial or harmful and will set them to thinking about means of per-
petuating or exterminating the species. This last consideration is the one
which mainly determines the attitude of the farmer toward his field crops,
domestic animals, and fowls, as well as toward the weeds and other pests
that annoy him. When the nature-study teacher and her pupils have
arrived at this point of view they will be in a position to pass over as
unimportant such details as color of hair, length and number of teeth,
number of leaves, length of petioles and internodes, and a hundred other
peculiarities of plants and animals, except as these peculiarities have a direct
bearing upon the perpetuation of the species or upon their usefulness or harm-
fulness to man. Such a point of view and such an attitude toward the things
studied will aid greatly in developing in the children the faculty of critical dis-
cernment. This faculty, according to President Eliot, of Harvard, "ought to
be carefully and incessantly cultivated by school, college, and the experience of
life, for it is capable of contributing greatly to happiness as well as to material
Such critical studies of plants, animals, soils, weather conditions, and other
natural objects and phenomena, in their relation to each other and to man, will
give the pupils an excellent preparation to take up at the beginning of their
sixth or seventh year in school the more formal study of the elements of

The course in elementary agriculture may be given most appropriately during
the last two years in the rural common school. The time to be devoted to this
course will necessarily vary in different schools, but it is believed that on the
average not less than one hour per week during two years will be required to
make the course effective. A well-arranged and up-to-date text-book, with illus-
trations and suggestions for practical exercises, should be adopted as a basis for
this study. A few such books already exist, and an increased demand would
undoubtedly lead to the production of others and the still further improvement
of books of this class. The text-book will in most cases be necessary as a more
or less definite guide for the teacher, who will in all probability be without
special training in agriculture. It will also be helpful to the pupils in giving
a systematic view and in fixing definite knowledge of the subject, and to the
parents in showing them what such instruction really involves and in creating
an interest in the subject-matter of the books.
The instruction in the class room should be supplemented by simple experi-
ments with soils, plants, and animals both at school and at home. Every effort
should be made to connect the instruction with the home life of the pupils. As
an aid to the accomplishment of this aim the pupils should be taken on occa-
sional Saturday excursions to neighboring farms to see improved live stock,
examine plans of buildings, and take notes on methods of cropping and cultivat-
ing. Visits to county fairs, where arrangements could be made to allow the
older pupils to judge some of the live stock, fruits, and grain, and compare their
scores with the work of the judges. would be fine training for the classes in
agriculture. This scheme has been tried with older students of agriculture and
has met with thorough approval. The officers of the fairs could probably be
induced to offer prizes for products grown by the pupils and for other agricul-
tural work done by them; or special exhibits of their work could be made at
farmers' institutes or other meetings attended by their parents. All these
things would tend to create an interest in farm life, and would encourage parents
to make the farm more attractive to the children.
The schoolrooms should be provided with illustrative material consisting of
charts, pictures, collections of specimens (largely made by the pupils), and
boxes, cans, plates. and other inexpensive material which can be used in making
apparatus for conducting experiments. There should also be a school library
containing at least a few standard reference books on the different divisions of
agriculture and the publications of the State experiment stations and the United
States Department of Agriculture.
The text-book of agriculture should give an orderly and progressive treatment
of the elements of plant production, animal production, and dairying, together
with brief and very elementary discussions of a few topics in rural engineering


and rural economies. The following syllabus shows in a general way what such
a text-book might include:



(1) THE PLANT ..,


how plants



Reproduce by

Climate --


Seeds ------



Trace life histo-
ry from seed
to seed, not-
ing pollina-
tion. crosses.
hybrids, etc.

Study these in
relation to
plant growth.

Nature and functions.

Properties. -




Distinguish be-
tween light
and heavy
soils, porous
and impervi-
ous soils, soils
that bake and
those which
do not, etc.


as sand,



Farm ma-
Co mmer-
cial fer-

I Impoverishment.

a In this syllabus the same general arrangement of topics
the higher courses outlined by this committee, but it is of
stood that the treatment of these topics by the teacher in
should be brief, simple, and elementary.

has been made as in
course to be under-
the common school




Classification f Include only the most general classes, such
-- as cereals, grasses, legumes, tubers, etc.

crops. (Study
one or more of
the leading
crops of the

Place in classification.

Culture ----

Preparation of soil.
Selection of seed.
Testing of seed.

from pests.



() FRUITs --- One or more of the leading fruits of the region should be
Studied in the same manner as farm crops.



Horses ..

Cattle ..

Roadsters, etc.


l p Wool.
Sheep Mutton.


Feeding -



Bring out leading char-.
acteristics of one or two
leading breeds of each
type represented in a
given region.


Only the most general state-
ments regarding the food
requirements of different
animals and for different
purposes, and exercises in
compounding rations suit-
able to a given region.

Water supply.
Condition of
as to


Preparation and care of product.
Marketing product.


(Type A more detailed study of the dairy type
(I) THE DAIRY COW ype--- than was given under animal production.
Feeding. care. and management.





(2) MILK----

Composition -

Handling ...

Uses -

{ How determined.
Relation to price.




For consumption as milk
or cream.

For cOnT

Relation to
souring [or
tainting] of

Putting up in
cans or bottles.

Putting in
cans and

For cheese making.

For butter

Creaming .

Churning .


By setting in
By use of sep-

Kinds of

It is not thought that the pupils in a rural common school will be prepared
to study the problems involved in rural engineering from the view point of the
engineer, but it is hoped that there will be some opportunity to examine the
plans alnd structure of good types of buildings, fences, roads, etc.. and to devote
some time to drawing simple plans of farms, buildings, and other works. The
importance of good roads, hygienic water supply and sewage disposal, aud of
caring for farm machinery should be emphasized.

(1) FARM PLANS --------------------

Size and location of fields.
Location of buildings, fences, drains,
and roads.




Water system.
Sewage s> stem.

Irrigating system


Only in regions
where irrigation
is practiced.

(3) FARM MACHINERY ....-...........

Interesting facts regarding the develop-
ment of farm machinery in a way to
encourage the more general use of im-
proved machinery.
The importance of caring for and repair-
ing farm machinery.



Most of the topics under rural economics are too broad to be included in'a
brief course in agriculture, or too complex fr the comprehension of common
school pupils. It is thought, however, that some of the general principles of
marketing and farm accounts might be taught in this connection. The main fac-
tors in marketing will probably be best considered in connection with the dis-
posal of particular products as indicated above under plant production, animal
production, and dairying. The following topics are appropriate for this course:-

Preparation for market.
SChoice of market.
1) MARKETING-.-- Transportation.
Method and cost of sale.

Feed and milk records. This to include only the most
Crop records. general suggestions and a dis-
(2) FARM ACCOUNTS. Breeding records, cushion of the importance of
Inventories. keeping full and accurate rec-
Bookkeeping. words.
The report was accepted.


A paper on this subject was presented by K. L. Butterfield, of Rhode Island,
as follows:
I have been asked to speak in behalf of the study of rural economics." This
term is, I presume. supposed to cover broadly those subjects which treat of
the economic and social questions that concern farming and farmers. The
whole range of social science as applied to rural conditions is thus apparently
made legitimate territory for discussion. In view of the importance and char..
acter of this field of study, it seems wise to approach it, if possible, through the
avenue of its underlying philosophy. Only in this way can the validity of the
.subject be established and its place in agricultural education be justified. I
have' therefore chosen as a specific title The Social Phase of Agricultural
Education." In the treatment of the topic an endeavor has been made to hold
consistently in mind the point of view of the agricultural college.
It is a principle in social science that the method and scope of any social
institution depend upon its function. Therefore the organization, the methods,
and the courses of the agricultural college should be made with reference to the
function of the college. What is this function? What is the college designed
to accomplish? What is its social purpose? Why does society need the agri-
cultural college? Answers to these questions are of two kinds-those that
explain the contemporary and passing functions of the college, and those that
illustrate its permanent and abiding service to society and particularly to the
rural portion of society. The college of yesterday was obliged to train its own
teachers and experimenters; to-day it may add the task of training farm ;i
superintendents: to-morrow it may organize an adequate extension department.
Courses and methods will change as new contemporary needs arise, but there
remains always the abiding final service of the agricultural college-its per-
manent function. This function will be defined in different ways by different
men, but I venture to define it as follows: The permanent function of the agri-
cultural college is to serve as a social organ or agency of first importance in
helping to solve all phases of the rural problem. We shall not attempt at once
to argue this proposition. We must, however, try to answer the question,
What is the rural problem? And in the answer may be revealed, without need
of extended discussion, the mission of
(1) The days are going by when agriculture may be classed with the mining
industries. Soil culture is supplanting pioneer farming. Skill is taking the


place of empiricism. The despotism of the grandfather is passing. Applied
science and business practice have been hitched to the plow. Yet the most
obvious need of American agriculture is better farming. Improved farm land
in the United States gives but $9 of gross return per ncre. The average yield
per acre of corn is 23.5 bushels, whereas a very modest ideal would he double
this amount. The wheat yield is 13.5 lushels per acre: in Germany nearly
twice as much. These are crude. but legitimate, illustrations of our inferior
farming. We must have greater yields of better products, secured at less cost
per unit. The farm problem is therefore first of all a problem of increasing
-the technical skill of our farmers. Science unlocks the cabinet of Nature's
treasures, but only the artist farmer can appreciate and use the storehouse
thus opened to him.
(2) But produce growing is not the only aspect of the far'm problem. Each
effective pair of shears needs two blades; in this case produce selling is the
. other blade. Mere productiveness does not solve the farm question. The
farmer cares less for the second spear of grass than he does for a proper return
from the first spear. Business skill must be added to better farming methods.
The farm problem is also a business question.
(3) The moment, however, we begin to discuss price we enter a realm where
economic factors dominate. We commonly say demand and supply determine
price; but effective demand and effective supply are the resultants of many
forces. The supply of a given product is influenced by the cost of growing in
various locations, by cost of transportation, by competition of other countries.
The demand is influenced by the state of wages, by standards of living, by effect-
iveness of distribution. The farmer may not always control these conditions,
but he must reckon with them. He must know the laws of economics as well
as the laws of soil fertility. The farm problem becomes then an industrial
question, for the farmer's prosperity is influenced most profoundly by the
economic life of the nation and of the world. And in a still wider sense is the
rural question one of economics. The industry as a whole must prosper. It is
of no great moment that here and there a farmer succeeds. The farming class
must prosper. Of course individual success in the case of a su-licient number
of farmers implies the success of the industry, but it is quite possible to have
a stagnant industry alongside numerous individual successes. The farmers as a
whole must be continually and speedily advancing to better economic conditions.
S(4) Nor may we ignore the political factor in the rural problem. Doubtless
the American farmer, like most Americans, places undue reliance upon legisla-
tion. But we can not disregard the profound industrial and social effects of
either wise or foolish laws. The political efficiency of the farmer will have
much to do in determining class progress. Furthermore, the political duties of
farmers must be enforced. their influence must continue to be exerted in behalf
of the general policies of government. It is of vital consequence to our demo-
cratic government that the American farmer shall in nowise lose his political
instinct and effectiveness.
(5) The consideration of the political phase of the question leads us to the
heart of the farm problem. For it is conceivable that the farmers of this
country may as a class be skilled growers of produce, successful sellers of
what they grow, and indeed that the industry as a whole may be prosperous.
and yet the farming class in its general social and intellectual power fail to
keep pace with other classes. It is not impossible that a landlord-and-tenant
system, or even a peasant system, should yield fairly satisfactory industrial
conditions. But who for a moment would expect either system to develop
the political and general social efficiency that American democratic ideals
demand? Even if there is no immediate danger of either of these systems
becoming established in America, we still desire that our farmers as a class
shall secure for themselves the highest possible position not only in industry
but in the political and social organization of American society. Indeed this
is the ultimate American rural problem, to maintain the best possible status
of the farming class. No other statement of the problem is satisfactory in
theory. No other is explanatory of the struggles and ambitions of farmers
themselves. The American farmer will be satisfied with nothing less than
securing for his class the highest possible class efficiency and largest class
Influence, industrially, politically, socially. It is true that industrial success
is necessary to political and social power. but it is also true that social
agencies are needed in order to develop in our American farmers the requisite
technical skill, business method, and industrial efficiency. The influence of
such social forces as education, developed means of communication, the organi-


nation of farmers, and even the church, must be invoked before we can expect
the best agricultural advancement. And the end is after all a social one. The
maintenance of class status is that end.
This analysis of the rural problem is necessarily brief, almost crude, but I
hope that it reveals in some degree the scope and nature of the problem; that
it indicates that the farm question is not one merely of technique, fundamental
as technical skill must be; that it demonstrates that the problem is also: one of i
profound economic, political. and social significance. If this be so, do we need
to argue the proposition that the function of the agricultural college is to help
solve all phases of the problem? We all recognize the place of the college in
assisting our farmers to greater technical skill. By what pleas shall we gain-
say the mission of the college in ministering to rural betterment at -alL-.oints i
whether the conditions demand technical skill, business acumen, industrial
prosperity, political power, or general social elevation? Why shall not the
agricultural college be all things to all farmers?
Assuming that this statement of the permanent mission of the agricultural
college is an acceptable one, the practical inquiry arises. Does the college, as
now organized, adequately fulfill its function, and, if not, by what means can
the defect be remedied? The colleges are doubtless serving the industrial
and social need to some degree. But I believe that it is not unjust to assert
that the existing courses of study in agriculture, the organization of the college,
and the nmthods of work are not adequate if the college is to secure and main-
tain this supreme leadership all along the line of rural endeavor. This is not
criticism of existing methods. The colleges are doing good work. But the
present effort is partial, because the emphasis is placed upon the technical, and
especially upon the individual, phases of the problem. The industrial, the poli-
tical, and the social factors are not. given due consideration. Our present-day
agricultural course, on the vocational side, is chiefly concerned with teaching
the future individual farmer how to apply the principles of science to the art
of farming, and in training specialists who shall make further discoveries either
in the realm of science or in tlhe applicFtion of the scientific principle to the;i
art. Tle technical element absolutely dominates the vocational portion of the
agricultural course. Very slight attention is given to the discussion of other
phases of the farm problem. To meet the needs of the future the whole spirit
and method of the agricultural college must be socialized "-to use an over-
worked phrase for want of a better one. We must get away from the idea that
the individual and the technical aspects of agricultural research and teaching
are the sulticient solution of the farm problem.
When we ask, What are the means for socializing'" the agricultural college? -
the expected answer may be. The study of rural social science, or rural econ-
omy." But I amn pleading not merely for the addition of a few subjects to the
course of study, but for an educational policy. The answer, therefore, will not
be quite so simple. What, then, are the methods by which the college may more
fully assume its fuiition of helping to solve all phases of the farm problem?
(1) The indispensable requirement is that the college shall consciously
purpose to stand as sponsor for the whole rural problem. It is to assume a i
place of leadership in the campaign for rural betterment. Whether or not it
is to be the commander in chief of the armies of rural progress, it should be the
inspiration, the guide. the stimulator of all possible endeavors to improve farm
and farmer. This attitude of mind is purely a matter of ideals, deliberately
formed in the light of the abiding needs of the farming class. It is the intan-
gible but pervasive influence of an object which is perfectly definite even if :
avowedly spiritual. It is a question of atmosphere. It is a matter of insight
The college must have a vision of the rural problem in its entirety and in its
relations. At the college we should find. if anywhere, the capacity to under-
stand the ultimate question in agriculture. We know that this ultimate ques-
tion in agriculture can not be expressed alone by the terms nitrogen, or balanced "
ration, or cost per bushel. but must be written also in terms of the human
problem. the problem of the men and women of the farm.. So we shall see the i
college consciously endeavoring to make of itself a center where these men and
women of tile farm shall find light and inspiration and guidance in all the
aspects of their struggle for a better livelihood and a broader life. The college i .
must avow its intention of becoming all things to all farmers. Whether this
means the study of fertility, of animal nutrition, of soil bacteriology, or
whether it means the consideration of markets, of land laws, of transportation, :
of the country church, of pure government, the college will lead the way to the

: .:



