Tobacco insects in Hawaii

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Title:
Tobacco insects in Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
20 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Fullaway, David T ( David Timmins ), 1880-1964
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by D.T. Fullaway.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613244
oclc - 04911053
lccn - agr14001060
Classification:
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 32-50
System ID:
AA00014599:00001


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HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

E. V. WILCOX, Special Agent in Charge.



Bulletin No. 34.


TOBACCO INSECTS IN HAWAII.








BY



D. T. FULLAWAY,

ENTOMOLOGIST.


UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
U. B. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
















WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1914.


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HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, HON OLTV.

[Under the supervision of A. C. TRUE, Director of the Office of Experiment Stations, United Stat4f::$
ment of Agriculture.]

WALTER H. EvANs, Chief of Division of Insular Stations, Office of Experiment sWi

STATION STAFF.

E. V. WILCOX, Special Agent in Charge.
J. EDGAR HIGGINS, Horticulturist.
W. P. KELLEY, Chemist.
D. T. FULLAWAY, Entomologist.
C. K. MCCLELLAND, Agronomist.
WM. MCGEORGE, Assistant Chemist.
ALICE R. THOMPSON, Assistant Chemist.
C. J. HUNN, Assistant Agriculturist.
V. S. HOLT, Assistant in Horticulture.
C. A. SAHR, Assistant in Agronomy.
F. A. CLOWEs, Superintendent Hawaii Substations.
J. DE C. JERVES, Superintendent Homestead Substation.
W. A. ANDERSON, Superintendent Rubber Substation.
J. K. CLARK, Superintendent Waipio Substation.
G. COPP, Superintendent Kula Substation.
(2)











.. :. 1
iI
J. EGARHIGGNSHort -uturit. ,:.. .. ,,


















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


HONOLULU, HAWAII, August 16, 1913.
Sm: I have the honor to submit herewith and recommend for pub-
lication as Bulletin No. 34 of the Hawaii Experiment Station a paper
on Tobacco Insects in Hawaii, by D. T. Fullaway, entomologist. The
extension of the tobacco industry in Hawaii in the past few years
has made desirable a further study of the insect pests of tobacco, and
the results of these studies, together with practical recommendations
for the control of tobacco insects, are presented in this bulletin.
Respectfully,
E. V. WILCox,
Special Agent in Charge,
Dr. A. C. TRUE,
Director Office of Experiment Stations,
U. 8. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Recommended for publication.
A. C. TRUE, Director.
Publication authorized.
D. F. HOUSTON, Secretary of Agriculture.
(3)














.ii





CONTENTS.


Introduction...... ....... ........ ...... ........... .......... ............. '
Insects affecting the plant............................... .......
Cutworms..........-.............................................-. .
Splitworm- .... --..............-...... .......... .... ......... .........
Pod-borer.--................................................ ... ---------... .....
flornworm-----------------------...........------..........................................---------------
Flearbeetle..........--......---.....................................
Minor pests-........ .....-....-.....-...-......-- ......-...----.......-.
Ineects affecting the stored product......................................
Cigarette beetle-......................................................
------------mE iim




ILLUSTRATIONS.


IG. 1. Caradrina reclusa, a cutworm common in tobacco fields...............
2. Frontina archippivora, parasitic on cutworms......--.................
3. Ichneumon koebelei, parasitic on cutworms ...................-......
4. Phthorimaea operculella, the tobacco splitworm..-....---..........-.-.
5. Limnerium blackburni, parasitic on splitworm-........................
6. Heliothis obsoleta, the tobacco pod-borer.......-.....................
7. Phlegethontius quinquemaculata, the tobacco hornworm-....-....--.....
8. Epitrix parvula, the tobacco flea-beetle- ............-.................
9. Lasodermna erricore, the cigarette beetle................ ........
(4)












TOBACCO INSECTS IN HAWAII.


INTRODUCTION.

A general account of the insects known to feed on tobacco was
presented as a bulletin of this station by D. L. Van Dine.2 This
bulletin, however, was prepared while the experimental work on
tobacco was still in progress and before any large areas had been
planted. In the meantime the industry has become established and
the plantings greatly extended, and in view of the facilities for obtain-
ing and importance of having actual and complete information in
regard to the pests encountered in the tobacco fields, the entomo-
logical work reported herein was begun several years ago and con-
tinued to date. The present paper, then, is intended to supplement
the information contained in the previous bulletin, and in addition
to listing the insects gives an account of the distribution, life history,
habits, means of control, and natural enemies of each of the species
enumerated, together with other data gathered through study and
observation during the course of the work.
The principal tobacco pests are cutworms, splitworm, pod-borer,
hornworm, flea-beetle, and cigarette beetle. Many minor pests are
also encountered without being especially destructive. These may
be discussed in two categories, namely, those affecting the plant and
those affecting the product.

