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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF
HOW TEACHERS MAY USE FARMERS BULLETIN 743,
THE FEEDING OF DAIRY COWS. '
Range of use.-All districts in which dairying is of any inpor-
Relation to the course of study.-The bulletin will assist in the
study of animal husbandry, especially in dairy practice, in the course
in agriculture, and suggests suitable correlations with other.school
Topics.-The following grouping of topics is suggested for school
use: A. Fall and winter lessons; (1) the need of liberal feeding,
pages 1-3; (2) succulent feed, silage, and roots, page 9; roughage,
page 10; (3) the balanced ration, pages 11 and 12; (4) nutritive
value, etc., of grains and concentrates, pages 13-17; (5) rules for
making grain mixtures, pages 18, 19; (6) selection of sample grain
mixtures for local use, pages 19-22; (7) amount of roughage and
grain, allowances for individual cow, pages 22, 23. B. Spring les-'
sons; (8) pasturage, pages 3, 4; (9) supplements to pasture, grain,
soiling crops, summer silo, pages 5-8. In a brief course this may
be covered in a very few lessons, but in a more extended course each
subdivision suggests more intensive study with home practice. In
this case the questions which follow wilH lead to the use of bulletins
published by the experiment stations of the respective States, also"
texts on feeds and feeding.
Study questions.-What is a maintenance ration? What does the
maintenance ration accomplish? To what extent should the ration
be increased beyond the maintenance ration? In winter feeding,
what factors must be considered? Why are home-grown feeds gen-
erally desirable? Give examples of roughage, succulent foods, and
concentrates for winter use. Which of these may be grown in this
district? What are the relative advantages of silage and roots?
Why can not the entire ration be made of roughage? What advan-
tages has the leguminous hay over timothy hay or corn fodder?.
What is meant by the term balanced ration "? Why is this balance
important? To what extent should cost determine the ration?
Which of the concentrates described are suited to local use? How
may a grain mixture be compounded? Select grain mixtures for
use with high, low, and medium protein roughages which might be
obtained in the' district. What economy is there in using high-
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o.; &ug~t w much of roughage and of gr
to a coWf? Why is. n abundance of pure water ne
Scored? How salt tie cows? What is the value of pas
Supplements to pasturage are profitable? Discuss the rel
A.: ue of grain, soilint crops, and summer silage as pasture, supple; ..':l4'
Illustrative mat ikl.-The )upils should collect samples of all th
home-grown feeds and all those 'purchased in the district. Before
".. they leave the subject, have t4epn preserve and label these specimens
for the school museum. MSq Farmers' Bulletins 586 and 606.) ;:::
Have the pupils collect printed price lists of grain and other feeds. '
Graphic charts of the digestible nutrients of the more common '
feeds may be copied from bulletins. :gH
CI ;Practical exercises.-Have as many pupils as possible try weigh-
I; ing milk and modifying rations of cows at home, in cooperation with
their parents. Have a survey made of the dairy farms to include
such data as amount of roughage grown on farm, amount of succu-
lent feed, grain grown, amount of concentrates purchased, practice
in feeding, method of balancing rations, method to determine amount ,
of feed necessary, etc. Some pupils who are interested in dairying
r- may take up a home project in dairying, weighing the milk of each
cow, computing rations, testing milk, finding cost, income, and
Correlations.-Have pupils compile the survey charts and compute
Sthe expense of rations in different cases. Use the local prices for hay .
and grain to determine the cost of different rations suggested in the
bulletin. Use outline maps of the State and of the United States and
indicate the source of feedstuffs used in the district, also the lines
t' of transportation used. Look up freight rates and compute the rel-
ative loss due to long hauls on different feeds, especially those which
might be grown in the district or others which have too low feeding
In the physiology class, discuss the different digestible nutrients
in various feeds which may be used by persons as well as by cattle
Compare the demands of the human system for food with those. of
the cow, selecting points in which they are similar and those in
t which they are different. Consult other bulletins on grain crops used
as human food, such as Farmers' Bulletins 121, 298, 559, and 565. ,;.
ii F. E. HELD,
c Specialist in Agricultural Education. i
Approved: ..' :'
C. H. LANE, :;:;
Chief specialist in Agricultural Education. :
SEPTEMBER 29, 1916. ,.
WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICt :1
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