(2) As the first requisite is that of the conscious ideal or purpose, the second
Is one of organization. It seems to me that the socialization of tie college can
not proceed very far until the principle of university extension is pretty fully
recognized. The college must be in constant and vital touch with the farmers
and their associations. Therefore each agricultural college should as rapidly
as possible develop a definite tripartite organization which reveals the college
In its:.threefold function as an organ of research, as an educator of students,
and as a distributor of information to those who can not coiie to tlhe college.
Theaerre really coordinate functions and should lie so recognized. The college
shonultnify them into one comprehensive scheme. The principle of such unity
is perfectly clear; for we have in research the quest for truth, in the education
of students the incarnation of truth, and in extension work the democratization
of truth. Until these three lines of effort are definitely recognized
and organized the college can not work as leader in solving the rural problem.
(3) The social sciences, in their relation to the rural problem particularly,
must receive a consideration commensurate with the importance of the indus-
trial, the political, and the social phases of the farm question. In research, for
instance, the colleges should make a study of the history and status of these
aspects of agriculture. As a matter of fact. we know very little of these things.
There have been but few scientific investigations of the economic features of
the industry, and practically nothing has been done in the more purely social
questions. Here is a great untilled field. How the various farm industries have
developed, a comprehensive study of the agricultural market, the relation of
transportation to the industry, the tendencies as to centralization of farms and
tenant farming; the sociological questions of rural illiteracy, pauperism,
insanity, health, education, the effects of rural life upon character, religious
life in the country-a hundred subjects of importance in the solution of the
farm problem are almost virgin soil for the scientific investigator. It is the
business of the agricultural colleges to assist, if not to lead, in such work of
research. It is work that must be done before the social phases of agricultural
education can be fully developed.
When we come to the course of study we face a question difficult for some
colleges, because the agricultural curriculum is already overcrowded. I have
not time to discuss this practical administrative question. I believe, however,
that it can be worked out. What I wish to emphasize is the idea that in every
agricultural course the social problems of the farmers shall have due attention.
We should not permit a person to graduate in such a course unless he has made
a fairly adequate study cf the history and status of agriculture; of the govern-
mental problems that have special bearing upon agricultural progress; of such
questions in agricultural economics as markets, transportation, business coop-
eration, and of such phases of rural sociology as farmers' organizations, the
country church, rural and agricultural education, and the conditions and move-
inents of the rural population. For the college can not carry out the purpose
we have ascribed to it, unless these subjects are given an important place in the
course of study. We talk about the work of the college in training leaders,
usually meaning by leaders men who are expert specialists or possibly farmers
of extraordinary skill. Do we realize that the greatest need of American agri-
culture to-day is its need of social leadership'. Nothing can be more imperative
than that the agricultural college shall send out to the farms both men and
women who have not only tie capacity to win business success, but who also
have the social vision, who are moved to be of service to the farm community,
and who have the training which will enable them to take intelligent leadership
in institute, school, church, grange, and in all movements for rural progress.
Upon the college is thrust the responsibility of training men and women to
understand the whole lural problem and from the vantage ground of successful
farming to be able to lead the way toward a higher status for all farmers.
Possibly the argument for introducing rural social science into the agricultural
course is chiefly a sociological one. But there is also involved a pedagogical
question of most profound significance. For several decades the educational
camp has been sharply divided over the ancient but recurring controversy
between the Greek cultural ideal and the Roman utilitarian ideal. I venture
the opinion that these two forces of educational idealism will soon reach a
compromise which for all practical purposes will take this question out of
the pale of serious debate. The classicist will concede that the scope of the
term culture may be greatly enlarged and lie may even allow a quite new defi-
nition of the cultivated man. It will be generally admitted, to use Professor


Bailey's phrase, that "every subject in which men are interested can be put
into pedagogic form and be a means of training the mind." On the other hand.
the technical educator will concede that a college graduate in whatever course
should be a cultivated man and that there are certain studies with which all '
cultivated men should have some familiarity. The technical college will, more-
over, be compelled to employ instructors who can so teach the technical subject
that it shall not only give the knowledge and training desired, but shall alao
yield sound culture, become truly liberalizing and vision giving. But a greater :
question remains. As society becomes more fully self-directive the demand for
social leadership increases. Almost instinctively we look to the college-trained:
man for such leadership. We expect him to understand and to help answer the
questions that society has to meet. It is not enough that he do his particular
work well; lie has a public duty. Only thus can he pay all his debt to society
for the training he has had. Yet to-day our technical courses are largely engaged :i
in training individuals who, barring some general culture, are highly specialized I
experts. What preparation, for instance, does the future engineer get in college I
for facing such a matter as the labor question? He is likely to be brought into
close touch with this question. But as a rule he is not especially qualified to
handle it. The point of view of the course he has pursued is technique, ever
technique. He secures in college little incentive and less training for intelligent
performance of his duty as citizen and as member of society. The problems of
mathematics are not the problems of industry, and profound study of chem-
istry gives neither the premises nor the data for sound judgment upon social
questions. These public questions can not be left to social experts. A demo-
cratic society must insist that all its educated men shall be leaders in solving
society's problems. But even the educated men can not lead unless they have
first been taught. I believe society has more to fear from technical experts who
either neglect their social duty or are ignorant of the social problem than it has
from highly trained specialists who have never studied Greek nor mastered i
Browning. Moreover, under modern conditions, have we a right to call that
man cultivated who ignores the great social problems of the age? We face here -
one of the coming educational questions, How can the industrial course be made
to train men for the social leadership the new regime demands? I see no
answer except that the course must he made truly and broadly vocational, and
consequently that large place must be given to social studies, and particularly
to the concrete problems of government, industry, and social life.
If we examine our agricultural course from this standpoint, we shall have to
admit that it has the flaw common to most industrial courses. It is too tech-
nical. It is not truly vocational. It does not present the social view point. It
does not stimulate the student to social activity. It does not give him a founda-
tion for intelligent social service when he shall go to the farm. He should study
agricultural economics and rural sociology, both because rural society needs
leaders and because, in the arming of the man, the knowledge of society's prob-
lems is just as vital as either expert information or personal culture.
(4) To carry out the function of the agricultural college we need. finally, a
vast enlargement of extension work among farmers. This work will not only
be dignified by a standing in the college coordinate with research and the teach-
ing of students, but it will rank as a distinct department, with a faculty of men
whose chief business is to teach the people who can not come to the college.
This department should manage farmers' institutes, carry on cooperative experi-
ments, give demonstrations in new methods, conduct courses of reading, offer
series of extension lectures, assist the schools in developing agricultural
instruction, direct the work of rural young people's clubs, edit and distribute
such compilations of practical information as now appear under the guise
of experiment-station bulletins, and eventually relieve the station of the
bulk of its correspondence. Such a department will be prepared to incorporate
into its work the economic, governmental, and social problems of agriculture.
It will give the farmers light upon taxation as well as upon tree pruning. The
rural school will have as much attention as corn breeding. The subject of the
market-the "distributive half of farming," as John M. Stahl calls it-will be
given as much discussion as the subjects hearing upon production. We shall i
find here a most fertile field for work. The farmers are ready for this step.
They have, as a rule, appreciated the real nature of the farm problem more
fully than have our agricultural educators. Perhaps at times they have placed
undue reliance upon legislation. Perhaps in periods of depression they have
overweighed the economic pressure as against the lack of skilled farming. But



the great body of farmers has rightly estimated the importance of the eco-
nomic, political, and social questions as related to their ultimate prosperity. In
grange meetings, for example, the subjects which arouse greatest interest are
such themes as taxation, the rural telephone, the country school, and business
cooperation. The explanation of all the farmers' movements is that the farmers
believe the farm problem to be much more than a question of technique. They
want light on the whole problem.
The college, chiefly through its socialized extension department, has a mission
also to those professional people whose sphere of work is in the rural com-
munity. The rural educator, the country clergyman, the editor of the country
paper, and even the lawyer and physician who deal with country people should
have a large share in helping to solve the farm problem. They, too, need to
know what the rural problem is. They, too. need the eye that sees the neces-
sary conditions of rural betterment and the heart that desires to help in rural
progress. By some of the same methods that reach the farmers themselves can
the college instruct and inspire these others.
And, finally, the college will take its place as the social organ or agency of
first importance in helping to solve the farm problem in all its phases." The
church, the school, the farmers' organization-all these social organs have their
work to do. None can do the work of the others. But they should work
together. Each should appreciate its own mission and its own limitations;
each should recognize the function of the others, and all should intelligently
unite their forces in a grand campaign for rural betterment. More properly
than perhaps any other agency the socialized extension department of the
agricultural college can act as mediator and unifier, serve as the clearing house
and directing spirit in a genuine federation of rural social forces. Inspired
by the conscious purpose of the college to help at all points in the solution of
the farm question, informed by the knowledge acquired through research into
the economic and social problems of agriculture, aided by a multitude of edu-
cated farmers trained in the colleges to know the rural problem and to lend a
hand in its settlement, dignified by its status as a coordinate branch of the
college activities, the extension department may well act as the chief agency
of stimulation and unification in the social movements for rural advancement.
In this discussion the practical details of carrying out the programme advo-
cated have not been touched upon. When once it becomes a distinct policy
of the college to assume leadership in the movement for rural betterment, such
questions as subject-matter for study, text-books, qualified instructors, and time
in the curriculum will settle themselves. Neither has any attempt been made
to give illustrations; and therefore this paper may seem dogmatic if not aca-
demic, a prophecy rather than an outline of progress, the statement of an ideal
rather than a practicable programme. But I think there is abundant evidence
that a current is setting in toward the enlargement of the work of the agri-
cultural college along the social lines indicated. The rapid development of
farmers' institutes, the growth of other phases of extension teaching, the senti-
ment of those in authority that the experiment station must soon slough off its
work of education and confine itself to research, the holding of occasional con-
ferences for rural progress, in which country teachers and pastors join with
the farmers, the initiative of the college in federating various State farmers'
organizations into one grand committee, the inauguration of several brief
courses in agricultural economics and rural sociology, the cooperation of some
of the colleges with the Carnegie Institution in an investigation into the his-
tory and conditions of agriculture in its economic and social phases, the pride
with which a few of our colleges point to the increasing number of young men
they are sending to the farms-all these facts seem clearly to indicate that the
agricultural college will soon assert its function of leader in the endeavor to
solve all phases of the rural problem.
If the analysis thus far offered is a correct one, the question of rural eco-
nomics" is far from being merely a matter of adding three or four subjects
of study to the agricultural course. It involves the very function and policy
of the college itself. It alone gives proportion to the problem of agricultural
education, because, while distinctly admitting the need of better farming and
the consequently fundamental necessity of the technical training of farmers,
it emphasizes the importance of the economic and political and social aspects
of rural development. And it thereby indicates that only by a due recognition
of these factors, in purpose, in organization, and in course of study, can the
American agricultural college fulfill its mission to the American farmer.



This being the special order for the hour, E. A. Bryan, chairman of the
committee of the association on cooperation, submitted the following report:
Your committee on cooperation between the stations and the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture would respectfully report that satisfactory progress has
been made so far as the details of the arrangement of any cooperative work
undertaken by the stations with the Department of Agriculture are concerned.
Questions, however, of the most fundamental importance, involving the relations
of the two institutions, having arisen, the executive committee of this asso-
ciation. on the invitation of the Secretary of Agriculture, held certain con-
ferences with the Secretary, a report of which has already been made to you.
It therefore seemed expedient to your committee, pending the period during
which the executive committee was dealing directly with the problem, to
submit no further recommendations in the premises. There will doubtless
continue many questions for adjustment which will require the services of a
standing committee, there being a similar committee appointed by the Secre-
tary of Agriculture for that purpose.
E. A. BPYAN, Chairman.
E. A. BRYAN. It has been evident, I think, to all members of this association
that for some years a number of questions have arisen between the experiment
stations and the Department of Agriculture which would require adjustment
It was perhaps with a view to these questions that a few years ago a committee
on cooperative work was appointed by this association, which from year to
year has made reports. These reports were usually brief and related mainly
to certain details of the contracts which might be made between the experiment
stations and the Department of Agriculture relative to any given piece of
cooperative work which might be undertaken by them. As this report indicates,
very satisfactory progress has been made in that direction, but it has not been
so apparent that the whole matter is settled by the arrangement of these small
details. In fact, it has become more and more apparent that there are still
more fundamental questions that remain unsettled, and while the policy of
the committee thus far has been rather to avoid than to court much discussion
in this body. yet the time seems to be ripe for a full and free discussion of the
whole question involved.
The report was accepted.
A lively discussion, conducted with frankness but good feeling, followed, in
which it was maintained that a clearer definition of the respective functions
and limitations of the Department and the experiment stations was essential
to more effective cooperation, and that the complete autonomy and independence
of the stations in administrative and in scientific work, but with increased
funds, would tend to make them more effective cooperating agents. Full con-
fidence was expressed that a way would be found to prevent any apparent an-
tagonism or duplication.
The following resolution, introduced by W. H. Jordan on behalf of the execu-
tive committee, was adopted after debate:
Resolved. That this association emphatically recognizes the great services
which the National Department of Agriculture is now rendering to the science
and practice of agriculture, and to the institutions here represented. by its help-
ful cooperation with the agricultural experiment stations and by its able coor-
dination and wide dissemination of the information secured within itself and
by the experiment stations; and this association views with disfavor any move-
ments which, either by legislation or otherwise, shall tend to disturb or lessen
the mutually advantageous relations which now exist between the Department
of Agriculture and the experiment stations of the several States.
Resolrel. That this association is firmly of the opinion that the continuation
and development of these mutually helpful relations between the Department
and the stations and the maintenance and progress of efficient research in
agricultural science demand that the autonomy and paramount position of the


stations as institutions of research and experimentation be inviolably main-
tained within their respective States, in accordance with the terms and spirit of
the Hatch Act.
Resolred, That in order that Congress may be properly informed as to the
work of the agricultural experiment stations and its great value to agricultural
practice, and to promote satisfactory relations between the Department of Agri-
culture and the experiment stations, the executive committee of this association
is hereby instructed to request a hearing before the proper committees of Con-
gress for the purpose of presenting the work and claims of the agricultural
experiment stations, and to continue conferences with the honorable Secretary
of Agriculture relative to cooperation between his Department and the stations.


L. H. Bailey, of New York, reported for the committee on this subject, as
The committee on graduate work has had two meetings here to discuss the
question of the graduate school of agriculture, such a school as was held two
or three years ago at the Ohio State University. The whole question has been
discussed as to whether it was good policy to continue such a school; and if so.
under what conditions. It has seemed to the committee that it is desirable
to continue the school under the auspices of this association. It has seemed
also that those who conduct these schools should not bear the whole expense.
It is suggested, therefore, that some means be provided whereby the different
colleges in the country should be requested to contribute a small sum each
year to aid in the maintenance of these graduate schools of agriculture. This
can be justified from the point of view that this graduate school of agricul-
ture, held every two or three years, as the case may be, affords an opportunity
for each contributing college to give its men opportunity for advanced work
which they do not have in any other way. It would seem, therefore, that it
would be a good policy for the institutions to help to maintain a graduate
school, in order that their men may have an opportunity to come in contact
with other men. The second part of the attitude of the committee is, I think,
equally important-that is, that there should be some place in the country
where our workers meet other workers. This association has come more and
more to be a delegate association. Every one of us would like to have our
chemists meet other chemists, and so with the botanists, horticulturists, and
other scientists. The committee therefore recommends the following:
(1) That this association reaffirm its conviction that a graduate school of
agriculture is a desirable enterprise to be conducted-in the summer at different
colleges of agriculture in rotation.'
(2) That this school be held every two years, beginning, if possible, with this
coming summer.
(3) That each agricultural college be requested to contribute a small sum
annually-say $25--to aid in the maintenance of such school.
(4) That the committee on graduate study be empowered to determine where
such schools shall be held.
S(5) That it is the judgment of this association, while not desiring to limit
the expenditures to any specified sum, that such schools of agriculture be con-
ducted with the least possible expense consistent with the character of the work.
The report was adopted.
It was suggested that the committee prepare a circular of information regard-
ing the school, to be sent to the different institutions interested.


C. R. Van Hise, of Wisconsin, offered the following:
The chief purposes of the agricultural and mechanical colleges are indicated
by their name. It is the clear intent of the Morrill Act that military .work he
subordinate to these purposes: Therefore, be it
Resolved by the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experi-
ment Stations, that it is unwise to require military drill from each student more
than two times per week during two years; and
Resolved, That the executive committee be instructed to present the views of
23880-No. 153-05 M--5



the association in reference to Order 65 to the Secretary of War, or if it seems
preferable to the executive committee, that they be authorized to appoint a
special committee for this purpose.
The resolution was referred to the section on college work and administration
(see p. 91).

W. A. Henry, of Wisconsin, introduced the following resolution:
Resolved, That the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Expert-
ment Stations, in convention assembled, tender to the Hon. H. C. Adams, of
Madison, Wis., its hearty thanks for his earnest, intelligent, and well-directed
efforts in the last session of Congress to secure increased support for and to
strengthen agricultural research in the various experiment stations of this
Resolved. That we hereby pledge him our hearty cooperation and assistance in
his continued efforts to this end.
Resolved, That the secretary be instructed to send a copy of these resolutions
by telegraph and this be followed by a copy transmitted by mail, and that a copy
of these resolutions be entered in the records of this association.
Referred to the executive committee, reported favorably, and adopted.


