Dietary studies in Boston and Springfield, Mass., Philadelphia, Pa., and Chicago, Ill.

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Title:
Dietary studies in Boston and Springfield, Mass., Philadelphia, Pa., and Chicago, Ill.
Series Title:
Bulletin ;
Physical Description:
103 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Southard, Lydia, b. 1875
Milner, Robert Denniston
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Dietaries   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Lydia Southard ... et al., edited by R.D. Milner.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029568267
oclc - 35572600
System ID:
AA00014586:00001


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U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE.


OrFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS-BULLETIN NO. 129.
A. C. TRUE, Director.


DIETARY STUDIES


BOSTON AND SPRINGFIELD, MASS.,


PHILADELPHIA, PA., AND


CHICAGO, ILL.


BY


LYDIA BOUTHARD, ELLEN H. RIOHARDS, SUSANNAH USHER,
BERTHA M. TERRILL, AND AMELIA SHAPLEIGH.


EDITED BY


R. nD-


MIILNE.ER-


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1903.



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A. Q. TRUE, Ph. D., Director.
E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Assistant Director and Editor of Experiment Station Record.
C. F. LANGWORTHY, Ph. D., Editor and Expert on Foods and Animal Production.

NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS.

W. O. ATWATER, Ph. D., Chief of Nutrition Investigations, Middletonvn, Conn.
C. D. WOODS, B. S., Special Agent at Orono, Me.
F. G. BENEDIcT, Ph. D., Physiological Chemist, Middletown, Conn.
R. D. MILNER, Ph. B., Editorial Assistant, Middletourn, Conn.

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
T~rhington, D. C., April 28, 1903.
Sm: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of a number
of dietary studies which were offered to this Office for publication.
These include investigations at the Boston School of Housekeeping by
Miss Lydia Southard; a study at the same institution by Miss Susannah
Usher and Miss Bertha M. Terrill; at the Bible Normal College, at
that time located at Springfield, Mass., but now at Hartford, Conn.,
and designated School of Religious Pedagogy, by Miss Bertha M.
Terrill; and of families of different nationalities living in the thickly
congested districts of Philadelphia and Chicago, by Mrs. Ellen H.
Richards and Miss Amelia Shapleigh. Much credit is due Miss Hen-
rietta I. Goodrich, director of the Boston School of Housekeeping, for
planning the series of studies carried on in that institution in 1901-2,
and to Miss Annette Philbrick, fellow at the Boston School of House-
keeping, 1901-2, who rendered valuable assistance in carrying out the
details of these studies. The preparation and editing of the material
has been very largely -the work of Mr. R. D. Milner, of the Office of
Experiment Stations.
The studies at the Boston School of Housekeeping and the Bible
Normal College are of special importance, since in all but one the cost
of the food was decided upon beforehand, and an attempt was made to
supply with the sum allowed a satisfactory and nutritious diet corre-
sponding to the commonly accepted dietary standards. The studies,
which were in the main successful as regards the object sought, are
interesting and valuable attempts to apply in a practical way the
accumulated results of nutrition investigations. All the data included
are of value in themselves and useful for purposes of comparison
and in other ways.
The report is submitted with the recommendation that it be pub-
lished as Bulletin No. 129 of this Office.
Respectfully,
A. C. TRUE,
Director.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
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CONTENTS.


Page.
DIETARY STUDIES AT THE BOSTON SCHOOL OF IIOUSEKEEPING, 1901-2. By LYDIA
SOUTHARD-----...................------------..---...------------------------------.. 7
Introduction ......-----.....----------------....-.........----...................----------..-----......-- 7
Equipment and method.......-------------.---------.......... --..... 8
Dietary under usual conditions (No. la)--................-...-..... 11
Dietary of medium cost (No. 2a)................................... 16
Dietary of low cost (No. 3a)-....-.......-...........-............. 19
Dietary of high cost (No. 4a)...---------... .. ..------..-----------. 21
Conclusions--..-----.......--.......--------...--......--......--...---------... 23
A DIETARY STUDY AT THE BOSTON SCHOOL OF HOUSEKEEPING, 1901. By SUSANNAH
USHER AND BERTHA M. TERRILL .- -...........--..............--- -...... 27
Introduction --................--------.....--......----------------------------..... 27
Daily menus ....----------------...............----------- --------------......-..----.. 28
Details of the dietary study (No. 5a)----................. -......... ... 29
Conclusions ........-.....--..-----............-----------------.-------............... 30
DIETARY STUDY AT THE BIBLE NORMAL COLLEGE, 1902. By BERTHA M. TERRILL. 31
Introduction ----.........---------.....----......------..----...--...------------........ 31
Methods....----------------------.................. ................... 31
Daily menus ----------------------------...---------...........-....-------- 32
Details of the dietary study (No. 6a) .................................. 33
General deductions ................................................... 36
DIETARY STUDIES IN PHILADELPHIA AND CHICAGO, 1892-93.' By ELLEN H.
RICHARDS and AMELIA SHAPLEIGH -....- ..-..........--.................. 37
Introduction ....................------------------------..--------------.............................. 37
Method of inquiry ---..--..-- ...--.--.-----......-- ...-- ....----..... 38
Details of the studies in Philadelphia .................................. 40
Dietary studies of colored families (Nos. 7a- la) -------------...-- 40
Dietary studies of Italian families (Nos. 12a-13a) .----...--.......... 44
Dietary studies of Jewish families (Nos. 14a-18a) ------------------ 46
Dietary studies of German families (Nos. 19a-24a) ..--...-- .....-.... 50
Dietary study of an American family (No. 25a) -...---...-------------....---- 55
Dietary studies of Irish families (Nos. 26a-28a).--..---......-.....- 56
Summary and general deductions----...------... ... -......---- ..--- 58
Details of the studies in Chicago......-...-.....-- ..--..--..--.......-- 64
Dietary studies of American families (Nos. 29a-35a) ......-- ....---- 64
Dietary studies of German families (Nos. 42a-44a)..---......-- -..-- 77
Dietary studies of Irish families (Nos. 45a-50a) ---.... -------------. 79
Miscellaneous dietary studies (Nos. 51a-60a)........................ 84
Summary and general deductions .........-----.-------.........-.. 94
Comments and conclusions ---.......................................--. 96
APPENDIX.. -.............................................................. 99
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DIETARY STUDIES IN AMERICAN CITIES.


DIETARY STUDIES AT THE BOSTON SCHOOL OF HOUSE-
KEEPING, 1901-2.
By LYDIA -SOITIIAKI, B. A.
INTRODUCTION. -

The demand for accurate information upon the subject of nutrition
has been partly met in the past by making dietary studies in widely
separated places, and with persons in widely different circumstances.
There is so much difficulty, however, in comparing dietaries observed
under such varying conditions as those due to the personality of both the
individuals in charge and those fed, their previous food habits, their
local market limitations, etc., that the drawing of valuable conclusions is
often prevented. It was therefore deemed worth while at the Boston
School of Housekeeping, which is now incorporated with Simmons
College, to make some comparisons of the effects of different dietaries
upon the same family. The details and results of four studies in
which the group of persons remained the same, but the cost of the
diet was varied, and the quantity and quality of food materials varied
accordingly, are here reported. The work was planned by the director
of the school, Miss Henrietta I. Goodrich, in such a way that the diet
could be modified in kind and cost. The usual methods were followed
in this investigation and many of the details were attended to by Miss
Annette Philbrick, fellow of the School of Housekeeping 1901-2.
Of the four dietary studies reported the first was made under the
usual living conditions to find out the cost of the regular diet, and to
learn how nearly it conformed to the commonly accepted dietary
standard. In the second study it was designed to have the diet medium
in cost-that is, between 20 and 30 cents per person per day, the diet
finally selected costing on an average 25 cents. In the third study the
attempt was made to furnish a reasonably attractive diet at a low cost,
namely, less than 20 cents per person per day. The diet decided upon
actually cost 17 cents. In the fourth study it was proposed to supply
a diet of high cost, namely, one ranging from 50 to 60 cents per person
per day. The diet actually supplied cost on an average 53 cents.
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In all cases these values represent only the actual cost of the food, n6
account being taken of the cost of preparation and service.
The observations were confined to the teachers and pupils in resi-
dence at the School of Housekeeping, comprising fifteen women.
The employees (house workers) in the school had a separate table, and
for that reason were riot included in these experiments. One of the
difficulties experienced was the impossibility of conducting the work
without the knowledge of those upon whom the experiments were '
made. At least two other conditions were unfavorable to the best
results, namely, the shortness of time during which it was possible to
continue each experiment, and the indifference of some of the family
as to the success or failure of the undertaking. Those eating at the
school table were of two distinct classes as regards their mental atti-
tude toward the investigation; the teachers and professional students
were thoroughly interested -in the scientific side of the dietary work,
but the remaining and larger portion of the group felt only the inter-
est of average boarders. On the other hand, the facilities'for gaining
exact information were unusually good; and it is thought that a com-
parison and discussion of the varying results obtained in the same
household may add something of value to what has already been done
in the study of nutrition.

EQUIPMENT AND METHOD.
The primary necessity in the way of equipment for dietary studies is
scales which are accurate, those employed in these studies being plat- -
form scales, with a weighing capacity of from one-quarter of an ounce
to 300 pounds. For convenience in carrying out the details of the
studies several utensils of various sizes were used for holding. the sup-
plies of different food materials that were to be used during the experi-
ments, so that they could be easily weighed and kept separate from the
general supplies for the rest of the household. Wooden buckets, with
handles and close-fitting covers, were obtained at a kitchen-furnishing
establishment. Not more than ten of these were required. They.
varied in capacity from 25 to 50 pounds, and in cost from 25 to 50
cents each. The buckets were used for sugar, flour, etc. Baskets and
boxes given away by grocers in delivering their goods were collected
for holding such commodities as fresh fruit, vegetables, arid eggs.
Glass and porcelain jars, with covers, were set aside for condiments,.
starches, and the like. Not more than five of each were usually needed
in the same experiment. The glass jars held 1 quart each, and were
of the sort ordinarily used for preserving fruit. The porcelain jars-
were smaller, and were of the sort in which marmalades and certain
cheeses are sold. Standard tin measuring cups, holding exactly one-
fourth of a liquid quart, were obtained for 10 cents each. Not more









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than six were really needed, two for the experimenters and four for
use in the cooking. One wooden half-peck measure, costing 25 cents,
was purchased at an agricultural-supply store. Three tin funnels of
different sizes, and a number of plain and durable plates and howls,
all of which might be found in the average kitchen, completed the
more substantial part of the outfit.
Prepared labels of two contrasting colors were found to be most
useful as a means of distinguishing between receptacles for carefully
weighed materials to be consumed in the experiments, and those
containing unweighed articles to be used at other times. Firmly
bound note books, for the preservation of all data, were also a great
convenience.
Before the special dietary studies were undertaken a regular study
was carried on with the family in their ordinary school life during
two consecutive weeks taken at random. The menus followed in this
study were those planned by the head of the house. Although the
selection of food materials had been made according to a general
knowledge of their nutritive values, no attempt was made in this case
to regulate the cost nor to provide a diet that would furnish definite
quantities of nutrients and energy.
Save for the fact that in the regular dietary study the cost and
nutritive value of the diet were not predetermined, and that no atten-
tion was paid to table and kitchen wastes, the methods of procedure
were the same as were followed in the special studies. The making
of this study therefore served a double purpose; it gave practice, and
afforded information which assisted greatly in deciding how to meet
the requirements of the special studies that were to follow.
In making the studies in which the cost and nutritive value were
regulated, it was necessary to select a favorable time, to study the
markets in advance, and to pay attention to other points, as explained
in the following paragraphs:
Date.-The first thing to be determined in each case was the most
favorable time for beginning the study and the length of time it was to
continue. Obviously, in a locality where the cost of eggs, fresh fruit,
etc., changes so often, it is necessary, if the expenditure is limited, to
consider the seasons carefully before making out in advance a menu
for a diet of definite cost.
Price lists of local food supply.-The dates having been fixed, those
in charge of the work consulted their dealers, to learn in advance as
nearly as possible the cost of foods at the times decided upon. The
result of these inquiries was a full price list upon which the bill of
fare could safely be based.
Planning the menu.-The planning of the menu was the next step.
Guided by the cost of food as already ascertained, the workers
arranged .a programme for meals which conformed as well as possible,


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under the circumstances, to the following requirements: (1) proper
proportions of nutrients and energy; (2) adequate quantities of food
materials; (3) wholesome combinations; (4) acceptable dishes; and (5)
economy. That is, the persons in charge endeavored not only to
approach the scientific standard of a properly balanced dietary, but
also to recognize all normal healthy tastes of the school family, so far
as possible, while at the same time keeping within the financial bounds
of the experiment.
With the proposed menu as a foundation, the cook and the cook
books were consulted to learn what amounts of the different raw
materials would be required. This done, a set of tables was made out,
giving the cost and nutritive value of such a bill of fare. These
tables, together with the menus for the experiment, were called, for :i
convenience, the "tentative dietary." The reason for working out
this "tentative" statement in such detail was to discover, before it was
too late, whether or not the menu decided upon could be given to the
family at the price allowed for the experiment; and whether, if the
estimated quantities were fully or nearly consumed, the person eating
the food would receive an adequate and properly balanced diet. The i
"tentative dietary" was criticised and altered before each experiment,
as the financial or. nutritive needs of the case demanded. The revised
and improved "tentative" was then called the "estimated dietary."
Care was always taken to have the latter furnish approximately 90
grams of protein and 2,450 calories of energy per woman per day in
accordance with the commonly accepted American dietary standard
for a woman at light muscular work.
Miarketing.-Data for the marketing lists were then gathered from
the column of "amounts" in the "estimated" tables, and the market-
ing for the experiment was done. In most cases, those having charge
of the dietaries confined themselves to shops regularly patronized by l
the school. In the experiment with the 17-cent diet, however, some.
shops carrying cheaper goods were visited in order to secure the
needed foods at lower prices.
Weighing.-It was found desirable in weighing uncooked food to
learn the weight of each receptacle when empty and to label it
accordingly. Those having covers were always weighed without them
to avoid inaccuracies in case the covers should ever be exchanged.
The day before beginning the experiment it was the custom to weigh
all the staples on hand which were required for the entire period.
The more perishable food stuffs, which were obtained only as needed,
were weighed from day to day as soon as they were received from
the shops.
Account of these weights was kept in a notebook prepared before-
hand, which contained a classified list of edibles to be used in the
work. Sufficient space was left under each heading for the entries in
all experiments.






11

After each meal the "left overs" of any sort were weighed and the
weights recorded. The quantities were usually too small to appear
again upon the school family table. When this was the case the food
was later used by the employees. This made for the experimenters
a complication peculiar to establishments where two distinct tables
are supplied. It was necessary to calculate from the recipes of all
"made dishes" the exact amount of each ingredient in the material
not consumed, and deduct it from the quantities originally set aside
ior the dietary.
Waste.-During some of the experiments, the amount of waste and
refuse was weighed and recorded. In these cases the amounts of
kitchen waste, consisting of such articles as potato parings, coffee
grounds and the like, were recorded after each meal. At the same
time account was kept of the kinds and amounts of uneaten fragments
left upon the plates at table.
When the study was over an inventory was taken of raw materials
which had not been used. The amounts on hand, like the ingredients
of the "left overs," were deducted from the weights recorded at the
beginning or purchased during the study. From this result the
amount of waste might be subtracted, in which case the figures
obtained would represent food actually eaten.
Comiputation. of results.-On the basis of the real,'as distinguished
from the "estimated" weights, new tables were made out, showing the
cost and nutritive value of what had been consumed. These tables
constitute what we called the "actual" or "final" dietary, and in a
condensed form they are given beyond.
None of the food materials from these studies was analyzed. The
composition of all materials used was assumed to be the same as that
of the average values for similar materials recorded in a previous
publication of the Office of Experiment Stations,a except in a few
cases in which analyses were taken from an unpublished compilation.
The values used in computing the results of the studies are given in
Table 29 of the Appendix. The reference numbers in the first column
of this table correspond with those in parentheses following the weight
and cost of the food materials in the table for each study, and thus
indicate the composition assumed for each material. The fuel value of
the materials was computed by use of the following factors: For pro-
tein and carbohydrates 4 calories per gram, and for fat 8.9 calories.

DIETARY UNDER USUAL CONDITIONS (No. la).
The study began November 7, 1901, and lasted fourteen days. The
members of the family who were eating the regular food, and could
therefore be considered in all experiments, were three teachers and
a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 28, revised.







112

twelve students, a group of fifteeA women. All of these were in good
health. The average weight of these persons was approximately 125
pounds each. There were a few absences during the period of two :
weeks, and an occasional guest came to the table; but an accurate
account was kept of the whole number of meals served, which was: .: H
632, equivalent to 1 woman for 211 days.
The bill of fare for the fourteen days follows:

Daily menu.
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 7.
Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food,a bacon, creamed potatoes, morning-
side rolls.
Luncheon.-Baked beans and tomato soup, creamed dried beef, rice croquettes,
dates and peanuts.
Dinner.-Rump steak, spaghetti and cheese, escalloped tomato, lettuce and radish
salad, cheese wafers, Rebecca pudding with boiled custard.
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 8.
Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food, creamed eggs, fried potatoes, gra-
ham muffins.
Luncheon.-Escalloped oysters, cabbage salad, samp, baked apples, cookies, Rus-
sian tea.
Dinner.-Clear beef-stock soup, baked halibut with tomato sauce, mashed potatoes,
baked Hubbard squash, chocolate ice cream.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 9.
Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food, codfish hash, wheat rolls.
Luncheon.-Meat pie (rump), spaghetti with cheese, lettuce salad, gingerbread,
cream cheese, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Clear stock soup, braised beef, mashed potatoes, fried parsnips, cranberry
jelly, Norwegian prune pudding, cream sauce.
SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 10.
Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, shredded-wheat biscuit,'Boston brown bread, baked beans.
Dinner.-Braised fowl, sweet potatoes, turnips, cranberry jelly, lettuce and radish .
salad, cheese wafers, brown bread, ice cream.
Supper.-Vegetable salad, bread and butter, cocoa, preserved peaches, Newport
cakes.
MONDAY, NOVEMBER 11.
Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food, corn bread, corned-beef hash.
Luncheon.-Clear chicken soup, beef stew, baked potatoes, celery, rice pudding .
with cream. ..
Dinner.-Boiled leg of mutton with egg sauce, mashed potatoes, beans, lettuce
salad, cheese wafers, hickory nuts, raisins, coffee.
TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 12.
Breakfast.--Fresh fruit, rolled-oat breakfast food, dropped eggs on toast, graham
muffins.. .
Luncheon.-Cold roast beef, crab-apple jelly, samp, lettuce salad, baked indian .
pudding with cream, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Clear stock soup, baked ham, mashed potatoes, spinach, lemon sherbet.

a Different kinds were used during the study to give variety. ,







13' I

WEDNESDAY, NOVEf BER 13.

Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food, bacon, baked potatoes, hot rolls.
Luncheon.-Escalloped mutton, Saratoga potatoes, celery, chocolate, bread pudding
with hard sauce.
Dinner.-Roast rump, browned potatoes, succotash, grape jelly, lettuce salad,
cheese wafers, coffee jelly with cream, sugar cookies.

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 14.

Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, shredded-wheat biscuit, sausage, brewis, graham rolls.
Luncheon.-Baked beans and tomato soup, cold sliced ham, Spanish pickle, spaghetti
with cheese, baked apples, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Cream of Lima bean soup, toasted Boston crackers, rump steak, mashed
potatoes, peas, barberry jelly, tapioca cream.

FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 15.

Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food, codfish balls, hot rolls.
Luncheon.-Finnan haddie, baked potatoes, celery, apple pie, cheese, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Cream of clam chowder, escalloped fish, baked sweet potatoes, parsnip
cakes, celery, steamed apple pudding with foam sauce.

SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 16.

Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food, creamed dried beef, fried potatoes,
corn bread.
Luncheon.-Cold sliced rump beef, samp, lettuce salad, hot ginge )read, cream
cheese, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Clear stock soup, corned beef, boiled potatoes, boiled cabbage, creamed
carrots, lemon jelly.
SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 17.

Breakfast.-Shredded-wheat biscuit, Boston baked beans, brown bread, doughnuts.
Dinner.-Split-pea soup, braised fowl, mashed potatoes, baked squash, cranberry
jelly, frozen fig pudding, coffee.
Supper.-Creamed oysters, bread and butter, cocoa, Newport cakes.

MONDAY, NOVEMBER 18.

Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food, corned-beef hash, popovers.
Luncheon.-Escalloped fowl, Saratoga potatoes, cabbage and celery salad, cup cakes,
Russian tea.
Dinner.-Braised beef, browned potatoes, salsify, Spanish pickle, vegetable salad,
cheese wafers, Irish moss blanc mange with cream, orange marmalade.

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 19.

Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, wheat breakfast food, scrambled eggs with chopped ham,
Boston brown bread.
Luncheon.-Meat pie (rump beef), samp, pickled beets, junket pudding, sugar
cookies, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Clear stock soup, boiled leg of mutton with caper sauce, escalloped onions,
browned sweet potatoes, tapioca pudding with cream.

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 20.

Breakfast.-Fresh fruit, rolled-oat breakfast food, bacon, baked potatoes, wheat
muffins.




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Lunchewn.--Casseroles of mutton and rite, tomato sauce, Saratoga potatoes, celery,
pumpkin pie, cheese.
Dinner. -Rump steak with horseradish sauce, mashed potatoes, escalloped tomatoes, ."
watercress salad, cheese wafers, coffee jelly with whipped cream.

The choice of coffee, cocoa, or milk was given each morning at
breakfast. Heavy cream was always furnished with coffee in the
morning, and thin cream was supplied for the cereal. When not other-

wise specified in the menus, thin cream was served with dessert.
French dressing was served in all cases with the salads mentioned
above. The fresh fruit served at breakfast.was always either apples,

pears, grapes, or bananas. Cold bread, either wheat or graham,
while not mentioned in the menus, was furnished three times a day to

those who desired it. Butter was served at breakfast and luncheon,
but not at dinner.

According to the usual custom of the house, an 11 o'clock luncheon

of crackers and milk was offered 5 days in the week. These luncheons
do not appear in the menu, but the amounts of food eaten have been

taken account of in the tables with the other materials.

The cost of the diet in this study was based upon wholesale rates, at
which most of the food stuffs used at the school were bought. In

addition to the food materials purchased, the beverages and condiments,

as coffee, pepper; salt, etc., used during the whole study cost $3.55,

or 1.7 cents per woman per day.
The details of the study follow.


TABLE 1.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients in dietary study No. la.


Food consumed during the entire study (14 days).


SCost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
woman per day.


Kinds and amounts.


CarC C Fuel
Cost. Cost. Protein. Fat. C_,atb Fuel
hydrates. value.
i


ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Rump roast, 33.53 pounds, $4.52 (13); shin.
7.75 pounds. 39 cents (1); steak, rump, 14.09
pounds, 81.90 (31); corned beef, 6.88 pounds,
83 cents (2): dried beef, 3.92 pounds, 90 cents
(4): soup stock, 2.08 pounds (2); suet, 0.38
pound. 2 cents (35). Mutton, leg, 1.72 pounds,
23 cents (48)...................................
Pork: Fresh, 2.17 pounds, 28 cents (59); salt
pork. 2.46 pounds, 15 cents (64); bacon, 0.97
pound, 14 cents (56); ham, 9.33 pounds, $1.21
(60): sausage, 3.13 pounds, 38 cents (66): lard,
0.18 pound, 2 cents (62) ......................
Poultry, fowl. 22.34 pounds, 83.13 (75) ..........
Fish: Cod. salt. 1.88 pounds, 24 cents (80); had-
dock, 2.25 pounds, 14 cents (84); halibut, 1.67
pounds, 36 cents (85); clams, 3.73 pounds, 36
cents (78 i; oysters, 8.38 pounds. I1.42 (93); Fin-
nan haddie, 5.56 pounds. 45 cents (83).........
Eggs, 16.47 pounds. $1.54 (105.1 ...................
Cream: Thin, 13.46 pounds, 81.56 (113); heavy,
9.59 pounds, 82.76 (113) .......................
Milk. 221.63 pounds, $5.99 (114) ..................
Butter, 31.72 pounds, 88.24 (106)..................
Cheese: Pale, 1.56 pounds, 23 cents (101): full
cream, 0.79 pound, 46 cents (111)................


Do/la rs.Il t(nts.


i. 79


2.97
1.54

4.32
5.99
8.24

.69


4.2



1.0
1.5


.1.4
.7

2.0
2.8
3.9


Total animal food........................... 37.85 17.8


Grains. Grams.





21 "-7



5 17
7 6


Grams.


6 1 1
5 3 ..........

1 9j 2
16 19 24
1 58 ..........

1 2 ..........

63 142 27


171
a81


37
47


22
lS


1,aB


il;lll
1111
"'1;111111




,,,,,,,


i.
i::::ii~
;111~
I!~~


;rrll
.i-ii


iiii i
ii
ill

ii"ii"l
ill ii;



_


*
.;1
*
:r*


----------


2.1 I
3.13








15


TABLE 1.-Weights and cost of food nlul uLtrients in dietary study No. l-(Continued.


Food consumed during the entire study (14 days).


Kinds and l1amontts.


VE ETAHRIE FlOOD.


Cereals: Corn meal, yellow, 2.97 pounds, 8 cents
(119); oat breakfast food, 1.52 pounds, 9 cents
129); samp, 1.84 pounds, 6 cents (134); wheat
breakfast food, 3.65 pounds, 29 cents (137);
shredded wheat, 0.45 pound, 5 cents (143);
wheat breakfast food, 0.97 pound, 5 cents
(136); wheat breakfast food, 0.60 pound, 7
cents (142); flour, bread, 45.41 pounds, 81
(122); flour, pastry, 2.66 pounds, 7 cents (125);
hour, entire wheat, 3.39 pounds, 14 cents
(123); bread, graham, 0.91 pound. 3 cents
145): bread, wheat, 8.55 pounds, 25 cents(147);
bread, Boston brown, 0.72 pound, 1 cent (144);
rolls, 0.28 pound, 1 cent (160); crackers, Bos-
ton, 2.70 pounds, 22 cents (154); wafers, salt-
ed, 2.48 pounds, 53 cents (161); cookies, sugar,
0.31 pound, 3 cents (152); spaghetti, 1.34
pounds, 13 cents (135).........................
Sugars, starches, and oils: Sugar, brown, 0.20
pound, 1 cent (162); sugar, cut loaf, 9.36
pounds, 62 cents (163); sugar, granulated, 24.86
pounds, 81.36 (163); sugar, powdered, 1.02
pounds, 6 cents (163); molasses, dark, 9.73
pounds, 20 cents (165); oil, cotton-seed, 0.50
pound, 5 cents (170); oil, olive, 1.73 pounds, 36
cents (171); cornstarch, 0.86 pound, 7 cents
(172); tapioca, 0.54 pound, 2 cents (173); Irish
moss, 0.31 pound (169); chocolate, 0.67 pound
19 cents- (167); cocoa, 0.73 pound, 33 cents
(168) ............... ............... ............
Vegetables: Beans, Lima, 0.22 pound, 2 cents
(176); beans, pea, 1.65 pounds, 16 cents (177);
beans, string (canned), 4.83 pounds, 77 cents
(179); cabbage, 3.08 pounds, 10 cents (181);
carrots, 3.81 pounds, 16 cents (182); celery,
17.66 pounds, $1.13 (183); lettuce, 6.88 pounds,
70 cents (187); onions, 2.59 pounds, 9 cents
(189); oyster plant, 2.31 pounds, 20 cents (191);
parsnips, 4.59 pounds, 22 cents (191); peas,
canned, 6.54 pounds, 63 cents (192); peas,
split, 1.09 pounds, 6 cents (195); potatoes, 83.34
pounds, $1.21 (196); potato chips, 1.31 pounds,
38 cents (197); pumpkins, 8 pounds,20 cents
(199); radishes, 1.54 pounds, 20 cents (200);
spinach, 1.25 pounds, 15 cents (206); succotash,
canned, 2.28 pounds, 18 cents (208); squash,
9.50 pounds, 27 cents (207); potatoes, sweet,
17.48 pounds, 28 cents (198); tomatoes, canned,
10.72 pounds, $1.33 (209); watercress, 0.73
pound, 10 cents (213) .........................
Fruits, etc.: Apples, 23.25pounds, 81 cents (214);
apricots, dried, 1.69 pounds, 32 cents (217);
bananas, 11.83 pounds, 75 cents (218); dates.
3.04 pounds, 20 cents (230); figs, 0.85 pound, 14
cents (231); grapes, Catawba, 13.27 pounds,
$1.40 (232); lemons, 6.38 pounds, 40 cents (236);
peaches, canned. 2.41 pounds, 19 cents (239):
pears, 3.33 pounds, 27 cents (241); prunes, 5.17
pounds, 47 cents (247); raisins, for cooking,
0.35 pound, 3 cents (248); raisins, for table.
0.89 pound, 30 cents (248); jelly, barberry, 1.14
pounds, 9 cents (219); jelly, crabapple, 1.14
pounds, 9 cents (226); jelly, cranberry, 7.31
pounds, 47 cents (228); jelly, grape, 1.48
pounds, 12 cents (233); marmalade, orange.
0.91 pound, 12 cents (237); nuts, hickory, 2.38
pounds, 24 cents (253); English walnuts, 0.44
pound, 18 cents (256); peanuts, 0.97 pound, 6
cents (254) ................ ..................
Total vegetable food......................
Total food.................................
Beverages, cofidiments, etc.....................


Co't, nutrients, and fuel value "f frld per
woman per day.
Carbi- Fuel
Cost. Protein. Fat. hydrat. value.
IIdrtc_. Value.
I I


('rin.


('ost.


DI)ullurn.














3.11









3.27
















8.54


(Gr "i ils.


Grran ,. f 1"iia .














;! 128


1 ,


95






I


S'l rils.







(15









137


-9 246


1,533
3,156


/


.L


I ;::
*!!:**

.3,


1.5









1.5




... ".. .: ." ." ...." :.