INSECTS AFFECTING THE PLANT.
CUTWORMS.

Cutworm is a general term used to designate the large ground-
inhabiting caterpillars of the noctuid moths which usually leave their
diurnal retreats at night to feed on any vegetation at hand. "Peelua"
is the native word by which these worms are known. The Noctuide
are represented in these islands by 35 or more native and introduced
species. Of these, however, only eight are commonly found in culti-
vated fields; the others are more or less confined to the mountains
and the native flora and are not generally encountered as agricultural
I The habits and life stories of the cutworms, splitworm, tobacco pod-borer, hornworm, tobacco flei.
beetle, and cigarette beetle, and a number of pests of minor importance in Hawaii are described, and prao.
tiemloemmendatioa.are made regarding the control of each of them.
LHawaiaUta. Bu 10.







pests. While the cutworms as a group are generally he 2ld U
very efficient parasites, on account of their great reprod
ers and the-wide range of their food plants they are season .
destructive, especially in newly broken or poorly cultivate
when a dearth of food compels them to migrate in numbers
winter months, when the parasites are numerically at a low
the reviving vegetation gives the cutworms an impetus to : .
are usually the season of cutworm activity and widespread
tion of crops.
Caradrina reclusa is the species most commonly found i,
tobacco fields in Hawaii (fig. 1). This is a recently introdui k
species, not listed in the Fauna Hawaiiensis. According to Swe6
it was first noticed in numbers in 1906, although Perkins had t:


AMON ...


WI-'T


r "i
----I


PFI. 1.- Cradrina recluwa, a cutworm common in tobacco fields: a, Larva; b, pupa; c, moth. (Origia

specimens a few years previous to 1906. Its habitat is given as N
girls, Ceylon, Borneo, and Fiji, and it has probably come to HaI(
from the last-named locality.
A full account of its life history is given by Swezey,1 from which M.
following data are taken:
The eggs are not laid in a mass or cluster, but are scattered aron
singly or in small numbers; on the surface of grass leaves they i
sometimes laid in rows; they are also at times placed on any h
surface. One moth in captivity laid 216 eggs. It died after f'
days.
The egg is hemispherical, with the flattened surface next the .
it is ribbed meridianally with about 30 ribs, 10 of which reach ||
upper pole; there are also slight cross ridges between the ribs; at-
1 Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc., 2 (1908), No. 1, pS 3.






.pp er pole is an irregular patch of reddish color; there is also an irreg-
'a ular ring of the same color at about one-third the distance from .
pIole to base of egg; the rest of the egg is pale green; when first laid
I t is entirely pale green.
S The full-grown larva is 26-32 mm. long and almost black. The
two preceding stages are more mottled and variegated with black,
S brown, olivaceous, yellowish and whitish, darker colors, however,
predominating. There are two more or less conspicuous subdorsal
rows of black spots on segments 7-12 and a broad paler region on
dorsum between these, in the middle of which is a series of obscure
lozenge-shaped darker spots. The head is mostly black except the
periphery (i. e., the portion covered when retracted), which is pale
brown. There are two conspicuous whitish subdorsal spots on seg-
ment 6, and the. posterior subdorsal parts of segment 12 and upper
parts of segment 13 are yellowish. The spiracles are black with a
yellowish streak below them. The
tubercles are not conspicuous but
about the same color as their sur-
roundings, and the hairs are short.
The twelfth segment is quite
swollen. The duration of the larval
stage is 30-40 days.
The pupa is formed in the soil, an
inch or two below the surface. It
is 13-15 mm. long, uniform medium
brown; eyes black; wing, leg, and X 4
antenna cases extending to apex of
-FIG. 2.--JPontisa rchippisora, parasitic on cot.
fourth abdominal segment; the ar- worms. (From wezey.)
ticulations between segments 4-7
movable. There is a row of about 20 pits on dorsal part of basal
margin of segments 5, 6, and 7, from the ends of which a band of punc-
tures extends around the ventral side. The apex of the abdomen
is blunt and rounded, with two approximate dark spines, the tips of
which converge and are slightly curved ventrally. The pupal period
is 12-14 days.
The moth is described as follows:1
9 Pale chestnut brown. Fore wing with very faint traces of the usual markings;-
a prominent ochreous postmedial line slightly curved from the costs to vein 2, and
not waved. Hind wing paler.
? With the collar and abdomen black; the second joint of palpi black. Fore
wing with the basal area clothed with ocherous hair; hind wing with the base yel-
dlwish; some specimens have a black speck in cell of fore wing and series of specks
on the potmedial line and margin.
SOn. the few productive plantations here this cutworm is by long
odds the most destructive pest encountered. Six and seven replant-
a Hampeon. Fauna Brit. India; Moths, 2 (184), p. 264.