E. Davenport, of Illinois, offered the following resolution:
Resolved. That it is the sense of this association that engineering experiment
stations established in connection with land-grant colleges should enjoy the
franking privilege for their publications as well as do the agricultural experi-
ment stations for theirs.
Resolved further, That the executive committee be instructed to institute
measures calculated to secure this privilege.
A similar resolution regarding publications of extension work departments of
land-grant colleges was introduced by K. L. Butterfield, of Rhode Island. Both
resolutions were referred to the executive committee, reported without recom-
mendation, and after debate withdrawn by the movers.
On motion, the association adjourned to meet at 8 o'clock p. m.


The convention was called to order by the president. W. O. Thompson
H. C. WHITE. The executive committee is informed and hereby announces that
the section on college work and administration has given its assent to the reso-
lutions passed this morning concerning the relations of the Department of
Agriculture to the experiment stations (see p. 62), and also to the resolution
offered by Director Armsby directing the executive committee to continue its
efforts in relation to the experiment station bill and the mining school bill
(see p. 43).

J. K. Patterson, of Kentucky, offered the following resolution, which was
reported favorably by the executive committee and adopted:
Resolved, That the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experi-
ment Stations, in convention assembled, extends to Hon. Frank W. Mondell, of
Wyoming, its hearty thanks for his able, wise, and energetic efforts in connec-
tion with his bill pending for the establishment and maintenance of schools or
departments of mines and mining in connection with the land-grant colleges and
other institutions, introduced by him and now pending in the Fifty-eighth Con-
gress. This association is sincerely appreciative of the great service in the .
cause of industrial education thus rendered by Mr. Mondell. and pledges him its
cordial support and assistance in his continued efforts in this direction,

.. "* ::!i ..;**i


Resolved, That these resolutions be entered on the records of this meeting and
a copy be transmitted Immediately to Mr. Mondell.


For the committee on resolutions concerning the late Henry E. Alvord, J. K.
Patterson, the chairman, presented the following:
This association has heard with profound regret of the death of Maj. Henry
E. Alvord. He had not reached the average limit of human life, and many
years of usefulness seemed yet to lie before him when the end suddenly came.
But within the limits of the life allotted to him he had accomplished more than
many of his contemporaries.
Sprung from a hardy New England stock, endowed with a vigorous physical
constitution and an active mind, his education was liberal as well as practical,
and his opportunities were well improved. Leaving the employment of a civil
engineer, in which he doubtless would have earned distinction, he offered his
services ere he had attained his majority to the Government at the beginning of
the civil war, entering as a private at its commencement, and advancing to the
rank of major before its close. Promoted into the Regular Army because of the
effective service which he had rendered as an officer of volunteers, he served in
that branch of the service until 1872, resigning with the rank of captain.
As special Indian commissioner, as manager of the Houghton farm, as secre-
tary of the American Jersey Cattle Club, as professor of agriculture in the
Massachusetts Agricultural College and in New Hampshire College of Agricul-
ture and Mechanic Arts, as president of the Agricultural College of Maryland,
as president of the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, as president
of this association, and as chief of the Dairy Division in the Department of
Agriculture, he identified himself with the progress of scientific agriculture in
America to a degree above and beyond most men of his time.
But it is as one of the founders and one of the members of this association
that we knew him so intimately and so long. To his remarkable power of ini-
tiative, his happy appreciation of opportunities, and his singular forecast of the
possibilities of an organization such as this, its origin and success are largely
due. His intimate relations with members of Congress and his acquaintance
with legislative procedure in committee and on the floors of the Senate and
House were of incalculable value in its inception and in its growth. The
impress of his masterly hand remains upon this association to this day. Dur-
ing the progress of the Hatch Act through Congress in 1887 and of the Morrill
bill in 1890, his activity was indefatigable.
This association therefore desires to place on record its high estimate of his
ability, his integrity, his knowledge of men, his great powers of organization,
his singular fidelity to his cherished ideals, his intelligent directive powers, his
great common sense, and his uniform courage and courtesy in maintaining his
S views of public policy.
A sincere friend, a patriot, a soldier without sectional bitterness or prejudice,
an efficient administrative, and a wise counselor, with a lofty ideal of duty and
of honor, this association discharges a duty to itself by bearing hearty testi-
i: money to his conspicuous worth as a citizen and as a man.
, Resolved, That a copy of this paper be incorporated in the record of this asso-
ciation, and a copy be sent by the secretary with assurance of sympathy and
condolence to the family of the deceased.
On motion of President W. E. Stone, of Indiana, seconded by President J. C.
Hirdy, of Mississippi, the resolutions were unanimously adopted by rising vote.


M. A. Scovell, of Kentucky, reported that the section on experiment station
work nominated to the convention for chairman of that section H. J. Patterson,
of Maryland, and for secretary M. A. Scovell, of Kentucky.


W. E. Stone reported for the section on college work and administration that
that section nominated as chairman R. W. Stimson, of Connecticut, and as sec-
retary K. L. Butterfield, of Rhode Island.
On motion, these reports were adopted.
Mr. Scovell reported as members of the executive committee named by the
section on experiment station work W. H. Jordan, of New York, and C. F. Cur-
tiss, of Iowa, and as members of the programme committee M. A. Scovell, J. F.
Duggar, and C. D. Woods.
Mr. Stone reported as members of the executive committee from the section
on college work and administration H. C. White, of Georgia, J. L. Snyder, of
Michigan, and L. H. Bailey, of New York.
On nomination of J. K. Patterson, of Kentucky, seconded by W. M. Liggett, of
Minnesota, E. B. Voorhees, of New Jersey, was unanimously elected president
of the association for the ensuing year.
By vote of the association the secretary was instructed to cast the ballot of-
the convention for other officers, who were declared elected, as follows:
First vice-president, J. C. Hardy, of Mississippi, nominated by J. L. Snyder,
of Michigan; second vice-president, K. L. Butterfield. of Rhode Island, nomi-
nated by IH. C. White, of Georgia; third vice-president, C. D. Woods, of Maine,
nominated by W. M. Liggett, of Minnesota; fourth vice-president, E. R.
Nichols, of Kansas, nominated by J. H. Worst, of North Dakota; fifth vice-
president, E. Davenport, of Illinois, nominated by M. A. Scovell, of Kentucky;
bibliographer, A. C. True, of the Office of Experiment Stations, nominated by
C. D. Woods, of Maine; secretary and treasurer, J. L. Hills, of Vermont, nomi-
nated by H. J. Wheeler, of Rhode Island.


E. A. Bryan, of Washington, at the request of President Campbell, of the
State University of Oregon, and on behalf of the State of Oregon and the
entire Northwest, presented an invitation to the association to hold its next.
convention at Portland during the Lewis and Clark Exposition.
J. L. Snyder, of Michigan, gave notice that the association would be expected
to hold its convention in 1907 at the Michigan Agricultural College, to celebrate
the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the college.
The session adjourned until 9 o'clock next morning.


The meeting was called to order at 9 o'clock a. in. by the president.


W. E. Stone, for the committee on rural engineering, presented the following
Since the last meeting of the Association of Agricultural Colleges and*
Experiment Stations, considerable progress has been made In the agricultural
colleges in developing courses under the various names of agricultural engineer-
ing. rural engineering, and farm mechanics.
The agricultural colleges of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, North Dakota,
Indiana, New York, Colorado, California, Kansas, Wyoming, and Iowa are now
offering instruction to the agricultural students in the subject under one or
the other of the above names. Minnesota has completed an inexpensive build-
ing which is devoted to the teaching of farm mechanics. Wisconsin has a
large building under construction, which is to be used for the same purpose.
The agricultural college at Cornell, N. Y., is planning a large and commodious
structure to be devoted to agricultural engineering. Illinois has made con-
siderable progress in its farm mechanics course. During the last year the

I, _______________________________________


four-story fireproof farmi mechanics building at the Iowa Agrircultural Col-
lege has been completed, which, with its equipment, cost over $75,0()0, and a
good course in fa'rmt mechanics is offered ill tile college curriculum. In this
course during the spring term 125 students were enrolled.
lu the De'lartlment of Agriculture progress has been made by adding the
department of drainage to the work of the department of irrigation investiga-
tion and changing the title to irrigation aind drainage investigations.
It is to lie regretted that a complete bureau of Irrigation and Agricultural
Engineering has not been established, which was last year suggested by
the committee and recolmmienlded 1 by tile Secretary of Agriculture. The agri-
cultural colleges that have established courses in fa:iri miiec(linii's Ihave' found
that great interest is manifested in the work of studying the principles of tcon-
struction and testing of farin iniplenients. This is true not only of the students
and the farmers, but also of the manufacturers of tlese farl ilmplemlents.
who realize the importance of this work and ire offering friendly coolera-
tion and assistance to the work.
An example of what may be accomplished for the benefit of not only tile
farmers biut the manufacturers will illustrate the nvlue of studying farm
machinery in colleges. The farm mechanics department of the Iowa State
College undertook last year to test various makes of corn planters to note the
accuracy of dropping the corn. It was found that there was considerable
difference between the different makes and types of planters as to their accu-
racy of drop. The attention of the manufacturers was called to this fact, and
while they were at first thoroughly convinced that their planters were accurate
in their work yet they found there was room for improvement, and two firms
acknowledged that they improved the accuracy of drop of their planters 20
per cent after their attention had been called to the defects of the planters and
a remedy suggested. By means of this cooperation with the manufacturers
the farmers of the country are greatly benefited.
While the implement manufacturers of the country are no doubt seeking to
bring out the best possible farm implements, yet their interests are from a
purely business motive. The department of farm mechanics at the various
colleges of agriculture and the Department of Agriculture can do much to fur-
ther the improvement of farm machinery by making impartial tests and report
on the defects to manufacturers. There is at the present time a great demand
for information on the cost and efficiency of pumping machinery for irrigation
purposes. The large projects of irrigation now under way in the \Vestern
States require the pumping of large quantities of water to be lifted from 10 to
200 feet. Thousands of acres of land on the Missouri slope in North and South
Dakota can be irrigated if the water can be pumped from the Missouri River
cheap enough. Fuel is plenty in those sections of the country in the shape of
lignite coal. The Department of Agriculture is performing a service of great
value to the Western States by making experiments and collecting facts which
will give information to settlers upon the best kind of pumping stations to
install to supply the water for irrigation purposes.
During the last couple of years Germany, the Scandinavian countries, and
Holland have issued several bulletins which give very interesting data upon
tests made of domestic as well as American made farm implements. These
bulletins are of great value to those countries, giving as they do the cost of
various implements. the amount of work that can be accomplished, and effi-
ciency with which the different makes do the work. Germany has long recog-
nized the value of agricultural and mechanical training both for the farm and
for the factory. Our own manufacturers are anxious to obtain graduates from
our agricultural colleges who have a knowledge of the requirements of agri-
culture, together with a mechanical training in the designing of farm imple-
ments. Several positions are now open for young men with training along
these lines.
There are so many and varied subjects embraced in agricultural engineering
that the subject is entitled to a more prominent rank than it now holds in our
agricultural colleges. It ought to hold equal rank with the departments of
dairying, animal husbandry, agronomy. and horticulture.
It is exceedingly important at this time that the Department of Agriculture
take steps to organize a bureau or division of agricultural engineering, in order
to aid the colleges which now have a course of agricultural engineering estab-
lished and to collect the data which such colleges are obtaining in their experi-
mental tests for publication and distribution among the farmers, also to carry


on original research and to establish laboratories for practical tests of imple-
ments, a museum for farm implements.
The committee again recommends that the association declare itself in favor
of the creation of separate departments of agricultural engineering in the
colleges; that special efforts be made to assist the Secretary of Agriculture in
his endeavor to extend the work along these lines, and that the executive com-
mittee use all means in its power to urge upon Congress the importance of this
work and to convince them of the necessity of giving the Department liberal
appropriations for these purposes.
W. E. STONE, Chairman.
W. A. HENRY, of Wisconsin. I desire to call the attention of educators along
agricultural lines to the great importance and possibility of agricultural engi-
neering. In Wisconsin we have begun to develop these lines and have created a
department. I find a large correspondence from the farmer turning into that
department already, and we find students turning into the department. We have
two students who have elected farm engineering as their major study. The con-
struction of our farm buildings, their adaptation to the purposes required, the
proper uses of machinery, the drainage of lands, are all to be considered. You
will find. I think, that a department of rural engineering will be a popular one
in your college. Let us put in agricultural engineering and be in touch with our
farmers. When a farmer wants to make improvements on his farm he will come
to the college to get plans, and it should be prepared to furnish them. I believe
this to be a very practical means of helping our farmers.
F. M. TISDEL. of Wyoming. I want to state that last year we established at
the University of Wyoming a four years' course in irrigation engineering, and it
Is going to he one of the most important and useful courses in the college.
The report was accepted.


W. M. Hays, chairman of the committee on this subject, presented the follow-
ing report:
Your committee on plant and animal breeding accepted the invitation of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science, and called a meeting
during convocation week in St. Louis, December 29 and 30, 1903, to organize an
association. At a meeting of this committee held December 28 a form of consti-
tution and by-laws was prepared by your committee suggesting a plan of organi-
zation. Prof. C. F. Curtiss was chosen president and W. MI. Hays secretary of
the preliminary organization. Over fifty were in active attendance at the meet-
ing, and after full consideration and amendment, the proposed articles were
adopted as the organic law. and an organization was effected under the name of
the American Breeders' Association. A printed copy of the minutes is submitted
The plan of organization, like that of the parent organization, consists of a
general organization and two subordinate organizations, the one devoted to
plants and the other to animals.
The following officers were chosen:
President, Hon. James Wilson, Washington, D. C.; vice-president, Hon. L. H.
Kerrick, Bloomington, Ill.; secretary, Prof. W. M. Hays, St. Anthony Park,
Minn.; treasurer, Prof. Oscar Erf, Manhattan. Kans.
Animal section: Chairman. HIon. John Dryden, Toronto, Canada; secretary,
Prof. F. B. Mumford, Columbia, Mo.
Plant section: Chairman, Dr. H. J. Webber, Washington, D. C.; secretary,
Prof. N. E. Hansen, Brookings, S. Dak
This new organization, not having had a meeting since its organization, has -
not yet had the opportunity to appropriately recognize its obligations to the
parent organization nor its future relations thereto.
The fees for annual membership are, for North America, $1; outside of North
America, $2; life membership, $20, with a twenty-five year limit on the mem-
bership of societies and libraries; patronships, $1,000. Honorary memberships
are provided for, and Luther Burbank was given the honor of being the only
life member chosen at the first meeting.


I '


A membership committee was appointed, consisting of a general chairman,
Mr. E. D. Funk, of Bloomington. Ill., and a chairman and subcommitteetnen for
each State and province of North America.
The present membership, including a number of European and Asiatic per-
sons and organizations, nuiimhers about 275, of which 15 are life members. The
expenses incident to the first meeting and the printing and postage and clerk
hire necessary in connection with securing members have required pr;acticnlly
nll the receipts from annual memberships. Sin'me only the proceeds from annual
memberships and the interest income from life membership investments :Ire
available for the payment of current expenses, the association is practically
without funds with which to publish its first annual report.
The plan adopted for securing memberships has not proven either convenient
or effective, and this work is being somewhat more closely centered in the sec-
retary's office, with the chairman and members of the membership committees
and others who volunteer to assist in securing members operating through that
agency. A card index provides a vway of keeping account with each person.
society, or institution to whom an invitation to join is sent, and it is proposed
that those who should join shall be repeatedly solicited, that a positive or a
negative answer may be secured. The multiplicity of organizations to which
breeders and scientists belong makes it difficult to secure members.
The association has to offer as inducements to persons to become members,
besides the privileges and responsibilities of its annual meetings, an annual
report, a business or professional card in the directory in the annual report,
the good offices of the association in having the U. S. Department of Agriculture
and the experiment stations send to its members such public documents as the may show that the members are respectively interested in. No
doubt other advantageous features will be developed.
The association is determined that a large membership shall be secured. It
is in need of help to gain a sufficient number of annual and life member-
ships so that it will be recognized as having been fairly launched as a strong,
conservative, and permanent association. It is also in immediate need of suf-
ficient financial aid to publish its first annual report, for which there is an
abundance of excellent material.

THos. F. HUNT,
Conmm ittee.

The report was accepted and the committee was continued for another year.