16

The kitchen and table waste were not weighed during the period of
this study, but the nutritive values of the foods were calculated from
the average composition of the foods as purchased, which makes allow-
ance for portions which are really not edible. Presumably, then, the
figures given above stand for material which might have been con-
sumed entirely if the family had so desired.
It will be noticed that both loaves of bread and bread flour are men-
tioned. The bread was almost entirely homemade and was on hand
ready for use before the observations began. Therefore the bread is
estimated as such, rather than reduced to terms of raw materials. As
the loaves were not sufficient in number to last through the whole
period, flour and other ingredients- were weighed in bulk for the
remainder of the time and were taken account of accordingly.

DIETARY OF MEDIUM COST (No. 2a).

The experiment with a diet of medium cost, namely, about 25 cents,
covered one week only,, lasting from January 9 to 15, inclusive. The
circumstances were the same as in the preceding case, save that the
family numbered only 14 women. The total number of meals eaten
was 298, equivalent to 1 woman for 99 days.
The menus for the entire study follow:

Daily menu.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 9.
Breakfast.-Wheat breakfast food," bacon, creamed potatoes, wheat bread.
Luncheon.-Finnan haddie, boiled samp, lettuce salad, gingerbread, full-cream
cheese, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Clear turkey-stock soup, roast mutton, escalloped onions, roasted pota-
toes, apricot ice.
FRIDAY, JANUARY 10.
Break:fasl. -Oranges, shredded-wheat biscuit, creamed codfish, baked potatoes,
entire-wheat muffins.
Luncheon.-Beef loaf, creamed spaghetti, stewed prunes, toasted Boston crackers,
Russian tea.
Dinner.-Baked haddock, egg sauce, mashed potatoes, creamed carrots and canned
peas, lettuce salad, salted wafers, apple pie, pale American cheese.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 11.

Breakfast.-Oranges, rolled-oat breakfast food, Finland bloaters, creamed toast,
graham muffins.
Luncheon.-Rice and mutton croquettes, escalloped macaroni apd tomato, pop-corn
brittle, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Split-pea soup, roast veal, Saratoga potatoes, creamed salsify, farina pud-
ding with thin cream.

a Different kinds were used during the study to give variety,







17


SUNDAY, JANUARY 12.
Breakfast.-Oranges, wheat breakfast food, Boston baked ]eLansL, Blistmon brown
bread.
Dinner.-Clear beef-stock soup, roast fowl, dressing, gravy, boiled rice, lettuce
salad, frozen-fig pudding, coffee.
Supper.-Creamed veal on toast, bread and butter sandwiches, Norwegian apple
pudding with thin cream, cocoa.
MONDAY, JANUARY 13.
Breakfast.-Oranges, wheat breakfast food, codfish balls, corn bread.
Luncheon.-Clam chowder, baked beans and lettuce salad, hot wheat rolls, coffee
jelly with thin cream, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Clear chicken soup, roast beef rump, creamed lima beans, roasted pota-
toes, sliced oranges and bananas, sugar cookies.
TUESDAY, JANUARY 14.
Breakfast.-Bananas, corn-meal mush, creamed dried beef, wlieat muffins.
Luncheon.-Escalloped fowl and spaghetti, baked mashed potatoes, hot wheat rolls,
German fried toast with foam sauce.
Dinner.-Baked beans and tomato soup, meat pie (made from rump roast), roasted
sweet potatoes, lemon- sherbet, sugar cookies.
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 15.
Breakfast.-Oranges, rolled-oat breakfast food, creamed hard-boiled eggs on toast,
entire-wheat raised biscuit.
Luncheon.-Cream of lima-bean soup, pork sausages, steamed brown bread, dates
and peanuts.
Dinner.-Clear beef-stock soup, beefsteak (rump), boiled samp. escalloped tomato,
'Spanish pickle, lettuce salad, tapioca cream.
The 11 o'clock luncheon of crackers and milk, served to any who
desired it, has been included in the estimate of cost and food values
given beyond, though not mentioned in the menu.- At breakfast
milk, cocoa, and coffee were served, and one of the three was taken
by each member of the family. Heavy cream was used with coffee
every morning, but at Sunday dinner sugar only was furnished and the
coffee was served in small cups. Thin cream was always supplied with
the breakfast cereal. When no substitute is mentioned it is under-
stood that cold graham or wheat bread was served at each meal. At
breakfast and luncheon butter was served with the bread, but never
at dinner. When oranges were served at breakfast, half an orange
was given to each person. When bananas were on the morning bill
of fare, one was served each member of the family. French dressing
always accompanied lettuce.
It was estimated that the diet provided according to the above
menus would furnish on an average per woman per day 98 grams of
protein, 123 grams of fat, and 348 grams of carbohydrates, and would
have a fuel value of 2,878 calories. The estimated cost of the diet
(including food accessories), based upon wholesale prices, was 24.8
cents per woman per day.
The details of the study follow.
25580-No. 129-03- 2


i"








18


TABLE 2.-Weights tand rcot of food and nutrients in dietary study No. Ra.


Food consumed during the entire study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.


ANIMAL FOK)D.

Beef: Rump roast. 7.38 pounds, 99 cents (15);
rump steak. 3.78 pounds, 51 cents (30); soup
bones. 12.04 pounds (21); soup stock, 5.81
pounds (22), hamburg steak, 3.06 pounds, 30
cents (25); dried beef, 0.72 pound, 20 cents (4);
gelatin, 0.13 pound, 19 cents (6). Veal, loin.
12.76 pounds, $1.66 (41). Mutton, leg, 9.57
pounds, 81.29 (48) ............................
Pork: Bacon,0.87 pound, 12cents(55); saltpork,
0.25 pound (65); sausage, 2.66 pounds, 32 cents,
(66); lard, 1.33 pounds, 15 cents ((12)...........
Poultry: Fowl, 9.69 pounds, 81.45 (75) ...........
Fish: Finland bloaters,4.76pounds, 15cents (82);
haddock, 4.13 pounds, 33 cents (84): salt cod.
1.13 pounds, 15 cents (80); clams (edible por-
tion), 2 pounds, 40 cents (78) .................
Eggs, 5.95 pounds, $1.28 (105) ...................
Butter, 10.31 pounds, $2.61 (106).................
Milk. 65.53 pounds. 81.78 (114) ...................
Cream: Thin, 11 pounds, 88 cents (113); heavy,
3.56 pounds, $1.05 (113)........................
Cheese: Full cream. 0.26 pound,19 cents (111);
pale American, 0.25 pound, 4 cents (108) .....


SCost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
woman per day.


Cost. Cost. Protein.



Dollars. Cents. Grams.






5.14 5.2 36

.61 .6 2
1.45 1.5 6


1.03
1.28
2.61
1.78

1.93

.23


Total animal food ....................... 16.06


Fat. Carbo-
hydrates.
*


Gra


8
3
0.5
10


mas. Grams.


I



26 ..........


6
2 ..........
5 .........


3 ..........

41 .........i
41
-~I
13 15

12 3


.2 0.5 1..........

16.2 67 118 18


Fuel
value.


Obfories.


1,392


VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Shredded wheat, 0.60 pound, 8 cents
1143); rolled oats, 0.63 pound, 4 cents (131);
wheat breakfast food, 0.39 pound, 2 cents (136);
wheat breakfast food, 0.43 pound, 4 cents (137);
wheat breakfast food,0.35pound, 2 cents (138);
rice, 0. 97 pound, 2 cents (133); flour, bread, 19.39
pounds.42 cents (122); flour, pastry. 1.63 pounds,
5 cents (125); flour, graham, 0.85 pound, 2 cents
(124); flour, entire wheat, 0.50 pound, 2 cents
123): bread, 5.33 pounds, 21 cents (147); rolls,
0.28 pound, 1 cent (159); cookies, sugar, 0.26
pound, 2 cents (152); crackers, Boston, 1.14
pounds, 9 cents (154); wafers, salted, 0.26
pound, 6 cents (161); macaroni, 0.16 pound, 2
cents (127): samp, 0.76 pound, 2 cents (134);
spaghetti, 1.10pounds, 11cents (135); popcorn,
0.99 pound,20 cents (132) .....................
Sugars, starches, and oils: Sugar, cut loaf, 4.57
pounds, 30 cents (163); sugar, granulated, 13.37
pounds, 73 cents (163); sugar, powdered, 0.33
pound, 2 cents (163); molasses, dark, 2.31
pounds, 4 cents (165); cocoa, 0.24 pound. cents
(168): oil, cotton-seed, 0.11 pound, 1 cent (170);
oil,olive, 1.16 pounds, 30 cents (170); tapioca,
0.24 pound, 1 cent (173) .......................
Vegetables: Beans, pea, 0.61 pound, 6 cents (177);
beans, lima, 1.24 pounds, 10 cents (176); car-
rots, 1.98 pounds, 4 cents (182): lettuce, 2.08
pounds, 30 cents (187); onions. 1.44 pounds, 5
cents (189): peas, canned, 1.10 pounds, 11
cents (192); Saratoga potatoes, 0.49 pound,
14 cents (197); potatoes, sweet, 4.55 pounds,
22 cents (198): potatoes, 33.81 pounds. 54 cents
(196); salsify, 2.08 pounds, 20 cents (203);
tomatoes. 6.31 pounds, 39 cents (211)..........
Fruits, nuts, etc.: Apples, 9.49 pounds, 27 cents
(214): apricots. 0.72 pound. 14 cents, (216);
bananas. 3.75 pounds, 20 cents (218); dates,
1.68 pounds. 11 cents, (230); rigs. 0.25 pound,
4 cents (231); lemons, 2.25 pounds, 22 cents
(236); oranges, 11.70 pounds, 43 cents (238);
prunes, 1.24 pounds, 11 cents (247); peanuts,
0.78 pound. 5 cents (254); English walnuts,
0.25 pound, 10 cents (256) ....................


1.47


r


1.50








2.15







1.67


Total vegetable food ...................... 6.79

Total food................................... 22.85

Beverages, condiments, etc...................... 0.44


1








6







2


11i


--


........-....................
1 1


.


I







19

In this study the amount of material rejected in the kitchen and at
the table was determined and found to be 15 per cent of the total food
purchased. But inasmuch as no distinction was made between refuse,
that is, inedible material, and waste, that is, material that could have
been eaten but was rejected, no correction for this material has been
made in the figures as given in the tables.
According to the final results in the table above, the foods used con-
,tained 4 grams less protein, 8 grams more fat, and 59 grams less carbo-
hydrates, and furnished 179 calories less per woman per day than was
estimated before the experiment began.

DIETARY OF LOW COST (No. 3a).

The low-cost diet, which was estimated to furnish food at about 17
cents per woman per day, covered only three days, namely, March 12
to 14, inclusive. The average number of persons at the table was 15,
and the total number of meals served 137, equivalent to 1 woman for
46 days.
The menus for the three days were as follows:

Daily menu.
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 12.
Breakfast.-Shredded-wheat biscuit, sausages, hominy cakes with lemon sirup,
corn bread.
Luncheon.-Codfish loaf with parsley sauce, baked potatoes, stewed prunes, gra-
ham rolls.
Dinner.-Split-pea soup, shoulder of mutton (roasted and stuffed), gravy, boiled
samp, escalloped tomatoes, graham bread, lemon sherbet.
THURSDAY, MARCH 13.
Breakfast.-Wheat breakfast food, smelts, creamed toast, graham muffins.
Luncheon.-Clear mutton stock soup, beef loaf with brown sauce, steamed brown
bread, dates and peanuts.
Dinner.-Beef stew and dumplings, creamed lima beans, boiled rice, sliced bananas
dressed with lemon juice and powdered sugar.
FRIDAY, MARCH 14.
Breakfast.-Rolled-oat breakfast food, creamed codfish, fried cornmeal mush, but-
tered toast.
Luncheon.-Baked beans and tomato soup, macaroni with cheese, German potato
salad, wheat rolls, hot gingerbread, Russian tea.
Dinner.-Clear beef stock soup, escalloped haddock, lettuce salad, sweet potato
browned in sugar sirup, steamed auet pudding (with dates) and lemon sauce.
The 11 o'clock luncheon of crackers and milk was offered, as usual,
to those who cared to take it, and forms part of the amounts that are
included in the tables.
The choice of cocoa, coffee, or milk was given each morning at
breakfast. The cocoa was made with whole milk, and thin rather









20

than heavy cream was furnished with the coffee, the top of the milk
being frequently used, as milk was bought in large quantities. This
accounts for the small amount of thin cream recorded in the tables.
Whole milk instead of cream was used with the cereals at breakfast,
and sugar was always supplied with cereals and hot beverages. When
no substitute is mentioned cold wheat or graham bread was served
at each meal as usual. Butter was always served at breakfast and
luncheon, but not at dinner. Chicken fat was sometimes used instead
of butter in cooking. Lettuce was dressed, as usual, with seasoned
olive oil and vinegar.
It was estimated that the diet according to the menus proposed
would furnish 80 grams of protein, 126 grams of fat, and 348 grams
of carbohydrates per woman per day, and have a fuel value of 2,833
calories of energy.
The details of the study are given below.

TABLE 3.--Weights and cost of food and untrieinli in dietary study No. 3a.

Food consumed during the entire study (3 days). Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
woman per day.


Kinds and amounts.

ANIMAL FOOD.
J
Beef: Round, lower, 3.25 pounds, 33 cents (29);
hamburg steak, 3 pounds, 33 cents (25);
soup stock, 16 pounds (22); suet, 0.22 pound,
1 cent (35). Mutton, shoulder, 8.75 pounds,
70 cents (52)..................................
Pork: Sausage, 1.25 pounds, 18 cents (66); lard,
0.18 pound, 1 cent (62) .......................
Poultry: Chicken fat, 0.44 pound (73).............
Fish: Cod, salt, 1.84 pounds, 24 cents (80); had-
dock, 3.06 pounds, 27 cents (84); smelts, 2
pounds, 44 cents (101).........................
Eggs, 1.06 pounds, 15 cents (105) .............
Butter, 3.93 pounds, 81.07 (106).................
Milk, 31.72 pounds, 87 cents (114) ...............
Cream, thin, 0.53 pound, 5 cents (113) ...........
Cheese, pale American, 0.16 pound, 2 cents (108).
Total animal food.........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Rice, 0.86 pound, 7 cents (133); corn
meal, 1.70 pounds, 5 cents (119); rolled oats,
0.47 pound, 3 cents (131); hominy, 0.42 pound,
1 cent (126); wheat breakfast food, 0.39 pound,
2 cents (138); shredded wheat, 0.58 pound, 7
cents (143); flour, bread, 1.74 pounds, 3 cents
(122); flour, graham, 1.48 pounds, 6 cents (124);
flour, entire wheat, 0.83 pound, 3 cents (123);
bread, wheat, 6.85 pounds, 20 cents (147);
samp, 0.60 pound, 2 cents (134); spaghetti, 0.50
pound, 5 cents (135)..........................
Sugars, starches, and oils: Sugar, cut loaf, 0.72
pound, 5 cents (163): sugar, granulated, 7.32
pounds, 33 cents (163): sugar, powdered, 0.28
pound, 1 cent (163); molasses,da rk,2.20 pounds,
and molasses, light, 0.89 pound, 5 cents (165);
cocoa, 0.08 pound, 2 cents (168); oil, olive, 0.28
pound, 8 cents (171)..........................
Vegetables: Beans, pea, 1.03 pounds, 7 cents
S(177); beans, lima, 1.20 pounds, 8 cents (176):
carrots, 0.26 pound, 1 cent (182); celery, 0.72
pound, 9 cents (183); lettuce, 0.89 pound, 7
cents (187); onions, 0.14 pound, 1 cent (189);
parsley, 1 cent; peas, split, 0.44 pound, 1 cent
(195); potatoes, sweet, 1.26 pounds, 10 cents
(198); potatoes, white, 10.18 pounds, 16 cents
(196); tomatoes, canned, 6.75 pounds, 38 cents
(209); turnips, 0.88 pound, 4 cents (212).......


Cost.


Dollars.


Cost.


Cents.


1.34 3.0
.19 .4
....... ........

.95 2.1
.15 .3
1.07 2.4
.87 2.0
.05 .1
.02 ......


4.64 10.3


.64




.54







1.03


Protein. Fat.


Grans. Grants.


35
2


8
1
11


21
7
4



34
13
341
1


Carbo-
hydrates.


Grams.


..........
..........

..........


Fuel
value.


Calories.



354
70
36

32
13
303
224
9


1,041


- 1 -- i


A








21

TABLE 3.--Weights and cost of food and nutrients in dietary suldy No. 3r-Continued.


Food consumed during the entire study (3 days).

Kinds and amounts. (Cost.

VERGTABLE FooD-continued.
Fruits, nuts, etc.: Bananas, 4 pounds, 19 cents
(218); dates, 2 pounds, 10 cents (230): lem-
ons, 1.69 pounds, 9 cents (236); prunes, 1.50
1 pounds, 7 cents (247); peanuts, 0.66 pound,
4 cents (254) ............................... 0.49
Total vegetable food..................... 2.70
Total food ................................ 7.34
Beverages, condiments, etc........-.............. .27


Cost, nutrifenlts, and fuel value (,f food per
woman iper diny.


0;s It.


(hit'r.



Li1


6.0
16. 3


Prnt in.






2


22
79


Fat. Carbo-
Fa. hydrates.


('r(lI is. (i'r(IitR



3 25


10
94


Fuel


I 'lofric'1.



135


241 1,142
2A7 22, 13
........... o.......


in this experiment the amount of materials rejected in the kitchen
and at the table was 11 per cent of the total food purchased; but as it
includes both refuse and waste, no deduction can be made for amounts
of nutrients wasted.
The food actually supplied during this period furnished practically
just the amount of protein, but less than the amounts of the other food
elements and energy estimated for the proposed menu.


DIETARY OF HIGH COST (No. 4a).

The most expensive of the four diets, costing 53 cents per person
per day, was supplied in a study which covered three days, namely,
April 30 to May 2, inclusive. It was especially desired in this case to
observe the kind of food for which the unhampered purchaser natu-
rally spends the most money, to discover which of the three nutritive
elements, if any, would be used in excess under the circumstances,
and to compare the percentage of waste with that observed in the
other dietaries of lower cost.
The menus for the three days were as follows:

Daily menu.

WEDNESDAY. APRIL 30.

Breakfast.-Strawberries, shredded-wheat biscuit, broiled bluefish, potato balls
with parsley dressing, popovers.
Luncheon.-Fricasseed oysters in croustades, stuffed potatoes, peas, Roman lettuce
salad with full cream cheese, coffee.
Dinner.-Clear barley soup, braised fowl with mushroom sauce, boiled rice, aspar-
agus, lettuce salad, cheese wafers, orange bomb glace, angel cake.

THURSDAY, MAY 1.

Breakfast.-Oranges, rolled-oat breakfast food, eggs poached in cream (served on
toast), white corn bread.








K...;.. ... ............


I 1 -


'








22


Luncheon.-Cream of corn soup with popcorn, salmon creams with sauce hollan-
daise, potato roses, hot graham rolls, strawberry queen of puddings with thin cream,
Diner.-Victoria (chicken soup), broiled shad roe with maitre d'hotel sauce,
horseradish sandwiches, roast beef (rump), Yorkshire pudding, roasted potatoes,
creamed turnips, June fruit salad, Camembert cheese canaps, coffee.

FRIDAY, MAY 2.

Rreakf.ast.--Grape fruit, wheat breakfast food, rump steak (garnished with water
cress), baked potatoes, buttered toast, orange marmalade.
Lunclheon.-Creanu of asparagus soup, ragout of duck, lettuce and orange salad,
brown bread sandwiches filled with cream cheese and water cress, wheat-bread sand-
wiches filled with cucumbers dressed with maitre d'hotel butter, caramel charlotte
russe.
Diner.--Clear tomato soup, broiled mackerel garnished with lemon and parsley,
cucumbers with French dressing, potatoes with maitre d'hotel dressing, spinach on
toast, chicory salad, cheese croquettes, tutti-frutti ice cream, coffee.

Heavy cream was served with coffee in the morning. Thin cream
was furnished with cereals and with strawberries at breakfast, and was
used for poaching the eggs. At 11 o'clock a luncheon of milk and
crackers not mentioned in the menus was served, and the amounts
eaten have been included in the tables. Butter was served at table in
the morning and at noon, and was freely used in cooking. When no
substitute is mentioned white or graham bread was served at each
meal. Plain salads were dressed with seasoned olive oil and vinegar.
The nutritive value of the proposed menu was calculated as usual,
but these figures are omitted, as the menu actually served differed
very materially from the one on which the calculations were based.
The details of the study follow.


TABLE 4.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients in dietary study No. 4a.


Food consumed during whole study (3 days).


Kinds and amounts.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Roast, rump, 4.69 pounds, 71 cents (15);
steak, rump, 2.7 pounds, 42 cents (30)...........
Pork.etc.: Lard,0.06 pound (62) ................'
Poultry: Duck,3.65 pounds,73 cents (74); fowl,
6.41 pounds, 96 cents (75)..................... ..
Fish: Bluefish, 2 88 pounds,35cents (77); mack-
erel, 3.5 pounds. 64 cents (92); oysters, 3.1
pounds.53 cents (93); salmon,1.63 pounds,29
cents (95): shad roe, 1.19pounds, 50cents (100).
Eggs, 8.13 pounds, 1.10 (105) ..................
Butter, 7.88 pounds. '2.57 (106) ..................
Cream: Heavy,6 pounds, 81.50 (113); thin,3.19
pounds. 36 cents (1131 ......................
Milk, 36.28 pounds, S1.16 (114 ....................
Cheese: Plain,0.35 pound,5 cents (108): cream.
0.58 pound, 33 cents (111): Camembert, 0.15
pound, 5 cents (109).......................
Total animal food .........................


Cost.


Dollars.
1.13

1.69


2.31
1.10
2.57
1.86
1.16


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
woman per day.


Cost.


Cents.
2.7

4.0


Protein. Fat. CI arbo- Fuel
n F. hydrates, value.


Gra


5.5
2.6 1
6.1
4.4
2.8

1.0
-i-


mi. Grams. Grams.
12 15'
12 15 ...........
1 ..---.....
10 178.........



10 8 ..........
1 7 ..........
3 18 5
13 16 20

3 4 ..........


182
9
211


100
lin
111
66
192
274


12.25 29.1 I 72 91 26 1,202


:i

;E


-1


:---


.J-


1-1









23

TARBT. 4.--Height.a nwd cit of fonn od l uItrenth u in dit(tor!f nfndff/ Vo. 4-lt-Continued.


Food consumed during whole study (3 days).


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
woman per day.


Kinds and amounts.


VEGETABI.: FOOD).
Cereals: Barley, 0.1 pound (116); rice, 0.54 pound.
Scents (133); flour, bread, 4.72 pounds, 10 cents
S(122); flour,graham, 2.43 pounds, cents (124):
corn meal, yellow, 0.24 pound, 1 cent i120):
corn meal, white, 0.49 pound, 2 cents (119):
rolled oats, 0.47 pound, 3 cents (131); wheat
breakfast food, 0.38 pound, 2 cents (13,);
shredded wheat, 0.5 pound, 6 cents (143):
bread, white, 9.35 pounds, 28 cents (147); bread.
graham, 2.21 pounds, 6 centst (145): crackers,
Boston, 0.24 pound, 2 cents (1M4); salted wafers,
0.81 pound,7 cents (161) ......................
Sugars, starches, etc.: Sugar, granulated, 5.37
pounds, 29 cents (163); sugar, loaf, 1.44 pounds.
10 cents (163); sugar, powdered, 0.96 pound,
6 cents (163); molasses, 2 pounds, 4 cents (165);
olive oil, 1.3 pounds, 33 cents (171): honey,
0.21 pound, 12 cents (164); cocoa, 0.16 pound,
7 cents (168) ..................................
Vegetables: Asparagus, 5.26 pounds, 90 cents
(174); corn, canned, 1.3 pounds, 14 cents (184):
cucumbers, 3.5 pounds, 50 cents (186); lettuce,
1.55 pounds, 16 cents (187); mushrooms, 0.52
pound, 38 cents (188); onions, 0.69 pound,
2 cents (189); parsley, 5 cents; peas, 3.63
pounds, 28 cents (193); potatoes. 23.48 pounds,
43 cents (196); romaine, 0.81 pound, 25 cents
(202); turnips, 3.16 pounds, 10 cents (212);
water cress, 0.28 pound, 10 cents (213) .........
Fruits, nuts, etc.: Almonds, 0.11 pound, 4 cents
(252); candied fruit, 0.94 pound, 32 cents (220);
grape fruit, 5.87 pounds. 80 cents (234); ba-
nanas, 1.41 pounds, 6 cents (218); lemons, 1.44
pounds, 9 cents (236); oranges, 9.69 pounds,
29 cents (238): orange marmalade, 0.50 pound,
6 cents (237); peanuts, salted, 0.53 pound, 37
cents (255); pineapples, canned, 2.75 pounds,
88 cents (244); strawberries, 5.96 pounds, $1.75
(250) ............... ............................
Total vegetable food......................
Total food.......... ......................
Beverages, condiments, etc......................


Cost.



I0 /I7r.







0. 7T;




1.01







3.31


Cost. Protein.'


'ifinl. trfifll s.








1.8 24




2.4 1







7.9 17


Carho-
Fat. 'hydrates.i


rirfil ig.


Fuel
vliie.


(Ur mis. I 'nlFr/IriI'f.


5 '


71 361


4.16 9.9 4 4 43 224
9.24 22.0 46 24 364 1,855
21.49 51.1 118 115 390 3,057
1.12 3.0 ........ ... ...... ...... ... ........


In spite of the fact that the amounts. of materials rejected at the
table and in the kitchen were as large in this as in either of the other
studies, the quantities of nutrients and energy in the food used in this
study were still very large, being actually greater than is called for
by the common dietary standard for a man at light to moderate mus-
cular work.

CONCLUSIONS.

Two of the experimental studies were carried on for only three
days; the other was continued for a week, and the study under the
usual conditions for two weeks. It would have been more satisfactory
to have made all the studies of at least a week's duration, but it was
not practicable. However, the results of the investigations as a whole
are quite satisfactory; and while they are not sufficient to warrant final
conclusions, some interesting deductions may be drawn from them.

L:


L


I_ _







24

The results of the four studies are summarized in the following table,
which includes for the sake of comparison the quantities of nutrients .
as estimated from the proposed menus in two studies:

TABLE 5.-Summary of results of dietary studies at Boston School of Housekeeping.

Cost. Protein. Fat. Carbo- Energy.
hydrates.
CnOts. Grams. Grams. Graml. C Oories.
U ual diet .......................................... 28.1 93 156 349 3,156
Diet of medium cost:
Food estimated................................. .......... 98 123 848 2,878
Food served ................................... 23.1 94 131 289 2,700
Diet of low cost:
Food estimated .......................................... 80 126 348 2,888
Food served.................................... 16.3 79 94 257 2,188 3
Diet of high cost .............................. 51.1 118 115 390 3,057

The quantity of protein in the diet of the group under the usual
conditions of the school was practically the same as that of the com-
monly accepted standard for women at light to moderate muscular
work, but the quantity of energy was more than 25 per cent above that
of the standard, owing to the fact that the amounts of fat and carbo-
hydrates in the diet were rather liberal .
As compared with the results of dietary studies made elsewhere, the
cost in this study, 28 cents per woman per day, was rather high, espe-
cia ly in view of the fact that much of the food was bought at whole-
sale rates. In the average of 18 studies of professional men's families
made in different parts of the country the diet, which was purchased
at retail, cost only 26 cents per man per day, while it supplied 108
grams of protein and 3,300 calories of energy. In seven studies made
in New York City the diet, which was believed to be rather expensive,
cost on an average, at retail prices, 26 cents per man per day, and fur-
nished 138 grams of protein and 3,747 calories of energy. In a dietary
study with a women students' club at North Dakota Agricultural Col-
legea the cost of the diet was only 14 cents per woman per day, yet
the food supplied 70 grams of protein and 2,795 calories of energy per
woman per day, and in a study at Lake Erie Co legca food costing 18
cents supplied 78 grams of protein and 2,835 calories of energy per
woman per day.
When the expenditure for food was limited to a moderate sum,
under the experimental conditions in the studies at the School of
Housekeeping, the cost per woman per day was 23 cents, or just
5 cents less than in the study under usual conditions. The food
used in this study supplied almost exactly the same quantity of
protein, but 450 calories of energy less per woman per day than was
found in the regular dietary. As regards the dietary of medium cost,
it may be said in general that the meals were pleasing and satisfactory

a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 91.



ih'-ilj


::i;. ii;;;;;;;;;l:;:liiiii~~~r
;;;




'1~~


25


to the family. That they were sufficiently nourishing is shown by
their calculated food value as compared with the commonly accepted
standard and by the continued good health of the family.
The results of this study as compared with that of the dietary under
usual conditions suggest wh t it is possible to do in the way of decreas-
ing the cost of the diet by careful planning. The ordinary diet, while
not strictly limited in cost, was provided by a person with a general
knowledge of the relations between cost and nutritive value; yet the
diet of smaller cost was quite as satisfactory and could easily have
been made equal to the other in fuel value, as it was in protein, with-
out adding anything to the cost.
In the dietary of low cost the expenditure per woman per day was
only 16 c.nts, and the food supplied only 79 grams of protein and
2,183 calori 's of energy. These quantities are considerably lower than
in either of the preceding studies. The low cost was secured largely
by using less expensive food materials than were usually purchased.
In some cases the kinds of food were different from those ordinarily
used, as for ins ance cheaper cuts of meat, while in other cases the
kinds of food were similar in kind to those to which the family was
accustomed, but were of a cheaper grade.
With regard to the daily fare in this study, it may be said that while
it was certainly nourishing and was readily accepted by those inter-
ested in the experimental side of the work it did not find favor with
the larger portion of the family, who had no special interest in the
investigation and preferred a more elaborate menu. Assuming that
these latter young women are fairly representative as regards their
likes and dislikes, it would seem that this grade of food can not be
recommended as satisfactory for boarding schools.
Of all the diets the most expensive was the one preferred by those
not particularly interested in the experimental side of the study. In
this case the food cost 51 cents per woman per day, and the quantity
of protein supplied was more than 25 per cent larger than that of the
regular.dietary, though the quantity of energy was a trifle smaller,
owing to the fact that the amount of fat eaten was rather small. The
increase in the quantity of protein was due largely to the use of larger
quantities of animal foods, such as eggs, dairy products, and various
kinds of meat. There is a very common tendency, when the expendi-
ture for food is practically unrestricted, to increase the amounts of
this class of food materials, which are all more or less rich in protein,
and which are at the same time relatively expensive. These and fancy
foods and out-of-season articles always raise the cost of the diet out of
proportion to the actual nutritive value.
It will be noticed that in the two studies in which the quantities of
nutrients of the proposed diet were estimated these differed some-
what from the quantities in the foods actually used. In both cases


1







26

there was practically an agreement between the quantities of protein
as estimated and as used. In the diet of medium cost the quantities
of fat were as close as could be expected, but the amount of carbo-
hydrates in the food used was appreciably smaller than in the estimate.
In the diet of low cost the quantities of both fat and carbohydrates in
the food used were noticeably smaller than the estimated amounts.
These differences are not surprising, nor altogether unexpected, and
there are several reasons for them. For instance, it was impossible to
anticipate, in every case, the mental effect produced upon the family.
The appetites of some were undoubtedly affected by the knowledge
that their food was being studied and was of a definite cost. Neither
could those making the study know, in detail, the personal tastes and
exactions of all the members of the family, and it appeared that they
differed widely in their acceptance of certain flavors and methods of
serving. It was also impossible to control the amount of muscular
exercise taken, and, hence, this was irregular both in character and
amount. The possible effect of weather upon appetite was another
uncertain factor which must be recognized. These are some of the
elements which account for unexpected variations in quantities eaten.
The results of the investigation as a whole show plainly the impossi-
bility of providing a universally satisfactory bill of fare, as long as
the attitude of people toward their food is so largely a question of
personal whim. They do show, however, that it is possible to pro-
vide a diet of a definite cost which may vary within rather wide limits
and which shall at the same time supply the protein and energy called
for by the commonly accepted dietary standards.