:do











tion, cutworms become almost a negligible qua atity afiite t I
of several years, except for occasional outbreaks which am~, f
species, of rare occurrence.
Next to thorough cultivation the best artificial control of it
is secured by distributing about the plants a poisoned .i
arsenic or Paris green in moistened and sweetened bran, f
middlings. The edges of fields adjacent to uncultivated land
often trenched, so as to present a steep surface on the expoei id..
which the cutworm can not climb. Hand picking is somen60
resorted to, but is altogether too slow and expensive,
As already stated, the present parasites of cutworms are
efficient throughout
year; these are the ta
flies, Frontina ar i
(fig. 2) and C hat dogis
ticola, the ichneina.
sa-ce, Ichneumon, koebdei (f1 ig, F
and the egg parasite,
gramma prediosa.1 Br
also devour large nmibfner
The loss from cutwormn Liii
jury, especially in diver;i!
fled farming, is a sterd iet
matter and should an i
FIa. 3.-Icheumon koebeei, parasitic on cutworms. (From more attention than it a:.t:
Swezey.)
present receives. For M "'.
stance, with Government assistance it might be possible to get bpn :::::
importation many additional cutworm parasites. Insectivorous bi*::
also should be protected by law or by the cooperation of owner cs
land used for agricultural purposes, and more insectivorous speu
might be secured by importation.
SPLITWORM.
The splitworm of tobacco is the caterpillar of the common gee
moth, Phthorimma operculella (fig. 4), a widely distributed pest 0l
Irish potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, and other solanaceous plantiN
as well as of tobacco. The moth was described in 1878 from spe~ -
mens from Texas and its destructiveness to solanaceous plants CWPs.
to notice shortly afterwards. Within a decade it was reported asa -
agricultural pest from various parts of the United States and A
SThis parasite, or T.flazwm, which is probably only a synonym of T. prtim, has been bred afrma
eggs of a noctuid, probably Bpodopterr edgmi.







West Indies, from Algeria and the Canary Islands in Africa, and from
Australia and New Zealand in Polynesia. It was first noticed in
Hawaii in 1892 by Perkins and Blackburn, when it had undoubtedly
been here some time.
The caterpillar, as indicated in the designation splitwormm," mines
the leaves of its host plants, making a broad, flat track through the
mesophyll between the upper and lower epidermis, which often
becomes badly split and shattered when dry. It sometimes also
tunnels the stem, which thereby becomes greatly weakened.
As a tobacco pest this species is most injurious to seed bed plants.
When the seed bed is invaded the plants are generally set back and
sturdy seedlings for transplanting difficult to obtain. This trouble
may be partly overcome by seeding the beds very thin and protecting
them from the moth with cotton netting.
The damage to plants in the field is slight-- --
on well-conducted plantations, and it is
usually only the two or three poor, soiled,
lower leaves that are much split by the
worm. Where, however, a planting is
neglected the infestation becomes general
and any tobacco in proximity to the neg-
lected fields will be badly split.
Life history.-There are four distinct @=
stages in the life cycle of this insect,
namely, the egg, larva or caterpillar, pupa, rA,-
and adult.
The egg: The eggs are laid singly on FIG. 4.-Phthorimza operculella, the to-
the leaves, often in the hollow alongside bacco splitworm: a, Moth; a, larva,
lateral view; c, larva, dorsal view;
the veins. They are oval to pear shaped, d, pupa; e, /, segments of larva,
0.45 mm. long by 0.27 mm. across, pearly oarge (Redrawn from Riley
white, and faintly reticulate. About 20 to
25 eggs are laid by a single moth. The egg stage occupies six days.
The larva: The full-grown larva is a rather slender worm, about
10 mm. long, in color sordid white with a greenish or reddish tinge;
the head, cervical shield, legs, and antennae brown to black. The
cervical shield is broad and wide, almost reaching the posterior margin
of the segment; the lateral hind angles rounded. The tubercles are
fuscous to black, mostly minute, bearing setae, and are arranged in
longitudinal rows as follows: (1) anterior, (2) posterior and a trifle
More removed than 1, (3) above spiracle, (4 + 5) below, (6) posterior,
below fold, (7) ventral; on segments 2 and 3 (1) and (2) are in a line
at about middle of segment, while (3), (4), and (5) form an equilateral
triangle, (3) and (4) rather large; on first segment the spiracle is
posterior, and in front of it there is a large, flat tubercle'with three
long hairs.
34855-14--2