The following resolution adopted by the section on college work and admin-
istration was presented and adopted (see p. 63) :
Resolved, That the executive committee be instructed to present the views of
the association in reference to military tactics to the President of the United
States or to the Secretary of War, or both; or, if it seems preferable to the
executive committee, that they be authorized to appoint a special committee for
this purpose.

W. Saunders, Director of Canadian Experimental Farms, read the following
paper on this subject:
It is not my purpose on this occasion to dwell on the history of the progress
of agriculture from early times, but to call attention to some points in connec-
tion with the marvelous progress which has been made in the United States and
Canada in the knowledge and practice of agriculture within a comparatively
recent period.
Agricultural progress in the United States was greatly influenced by the pass-
ing of the land-grant act in 1861, by which, through the liberality of Congress.
provision was made for the endowment of a college of agriculture and mechanic
arts in every State of the Union. The grant was a generous one-30,000 acres
for each Senator and Representative in Congress to which such State was



entitled at the time the act was passed. It provided that the whole of the money
received from the sale of these lauds should be invested in safe securities and
the interest only used for the maintenance of the college referred to.
The individual States were required to furnish the necessary land and build-
ings for these institutions, so that the money received from the land granted
might be preserved in full as a permanent and substantial endowment fund to
be used only for maintenance purposes. Nine million six hundred thousand
acres of public lands were thus appropriated, from which a large fund has
During the next few years a college of agriculture and mechanic arts was
established in accordance with the provisions of the land-grant act in nearly
every State in the Union, the land and buildings being furnished by the State
or by the liberality of the cities or towns in or near which these institutions
were located. In many instances there was associated with the teaching college
an experimental farm. where many useful lines of work were conducted.
Experiments were carried on in connection with dairying and in the feeding of
cattle, sheep, and swine; to test the usefulness of different fertilizers when
applied to crops, and to ascertain the relative value of many varieties of grain,
grasses, and other fodder crops. Varieties of fruits and vegetables were also
tested with the object of finding out in each case the most profitable sorts for
the farmers to grow.
After some years of experience it wai found that a teaching staff could not
satisfactorily discharge its duties to the students and at the same time carry
on experimental work with the care and thoroughness which its importance
demanded. The teaching was imperative, as the students were gathered pri-
marily for instruction. The experimental work was taken up as opportunity
offered, and under such conditions satisfactory progress could seldom be made.
At the same time the importance of experimental work pressed on the minds of
those who realized how much might thus be done to help the working farmer.
Then separate experiment stations began to be organized whose officers were to
give their whole time and attention to this work, and the advantages attending
this course were soon manifest. Public opinion favored the extension of such
work, and in 1887 the Hatch bill was passed by the United States. Congress,
which, by a liberal yearly grant from the Federal Treasury, provided for the
support of a well-organized experiment station in each State and Territory in
the Union.
These stations were rapidly organized, and with the further aid of State
appproriations were soon actively engaged in many useful lines of experi-
ments bearing on the upbuilding of agriculture. During the seventeen years
which have since passed a vast fund of useful information has been accumulated
and given to the farming public in reports and bulletins, and the practice of
agriculture has thus been assisted in every direction. With a small army of
workers engaged in the attempt to solve the various problems which prove a
hindrance to the farmer, progress has been rapid, and in every line of agricul-
tural work, conducted under all the varying conditions of climate found in this
country, patient investigators have made numerous experiments with the laud-
able object of finding out how the practice of farmers might be improved and
the profits of their business increased. Toward this end the teaching colleges
have also lent their influence and aid. The country may well feel proud of
these excellent institutions, which have been established on so permanent a
basis. and the representatives of both these useful organizations, assembled here
to confer together and to discuss matters bearing on the welfare of agriculture,
should feel gratified at the high position to which experimental agriculture has
attained in the United States.
It would be unpardonable were I to fail to refer to the great work which the
Department of Agriculture at Washington has done to stimulate the progress of
agriculture. Much of this work has been of a highly scientific character and
much of it thoroughly practical. The liberality which the country has shown
in the increase of appropriations made for this purpose is remarkable, and, as
far as I know, without a parallel. The sum appropriated in 1886 for defraying
all the expenses connected with all branches of the work carried on by the
Department was $408,810, while in 1903 it amounted to the enormous sum of
$5.013.900. In the meantime the number of officers in the main divisions of the
work has been largely increased and the divisions subdivided. Many new lines
of work have been taken up and investigations conducted in nearly every part
of the United States and its colonies.


In Canada also some progress has been made in the upbuilding of agriculture.
Twenty years ago agriculture was in a very depressed condition in Canada and
much concern thereby awakened. The importance of a prosperous condition of
agriculture there is difficult to overestimate when we consider that about one-
half of the population are engaged in agricultural pursuits and that agriculture
is the mainstay of all other industries. In 1884 the House of Commons
appointed a select committee to inquire into the best means of developing and
Encouraging the agricultural interests of Canada. This committee made a came-
'ful inquiry into the subject, also as to the disadvantages and wants experienced
by farmers, taking evidence from various persons who had made a special study
of the different branches of industry included under the general term agricul-
ture, and of others having a scientific knowledge bearing on this subject. In
the report subsequently submitted to the House of Commons the substance of
the evidence accumulated is thus summarized:
Notwithstanding the great progress made in recent years, it appears that
there is a large amount of defective farming in this country. In the cultivation
of cereals, roots, and grasses there is want of periodical change of seed. selec-
tion of improved varieties, a proper rotation of crops, with a lack of thorough
tillage and a knowledge of the value and suitability of niiiures. The value
of manures is in many cases unheeded, and much fertilizing power is lost
through negligent exposure and the waste of liquid manures. In stock raising
the chief deficiencies are the want of pure-bred males, lack of knowledge of the
adaptability of breeds to particular conditions throughout the Dominion, the
want of better pasture and more abundant tree shelter. In the production of
butter the milk is frequently not properly cared for, nor is suitable attention
paid to the selection of milch cows, and the food given is often deficient in nutri-
ment and in milk-producing qualities.
Low grades of butter are attributable to want of skill in its manufacture
and want of improved apparatus. In cheese making the need of greater skill
and want of scientific knowledge is also felt. In the cultivation of fruit a great
want is experienced in many sections of hardier varieties and of varieties with
improved keeping qualities. There is also a deplorable want of knowledge regard-
ing the insects and diseases injurious to fruit trees."
Careful investigation led to the conclusion that the lack of success was not
due to any fault in the soil or climate of this country nor to a want of industry
among the farmers, but to defective farming, to want of skill and knowledge
in all departments which the farmer of himself was scarcely able to remedy.
The committee recommended that the Government establish an experimental
farm or farms where experiments might be carried on in connection with all
branches of agriculture and horticulture, and that the results of the work con-
ducted should be published from time to time and distributed freely among the
farmers of the Dominion.
The recommendations of this committee were acted on. Information was
first obtained regarding experimental stations then in operation in Europe and
America and the methods pursued by them in their efforts to gain information
valuable to the farmer and early in 1886 an act was introduced and passed
almost unanimously, authorizing the Government to establish a central experi-
mental farm and four branch farms. The central farm was to be located at or
near the capital, Ottawa, where it was to serve the purposes of the two larger
provinces, Ontario and Quebec. The branch farms we-re to be distributed as
One for the three maritime provinces jointly, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick,
and Prince Edward Island; one for the province of Manitoba; one for the
Northwest Territories, and one for British Columbia. The work to be under-
taken at these several experimental farms was set forth in the act and covered
all lines of experiments relating to agriculture, horticulture, and arboriculture.
Within two years the land for the several farms was secured, the necessary
officers appointed, most of the buildings erected, and the farms put in practical
operation. The central farm was located near Ottawa, the branch farm for the
three eastern provinces at Nappan, Nova Scotia; that for Manitoba at Brandon;
the farm for the Northwest Territories at Indian Head, in Assinniboia, and
that for British Columbia at Agassiz, in the coast climate of that province.
In the choosing of these sites the purpose in view was to have them fairly
representative of the larger settled areas in the provinces or territories in whi-h
they were placed both as to soil and climate. In the arrangement of the work
such experiments as were most likely to be beneficial to the larger number of


settlers were in each case among the first to engage the attention of the officers
in charge.
Eighteen years have passed since this work was begun, and during that time
agriculture in Canada has made unprecedented advancement. It is not claimed
that this progress has been wholly due to the influence and work of the Domin-
ion Experimental Farms; much credit is justly due to the various measures
carried on by other useful organizations established mainly by the several
Foremost among these is the Ontario College of Agriculture at Guelph. This
is a well-equipped institution which has done noble work. Farmers' institutes,
live-stock associations, fruit growers' associations, and agricultural and horti-
cultural societies have all proved helpers in this good cause. The commissioner's
branch of the Dominion department of agriculture has also been an important
factor. This branch deals with the cooperative dairy interests, the development
of cold-storage facilities by which certain food products con be carried in good
condition to the markets in Great Britain, the inspection of fruits, seeds, etc.
There is, however, no doubt that the experimental farms established by the
Federal Government have contributed in large measure to the general upbuild-
ing of agriculture in Canada. The progress referred to has resulted in a general
improvement in the condition of the agricultural population all over the country
and in a vast increase in the exports of agricultural products.
There is probably no employment which engages man's attention that requires
more skill and more general information than farming. Competition is keen
throughout the civilized world, and the farmer must turn to practical account
e\ery advantage within his reach bearing on improvement in the quality of his
products and in lessening the cost of their production, if lie is to maintain and
improve his position.
Investigations and experimental research have been conducted on almost
every line bearing on agriculture, and a great mass of important facts has been
accumulated and given to the farming community in reports and bulletins.
When the experimental farms were planned it was intended that they should
become bureaus of information to which farmers could apply from time to time
to aid them in the solution of difficulties which frequently present themselves
during the progress of farm work. Evidence of their usefulness in this way is
furnished in the rapid increase of correspondence carried on with farmers in-all
parts of the Dominion. In 1889, the year after the farms had become fairly
organized, the number of letters received was about 8.000. During the past six
years the average number annually received at all the experimental farms was
6,222. In addition, over 220,000 reports and bulletins have been sent each
year. There is thus a constant flow of information going to Canadian farmers
from all the experimental farms.
It is as a rule a difficult matter to bring about rapid changes in the ideas and
practice of farmers, but as soon as they are convinced that experimental work
is carried on in a practical manner by persons competent to give information,
that it is undertaken in their interest and with the special object of making
farming more profitable, their sympathy and cooperation are assured.
Experimental agriculture covers so large a field that I can but briefly refer
on this occasion to a few important points in connection with the work which
has been done for the upbuilding of agriculture in Canada, such as will indicate
the general trend of the work.
The principles which underlie successful crop growing may be -thus sum-
marized: Maintaining the fertility of the land, adopting a judicious rotation of
crops, following the best methods of preparing the land, early sowing, choosing
the best and most productive varieties, and the selection of plump and well-
ripened seed. Along all these lines many experiments have been conducted.
Continued efforts have been made to gain knowledge as to the best methods of
maintaining and adding to the fertility of the land. In this connection special
attention has been given to investigations to determine the best methods of
handling and using barnyard manure-the universal fertilizer, which is more or
less available everywhere to the farmer.
Experiments continued for eleven successive years have shown that a given
weight of manure taken fresh from the barnyard is equal in crop-producing
power to the same weight of rotted manure. It has also been shown by repeated
tests that fresh manure loses during the process of rotting from 50 to 60 per
cent of its weight. The effective use of barnyard manure so as to obtain the
best results with the least waste is without doubt one of the most important
problems connected with successful agriculture, for on this material the farmer's


hopes of maintaining the fertility of his land and thus providing for a succession
of good crops are mainly based. It is estimated that the manure produced in
the solids and liquids of animals in the United States will probably amount to
about 1,000 million tons annually, and that in Canada to about 100 million tons.
The financial loss involved in the wasteful handling of such a vast amount of
valuable material should impress us all with the importance of this subject.
Tests for eleven years were also carried on with artificial manures to gain
information as to their relative value when used separately or in combination
on nearly all the more important farm crops. The results had from artificial
fertilizers used alone have been disappointing, considering the large proportion
of available plant food they contain. The reason for this lies probably in the
fact that these fertilizers contain no humus and that the proportion of vegetable
matter in the soil has been much reduced by constant cropping and the capacity
of the soil for holding moisture lessened, to the detriment of its crop-producing
The plowing under of clover has been most effective as .nn additional source
of fertility. It increases the store of available plant food by the addition of
nitrogen obtained directly from the atmosphere. It also adds to the mineral
plant foods available by gathering these from depths not reached by the shallower
root systems of other farm crops. It also serves as a catch crop during the
autumn months, retaining fertilizing material brought down by the rain, much
of which would otherwise be lost. It also supplies the soil with a large addi-
tion of humus whereby the land is made more retentive of moisture, and results
in a deepening and mellowing of the soil.
In a series of 14 plats of oats, covering a period of five years, where clover
was sown and plowed under on alternate plats, the plats with clover gave an
average increased yield of grain of about 9 bushels. In a similar series of
plats of barley where grown after clover there was an average gain of 8 bushels
and' 31 pounds per acre. In all these plats there was also a considerable
increase in the weight of straw produced. Proportionate gains have also been
made in trials with Indian corn and potatoes. Many other examples might be
In preparing land for crops different methods are adopted in different parts
of the Dominion. In the eastern provinces the fall plowing of land is now
generally followed, as crops can be sown earlier by the adoption of this method.
On the Northwest plains it has been found of great advantage to summer-
fallow a part of the land each year. This practice conserves moisture,
destroys weeds, and brings the farmer much larger crops. The yield of wheat
on land which has been summer-fallowed will average fully one-third more
than it will on land which has been prepared by fall or spring plowing.
That increased crops result from early sowing has been fully demonstrated
by the tests carried on at the central farm. Experiments with early, medium,
and late sowings were conducted for ten years on plats of one-tenth acre each,
sowing two varieties each year of wheat, barley, oats, and peas. The land
was very uniform and all similarly prepared. Six sowings were made in each
case, the first at the earliest time practicable, the second at the end of a
week, and others at the end of each subsequent week until six successive
sowings had been made. These plats were all harvested and thrashed sepa-
rately and the results recorded. The best crops have been had from the second
sowings, made just one week after it was possible to get on the land; beyond
this delay has resulted in loss, which has become more serious as the delay
has been greater. The average of the ten years' experiments shows that with
wheat a delay of one week after the period named has entailed a loss of over
30 per cent, two weeks 40 per cent, three weeks nearly 50 per cent, and four
weeks 56 per cent of the crop.
With oats a delay of one week has caused a loss of over 15 per cent, two
weeks 22 per cent, three weeks 32 per cent, and four weeks 48 per cent.
In the case of barley a delay of one week has resulted in a loss of 23 per
cent, two weeks 27 per cent, three weeks 40 per cent, and four weeks 46 per
With peas a delay of one week has caused a loss of 4 per cent, two weeks
12 per cent, three weeks 22 per cent, and four weeks 30 per cent.
The results of these experiments have been widely published and farmers
in the East now pay general attention to early sowing.
Another important consideration in connection with successful farming is
the selection of the best varieties of seed for sowing, taking into consideration

i: *"iim


productiveness, quality, and earliness of maturing. That there are varieties
more productive and earlier in ripening than others has been abundantly
During a five years' test of 41 varieties of oats, all of them sown each year
on the same day and on adjoining plates, the results have shown the relative
productiveness of certain sorts. Each year a list has been published of the
heaviest-yielding 12 in the series, and during the whole period of five years
only 15 of the 41 varieties have found their way into this select list, and 9
of these have appeared among the best 12 every year.
Similar evidence has been furnished with spring wheat, 31 varieties of which
have been under trial for a like period. In 'this instance 16 of the 31 sorts
have appeared among the best-yielding 12 during the five years' trial and 9 of
these varieties have appeared each year in that list. The evidence as to per-
sistent productiveness in certain varieties of barley is still more striking.
In the oat plats the difference in crop is large, ranging from 80 bushels to
42 bushels. Spring wheat has ranged from 31 to 16 bushels, barley from 58
to 33 bushels, and peas from 40 to 20 bushels.
The importance of growing those varieties which will give the largest crops is
manifest when we consider the very large areas under cultivation. Taking the
acreage in Canada alone devoted to the oat crop, which is very small compared
with the United States, an increase there of a single bushel per acre to the
average crop adds- to the profits of Canadian farmers over a million of dollars.
But it may be asked, How can farmers procure these prolific strains of seed?
The following is the method pursued in Canada: After careful and continued
experiment has shown that any variety is specially productive and promising, :
this is cultivated on a larger scale so as to admit of the free distribution of
samples among the farmers of the Dominion. This grain is grown chiefly at
the branch experimental faruis in the west and distributed from the central
farm at Ottawa. where the samples can be sent free through the mail. They
are sent out in strong cotton bags, the quantity of oats forwarded to each appli-
cant being 4 pounds, and of wheat and barley 5 pounds, sufficient in each case
to sow one-twentieth of an acre. These samples are sent only on personal :
application, and only one variety can be had by an applicant each year.
Under this restriction the number of samples sent out during the past eight
years has averaged 36,684, requiring about 70 tons of seed annually. Last year
this distribution reached over 40,000 farmers, and the interest felt in it is
steadily increasing.
Not only is the grain sent out of high quality, but it is also thoroughly clean. ,
If a farmer takes reasonable care of the sample he receives, he can soon have -
sufficient seed to sow a large area for himself and have a surplus to sell to his
neighbors. This may perhaps be best illustrated by two or three extracts from
correspondents regarding oats, representing a large number of such letters
received. Similar testimony in regard to samples of wheat and barley could be
A farmer from Dauphin, Manitoba, writes: "'The sample bag of 4 pounds
of oats sent me two years ago gave me the first year 5 bushels. This year we
sowed these on 2 acres, and we got 217 bushels."
A correspondent from Laurel, Ontario, says: We got a sample of oats from
you six years ago, and they gave us great satisfaction. The people about here
think very highly of them, and there are thousands of bushels of them grown.
The farmers are coming here for seed for 20 miles around."
Another farmer from Carleton Place. Ontario, says: "The oats I got from
the experimental farit, some years ago have been worth a great deal of money
to me, in increased yield and increased price, as -I have sold quite a quantity
for seed."
Another farmer from Piedmont, Nova Scotia, writes: "The oats, of which a
sample was received three years ago, proved an excellent variety. I had 420
bushels last year. They yielded 74 bushels to the acre." :
It is thus apparent that with attention and care any farmer may soon provide
himself under this liberal arrangement. with the best and most productive
strains of seed in sufficient quantities for a large area at no cost to himself
beyond that of his own labor.
The recent increase observed in the yearly average of cereal crops in Canada,
Which is very colisiderable, is no doubt due in large measure to the more
general cultivation of highly productive varieties brought about by these annual