.. ........ ;- ;i:il ~fi;;;;;i;";rii















A DIETARY STUDY AT THE BOSTON SCHOOL OF
HOUSEKEEPING, 1901.
By SUSANNAH LUSHER, S. B.,
InWitrutor, Rutn School tif H ou.Me'keeping,
AND
BERTHA M. TERRILL.

INTRODUCTION.

For instruction in the practical application of dietary studies, a class
at the Boston School of Housekeeping was required to plan menus for
its own meals for one week, the cost of the food materials not to
exceed 25 cents per woman per day, and the diet for the week to fur-
nish on the average the daily quantities of nutrients and energy called
for by the commonly accepted standard for a woman performing a
moderate amount of muscular work, i. e., 90 grams of protein and
2,450 calories of energy. A summary of this experiment which was
carried on under the direction of the instructors and fellows of the
Boston School of Housekeeping in 1901 has been already published."
A detailed account of the work follows:
After the menus had been decided upon and a day for the beginning
of the study was fixed, account was taken of all the food materials on
hand before the study began. Record was also kept of all those pur-
chased during the week. From the sum of these the quantities left
on hand at the close were deducted and the difference taken as the
amounts used during the study. None of the foods was analyzed.
The nutritive value of all food materials was assumed from the aver-
ages for similar articles given in a previous publication of this Office.b
The percentages of nutrients assumed for the food materials are given
in Table 29 of the Appendix.
This study continued seven days during the latter half of April, 1901,
the season being cold and very backward. The family or group in-
cluded in the study consisted of 16 women students. They were not all
present at every meal, while at several meals there were guests. As
is usual, an account was kept of the number of persons present at each
V-
meal, and from such data were calculated the equivalent number of
meals for one person and the equivalent number of days. There were
297 meals served, which was equivalent to one woman for ninety-nine
days.
a The Cost of Food. Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, Boston, 1901, p. 111.
b U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 28, revised.
27


i .


111gli.r :.: -.-- .. .. .. .. I Mom; ~







28

DAILY XENUS.
Experience had taught what dishes would be tolerated and what
would be refused by the.members of the class, and those preparing the
menus governed themselves accordingly. The menus selected are
given below. Doubtless the absence of some common dishes is due
to the preparation of a "black list" by the class a few days before
the study began.
SUNDAY.
Breakfast.-Wheat breakfast food,a baked beans, brown bread, coffee, cocoa, or
milk.
Luncheon.-Brown and white bread sandwiches, sliced oranges, cake, cocoa.
Dinner.-Soup, saltines, roast fowl (stuffed), hominy, cranberries, lettuce salad
with French dressing, ice cream, cake.
MONDAY.
Breakfast.-One-half shredded-wheat biscuit, boiled egg, graham muffins, apple
sauce, coffee, cocoa, or milk.
Luncheon.-Hashed chicken on toast, fried hominy, cookies, stewed apricots, tea.
Dinner.-Soup with rice, rib-roll roast, Irish potatoes (mashed), tomatoes, lemon
jelly, with bananas and nuts.
TUESDAY.
Breakfast.-One-half orange, wheat breakfast food, creamed codfish, corn-meal
muffins, coffee, cocoa, or milk.
Luncheon.-Vegetable soup, omelet, brown betty, cream.
Dinner.-Split-pea soup, veal roast, Irish potatoes, creamed onions, lettuce salad,
saltines, cottage pudding, chocolate sauce.
WEDNESDAY.
Breakfast.-Wheat breakfast food, cream toast, bacon, baked apples, coffee, cocoa,
or milk.
Luncheon.-Irish stew with dumplings, fruit salad, cookies, cocoa.
Dinner.-Chicken soup, roast leg of mutton, potatoes, beets, Norwegian dessert. I
THURSDAY.
Breakfast.-One-half orange, wheat breakfast food, hash, dry toast, coffee, cocoa,
or milk.
Luncheon.-Creamed potatoes, sausage, raised rolls, nut cake, prunelles, tea.
Dinner.-Soup, chicken and veal pie, peas, orange salad, saltines, cracker pudding,
cream.
FRIDAY.
Breakfast.-One-half orange, oatmeal, creamed dried beef, corn cake, coffee, cocoa,
or milk.
Luncheon.-Fish chowder, rice and mutton croquettes with tomato sauce, salted
peanuts, dates.
Dinner.-Tomato soup, baked haddock, hollandaise sauce, mashed potatoes, lima
beans, lettuce salad, saltines, suet pudding, lemon sauce.
SATURDAY.
Breakfast.-One-half orange, wheat breakfast food, fish hash, date muffins, coffee,
cocoa, or milk.
Luncheon.-" English monkey (a sort of cheese souffle) on toast, vegetable salad,
baking-powder biscuit, chocolate.
Dinner.-Bean soup, Hamburg steak, baked potatoes, carrots and peas, lettuce :
salad, saltines, chocolate pudding with hard sauce.


a Several kinds were used during the study to give variety.




w.m.~2rrr~ -r *.. -


29


DETAILS OF THE DIETARY STUDY (No. 5a).

The details of the dietary study are given in the following table:

TABLE 6.- IWeights and cost jf froei 1md nutrients in dietary study No. 5a.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.


ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Rib roll, 7 pounds. 88 cents (10): shank, 9
pounds, 45 cents (17); dried, 1.13 pounds, 34
cents (4); suet, 0.44 pound, 2 cents (35); gela-
tin, 0.13 pound, 10 cents (6). Veal, loin, 4.63
pounds, 60 cents (41). Lamb, leg, 9.0(6 pounds,
81.18 (54) .......................................
Poultry: Fowl, 14.13 pounds, 11.81 (75) ..........
Pork: Salt pork, 0.45 pound, 5 cents (65); bacon,
I pound, 15 cents (55); ham steak, 3.38 pounds,
37 cents (70); sausage, 2 pounds, 24 cents (66);
lard, 0.42 pound, 4 cents (62) ..................
Fish: Cod, fresh, 4.25 pounds, 26 cents (79): cod,
salt, 0.9 pound, 11 cents (80); haddock, 8
pounds, 48 cents (84)..........................
Eggs, 7.5 pounds, 85 cents (105).................
Butter, 12.28 pounds $3.07 (106) ................
Milk, 84.7 pounds, 82.31 (114) .................
Cream, 3.78 pounds, 44 cents (113) ...............
Cheese, 0.33 pound, 5 cents (108)...............
Total animal food .......................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Oatmeal, 0.56 pound, 3 cents (130);
wheat breakfast food, 0.56 pound, 7 cents
(136); wheat breakfast food, 0.56 pound, 7
cents (137); wheat breakfast food, 0.56 pound,
7 cents (138); wheat breakfast food, 0.56 pound,
7 cents (139); shredded wheat, 0.34 pound, 5
cents (143); wheat breakfast food, 0.56 pound,
7 cents (141); hominy, 1 pound, 3 cents (126);
rice, 0.5 pound, 5 cents (133); flour, bread,
27.28 pounds, 67 cents (122); flour, pastry, 4.66
pounds, 11 cents (125); corn meal, 3.69 pounds,
7 cents (119); graham meal, 0.75 pound, 2
cents (124); Boston crackers, 0.91 pound, 7
cents (154); saltines, 1.94 pounds, 29 cents
(161) ........................................
Sugars, starches, and oils: Sugar, granulated,
15.59 pounds, 87 cents (163): sugar, powdered,
0.31 pound, 5 cents (163); sugar, lump, 2.63
pounds, 18 cents (163); molasses, 2.75 pounds,
9 cents (165)- chocolate, 0.38 pound, 14 cents
(167); cocoa, 0.31 pound, 18 cents (168); olive
oil, 0.75 pound, 31 cents (171)..................
Vegetables: Beans, lima (dry), 0.83 pound,
6 cents (176); beans, pea, 0.7 pound, 6 cents
(177); beets, 3.5 pounds, 12 cents (180); carrots.
2.27 pounds, 7 cents (182); lettuce, 7 pounds,
$1.2 (1.87); onions, 2.53 pounds, 7 cents (189);
peas, canned, 6 pounds, 45 cents (192); peas,
split, 0.56 pound, 5 cents (195); potatoes, 27.21
pounds, 55 cents (196); tomatoes, canned, 4
pounds, 17 cents (209); turnips, 0.55 pound, 1
cent (212) .......................... ..........
Fruits, nuts, etc.: Apples. 9.13 pounds, 27 cents
(214); apncots, 0.75 pound, 11 cents (216); ba-
nanas, 1.2 pounds, 6 cents (218); cranberries.
1.5 pounds, 9 cents (227): currants, dried, 0.16
pound, 4 cents (229); dates, 2.28 pounds, 11
cents (230); lemons, 3 pounds, 25 cents (236);
oranges, 6.75 pounds, 65 cents (238); prunelles,
0.5 pound, 7 cents (246); raisins, 0.31 pound, 3
cents (248); peanuts (meats), 1.69 pounds, 14
cents (255); walnuts (meats), 0.56 pound, 25
cents (257)...........-.........................
Total vegetable food......................

Total food................................

Beverages, condiments, etc. (cost)...............


Cost.


Dollars.




3.57
1.84


.85

.85
.85
3.07
2.31
.44
.05

13.83















1.74





1.82








2.86








2.07


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of foodl per
woman per day.


Cost. Protein.


Cents.




3.6
1.9


.9

.9
.9
3.1
2.3
.4
..=..=...


14.0


1.8


Fat.


Grams. I rams.


24
9


4

6
4

1


14


3
48
16
3
1


Carbo-
hydrates.


Grams.


19 .........
8 .........


..........

19
1
..........


Fuel
value.


(zlonries.




265
107


141

24
43
427
270
31
13


112 20 1 1,321















4 150 728





5 94 425








1 32 161


8.49 8.6 33 15 297 1,455
22.32 22.6 94 127 317 2,776


.8 I.........


... I


- -- --- --- ---




FT ~


30

In planning this dietary the estimates were made for a family of .3
six and were multiplied to suit the existing case. The final results
given in the table above agreed very well with the estimates. The
meals provided were quite satisfactory. Only two of the persons
found any of them wholly unsatisfactory, and all declared that they
"bought no more candy than usual;" that is, they did not have any
special desire to supplement their diet with extra sweets. This was
very gratifying in view of the difference in favor of the cost of this
diet as compared with that of their usual fare.

CONCLUSIONS.

Judging by this study it seems fair to say that a reasonably satisfac-
tory dietary of moderate cost, which will supply the necessary nutri-
ents and energy, can be provided when sufficient care is given to
planning a menu and selecting the food. It is a matter of common
experience that it is easier to provide a diet for a given sum when the
family is rather large, since it is possible to buy advantageously when
large quantities are purchased and the amount of refuse and kitchen
and table waste is believed to be proportionally smaller. Further
studies are, of course, needed before general deductions can he drawn,
but in view of the facts brought out by the present study in connec-
tion with the results of general experience and previous investigations
it seems fair to say that the cost of the daily fare may be often dimin-
ished by intelligent planning of the menu in such a way that a reason-
able proportion of moderate-priced foods is used and other justifiable
economies are practiced without making the diet so plain that it is
unattractive.
The latter fact has been illustrated on a preceding page of this
bulletin (see page 24) in a comparison of the ordinary diet of the
school with a diet quite as satisfactory and potentially equal in nutri-
tive value, but costing over 20 per cent less. The present dietary was
almost identical in cost and nutritive value with the more economical
of the two just referred to.














DIETARY STUDY AT THE BIBLE NORMAL COLLEGE, 1902.
By BERTHA 1. TERRILL,
Professor of Home Ecoominirs, Hartford S'choor of Religious Pedagogy.

INTRODUCTION.

In February, 1902, the students of the Bible Normal College, situ-
ated then in Springfield, Mass. (now in Hartford, Conn., and affiliated
with the Hartford Theological Seminary and designated School of
Religious Pedagogy), voted to save a sum of money, which they desired
to raise for a special object, by reducing the cost of their table board.
They had been paying $3 per week for table board at the time, or very
nearly 43 cents per person per day, which of course included the cost
of fuel, preparation, and service, estimated to be 10.6 cents per person
per day. Learning that it has been found possible to provide a balanced
and nourishing diet for 10 cents per man per day for the raw food,
they entered eagerly into an experiment with a diet to cost that amount
for food materials only, the cost of preparation, etc., to remain the
same as before, making the total cost of the daily food as served 20.6
cents per person, or 22.4 cents less than their ordinary diet. There
were 30 students interested in this project, and it was planned to con-
tinue the investigation three days, as this would suffice to save the $20
desired.
It was believed that the results of a dietary study of the family
during this period would be of some value, as showing some of the
possibilities of a practical application of the results of nutrition inves-
tigations. The meals provided were enjoyed, and at the end of three
days, although the desired sum had been saved and there was no longer
this incentive, all the persons concerned were sufficiently interested in
the trial to ask to have it continued three days longer when they
learned that the results for such a period would be of considerable
more value from a scientific standpoint than those of a study carried
on for three days only. The details of the investigation are given
herewith.
METHODS.
The method of conducting the investigation was essentially the same
J as that usually followed. After a study of the available food supply
and the cost of food in the local market, menus were prepared which
it was believed would be fairly satisfactory and which would fulfill
31







32

the requirements as regards cost and nutritive value. The amounts
of the various materials which it was calculated would be required
during the period were then set aside to be used as needed, the plan
being to provide generously of the chief and less expensive dishes,
with enough of the more expensive foods to give the needed variety.
Whatever material was left at the close of the study was subtracted
from the amount provided and the difference was assumed to represent
the amount used. Generally speaking, the estimated amounts proved
amply sufficient, but it was found necessary during the study to pur-
chase some articles in addition to those planned for, and all such foods
were also included in estimating the total amounts eaten.
None of the foods was analyzed. The composition of all but two
of the different articles was assumed from average values for similar
food materials., The composition of the chocolate candy (fudge) was
calculated from that of the materials used in making it, and the compo-
sition of apple jelly was taken from a compilation not yet published.
The assumed values for the composition of the materials eaten in this
study are included in Table 29 of the Appendix.

DAILY MENUS.

The menus for the different days covered by the study were as
follows:
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 8.
Breakfast.-Oatmeal and top of milk, fish cakes, toast (with a little butter), prunes,
milk and cereal coffee.
Dinner.-Beef soup, croutons, beans (baked with pork), brown bread, apricot
shortcake.
Supper.-Sandwiches (cheese and jelly), white and graham bread (no butter),
sliced bananas, milk.
SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 9.
Breakfast.-Corn-meal mush and top of milk, baked beans, buns, milk and cereal
coffee.
Dinner.-Split-pea soup and crackers (crisped), potted beef, brown sauce, baked
potatoes, bread, rice with milk and sugar.
Supper.-Brown-bread sandwiches (with a little butter), white-bread sandwiches
with date and peanut filling without butter, cocoa, popcorn salted.
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 10.
Breakfast.--Oatmeal with top of milk, cream toast, cereal coffee.
Dinner.-Baked-bean soup, crisp crackers, Hamburg steak balls, brown sauce,
hominy, turnip, peanuts and dates.
Supper.-Potato and beet salad, gingerbread, cheese, bread, milk.
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11.
Breakfast.--Wheat breakfast food and dates, creamed codfish, muffins (with little
butter), milk and cereal coffee.
Dinner.-Beef stew with biscuits, bread pudding, bread.
Supper.-Scalloped meat and potato, bread (with butter), prunes, chocolate candy
" fudge."
a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 28, revised.








33

WEDI1NENDAY, FEBRUARY 12.


Breakfast.-Oatmeal with top of milk, hash, corn cake, milk and cereal cffee.
Dinner.-Vegetable soup, croutons, baked stuffed beef's heart, brown sauce, rice,
cornstarch blanc mange, caramel sauce.
S'upper.-Potato and celery salad, white and graham bread, fried crni-meal Illlush,
sirup.
THRIRS)AY, FEBRUARY 13.

Breakfast.-Corn-meal mush with top of milk, hashed meat on toast, milk and
Cereal coffee.
Dinner.-Salt salmon, drawn butter sauce, laked potatoes, parsnips, bread, evapo-
rated apple shortcake.
Supper.-Cold sliced beef's heart, creamed potatoes, cocoa, bread (white and
graham), ginger snaps.


DETAILS OF THE DIETARY STUDY (No. 6a).

The family in this experiment consisted of 30 students-26 women
and 4 men-ranging in age from 25 to 45 years. Considering the 4 men
as equivalent to 5 women as regards food consumption, the family for
six days was equivalent to 186 women for one day.
The amounts, cost, and nutrients of the food eaten are given in the
table following. The numbers in parentheses following each food
material in the table refers to the composition given at the same num-
ber in Table 29 in the Appendix.


TABLE 7.-E-Feights and cost of food rind nittrient. in dietary study No. 6a.


Food consumed during the entire study (6 days).


Kinds and amounts.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Hearts, 11 pounds, 38 cents (7): round,
10.5pounds, $1.05(28): rump, 10 pounds, 80 cents
(13); shank, fore, 3 pounds (20); brisket
(stew). 7.25 pounds, 50 cents (la) .............
Pork: Bacon, 2 pounds. 30cents (57): salt pork.
2 pounds, 18 cents (64); lard, 1 pound, 12
cents (62) .....................................
Fish: Cod,salt.4 pounds. 42 cents (81); salmon.
salt. 5 pounds, 40 cents (97) ..................
Eggs, 1 pound, 33 cents (105)...................
Butter, 9 pounds, 82.25 (106) ...................
Cheese, 2 pounds, 30 cents (108)................
Milk, 210 pounds, $2.70 (114) ....................
Total animal food........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Corn meal, 10 pounds, 29 cents (119);
pop corn, 1 pound, 5 cents (132); hominy,
1.44 pounds. 5 cents (126): oatmeal, 4.5 pounds,
15 cents (130); rice, 4 pounds, 28 cents (133);
graham flour, 10 pounds, 2 cents (124); white
flour, 66 pounds, $1.55 (122); crackers, Bos-
ton, 0.75 pound. 4 cents (154) .................
Sugars, starches, etc.: Sugar, granulated, 20
pounds, 81 (163): molasses, 2.33 pounds, 36
cents (165); cornstarch, 0.33 pound. 2 cents
(172); cocoa, 1 pound, 17 cents (168): choco-
late, 0.12 pound, 5 cents (167) ..................

i 25580-No. 129-03--3



........


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value per woman
per day.


Cost. Cost. Protein. Fat. Carboh-
drat es.

I2
'Dollars. Cent-s. ;n..- Gra'us.. Grains.


2.73 1.5 15 19 ..........


.60
.82
.33
2.25
.30
2.70
9.73


.4' 5
1.2
1.2 .........
.2 1
1.4 17
5.2 39


2.66 1.4


27



1


1.60


I

19. .
19 ..........
*
20 26


Fuel
value.





229

75


169
*12
3-W


70 26 _83


178



1 54







34

TABLE 7.-- IW'4ghts and ro.-t qf food uad nutrients in dietary study No. 6a-Continned. ,.

Food consumed during the entire study (6 days). Cost, nutrients, and fuel value per woman .
per day.
Kinds and amounts. Cost. Cost. Protein. Fat. Carbohy- Fuel
Sdrates. value.
VEGETABLE FOOD-continued.
Dollars. cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
Vegetable-: Beans, lima, 2 pounds, 18 cents
(17!). bean-. pen. 2.44 pounds. 10 cents (177);
beets. 1.2-i pounds. -4 cents (180); cabbage, 5
pound%. 10 cents (181); carrots, 1.25 pounds, 2
cents Is2). celery. 2.06 pounds, 10 cents (183);
parsnips. 4.69 pounds, 15 cents (191); peas,
split. 1.69 pounds. 13 cents (195); potatoes, 80
pound.. $1.47 (196): turnips, 5.5 pounds, 7
cents (212) .................................. 2.36 1.3 7 1 41 201
Fruit,. nuts, etc.: Apricots, dried, 1.5 pounds, 17
cents 217i; bananas, 7 pounds, 30 cents (218);
dates. 2 pounds, 12 cents (230); prunes, 2
pounds, I1 cents (247); raisins, 0.25 pound, 2
cents (248;: peanuts, pounds, 25 cents (255); i
crab-apple jelly, 0.2 pound, 3 cents (225)....... 1.07 .6 1 2 13 74
Total vegetable food....................... 7.69 4.2 36 1 8 286 1,360
_______ ___________1__ _______ ________ I ________ __ i
Total food ................................. 17.42 9.4 75 1 78 312 2,243


The cost of the diet, 9.4 cents per woman per day, was just within
the limit set, but the quantities of nutrients and energy (75 grams of
protein and 2,243 calories) were somewhat smaller than was intended.
In planning the menu for the first three days, which was done before
the experiment began, special effort was made to provide a diet which
would furnish for persons occupied as these were sufficient nutrients
and energy, according to the commonly accepted American dietary
standard, namely, 90 grams of protein and 2,450 calories of energy
per day for a woman at light to moderate work. In arranging the
menus for the last three days, which were not in the original plan,
time was lacking to make as careful estimates of the quantities of nutri-
ents and energy in the diet provided, and in consequence the actual
nutritive value of the food consumed during the latter part of the
study, especially as regards carbohydrates and energy, was somewhat
smaller than during the first half; so that the average per woman per
day for the whole six days was slightly lower than it was desired to
have it, and lower than it need have been if the decision to carry on
the experiment for six days had been made in time to calculate the 7
entire ration more carefully.
The low cost of the diet in this experiment was made possible by the
selection of simple and inexpensive food materials and by reducing the
quantities of some foods commonly used rather abundantly, as meat
and butter. The plan was, as already explained, to provide generously
of the less expensive but nutritious materials, and to include only enough
of the more expensive, but not more nutritious articles, to give vari-
ety. Most of the students felt quite satisfied with the food. The
curtailing of the amount of butter served at the table was considered 4A
the greatest deprivation; a small pat, about half the customary size,






35


being served to each where butter is indicated with bread on the menu.
Two students, who preferred a- hearty breakfast with steak or chops,
felt the loss of meat especially. On the other hand, three who were
accustomed to a luncheon of crackers during the forenoon omitted it
voluntarily, reporting that this was done simply because they felt no
need of supplementing the breakfast provided. With these exceptions,
it was the opinion of the family that, generally speaking, they would
not have noticed any marked change from their usual fare.
The importance from the standpoint of economy of selecting foods
which are nourishing rather than those having a low food value but
which please the palate and add to the attractiveness of the diet. is
illustrated by a dietary study made of a family in New Jersey" in
which it was found that $2.16 was expended in three weeks for
oranges and $3 for celery, making a total of $5.16 for these two arti-
cles, which together furnished only 150 grams of protein aid 6,445
calories of energy. During the same period $5.16 was also expended
for cereal foods and sugars, which supplied 3,375 grams of protein and
184,185 calories of energy, or about twenty-five times the amount fur-
nished by the oranges and celery. Of course, the sum expended for
these articles was not excessive and they undoubtedly helped to make
the diet palatable and pleasing, a by no means unimportant considera-
tion, but it is evident that they were not economical sources of nutri-
tive material.
In the present investigation it was found to be well worth while to
use special care in arranging the dishes for serving, that they might
be as appetizing in appearance as possible, and for the same reason the
Sunday evening tea was served from a small table by an open fire.
Much care was also observed in avoiding waste both by careful prepa-
ration and by the use of all "left overs."
The low cost of the diet was doubtless due in part to the fact that it
was made up entirely of home-cooked food, as it has been shown by
experiments that food thus prepared under favorable conditions is
cheaper than that purchased ready cooked. For instance, in some
studies made at the Boston School of Housekeeping,^ it was found that
the average cost of a pound of homemade bread, including materials
and fuel for baking, was 3.72 cents, or, considering only the cost of
materials, 2.94 cents. A pound of baker's bread cost at this time 5.55
cents. If the labor is included, which was valued at 8.5 cents per
hour on the assumption that a cook would receive $4 per week, the
cost of homemade bread was calculated to be 5.87 cents per pound.
However, in most cases it would hardly be fair to include this factor,
a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 35.
bMassachusetts Labor Bul., 1901, No. 19, p. 67.








as a cook would be paid the same wages whether the bread was baked
at home or not. Furthermore, the cost of fuel may be lessened pro-
vided the bread is baked when a fire is required for some other house-
hold purpose.
Studies at the same institution with poultry also showed that the
home-cooked article was cheaper than that purchased ready cooked.

GENERAL DEDUCTIONS.

The experiment at the Bible Normal College progressed in a very
satisfactory manner throughout. The fact that it was possible to live
at all comfortably at so low a figure was wholly novel to many of the.
students, and there was considerable interest and curiosity manifested :.
at each meal. This fact doubtless helped to make the simple fare seem M
more appetizing than it might have been if continued week after week.
All were convinced that the actual cost of many of the staple articles
of diet may be made much less than they had supposed. Their attitude
toward the experiment was such as to make it of especial value, as
they were for the most part quite unprejudiced and frank in criticising
the results.
The economy of the diet may be illustrated by comparing the results I
with those obtained in the study of a medium-cost dietary at the Boston
School of Housekeeping. (See page 24.) While the diet in this case,
though very simple, was fully equal in nutritive value to that at the
School of Housekeeping, furnishing slightly less protein but slightly
more energy, the cost in Springfield, where the foods were bought at .
retail, was only about three-fifths of that in Boston, where many of
the articles were obtained at wholesale prices. This affords an excel-
lent illustration of what can be done when it seems desirable to make
the cost of the daily fare as low as is consistent with a reasonably
palatable diet.


* i
.. A'
















DIETARY STUDIES IN PHILADELPHIA ANI) CHICAGO,
1892-9:3.

By ELLEN HL. RICtIARIS.
Instructor in Sanita'ry Chemistry Maisachutseflts Instiivte of Technology,
AND
AMELIA SHAPLEIGH.
Dutton Fellow College Settlement Association.

INTRODUCTION.

During the year 1892-93 observations were made, at the instance of
the College Settlement Association, of the food consumption and
dietary customs of families with small incomes living in those sections
of Philadelphia and Chicago in which the work of the Settlements was
carried on. The primary purpose of these investigations was to
obtain reliable information regarding the diet of the people of those
regions, which could be used in the efforts to help them to improve
their material condition. While the dietary statistics gathered then
are somewhat less complete and perhaps less accurate than those of
similar investigations carried on at the present time, they nevertheless
give important facts concerning the dietary customs of families of
small incomes, and form a valuable contribution to our knowledge
concerning the food consumption of people under different circum-
stances in life.
In a report a made by one of us (A. S.) upon the completion of the
investigations the nutritive values of the dietaries thus collected were
given as estimated according to such data as were then available
regarding the composition and fuel value of food materials, the rela-
tive food consumption of persons of different age, sex, and occupa-
tion, etc.; only four studies, however, were given in detail. Four of
the studies were briefly reported in a discussion of dietaries for wage-
earners and their families,.contributed by one of us (E. H. R.) to a
publication of the New Jersey State Board of Health.b The remainder
have never hitherto been published. In the present report are given
the details of all the dietary studies completed at that time except a
a Partial report of Dutton Fellow College Settlement Association, 1892-93.
bNew Jersey State Board of Health Rpt., 17 (1893), p. 425. See also The Cost of
Food, New York, 1901, p. 119.
37


.a.a .




~ ~~-~-~~ ;I; -


38

few in which the statistics were in some respects inadequate. In every
case the nutrients and energy of the dietaries have been estimated
according to the large amount of analytical and other data accumulated
since the studies were made. It is believed that the final results, as
here given, are more satisfactory than the earlier estimates, from which
they differ somewhat.
Since these investigations were carried out numerous others of a
similar nature have been made and reported. Previous bulletins of
this Office have given accounts of dietary studies made with families
living in the thickly congested districts of New York,a Pittsburg,6 and
Chicago;c studies of the diet of negroes living in straitened circum-
stances in Virginia and Alabama," and of Spanish-American families
of very limited means living in New Mexico." Studies of the diet of
poor families were also made in Hartford, under the auspices of the
School of Sociology/ A number of foreign investigations have been
conducted with families of small incomes or living under conditions
common to such families. The recent important work of this charac-
ter by Paton and his associates in Edinburgh, and that by B. S.
Rowntreeh in York, England, are all the more interesting in this con-
nection because the studies were made by the methods followed at the
present time in the United States. All these investigations, like that
reported in this bulletin, were actuated by a desire to ascertain the
conditions under which such families live, in order to find ways to
help them to make a wiser use of their resources in securing adequate
nourishment. As a whole, the results obtained have, at least in part,
justified the hopes of the investigators, and the experience gained has
proved of very great value to many housekeepers.