The larval stage occupies about 26 days. Before pupatig'gi
worm usually leaves its mine or tunnel and finding a hidden,
obscure corner builds a cocoon of silk and grass or grains of
within which it pupates.
The pupa: The pupa, removed from its case, is brown, about 4
mm. long, and rather slender. The wing cases distally are free r
the abdomen; the leg and antenna cases are scarcely longer tha
these, and reach the apex of the sixth segment. The cremaster
lobed, and between the lobes dorsally is a short, stout spine surround
by numerous hairs with recurved tips. The pupal stage covers 1I
days.
The moth: The moth is described by Walsingham as follows:
Antenne brownish cinereous. Palpi cinereous, with two umber-brown patches
on the median joint externally, a spot of the same on the base of the terminal joint
and a broad band before its apex. Head brownish cinereous; face pale cinereoalQ
Thorax brownish cinereous, with three smoky brown longitudinal lines above.
Fore wings dull buff-brown, shaded and spotted with dark smoky brown; this s
a dorsal shade below the fold, a terminal shade reverting around the apex, and a sp
at the end of the cel from which narrow lines radiate outward along the veins; there
are also two spots near the base of the costa, the first succeeded by another below and
beyond it, the second followed by one on the cell and one on the fold in an oblique
line, a pair of smaller spots lying beyond this line on the cell, also in oblique succe ':i
sion; cilia pale buff-brownish, sprinkled along their base with smoky brown. Rx p.
al. 15-16 mm. Hind wings pale gray; cilia pale brownish ochreous. Abdomen and
legs brownish cinereous.
Remedies.-As the insect in its injurious stage is generally protected
in its tunnel, poisons are of little use in attempting to control it
artificially. It is well known, however, that the worm often desette
an old mine to form a new one and the hatching caterpillars must in
the first place eat through the epidermis; to this extent, therefore,
they are vulnerable to lead arsenate dusted or sprayed on the plants,
and this measure is recommended for the control of the worm in seed
beds. If the arsenic is applied as a spray it can be combined with
the Bordeaux mixture used in case of fungus troubles. Under field
conditions, however, the little good accomplished and the great :i
expense involved make it scarcely worth while. As already mean
tioned, the beds can be protected by screening. As a precaution :
against a general infestation, no solanaceous plants should be grown
near the tobacco fields and all solanaceous weeds in the imm ediate
vicinity should be periodically destroyed.
Natural enemies.-The caterpillars of the splitworm are very much
parasitized by a small black and white braconid, Chelonus blackburni,
which likewise attacks a number of other small leaf-rolling cater-
pillars. The parasitized caterpillars spin their cocoons when aboutV.
half grown without pupating. Shortly afterwards the larva of t :l
1 Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 1, pt. 5, p. 484, 1907.


* jrii-
a..







parasite emerges from the caterpillar and feeding on it externally
finishes it off and spins its own delicate white cocoon inside that of its
host. The parasite emerges a
little later than the moth would
have done.1
It is also much parasitized by
a native ophionid, jimnerium
blackburni, common to many
of the smaller pyralids, and with
very similar habits to the para-
site referred to above.
POD-BORER.

The tobacco pod-borer, more
familiar in some quarters as the xs
cotton bollworm and the corn FIG. 5.-Limnerium blackburni, parasitic on splitworm.
earworm, is the larva, or cater- (From Swezey.)
pillar, of the noctuid moth Heliothis obsoleta, a cosmopolitan pest of
omnivorous habit, often very destructive to such important field crops
as cotton, corn, tobacco, toma-
toes, etc. (fig. 6). On the to-
bacco plant its characteristic
injury is the boring and eat-
ing of the seed pods, although
S it also eats the foliage to some
extent. Curiously enough, in
a Hawaii it is never found on
either corn or cotton and is not
generally considered a serious
pest to tobacco. Its multipli-
cation is probably in some way
checked or controlled, most
e likely by natural enemies,
although these have never
d been disclosed.
Life history.-There are the
usual four stages in its de-
velopment.
iG. 6.-Heiothisobsoleta,the tobaccopod-borer. a,Adult The egg: The eggs are laid
moth; b, dark full-grown larva; c, light colored full- singly, in a considerable num-
grown larva; pupa-natural size. (From Howard.) ber, and are generally well
scattered. They are rather large and conspicuous; sometimes they
are found near the bud in young plants, most usually however on the
flower, the pod, or the subtending bracts, rather loosely attached
I Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Sta., Div. Ent. Bul. 5, p. 41 (1907).