Many varieties of grain have been brought to Canada for test from nearly
all the grain-growing countries in the world. This has been done with the hope
of finding varieties equal in quality and productiveness to the best of those
now in cultivation and earlier ill ripening. Some wheats have been brought
from northern Russia and other northern parts of Europe; sonme from high
altitudes in India; others from England, France, Germany, Hungary, the United
States. Australia, and Japan. The wheat from northern E;urope and from
India have usually rilpenIe in a shorter time than tile Ited Fife, which is one
of the best sorts in general cultivation in Canada. hut most of them have been
inferior in quality and productiveness.
During the progress of these experiments many cross-bred wheats have been
originated with the object of combining the good qualities of two or more
varieties. In most of these crosses Red Fife has been used as one of tlhe parents
on account of its high quality and productive character.
One of the early introduced sorts from Russia was the Ladoga, which was, on
an average, a week earlier than the Red Fife. This was unacceptable on account
of the yellow color of the flour made from it. but it was crossed with the Red
Fife and a number of new sorts produced. One of these, known as Preston,
has exceeded the Red Fife in yield during a test of eight years by 11 bushels
per acre, and has ripened on an average about four days earlier.
Another variety, known as Early Riga, was obtained by crossing one of
the East Indian varieties procured from an elevation of 11.0I( feet in the
Himalayas with a Russian wheat brought from near Archangel, one of the most
northerly wheat-growing districts in Russia. These were both early ripening
sorts and were of good quality, but were not sufficiently productive. The Early
Riga. ripens about ten days earlier than the Red Fife or the Blue Stem, and is
fully equal if not better in quality, but the yield. although good. is not quite so
These gains in earliness are of great importance in Canada, in view of the
immense territory we have lying north of the present wheat fields. Such
varieties will no doubt serve to materially extend the area of successful wheat
growing. About 1,000 new varieties of wheat have been produced at the Cana-
dian experimental farms in the manner indicated, and among these there are
many promising sorts.
Experiments have been conducted for a series of years to ascertain the quan-
tity of seed grain most profitable to sow per acre, the depth in the soil at which
the seed should be placed in the different climates in the Dominion, and the
relative advantages of sowing with different sorts of drills as compared with
broadcast seeding.
The object lessons which have been given in the raising of fodder crops and
the making of silage, thus providing cheap and succulent food for cattle
during the winter, have greatly stimulated the dairy industry, especially the
manufacture of butter in winter. The experiments carried on with reference
to the care of milk and the economical production of butter of high quality have
received much attention from those engaged in dairying. The experience gained
in the economical feeding of cattle, swine, and sheep, and in testing those breeds
best adapted to produce the highest quality of beef, pork, and mutton, has stimu-
lated and aided the stock industries. The business in eggs and dressed fowls
for the table has also been advanced by the publication of the results of experi-
ments in the poultry branch.
The instructive tests which have been made with large and small fruits have
served to show where these can be grown to the greatest advantage, and have
been helpful in promoting fruit growing over those large areas in Canada where
the climate is so well adapted to the growth of fruits of high quality.
Special efforts have been made to meet the difficulties which arise in the more
northern districts where the better classes of existing fruits prove too tender.
For such localities new sorts have been produced by the cross fertilizing of very
hardy wild Siberian forms with some of the hardiest of our cultivated apples.
It has been shown that such cross-bred fruits are. hardy enough to endure the
climate in all the settled parts of the Canadian northwest.
The information which has been given on the growing of vegetables and the
varieties best suited to the different climates of the country has proved very
helpful. Many practical experiments have been conducted in the growing of
forest trees to furnish shelter for exposed situations. Large quantities of young
trees and tree seeds have been distributed among farmers in those districts
where trees are scarce. Some limited distribution has also been made of


ornamental trees and shrubs with the view of encouraging the adornment of
homes and making them more attractive.
Much information has been given as to the best remedies for the destruction
of noxious insects and for resisting the attacks of fungus diseases from which
grain, fruit, and other crops suffer so much. The subject of noxious weeds has
also been investigated and the best measures pointed out for their subjugation.
In the chemical division investigations have been conducted on many lines
hearing on the agricultural interests of the country and the help thus rendered
to farmers has been greatly appreciated.
Much of the practical information gained each year by the lines of experi-
ments conducted is given to the farmers in the annual reports and bulletins
issued. Many thousand farners also visit the farms each year. The officers of
all the farms also attend meetings of farmers held in different parts of the
country, where opportunities are afforded for giving fuller explanations con-
cerning all branches of the work in progress.
In the meantime the upbuilding of agriculture has progressed rapidly and
the occupation of farming has been elevated in the eyes of the community. It
is no longer looked upon as a drudgery where the dull and slow-going may eke
out a laborious existence; it is now recognized as a suitable field for the exer-
cise of the higher intelligence of more cultivated minds, as a calling requiring
much skill to conduct it successfully.
While the demands of the home market for food products are immensely
greater than they were twenty years ago. the export of farm products has
greatly increased. In 1884 the total export of wheat and flour from Canada was
about a million dollars; in 1903 it was over 29 millions. The export of cheese,
which at that time was about 7 millions, has increased to over 24 millions.
The export of pork, bacon, and hams has run up in the same time from about
half a million to over 1(; million dollars. The exports of fat cattle have more
than doubled and large increases have been made in almost every other line.
There are still opportunities for improvement. Nowhere have we reached a
stage approaching perfection, and I know of no pursuit more noble than that
which is so fully represented at this convention, that of striving to add to the
happiness of mankind by helping the tillers of the soil by precept and experi-
ment to improve their condition, thus making the earth to yield more bounti-
fully, producing food products in larger quantity and of better quality for sus-
taining the teeming millions now occupying the surface of our globe.
The programme committee for the college section not having been selected by
that section the chairman and the secretary were authorized to fill the committee
by the selection of one additional member to act with themselves.
On motion of E. B. Voorhees, of New Jersey, the annual dues of each college
and station constituting the association were fixed at $15 for the year 1904-5.


E. W. ALLEN, of the Department of Agriculture. In the report of the com-
mittee on indexing agricultural literature, which was read by Professor Hays
(see p. 32), reference was made to the indexing of periodical literature relating
to agricultural science. This work was undertaken at the instigation of the
experiment stations, there having been considerable demand for an index to
scientific literature not covered by any indexes we now have. The current work
of the periodicals is, as you know, reviewed in the Experiment Station Record,
and our indexes at the end of a year or end of the period cover that current
work and make it easily accessible. In order that the looking up of work that
has been done in the past on particular subjects might be simplified, Mits Clark,
the Librarian of the Department, has undertaken, at the request of this com-
mittee, to prepare an index of the scientific periodicals published in Europe and
in this country relating to agricultural science and has secured an additional
appropriation from Congress in order that she might carry on this work with
less interference. She has now assigned a regular cataloguer to the work and
is going forward systematically. As the report referred to stated, arrangements
have -been made with the Library of Congress to print these cards. The printing


of the cards has been undertaken, and a circular has been sent out to the
institutions announcing the index and the terms on which it can be subscribed
for. These are very liberal, but a small fee is required because it is not the
custom of the Library of Congress to give away its cards, believing people
usually appreciate it more if they pay a small sum. The cards have been classi-
fied by subjects in such a way that a person who does not desire a complete set
can get those relating to a particular topic. A person who is interested in a
library on plant diseases can subscribe for all the cards on plant diseases, and
so on. There has been considerable response to the circular sent out, but it
has not been sufficiently general so that we feel warranted in concluding that
it has come to the attention of the people as widely as it should.
C. F. Curtiss, of Iowa, stated to the convention that a special train had been
provided to carry the members of the convention to Ames to visit the Iowa
Agricultural College, and that all were invited to join in the trip.


C. D. Woods, of Maine, offered the following:
It is with great regret that the association notes the absence of Director True
of the Office of Experiment Stations from this convention, and the association
hereby tenders him its appreciation of his untiring and successful endeavors in
behalf of this association.
It also takes this opportunity to commend the various lines of work of the
Office of Experiment Stations under his charge, and notes in illustration the
work of the division of nutrition in its study of the nutritive value of the food
of man as a line of work in cooperation with a number of the institutions here
represented and of great practical as well as scientific importance which might,
to public advantage, be extended.
The resolution was adopted.


M. A. Scovell, of Kentucky, presented resolutions of thanks to those who had
contributed to the success of the meeting, which were adopted.
On motion of H. C. White the thanks of the association were returned to Mr.
Saunders for his interesting paper, and it was ordered that the address be made
a part of the proceedings of the convention.
On motion of W. E. Stone, of Indiana, the thanks of the association were
returned to the retiring president, W. 0. Thompson.
On motion, the convention then adjourned sine die.





"i ...:W




The section was called to order at 2 p. iii. by the chairman, W. E. Stone, of
The following paper was presented by W. O. Thompson, of Ohio:


The discussion of this topic involves an interpretation of the Morrill Act.
I shall first give some attention to that phase cf the discussion, and here let me
I. The word "college" at the time of the Morrill Act signified an institution
of higher, learning for which certain prescribed academic studies were required
as a condition of entrance and in which institutions there were certain studies
chiefly prescribed which were pursued as a condition of a baccalaureate degree.
From a practical point of view the word college" was clear and distinct.
We recognize that historical and traditional idea. When we come. however, to
make application of this term, we are compelled to recognize also that a
standard for entrance or basis on which the college was built was far from uni-
form. This variation was so great that the degrees of some colleges would
require a little more than the entrance requirements of to-day. I make nient'on
of this condition in order to make one other remark. namely. that the dis-
cussions in Congress could not, therefore, be interpreted as signifying an insti-
tution of such standard as would be beyond the prevailing conditions of the
college at that time. It is true that this prevailing idea did not imply vory
much as to the grade of teaching or as to the method of teaching. It would be
safe to assume that neither the method nor the standard would be regarded as
satisfactory in the college of to-day. This leads me to say. therefore. that very
little can be drawn from the word "college" as occurring in the statute.
So far as the discussion in Congress might be regarded as influencing this
decision, I should say that the word "college" could be interchanged with the
word "school" and do no great violence to the conception prevalent at the
time the Morrill Act was passed.
II. A further interpretation lies in the modifying phrase. "to teach such
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts."
It would seem from this statement that Congress made no effort to define the
term "college," but rather to indicate in a general way the lines of work that
were to be pursued and to be given special emphasis. The term "branches of
learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts is a very broad
and indefinite statement. It is noticeable that these branches are not even
named. It is doubtful whether many in Congress could have named the sub-
jects, even, or could have recognized them if they had been named. It is true
that the discussions in Congress did emphasize the importance of maintaining
23880-No. 153-05 M (i-


the fertility of the soil and improving the live stock of the country, but the
various subjects now regarded as related to agriculture" and as of the highest
importance are quite beyond the conception in the mind of Congress. Indeed,
we recognize that there has been a considerable development in the colleges
themselves in the way of minute classification as well as in interpretation of
subjects not then in the minds of the founders of these colleges. We are dis-
posed, therefore, to assume that these men, looking at the subject in a broad
and general way. were willing to leave it to the natural development that would
come from the influence of such institutions when organized. This would
assume that a higher grade of work than was contemplated at that time is
probably done at this date. Our theme looks the other way and makes the
inquiry whether a lower grade of work than would be recognized in our time as
college work could be admissible as meeting the terms of the act
I may add that the same remark could be applied with equal force concerning
the subjects related to the mechanic arts. The one subject of electricity would
be sufficient to illustrate that much work now being regarded as perfectly
logical and exactly within the terms used in the statute, was at the same time
entirely without the horizon of most men at the time the act was passed.
-Further, it is noticeable that the statute provided that the subjects should
be taught: that it neither makes nor suggests any idea as to the grade of instruc-
tion-that is, whether it shall be collegiate or preparatory-but that the empha-
sis is pit clearly upon the teaching of these subjects. It is plainly upon the
surface of the statute that these subjects were new subjects of study and
instruction. The colleges that were to teach them were making a new depar-
ture, and were introducing the study of branches hitherto almost entirely neg-
lected. It seems clear, therefore, that we may safely assume that the teaching
of the subject meets the statute whether it be done in an elementary or in a
more advanced way.
III. A further interpretation is suggested in the phrase, "in such a manner
as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe." It is a matter of
some importance to note that in the discussions of this bill and in the veto mes-
sage of President Buchanan there was serious objection raised on the ground
that education was a matter in which the local government should have supreme
control. It was argued that a federal government had no right to interfere or
to restrict in any way the rights and privileges of the States in the matter of
education. This old argument is still used against the organization of a
national university. It seems fair, therefore, to say that this phrase now under
consideration left the whole question of the manner of teaching to the several
States, and that it was an effort to avoid an unpleasant debate in Congress, .
which might have defeated the bill. Assuming this statement to be true, it
seems entirely clear, therefore, that the several States must teach the subjects,
and that the manner of the teaching is wholly a matter of local jurisdiction. This
allows large liberty as bearing upon the question of elementary and advanced
discussions. ic assumes that each State knows how money can be expended
most wisely within its borders in order to reach the general ends outlined in
the statute. It would be assumed then, as it would be assumed now, that the
conditions in the several States would vary, and that what was wise in one
instance would not be in another. There is a substantial unity in these agricul-
tural colleges, but there is no such thing as absolute uniformity. The statute
is general in its statements, and wisely so. The chief problem is, therefore, to
so interpret the statute that it may in the several localities do the thing desired,
namely, teach certain subjects, and through instruction in these subjects awaken
a new interest, perpetuate good conditions, and make way for improvement.
IV. We are interested in one other phrase: "In order to promote the liberal
and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and
professions of life." The several terms in this phrase offer opportunity for a
wide discussion, but attention is called to one or two features only.
(1) The expression "practical education" was evidently intended to supple-
ment the word liberal," which then had a very distinctive meaning. A liberal
education was not then assumed to be a practical matter, as it now is. Most
men now regard a liberal education as a thoroughly practical one. At that
time a little different conception existed in the minds of most people. The
expression practical education," therefore, was supplementary, and suggested
in a broad way that new subjects were to be introduced into these colleges and
a new emphasis put upon the importance of a so-called practical education.
The general idea in this practical education was that it should prepare nien to
do things. The liberally educated man was a thinker; the practically educated