METHOD OF INQUIRY.

In both Philadelphia and Chicago the families among whom the
studies were made were selected at random from the neighborhood of
the college settlements, but they were believed to be typical of the
region in which the settlement work was being carried on. The
attempt was made to include in both places as many different nation-
alities as possible, in order that the results of the studies might have
a wider practical application and be more useful.
The data sought in these studies included the nationality, age, sex,
aU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 46 and 116.
b U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 52.
c U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 55.
eU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 40 and 54.
fStorrs's Experiment Station Report, 1896.
gThe Diet of Laboring Classes in Edinburgh.
/'Poverty: A Study of Town Life, p. 222.
*


. ..j;:


" ..:..:1
.::,






39

and weight of the different members of the family; the number of
meals taken by each; the kinds, amounts, and cost of food consumed
during a given period, and, so far as possible, the financial and hygienic
conditions at the time of the study. Methods had to be devised for
the collection of such data. In some cases it was possible for the
investigator to enter the homes and gather the statistics personally,
while in others dependence had to be placed on the statistics furnished
by the families themselves. To facilitate the work during the prosecu-
tion of the studies in Philadelphia, questions of a general nature were
. formulated which it was hoped would elicit the desired information.
These were printed in the form of a small account book, the first part
of the book being devoted to the questions concerning the family.
itself, while the remainder was arranged so that the quantity and cost
of each food material purchased each day could be entered on the line
on which the name of the material was printed. These books proved
useful and were also employed in the Chicago studies, and served to
lessen the work when the investigator made the entries and to simplify
the matter so that there would be as little chance for error as possible
when the statistics were recorded by the housekeeper.
The information gathered in both series of studies was, on the whole,
fairly satisfactory, though in several cases where records were kept
entirely by the family, some of the statistics recorded were manifestly
incorrect. To discover errors the accounts were carefully examined
as soon as a study was finished, and questions were asked concerning
doubtful entries. In this way explanations and corrections were
obtained while the matter was still fresh in mind, and greater accuracy
was secured.
The calculations of the results of the studies as given in the present
bulletin were made by the same methods as have been noted in pre-
vious bulletins reporting studies carried on under the auspices of the
Office of Experiment Stations." None of the foods used was analyzed.
The composition of nearly all of them was assumed to be that given
for similar materials in a former publication of this Office.b The com-
position of a few cooked fools was computed from the composition of
the materials used in preparing them and the proportions of each
material taken according to a recipe believed to be representative.
The percentages of nutrients assumed for any food material used in
these studies may be found in Table 29 of the Appendix. The refer-
ence numbers in the first column of that table correspond to those
given in parentheses following the weight and cost of the food materials
in the detail tables of the studies.
The studies as given below have been grouped according to the
nationalities of the families, as it was believed this would present the
a See list on cover.
SU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 28, revised.




r


40

fairest comparison of the results, and, furthermore, it would afford
some opportunity for noting in how far the dietary habits of the
families of foreign birth or parentage had been modified by residence
in the United States.

DETAILS OF THE STUDIES IN PHILADELPHIA.
The first half of the year devoted to these investigations was spent
in Philadelphia. The work there was done under the auspices of the
Philadelphia College Settlement, which, although at that time but
recently started, was already in touch with many of the families in the'-
region in which it was located. The helpful attitude of all members
of the settlement household an'd the special kindness of Miss Hancock,
a college settlement worker in the neighborhood, secured for the
investigator a ready entrance to the homes of the families selected for :
the studies and insured favorable conditions for the investigation.
The attempt was made to establish friendly relations with all the
families, and to convince them that the work was undertaken for a
useful purpose and not to gratify idle curiosity. That this end was
accomplished was shown by the almost uniform readiness with which
questions were answered, and by the fact that the people were almost
without exception very courteous in every way.
All the investigations in Philadelphia were carried on in the winter
season. In the data here reported the families studied included
Americans, German, Colored, Irish, Italian-Irish. and German, Rus-
sian, and Roumanian Jews. The ways of living of the families made
it possible to secure what are regarded as fairly reliable data, a con-
siderable amount of which was recorded by the investigator. In all
25 studies were completed, of which 22 have been considered of suffi-
cient accuracy and completeness to include here. The details of these
studies follow.

DIETARY STUDIES OF COLORED FAMILIES (Nos. 7a-lla).
The six dietary studies of which the details are given here were -
made with colored families.

DIETARY STUDY NO. TA.

This study was made with a family of two persons, a man and a
woman, living in one room, for which they paid 80 cents per week.
Their income was about $2.50 per week during the winter season, at, .
which time this study was made. The woman was weak and afflicted
with neuralgia. In addition to the food materials included in the table
they spent 6 cents for coffee, S cents for tea, and 1 cent for pot herbs. '







41

The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
M tal I
M an................ ...................................... ...... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal oif man), equivalent to .............. 17
Total number of meals equivalent to........................ 38
Equivalent to one man thirteen days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. SA.

This family consisted of one man, one woman, and a child 5 years
old, all healthy. They rented two rooms for which they paid 81.40
per week.
SThe study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
M eals.
M an.......................................-.......... ......... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to...---........ 17
Child, 5 years old (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to.... 8
Total number of meals equivalent to........................ 46
Equivalent to one man fifteen days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 9A.

This family consisted of one man, four women, and four children,
aged, respectively, 10, 8, 3 years, and 4 months; the latter was not
included in the study, They paid $20 per month rent for six rooms.
In addition to the food materials included in the table, they spent
$2.29 for sundries during the time of the study.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
M an........................................................... 21
Four women (84 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to ------. 67
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to ...... 13
Child, 8 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to .---. 11
Child, 3 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 8
Total number of meals equivalent to....................... 120
Equivalent to one man forty days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 10A.

This family consisted of one man, one woman, and five children,
aged, respectively, 11, 9, 7, 5, and 3 years. They were all in fairly
good health. They paid $12 a month for three rooms. In addition
to the food materials purchased they spent 18 cents for tea during the
study.








42


The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken
as follows:
Meals.
Man.........---------.......................................... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .............. 17
Child, 11 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to........ 13
Two children, 9 and 7 years (42 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equiva-
lent to- ----................................ ... ................ 21
Two children, 5 and 3 years (42 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equiva-
lent to ............................................ ........... 17

Total number of meals equivalent to--...........-.-....... 89
Equivalent to one man twenty-nine days.


DIETARY STUDY NO. 11A.


This family consisted of two women, both strong and well. They
rented two rooms for $1.65 a week. One woman did washing. In
addition to the foods purchased they spent during the study 16 cents
for tea and 5 cents for coffee.


The study continued two days.


The number of meals taken was 12,


equivalent to 10 meals of a man, or equivalent to one man three days.

TABLE 8.- lleights and cost of Jfood id nutrients in dietary studies of colored families in
Philadelphia.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Kinds and amounts.


Dietary study N o. 7a.
ANIMA. FOOD.
Pork: Bacon, 0.25 pound, 3 cents (55): shoulder,
smoked, 0.5 pound, 7 cents (68); scrapple, 0.5
pound, 4 cents (67); sausage, 1.9 pounds, 27
cents (66) ............... ...................
Mutton: Sheep's liver, 1 pound, 5 cents (49);
neck, 1.5 pounds, 11 cents (50), chops, 0.25
pound, 2 cents (46) .......................
Butter, 0.13 pound, 5 cents (106)................
Total animal food ........................
VEGETABLES FOOD.
Cereals: Pudding, 1 pound, 10 cents (258); bread,
7.9 pounds, 31 cents (147) .....................
Vegetables: Beans, 0.95 pound, 5 cents (177);
potatoes, 3.5 pounds, 6 cents (196) .............
Total vegetable food......................
Total food ............................
Dietary study No. Sa.
ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Round steak, 1 pound, 15 cents (28)......
Pork: Ham, 8 pounds, $1.26 (60); sausage, 1
pound. 15 cents (66) ......................
Oysters, 1.5 pounds, 35 cents (93) ..............
Butter, 0.5 pound. 20 cents (106)...............
Milk, 4 pounds, 16 cents (114)...................
Total animal food ......................


Cost.


Dollars.


Cost.


Cents.


0.41 3.2

.18 1.1
.05 .4
.64 5.0



.41 3.2
.11 .9


.52
1.16


.15
1.41
.35
.20
.16


Protein.


Grams.


12

16

28


4.1 37
9.1 65


6
38
3
4....


Fat.


Grams.


43

16
4
63


69
611


Ca rbo-
hydrates.


Gram s.


9

2
.........2
11



157
42


Fuel
value.




Calories.


467

214
86
717



781
217


199 99
210 1,715


3
2
..........
6


Oa
1,001
115
85


116 11 1,281


!E~mitii;ii .[

"" ..=
..... :- s
.. i. m
-'ii, i
.. 'iii i'

was;,,!!
"i
*R.:


'


2.27 15.1 51









43


TABLE 8.-TWeights and cont of food and nutrients in dietary ntudien of colored families ii
Ph ilde/lph in -Cont inued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


I ('ot, nutrients, and fuel value of fond per
manT per day.


Kinds and amounts.


Dietary study No. S'-Continut.d.

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 4.5 pounds, 20 cents (147); rice,
1 pound, 12 cents (133).......................
Sugar, 3 pounds, 18 cents (163) ................
Vegetables: Cabbage, 13.6 pounds, 55 cents 1.181);
sweet potatoes, 7 pounds. 16 cents (198); pota-
toes, 7 pounds, 16 cents (196).................
Fruit: Apples, 9 pounds, 33 cents (214) ........

Total vegetable food .....................

Total food.................................

Dietary study No. 9a.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Porterhouse, 3.15 pounds, 70 cents 127):
shoulder, 4 pounds, 40 cents (19). Veal, chuck.
4 pounds, 68 cents (37). Mutton: Sheep's
liver, 2.5 pounds, 20 cents (49) ................
Pork: Bacon, 4 pounds, 56 cents (55); ham,
"12 pounds, $1.20 (60); lard, 2.5 pounds, 25
cents (62) .....................................
Fish: Cod, 3 pounds, 30 cents (79); mackerel,
2 pounds, 28 cents (91) ........................
Chicken, 4.2 pounds, 76 cents (75) .............
Eggs, 3 pounds, 60 cents (105)...................
Butter, 2.13 pounds, 70 cents (106t) ..............
Milk, 16.75 pounds, 64 cents (114) ...............

Total animal food .......................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Barley, pearled, 1 pound, 5 cents (116j:
rice, 8 pounds, 64 cents (133); hominy. 4
pounds, 20 cents (126); oatmeal, 3 pounds. 10
cents (130); flour, 12 pounds, 40 cents (1221;
bread, 3 pounds, 15 cents (147); pie, 2 pounds.
20 cents (158) ...... ............... ..........
Sugar, 10 pounds, 50 cents (163) ...............
Vegetables: Potatoes, 28 pounds, 40 cents (196);
sweet potatoes, 7 pounds, 10 cents (19S);
canned tomatoes. 3.75 pounds, 20 cents (209),
turnips, 6.25 pounds, 10 cents (212); cabbage,
1.75 pounds, 8 cents (181); beans, 1 pound, 10
cents (177) .................. ................

Total vegetable food ......................

Total food ................................
Waste: Steak, 1 pound (27). shoulder, 3.9
pounds (19) potatoes, 2.5 pounds (196); sweet
potatoes, 6.3 pounds (198)....................

Total food eaten .........................

Dietary study No. 1Oa.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder. 1 5 pounds, 16 cents (19): steak.
1.75 pounds, 26 cents (32); roast, 1 pound, 18
cents (12) ................ ....................
Pork: Chops, 1 pound. 14 cents ,58); scrapple,
2 pounds. 12 cents (67)........................
Turkey. 8.3-pounds, $1.50 (76) ..................
Fish: Whitefish, 3 pounds. 15 cents (103): smells.
1.5 pounds, 15 cents (101) .....................
Butter, 0.88 pound, 35 cents (106)................
Milk, 7.3 pounds, 28 cents (114)..................


Total animal food ..


Cost. Cost. Protein.F Fat. (hdnrt- ,.


DulltarM. ('f'itt. Urndiii. frantici.

0.32 2.1 15 2
A 1 2 ........ ........ "
.15 1.1

.87 5.8 13 2
.33 2.2 1 1


fir;, t II .


Fuel
Vall'v.


( ll '/rit.


1.70 11.3 29 5 321 1.415

3.97 26.4 x0 I 121 332 2,726
L_ -- -_1-- --


1.98



.58
.76
.60
.70
.64

7.27


1.74
.50




.98

3.22

10.49


.60

.26
1.50

.30
.35
.28

3. 29


28 15


24 101


4

6


1 250


1 ..........
6 ..........
4 ..........
20 ..........
8 10


18.2 74 155 11 1,720


4.4 35 7
1.3 ................




2. 4 14' 2

8.1 49 9

26.3 123 164


13

.. .... 110


1,27:
452


89 130

471 2. 160

482 3,S1I

20 203


156 462 3.677


I

2. 1 1 9 ...........i 12

.9 3 10' 3 11.3
5.2 21, 24 ......... 29,
I
1.0 7 ... ..... 46
1.2 ......... 11 ......... 9.
1.0 4 5 6 h5

11.4 47 i 61 9 768
^_________ __|___________ _______


I











T.% iBLE S.-- Ieightshu and cost of food lad nutrients in dietary studies of colored families in
Ph iladelphia-Continued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.

Dietary study No. 10a-Continued.
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Bread, 12 pounds, 60 cents (147); pud-
ding. 1 pound, 6 cents (2581; rice, 1.5 pounds,
12 cents (133); rolled avena, 3.75 pounds,21
cents (131); hominy, 1 pound, 5 cents (126)....
Sugar, 3.25 pounds, 20 cents (163) ...............
Vegetables: Potatoes, 3.5 pounds, 8 cents (196);
sweet potatoes, 1.9 pounds, 5 cents (198);
canned tomatoes, 1.75 pounds, 10 cents (209)..
Fruits: Apples, 3.5 pounds, 20 cents (214)........
Total vegetable food......................
Total food ............................
Dietary study No. lla.
ANIMAL FOOD.
Mutton: Liver, 2 pounds, 8 cents (49)............
Pork: Sausage, 0.75 pound, 11 cents (66); salt
pork, 0.5 pound, 7 cents (64)..................
Butter, 0.13 pound, 5 cents (106) ................
Milk, 2.1 pounds, 8 cents (114)..................
Total animal food.........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Bread, 3.38 pounds. 15 cents (147)....'...
Sugar, 0.5 pound, 2 cents (163)..................
Vegetables: Beans, 1 pound. 5 cents (177); on-
ions, 1.9 pounds, 5 cents (189); potatoes, 1.75
pounds, 3 cents (196) ..........................
Beer, 2 pounds, 10 cents (259)...................
Total vegetable food......................
Total food ..................................


Cost.


Dollars.


1.04
.20

.23
.20
1.67
4.96


.08
.18
.05
.08
.39


.15
.02

.13
.10
.40
.79


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Cost.


Cents.


3.6
.7


Protein.


Grams.


31
.........I


Fat.


Grams.


8


Fuel ;;
value. .



Calories.


895
204


Carbo- [
hydrates.



Grama.


.8 2 .......17 76
.7 ......... ..... 6 24
5.8 33 8 249 1,199
17.2I 0 69 258 1,967

--J--fi


2.7
6.0
1.7
2.6
13.0


5.0
.7

4.3
3.3


70 27
16 115
........ 16
101 13
96 171


47 7
......... ........

43 4
1 ........


15
12
.. ..... 16
16


580
1,136.
142
220


43I 2,078


271
76

162
35


1,334
304

856
144


13.3 91 11. 544 2,638
26.3 187 182 587 4,716


DIETARY STUDIES OF ITALIAN FAMILIES (Nos. 12a-13a).

The details of two dietary studies of Italian families follow.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 12A.

There were four members of the family in this study-a man, a woman,
a boy 3 years old, and a nursing baby, but the latter was not included


They rented a house of six rooms for $16 a month, but


sublet four of the rooms for $13.
The study continued seven days.

as follows:


Their weekly income was $7.
The number of meals taken was


Meals..
Man ..................................................... --------------21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to..----------..- 17
Child, 3 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to ........ 8

Total number of meals equivalent to-........-------.-------- 46
Equivalent to one man fifteen days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 13A.


This study was made with a
aged 60, and her daughter. Th


family of two women-the mother,

ey owned their own house, consisting..


in the study.




..........


45


of three rooms and a cellar, which would rent for about $.) a month.
In addition to the foods purchased they spent during the study 35

cents for coffee and 4 cents for herbs.


The study continued seven days.


The number of meals taken was


42, equivalent to 34 meals of a man, or equivalent to one man eleven
days.

TABLE 9.- II'eighbft. ai Id i t o f fJ d in ml Idifftrieu'ts i d(icilarYf .~tldies f Iftnlitn famn iliefx it
I Pfiilru l dph in.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days.


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per (ldy.


Kinds and amounts.


Dietary study No. 12t.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder, 3.5 pounds, 25 cents (19); bo-
logna, 0.5 pound, 6 cents (1). Mutton:
Shoulder, 2.5 pounds, 10 cents (51) ............
Pork: Chops, 2 pounds, 28 cents (58); lard, 2
pounds, 24 cents (62),..........................
Fish: Sardines, 0.3 pound, 5 cents (99)..........
Eggs, 0.5 pound, 10 cents (105).................
Milk, 5.23 pounds, 20 cents (114) ...............
Cheese, 0.5 pound, 15 cents (108) ..............
Total animal food ........................


Cost. Cost.
I-



Dollarls. Cents.

0.41 2.7
.52 3.5
.05 .3
.10 .7
.20 1.3
.15 1.0

1.43 9.5


VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 12 pounds, 50 cents (147); flour,
2 pounds, 5 cents (122); macaroni, 1.5 pounds,
15 cents (127) ................................. .70
Sugar, 4 pounds, 22 cents (163)................... 22
Vegetables: Cabbage, 2.75 pounds, 9 cents (181);
onions, 2.75 pounds, 5 cents (189); potatoes,
3.5 pounds, 6 cents (196): tomatoes, canned,
3.34 pounds, 30 cents (209); beans, 0.95 pound,
10 cents (177) ................................. .60
Fruit: Apples, 3.25 pounds, 6 cents (214)......... .06
Beer, 4 pounds, 40 cents (259).................... .40
Total vegetable food...................... 1.98
Total food ............................... 3.41

Die.tawy study No. 13a.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder, 2.5 pounds, 25 cents (19); tripe.
5 pounds, 30 cents (72) ................. ..... .55
Pork: Sausage, 1 pound. 16 cents (66)............ .16
Fish: Whitefish, 3 pounds, 25 cents (103); oys-
ters, 1 pound, 25 cents (93)................... .50
Eggs, 3 pounds, 56 cents (105) ................... .56
Butter, 1 pound, 37 cents (106) ................. .37
Cheese, 0.7 pound, 25 cents 111)................. .25
Milk, 3.66 pounds, 14 cents (114)................. .14

Total animal food ........................ 2.53
VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 5 pounds, 25 cents (147); cake
and pastry, 0.47 pound, 15 cents (150); maca-
roni, 2 pounds, 15 cents (127) ................. .5.5
Vegetables: Onions, 0.8 pound, 2 cents (189);
potatoes, 3.5 pounds, 12 cents (196); canned
tomatoes, 1.75 pounds, 12 cents (209).......... .26
Fruits: Apples, 5.75 pounds, 30 cents (214); or-
anges, 5 cents (238) .......................... .35
Beer, 2.5 pounds, 25 cents (259; ................. .25

Total vegetable food...................... 1.41

Total food ................................ 3.94


13.2

22.7
- )


Protein. Fat. rates. l
rates.


'22
8
SI

5
4


Fuel





O(lorics.


("'r e I IF .


. 8


43 123 8 1,299


46




12


6




1l


272
121



52
10
14


1,325
484



265
40
60


59 7 469 2.174

102 130 477 ,473


5.0 41 I 11 ..........
5.0 41 I 11
1.4 5 IS .........

4.5 16 4 1 1
5.1 1 12 ..........
3. 4 ......... 35 ........
2.3 8 10 1
1.3 5 6 S
23 0 91 96: 10


12.4

35.4


31

4
1
....=...


184

27
r^ I


262
I0
104
171
312
12.0
105
1,2.59




905

133

117
48


36 7 249 1,203

127 103 259 2,462


jj




.:. "" .

46

DIETARY STUDIES OF JEWISH FAMILIES (Non. 14-18a).

The details of five studies with Jewish families follow. Studies
Nos. 14a. 17a, and 18a were with German Jews, No. 15a with Russian
Jews, and No. 16a with Roumanian Jews.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 14A.

The members of this family consisted of three men, three women,
and one girl 13 years old. They were all in good health. They lived
in four roofs, for which they paid $1.75 per week. The income of
the family during the time of the study was given as $6.50, which
was $1.69 less than the amount spent for food.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Three men ..................................... ............... 63
Three women (63 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to........ 50
Girl, 13 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to ...--... 15
Total number of meals equivalent to.............--.......... 128
Equivalent to one man forty-three days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 15A.

This family consisted of three men, one woman, and four children,
aged, respectively, 10, 6, 3, and lj years. They paid $25 a month
rent. In addition to the foods purchased they spent 60 cents for cof-
fee, 14 cents for tea, 5 cents for vinegar, and 4 cents for cinnamon
during the course of the study.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Three men----........ .......... .......................----..... 63
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to ............. ---------17
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to .----- 13
Child, 6 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to........ 11
Child, 3 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to..---..- 8
Child, 21 years (21 meals X 0.3 meal of man), equivalent to .--... 6
Total number of meals equivalent to....................... 118
Equivalent to one man thirty-nine days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 16A.

The family in this study comprised one man, one woman, and five
children, aged, respectively, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 years. They paid $11 a
month rent for four rooms. In addition to the foods purchased they
spent 32 cents for tea and coffee, and 11 cents for pepper and salt
during the time of the study.







47

The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Man ................. ........... ... ... ......- ............... ... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to............. 17
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6i meal of man), equivalent to .----. 13
Two children, 9 and 6 years (42 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equiva-
lent to....................................................... 21
Two children, 4 and 2 years (42 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equiva-
lent to-...... --............ ......................... ........ 17
Total number of meals equivalent to....................... 89
Equivalent to one man thirty days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 11A.

The members of this family consisted of a man, a woman, and a
baby five months old, which was not included in the study. They
paid $4 a month for the rent of two rooms. During the course of the
study they spent 59 cents for coffee, tea, chicory, and soda water.
The-study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
M an........................................................... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .-..----..--- 17
Total number of meals equivalent to....................... 38
Equivalent to one man thirteen days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 18A.

The members of this family consisted of a man, a woman, and four
children, aged, respectively, 11, 8, 5, and 3 years. They paid $8 a
month rent for four rooms, one of which was used as a tailor shop.
The members of the family were healthy. During the study they spent
10 cents for coffee, 6 cents for chicory, 10 cents for soda water, and 1
cent for salt, in addition to the food materials purchased.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals
M an.......... .. ................................................ 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .............. 17
Child, 11 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to....... 13
Child, 8 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to......... 11
Two children, 5 and 3 years (42 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equiva-
lent to........................................................ 17
Total number of meals equivalent to........................ 79
,; Equivalent to one man twenty-six days.




'ii;.


48


TABLE 10.--VleiUyhs and cost of food andt nutrients in dietary studies of Jew'ish families in
Philadelphia.


amounts. Cost.


/ No. 1Sa.


ANIMAl. FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder 20 pounds $198 (19); suet 1


Dollars.


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.

Cost. Protein. Fat. Carbo- Fuel
hydrates.! value.




C nts. Grania. Grams. Grams. Calories.


ind, ceutls (35)............... ........ 2.06 4.8 4 10 ..........
;en. 3.9 pounds, 70 cents (75) ............. .70 1.6 6 5 ........
white fish. 3 pounds, 25 cents (103) ........ 25 .6 3 1 ..........
0.5 pound, 1Ucents (105)................... .10 .2 1 1 ......
,r. I pound, 38 cents (06 .................. .9 ......... 9 ..........
13.9 pounds, 50 cents (114) ................. .50 1.2 5 6 7
se, 1.5 pounds, 12 cents (10rS)................ .12 .3 4 5 ..........

Total animal food ......................... 4.11 9.6 23 37 7

VEGETABLE FOOD.


105
69
21
18
80
101
61

450


Cereals: Rice. 5.5 pounds. 42 cents (133): flour.
7 pounds, 22 cents (122); bread, 39.4 pounds,
1.7.5 cents (147)...........................
Sugar. 8 pounds. 41 cents (163) .................
Vegetables: Potatoes, 5.25 pounds, 13 cents (196):
onions, 4.1 pounds, 15 cents (189); beans, 1.9
pounds, 10 cents (1771; cabbage, 1.6 pounds,
5 cents (1S1); beets, 1.5 pounds, 5 cents (180) ..
Fruits: Bananas. 10 pounds, 20 cents (218): or-
anges. 0.4 pound. 10 cents (238): apples, 4.5
pounds. 10 cents (214): prunes, 4 pounds, 40
cents 1247) ...................................


2.39
.41


5.6 51 6
.9 .. ... .....


7 1


.SO 1.9


Beef:
0.5
cen
Fish:
rin
5 Ct
Eggs,
Butte
Milk.
Cheese


Cerea
I --


Total vegetable food...................... 4.08 9.5 60 7 481 2,226

Total food ................................ 8.19 19.1 83 44 488 2.676

Dietary stldr! .'o. 17a.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Shoulder, 7 pounds. 70 cents (19): liver.
pound, 3 cents (8); bologna, 0.5 pound. 6
ts (1) ..................................... .79 6.1 47 25 .......... 411
White fish, 1.5 pounds, 10 cents (1031: her-
g, 5 pounds. cents (88); sard ines, 0.3 pound,
ents (99) ................................... .24 1.8 11 4 ........... 80
1.13 pounds. 23 cents (105) ................. .23 1.8 5 4 .......... 56
r, 0.75 pound. 34 cents (1061 ................ .34 2.6 ... ..... 2 .......... 196
7.6 pounds, 29 cents (114)-................. .29 2.2 9 11 13 186
se, 2 pounds, 14 cents (111)................. .14 1.1 18 23 2 285

Totalanimal food......................... 2.03 15.6 90 89 15 1,214

VEGETABLE FOOD.

il: Hominy, 1.5 pounds, 8 cents 1126): flour,
1A., Q I *9-,k.,-, -) .. <- A, 1Z


1 pound, 3 cents (122>: buns, 2.15 pounds. 15
cents (149): cakes. 0.25 pound. 2 cents (157);
bread. 11.75 pounds. 48 cents (147); crackers,


1 pc
Sugai
'egei
Fruit


Beef:
pou
cen
Fish:
Butte
Milk.
Cheese


found. 6 cents i153)........................ .82 6.3 54 15 343 1,722
r. 4 pounds. 22 cents 1163................... 22 1.7 ................ 139 556
tables, dried peas, 0.9 pound. 4 cents (193).. .04 i .3 8 3 20 139
: Apples, 1.25 pounds, 4 cents (2141......... .04 .3..................5 20

Total vegetable food...................... 1.12 8.6 i 62 18 507 2,437

Total food.................................. 3.15 24.2 152 107 22 3,651

Dictury study Ni. 18a.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Shoulder, 9.5 pounds. 95 cents (19): suet. 2
nds. 16 cents (35); bologna, 0.5 pound, 6
ts 1) ..................................... 1.17 4.5 31 44 .........I 516
Sardines, 0.6 pound. 12 cents (99).......... .12 .5 2 1 .......... 17
t. 0.5 pound. 20 cents (106 ................ .20 i .8 ......... 8 .......... 71
10.. pounds, 40 cents (114) ................ ..40 1.5 6 i 7 9 122
se: Neufchatel, 1 pound. 16 cents (112 ..... .16 .6 3 5 ..........' 57

Total animal food.......................... 2.05 7.9 42 65 9 788


'


Fi(Hl1 io nsumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kind- and


Dietary stul


poll
['i II
Chick
Fish.
Eggs.
Butte
Milk,
Cheese


322
84


28


........ 47


1,545
336


149


196









49


TABLE 10.- J1'eghts intun cost f ffood anid ?lurienltn in dieltriffl n/ir's of J',,'ish fi tlifis ;i
P'h ilwlelph ivi-Con tin tied.


Food ronsiunmed during the whole stuily (7 days).


(Cost, Iltriits. nt f l lu fill |1<'t f1 l411 f ll p r
1mn 1 per ct liny.


Kinds nd antioulnts.


J]iiiutrry stlf .V'. I. S*-CiontiniIed.
VEGETARLE FOlOD.

Cereals: Bread,.2t.5 pounds.81.171147); crackers.
1 pound, n rents (153): cake, 0.5 pound, .cents
(1M0); ginger cakes, 0.5 pound, 4 cents (157):
hominy. 3 pounds, 9 cents (126); rice, 0.25
pound, 2 cents (133): flour, 4 pounds, 12 cent.
(122) .............. ......... ... ............ ...
Sugar. 9 pounds, 51 cents (163) ..................
Vegetables: Potatoes, 1.75 pounds, 3 cents (196):
onions, 1.9 pounds, 5 cents (189); beans, 2.5
pounds, 12 cents (177); dried peas, 0.5 pound,
3 cents (193)................. ..................
Fruits, etc.: Apples, 7.9 pounds. 20 cents (214);
bananas, 3 pounds, 5 cents (213); oranges, 4.6
pounds, 12 cents (238): raisins, 0.4 pound, 3
cents (248); prunes, dried, 0.3 pound. 5 cents
(247); peanuts, 0.25 pound, 3 cents (254): jelly,
0.5 pound, 3 cents (235) .......................