12.
but adhering readily to the sticky surface of the plant. I
is pearly white, spherical (diameter about 0.6 mm.), radiately
on the sides from a smooth circular area on the dorsal summit,. ,
rounding the micropyle, the longitudinal ridges connected by .
cross ridges. The egg stage is five days.
The larva: The larva is extremely variable and for that reaa;o
difficult to describe. Freshly hatched specimens are about 0.75 6i nt :
long, sordid white with black head and fuscous cervical shield,
covered with black hairs. Four or five molts occur in the co
its growth, the color often changing in the molt. The full
caterpillar is 30-40 mm. long, stout bodied, the integument more
less shagreened through the presence of extremely closely set, short'
stout spines; the principal varieties greenish, reddish, and grayish,
and longitudinally striped-usually a broad dorsal and two broad.- 1
lateral dark stripes above the pale stigmatal line, with many. fine
wavy lines intermixed. The head and cervical shield are brown, th.. :I
latter with irregular black markings. Spiracles black with white.
center. Tubercles variable, some large and black, others small andu
pale, and arranged in longitudinal rows as follows: On segments 4- .. I
(1) is anterior, (2) posterior and farther removed from median line,
(3) above spiracle, (4) behind and (5) under and beneath the stig-:,.
matal line; in some cases (4) is small and (5) is in all cases. On th:.
segments with prolegs (6) is above the leg; on the segments without". .
them (6) and (7) are ventral and posterior. On segments 2 and 3 .
(1) and (2) are in line and (1) is small; (3) is close to (2) and also in ,
line; (4) and (5) are small, the latter behind the former on the stig-
matal line, (6) above the leg. On segment 1 (1) is anterior, (2) pos- ..
terior and farther removed, (3) is above spiracle, (4+5) in front,
(6) above the leg. On segment 10 (4) is behind (5), which is below.
the spiracle; on segment 11 (4) is absent. The length of the larval..
stage is 32 days. When full grown the larva leaves the plant to
enter the soil, fashioning a rough cell several inches below the surface
in which it pupates. ,
The pupa: The pupa is of the usual stout noctuid type; length
about 20 mm.; smooth and brown. The wing cases end broadly, the
leg and antennal cases narrowly, at the apex of segment 4. The....
spiracles on segments 2-7 are contracted oval, raised above the in-..
tegument into a short neck, and are black; that on segment 8 is a mere
narrow slit. The anterior margin of segments 4-7 dorsally and 5-7 .i
ventrally are punctate, the punctation rather fine on segment 4,
otherwise coarse. The cremaster is rather pointed, with two fairly :
long projecting spines. The length of the pupal stage is 12-16 days. :
The moth: The adult moth is described as follows:'
SHampson. Fauna Brit. India; Moths, 2 (1894), p. 174.


.Iij:






IC Ogiebes with a pale brown olive, or red-brwn tinge. Fore wing with indistinct
IIdoabl waved auitemedial lines; a dark speck representing the orbicular; an indistinct
i: ritd medial line; the reniform indistinct; postmedial and submarginal waved lines,
j:the space between them somewhat darker and with a series of pale or dark specks on
the nervules; a marginal series of dark specks. Hind wing white; the veins fuscous;
a-hiad blackish outer border usually with a pale submarginal central patch. Under-
ide of fore wing with the orbicular and reniform stigmata conspicuously black; a
broad blackish band beyond the postmedial line; the apices of both wings and outer
area of fore wing pinkish.
Remedies.-As already stated, the pod-borer is not a serious pest
of tobacco. It is the general practice of planters to top the plants
as soon as the flowers appe -a: a#;_ re this is done consistently
there is little evidence of the pod-borer. To obtain seed, the flower
stalks are usually inclosed in a bag. Neglected fields, however,
always show signs of the borer if the eggs or worms are not actually
present in numbers. Under the circumstances it is unnecessary to
recommend any remedial measures beyond the avoidance of neglecting
a regular routine in field work. If for any reason a field of standing
tobacco is abandoned, the plants should be plowed up and destroyed
to avoid a general infestation.
Natural enemies.-The eggs of the pod-borer moth are probably
parasitized, here as elsewhere, by Trichogramma pretiosa, although
the parasite has never to my knowledge actually been bred here from
Heliothis eggs. It is also possible that the common tachinid parasites
attack Heliothis, but there is no positive evidence at hand.'
HORNWORM.
Hornworms are the familiar, large, repulsive-looking caterpillars of
the hawk moths, with large head and prominent horn or spine at the
hind end of the body. The moths are also large and heavy-bodied
and resemble humming birds as they hover around open blossoms in
the late afternoon. There are several native species which are only
rarely seen in the mountains, but the strong flying moths often get
down to the coast. The commoner introduced species are found,
F Sp1hi convolvuli on sweet potatoes and Deileph.ila lineata on purslane.
The tobacco hornworm, Phlegethontius quinquemaculata (fig. 7), is
: extremely uncommon and has never been seen by the writer on
I tobacco. It is sometimes found around Honolulu on the wild tobacco
(Nicotiana glauca), and on these occasions the broods are usually large,
and the plants soon stripped. Its rare occurrence would indicate
the presence of very efficient parasites.
I.T. e tobacco hornworm is a North American insect and is known
throughout the tobacco districts of the United States as the northern
itofbco worm in contradistinction to the souther tobacco worm,
P. a~"n It must have been introduced here at an early date; it
SBince the above was written, Pmronma arckppisr has been bred from the pupa.