man was to be a worker. In so far, therefore, as either agriculture or the
mechanic arts prepare men to meet these requirements they may be regarded as
practical education within the limits of the statute.
(2) The industrial classes are here specifically named. It seems a natural
interpretation, therefore, that we were to have a working education for a
working people. The expression the several pursuits and professions of life"
intimated that ill classes would be benefited by these colleges and that they
were expected to dwell together in the pursuit of education. It was clearly
expected that those studying the branches of learning related to agriculture
and the mechanic arts. being of the industrial class, would be made more effi-
cient in the" several pursuits of life and that many of them would probably enter
the so-called professions of life. It is probable also that this statute permits
us to say that the various subjects here taught would introduce one to profes-
sional life within the limits of that education. It would probably be a little
too much to urge that the statute anticipated the profession of agriculture or
the profession of mechanic arts. It does. however, seem entirely clear that the
agricultural colleges were expected to make more efficient farmers and that the
colleges of mechanic arts were expected to make more efficient men in the field
of mechanic arts.
From these discussions of the statute I now pass to a more specific reply to
the question in the topic under discussion, namely, how far may these colleges
engage in teaching-elementary subjects," and here I remark :
(1) That I see no reason why the colleges of mechanic arts should be put
under any rule more restrictive than the rule now in force in colleges of liberal
arts throughout the country. It is well known that with the changes that have
occurred in our entrance requirements and with the introduction of the elective
Idea in college it has become necessary for many subjects to he begun in col-
lege. Among these you will find listed some subjects that are accepted for
entrance requirements that were formerly prescribed for entrance require-
ments. Most colleges now give opportunity for beginning the study cf Greek.
They also give facilities for the study of modern languages. They also give
facilities for the beginning of the study of chemistry. We may say that this
is not elementary teaching or that these subjects are not elementary, but thit is
a mere evasion of the facts. Many a student gets his first insight in these sub-
jects after matriculation as a regular college student. I see no reason, there-
fore, why the beginning of a subject may not be made in the colleges of agri-
culture and mechanic arts with as much propriety as in a college of liberal
(2) Our topic suggests elementary subjects not generally recognized as
belonging to the college curriculum. As a 'matter of fact there are very few
such subjects. All science belongs to the college curriculum. Elementary
physics is as truly physics as advanced physics. The same may be said of any
other science. The same argument would apply in the matter of language,
whether it be ancient or modern. So far, therefore, as the legal right of doing
such things is concerned, it seems that the word "elementary or advanced "
is not important. The real question is whether the subject itself comes within
the meaning of the statute. The provisions of the second Morrill Act are inter-
esting as in a way interpreting the whole situation. This second act recognizes
the propriety of teaching English, economics, and certain other subjects, but
seems to draw the line against the use of money for certain classical purposes.
(3) The significance of the statute, too, must be interpreted in the light of the
classes for which the colleges were founded. Evidently the children of farmers
were chiefly in the minds of Congress at the time of the discussions. As I have
had occasion to say elsewhere, mechanic arts was mentioned in the discussion,
but not with any great emphasis. The appeal was made largely from the view
point of agriculture. Now, it would not be fair to assume that the persons who
are to be benefited by the college of agriculture were persons whose educational
attainments rendered elementary teaching unnecessary. That was not the con-
dition of rural education at that time, and we regret to say that it is not the
condition now. To make such interpretation, therefore, would be to impose
upon all the coming students of agriculture the necessity of an education that is
not now within their reach. It would imply the development of rural schools to
a point quite beyond the present. The same principle would hold if we were
to think of the children of industrial classes as the beneficiaries of the colleges
of mechanic arts. Now it is emphasized that these colleges were to meet condi-
tions existing in the country and provide a type of education in which Congress


expressed a profound interest. There was no effort to set up a standard for
these colleges and demand of the public that they should meet that standard.
The truth is the colleges were to meet a condition. This makes it all the more
imperative that the question should always be a local one. In some States
where rural education and village education has reached a high degree of effi-
ciency the colleges might well take a stand and be justified in it, that would be
thoroughly unjustifiable in less favored States, or where the elementary educa-
tion is not so well organized.
(4) In conclusion I may say that the only rule by which we can be guided
in such cases would be an honest effort to meet the conditions of the State in
which the college is located. I believe it to be the duty of these colleges to use
their influence to improve these conditions as rapidly as possible. Such improve-
ment would relieve the college of some work now necessary and give it oppor-
tunity to become more efficient in the designated fields of agriculture and
mechanic arts. This condition forms a solid argument on the part of these
colleges in appealing to their several States for maintenance and development
of a system of rural education which will make the colleges more efficient
Already a movement in the interest of agriculture in the rural schools has made
some progress. This is representative of what may be done when an interest
has been aroused among the people which shall result in such preparation as
will make them better able to take full advantage of their colleges of agriculture
and mechanic arts.
R. W. STIMSON, of Connecticut. Let me emphasize one or two points which
have been raised in the paper to which we have just listened.
What did Congress intend the agricultural colleges to be? The second
Morrill Act was passed for the further endowment and support of the land-
grant colleges. I have read very carefully all of the debates and discussions
in connection with the passage of the act. and I can not find a serious attack
upon the land-grant colleges as they then existed. In case of some of the
colleges and departments connected with other institutions there was serious
debate and some criticism on the ground that land-grant money was being used
for teaching subjects which were not obviously and immediately for the benefit
of agriculture and the mechanic arts. There was no gaod reason why the
Federal Government should give more money. therefore. for duplicating means
of education which could be had in other institutions as well as in the land-
grant colleges. There was no criticism cf the grade of instruction, nor of the
curriculum of the land-grant colleges.
Now, the land-grant colleges in 1890 had no uniform standard of entrance
requirements. Some were requiring a part of a high-school course for admis-
sion. The vast majority of them, however, were admitting their students
directly from the common schools to the college course. If that is true, and if
the act says that the act of 1800 was passed for the further endowment and
support of the land-grant colleges. is it not clear we may teach anything we
please so far as grade of instruction is concerned, and provided only we keep
the specified subjects? It seems to me that the affirmative is true on that
It seems to me that the history of the land-grant colleges since 1890 has been
largely a repetition of the history of those institutions between 1862 and 1890; !
that is. that we have practically the same sort of institutions to-day as then
existed. That would seem to indicate that Congress was right in not criticising
these institutions and in spending money for the further endowment and sup- i
port of this style and grade of education. In the discussions and debates of
Congress on these measures, I think you would find that the term "school"
:nd the llterm institution were used quite as often as the term "college." On
the whole, then. I am forced to tle conclusion that Congress intended that we
should teach what the land-grant colleges had been teaching prior to 1890, and
that therefore we have a free hand in doing so.


A clause of the act of 1890, however, limits the curriculum to specified sub-
jects; but it is understood that in the Senate that clause was very earnestly
debated and the original restrictive clause was thrown out. It, was, however,
restored in the House, it is said, under pressure of the National Grange, and
was finally accepted by the Senate in its present form. I bring this to your
attention to indicate, what senms to me to be true, that this clause was
Prompted by an effort not to determine the grade of instruction, but to deter-
mine that these institutions to be further endowed and supported should be
turned toward the industries of life rather than toward the liberal arts and
professions of life in the ordinary sense of the term.
What ought you and I to do to-day with all this freedom?
In Connecticut we have two sets of boys who ought to come to our institu-
tion-boys who have been in the common schools and who have had no high
schools within reach, and boys who have been in the high schools, and who are
going to some sort of college, who by taste and inheritance ought to come to
our institution. We had only a four-year course. We had a little agriculture
in every year, and a considerable of the elements of liberal education in all the
years. The result was that the boy coming from the high school had to go
back, if he wanted to get our agricultural instruction, and start at the same
point where the boy from the common school would start. You see what differ-
ence there was in the matter of training and mental ability. It seems to me the
mental ability a man has counts for vastly more than the subjects he studies.
We do not care where a man gets his brain power. If he has got it and can
apply it to agriculture and mechanic arts we are ready to receive it and put it
to work. But we wanted to put in the proper place the man who had not
developed his brain. So we hit on this scheme. I asked a committee of the
faculty to work out a two years' course of preparation for farming. They
worked out a two years' course in farming open to graduates of high schools.
Our curriculum as it stands to-day divides our studies into three groups of two
years each. We offer attractive courses to boys who have a limited amount of
education, and to boys who find it in their power to get considerable education.
In addition to this, in special subjects we give short courses varying from
ten days to a year. We have found since we introduced these courses that we
have come closer to our natural constituency; we have the respect of the prac-
tical farmer as we never had it before, and our short courses have fed our long
courses. Besides our short-cours-e work in the winter, we have been holding
a summer school for teachers and others, in which we have limited our subjects
to nature and country life, and we have and three very successful sessions.
It seems to me there is a good field for the land-grant college, and that each
State may and ought to organize its land-grant college so as to meet the needs
of its peculiar constituents, and that anything and everything which it is found
practical to teach \ within these limits should be taught.
I have not spoken of extension work. I do not believe extension work is a
proper use of the land-grant college money. That is, we hold that anything you
can teach at the college in connection with your college courses is appropriate
S and may be paid for out of your. land-grant college money. We do not do any
Extension work at the expense of the Federal Treasury. Of course we under-
stand that each State college is perfectly free to use the money it receives from
its own legislature and its own State treasurer for any purpose the State may
W. A. HENRY, of Wisconsin. President Stimson is entirely right when he says
that the Grange was back of those limitations in the Morrill Act of 1890. The
argument was that many of the colleges had diverted much of the first appro-
priation to purposes not closely connected with instruction in agriculture and


- "


mechanic arts, and to give more money without restriction would be to simply
give further impetus in the wrong direction.
R. H. JESSE, of Missouri. I feel compelled to emphatically dissent from much
that has been said on this subject.
I take it that Congress knew what a college was just as well as' we know
what a college is: that Congress said what it meant and meant what it said
when it established colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts. It is very true
that the standards of admission to college at that time were not what they are
to-day. But college meant as truly then as it does now an institution that is
based upon secondary education. And if the colleges were not up to their
present rank, the same is true of the secondary schools. The college was based
ulon secondary education as truly in that day as it is now. In my opinion, to
use any portion of the money coming from the Federal Government, either
through the land-grant act of 1862 or through the appropriation act of 1890, for
secondary education, is a misappropriation of Federal money.
Any State that wants to do so may, out of the State treasury, appropriate
money for secondary education-that is to say, for the preparatory department of
its college of agriculture; but I think that any State which does that commits
a blunder. I say this with profound conviction. I want to give a little of
my own experience in Missouri. In 1891 there was no standard of admission
to any department of the University of Missouri. Any student could get in with
an application and a fee. We began to raise the standards of admission to all
departments of the university, until to-day there is no department that does not
demand for admission a first-class high school education. As we raised the
standards of the other departments we at first left the college of agriculture
behind. The faculty of the college of agriculture contended that the condition
of the rural communities in Missouri would not admit of any standards of
admission to that department. But in getting all the other departments to the
point where they rested on the high school system I conceived the notion that
that department ought to go up too. It had a small attendance; everybody
seemed to avoid it who could get into any other department. The men who
came and failed to get into other departments dropped into the college of agri-
culture rather than go home again. It was a catch-all of the other departments,
but it did not catch enough to be respectable in numbers. I brought the ques-
tion before the faculty of agriculture. The whole faculty went against me
except one man. After debating the thing an appeal was taken to the board of
curators. I wrote to every prominent college of agriculture in the United
States, asking what they thought about the propriety of demanding high school
education for admission. I was greatly astonished and greatly pleased at the
unanimity of the answers, for almost without exception these colleges declared
that a good high school education ought to be demanded. I submitted those
letters to the board of curators, who, after carefully considering the matter, by
a unanimous vote decided that the college of agriculture should be raised to a
parity with the other departments of the university and that admission should
be based upon a high school education. The next fall the enrollment in the
college was far greater than it ever had been before, and it has been growing
steadily ever since. In the present year the enrollment in the freshmen class
is exactly twice what it was a year ago. When we made the college of agri-
culture thoroughly respectable in its entrance requirements, men began to come
to it. and men are now forsaking other departments to enroll in that of agri-
Various devices have been employed for bridging the gap between the elemen-
tary schools and the college of agriculture. The most notable of those attempts
is the Minnesota experiment In this case there is between the college and the


primary schools an institution at St. Anthony Park, the like of which can not
be found on the Western Hemisphere. It is the best secondary school of agri-
culture I ever saw, and as President Northrup once said of it, that school of
agriculture stands in the minds of our agricultural classes for the whole uni-
versity and college." That is just my objection to it. It is a screen between
the people and the college and university. In spite of Minnesota's magnificent
Success, I am willing to risk the entire future.of the college of agriculture of
Missouri on my faith that the Minnesota experiment is not the right way of
doing it. Let me say, however, that the Minnesota school is supported out of
State funds, and involves no appropriation of Federal funds.
In Wisconsin they have established two schools of agriculture at different
points in the State. I believe Wisconsin is going to equip "those schools
magnificently. If such schools were established in Missouri, all the counties
around them would go to the legislature and beg that they be made district
agricultural colleges. We in Missouri never intend to have anything between
our college and the primary schools duplicating and running opposition to the
public high schools of our State; but the college of agriculture, like the other
departments, is going to be put in as a part of the public school system. We
are striving now, though I can not point to any great results, to put agricul-
tural studies in the public school system, primary and secondary. I believe that
If these colleges of agriculture would abolish utterly all their preparatory
departments, would begin where the high schools left off, would put on exam-
iners for the secondary schools, would spend money and time and energy on
the public school systems of their States, they would finally get their public
school systems into desirable harmony with the college of agriculture. In
Missouri we are risking our entire future on the doctrine that the college of
agriculture is going to rest on the public high schools, and we are going to
make the public high school agricultural as far as it ought to be agricultural.
It is the long way, the slow way, the toilsome way, but I believe that it is
finally the right way.
L. H. BAILEY, of New York. The history of legislation on the subject indi-
cates that in the minds of legislators it is legitimate for the land-grant college
to use the funds for elementary instruction and extension work. Whether or
not it is wise for us to so use them is quite another question. We have had
some discussion in New York State during the past two or three years on the
subject of special schools. Three years ago a bill was introduced into the legisla-
ture of New York State, which passed both branches of the legislature, allowing
the establishment of one school of agriculture and domestic science in every
county in New York State, about sixty-one of them. It fAiled to receive the
governor's signature, because it would call for some expenditure of funds from
the State department of agriculture. Two years ago the same bill passed
the assembly, but it failed in the Senate because the chairman of the committee
to which it was referred was opposed to it, and his objection to it was that he
did not believe it was wise to duplicate the public school system of New York
State by any special system of education. Last year it was proposed to
reintroduce this bill, but it was finally decided to let it rest until the college
of agriculture matter was settled.
We have at Cornell University a winter course of about 11 weeks. I think
this winter we shall have about 200 students; I should like to have 2,000.
Yet, I do not believe in the winter course as an integral part of the college or
university work.
I have looked upon the winter courses in the university as a temporary expe-
dient, since there are no other institutions that can supply the demand for the
kind of instruction that the winter courses give. If there were secondary or


intermediate schools that could give this instruction, the demand would not be
mait:e uip the colleges and universities. Whether such institutions will ever
arise is a question concerning which I scarcely wish to prophesy. If they do
not airie. then the colleges and universities must continue to supply the demand 4
fur the kind of instruction that is given in the various winter-course enter-
prises. It is probable that there must always be an adjunct institutions to the
colleges and universities in which such instruction can be given.
I am in sympathy with the movement for special agricultural high schools.
However. I think that the first desideratum is to have the common schools as n
they now exist open to agriculture on equal terms with other subjects. This
will give agriculture oPlportunity and will not debar it from the privileges of
common school development. It will recognize it as a scholarship study, not
merely as a technical or occupational subject Whether the common schools,
even when they are open to agricultural work, will satisfy the needs of the
rural communities only the future can tell; if they do not, then in the natural
course of events special schools will develop here nnd there to satisfy the de-
mand. I do not like to think of establishing a duplicate system of public schools
rut-of-hand which would seem to antagonize or at least parallel the existing
schools; and it would tend to set agricultural instruction off by itself and to ,,,
make it only a class subject. Of course there are many difficulties in the way
of introducing agriculture into the schools as they now exist, but it is funds-
mentally correct to open the schools to the subject. Of course the work would
ieed to be elective, at least in most cases. It is always objected that the
schools are now full and that a new subject can not be introduced. This of :
course is temporarily true. The difficulty is that we are trying to introduce
the new and modern subjects while at the same time trying to hold to the old
curriculumn. In time the whole poiut of view of the common schools will be
radically changed and the school will be a natural product of its environment.
The very fact that the new and relevant subjects are being introduced is proof
enough that this evolution is slowly coming about.::
I believe we have the legal right to use the proceeds of the land-grant fund -i
for elementary instruction in agriculture and mechanic arts. but I believe we
shall find it wiser policy to utilize State funds and forces already in existence
for the purlw)se of carrying on these educational and extension courses than
to use the Federal fund.
The experience of Cornell University is that it is of great advantage to :
have uniform entrance requirements for all departments of the university,
and the attendance of students has increased greatly notwithstanding the
strict enforcement of such requirements. Uniform entrance requirements in
institutions in which the college of agriculture is combined with the general
university is essential to the dignity and success of agricultural work.
E. DAVENPORT. of Illinois. I should very much dislike to hear this discussion
closed without some reference to the movement that is on foot all over the
country. namely: The consolidation of the primary schools. When you speak
of transporting children to central schools, the objection is raised that horses
can not travel the roads. Everybody knows, however, that more horses are
now used in translirting the children and more miles are traveled than would
be necessary to send them all to central schools. It is to be hoped that we
will in.t always have to go on with the little primary schools, four or five
children and one teacher.
I.. 11. B.IL:Y. I think the rural school. as we ordinarily know it to-day. is ,
bound to pass away. It seems to me it is one of the most inefficient units in
our IKody politic. The country mill has passed away. It can not compete with ..
the mills in the city. In the rural school the teacher is teaching her first or