Total vegetable food......................
Total food ...............................
Dietary stud! SNo. 15a.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder, 17 pounds, 81.75 (19); chopped
meat, 4 pounds, 44 cents (25). Veal, 2 pounds.
16 cents (37).....................................
Eggs, 0.9 pound, 30 cents (105) ...................
Butter, 3 pounds, $1.08 (106) .....................
Milk, 14.6 pounds, 56 cents (114)............
Cheese: Neufchatel, 0.75 pound, 15 cents (112)...
Total animal food.........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 17.25 pounds, 92 cents (147); bar-
ley, 1 pound, 5 cents (116) ...................
Sugar, 6 pounds, 34 cents (163) .................
Vegetables: Potatoes, 14 pounds. 32 cents (196);
onions, 2.75 pounds, 12 cents (189); carrots, 3
pounds, 10 cents (182); cabbage, 2.6 pounds. 12
cents (181); beans, 0.9 pound, 5 cents (177);
turnips, 3.1 pounds, 8 cents (212); canned peas,
1.9 pounds, 30 cents (192) ......................
Fruits: Jelly, 0.5 pound, 6 cents (222); apples, 4.5
pounds. 10 cents (214): cranberries. 5 pounds.


72


Beef:
Fish:
her
Eggs,
Butte
Milk,
Cheese


C(It. <('Ist.




I)litarsn. Cri't.,


1I. i9
.51


.23




.51


6. 1
2.0


.9




2.0


. I'rutein.'


(. Curi,- llFurl
h % dyl ra1'-. vii.Itu,.


fi;rmtu. (nrttins.


13




2


3t67



39


1,7S:J



217


43 11s


2.84 11.0 73 13 0lti 2, :32

4.89 18.9 115 I 78 615 3,615






2.35 6.0 48 23 1 401
.30 .8 1 1 .......... 1:
1.08 2.8 ......... 30 I.......... 267
.56 1,4 6 7 9 122
.15 .4 2 2 .......... "2t
4.44 11.4 57 63 1 10 829


2.5
.9




2.8


20 3


8 1


48 233


ents(227)................................ .88 2.3 !........ ........ 15 60
Total vegetable food...................... 3.28 8.5 28 4 I 24. 1,140
Total food ............. ................. 7.72 19.9 85 67 258 1,969
Dietary study No. 16a.
ANIMAL FOOD.
Shoulder, 21 pounds, $2.10 (19) ............. 2.10 7.0 52 27 .......... 448
Whitefish, pounds. 21 cents(103); smoked
ring, 0.16 pound, 3 cents (88)............... 24 .8 6 2 .......... 42
0.9 pound, 20 cents (105)................... .20 .7 2 1 ........17
r. 0.25 pound. 10 cents (106) ............... .10 .3 .......... ............ 27
7.8 pounds, 20 cents (114)................. .28 .9 4 5 6 85
se: Neufehatel, 0.25 pound, 4 cents (112).... 04 .1 1 1 1 .......... 13
Total animal food........................... 2.96 9.8 6' 65 39 61 632

25580-No. 129-03---4


i;r t i o ('( 1f r/ 'i i m.




F" .


50

TABLE 10.- l'ri(;;ht.* ain ro.stf FffLbod aid nutrient. in dietary studies of Jewish families in
Ph iladelph ia-Continued.


Ftuood toisumed during the whole study (7 da

Kinds iand amounts.

Di tiary 4tiudy .u. 1Ga-Continued.
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Ceral-: t'orn meal. 1 pound, 5 cents (119): flour.
7 pliounlds. 21 cents (122): rice, 2 pounds. 14
rlnt-i I l33):. barley, 0.25 pound, 2 cents (117);
bread. 39.4 pounds, $1.75 (147 i..................
Sugar. 4 pounds. 22 cents (163)..................
Vegetable : Beans. 7.85 pounds, 33 cents (177);
ioions. 2.75 pounds, 12 cents (1 91: potatoes.
3.. pounds. s cents (1961 ......................
Fruit-: Apples.2.25po>unrds.6cernts(214): oranges.
1.1 pounds. 27 cents (238): prunes, 1 pound, 12
cents i 247) ....................................
Total vegetable food......................
Total food................................


vsl. Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.

Cost. Cost. Protein. Fat. Carbo- Fuel
hydrates. value.

hour re.'I


Dollars. 0 uills.

) 1i i |i


.53 1.8


Graf is.


Grams.. iG ramis.


71 9


28 2
I


Oiories.


2,100
240

466


.45 1.5 1 ........ 15 64
3.37 11.2 100 11 593j 2,870
6.33 21. 165 50 599 3,502
__ __ __ __I_ _


DIETARY STUDIES OF GERMAN FAMILIES (Nos. 19a-24a).

The details of six studies with German families follow. In one study
(No. 24a) the man was native German but the woman was American
born.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 19A.

The family in this study lived in the outskirts of the city. There
were five persons in the group in the study-two men, one woman, and
two children-who were taken to board. The ages of the children were
not given; it has been here assumed that they averaged 6 to 7 years.
They rented five rooms, for which they paid $9 a month. During the
course of the study they spent 5 cents for tea and 60 cents for coffee
in addition to the purchase of food materials.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Two men ............... .. ......... ................... ..... .... 42
Woman (21 meals x 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .--------............ 17
Two children (42 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to ........ 21

Total number of meals equivalent to...-----.-------------- 80
Equivalent to one man twenty-seven days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. O2A.

The members of this family comprised one man, one woman, and
four children aged. respectively. S. 6, and 4 years, and 17 months.
The father was a fish peddler. They were all in poor health, dispirited,
and seemed to be insufficiently nourished. The woman appeared to be



i







51

shiftless and incapable of improvement. Tlhey rented two rooms, for
which they paid $4 per month. Their income was variable, being 8$
during the week of the study. In addition to the food materials pur-
chased they spent 10 cents for tea, 22 cents for coffee, and 1 cent for
pepper.
The study continued seven days. The number of nmeails taken wa:,
as follows:


M
Man................------.....------........----------......------........................-------------------
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of inan), equivalent to .....'........
Two children, 8 and 6 years (42 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equiva-
lent to.---..... --...------...... .......... --- --------- ---.....
Child, 4 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to.......
Child, 17 months (21 meals X 0.2 meal of man), equivalent to ....


21
17

21
S
4


Total number of meals equivalent to....................... 71
Equivalent to one man twenty-fotur days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. h1A.

This family consisted of two men, one woman, and four children
aged, respectively, 11, 8, 6, and 2 years. They were all healthy. They
rented a house of four rooms, for which they paid $9 a month. In
addition to the food materials purchased they spent 30 cents for coffee
during the study.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Mealn.
Two men ---..............-..... .... .......................----- 42
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to ............. 17
Child, 11 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to...... 13
Two children, 9 and 6 years (42 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equiva-
lent to........... .....................---------------------21
Child, 2 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to-...--. 8

Total number of meals equivalent to------.................101
Equivalent to one man thirty-four days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 22A.

This family was dirty but healthy. It consisted of a man, a woman,
a boy of 16, and two children 14 and 10 years of age. The man and
woman had lived in this country twenty-six years. They paid $18 a
month rent for nine rooms, including a little tobacco shop at the front
of the house. The woman took care of the shop during the day, as
the man worked away from home. During the course of the study
they spent 90 cents for tea and coffee and 4 cents for yeast cakes in
addition to the food materials purchased.


~,~?I~~~!"'"' "T~~~"~'""~~~ii
ii






S( m X m o
52

The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Man ------------------------------------------------------------ 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to.------------- 17
Boy, 16 years old ............................................ ... 21
Child, 14 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to........ 15
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to -...---- 13
Total number of meals equivalent to.. --......-----.......-.. 87
Equivalent, to one man twenty-nine days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 23A.

This family consisted of two men and two women. They owned
their own house of five rooms. During the course of the study they
spent 8 cents for tea and 8 cents for coffee in addition to the food
materials purchased.
The study continued one day. The number of meals taken was as
follows:
Meals.
Two men ..................--- -....--...--......-- ..........---- 6
Two women (6 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .......... 5
Total number of meals equivalent to--------..-........-- .. 11
Equivalent to one man four days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 24A.

In this family the man was a German, but the woman was American
born. There were also three children, aged 10, 6, and 4 years, respec-
tively. The children were well, with bright color and good com-
plexions, but very dirty and untidy. The income of the family was
variable, from $5 to $10 per week. They paid $5 a month rent for
four rooms. During the course of the study they spent 24 cents for
tea and 16 cents for coffee in addition to that for the food materials
purchased.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
M an............................................................ 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .............. 17
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 13
Child, 6 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to ........ 11 i
Child, 4 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to----..... 8
Total number of meals equivalent to........................ ----- 70
Equivalent to one man twenty-three days.




::|








53


TABLE 11.- l'giyghtln and c et ( f lfood uui l dl rie.tirint i in lietrrri .vlii.n r II' i"'rittln fir t ilxli .


Food ico isultmd during the w hiole study (7 days.


Kinds nd a iniiunt:-.


irlitrI nfiidil N/ .\I. I.1l.


('-st. (',,.Cst.


I (o)s, Int rient,, dl'It. il fllu l vu uIl* ir f frim l per
I m l pet r fi> ly.


J'rot(ein. 1
I


Fl. f'nrl.i- i Fuil
]h. lvillrlitu.%. v 1ltiit .


IDlllnrr. (''rtn.


Beef: Shoulder, 9.5 pounds. 69 cents (19). MIlt-
ton, 8 pounds, 73 cents (1 ). Ve\dl, pounds, 23
cen ts (37) ............. ........................... 1.7
Pork: Scrapple. 1.5 pounds, 11 cents (67); lird. ,5
pounds. 6 crenlts (i2) ......................... 17
Eggs. 1 pound, 24 cents (105) .............. ...... 24
Butter, 1.25 pounds, 39 cent. (106)............... .39

Total animal food......................... 2.47

VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Bread, 22 pounds, $1.06 (147); pies, 4
pounds, 20 cents (158); flour, 9 pounds, 43 cents
(122) ....... ................ .............
Sugar, 2 pounds, 12 cents (163)..................
Vegetables: Potatoes, 21 pounds, 49 cents (19i6;
sauerkraut, 1 pound, 10 cents (204); cabbage.
1.56 pounds, 10 cents (181).....................
Vrif1 arranntam nA id tnrl 0 %ioni Id 6-Qn -3


1.1i9


.69
.nf


I 'r inis irit'tlet tlv',it ,.


2 53 "

.6i i 13
.9 '2 '2
1. 4 .........I 1X

9.1 56 72


.4 ......... .....


''/nrn #.


3 :132
........ 2
.......... ]i;U

3 .S77


3 V1, I;.IJ
34 131;


6;7 304


, range l 5j .U lj t U ......... .....\ .. .. .......... ...
Total animal food....................... 2.56 9.5 62 13 439 2, 120

Total food ................................ 5.03 1i 6 118 85 442 2,y 7

Dietary study No. 20.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Shoulder, 2.5 pounds, 24 cents (19); liver,
2 pounds. 12 cents (8) ........................ .
Pork: Scrapple, 2 pound. 16 cents (67); ham, 7
pounds, 42 cents (62); lard, 1 pound, 10 cents
(62) ...... .............................
Fish, herring, smoked. 0.9 pound, 15 cents (88).
Butter, 0.25 pound. 9 cents (106)................
Milk, 2.6 pounds, 14 cents (114) ................

Total animal food........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals, bread, 7.9 pounds, 38 cents (147)........
Sugar, 3 pounds, 18 cents (163); molasses, 1.5
pounds, 8 cents (165).........................
Vegetables: Potatoes, 7 pounds, 14 cents (196r);
canned tomatoes, 2 pounds, 11 cents (209);
cabbage, 6.2 pounds, 18 cents (181)............
Fruit, oranges, 0.3 pound, 8 cents (238)..........

Total vegetable food......................

Total food.............................

Dietary study ln. 2',a.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Shoulder, 7 pounds, 71 cents (19); liver,
2.5 pounds, 17 cents (8) .........................
Pork, lard, 1.5 pounds. 23 cents (62) ............
Milk, 8.4 pounds, 32 cents (114)..................


.36 1.5 15


.68 2.8 20
.15 .6 3
.09 .4 .........
.14 i .6 2

1.42 5.9 40


.38

.26


1.1


1


5


70
2
4
2

83


1 109


4 719
3(
. ......... 36
3 38

S 932


79 390

76 3~s


.43 1. 5 ......... 32 14I
.08 .3 ......... ........ ...................

1.15 4.8 20 2 i 187 8-i

2.57 10.2 60 I 85 195 1,77S


.SS 3.8
.23 1.0
.32 1.4


33
5


Total animal food ......................... 1.43 6.2 38


VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Bread. 24.8 pounds. 88 cents (147);
buns, 2.1 pounds. 18 cents (148); flour. 24
pounds, 72 cents (122); rice, 0.5 pound, 4 cents
(133) ..................... .....................
Sugar, 10 pounds, 56 cents (163) .................
Vegetables: Potatoes. 21 pounds. 45 cents (196);
canned tomatoes. 1.8 pounds, 12 cents (209)...
Fruits, jelly, 3.5 pounds, 28 cents(235) ..........


102


1.82
.56


.57 2.5 I
.28 1.2


Total vegetable food...................... 3.23 14.0 I 112 15


Total food....... ........................


13 1 252
30 .......... 217
7. S 114

50 1 9 (3


646 3,117
197 788

78 357
41 168

962 4,430


* 4. ; 20.2 150 65 971 5.063


ANIMAl. F (IIll).


J.r. u LA


..1 .... .. .. ..... ... -.. .


w.... ..........


I


i........l








54


TABLE 11.-Weirght. rnmd cost. f food and nutrients in dietary studies of German fami-
lies-Continued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Kinds and amounts.


Dietary study No. la.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Suet, 3 pounds, 15 cents (35); shoulder,
8.75 pounds, 87 cents (19); shin, 2 pounds, 16
cents (17); round, 1.25 pounds, 18 cents (28)...
Pork: Ham. 5 pounds, 50 cents (60); sausage, 3
pounds. 47 cents (66); steak, 1.5 pounds, 20
cents (69) ................. .......... ...........
Eggs, 1.5 pounds, 22 cents (105) .................
Butter, 1 pound, 36 cents (106)...................
Milk, skim, 16 pounds, 32 cents (115) ..........

Total animal food.........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Corn meal, 12 pounds, 42 cents (119);
flour, 1.5 pounds, 11 cents (122); bread, 25
pounds, 76 cents (147); cakes, 3.75 pounds, 40
cents (151) ....................................
Sugar. 1 pound, 6 cents (163).....................
Vegetables, potatoes, 14 pounds, 35 cents (196) .

Total vegetable food.....................

Total food..............................

Dietary study No. 22a.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder, 7 pounds, 66 cents (19); round,
5 pounds, 98 cents (28) .......................
Pork: Sausage, 3.25 pounds. 45 cents (66); pork
chops, 2 pounds, 28 cents (58); lard, 2 pounds,
31 cents (62) ........... ......................
Fish: Whitetish, 8 pounds, 56 cents (103).........
Eggs, 1.75 pounds, 51 cents (105).................
Butter, 2.25 pounds, 90 cents (106) ..............

Total animal food.........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread. 18 pounds, 79 cents (147); buck-
wheat. 2 pounds, 10 cents (118); flour, 20
pounds, 81 cents (122); ginger cakes, 1.5
pounds, 12 cents (157)..........................
Sugars, etc.: Sugar, 7 pounds, 42 cents (163);
molasses, 1.5 pounds, 8 cents (165)............
Vegetables: Potatoes, 24.5 pounds, 49 cents
(196); onions, 1.6 pounds, 2 cents (189); cab-
bage, 1.4 pounds, 4 cents (181); canned toma-
toes, 1.8 pounds, 10 cents (209); turnips, 3.75
pounds, 7 cents 212).........................

Total vegetable food ......................

Total food...................... ... .......

Dietary ftudy No. 23a (duration, I tday).
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder, 1.5 pounds, 15 cents (19); bo-
logna, 1 pound, 13 cents (1) ...................
Fish: Smoked herring, 0.9 pound. 10 cents (88)..
Eggs, 0.25 pound, 5 cents (105) .................
Butter, 0.25 pound. 10 cents (106)...............
Milk, 4.2 pounds, 16 cents (114)................

Total animal food.......................


Cost. Cost.




Dollars.' Cents.

1.36 4.3


Protein. Fat.


Grams.

30


Grams.

48


1.17 3.6 18 49
.22 .7 3 2
.36 1.1 ......... 12
.32 1.0 8 1

3.43 10.7 59 112


Carbo-: Fuel
hydrates, value.




Grams. Calories.

1 551


..........

12

13


508
30
107
89

1,285


1.69 5.3 55 16 371 1,846
.06 .2 ................. 14 56
.35 1.1 4 ........ 37 164
2.10 6.6 59 16 422 2,066

5.53 17.3 118 128 435 3,351





1.64 6.1 36 18 .......... 304

1.04 3.8 12 66 1 639
.56 2.1 14 4 ......... 92
.51 1.9 4 3 .......... 43
.90 3.3 ......... 32 .......... 285

4.65 17.2 66 123 1 1,363


i i


1.82

.50


1.9 I


.72 2.7

3.04 11.3

7.69 28.5

S


70 10

......... ........
i


11 1

81i 11

147 134


.28 7.0 49 37
.10 2.5 21 9
.05 1.3 4 3
.10 2.5 ....... 24t
.16 4.0 16 19

.69 17.3 90 92_


458

135



84

677

678





..........
..........

24

24


2,201

540



389


3,130

4,493





525
164
43
214
329

1,275


vi


-1-I








55


TABLE 11.-- Ifeightsa rtl cost of fod mtnd nutrients in dieletry .s/tiies i f (ermn f ti-
liten-Continued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.


Dietary ifudUy VNo. Ja (dtiratinm I da/,y)-Cn t'd.
V'E'ETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Flour. 0.9 pound. 3 cents (122): white
bread, 2.25 pounds, 10 cents (147 i: rye bread.
2.25 pounds, 10 cents t146); buns, 0.7 pound, 5
cents (149) ....................................
Sugar, 1 pound. 5 cents (163)...................
Vegetables: Potatoes. 3.5 pounds. 9 cents (1961;
dried beans, 1 pound, 4 cents (177) .............


c,.st, nutrient,, iand fuel value (if food per
mlln per day.


Dollars. Cents.


I'rotein Fat. ('rbo- Fuel
Iro Fat. hydrates., value.




Graimi. iGralIt. Grain. I Onliris.


0.2.8 7.0 f5 11
.05 1.3 .................


.13 3.2


34


1,926;
4.4;


3 :13y


Total vegetable food....................... .46 11.5 99 14 64.. :3, 101
Total food................................. 1.15 2s.8 189 106 6t; 4,376


DIETARY STUDY OF AN AMERICAN FAMILY (No. 25a).


This family comprised two healthy women of frugal habits.


They


occupied three rooms, for which they paid $6 a month. During the
period of the study they spent 15 cents for tea in addition to the pur-
chase of food.


The study continued seven days.


The number of meals taken was


42, equivalent to 34 meals of a man, or equivalent to 1 man 11 days.

TABLE 12.--Ieights and cost of ofoodd and nutrients in ti dieta ry study qf ait Amier'irn
faimnily.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


* Kinds and amounts.


Dietary s tutdy No. .25a.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder, 1.5 pounds, 24 cents (19). Veal,
1 pound, 20 cents (37); liver. 1 pound, 6 cents
(8) ................................. ............
Pork, scrapple. 1 pound, 6 cents (67)............
Fish, mackerel, 1.75 pounds, 22 cents (91 .......
Butter, 1 pound, 40 cents (106).................
Cheese, cottage, 0.5 pound. 5 cents (110)........
Milk, 1.06 pounds, 4 cents (114) .................


Cost.




Dollars.

0.50
.016
.22
.40
.05
.04


Cost, nutrients, and fuel va'ute of food per
man per day.


Cost. Protein.


S' nt.<. GTrains.


Fat. Cnrlo- Fuel
hydrates. value.


Gr nIt .


Grainis.


(Cfliirs.


1 ,II 5
7 3 ..........
1 35 ..........
4 ........ 1
) ,*


Total animal food.......................... 1.27 11.5 40 56 9 695
VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Bread. 7 pounds. 35 cents (147): dough-
nuts, 1 pound, 10 cents (156): corn meal, 2
pounds, 5 cents (119)..........................
Sugar, 3 pounds, 14 cents (1631; molasses, 1.5
pounds, 8 cents (165)..........................
Vegetables: Cabbage. 2.76 pounds. 10 cents (181);
cabbage, pickled, 1.5 pounds. 10 cents (181) ...
Fruits: Prunes, 1 pound. 15 cents (247) bananas.
lA % iA.a In t ,fir to I -')IS2 m -~ __iirifl


10 c
12c


.50

.22
.20


;37 14

....


237 1,221
167 676


puunus, V i cents (2u z; ranges, U. -i puuniu.
cents (238); strawberry preserve, 1 pound,5
;ents (251).................................. 57 5.2 2 1 53 229
Total vegetable food...................... 1.49 13.5 43 15 4-65 2,166
Total food............................... 2.76 25.0 N3 71 474 2,861


. ... : .. .. .. ": .. .


('ot. Co'st.






56

DIETARY STUDIES OF IRISH FAMILIES (Nos. 26a-28a).

The details of three dietary studies with Irish families follow:

DIETARY STUDY NO. 26A.

This family consisted of a man, a woman, and four children; aged
9, 7, and 2. years, and 9 months, respectively. The woman was not
.strong; the children were well but pale. The income of the family
was $15 per week. They paid $10 a month rent for four rooms and a
bathroom. During the course of the study they spent $1.12 for tea
and coffee, 8 cents for salt and pepper, and 5 cents for pickles.
The study continued 7 days. The number of meals taken was as L
follows:
Meals.
M an .............................. ... ................ .......... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to.............. 17
Twochildren, 9and 7 years (42 meals X 0.5 meal of man ),equivalent to. 21
Child, 21 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 9
Child, 9 months (21 meals X 0.3 meal of man), equivalent to ...... 6
Total number of meals equivalent to.-----....-----..--...--... 74
Equivalent to one man twenty-five days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 27A.

This was a storekeeper's family, comprising a man and a woman.
They paid $12 a month rent for three rooms, not including the store,
which was on another street. They spent 20 cents for tea in addition
to the food materials purchased during the course of the study.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
M an............................................................ 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to ............. 17
Total number of meals equivalent to..---.......--...--- ..-. 38
Equivalent to one man thirteen days. 14

DIETARY STUDY NO. 28A.

This family included a man, a woman, and five children, aged
respectively 15, 12, 9, and 5 years, and 21 months. They were rather
sickly. The man was a painter, out of work at the time of the study.
When employed he earned $15 per week. One of the children, a boy,
earned $3 per week. They paid $12 a month rent for a house of five
rooms, the rent being applied to the purchase of the house. During
the course of the study they spent 15 cents for tea, 30 cents for coffee,.
and 5 cents for yeast in addition to the food materials purchased.








57


The study continued seven days.
as follows:


The number of meals taken wais


Meals.
M an .......................... ...... ............... ..... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .............. 17
Child, 15 years (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 17
Child, 12 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 15
Child, 9 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to ........ 11
Child, 5 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to .....-.. -
Child, 21 months (21 meals X 0.3 meal of man), equivalent to ..... 6

Total number of meals equivalent to-----.......--.--------- 95
Equivalent to one man thirty-two days.

TABLE 13.-- l'eigts anl cost qf food amdl trief, hi, dlietar!il ".,lien of Irisi .l;,fnr;litn.


Fond consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Cost, nutrient. aIn fuel value of f noi1 per
ln1til ler day.


Kinds and amounts.


Cost. Cost. Protein. Fat.


('arbh- i Fuel
hydraltes. value.


Dietary study No. 26n.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Round, 7 pounds, $1.20 (28); shoulder, 5
pounds, 52 cents (19). Mutton. 3 pounds. 36
cents (51). Veal, 1 pound. 20 cents (37) ......
Pork: Sausage, 1 pound, 14 cents (66); chops. 3
pounds, 51 cents (58): ham, 1 pound, 20 cents
(60); lard, 1 pound, 16 cents (62)..............
Fish: Mackerel, 1 pound, 18 cents (91); white-
fish, 2 pounds, 20 cents (103) ..................
Milk, 18.9 pounds, 72 cents (114) ................
Cheese, Neufchatel, 1 pound, 16 cents (112).....
Total animal food.........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 32 pounds, $1.60 (147): buck-
wheat, 2 pounds, 10 cents (118); barley. 1
pound, 3 cents (117); cake, 0.5 pound, 10 cents
(150); doughnuts, 1 pound, 10 cents (156)......
Sugar, 6 pounds, 36 cents (163)..................
Vegetables: Potatoes, 24.5 pounds, 85 cents (196);
canned tomatoes. 7.1 pounds, 44 cents (209):
sauerkraut, 2 pounds. 18 cents (204). cabbage,
1.4 pounds, 5 cents (181), onions. 1.6 pounds,
5 cents (189); turnips, 625 pounds. 14 cents
(212); dried peas, 1 pound, 12 cents (193), corn.
canned, 1,3 pounds, 12 cents (184).............
S Fruits, prunes, 1 pound, 16 cents (247)..........
Total vegetable food.....................
Total food.................................
Dietary study So. r7a.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Corned, 2 pounds, 24 cents (2); stewing, 3
pounds, 22 cents (33); chuck, 3 pounds. 36
cents (11); bologna. 1 pound. 12 cents (1).
Mutton, 1.5 pounds, 12 cents (51) ............
Fish, haddock. 3 pounds, 18 cents (84)........
Eggs. 1.63 pounds, 33 cents (105)...............
Butter, 3 pounds, 60 cents (10S) ...............
Milk, 11.5 pounds, 44 cents (114) .............
Total animal food.........................

S-VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Oatmeal, 3 pounds. 15 cents (130): b..r-
ley, 0.5 pound, 3 cents (117); flour, 9 pounds.
27 cents (122)............. ....................


Dolla rs.
I
S 2.28

S 1.01
.38
.72
.16


Cents. CGra,

9.1

4.1

1.5
2.9
.6


us. Grami.' G

50 29 ...

12 45. ..

6 2 ..
11 14
3 5 ...


rarniis.


17I


S4.55 18.2 82 95 17 1.242




II I


i. 93 7I.
.36 1.4


1.95
.16
4.40

8.95







1.06
.18
.33
.60
.44
2.61




.45


60
......... .'


13


1, lt6
436


7. 18 i 2 113 512
.6 ................. 12 48
17.6 78 1.5 599 2, ',42

3.8 160 110 616 I 4.084


8.1
1.4
2.5
4.6
3.4
20.0


57
9
7
1
13
87


54 .........


16 20
164 20




11 318


709
36
73
796
274

1,888


1,586


C(aloI its.




. ........... .....


58



TABLE 13.-- l'eghtf and cost of food mrid nutrients in dietary studies of Irish families-
Continued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


ShydCarbo- Fuel
Kinds and amounts. | Cost. Cost. Protein.: Fat. hydrates.: value.


Dietary study No. *27a-Continued.
VEGETABLE FOOD-continued. Gr
Dollars. Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
Sugars and starches: Sugar. 1.5 pounds, 18 cents
i163); cornstarch, 1 pound, 5 cents (172)....... 0.23 1.8 .................. 84 336
Vegetables: Potatoes, 12.25 pounds, 35 cents (196):
cabbage, 1.38 pounds, 5 cents (181); onions, 0.8
pound. 2 cents (189); carrots, 0.34 pound, 1
cent (182): turnips, 1.4 pounds, 3 cents .212);
canned tomatoes, 3.5 pounds, 20 cents (209) .. .66 5.1 12 1 92 425
Total vegetable food................... 1.34 10.3 66 12 494 2,347
Total food.................................. 3.95 30.3 153 t 176 514 4,235
Dietary study No. _S8a.


ANIMAL FOOD.


Beef: Round, 4 pounds, 62 cents (28): shoulder,
2 pounds, 24 cents (19): liver, 1 pound, 8 cents
(8); bologna, 2.5 pounds, 30 cents (1). Veal, 2
pounds, 28 cents (37) .......................
Pork: Rib. 1 pound, 12 cents (54); scrapple, 2
pounds, 18 cents (67); lard, 1.5 pounds, 20
cents (2)...............................
Butter, 3 pounds, $1.10 (106 ....................
Milk, 9.4 pounds. 36 cents (114) ................
Cheese, 1 pound. 13 cents (111) ................


1.52


.50
1.10
.36
.13


30

3
4
4:


16 ..........

30' 3
36
36 .........
5 1 ......... i


Total animal food ........................ 3.61 11.3 41 92 10 1,021


VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Barley. 0.5 pound, 3 cents (117): flour,
14 pounds, 40 cents (122); cake, 0.9 pound, 10
cents l150): buns, 3.95 pounds. 25 cents (148);
bread, 9.5 pounds, 46 cents (147) ................
Sugars, etc.: Sugar. 9 pounds, 47cents (163); sirup, i
0.75 pound, 5 cents 1166) .......................
Vegetables: Canned corn, 1.9 pounds, 22 cents I
(184); potatoes, 24.5 pounds. 77 cents (196):


gre


1.24
.52


3.9


40 9


266
135


1.6 .......... .......


1,304
540


ens, 3.25 pounds, 11 cents (205)............. 1.10 3.4 9 1 70 325
Total vegetable food...................... 2.86 8.9 49 10 471 2,169
Total food ............................... 6.47 20.2 90 102 481 3,190
I I


o


SUMMARY AND GENERAL DEDUCTIONS.

The results of the dietary studies in Philadelphia are summarized in
the following table:


TABLE 14.-Suinni:ary of result.s of dietary studies of Philadelphia families.


Families.


Colored............................
.....do .................. ..........
..... do.................................
. ....do .................... .... ..... ....
......do ................................

I Average ..........................


Cost. Protein.


F. Carbo- Fuel
hydrtes. value.


Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
9.1 65 69 210 1,715
26.4 80 121 332 2,726
26.3 123 164 482 8,880
17.2 80 69 25A 1,967
26.3 187 182 587 4,716
21.1 107 121 374 3,001


Dietary
study
Iuni ber.


..I-.l


f







59

TABLE 14.-S'mimujry of reiulns of dfietn ir f' st l'ies. iIf Philfaelphi;a fitt ilI;, -(Coit ''!.


Dietary
study Famil ies.
number.


12a Italian .................................
13a ..... do ...................................
S A ve rage ..........................
14a German Jew .........................
17a .....do .............. .................
18a .....do ...............................
15a Russian Jew............................
16a Roumanian Jew........................
Average .........................
19a German ...............................
20a .....do ..................................
21a .....do ................ .... .............
22a .....do .................................
23a .....do ........ .......... ...........
24a German-American .....................
Average .........................
25a American...........................
26a Irish...............................
27a ..... do .. .............. ...............
28a .....do .................................
Average ........................
Average of all 22 studies .........