L







was first recorded, however, by Blackburn in 1881 anid
Butler on Blackburn's specimens as a new species, P;
P. blacZburni later proved to be a synonym, as already l.
The larva: The larva is described by Blackburn as follo .
Green or ashy gray, more or less sprinkled with white; piracular 1 .s
emitting upwards and backwards (i. e., so that they slant upwards in a"
direction) seven white stripes, the first of which is on the fourth segment (m
the head as a segment), the last on the tenth; on the eleventh segment is a
tripe bent backwards over the spiracle, being much smaller than the
on the other segments; head with two well-defined black longitudinal.
clouded with black laterally; spiracles black, surrounded with a bright bli f



























Fro. 7.-Phlegethontius quinquemaculfat, the tobacco hornworm. a, Adult moth; 6, ful-grown
or larva; c, pupa-natural size. (From Howard.)
horn long, shining black, bent backwards; claspers of the ground color. n* i.0
ashy gray larvae the whole dorsal surface is sprinkled with white; the segment behiM
the head is shining black, bordered with white; the last claspers and space ar*I
the anus are shining black (at least partiallyy; and the legs are blackish atba,
becoming red toward apex. In the green larvae only a few segments near the
are sprinkled with white; and the segment next behind the head, the last c
and the space round the anus are olivaceous rather than black; the legs, too, are
conspicuously red.
The pupa: The pupa is of the usual large heavy-bodied p
type with projecting tongue case forming the so-called "jug handl
SAna. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 5. ar., 7 (1881), p. 319.





5* 15.

: I, iTs described as rather slender and more or less smooth, the punc-
turing at base of abdominal segments and at apex fine and shallow.
i he wing cases are angulate, the tongue case rather long and thin,
the tip touching the body at one-third the length from the head.
The larvas pupate 3 or 4 inches deep in the soil within a roughly
constructed cell.
The moth: The moth is described as follows:'
General color ash gray; fore wings ash gray at base, without white spots. No white
dot at middle of wing, this mark represented by a gray dot encircled with black,
which does not contrast with the color of adjacent parts. Fringe of outer margin
without white. An evident whitish line begins in an enlargement at the angle, and
extends forward, parallel with the edge, toward the apex of the wing, but terminates
abruptly before reaching it. Outer angle of fore wing decided. Basal two-thirds
of hind wing largely light ash gray, the middle of the wing crossed by two sharply
dentate black lines, which represent the more or less fused pair on the wing of P.
marolina. Outer third of hind wing largely ash gray, this area limited within by a
wide curved band of black. Head and thorax above ash gray. Abdomen on middle
above ash gray, with an evident narrow median black line. Orange spots on side
five in number, less elongated transversely and more rounded than in the related
species. Legs gray, cross-banded with whitish above.
The following description of the Hawaiian form is copied from
Butler:
P. quinquemaculato simillima; major, alis latioribus, magis grisescentibus; signis
alarm anticarum subcostalibus albescentibus; series macularum albarum antice
confluentium arcuata discali, cum fascia ordinaria nigrocincta cohaerente; fasciola
posticarum prima obsoleta; fascia sub-marginali nigra apud apicem multo latiore;
alar. exp. unc. 5.
There are no breeding records at hand.
In the United States the life cycle runs through about 45 days; in
Hawaii the time would presumably be somewhat shorter.
SRemedies.-As already stated, tobacco growers have not found the
hornworm a serious pest on account of its rarity. When it does
appear it may flourish for a time and do considerable damage; in
such a case it is best to check it at once by spraying infested plants
with lead arsenate (3 pounds to 100 gallons of water), to which the
yQung worms are very susceptible. If the worms have reached large
sae before the infestation has been noticed, hand-picking should be
resorted to, as it is difficult to kill the large worms with a stomach
poison.
Natural enemies.-The natural enemies are not known, but it is
probably an egg parasite and. not unlikely a trichogrammid. The
eggs of the congener 8. convoluli are parasitized by the trichogrammid
P sartaron semifuscatum.
Skarman. Kentucky ta. Bul. 66, p. 25. Ent. Mo. Mag., 17 (1880), p. 6.


pJ".