.. 4 i


second term as a rule, temporarily maintaining herself until she can do some-
thing else. The teacher must teach everything, from the alphabet to physi-
ology, from physics to grammai. Our extension work was intended to reach
first the country school, but the more we pushed the work the more evident it
became that it is very difficult to reach the country school. We think the
best that can be done is to introduce the subjects in the village and hamlet
schools, and where they have two or three or four or five teachers, so that one
teacher can take all of the natural-history subjects and another all of the
mathematics, expecting it to work outward from these centers. Centralization
is going on in New York State in three or four directions.
A. C. SCOTT, of Oklahoma. It has been said here that the existing educational
provisions of the country community should be exhausted before the college
should seek to duplicate any of that instruction. The question naturally arises,
What is meant by the educational provisions of the country community? A
question of extreme importance in the West is, What shall be done with the
young men of 18 or 19 years of age who have gone through the common schools
but not through the high schools, and as a matter of fact do not want to go to
the high schools? Shall a catch-all be prepared for them? Shall a preparatory
department be provided for them where they can say they are going to college?
That question gave us a great deal of concern in the Oklahoma college, and
three years ago we provided a preparatory department. Two years ago we
became ashamed of the department and dropped it, but we substituted a twenty
weeks' course in the subject of agriculture. We found that it was very largely
the young men and women who went into the preparatory department and did
no advanced scientific work in agriculture who went back to the farm. For that
reason we established the short courses. It seems to me it will be a very long
time before we get agriculture established in the common schools of thq country.
What are we going to do in the meantime? I believe the present condition
ought to be met by some such scheme as I have suggested, or the Minnesota
scheme. We are also working in our territory on a scheme by which optional
courses shall he given in the high school leading to the university.
R. H. JESSE. I believe that so long as the colleges of agriculture are main-
taining their right to use Federal money for secondary education, so long as
they are declaring that it is good policy to do so, they will continue their sec-
ondary schools, and will not connect with the secondary school systems of their
States. For fifty years the University of Missouri maintained a prep-aratory
department. When I came there as president, there were not six good public
or private secondary schools in the Commonwealth, and I was assured that they
could not be built up. Yet in the space of twelve years we have increased the
good high schools in Missouri from 5 to 125. Missouri ought to have at least
250 high schools. But the rate of growth has been magnificent in twelve years.
So long as you hold on to this preparatory work and these temporary expe-
dients you are not going to catch hold of the public school system. I think
the one vital thing is that the colleges of agriculture, as well as the colleges
of liberal arts, should identify themselves absolutely with the public school
systems of their States. Meanwhile, I am not disposed to criticise those who
employ some temporary expedients, provided they have started in the right
direction and are going in that way as fast as they can.
E. A. BRYAN, of Washington. One of the most serious difficulties which we
face is the fact that under the ideals of the existing four years' high school the
student who has taken the eight years of elementary grade and four years of
high school is led away from the ideals represented by the land-grant colleges,
and in most instances, unless perhaps, as may be true in Missouri, a very strong
influence proceeding from the university or from some source secures a dif-














:xr '


ferent result, he will be led away from the ideals represented by the education
for which we stand. That is a fact and condition which we have to face, and
is one of the reasonable and legitimate excuses for the maintenance of sec-
ondary schools, in which the ideal is not exclusively the old ideal, but which
includes something of industrial education. In our own State we have the two
institutions, the university and the agricultural college. The requirement for
admission to the freshman class in the agricultural college is a high school
course or its equivalent, which may be gained in the elementary school. I
believe the end is precisely what President Jesse says, but the secondary school
must be permeated with the ideal for which the land-grant colleges now stand,
and it will be years before we learn not to resort to such expedients as have been
mentioned here.
H. C. WHITE, of Georgia. I should like to say that from our experience in
Georgia we are able to confirm the theory of President Jesse to the effect that
a determination ou the part of the college to aid the secondary schools in raising
their standards is effective. Of course we suffered, just as you suffer else-
where in the country, with a lack of studies in the secondary school which are
immediately related to the technical courses in agriculture. But in what may
be called the fundamental underlying studies, mathematics, for example, English
in its granmatic parts, and some language other than English, either classical
or modern, we find that by keeping a little ahead of the high schools and encour-
aging them to raise their curricula we can finally bring the men who pass from
the high schools to a very satisfactory state of attainment for entering our col-
lege courses. I may be radical, but it seems to me that before a man should
enter college it is not so necessary that he should have studied so many things
as that he should have studied some things sufficiently thoroughly to have
attained the mental maturity which will fit him for the instruction of the col-
lege. Now, if we are going to insist that before a man shall enter a course in
agriculture he shall have had elementary and secondary instruction in agricul-
ture, it will be a long time before the schools are equipped to meet our require-
ments. In Georgia we have a four-year course in agriculture, the entrance
requirements of the college of agriculture being identical with those of the col-
lege of liberal arts. They are not as high as we should like to see them, but
they are as high as we think the community will stand; we try to raise it from
year to year and bring the schools up to the level. In our school of agriculture,
which is one of the departments of the college of agriculture, we have courses
in agronomy, in horticulture, and animal husbandry. There is no reason why a
young fellow who has been in the common schools, has reached mature years,
and has had the proper sort of mental discipline, can not enter these courses.
In high schools they teach a certain amount of chemistry and physics, but
the teaching which they get in the high school is not necessarily of the kind that
will add to the college course. Seventy-five per cent of those that go to high
school never go to college. There is no need for a man in the high school, who
is to go to college, to have studied chemistry at all, provided he has studied
something else to such a degree and in such manner as will fit him for the work
in chemistry when he undertakes it. The same in agriculture and horticulture.
Dean Henry asks: "What are you going to do with those men who are not
going to enter the regular college courses?" We say there is a great deal
here in these technical courses that is valuable to you. But we are trying to
guard against what we consider a fundamental error, namely, to set up such a
course by itself and hold it up as the equivalent of a full college course.
K. C. BABCOCK, of Arizona. We are colleges of mechanic arts as well as of
agriculture, and, from my point of view, in Arizona the problem is just as
imperative on the side of mechanic arts as it is on that of agriculture. Now,

m -"'


the problem is: Is it legitimate for the Territory that makes high demand upon
the college for education in mechanic arts to devote part of its funds to
instruction in the elements of mechanic arts? There is not in Arizona, and prob-
ably not in the other three Territories, a single institution that gives good sec-
ondary manual-training instruction. Yet there is great need of manual training
there. The pressure for instruction in the mechanic arts, mining, civil and
mechanical engineering, is almost irresistible in Arizona, and we are obliged to
prepare for the entrance into the courses in mechanic arts quite as much as for
the agricultural courses.
E. DAVENPORT. It seems to be assumed regarding instruction in agriculture
that it is a four-year course or a two-year course or a short course or nothing.
In my opinion the unit is too large. The farm boy -wants instruction in a
particular subject; he is not thinking much about graduutirig, and when you
meet him at the door the first day with the proposition that he must choose
either a four-year course or two-year course or short course he is likely to take
the line of least resistance. A large proportion of the work of our universities
and colleges has to do primarily with students who do not graduate. For every
student who graduates about three or four do not. The influence of the college
and university system of this country is not exerted solely through its grad-
uates. It is through the great mass of students, many of whom do not complete
the regular courses. Let us stop talking about four-year courses, therefore,
and fix the eye on the student. Let him take one or two or three years. Let
him get those things he wants, without regard to whether he graduates or not.
Now, there is much elementary instruction in hitching up the team, in plow-
ing the field and getting in the crop, in feeding the pigs and getting the steers
to market, and the average student of 18 coming to us from the farm is often
better prepared for college than the average high school graduate. It is an obli-
gation of these colleges to make a system of secondary education for the country
people. In Illinois we simply cut across all precedent and all lines of responsibil-
ity by saying to the boys on the farm, "Come to the university and choose the sub-
jects you wish to study. These are the things we undertake to teach in agri-
culture, about 80 of them; if you want any of them, go ahead. If you can not
do business here you will go home. But if you take those subjects you must
take certain other subjects with them, and one of them is English. And if you
stay long you will take some science, because certain subjects require science."
Three-fourths of the boys that come from the farm have not had much educa-
tion, but they do well in the sciences. We had 20 students six years ago, and
now we have 340, taken just as they come. One-half of the work they do is
done in other departments of the university than that of agriculture-civil en-
gineering, English language, botany, history, chemistry, Greek and Latin, if
they want it-and the percentage of failure on the part of our students is below
the average of the university; the percentage of graduation as high. The
situation is much the same in all institutions. Three-fourths of the students
in all lines never graduate.
We have a splendid preparation of a scholastic order for the city people, but
we have no such preparation for the country people. Let us have a little better
preparatory course for the farmer, and stop talking about four-year courses
and about conditions for admissions, but bring the student to the college and let
him take up at once the subject he wishes to study. We are setting up too high
a standard for agricultural courses when we demand that if students will not
take the four-year course therefore they must take something peculiar and in-
ferior. If you confront them with such conditions you will drive them out of
the agricultural courses. It is not done in other lines; why do it in agricul-
ture? Identify the boy with his subject. We have seniors, juniors, sopho-

. I


mores, freshmen, specials, all together in the same class. You may protest
against that, but bear in mind these boys are studying Shorthorn cattle or some
other technical subject. The special student has a herd of Shorthorn cattle
at home, perhaps, and he is as able to study Shorthorns as the senior, and
sometimes better. They can meet on a common ground in the class room.
Give them a chance at election; do not drive them into something they know
nothing about. If a student comes to us at 18 years of age and is deficient in
English, i. e., has less than 42 credits, or three and one-half years of high
school work, he must go to the preparatory school and take English. He
may choose his other subjects. If he is 16 years old he must spend half his
time in the preparatory school, and the other half may be given to other sub-
jects, allowing him to elect any subjects he is able to carry. The fact is we
have very few students under 18. Most of our students are 18 or over. A
great many of them are between 18 and 21. At about 17 or 18 or 19 boys
begin to think they are too old to go to high school, and if you do not let them
into the college you will never get them. If the boy is 18 years old we shut
our eyes to all deficiencies except English.
Ile can graduate here without mathematics; but he must take two years of
foreign language, because the foreign language, we think, is nearer to agri-
culture than is mathematics. If we had a department of agricultural eco-
nomics-which we hope to have-the student in that course would be required
to have mathematics, or if he elects subjects requiring mathematics he must
take mathematics now.
A. SCOTT, of New Jersey. I sincerely hope that it will not go down on the
records that the assumption that Professor Davenport has made is generally true. :
That all our institutions are like his in all particulars, excellent and otherwise.
will not be accepted as the consensus of this body, because I am quite sure that :
some things he has said of his institution are not true of mine. We require of
every boy who comes to college that he shall know algebra, plane geometry, and
solid geometry at least, and must pass examination in these subjects. I should
not like to have it said that three-fourths of those who go to our college are not
graduated, for it is not true. More than half are graduated, although many fall
by the way for one reason or another. This is a local issue. It is becoming more
and more apparent every year that we must recognize that differences of condi-
tions that are fundamental have to be taken into account. These are schools
of agriculture, aru, as my friend from Arizona has said, of mechanic arts. They i
were founded for training in the sciences applied to industrial pursuits. for the
poor boy of the city as well as for the poor boy of the farm. We recognize in
New Jersey the importance of agriculture. It is second to none, but there are
others that should stand on a parity with it. We have laid great stress on agri-
culture. In New Jersey, for example, there is a vast field for the civil engineer
and the mechanical engineer, and we must make adequate provision for instruc-
tion in these and similar lines.
This is, moreover, a matter of mental training rather than of special subjects..
What we want of the boy is power. not special training. *
W. O. TnoMrSON. To recur to the original paper that brought out this dis-
cussion, the question first was the legal right to teach the elements of this sub-
ject. I hope the paper made it clear that the elementary teaching was not
confined to schools below the college, but that in our colleges there was elemen-
tary instruction in many subjects, and that the definition in the statute or else-
where could not limit the instruction, if it insisted on subjects rather than
method. I think we also realize from the discussion that we are confronted
with a condition to which these colleges must address themselves. There has
been agreement that we are all trying to meet that condition, and there has been


some disagreement as to how it should be met. I may he permitted to say that
in the institution which I serve the entrance requirements are rigidly enforced.
I do not want the impression to be left in this meeting that any institution in
this circle of colleges has fallen to the low depth of its privileges under the law,
but that all are trying to rise to the highest of their privileges under the statute.
I think no one of us would ever regard it as possible for us to be content
with the perpetual condition of doing what we do not desire to do but what we
think ought to be done as a temporary measure. It may be that for five years
or it may be that for five hundred years there will be a large class of young men
who may be interested in agriculture by one method that never would be inter-
ested in it by another method however perfect theoretically. So far as peda-
gogical theory of instruction in agriculture is concerned, 1 think these colleges
must meet the conditions, but I think none of them should make an apology for
a low standard of entrance.
On motion, the section adjourned until 2 p. m. next day.


The section was called to order at 2 p. m. by Chairman W. E. Stone.


The following paper by M. H. Buckham, of Vermont, on The intent and
purpose of the Morrill Act with regard to military instruction." was read by
G. E. Fellows, of Maine, in the absence of the author:
The bill for the endowment of colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts,
which passed both Houses in April, 1858, and was vetoed by President Buch-
anan, did not contain the provision for instruction in military tactics incorpo-
rated into the later bill. In a speech by Mr. Morrill on April 20, 1858, setting
forth at great length the objects and provisions of this first bill, no allusion was
made to military instruction, nor was there any reference to it in the course of
the debate. The bill to which the present colleges owe their existence. was
introduced, debated, and passed in the summer of 1862, and bears the significant
date July 2, 1802, the day following the last of the seven days of McClellan's
Peninsular campaign. In the course of a speech in the House explaining and
advocating the measure, Mr. Morrill put considerable emphasis on the military
feature of the education provided for. I quote passages from different parts
of his speech:
"If this measure had been instituted a quarter of a century ago, the absence
of all military schooling at the outset ot the present rebellion would have been
less deplorable in the Northern States. The young men might have had more of
fitness for their sphere of duties, whether on the farm. in the workshop, or on
the battlefield. *
Something of military instruction has been incorporated in the bill in con-
sequence of the new conviction of its necessity forced upon the attention of the
loyal States by the history of the past year. A total unpreparedness presents
too many temptations, even to a foe otherwise weak. The national school at
West Point may suffice for the Regular Army in ordinary years of peace, but it
is wholly inadequate when a large army is to be suddenly put into service. If
we ever expect to reduce the Army to its old dimension and again rely on the
volunteer system for defense, each State must have the means within itself to
organize and officer its own force. With such a system as that here offered-
nurseries in every State-a sufficient force would at all times be ready to support
the cause of the nation and secure that wholesome respect which belongs to a
people whose power is always equal to its pretensions. In a free government
we have proved, notwithstanding some 'in time of temptation fall away,' that
patriotism is spontaneous,-but doubtless many valuable lives would have been
saved in the progress of this plague-spotted rebellion, had we not so long
assumed that military discipline was also spontaneous. If ever again our
legions are summoned to the field, let us show that we are not wholly unpre-
pared. These colleges founded in every State will to some extent