Carbo- Fuel
('a Pr' tin.. t. IhIdrare.... value.


('ratf. t'rnit t;r, lnil.'. firstnri Cn norit .
22.7 r102 130 177 :3,473
3.).4 127 103 *. 2,462
29.0 114 116 i :6t;t 2, x
19.1 83 4 4W l 2,t.76
24.2 152 1W7 -522-' 35,:.'1
1s. 9 11.i x t;l.6 3. ti.
19.9 85 6i7 25.s 1,9t;9
21.U O 15 50 599 3,A r2
20.6 120 69 496 3, .'16
18.6 llS 442 2. 97
10.2 60 .5 19. 1.77.1
17.3 118 12 4351 3, 1i
28.5 147 134 ( ;7 4. .1W3
2S.8 1S9 106 669 4.376
20.2 150 6. I 971 5.0 o.3
20.6 130 101 565 3,671i
25.0 83 71 474 2, ,I
35.8 160 110 616 4,084
30.3 i 153 176 514 4,2.-5
20.2 90 102 481 3, 1!0
2. 8 135 i 129 537 3, :36
22.8 115 102 476 3.308
I __ _


In several of the studies the cost of the diet per man per day was
relatively very high, and in nearly all of them it was higher than was
necessary. The average given in the table above, while indicating
what these families spent for their food, represents a greater amount
than it was necessary to spend in those regions, in the time when these
studies were made, to provide a diet in every way as satisfactory as
the average obtained in the studies. Thus, 14 of the 22 families
included in these studies paid from 20 to 36 cents per man per day for
food materials (not including food accessories) which supplied no more
nutrients or energy than it was estimated could have been obtained
for 15 cents if there had been more intelligence in marketing; and
those families who spent less than 20 cents per man per day for food
obtained less than they should for the money spent. This is quite
apparent upon a study of the results summarized above. For instance,
.among the 5 colored families 3 of them spent practically the same amount,
for their food, namely 26.3 cents per man per day in two cases and 26.4
cents in the third. But the quantities of nutrients and energy obtained
varied widely. Thus, in study No. 8a the family obtained per man per
day but 80 grams of protein and 2,786 calories of energy; the family in
study No. 9a spent 0.1 cent per day less, but got 43 grams of protein
and 1,154 calories of energy more, while the family in study No. 1la
for the same expenditure secured 187 grams of protein and over
4,700 calories of energy. The family in study No. 10a spent 17.2






60

cents per man per day, and obtained just as much protein as the fam-
ily in dietary study No. 8a for 26.4 cents, but only about two-thirds
as much energy; this deficiency being due to the fact that they expended
a smaller proportion of their money upon pork and vegetable foods and
thus secured less fat and carbohydrates. The family in dietary study
No. 7a were certainly underfed; they spent but 9.1 cents per man per
day for food, and obtained for it but 65 grams of protein and a little
over 1,700 calories of energy. Their purchases, however, were just
about as economical as those in dietary study No. 11a.
The results with the two Italian families studied differed consid-
erably. The family in study No. 12a spent 22.7 cents per man per
day, and obtained 102 grams of protein, and nearly 3,500 calories of
energy, while the family in study No. 13a spent 35.4 cents and got a little
more protein-127 grams-but only about two-thirds as much energy
as in No. 12a. These were among the least economical of the families
included in these studies.
The group in which there was the most uniformity as regards the
quantity of nutrients and energy of the diet, and also with respect to
economy of purchase, was that made up of German families. In the
average of the 6 families of this group the diet cost 20.6 cents per man
per day, and furnished 130 grams of protein and very nearly 3,700 calo-
ries of energy. One family in this study was considerably underfed,
spending only 10.2 cents per man per day for their food. This was
practically just half of the amount spent by the average; but for this
expenditure they secured very nearly half of the protein and energy
found in the average diet for the group.
Of all the families studied in Philadelphia, the woman in dietary
study No. 24a of this group was believed by the investigator to show
the most intelligence on the subject of marketing. She had tried all -
the markets in the vicinity of her home until she had found the most
reasonable one, which she then patronized regularly. For 20.2 cents
per man per day she secured 150 grams of protein and 5,063 calories
of energy, while the family in study No. 22a, to obtain almost as
much protein, but somewhat less energy, expended 28.5 cents.
In the average of the results with the five Jewish families the cost
of the diet was the same as that for the German families, but the
average diet of the Jewish families provided on the average only 120
grams of protein and 3,086 calories of energy. Two of the families,.
those in the studies Nos. 14a and 15a, were decidedly less economical
than the rest of the group, and although they spent a sufficient amount
of money they were hardly sufficiently fed when compared with other
families and with the average of all of them.
The cost of the diet in the average for the three Irish families was
very nearly the same as that for the Italian families, but the quanti-
.







61

ties of nutrients and energy procured were noticeably larger for the
former.
The only native American family included in these studies was that
in study No. 25a. They spent 25 cents per man per day, for which
they secured 83 grams of protein and 2,S61 calories of energy -a diet
exactly the same in protein and but very little higher in energy than
that in study No. 14a (a German-Jewish family), which cost 6 cents per
day less.
Most of the above comparisons of different diets as regards economy
have been made between families of the same nationality. Similar facts
are observed in comparing the results with families of different nation-
alities. Thus in dietary study No. 24a with the German-American
family the cost of the diet was 20.2 cents per man per day, for which
150 grams of protein and 5,063 calories of energy were secured, while
in dietary study No. 28a, with an Irish family, the cost per man per day
was exactly the same, but only 90 grams of protein and 3,190 calories
of energy were secured. The family of Roumanian Jews in dietary
study No. 16a spent 21 cents per man per day, a trifle more than the
two families just mentioned, and secured 165 grams of protein and
3,502 calories of energy; that is, little more protein but much less
energy than in the family in study No. 24a. Again, the colored family
in dietary study No. 10a spent 17.2 cents per man per day and secured
but 80 grams of protein and 1,967 calories of energy, while the Ger-
man family in study No. 21a spent 17.3 cents per man per day and
I secured 118 grams of protein and 3,351 calories of energy. The two
most expensive dietaries in the whole number were that of the Italian
family in the study No. 13a and that of the Irish family in study No.
26a, The former spent 35.4 cents per man per day and secured 127
grams of protein and 2,462 calories of energy, while the latter spent
35.8 cents per man per day and secured 160 grams of protein and 4,084
calories of energy.
It is interesting to observe that the family in study No. 13a consisted
of two women; so also did those in Nos. 25a and 11a. In all three the
cost calculated to the basis per man per day was high, but the economy
of the diets purchased varied widely.
So few data regarding the occupations of the different families are
available that but little can be said concerning the fitness of the diets.
Most of the families were without regular incomes, so it may be
inferred that they were not engaged in steady work. The average of
S the-22 studies summarized above agrees practically with the common
standard for a man at light to moderate muscular work; the number
of studies in which the diet was fairly near the average, however, was
small, the larger part of them being either considerably higher or
lower than this. The family in study No. 27a was that of a store-
keeper. The diet in this study, furnishing 153 grams of protein and





7 .

62

4,235 calories of energy, would certainly seem to be ample. The
family in study No. 22a also kept a store, but it was looked after by
the woman during the day, while the man was away at work. In
this case also the diet with 147 grams of protein and 4,493 calories of '
energy would seem to be more than sufficient, unless the man was
engaged in hard work. In the notes concerning the family in study
No. 18a it was stated that one room of the house was used as a tailor
shop. If tailoring was the occupation in this case, the diet, which fur-
nished 115 grams of protein and 3,615 calories of energy, was certainly
sufficient. One of the two women who comprised the family in study
No. Ila was a washerwoman. If steadily employed she would doubt-
less require considerably more food than the average woman; but it
would hardly be expected that the diet for the two women would need
to average 187 grams of protein and 4,716 calories of energy per man
per day as found in this study.
Two faults, then, are quite generally evident in these studies. There
was a tendency to buy too much where there was sufficient money,
and the prices paid for nourishment were considerably higher than was
necessary.
One reason for the expensiveness of the diet was found in the way
the families lived. Since they had no regular incomes they could not
purchase their food materials in quantities, but bought their provisions
only on the day they were used and only as much as was needed at the
time. Such method of purchasing materials in small quantities is
always more expensive than buying in larger amounts.
Furthermore, almost every one of the families in the Philadelphia
studies bought groceries and provisions at the small corner stores so
common in that city, rather than at the larger markets where the
goods could be obtained much cheaper. For instance, the small corner
grocery in the vicinity of the settlement charged 5 cents a pound for
flour, while the best flour could be had at a larger store a little farther
away for 34 cents, even in small quantities. The only butter for sale
at the small store cost 40 cents a pound, while good butter could be
purchased at a market two blocks away for 28 or 30 cents. At the
same market cuts of meat like neck and shin could be obtained for
31 and 4 cents a pound which at the smaller store cost 6 cents.. Milk
in small quantities cost not less than 8 cents a quart.
Not only were the food materials sold at the small store generally
higher in price than could be obtained elsewhere, but the majority of
them in the poorer quarters of the city were of inferior quality.
One article which had considerable effect upon the cost of the diet-
aries. because it was used so generally and in such large quantities, was
bread. Bakers' bread was used by about half of the families. The
so-called pound loaf sold by the bakers weighed usually more than
that---on an average about 14 pounds. The loaves were about a third
1 J-i




-r


63

larger than the ordinary pound loaf of homemade bread. but they
were excessively raised and dried quickly, and altogether were far from
the ideal nutty, firm, nutritious loaf.
In regard to green vegetables the conditions were more favorable.
The poorer streets of the city were usually well provided with these
in their season and at prices alout as reasonable as in the large
markets. Many hucksters and farmers brought their vegetables
directly to the streets in which these families lived and sold them
without the middleman's profit.
To some extent the people in these regions were not responsible for
the costliness of their diet. In no case were there any conveniences for
the use of ice for keeping food, and in few if any cases was there suffi-
cient money to enable them to buy in very large quantities. But while
the costliness of the diet may be accounted for to some extent by lack
of space to keep quantities of provisions and lack of money to I)uy
them, a considerable part of it was unnecessary, as was shown by a
comparison of the different diets as regards economy; and for people
in the circumstances of those of' the families studied it was unwarrant-
able. A little more intelligence in the matter of marketing would
have enabled many of the families to provide practically the very
.same diet at a much smaller cost, or a better diet for the sum expended.
This fact has been well illustrated by a comparison of the diet obtained
by the woman in study No. 24a with that secured by other families for
the same money or more. This woman had found that in the small
store near her hoine food materials cost her very much more than in the
market a few blocks farther away. She could get good sugar at 4
cents at the market, or larger store,.which would cost her 6 cents at
the small store. Meat for which she would have to pay 10 cents at
the small store she could get for 6 cents at the market. Accordingly
she traded at the market as much as possible.
A little knowledge of the comparative nutritive values of food
materials would have enabled a number of the families in these studies
to have saved a considerable part of the money spent for food by using
different kinds of food materials from those purchased. Some of the
families used the higher priced cuts of meat while others obtained
more nourishment for the same or less money spent for cheaper cuts.
Two of the families used cornmeal and two used rye bread during the
weeks when the studies were made. None of the rest used any other
meal or flour than the higher priced white flour, although the cheaper
grades of flour are by many regarded as equally nutritious and pala-
table. Dried beans occurred in nine of the dietaries and dried peas in
five, but only in small quantities and not as a staple article of food, not-
S withstanding that these are among the cheapest and most nutritious of
:: foods commonly available. In the more general use of dried peas,
" beans, cornmeal and the cheaper cuts of meat, these dietaries could








have been not only cheapened as to cost, but where there was little to
spend, greatly increased in nutritive value. .

DETAILS OF THE STUDIES IN CHICAGO.

The dietary studies in Chicago were made in the spring in the vicinity
of Hull House among families in the region in which the work of the I
settlement was carried on.
No difficulty was experienced in securing from the families selected
permission to make the studies, as the work of the Hull House was
well known to them and appreciated. As was the case in Philadelphia,
the families were believed to be typical of those living in the thickly
congested regions of our large cities. The families studied in Chicago
were superior as regards intelligence, etc., to those studied in Phila-
delphia. As regards nationality, they comprised native Americans,
Americans of German and Irish descent. Scotch, English, Irish and
German, American-Irish, English-American, English-Irish, German-
American, French-Canadian, Hungarian, and Bohemian. Most of
these families were in much better circumstances than those studied
in Philadelphia, a large portion of them having good incomes. In
nearly all of them the women were members of the Hull House
woman's club. The kind help and interest of this association in the"
investigations rendered success in the undertaking easier.
The attempt was made to secure as accurate data as possible regard-
ing the kinds and cost of food consumed, but in these studies more
reliance had to be placed on the housekeepers than was the case in the
studies in Philadelphia, since with the number undertaken it was im-
possible to devote the time to the work which would have been
required for personal supervision of every detail. The data of the -
studies, however, are believed to be quite trustworthy. Altogether
33 studies were made in Chicago, of which the results of 32 are given
in the present bulletin. The results of 3 of the studies included,
however, namely, Nos. 33a, 51a, and 59a are somewhat doubtful. All
the others are believed to be more satisfactory. The details of the
studies follow.

DIETARY STUDIES OF AMERICAN FAMILIES (Nos. 29a-35a).
Three studies were made with American families. Of these, 7 (Nos.
29a-35a) were with native Americans, 5 (Nos. 36a-40a) were with
Americans of German descent, and 1 (No. 41a) with Americans of
Irish descent.
DIETARY STUDY NO. 29A..

The family in this study consisted of two men and two women. The
income of the family was $150 a month. They paid $16 a month rent







65


for six rooms. The health of the family was not the best. The woman
had neuralgia; the daughter had had typhoid fever. The son was not
hungry in the morning but was at about 11 o'clock, although he had
not time to get anything to eat then. During the course of the study
the family spent 5 cents for watercress, 38 cents for coffeeand 35 cents
for tea, in addition to the food materials purchased.
The study continued seven days. One man took his lunch daily
away from home. The number of meals taken at home was therefore
as follows:
Mea Is.
STwo men1 ........ .......... ... ... -.. ...... ...... -......... ... 28
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man) equivalent to.......... 34
Total number of meals equivalent to--......... -.......... .. i62
Equivalent to one man twenty-one days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 0A.

This family consisted of two men, two women, and two children,
aged 14 and 3 years, respectively. The head of the family was a car-
penter. They were all in good health. The children drank coffee
for breakfast and tea for supper. The woman was very neat and
intelligent and patronized the large markets. They paid $14 a month
rent for seven rooms. During the study she spent 5 cents for ginger,
10 cents for catsup, 25 cents for tea, and 35 cents for coffee in addi-
tion to the food materials purchased. The fuel used during the time
of the study cost about 55 cents.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Two men .... .. ................................................. 39
Two women (42 meals X0.8 meal of man), equivalent to........... 34
One child, 14 years (21 meals XO.7 meal of man), equivalent to.... 15
One child, 3 years (21 meals XO.4 meal of man), equivalent to..... 8
Total number of nreals equivalent to----.......................----------------- 96
Equivalent to one man thirty-two days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 31A.

This family consisted of one man, two woman, and a child 8 years of
age. They were all vigorous and in good health. The child was allowed
coffee or tea, one cup, three times a day. The income of the family
" was $83 a month. They paid $25 a month rent for eight rooms. The
woman did not buy her provisions at the large markets. She spent 5
cents for tea, 15 cents for coffee, and 2 cents for soup greens in addi-
tion to the food materials purchased. The fuel during the week cost
about $1.75.


25580-No. 129-03- 5







66


The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Ma ----- -----........------ ... ...-.......-....... ........ ....-. 21
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to......--- 34
Child, 8 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to---..... 10
Total number of meals equivalent to.......---...----------.....----... 65
Equivalent to one man twenty-two days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 32A.

This family consisted of two rather elderly people, a man and a
woman, who kept a little news and variety shop. They were both in
good health. Their income was $18 to $20 a week and they paid $20
a month rent for five rooms. The fuel during the week cost them
about 80 cents. In addition to the food materials purchased they
spent 4 cents for watercress, 15 cents for tea, and 18 cents for coffee.
The study continued seven days. The numbers of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
M an...........................................................- 21
Woman (21 meal X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to----.....---- 17
Total number of meals equivalent to-..-..--........---- .... 38
Equivalent to one man thirteen days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 33A.

The family consisted of a man, a woman, and three children,- aged
respectively 8, 5, and 3 years. The income of the family was $16 a
week. They received $5 a month for board for one member of the
family. They paid $15 a month rent for four rooms. The children
had fine complexions and appeared to be very well. They were fed
largely on bread, milk, and potatoes, but were also allowed to drink
tea and coffee. The meat used was bought largely for the benefit of
the man. The figures for the study are somewhat doubtful, but- they
were taken just as given by the woman, who was not very intelligent.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
M an--... -................. ............ ............ ............ 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to...........-.. 17
Child, 8 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to -------. 11
Two children, 5 and 3 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent
to .---.........-- .........- -...- -......... ..----....---------- 8
Total number of meals equivalent to ....................... 57
Equivalent to one man nineteen days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 34A.

The family, in this study consisted of four men, two women, and
two children, one 9 years old and the other 10 months old; the latter
not being included in the study. The income of the family was $30







67


a week. Boarders paid $7 a week. The family aid a nth rent
for six rooms and $7 for a barn. The children drank tea and coffee,
except on Sunday when they drank milk and beer. They had appar-
ently very good health. In addition to the food materials purchased
60 cents was spent for coffee and 40 cents for tea.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Four men-..............-........ .................. ....... ..... 77
TWO women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of mna1), equivalent to .......... 34
Child, 9 years (21 meals x 0.5 meal of man), equivalent toi........ 11
Total number oif meals equivalent to--------------------..................... 122
Equivalent to one man forty-one days.
DIETARY STUDY NO. 35A.
This family consisted of three men, weighing respectively 154, 137,
and. 135 pounds; two women, weighing 143 and 109 pounds, respect-
ively, and two children, one 13 years old weighing 75 pounds and
one 7 years old weighing 38 pounds. One of the men was sick with
typhoid fever and consumed only eggnogg, so le was not included in
the study. The rest of the family appeared to be in fair health. The
children drank coffee once a day and tea twice. The income of the
family was $15 a week. They paid $10 a, month rent for four rooms.
In addition to food materials purchased they spent 20 cents for tea
and 60 cents for coffee. Fuel cost them 50 cents per week.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Two men ......................-------------- .....----- --..---- 42
Two wpmen (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to.......... 34
Child, 13 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 15
Child, 7 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to........ 11
Total number of meals equivalent to.......---......-....... 102
Equivalent to one man thirty-four days.
DIETARY STUDY NO. 36A.
This family consisted of two men, two women, and one chird 10 years
of age. They were clean and intelligent and in good health. The
child drank milk mostly. The income of the family was $25 a week.
They paid $11 a month rent for four rooms. Forty-five cents was
spent during the week for coffee and tea and 35 cents for fuel.
The study continued seven days. There were adult visitors present
at seven meals, therefore the number of meals taken was as follows:
Meals.
Two m en .................................. .......... ......... 42
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to--------.......... 34
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 13
Visitors --....- -... ... ..-... ......-- ......... .----.. ....-- ...-. 77
Total number of meals equivalent to........................ 96
Equivalent to one man thirty-two days.


*i"" :..




,.,-v ...-,,



68

DIETARY STUDY NO. 37A.

The family in this study consisted of two men, a woman, and five
children aged respectively 15, 14, 7, 5, and 3 years. Their income
was $97 a month. They paid $9 a month rent for four rooms. Dur-
ing the week they spent 4 cents for pickles, 5 cents for horseradish,
37 cents for coffee, 12 cents for tea, 5 cents for chicory, and 50 cents
for fuel.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Two men ...................................................... 42
Womnn (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to....-........ 17
Two Thildren, 15 and 14 years (42 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equiv-
alent to...... ----- ... .....----.........--.. ..-.. .........-. 29
Child, 7 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to ..... 11
Two children, 5 and 3 years of age (42 meals X 04. meal of man),
equivalent to.........-- .---- ....-- ..---- .. --................ 17
Total number of meals equivalent to....................... 116
Equivalent to one man thirty-nine days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 38A.

The family in this study consisted of three men, two women, and one
child 10 years old; all in very good health. The income of the family
was $50 a week. They lived in their own house of seven rooms, which
would rent for about $20 a month. During the week $1.05 was spent
for tea and coffee and 26 cents for pickles, salt, and catsup, besides
the food materials purchased.
The study continued seven days. One of the men took his suppers
away from home. The number of meals taken was therefore as fol-
lows:
Meals.
Three men ...--.....-----.......--..............-----------------------...----. 56
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to-....-- 34
Child, 10 years old (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to... 13
Total number of meals equivalent to.. --.................... 103
Equivalent to one man thirty-four days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 39A.

The family in this study consisted of three men, two women, and six
children, aged, respectively, 13, 11, 8, 5, 3 years, and 8 months. The
latter was not included in the study. The children were pale and did
not appear to be very well. All but the baby drank tea, and thought
they could not eat a meal without it. The income of the family was
$80 a month. They owned a house of eighteen rooms, of which they'
used nine rooms and rented nine rooms. Their own rent would cost
them about $25 a month. The amount spent for food accessories was
not stated, except 4 cents for vinegar and 2 cents for yeast.




p!Yr,, -


69


The study continued seven days.
as follows:


The number of meals taken was


Three men............-.... ............ ...... ........... ..... 6i3
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to---......... 34
Child, 13 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to ...... 15
Child, 11 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), e luivalent to...... 13
Child, 8 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to........ 11
Two children, 5 and 3 years (42 meals / 0.4 meal of man), equiva-
lent to......--..........- -. ....................... ........... 17
Total number of meals equivalent to..--....----.....--------... 153
Equivalent to one man fifty-one days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 40A.

This family consisted of a man, a woman, and five children, aged,
respectively, 15, 12, 10, and 2j years, and 7 months. The baby was not
considered in the study. The children drank tea and coffee. They
appeared to be in fair health. The income of the family was $9 a
week. They lived in their own house of five rooms. During the
study they spent 55 cents for coffee and tea, 5 cents for salt, 9 cents
for pickles, and 5 cents for mustard.
The study continued seven days. The man got his lunch away from
bome; hence the number of meals taken was as follows:


M
Man..... ................ .....................................
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to.............
Two children, 15 and 12 years (42 meals X 0.7 meal of man),
equivalent to......... ..... .... ............ ........ ......
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to......
Child, 24 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to......


[eals.
14
17

29
13
8


Total number of meals equivalent to....................... 81
Equivalent to one man twenty-seven days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 41A.

This was an American family of Irish descent, consisting of a man,
a woman, and four children, aged, respectively, 13, 10, and 4 years,
and 16 months. The health of the family was not good. The woman
suffered from rheumatism. Among the children there had been cases
of pneumonia, inflammation of the bowels, and measles during the
winter preceding the study. The children drank milk, and one of
them beer for her health. The income of the family was $35 a month.
They paid $12 a month rent for five rooms. They spent 50 cents for
tea during the course of the study.




.I.


70


The study continued seven days.
as follows:


The number of meals taken was


Meals.
Man...-...................................................... 19
Woman (19 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to............. 15
Child, 13 years (19 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to...... 13
Child, 10 years (19 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to...... 11
Child, 4 years (19 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to....... 7
Child, 16 months (19 meals X 0.3 meal of man), equivalent to.... 5


Total number of meals equivalent to-------------------.......... 70
Equivalent to one man twenty-three days.


TABLE 15.--1Weights and rcst of food and nutrients in dietary studies of American
f .imilies.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts. Cost.

*


Dietary s/tidyt No. 9'a.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Sirloin steak, 5.71 pounds, 71 cents (32). '
Mutton chops, 3 pounds, 45 cents (46) .........
Pork: Spare rib, 4.5 pounds, 30 cents (58)........
Fish: Whitefish, 1.5 pounds, 15 cents (103) ......
Eggs, 3 pounds, 32 cents (105) .................
Cheese, 0.56 pound, 8 cents (111) ................
Milk, 2.09 pounds, 5 cents (114)................
Total animal food........................I

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Flour, 16.33 pounds, 55 cents (122)......
Sugar, 5 pounds, 30 cents (163) .................
Vegetables: Asparagus, 1.13 pounds, 13 cents
(174); cabbage, 1.25 pounds, 7 cents (181); let-
tuce, 0.63 pound, 12 cents (187); onions
(green), 0.56 pound. 25 cents (190); potatoes,
14 pounds, 25 cents (196); spinach, 3.19 pounds,
26 cents (206); tomatoes (canned), 5.34 pounds,
45 cents (209) ..................................
Fruits: Oranges, 0.80 pound, 5 cents (238);
strawberries, 1.31 pounds, 26 cents (250) .......

Total vegetable food......................

Total food ...............................

Dietar/ study No. 30a.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Bologna, 0.5 pound, 5 cents (1); shin, 2
pounds, 10 cents (17); neck, 2 pounds, 10 cents
(9); porterhouse steak, 2 pounds, 24 cents (27);
round steak, 1.5 pounds, 15 cents (28); roast
rib, 5 pounds. 50 cents (14). Veal cutlet, 1.5
pounds, 20 cents (44). Mutton chops, 1 pound,
13 cents (46) .......... .............. .......
Pork: Ham, 1.5 pounds, 30 cents (60); lard, 1
pound, 13 cents (62) ..........................
Butter, 4 pounds, 81.28 (106) ..................
Eggs, 4.5 pounds. 48 cents (105)..................
Milk, 14.65 pounds, 42 cents (114)..............
Cream, 1.35 pounds, 12 cents (113) .............
Cheese, 1 pound, 16 cents (111) .................
Total animal food ........................


Did/lla r.


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food
per man per day.


Cost. Protein.




(e t.s. Grams.


Fat. Carbo-
Shydrates.


Grams.


1.16 5.5 29 40
.30 1.4 13 24
.15 .7 3 1
.32 1.5 8 6
.08 .4 3 4
.05 .3 2 2

2.06 9.8 59 77


.55 2.6 41 S3


.30


1.53
.31

2.69

4.75









1.47

.43
1.28
.48
.42
.12
.16

4.36


1.4


12.8

22.6









4.6

1.3
4.0
1. b
1.3
.4
.5
13.6


......... 9.......


9 1
...... .. .. .....


I .I I -. *


501 -4
1081 81


Grams.


..........
..........
..........
2
2


431

433


Fuel
value.


Calories.

472
266
21
85
48
34
926


1,251
432





261

16
1,960

2,886


36 31 .......... 420
3 21 .......... 199
1 48 .......... 431
8 6 .......... 85
7 8 10 139.
......... 3 1 1a
4 5 .......... 61

59 122 11 1,366


'in


I


I-










S"


TABLE 15.-llVeihts anld cist of food and utriefnts in dn'etari stdlies of A meric n
;r mh ili's-C' an t inte< I.


Fond ronsuine during thi whilu.' study (7 ldaly).


('rst, ailtrients, and fuel vinle of food
Ler man per day.


Iilll it1i. 11nd u tnu ntl .


Ditrltury st ttl .\'1. 3t0--(C'1ntintitd.


VEG;ETAHLE FOOD.


Cereals: Apple pie, i pound, 10 cents (15i):
bread, 14 pounds, 70 cents (147); buns. 1.25
pounds, 12 cents (14);: cakes (ginger), 0.5
pound, 5 cents (157): flour, 8.17 pounds, 20
cents (122) ................ ...................
Sugars: Chocolate, 0.25 pound, 7 cents (167);
sirup, 1.5 pounds. 10 cents (1.66); sugar, 10
pounds, 58 cents (163).......................
Vegetables: Asparagus, 1.69 pounds, 15 cents
(174); cabbage, 2.5 pounds, 14 cents (181):
corn (canned), 1.31 pounds, 12 cents (184):
cucumbers, .2 pounds, 10 cents (186); onions
(dry), 1.25 pounds, 6 cents (189): onions
(green), 0.19 pound, 10 cents (190): peas
(green), 2.72 pounds, 15 cents (194); potatoes,
28 pounds, 55 cents (196); rhubarb, 2 pounds,
5 cents (201); tomatoes (canned), 1.78 pounds,
10 cents (209) ................................
Fruits: Apples, 4.5 pounds, 15 cents (214): ba-
nanas, 3 pounds, 15 cents (2181: raisins. 2
pounds, 10 cents (248); strawberries, 1.31
pounds, 23 cents (250).........................

Total vegetable food......................

Total food ..............................

Dietary stud Y .o. Sla.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder, 1.25 pounds, 12 cents (19); sir-
loin, 1.25 pounds, 15 cents (32); soup bone, 2
pounds, 5 cents (17). Veal: Loin, 1.5 pounds,
18 cents (41); rib, 3 pounds, 30 cents (43) ......
Pork: Salt pork, 3 pounds, 36 cents (64); sausage.
1 pound, 10 cents (66); tenderloin, 1 pound,
15 cents (71)..................................
Fish: Cod (salt), 1 pound, 10 cents (80) ........
Butter, 1 pound, 33 cents (106).................
Butterine, I pound, 16 cents (107)...............
S Eggs, 4.5 pounds, 48 cents (105) .................
Milk, 15.71 pounds. 45 cents (114)...............
Cheese, 0.75 pound, 12 cents (111) ................

Total animal food.........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Cake, 1 pound, 10 cents (150); flour, 4
pounds, 16 cents (122); rolls, 1 pound, 6 cents
(159)........................................
Sugar. pounds, 12 cents (163) .......... .....
Vegetables: Beans (dry), 1.96 pounds, 8 cents
(177); onions (green), 0.75 pound, 20 cents
(190); peas (green), 1.36 pounds, 10 cents (194);
potatoes, 10.5 pounds, 27 cents (196) ...........
Fruits: Jelly (currant), 2 pounds, 10 cents (228);
lemons, 0.88 pound, 5 cents (236) ..............

Total vegetable food......................

Total food .............................

Dietary study No. S3a.

..ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Sausage, 1 pound, 12 cents (16); shoulder,
* 2.5 pounds, 20 cents (19); sirloin, 1 pound, 14
cents (32). Mutton chops, 1.5 pounds, 12
cents (46) ....................................
Fish: Salmon (canned), 1 pound, 18 cents (96)..
SButter, 1 pound, 35 cents (106)................