The tobacco flea-beetle, Epitrix parnula .(fig. 8), is one of
tophagid beetles, a family including many extremely injuribus..
such as the 10-lined potato beetle, the asparagus beetle, cutmi
beetle, and a host of other flea-beetles with very similar halh ~b
widely different food plants.
According to Sharp,1 who vouchsafes for its specific identity; it'
late introduction, not being taken by Blackburn in his colleetiag
in the late seventies and early eighties. It is of American origi
is generally distributed in the Southern States of the Unin ,4 NO
ico, Central America, and the West Indies. Like some othei
pests, it feeds on practically all the commoner solanaceous plants .sa .lii
is equally injurious to potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, and poha. A ,..
the larva and the adult beetfli: i::e .
damage, but the characteristic.!Fl :::i
jury is the work of the .adults. a i:
the leaves. The beetles are a.
I and their mouth parts can gmp
ic only small fragments, but they. r
^, assiduous feeders, so that the. .r;|
sult of their feeding is often .'a-!i
2 ]shattered foliage, ragged with sp "io
I ^ \and holes and broken m argini.
< The larvae work beneath the Wm I-
/ v face on the roots and crown, a
e e injury apparently of little conse-
quence, but noticeable in neglected
FIG. 8.-Epitrix parvula, the tobacco flea-beetle. q, bt in
a, Adult beetle enlarged about fifteen times; b, plants. No enemies have been dia-
young larva; j, pupa; c, d, e, portions of the closed, but, apparently, some factor
larva greatly enlarged. (From Chittenden.) is to pt i
interferes to prevent its undue
multiplication, else this pest would do widespread injury. In som:if P
places there appears to be a seasonal occurrence, the beetle becoimjn in
numerous and injurious only in the dry season; but in neglectedt I'
plantations, and especially in the neighborhood of other solanaceou6 "
plants, it is commonly prevalent. The adult beetle is rather lo ,ii
lived, but it should not on this account necessarily be more injurious, iI
as it is able to do without food for long periods.
The difficult life history has been fully studied in America by Chit-:
tenden, and the writer has not attempted to duplicate this work.
Egg: The egg, according to Chittenden,' is narrow, elliptical-ovate, 'i
two and one-half times as long as wide, color gray with scarcelyfa:.:
1 Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 2, pt. 3, p. 95, 1900.
2 U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent. Bul. 19, n. ser., p. 86 (1899).





17


tiage of yellow, the surface divided into very minute irregular areas
aaely visible under a high magnification. Length 0.4 nun., width

larva: The larva, according to the same authority,1 is 3.5 mm.
long, delicate and filiform or threadlike, milky white in color except
the head, which is honey yellow, and with darker brown mouth parts
and sutures. The body is subcylindrical, moderately wrinkled and
segmented, and sparsely covered with short hairs. The head is only
moderately chitinized, and the first, thoracic, and last, or anal, seg-
ment are apparently not at all or only slightly chitinized. The anal
segment is furnished with a small proleg, but there are no visible den-
ticles at its apex.
Pupa: The pupa is white like the larva and resembles the pupa of
Diabrotica, especially in the anal hooklike appendages. The insect
pupates in'a cell.
Adult: The adult is very minute, measuring scarcely 1.5 mm. in
length, is oblong ovate in form, and light brown in color. The
elytra are usually marked with a dark transverse median band of
greater or less extent.
A life cycle is said to run through 28 days, as follows: Egg, 6 days;
larva, 16 days; pupa, 6 days. In Hawaii it would presumably be
somewhat shorter.
Bemedies.-On the commercial plantations of Hawaii the flea-
beetle does not seem to be much of a pest except late in the growing
season, but in neglected tobacco it becomes very numerous. For this
reason it is necessary in growing tobacco commercially to keep well
up in the field work and allow no plants to remain around after the
tobacco has been picked. Other solanaceous crops should not be
grown near the tobacco, and all solanaceous weeds in the neighbor-
hood should be periodically destroyed. When, however, the flea-
beetle is present in sufficient numbers to damage the crop, the affected
plants may be sprayed with arsenate of lead, 1 pound to 20 gallons of
water, paste form (only one-half of this amount of powdered arsenate
of lead), which will kill any beetles feeding on the sprayed foliage.
MINOR PESTS.
There are a few minor pests of tobacco, such, for instance, as the
caterpillars of Plusia chalcites and of Amorbia emigratela, which are
rather general feeders and are found on various cultivated and wild
plants without being particularly injurious to all of them; and the
mealy bgs .Pseudococcus citri and Pseudococcus virgatus, which are
also found on many different plants but are noticeably injurious only
I uder exceptional circumstances. In the Kona tobacco fields
I U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent. Bul. 10, n. r., p. 79 (1898).

- k '.







Siphanta acuta and Pulvinaria pidi are also found. I:a
although they are commoner on the coffee plant, and snails
damage to seedling and young plants. The grasshoppers,:.:
appendiculata and Xiphidium varipenne, are frequently a
tobacco and may feed on it to some extent, but the injury th6e
altogether negligible. A rather common introduced bug
delectus) is also found on the seed pods of tobacco wherever
but it has not been ascertained whether or not it breeds on
or is in any way injurious to the plant. There is also associated i.
tobacco a bark beetle (Xyleborus sp.) the larva of which mine l:b.
old stems, but it is not especially injurious.
INSECTS AFFECTING THE STORED PRODUCT.
CIGARETTE BEETLE. .. :

The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Ptinidie) (fig. 9), is o ii:f
of those numerous species which feed altogether on dry, dead vegetabl ::':i
.. ........ ,



S.... ii:


Ca 6 o S 1
FIG. 9.-Lasioderma aenicorne, the cigarette beetle. a, Larva; 6, pupa; c and d,
adult; e, antenna-greatly enlarged-natural size shown by hair line. (From
Chittenden.)
or animal substance, and thus become pests where animal and vege-
table products must be stored or kept for future use. Commerce
operations and the transference of stored products from one region
to another have gradually brought about a world-wide disseminate i
of many of these species, which in the Tropics are especially injuri fu i
and difficult to control. The attachment of the cigarette beetle ito
tobacco, a commodity in universal use, has given this species peculiar ;
opportunity to attain a wide distribution, and it is now known as a
practically cosmopolitan pest. It breeds, however, in various stored:i!.
products in addition to tobacco-animal as well as vegetable--and A
often becomes a household pest, attacking the coverings of walls and :,i
furniture.
It was first recorded from Hawaii by Blackburn in 18851 and ij:j i
undoubtedly of early introduction. Previous to commercial tobacd:'
growing it occasionally came to notice as a pest in houses and stores;
especially in tobacconists' shops in cigar cases, and was easily copJY
SSci. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soo., 2. ser., 3 (1885), p. 243.

%4N ;
":H ""="1 ]
:Ii,.! .. .i






19

ol led by fumigation, the damage done usually being slight. How-
ver:, with the commercial production of tobacco and the necessity of
:storing large quantities of tobacco in warehouses over long periods,
the cigarette beetle has become a serious pest in the tobacco districts
-and its controls not at all easy-indeed, it is often practicallyimpos-
sible-and serious damage to the stored leaf, before it can be sold or
manufactured, is unavoidable.
There is very little information of a historical, descriptive, or bio-
graphic nature in regard to the cigarette beetle. On account of its
peculiar habits and common occurrence, however, the beetle is
unusually well known even to the business man. It can be recog-
nized from the following brief description: The eggs are said to be
white and very minute. The larva is a short, stout, hairy, sordid
White grub, between 3 and 4 mm. long, with well-defined chitinized
head and three pairs of short legs. The integument of the body is
much wrinkled and the body itself is usually somewhat bent. The
Adult beetle is about 2.5 mm. long, reddish brown, and covered with
:pale hairs. The antennae are regularly serrate and fairly long. The
male is slightly smaller than the female.
Mackie1 in the Philippines states that eggs hatch 11 days after
Deposition and that the pupal stage covers 15 days. The length of
Sthe larval stage is not given.
S Remedies.-The usual method of destroying the cigarette beetle is
Sto expose it to the action of poisonous gases, either the fumes of
carbon bisulphid or of hydrocyanic-acid gas. This method gives
Admirable success where the infestation is only incidental and local
and the infested material can be placed in a tight compartment so
that the gases can be confined and their full strength utilized. But
When the infestation becomes general, as in warehouses in which
stored products are being continually handled, it is exceedingly diffi-
Scult to control the beetle with gases or by any other means, and the
Only relief that can be obtained is in a systematic fumigation of the
whole warehouse from time to time, or different parts of it which can
be rendered tight against the diffusion of the gas. Sometimes, also,
it is a distinct advantage to spray the floors and walls with benzine
Sor kerosene. In the tobacco industry, baled tobacco offers the great-
est resistance to palliative measures, and no satisfactory method of
treatment has yet been devised for it. Manufactured goods are often
Kept in cold storage to prevent beetle injury, and as the insect is
unable to develop in the presence of such low temperatures (32 to
I 40 F.), the goods are safe while in storage and if not removed too
soon the danger of injury after withdrawal is greatly reduced. It
has, however, been shown that even low temperatures continued for
I Phiippine Agr. Rev., 4 (1911), No. 11, p. 607.











lutely preventive. "
In fumigating with carbon bisulphid use it at the rate fl..'
to 600 to 800 cubic feet of air space, pouring the liquid out it
pans near the ceiling (the gas is heavier than air), first
building or compartment as tight as possible against leakaq
gas. Small lots of infested tobacco can be fumigated in
boxes, using 1 ounce of carbon bisulphd to 50 to 60 cubic fee
space. Caution is advised in the use of this chemical on aco
its poisonous and inflammable nature.
Hydrocyanic-acid gas is perhaps.not so effective .against s
product insects as carbon bisulphid, but has advantages in.e
ease of use. It is generated by placing cyanid of potassiin.
phuric acid and water. It is lighter than air, and therefore, ov
to the rule with carbon bisulphid, should be generated b
Use in proportions of 1 ounce of 98 per cent pure cyanid, 1 fltW
of commercial sulphuric acid, and 2 fluid ouncesof water to 1e00
feet. Care must be exercised in using this treatment on acoAt
the very poisonous nature of the cyanid gas.
Natural enemies.-A Pteromalus was bred from this species.



::." ii 'id








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