guard against the sheer ignorance of all which shrouded the coun-
try, and especially the North, at the time when the tocsin of war sounded at
Fort Sumter."
These words clearly explain the object which Mr. Morrill had in view in
making provision for instruction in military tactics in the colleges of agriculture
and the mechanic arts.
The presence of a great conflict, which found the nation unprepared to meet
either internal or external enemies, awakened public opinion to a sense of
danger-a danger not only in the past, but ever present; a danger which could
not be met by an extemporized army, or a levy en masse, but only by a provision
which should be of the nature of an institution, not subject to temporary change
of feeling, not liable to failure from neglect or forgetfulness. To statesmen
looking beyond existing tumults the Republic meant peace, but they were then
for the first time learning that peace exists only in those nations that know how
to maintain peace. To keep up a large standing army was contrary to the
genius of American liberty and to all national traditions. But here was an
opportunity to do something toward meeting this ever-present danger of "unpre-
paredness by distributing throughout peace-loving and industrial communities
in every State a certain amount of military schooling," as Mr. Morrill calls it,
and the result of such schooling in a goodly number of men, highly trained in
other respects, with a modicum, more or less, as the plan should work out, of
military training superadded.
It may be pertinent to note that, when, twenty-eight years after the passage
of the bill, in the piping times of peace," Mr. Morrill again asked Congress to
consider the needs and claims of the education offered in the colleges of agri-
culture and the mechanic arts and to increase their scope and their efficiency
by an increased endowment, no further provision was made for, and no mention
was made of, military instruction.
Passing now from consideration of the motives and utterances of the founder
of the colleges to the language of the organic act, we find that the intent and
purpose of the act as regards military instruction gets rather scant expression.
It is all embraced in three words-" including military tactics"-" one college
where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical
studies, and including military tactics, to teach, etc." That constitutes the
entire mandate on the subject. It is evident that the intent of the act was not
to establish military institutions-that is, institutions in which the leading
object is to teach the military art. Classical and other scientific studies are not
to be excluded, and military tactics are to be included, but the leading object
is to teach branches of learning related to agriculture and the mechanic arts.
Evidently there were not to be military academies after the manner of West
Point in all the States, nor feeble imitations of West Point.
If some institutions or some army officers detailed as military instructors in
the colleges have desired to make the military the leading feature, to insist on
army ideas and methods in the government of the institutions, and to subordi-
nate practically the other elements to the military, this has been without warrant
from the ordaining act. If this had been the intent and purpose of the founder
and of the act of Congress, they would have declared military training to be
the leading object, whereas it is not included among the leading objects.
What is meant by the term military tactics," which the act says are to be
included in the branches taught in the colleges? Obviously the word "tactics"
is used in a general and popular, not in a technical sense. "Military tactics"
is a broad and elastic term, including much that would not come within a strict
definition. This breadth and comprehensiveness, in distinction from a rigid
prescription of specific things to be done, is characteristic of the whole act. It
recognizes the great diversity of conditions existing in different parts of the
country, and now that it is operative in forty-five different States, this elasticity
and adaptability to conditions appears still more admirable. It is matter for
congratulation that we have in this grand scheme for national education, not a
thoroughly organized, bureaucratic system like that which fits in well with the
genius of the French people, but a simple outline, a broad, free. suggestive
sketch plan, of the general objects to be sought, leaving to the several localities,
and specifically to the legislatures of the several States, to fill in the details as
their special needs and interests may prescribe. As in the case of all other
branches of learning, so in case of the military science and art, the institutions
are left free to work out their own problems in their own way, provided that
way comes fairly within the express provisions of the act of Congress. As we
have seen, the incorporation of military instruction into the curriculum of the


colleges was intended to meet one of the great and permanent needs of the
country. Such Instruction is mandatory upon the colleges. By the acceptance
of the grant with its conditions this instruction has become an obligation, recog-
nized as such by the colleges. So much-that the colleges shall give Instruction
in military tactics-is, so to speak, constitutional, unalterable, not debatable.
All else is merely statutory or administrative, subject to by-laws, as wisdom
and good policy may.ordain.
Leaving. therefore, large latitude to the predilections of individual institutions
for more or less of the military feature in their curriculum, what may the
colleges, in an average way, be fairly expected to do as their part toward
supplying the country with a soldiery in time of need? The organization of a
national militia under Federal laws in all the States has materially changed
the situation since Mr. Morrill pictured the nation's unpreparedness" in 1862.
When not recognized as a part of the militia-as they are in some States-the
college battalions represent the possibility of a volunteer corps which would be
immediately effective for service, and the individual students and graduates
constitute a body out of which officers, commissioned and noncommissioned,
could be drawn for service in a suddenly enlisted corps. It can not be expected
of the colleges that they turn out thoroughly trained and accomplished officers.
It takes four years of military training at West Point to do that. To attempt
even something very much below this would take so much of the students' time
and energy from their main studies that they would go to colleges in which this
burden was not laid upon them. But the colleges, without sacrifice to their
"leading objects," may so train their students in the military art, that they.
or a good number of them, would make serviceable sergeants, lieutenants, and
captains in any force which the State or the nation might need for keeping the
peace and enforcing the laws. It is of some consequence that students should
make a good appearance at inspection or on parade. It is of much more impor-
tance that they should learn some of the soldierly virtues, prompt obedience,
power of command, the fine combination of self-respect and submission, which
make the good citizen and the good patriot as well as the good soldier.
But on this part of the subject I am privileged to offer the expert evidence of
an able and accomplished officer of the Artillery Corps and a highly successful
professor of military science and tactics in the University of Vermont, Capt.
C. J. Bailey, Fifteenth Artillery. Captain Bailey says:
"An opinion is desired as to what extent military instruction should be car-
ried in the land-grant colleges.
"Throwing out those institutions in which the military feature predominates
and is advanced as an attraction for students, there remain the colleges or uni-
versities in which the student is fitted for almost any profession save the mili-
tary. In these every hour devoted to military work takes from the student an
hour he might advantageously devote to studies in the particular line he has
chosen. Should, then, this military work be limited to three hours weekly, and
is even this worth to the student and to the college the advantages gained by
both from the endowments made by the Government?
When the writer took up this work in the University of Vermont in 1897 he
was of the opinion that the three hours weekly was inadequate for carrying out
the purposes desired by the Government and he still believes that it should be
increased, at least during that part of the college year when outdoor work can
be carried on, if this can be done without positive detriment to the other work
of the college. If this can not be done, however, sufficient instruction can be
done in the shorter time to render its value incontestable, particularly if the
instructor is allowed some latitude in dividing the students in such a way that
small bodies can be instructed in certain parts of the work rather than the whole
student body at once.
In colleges keeping to this minimum much that an officer deems essential in
teaching recruits must either be omitted or the student so interested that he will
voluntarily do the work by himself. This refers particularly to the 'setting up'
drills and calisthenics now so largely employed in the Army. The college gym-
nasium may and should take the place of these, for it is particularly necessary
that the student should have them or similar work both to keep him in health
and to give him the erect carriage distinctive of the good soldier and equally
advantageous to the good civilian. But the writer realized from his first at-
tempt that to make any progress in the drills of the company and battalion
nothing beyond a superficial course in these gymnastics could be attempted.
Both theoretical and practical military work can be so varied that the inter-
est of the majority of the students is easily retained, the difficulty being to



decide on what to omit where time is so limited. Many students find the whole
subject uninteresting and even distasteful, and these are the ones to whom muc
attention should be given, for they are generally the ones most in need of the
physical exercise-for their own health. The athletic men are generally the
best soldiers and take the most interest in lectures and recitations as well as In
the drills.
That the work so outlined is of value to the Government can not now be
questioned. The many valuable officers now in the Army whose only military
training was obtained in the land-grant colleges bear testimony to this.
Earnest and faithful work on the part of the instructor, with the cooperation
and support of the faculty, aided by the natural liking of many students for the
military, can not fail to render the course successful and give the Government a
fair interest on its investment-even with but three hours weekly for each
student. The more this time can he increased the better for the Government
and. in the opinion of the writer, for the physical and mental welfare of the
student and the ultimate good of the college."
Coming now to the second part of the question proposed, namely, the relation
of the colleges to the War Department, there are two attitudes which the
Department may take with reference to military instruction in the colleges.
The one view is that the Government has bestowed large endowments on these
colleges, and has a right to demand in return special military service which
men educated in these colleges can render, and to prescribe the methods of the
training which tits them for that service. To this view no objection can be
taken if it is not in practice carried so far as to exact of the students an amount
of effort which would impair their efficiency in their chosen field of study, and
so drive them into other institutions and thus defeat its own intent. It is
natural also and honorable in the military authorities at Washington that they
should seek to prescribe a standard of instruction and discipline which bears
some comparison with that splendid training at West Point which gives dignity
and prestige to an officer in the Army of the United States, or at least that
their point of view and their estimate of military education should be largely
under such influence. Then there arises a difference of judgment between the
Department and the colleges as to how much may be insisted on in the way of
military discipline, in which we find the Department virtually saying to us,
witl military courtesy. but with military firmness: We will not detail an
army officer to conduct your niilitary instruction unless we can dictate substan-
tially the amount, the methods, and all the conditions of such instruction."
The other view which the Government might take is not to insist on military
Training as an obligation on the part of the colleges and the detail of an officer
as a concession carrying with it a certain supervisory right over the colleges,
but to look at the whole situation as an opportunity of which both parties
should strive to make the utmost for the good of the country at large.
Here is a body consisting of many thousands of the choice young men of all
the States f the 'Union, as good material as the country or the world affords
for making citizen soldiers-such- soldiers as the country is likely to need-
land at an expense to the Government which is trifling compared with what
any other method of getting such soldiers would cost. There is a certain
amount of the military spirit--call it the patriot-military spirit-which it is
desirable to cultivate in our youth-not too much, not the militarism of France
and Germany-not too little, not the supineness and neglect, inviting assault,
of the North before the vwar--but enough to inspire a sense of security and
compel respect. Let the Government take advantage of the opportunity it has
to get this moderate amount of military spirit diffused among the young men of
the nation and, along with it, the moderate amount of military training
which will make it practically effective in time of need. This it will best
accomplish, not by setting up n military regime of its own within a literary
institution, not by issuing orders from Washington which ignore or override
the policy and the regulations of the colleges, but by cooperating with the
institutions in a patriotic endeavor to make such adjustment of the legitimate
claims of the civil and military departments, respectively, that all shall attain
their maximum efficiency. Passing over some of the obvious considerations
under this head, we may be permitted respectfully to suggest for the con-
sideration of the Department:
(1) That less emphasis be placed on the manual and technical branches of
military training. and more upon the higher, the intellectual, topics in the mill-
tary art. College students take "military tactics" as part of a liberal educa-
tion, not to fit them to serve as enlisted men. Introducing a certain amount of



strategy, the history of campaigns, fortification, problems in grand tactics,"
etc., would bring the instruction more within the range of college studies.
(2) The inspectors sent to examine and report oi tihe condition of the mili-
Ji tary departments in colleges should he experienced, broad-minded nmen. capable
-of understanding the situation in its larger imeailing and possibilities. Some
of the institutions have had occasion to complain that young otlicers. from
inability to appreciate the difference between a literary and a strictly military
M institution, have done them great injustice lby setting up an impossible standard
of efficiency and severely commenting on alleged delinquencies. The inspector,
S especially if continued in office long enough to learn its possibilities, can, by
S conferring and cooperating with the college authorities, by instruction and
advice to the cadet officers, and in ninny other ways. easily double the efficiency
of the military instruction. The institution represented by the writer of this
paper enjoyed all these benefits and others under the inspectorship of Col.
(now Gen.) It. P. Hughes. L. S. Army. A well-trained officer, a strict dis-
ciplinarian, and a thoroughly soldierly "man. he interested himself to bring the
college battalion up to the highest state of efficiency and to promote the true
military spirit among the young men of the institution. In doing this he
gathered to meet him the officers of the battalion, lectured them, scolded them,
praised them, instructed them, and so discharged the duties of his office in a
way at once professional and human that his visits were looked forward to
with interest and remembered with pleasure. and though his reports sometimes
scored us severely we knew that they were just and kindly. If the Govern-
ment would always send out inspectors equally faithful to the War Department
and equally helpful to the institutions, there would he little cause for com-
plaint on either side and the problem of efficient military training in the col-
leges would be in a fair way of satisfactory solution.
E. R. NICHOLs, of Kansas. I am very much in favor of military drill from
every standpoint, and I believe it is fortunate that it is a part of the endowment
of these colleges. It seems to me the management of this military matter is
largely a local affair. I have reference now as to whether it shall be one day
or two days or five days a week, and whether it shall be one, two, three, or four
years, whether it shall be in the fall or spring terms or how it shall be. In our
college we would as soon have drill four days in the week as two, but we would
dislike to have it five days. It is desirable to have one afternoon off in which
students can have their literary and athletic exercises and things of that nature.
It is desirable that we have drill four days and not five days. I would propose
as a possible solution of this question that we ask the War Department to state
the maximum number of hours that will be satisfactory to them for practice.
for theory, and for the ceremonials, leaving each college to apportion the time
through the week as best meets their conditions. We have tried various ways
of meeting the present requirements without success at the Kansas Agricultural
College. I believe, however, if we would ask the War Department to fix the
number of hours for practice and theory and the ceremonials that we can adjust
ourselves to the condition unless it is made very difficult.
C. C. THACH. of Alabama. There are some points that have been covered in
the paper by President Buckham and in the comments by President Nichols
that I think should be emphasized. We have had experience in military instruc-
tion in our institution in Alabama since its inception about thirty years ago. and
we stand, I think, somewhat on the middle ground in that respect. I agree with
President Nichols that this is a local question very largely, and the conditions
vary widely in different institutions. It should le left in all its details and
minutiae to the boards of control of the several institutions. In our institution
we have a quasi military organization, but much attention has from the first
been given to military training.
The act of 1862 explicitly requires such training, and I do not believe that we
can comply with the spirit or the letter of the law without having military in-
struction of a very definite and fixed amount and nature. Our experience bears
out the statement by President Buckham that the United States Government
23880-No 153--05 M- 7


has been greatly strengthened by the success in military instruction of these
land-grant colleges.
We should not lose sight of its value as an educative force, particularly in a
military way and in patriotism, but another advantage is the physical training
it gives. I believe it is worth while to have it for that reason. I am a great
believer in all forms of athletics, but only a small percentage of the student
body actually participates in athletics or even work in the gymnasium. Presi-
dent Eliot, of Harvard, found that out of about 3,000 students only about one-
third took active part in athletics. Military instruction furnishes a readily
available means of giving all the students the physical training they need. It
furnishes exercise, not simply as a gymnastic, but exercise with the ulterior pur-
pose of training the men for something definite. We must not minimize the
military feature. I believe it is a question of education, not only in preparing
a man for military service and in inculcating patriotism, but I believe the train-
ing is in itself educative.
As regards the practical application of this matter, I think you will have as
many views as you have States. I believe the question ought to be approached
in a conciliatory manner. Military men are easily antagonized. They want
men to obey whether or not. Therefore I do not believe in the extreme mili-
tary feature. But we can approach the question in an amicable spirit. I
do not believe, however, that the suggestion of the minimum amount of hours
will meet the situation. I think two hours is too small. We have
We used to have five, and that was undesirable, but we get along very well with
three. We haven't had an army officer in six years, but during that time we
have made our quarterly report, and we get our arms. If five hours' drill are
to be required we are not in a hurry to get under the Government. We now
have in charge a man of our own training, who knows the situation and is
willing to adapt himself to conditions. We have two general roll calls a day
and three drills. The seniors have power to report offenses of various kinds.
We do not find that power abused. We excuse our athletic teams, but it does
not preclude them from promotion as cadet officers. Some of our best cadet
officers are from the athletic team.
E. A. BRYAN, of Washington. For a thousand years or more we and our ances-
tors have believed in the citizen soldiery. We have proceeded on the theory
that our nation-l defense is to be intrusted chiefly to the citizen soldier. Along
about the time of the civil war we woke up to the fact that the National Guard,
which had been intrusted in a measure with the training of the citizen soldier
for times of defense, was a' poor reliance; that it was not in shape to serve the
purposes of national defense, and I have no doubt, as has already been inti-
mated, that it was due to the condition we then faced that the military clause
was inserted in the first Morrill Act. I remember hearing a volunteer officer
in the civil war say that in his entire regiment at the outbreak of the civil war
there was not a single man that could drill a squad. I have no doubt that the
statesmen of that day and citizens of that day felt very keenly the fact that
there were few intelligent and educated men who had any knowledge of mili-
tary science and tactics, and that it was due to this that at that time a new
theory was injected into our system of national military education. As a result
of that we have to-day three general plans of military'education: First, that
which is typified by West Point, a distinctly military school for the training of
military officers: second, the National Guard, where for a few days each year
the citizens who volunteer in the companies, are trained, and third, the students
who are trained in the land-grant colleges in this way. I approve this as a
national movement, as a great means of national defense. I believe we should
have a general system which will provide men of intelligence and education,

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