'cst. :Cost.




Dltlarn. ('rnlin.


1. 17











1.52


.63

4.07

8.43


.80

.61
.10
.33
.16
.48
.45
.12

3.05


3.7

2.3








4.7


2.0

12.7

26.3







3.6


2.8
.5
1.5
.7
2.2
2.1
.5

13.9


Protein. Fat.




Gfratint. .r1tMin8.


11


1

46


2








1


1

11


105 133


29

8
3


15


65

18
17


12 9
11! 13
4 55

67 142




13 4

i


Ca rbo- Fuel
hydrates. value.




2fi1ra. t'lori s.



214 1, U54


34 149

478 I 2,194

489 3,560







.......... 250

.......... 610
.......... 12
.......... 160
.......... 151
.......... 128
16 224
1 65

17 1,600




87 436
41 161


59 301

28 112


1.24 5.6 27 5 215 1,013

4.29 19.5 94 147 232 2,613


4.5
1.4
2.7


33
6


..........
..........
..........


2ii









72


TABLE 15.- Weights rqind cost of food and nutrients in dietary studies of American
fa milies-Continued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.


( -t.I
1 ccwt..


Dittury study \o. 32--Continued.

ANIMAL FOOD-continued.

Cheese. 1 pound. 15 cents (111) .................
Cream, 4.5 pounds. 42 cents (113) ...............
Eggs. 3.2 pounds, 24 cents (105) ..................

Total animal food ........................


Dollars.
0.15
.42
.24


1.92 I


VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Apple pie. 1 pound. 12 cents (158):
bread, 4 pounds, 20 cents (147); buckwheat.
2 pounds. 10 cents (118); doughnuts, 0.56 pound.
6 cents (156); graham flour, 2 pounds, 10 cents
(1241: rice. 1 pound, 10 cents (133); whole
wheat flour. 2 pounds. 9 cents (123)...........
Sugar, 2.5 pounds, 13 cents (163) ...............
Vegetables: Beans (string), 0.68 pound, 8 cents.
(178; onions, 2 pounds, 16 cents (189); pars-
nips, 1.25 pounds, 5 cents (191); potatoes, 7
pounds, 13 cents (196); peas (green), 1.36
pounds, 16 cents (194) ........................
Fruits: Apples, 4.5 pounds, 18 cents (214;'
oranges, 1.58 pounds, 10 cents (238); straw-
berries, 2.6 pounds, 42 cents (250) ............


.77
.13



.58


.70


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food
per man per day.


Cost.




Cents.
1.2
3.2
1.8


14.8







5.9
I.0



4.5


5.4


Protein. Fat.


Grams.
10
4
15


Grams.
12
29
10


68 120


41




9


Total vegetable food ...................... 2.18 16.8 51

Total food................................ 4.10 31.6 119

Didary! study No. 33a.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Rump steak, 0.83 pound, 10 cents (30):
oin steak, 1.5 pounds, 25 cents (32). Veal
ips, 2.75 pounds, 35 cents (41) ............... .70 3.7 20


Pork: Ham, 0.80 pound. 20 cents (60): lard. 0.5
pound, 7 cents (62); salt pork, 0.62 pound. 5
cents (64)... ....... .................
Fish: Salt cod, 0.5 pound. 5 cents iSO .........
Butter. 5 pounds, $1.25 (106) ....................
Eggs, 3 pounds, 32 cents (105)..................
Cream. 7.88 pounds. 35 cents (113) ...............
Milk. 1.99 pounds, 63 cents (114) ...............
Cheese, 0.33 pound, 5 cents (111).................

Total animal food.........................


.32 1.7
.05 .3
1.25 6.5
.32 1.7
.35 1.8
.63 3.3
.05 .3

3.67 19.3


VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Buns, 5.75 pounds, 44 cents (1481:
crackers. 0.5 pound, 5 cents (153); flour. 16.66
pounds. 38 cents (122).........................
Sugars, etc.: Chocolate. 1 pound, 20 cents 1167);
sugar. 9 pounds. 50 cents (162) ................
Vegetables: Beans string), 0.16 pound, 8 cents
(17S ; peas (green), 0.68 pound, 10 cents (194):
potatoes, 24.25 pounds. 63 cents (196) ..........
Fruitl: Apple butter. 0.5 pound, 5 cents r215);
O RUIN f I piJUi-) A..a tl-ft I. 1 pmeappit_


.87 4.6

.70 3.7


.81 4.3


3 30

1 101
9 7
5 35
17 21
2 3

59 212




14
55 14

3 12


11 1


13
1. .



1


1


Carbo-
hydrates.




Grams.
1
7
.. .... ....


I --I


8







282
87



58


28


450


Fuel
value.


Calories.
151
302
149


1,372







1,408
348



257

125

2,138


135 458 3,510


15 ..........


.......... 279
.......... 8
.......... 903
.......... 98
9 368
26 3S9
35---- 35

35 2,264


386 1,889

222 1,007


88


wiots, I pound. 2u eents i(217): peapples,
pounds. 5 cents (2431 ...................... .30 1.5 2 ...... 25 108

Total vegetable foodx....................... 2.68 14.1 71 27 721 3,409

Total food.................................. 6.35 33.4 13) 239 | 756 5,673
I~riijjr .. .*f. 1 \-f aI
hD~ilI~iifuil Vr AS I'


S-'let r lt .y i %U. 1.4lla.
ANI. MAL FOOD.

Beef: Rump steak. 4 pounds. 40 cents (30); sir-
loin steak. 2 pounds, 28 cents (32); soup bone.
4.28 pounds, 30 cents (17). Veal: Breast. 5.43
pounds. 38 cents (3)1: cutlets, 2.5 pounds. 36
cents 144). Mutton: Chops, 3 pounds, 24 cents
(46 : breast. 5 pounds, 25 cents (45)............


2.21


Beef:
sirl(
cho


apr
1.96


:::- ;;- mrm::Aa


''


!


I


5.4









73


TABLE 15.- Weights and coat of food and ntrienti in dlietary )tudies of American
frrmiliex-Continued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days i.


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food
per man per day.


Kinds and amounts.


Dietary study No. .?,-Continued.

ANIMAL FOOD-continued.

Pork: Ham, 1.5 pounds, 30 cents (60); ham
(boiled), 0.6 pound. 15cents (61); lard, 1 pound,
13 cents (62); pork, 15.25 pounds, $1.81 (58>;
sausage, 1.5 pounds, 15 cents (66.............
Fish: Trout (lake), 4 pounds, 38 cents (89j;
whitefish (smoked), 2 pounds, 25 cents (104)...I
Butterine, 5 pounds, 90 cents (107) ............
Eggs, 3.75 pounds, 41 cents (105)...............
Milk, 29.32 pounds, 84 cents (114) ..............
Total animal food.........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Apple pie, 1 pound, 10 cents (158);
bread (rye), 11 pounds, 45 cents (146); cake,
1.5 pounds, 30 cents (150); flour, 12 pounds,
42 cents (122) ..................................
Sugar, pounds, 36 cents (163) ..................
Vegetables: Cucumbers, 12 pounds, 30 cents
(186); lettuce, 1.32 pounds, 15 cents (187);
onions, 2.5 pounds, 10 cents (189); peas, 5.44
pounds, 25 cents (194): potatoes, 35 pounds, 84
cents (196); radishes, 2.63 pounds, 40 cents
(200); spinach, 3.19 pounds, 10 cents (206);
tomatoes (canned), 1.78 pounds, 12 cents (209)..
Fruits: Apples, 9 pounds, 36 cents (214); straw-
berries, 1.3 pounds, 25 cents (250) .............
Beer, 8 pounds, 40 cents (259)...................

Total vegetable food......................

Total food ...............................

Dietary study No. 35a.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Shoulder, 3 pounds, 15 cents (19); neck, 2
pounds, 20 cents (9); rump, 5.29 pounds, 43
cents (15); calves' heart, 1.5 pounds, 5 cents
(38). Mutton, neck, 3.5 pounds, 15 cents (50).
Pork: Bacon, 0.63 pound, 10 cents (50); fresh
loin, 3 pounds, 40 cents (58); ham (boiled), 1
pound, 20 cents (61); salt pork, 1.75 pounds,
24 cents (64); sausage, 1 pound, 12 cents (66)..
Fish: Herring (fresh), 4.17 pounds, 25 cents (87
sardines, 0.28 pound, 6 cents (99); smoked
halibut, 0.58 pound, 7 cents (102) ............
Butter, 1 pound, 30 cents (106)..................
Butterine, 2 pounds, 36 cents (107) .............
Eggs, 6.75 pounds, 75 cents (105)...............
Mlk, 15.71 pounds, 45 cents (114)..............

Total animal food .........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 7 pounds, 35 cents (147); flour,
24 pounds, 55 cents (122)......................
Sugar, 6 pounds, 36 cents (163).................
Vegetables: Beans (string), 0.66 pound, 10 cents
(178); onions (dry), 3.75 pounds, 13 cents (189);
onions (green), 0.19 pound. 5 cents (190); po-
tatoes, 28 pounds, 55 cents (196); spinach, 3.19
pounds, 10 cents (206).........................

Total vegetable food......................


Total food.........................


Dollars.


2.54

.63
.90
.41
.84

7.53


1.27 '-C-


1.27
.36





2.26


S'ents.


6.2

1.5

1.0
2.1


.61 1.5
.40 1.0

4.90 11.9

12.43 30.3


.98


1.06

.38
.30
.36
.75
.45

4.28


.90
.36



.93

2.19


at. ar.o-
Pat. ...... ,


Fuel
.... I.-


ydrlyrates. value.




Girains. Grarms. Grams. I'alories.


18. 4 98


3. 1 27 11
.8 ..... .......j


1

40

138







30


11

9

12
7

69


2.9


3.1

1.1
.9
1. 1
2.2
1.3

12.6


2.7 9

6.4 54


6.47 19.0 123


69 ..........

5 i..........
46 ..........
4 ..........
13 16

179 16


726

77
413
56
224

2,050





926
264





345


........ 12 48
........ 10 44

12 340 1,627

191 3561 3,677


4 ...........
12 ...........
22 ...........
8 .........i6

128 10



4 290
I........ 80



1 61

5 431

133 441


387


436

72
107
196
119
139

1,456


1,376
320



289

1,985

3,441


('oit. ('Cost. Protein.


I









74

TABLE 15.--Weights and cost of food and nutrients in dietary studies of American
families-Continued.


FooEd consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.


Dietary study X,'. .Ma.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Round steak, 6 pounds, 80 cents (28); sir-
loin steak. 4.75 pounds, 73 cents (32). Veal
chuck, 4 pounds. 40 cents (37). Mutton loin,
3 pounds, 30 cents (46) ........................
Pork: Lard, 2 pounds. 28 cents (621; tenderloin,
2 pounds, 30 cents (71)......................
Fish: Perch, 3 pounds, 25 cents (94; .............
Butter, 3.5 pounds, 95 cents (106) ................
Eggs, 6 pounds, 64 cents (105)..................
Milk, 28.27 pounds. 81 cents (114) ................
Cream, 2.25 pounds, 20 cents (113) .............
Cheese, 1.5 pounds. 24 cents (111) ..............


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food
per man per day.


Carbo- Fuel
Ct. Cost. Protein. Fat. hydrates value.
Shydrates.! alne.


DIdlars.


2.23

.58
.25
.95
.64
.81
.20
.24


Total animal food......................... 5.90

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Cake, 1 pound. 30 cents i(50) flour,
14 pounds, 43 cents (122.)................. .73
Sugar, 4 pounds, 22 cents (163i)... ............... .22
Vegetables: Asparagus. 1.13 pounds, 10 cents,
(174); butter beans, 1.31 pounds, 15 cents (175);
cabbage, 1.23 pounds, 10 cents (181): cucum-
bers, 3 pounds, 15 cents (186); lettuce, 0.88
pound, 11 cents (187); onions (dry), 2.5
pounds, 6 cents (189); peas (green), 2.75
pounds. 10 cents (194); potatoes, 21 pounds,
43 cents (196): radishes, 0.65 pound, 5 cents,
(200~: rhubarb, 0.75 pound, 5 cents (201);
spinach. 3.19 pounds. 20 cents (206); turnips,
4 polmds, 6 cents (212)....................... 1.56
Fruits: Apples, 4.5 pounds, 15 cents (214); ba-
nanas. 3 pounds, 10 cents (218);' cherries
(canned), 2.25 pounds, 20 cents (221); oranges,
4.75 pounds, 20 cents (238); peaches (canned),
2.25 pounds, 23 cents (239): pineapples, 1.96
pounds, 10 cents (243): prunes, 1 pound. 15
cents (247) ............... ..................... 1.13


Centia. Gram&. Grans. Grams. Itlories.


7.0 42 35 .......... 480

1.8 5 32 ..........
.8 3 1 .......... 21
3.0 1 42I..........! 38
2.0 11 8 .......... 116
2.5 13 16 20 274
.6 1 6 1 61
.8 6 7 1 90

18.5 82 147 22 1,724
I-


2.3
.7


21 3
....=.... ........


4.9


3.5 2! 1 42


Total vegetable food .......................I 3.64 11.4 1 37 5 318

Total food................................. 9.54 29.9 119 152 340

Dietary study N.. 37a.


755
228








2r.





185

1,465

3,189


ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Corned beef, 7 pounds. 50 cents (2); shank
(fore). 4 pounds. 25 cents (17); round steak, 8
pounds. $1.03 (28) ............................
Pork: Sausage, 3.5 pounds, 35 cents (66).........
Fish: Perch, 4 pounds, 25 cents (94) ............
Butter. 3 pounds. 80 cents (106).................
Eggs. 6.25 pounds. 76 cents (105)...............
Milk, 19.89 pounds, 66 cents (114)...............

Total animal food ........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Apple pies. 3 pounds, 36 cents (158);


bre
0.51
10c
Sugar
Vege
oni
tat'
(ca


1.78
.35
.25
.80
.76
.66


4.6
.9
.6
2.1
1.9
1.71


36I
5
3 i

10
81


...........
.........
..........
12


4.60 11.8 62g 95 12


ad. 9 pounds, 45 cents (147); cake (sweet),
pound. 5 cents (150); doughnuts. 1.13pounds,
!ents (156): flour, 24.5 pounds, 63 cents (122). 1.59 4.1
r, 8 pounds. 46 cents (163)....-.............' .46 1.2
tables: Cabbage, 4.94 pounds, 13 cents (181);
ons (green), 0.94 pound, 15 cents (190); po-
Des, 14 pounds, 23 cents (196): tomatoes.
nned), 1.78 pounds, 10 cents (209) .......... .61 1.5

Total vegetable food....................... 2.66 j 6.8


44



4

48


____________ 1 i


93


.......28

11 416


7.26 18.6 110 106j 428


411
"180
21
267
102
160

1,141





1,454
S 72


128

1,94


... :


---


3.095


-I-


Total f iod ....................... ..........









75


TABLE 15.--Weights tri!t ruoxl f Jfodl uni l ,nttrietn im dlipetry studies olf .literi'ct
fmi 1ili ta-C'on ti nued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 lays).


SCost, nutrients, and fuel value of f(mid
per man Tier day.


Kinds and aminunts.


I'etary studyN/ .Ve.,i.. {

ANIMAL FOUlD.

Beef: Porterhouse steak, 2.93 pounds, 41 cents
(27); sirloin steak, 4.86 pounds. 68 cents 132):
shoulder, 6 pounds, 60 cents (19)..............
Pork: Ham, 1.25 pounds. 20 cents (ti ...........
Fish: Whitefish, 2 pounds. 15 cents (103); lob-
ster, 1 pound, 22 cents (90)................
Butter, 4 pounds, 81.25 (106) ......... ...........
Cheese, 1 pound, 16 cents (I11) .................
Milk. 6.75 pounds, 60 cents (114)...............
Eggs, 1.5 pounds, 15 cents (105).................


Cost. Cost. Protein.

I I


Ikillarn. f'tiults.i fi t1ua.


l.69
. 20

.37
1.25
.16
.60
.15


Fat. arho- Fuel
hydrate.- value.


( "lnrie is.


I
frrl'lttl. fil'rtlllt.


24 . .
*i . .


4 ..........
4 5
2 .


Total animal food ........................ 4.42 13.0 I 47 X5 97


VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Buns, 0.75 pound, 5 cents (148); crack-
ers, 3 pounds, 38 cents (153;; flour, 24.5 pounds,
60 cents (122)...................................
Sugar, 4 pounds, 24 cents (163)..................
Vegetables: Beans, 1.96 pounds, 8 cents (177);
cabbage, 1.23 pounds, 8 cents (181): cucumbers,
1 pound, 10 cents (186); lettuce. 0.43 pounds, 5
cents (187); onions (dry), 1.25 pounds. 5 cents
(189); onions (green). 0.5 pound, 5 cents (190);
potatoes, 35 pounds, 68 cents (196) ...........
Fruits: Bananas,6 pounds,30cents (218): oranges,
4.75 pounds. 20 cents (238): strawberries. 1.3


pou


Beef:
aho
hou
(for
5 ce
Pork:
pou
(66)
Butte
Eggs,
Butte
Milk,


1.03
.24




1.09


3.0
.7




3.2


42 7 280
.. .......... .53


15 1


1,3.50
212




417


nds, 26 cents (250).......................... .76 2.3 1 1 S1 8S

Total vegetable food ............. ......... 3.12 9.2 58 9 438 2,064

Total food ................................. 7.54 22.2 105 94 443 3,031

Dietary study No. 59a.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Round steak, 3.6 pounds, 31 cents (28);
ulder steak, 4 pounds, 32 cents (19); porter-
se steak, 0.75 pound, 8 cents (27); shank
re), 1 pound, 11 cents (17); suet, 0.5 pound,
nts (35). Veal, 3 pounds, 24 cents (37)..... 1.11 2.2 19 13 .......... 192
Bacon, 1 pound, 20 cents (55); chops, 1
md, 14 cents (58); sausage, 1 pound, 10 cents .
..............................------- -........44 .9 3 12 .......... 119
r, 1 pound, 25 cents (106)................... 25 .5 ......... 7 .......... 62
12 pounds, $1.18 (105) ....................... 1.18 2.3 13 10 .......... 14
wrine, 3 pounds, 51 cents (107)............... 51 1.0....... 22 .......... 196
37.69 pounds, $1.24 (114).................... 1.24 2.4 11 13 17 228

Total animal food............-............. 4.73 9.3 46 77 17 938

VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Bread, 2 pounds, 5 cents (147); buns,
0.75 pound, 5 cents (148): corn meal, 2 pounds,
5 cents (119); flour, 42.5 pounds, $1.05 (122);
ginger snaps, 1 pound, 6 cents (157); graham
meal. 5. pounds, 25 cents (124); oatmeal, 4
pounds, 15 cents (131); pop corn, 0.25 pound,
3 cents (132); wheat (cracked), 2 pounds, 15
cents (140) .....................................
Sugar, 4 pounds, 48 cents (163).................
Vegetables: Asparagus, 2.81 pounds, 21 cents
(174); beans (string); 0.66 pound, 5 cents (178);
lettuce, 0.22 pound, 5 cents (187); potatoes, 14
pounds, 26 cents (196); radishes, 0.22 pound, 2
cents (200); rhubarb, 4 pounds, 10 cents (201)..
* Fruits: Apples,8.33 pounds, 38cents (214); lemons,
0.66 pound, 5 cents (236); oranges, 0.8 pound, 5
cents (238); plums, 2 pounds, 7 cents (245), rasp-
berry jam, 1 pound, 10 cents (249) .............


1.84
.48



.69


.65


3.6 51 10
.9 .................
I



1.4 3



1.3! 1 ........


388
36



20


26


1,885
144



92


108


Total vegetable food....................... 3.66 7.2 65 I 10 | 470 2,229

Total food................................. 8.39 16.5 111 87 487 3,167
1- '


S


!i

hS"









76


TABLE 15.-Weights and cost of food and nutrients in dietary studies of American
families-Continued.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.


Dietary study No. O4a.

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Corned beef, 7 pounds, 48 cents (2); flank,
2 pounds, 10 cents (24): shoulder steak, 4.5
pounds, 42 cents (19); rump steak, 1.5 pounds,
15 cents (30). Mutton: Shoulder, 0.5 pound,
5 cents (51). Veal: Chuck, 2 pounds, 15 cents
(37) ....................................
Pork: Bacon, 2 pounds. 20 cents (55); chops, 1
pound, 14 cents (581; lard. 0.5 pound. 6 cents
(62): sausage, 2 pounds, 20 cents (66)..........
Fish: White, 2.5 pounds, 25 cents (103); white
(smoked), 0.5 pound, 5 cents (104)............
Butterine, 3 pounds. 45 cents (107) .............
Eggs, 2.63 pounds, 35 cents (105)...............
Milk, 9.42 pounds, 25 cents (114)............

Total animal food ........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 13 pounds, 64 cents (147); cake,
1.5 pounds, 10 cents (150); pie, 0.5 pound, 5
Scents (158) ....................................
Sugar, 5 pounds, 30 cents (163)..................
Vegetables: Beans (string), 0.53 pound, 15 cents
(178); lettuce, 0.66 pound, 5 cents (187); onions
(dry). 1.25 pounds, 5 cents (189); potatoes, 14
pounds, 30 cents (196); turnips, 2 pounds, 5
cents (212) ........... .................... ...

Total vegetable food......................


Cost.


Dollars.




1.35

.60

.30
.45
.35
.25

3.30


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food
per man per day.


I -


Cost.


Cents.




5.0

2.2

1.1
1.7
1.3
.9

12.2


Protein.


Grams.




45

10

6
1
6
5

73


Fat.




Grams.




49

48

2
42
4
6
151


Carbo-
hydrates.


Grams.


..........
..........
..........
8


- I I I I


.79
.30


22
. .


.60 2.2 5

1.69 6.3 27


Total food................................. 4.99 18.5j 100
Dietanr studu No. LIa.


6






6

157


ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Rump steak, 6.78 pounds, 80 cents (30) .... .80 3.5 20 25
Pork: Bacon, 0.5 pound, 8 cents (55); fresh
pork, 4.75 pounds. 57 cents (58); sausage, 1
pound, 10 cents (66) .......................... .75 3.3 16 39
Butter, 3 pounds, 90 cents (106) ................. .90 3.9 1 50
Milk, 14.66 pounds. 42 cents (114) ............... .42 1.8 10 11
Eggs, 7.5 pounds, 88 cents (105).................. .88 3.8 19 14
Total animal food.......................... 3.75 16.3 66 139


VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 13 pounds, 65 cents (147); cake,
0.75 pound, 10 cents (150); crackers, 1 pound,
10 cents (1531; flour, 19.60 pounds, 55 cents
(122); oatmeal, 1 pound, 5 cents (131).........
Sugar, 14 pounds, 84 cents (163)................
Vegetables: Asparagus, 2.38 pounds, 25 cents
(174); corn (canned), 3.93 pounds, 38 cents
(184); potatoes. 42 pounds, 88 cents (196), spin-
ach, 6.38 pounds, 23 cents (206) ..............
Fruit: Jelly cherryy. 1 pound, 10 cents (223)....
Beer, 1 pound, 5 cents (259).....................

Total vegetable food......................

Total food ................................


I


1.45 6.3
.84 3.7


1.74 7.6
.10 .4
.05 .2

4.18 18.2

7.93 34.5
7. 93 34.5


......... ........
21 2


95 14
161 153


136
84



39

259

267


15


Fuel
value.


Calories.




616

467
42
378
60
105

1,668


685
336



176

1,197

2,865




308

411
449
198
201


15 1,562


2,255
1,104


142 670
12 48
2 8

895 I 4,085

910 ",647


. ....







77

DIETARY STUDIES OF GERMAN FAMILIES (Nos. 42a-44a).
The following three studies were those of the dietaries of (German
families who had lived for longer or shorter periods in this country.
DIETARY STUDY NO. 42A.
The family in this study consisted of three men, two women, and
two children, respectively 13 and S years old. all in good health. The
income of the family was $15 a week. They paid $301 a month rent
for five rooms and a store. During the study they spent 7T cents for
coffee, in addition to the food materials purchased.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Three men.............. ... ...------ .--- ----. ....--------- ...... 63
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man) equivalent to.......... 34
Child, 13 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to ...... 15
Child, eight years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to.... 11
Total number of meals equivalent to.---.......----------.... 123
Equivalent to one man forty-one days.
DIETARY STUDY NO. 43A.
This family consisted of two men, a woman, and two children, aged
2 years and 6 months, respectively. The children were very clean and
were in good health, but the youngest child was rather pale. They
were both allowed to drink tea and coffee. The income of the family
was $12.50 a week.. They paid $8.50 a month rent for three rooms.
During the course of the study they spent 29 cents for tea and coffee
and 10 cents for catsup.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
HMeals.
Two men --------... -.--.................................-..... 42
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to ............. 17
Child, 2 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to........ 8
Total number of meals equivalent to ....................... 67
Equivalent to one man twenty-two days.
DIETARY STUDY NO. 44A.
The family in this study consisted of one man, one woman, and three
children, aged 13, 10, and 8 years, and weighing 90, 65, and 60 pounds,
! respectively. The woman and children looked well. The two older
children drank a cup of coffee and a cup of tea each day. The young-
est child drank milk. The income of the family was not given. They
.paid $45 a month rent for six rooms. Fuel cost them about $1 per
week. In addition to the food materials purchased they spent 20 cents
for tea, 35 cents for coffee, 30 cents for vinegar and catsup, and 5 cents
for pickles.




.~~~ ......... -- ----------- -
'' ';; '' ';...... .. .. ...;


78


The study continued seven days.
as follows:


The number of meals taken was


Meals.
M an ..... ...................................................... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to ............. 17
Child, 13 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent' to ...... 15
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent t- ...... 12
Child, 8 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 10

Total number of meals equivalent to--...................-.. 75
Equivalent to one man twenty-five days.


T.ABLE 16.-I\'eiifs.lq ,idml ost of food 1d nittrI illt. uts i dit'ry sldie's of German families.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Cost. nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Kinds and amounts.


(Osit. I


Dimtarfy sthly .'o. 2,t.
ANIMAL FOOD.
Dollars.
Beef: Round steak, 7 pounds, 70 cents (28):
shoulder, 3.5 pounds, 35 cents (19); veal cut-
lets, 4 pounds. 50 cents 144) ................... 1.55
Pork: Sausage, 1 pound, 10 cents (66) ........... .10


Poult
9 p
Fish:
Butte
Eggs,
Create


Cerea
2.25
cen
Suga
Vege'
(177


Cost. Protein. Fat. Carbo- Fuel
hydrates. value.

I

Cents. Grra.inx. raions. r. rams. lmies.

3.8 30 14 .......... 245
.2 1 ..... 49


ry: rowl, ..o pounds, 9. cents (7):; turkey,
pounds, 90 cents (76)........................ 1.85 4.5 3 01 .......... 396
Sardines, 0.56 pound, 12 cents (99)......... : .12 .3 2 1 .......... 17
.r, 5 pounds, $1.50 (106).. .. .............. 1.50 3.7 1 47 ........... 422
7.5 pounds, 79 cents (105)................ .79 1.9 11 8 .......... 115
m. 7.5 pounds, 60 cents (113) ............... .60 1.5 2 15 4 158
Total animal food ......................... 6.51 15.9 77 121 4 1,402
VEGETABLE FOOD.

ls: Bread, 16 pounds, 80 cents (147); flour,
Pounds, 9 cents (122): rice, 1 pound, 5
ts (133) .............. ...................... .94 2.3 2J 2 121 582
r, 5.5 pounds, 33 cents 1163)................ .33 .8 ................. 61 244
tables: Beans (dry). 3.92 pounds. 20 cents
i); cabbage, 2.47 pounds, 20 cents (181):


onions (dry), 1 pound, 5 cents (189); potatoes.


8.75
pou


pounds, 25 cents (196); radishes, 0.59
nd, 10 cents (200) ......................... 80 1.9 12 1 43 229
Total vegetable food........ .............I 2.07 5.0 32 3 225 i 1,055
Total fool ................................ 8.58 2).9 10 124 229 2,457
Diutrry .t4i/ ,,, vo.i. i. i4i ,


ANIMA!. FOOD.


Beef: Round, 1.5 pounds, 15 cents (28): shoulder.
2pounds.20cen s (19). Veal, breast, 4 pounds,
30 cents (36); leg. 2 pounds, 24 cents (39) ......
Pork: Lard, 2 pounds, 26 cents 1621: loin, 2
pounds, 24 cents i58); salt pork, 4 pounds, 24
cents (641 ; sausage, 0.66 pound, 10 cents (66)..
Eggs, 1.5 pounds, 20 cents (105) .................
Butter, 0.5 pound, 13 cents 1106) ..............
Milk, 14.66 pounds, -12 cents 1114) ...............
Cheese, 0.9 pound. 18 cents (111 .................


15 ..........


.84 3.8 9 129
.20 .9 4 3
.13 .6 ......... 9
.42 1.9 10 12
' .18 .8 5 6 I.


I


266


2 1,192
43
80
15 207
73-


Total animal food........................ 2.66 12.1 61 14 17 1,861
VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Bread. 9 pounds. 45 cents (147): cake,
0.75 pound. 15 cent (150); crackers, 1 pound,
8 cents (153 1: flour, 12.25 pounds. 33 cents (122);
noodles, 1 pound. 12 cents (12Sl.................
Sugar, 6 pounds. 33 cents (163) ..................
Vegetables: Cabbage, 3.7 pounds, 21 cents (181):
onions (green), 1.25 pounds 3 cents (1901 ......


1.13
.33
.26


5.1 51 9
1.5 ......... ........
1.2 1 .......


329
123
5


1,600
492


33 I
t









79

TABLE I16.-WIeights andi cnt of food ntadl ittntrisidls in dienry stinliens f ('rmjnrfi
fitm ili;'r-Continued.


Fwm l clliiomed during the wholestudy (7 days.


Kiinds and titliouint. C


Cost, nutrients. a l (fuel value of foHn per
maln per day.

Ca rbo Fuel
,st. Ost. Protin. Ft. hydrates. value.


Dittary study \;i. !.,.P--C continued.


VEG'ETABLE FOO lI-- inl ,lltilned.
Fruit, bananas, 3 pounds. 1 cents i21.) .........
Beer, 1 pound, 5 cents i259).....................
Total vegetable fuod ......................
Total food ...............................
Dietary ituly No. t4a.


Djlar.1s.
(). 1u
.05


COlf (i.rfm. IIrom$s. (Graims. I' aluri'f.
0. 1 ........ 9 40
S .................


1.L7 ..5 53 9 4I 2, 164
4-.53 20.6 114 1,3 485 4.0 5


ANIMAL FOOD.


Beef: Sirloin steak, 1.5 pounds, 20 cents (321;
round steak. 1 pound, 12 cents (28); rib, 4
pounds, 50 cents (14): soup bone, 2 pounds, 10
cents(17). Mutton: Hind quarter,5.75pounds,
75cents (47). Veal chuck, 2 pounds, 25 cents
(37).........................................
Pork: Chops, 2.5 pounds, 33 cents (58); lard, I
pound, 14 cents (62)...........................
Fish: Trout (lake), 2 pounds, 25 cents (69); hal-
ibut (smoked), 2 pounds. 15 cents (86); salmon
(whole). 1 pound, 20 cents (98) ...............
Butter, 2 pounds, 60 cents (106)................
Eggs, 4.5 pounds. 48 cents (105) .................
Milk, 29.32 pounds, 91 cents (114) ...............
Total animal food .......................
VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 12 pounds, 62 cents (147); cake,
1 pound. 20 cents (150); flour. 12.25 pounds. 33
cents (122); oatmeal, 2 pounds, 15 cents (131)..
Sugar and oil: Sugar, 5 pounds. 30 cents (163):
sweet oil, 1 pound, 25 cents (171) ............
Vegetables: Beans, 0.66 pound, 8 cents (177);
corn, 1.31 pounds, 15 cents (185); lettuce, 0.66 ;
pound, 15 cents (187); onions (green), 1.25
pounds, 5 cents (190): potatoes, 14 pounds, 30
cents (196); spinach, 1.6 pounds. 6 cents (206);
rhubarb, 2 pounds, 12 cents (201) .............
Fruits: Bananas, 3 pounds. 15 cents (218); pine- I
apples, 3.81 pounds, 24 cents (243); strawber-
ries, 0.65 pound, 13 cents (250) ...............


1.92


7.7 '


.47 1.9


i 30 ..........


13 ,
11
'"1 "i


8 .........
31 ..........
8 ..........
21 -27


4.98 19.9 91 146 27 1,771


1. 30i 5.2


.55




.91


9 319 1, 568


s 1


.52 2.1 1 1 15 73


Total vegetable food..................... 3.28 13.1 62 29 474 2,4(r2
Total food ............................... 8.26 33.0 153 175 5i1 4,173


DIETARY STUDIES OF IRISH FAMILIES (Nos. 45a-50a).

The details of six studies with Irish families follow.


DIETARY STUDY NO. 45A.


The family in this study consisted of a man, weighing about 189
pounds, and two women, weighing about 143 pounds each. They
were all in fair health. The income of the family was $125 a month.
They paid $35 a month rent for seven rooms, one of which they rented.
Their fuel cost them about $16 a month. During the course of the
study they spent 18 cents for coffee and 15 cents for tea.


___


Sl.X. -







80

The study continued seven days. The family was away one day
but there was a washerwoman present at two meals. The number of
meals taken by the family may therefore be reckoned as follows:
Meals.
M an...............................- ............................. 18
Two women (38 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to.......... -30
Total number of meals equivalent to-....................... 48
Equivalent to one man sixteen days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 46A.

This family consisted of three men, three women, and a child 12
years old; all in good health. The income of the family was $100 a
month. They paid $13 a month rent for six rooms. During the period
of the study they spent 65 cents for tea and 12 cents for yeast and
pepper.
The study continued seven days. Two men took their lunches and
one man his dinner away from home. Hence the number of meals
taken was as follows:
Meals.
Three men...... ..... ....... .. .......................------.... 42
Three women (63 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to --..--. 50
Child 12 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to....... 15
Total number of meals equivalent to.--- -----..---....... 107
Equivalent to one man thirty-six days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 47A.

This family consisted of a man, weighing about 180 pounds, and a
woman, weighing about 140 pounds. and two children whose ages and
weights were not given. The youngest child had been sick before the
study began, but was well at the time. The older boy drank coffee and
milk three times a day. The income of the family was $9 to $10 a
week. They paid 85 a month rent for 2 rooms. Fuel cost them about
50 cents a week. In addition to the food materials purchased they
spent 25 cents for coffee and 20 cents for tea.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
M an.-....-- ...---- ..- .................----..................- -. 21
Woman (21 meals x 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to...---.-----..- 17
Child (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to........--- ...--- 11
Child (21 meals X 0.3 meal of man), equivalent to--.--...-...---.........- 6
Total number of meals equivalent to..--............---------------- 55
Equivalent to one man eighteen days.
DIETARY STUDY NO. 48A.
This family consisted of four men. one woman, and two children,
aged 9 and 4 years, respectively. The children were in fair health.




:
1*







81

They drank coffee in the morning and tea at night. The woman was
dyspeptic and had bronchitis. The husband earned $! a week, and
$13 a week was received from boarders. They p1)id $11 a month rent
for four rooms. In addition to the food materials purchased they
spent $1.15 for tea and coffee and 3 cents for salt.
The study continued seven (ays. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Mef lN.
Four m en ..................................... ................ 84
Woman (21 mea's x 0.S Imeal .,f man ), Lequivalent to,.............. 17
Child, 9 years (21 meal X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 11
Child, 4 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to .......
Total number of meals equivalent to...-------..........-------. --120
Equivalent to one mau forty days.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 4-9A.

The family in this study consisted of one man, 150 pounds, and
three women weighing respectfully 125, 165. and 200 pounds. They
were all in fair health. The income of the family was S8 to $9 a
week. They paid $6 a month rent for three rooms. Fuel cost them
about 50 cents a week. During the period of the study they spent 30
cents for tea and coffee.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
Man. ..-..-...... ..........- ......... .21
Three women (63 meals X 0.8 meal oi man), equivalent to......... 50
Total number of meals equivalent to.----------........- ..- 71
Equivalent to one man twenty-four days.

DIETARY TrUDY NO. 50A.

This family consisted of four men, one woman, and two children,
aged 14 and 6 years, respectively; all in good health. The husband
earned $9 a week, and three boarders paid, respectively, $4.50, $4.25,
and $4 per week. The family paid $12 a month rent for four rooms.
During the period of the study they spent 30 cents for coffee, 10 cents
for horseradish, and 5 cents for mustard.
The study continued 7 days. The number of meals taken was as
follows:
Meals.
Four men ................ ........... ..- ........ .. .... ........- 84
Woman (21 meals X0.8 meal of man), equivalent to -.........-... 17
Child, 14 years (21 meals X0.7 meal of man), equivalent to....... 15
S Child, 6 years (21 meals X0.5 lieal of man), equivalent to ........ 11


Total number of meals equivalent to..-----.--------....-- 127
Equivalent to one man forty-two days.
25580-No. 129-03- 6


:: :'
;.;iiiiiiii;ii;,.




.. .1. ....1| ..


82


TABLE 17.- Weiights and cost of food and nutrients in dietary studies of Irish families.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Kind.A anil amounts.


Cost. Cost. Protein.
I


Fat Carbo-
Shydrates.


Dirtary study No. .5a.
ANIMAL FOOD. |
Dollars. Cents. I Grams. Grams.
Beef: Sirloin steak, 2 pounds, 25 cents (32); veal
rib, 6.25 pounds, 55 cents (43); liver, 0.50
pound, 5 cents (40); mutton rib, 1.5 pounds,
20cents (46) .................................. 1.05 6.6 44 36
Pork: Bacon, 1 pound, 16 cents (55) ............ .16 1.0 3 17
Fish: White, 1.5 pounds. 15 cents (103) .......... .15 .9 5 1
Butter, 1 pound, 31 cents (106) ................. .31 1.9 r......... 24
Eggs, 3.25 pounds, 23cents (105) ................ 23 1.4 1 12 8
Cream, 2.25 pounds, 20 cents (113)............... .-20 1.3 2 12
Milk. 4.19 pounds, 12 cents (114)................. .12 .8 4 4 5
Total animal food ........................ 2.22 13.9 70 103


VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 9 pounds, 45 cents (147); cakes,
0.5 pound, 5 cents (150).......................
Sugar, 5 pounds. 25 cents (163)...............
Vegetables: Tomatoes, fresh, 1 pound, 8 cents
(211); lettuce, 0.22 pound, 5 cents (187); pota-
toes, 10 pounds, 20 cents (196); rhubarb, 3
pounds, 10 cents (201) ..........................
Fruits: Bananas, 3 pounds, 10 cents (218); straw-
berries, 0.65 pound, 10 cents (250); pineapple,
0.9 pound, 15 cents (243) ......................
Total vegetable food......................
Total food........................... .......
Dietary study No. 46a.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Liver, 2 pounds. 8 cents (8; sausage
(smoked), 1 pound, 10 cents (16); flank steak,
1.5 pounds, 15 cents (24); rump (corned), 7
pounds, 56 cents (3): chuck, 11 pounds, 81.10
(23i. Veal chops, 2.5 pounds, 28 cents (41).
Mutton chops, 2.5 pounds, 33 cents (46).......
Pork: Bacon, 1.25 pounds, 20 cents (55); ham,
1.33 pounds, 24 cents (60); lard, 2 pounds, 24
cents (62) .....................................
Fish: White, 3 pounds, 33 cents (103); white
(smoked), 2.5 pounds, 25 cents (104)...........
Butter, 3 pounds, 90 cents (106).................
Eggs, 7.5 pounds, 85 cents (105) ................
Cheese, 1 pound, 25 cents (111) .................
Milk, 21.98 pounds, 189 cents (114) .............
Total animal food........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Applepie, pound, 12cents(158); Bread,
2.2 pounds. 11 cents (147): cake. 2.25 pounds,
30 cents (150); crackers, 3 pounds, 29 cents
(153): flour, 24.5 pounds, 72 cents (122) ........
Sugar, 8 pounds, 43 cents (163)...............
Vegetables: Cabbage. 2.47 pounds, 16 cents (181);
corn (canned), 1.31 pounds, 14 cents (184);
onions (dry), 2.5 pounds, 14 cents (189); pota-
toes, 28 pounds, 60 cents (196); radishes, 0.65
pound, 10 cents (200); rhubarb, 1.5 pounds, 10
cents (201): tomatoes (canned), 1.78 pounds,
12 cents (209)...................................
Fruit: Bananas, 6 pounds, 30 cents (218)........
Total vegetable food.......................
Total food.................................


3.1 24 5
1.6 ............


2.7 6 .....


1 1


.35 2.2 ,


Grams.




..........


3
6


1.53 9.6 31 6 347
3.75 23.5 101 109 356


2.60

.68
.58
.90
.85
.25
1.89


7.2

1.9 I
1.6
2.5 ..
2.4
.7
5.3


54

4
10
12
3
9


7.75 21.6 92


1.54 4.3
.43 1.2





1.36 i 3.8
.30 .8
3.63 | 10.1


44






8
1
53


Calories.


496
168
29
214
119
127
85


717
568


204

77

1,566
2,799


32 .......... 285
9 .......... 128
5 .......... 57
11 14 190
156 14 1,813


1

12


325
101





61
11
498


1,574
404





285
48
2,l3U


11.38 31.7 145 168 512 4,124


il


I-----


I I









83


TABLE 17.- Wei;ghts and roxt of fiod nmil mtrieni'n in dieulstrY smidius of/ Irish fiamilnis-
Continued.


Food consumed rlduring the whole stild'v 7 dii.vsi.


Kinds aInd imt ll int1.


Cost, nutrients. aind ftuel vIlue (if food per
man per ctiy.

-. os(. Protein. Fat. Carho- Fuel
t. (tt. 'rothydrates. VLluc.


fiu tory stfitll!, No. ;ia.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Polhfirf.
Beef: Corned, 4 pounds, 30 cents (2:) round
steak, 2.5 pounds, 32 cents (28); sirloin, 2.5
pounds, 32 cents (32)........................... 0.94
Pork: Bacon, 2 pounds, 26 cents (55); chops, 5
pounds, 25 cents (58); lard, 2 pounds, 24 cents
(62; roast, 4.56 pounds, 54 cents (58) .......... 1.29
Fish: Herring (fresh), 3 pounds, 18 cents (87) ... .18
Butter, 1 pound, 24 cents (106) ................... .24
Eggs, 3 pounds, 32 cents (105).................... 32
Milk, 12.56 pounds, 36 cents (114)................ .36


Total animal food .......................... 3.33


if (i f G. Grrmins.


5.2

7.2
1.0
1.3
1.8
2.0
18.5


VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Apple pie, 1 pound, 10 cents (158):
bread, 4 pounds, 20 cents (117;: crackers, 0.5
pound, 4 cents (153); flour, 12.25 pounds, 29
cents (122); oatmeal, 2 5 pounds, 7 cents (1311. .70
Sugar, 4.88 pounds, 25 cents (163) ............... .25
Vegetables: Cabbage. 2.47 pound,, 12 cents (181);
carrots, 0.25 pound, 3 cents (182); onions
(green), 0.13 pound, 5 cents (190): potatoes, 14
pounds, 28 cents (196); turnips, 0.44 pound, 5
:cents (212) .................................... .53
Beer, 3.5 pounds, 18 cents (259 ................. .18


triru inx. raixi.


Calories.


37 40 .......... 504

S 142 .......... 1,16
8 3 ........ 59
......... 21 .. .. 187
10 7 102
10 13 1 16 220

103 226 16 2,488


57 13
... ...... ....... .




......... ........


1,732
492


56 252
10 40
I 4


Total vegetable food ............................... 9.3 64 13 536 2,516
Total food.................................I 4.99 27.8 167 239 552 5,004
Dietary stdly No. 4Sa.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Corned, 12 pounds, 84 cents (2): rump
Lk, 15.5 pounds, $1.51 (30); shoulder, 15
inds, $1.50 (19) .............................. 3.85 9.6 74 79 .......... 999
Chop, 2.5 pounds, 34 cents (58); sausage.
found, 10 cents (66); sparerib, 4 pounds, 48
ts (58) ..................................... 92 2.3 11 24 .......... 258
,8 pounds, $1.20 (75)......................... 1.20 3.0 12 1........ 146
Salmon, 2 pounds, 30 cents (98); trout
ke), 4 pounds, 40 cents (89)................. .70 1.7 I 4 .......... 68
r, 3 pounds, 80 cents (106).................. .80 2.0 .......... 29 .......... 258
13.5 pounds, 81.44 (105) ..................... 1.44 3.6 20 14 ......... 205
12.56 pounds, 36 cents (114)............... .36 .9 5 6 7 101
Total animal food......................... 9.27 23.1 130 167 7 2,035


VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Apple pie. 5 pounds, 60 cents (158);
bread, 24 pounds, $1.20 (147); buns, 5.75 pounds,
40 cents (148); cake, 1 pound, 10 cents (150) ...
Sugar, 9 pounds. 53 cents (163) .................
Vegetables: Cabbage, 2.47 pounds, 12 cents (181):
potatoes, 28 pounds, 60 cents (196)............
Beer, 7 pounds, 35 cents (259)...................
Total................. ................
Total food ....... ................ ....

Dietary study No 9a.
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Dried, 2 pounds, 25 cents (4); round, 2.5
pounds, 25 cents (281; rump, 4 pounds, 30 cents
(15). Mutton (rib), 3 pounds, 15 cents (46).
Vealchuck, 4.5 pounds, 25 cents (37) ..........
Pork: Lard, pound, 12 cents (62); loin, 4 pounds,
50 cents (58) ..............................
Fish: Herring (fresh), 3 pounds, 18 cents (87)...
Butter, 1 pound, 30 cents (106).................


2.30
.53


5.8 32 14
1.3 ......... .......


1,109
408


.72 1.8 6 1 48 225
.35 .9 ......... ........ 9 36
3.90 I 9. 381 15 373 1,778

13.17 32.9 168 182 38U 3,813
I





1.20 5.0 52 43 .......... 591

.62 2.6 10 39 .......... 387
.18 .8 6 21 ....1 42
.30 1.2 ....... 16 ..........


Beef:
stea
pou
Perk:
Ipx
cen
Fowl
Fish:
(lal
Butte
Eg,
MiOk,"


I I I I


I









84


TABLE 1T.- II 'ii'ts utml crst of ftiod lld nuilrientsi in dlietaryif udies of Irish ffamilies-
Continued.


Food cousnmed, during the whole study (7 day-,).
----


Cost. nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Kinds and amounts.


st. Cst. 'rteinI
Cos-t. 0 ist. Prt,,tcin.


at Carbo- Ftel
hydrates. value.


DiI tiary stIudy ,N.. !19--Continued.

ANI.MAL FOOrD-contintlued.

Eggs. 3 pound-. 32 cents (10) ...................
Milk, 12..';I pounds. 36 cents (114) ...............
Cheese, 0.33 pound. 5 cents (111 .................

Total animal fi.xl ..........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereal : Bread. 2 pounds. 10 cents 11471; flout.
4.U, pounds. 10 cents, 122 : oatmeal, 2 pounds,
10cents i l31 i: apple pie. 1 pound. 10cents tli-i.
Sugar, 19.5 pounds. $1 4 163I .....................
Vegetables: Cabbage. 2.47 pounds. 13 cents (18 1:
onions (green), 0.13 pound. 10 cents (1401.
potatoes. 21 pounds. 42 cents 1 96i: turnips,
1.31 pounds, 11 cents (2121 .....................

Total vegetable flod......................

Total food..................................

Di tury ftu .iV .-ru..

ANIMAl. F1,OD.

Beef: Corned. 7 pounds. 43 cents (2i: round
steak, 3 pound-. 3t cents (2.',-: shoulder. 5
pounds. 40 cents (191 ........................
Pork: Chops. 8 pounds. $1.05 I: ham boiledd .
2 pounds. 40 cents (61 ): lrd. 0.5 pound. 5 cents
(62); sausage. 3 pounds. 3- cents i166t.........
Fish: White. 3 pounds, IS cents 1103b ............
Butterine, 1 pound, 1s cents 1107) .............
Eggs, 3 pounds, 32 cents (1051...................
Milk, 12.56 pounds, 36 cents (1141 ...............
Cream, 0.56 pound. 5 cents (113) ...............
Cheese, 0.5 pound. S cents (111 ..................

Total animal food........................


IDdlars. CQ its. trams. Grams. Grams. dries.
0.32 1.3 7 5 .......... 73
.36 1.5 8 10 12 169
.5 .2 2 2 .........26

3.03 12. 117 12 1 1,430
r


.40 1.7 19 ii
1. 0 4.1 ......... ........


.76 3.2


N ........


111
369


573
1,476


62 280


2.16 0 27 6 542 2,329
.19 21.06 112 123 554 3,759






1.19 2.8 26 26 .......... 335


4
5
.3
. .


9 .........
.3
5. 7
1 ..........
2.........
- -

- -


4.24 10.0 60 94 7 1,105


VEGETABLE F0(,I1.


Cereals: Bread. 15 pounds. 75 cents 1 147:: cake.
4.5 pounds, 50 cents (150): pie. 1 pound. 12
cents I : roll-. pounds, 25 cents t159) .....
Sugar. 6 pounds. 36 cents (163 ..................
Vegetables: Cabbage. 1.23 pounds. 10 cents (11.S'
onions. 4.25 pounds, 25 cents (189': potatoes,
35 pounds. 73 centl ( 196): turnips, 1.75 pounds.
10 cents 1212); tomatoes (canned), 1.7S pounds.
10 cents (209) ............................ .....
Fruil. Oringes. 2.38 pounds. 10 cents (2:+S) ......

Total vegetable food......................

T,;al food..................................


1.62
.36


24 10 154
.... ........ 65


1.30 3.1 ,
.10 .2


10 .......


3.3s 8.11 31 10 283 1,357

7.62 IS.1 .Y 104 290 2,462


MISCELLANEOUS DIETARY STUDIES (Nos. 51a-60a).


The ten studies following were made with families of different

nationalities.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 51A.

This study was made with an English family consisting of a man,

weighing -14(; pounds. and a woman, weighing 185 pounds, both in

good health. The income of the family was $100 a month. They


++:I i.
i*.'


===u;;;; ;;':"I~I~









85


paid $21 a month rent for six rooms and a bathroom Fuel cost
them $2.50 a week. During the period of the study they spent 45
cents for coffee and I cent for yeast in addition to the food Itaterials
purchased.
The study continued seven days. The i woman was away from one
meal and the man from two; hence the number of Imeals taken was as
follows:

M an -.......--......-.....................--.... ........--... 19
Woman (20 meals X 0.8 meal of man), eiuiva'ent t,--------.............. 16

Total number of meals equivalent to-..---- ..---..---.-...... 35
Equivalent to one man twelve days.

TABLE 18.- l'Ceigl/t an21 cot 4 f foo ,u d m1i dtrie,.f ;n et diet riq .tfbf .o. .5a.


Food consumed during the whole study i7 days).


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Kinds and amounts.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Porterhouse steak, 8.65 pounds, S1.08 (27).
Pork: Ham (boiled), 0.5 pound, 10 cents (61)....
Fowl, 4.2 pounds, 63 cents (75) .................
Butter, 2 pounds, 58 cents (106).................
Eggs, 5.25 pounds. 53 cents (105)................
Cream, 0.68 pound, 6 cents (113) .................
Milk, 12.56 pounds, 36 cents (114)................
Total animal food ........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Bread. 1 pound. 5 cents (147): 1 rackers,
1.5 pounds, 20 cents (153); flour, 9.8 pounds,
24 cents (122)..................................
Sugar, pounds, 16 cents (163)..................
Vegetables: Asparagus, 5.63 pounds. 73 cents


Cost. Cost.


Dollars. C, ns.
1.08 9.0
.10 .8
.63 5.3
.58 4.8
.53 4.4
.06 .5
.36 3.0
3.34 27.8


Protein. Fat. Carbo- Fuel
hydrate,,. value.


Gra is.. G ratis. Grtamt. Calories.
62 .5 ......... 7(4
4 4 .......... .2
2-' 20 .......... 2(6
1 64 .......... 574
26 18 .......... 2C4
.... .... 1 49
16 19 24 329
131 188 2 2,2c8


4.1 52 9
1.3 ............... .


1, (14
304


174); cucumbers, i pound, 7 cents (186): peas i
(green), 1.36 pounds, 12 cents (194)............ 92 7.7 6 1 13 5
Fruit: Strawberries, 0.65 pound, 11 cents (2.50)... .11 .9 ................. 1 4
Total vegetable food....................... 1.68, 14.0 58 10 429 2,037
Total food ................................. 5.02 41.8 189 19s 4.54 4,335


DIETARY STUDY NO. 53A.

This family consisted of an Englishman, weighing 156 pounds, and
a woman of Bohemian parentage, weighing 110 pounds. They were
in tolerably good health. The woman was not very intelligent. Their
income was $75 a month. They paid $11 a month rent for four rooms.
The fuel cost them about 50 cents a week. During the period of the
study they spent 25 cents for tea.
The study continued seven days, but the man had only one meal a
day at home, so the number of meals taken was as follows:
Meals.
Man -..... .. ...... ..-.....-..- -.....--.............-....... ....-. 7
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to.............. 17

Total number of meals equivalent to ----..................-- 24
Equivalent to one man eight days.


:iiiijii








*iii"
,iiiii ...




" Sii

"*-
:. :iiiiiili
:;i~iii*i,





*'I::
.iiiiiiiil







"Elm:...ii.


I




~rrurri


86

TABLE 19.- lleights and cost of food and nutrients in dietary study No. 52a.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.


Cost.


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Cost.


S1----


ANIMAL FOOD.
Dollars.
Beef: Porterhouse steak, 1.5 pounds, 15 cents
(27): soup bone, 2 pounds. 5 cents (17). Veal
chuck, 0.5pound, 5cens (37). Mutton: Shoul-
der, 0. pound, 5 cents (51) .................... 0.30
Fish: White, 1.5 pounds, 10 cents (103): sardines,
0.28 pound, 5 cents (99) ....................... .15
Butter, 0.25 pound, 9 cents (106) ................. .09
Eggs, 0.75 pound, 8 cents (105) .................. 08
Milk, 6.28 pounds, 18 cents (114) ................. .18


Total animal food......................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Bread, 3 pounds, 15 cents (147); flour, 1
pound, 3 cents (122)............................
Sugar. 1 pound, 6 cents (163).....................
Vegetables: Asparagus, 0.56 pound, 5 cents
(174); cabbage, 1.23 pounds, 10 cents (181):
carrots, 1.38 pounds, 2 cents (182). lettuce, 0.44
pound, 6 cents (187); onions (green), 0.19
pound, 5 cents (190); potatoes, 7 pounds. 14
cents (196): rhubarb, 2 pounds. 5 cents (201)...
Fruit: Strawberries, 0.65 pound, 6 cents (250)....
Beer, 27 pounds, S1.35 (2591 .....................
Total vegetable food.....................
Total food ..............................


.80


(ints.


3.7
1.9
1.1
1.0
2.3
10.0


Protein.


Grams.


40
13
6
12
71


Fat.


Grams.


27
4
12
4
14


Carbo- Fuel
hydrates. value.


Grams. |Calors.



.......... 400
.......... 107
18 i 246


61 18 900


.18 2.3 22 3 133 647
.06 .8 ......... ........ 57 228




.47 5.9 10 1 72 337
.10 1 1.3 ......... ........ 3 12
1.35 16.9 8 ........ 176 736
2.16 i 27.2 40 4 441 1,960
2.96 37.2, 111 65 459 2,860
_ I ___ __ __ ___ 1 _


DIETARY STUDY NO. 53A.

In this family the husband was English and the wife was American.
The family consisted of two men, one woman, and two children aged,
respectively, 6 years and 1 year. They were rather unintelligent
and dirty. but in good health. The income of the family was $15 a
week, not including the board of the second man. They paid $35 a
month rent for four rooms and a store. For fuel they used soft coal,
which cost them about 50 cents a week. During the course of the
study they spent 80 cents for tea and coffee.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:


Meals.
Two en .. .......-------.... ..---------..--- .......---------.... ... 42
Woman (21 meals >X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .-............ 17
Child, 6 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to --------. 11
Child, 1 year (21 meals X 0.3 meal of man), equivalent to -------- 6

Total number of meals equivalent to........................ 76
Equivalent to one man twenty-five days.


--- ----


:I








87

TABLE 20.--Weights a Ud cost of foodl Mld ntri'ni. in di'ttr!l st,,ri, Y Vo. .'.i51.


Food consumed during the wliole study (7 day, )i.


Kinds andl imimuntMs.


Coht. nutrient.-, and fililt vnalui if fiud p1ter
In1I IrrT llay.


VI ',-t. '( 't. Prdein. F. t. h rnt -. al


ANIMAL FOImlD.


Beef: Soup bone. 2 pounds. 5 c(nts (171: sirlo in
S steak, 2 pounds, 28 cents (32): beef (corned).
4 pounds, 28 cents (21: rib, 6 pounds, 75 cents
(14). Veal chuck, 4 pounds. 32 cents (37).
Mutton chops, 2 pounds. 25 cents (46) .........
Pork: Bacon, 2 pounds. 25 cents (5c;: chops. 2
pounds, 25 cents (.?S); sausage, 1 pound. 12
cents 66) ..................................
Fish: Trout (lake), 2 pounds, 20 cents (59) ......
Butter, 2.5 pounds. 85 cents (10t) ...............
Egg, 9 pounds. 95 cents (105 ...................
Mik, 12.56 pounds. 30 cents r 114 )...............
Cheese, 2 pounds, 20 cents illl ................


lilt/W irs. ('ritIs. fre'itjns. V rql uis.


;i'tri, ls f('Vth 'i' .


513


1.93

.62
.20
.85
.30
.20


11
3
21,
'3


.......... :391
.......... 30
.......... 347
.......... 219
11 1.56
1 147


Total animal food ......................... 5.05


20.2 I 105 178 12 2,053


VEGETABLE FOOD.


Cereals: Bread, 8 pounds, 40 cents (147): oat-
meal, 1 pound, 5 cents (131); rice, 2 pounds.
14 cents (133)................... .............
Sugar, 4 pounds, 24 cents (163) ...................
Vegetables: Asparagus. 1.13 pounds, 20 cents
(174); cabbage, 3.7 pounds, 16 cents (181): let-
tuce, 0.44 pound. 10 cents (187): onions (dry).
pound, 5 cents (1l9): onions (green), 0.13
pound, 5 centq (190): potatoes. 28 pounds. 50
S cents (196); rhubarb. 2 pounds, 5 cents (201);
turnips, 1 pound. 5 cents (212).................
Fruits: Apples, 3.38 pounds. 10 cents (214)1 ba-
nanas, 9 pounds, 32 cents (218): strawberries.
2.6 pounds, 50 cents (2501 ....................


19
......n'


1.16 4.6

.92 3.7


2 1


Sl 377

33 149


Total vegetable food ...................... 2.91 11.7 32 5 305 1,393
Total food ................................ 7.96 31.9 137 183 317 3.446


DIETARY STUDY NO. 54A.


In this family the husband was of German descent, the wife was


English.
10 years


The whole family consisted of two men. a woman, and a child


old.


One of the men was not very well.


The woman was


attractive and intelligent. The boy was very well looking; he drank
considerable milk. The income of the family was 825 a week. They
lived in their own house, which would rent for about $20 a month.
They spent 18 cents for coffee and 15 cents for tea during the course
of the study.


The study continued seven days. One man was away from
for dinner. Hence the number of meals taken was as follows:


home


Meals.
Two men ........................ .............................. 35
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to.............. 17
Child, 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 13

Total number of meals equivalent to....-------------------- 65
Equivalent to one man twenty-two days.


ul**:i....;i;;.





:" ":: "::* EEEE


88

TABLE 21.-- Wriights anord on t f food and nutrients in dietary study No. 54a.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Kinds and amounts. Cost. Cost. Protein. Fat. Chydrater ue
hydratew value.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Dollars. Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Clori.
Beef: Round steak, 2 pounds, 20 cents (28):
porterhouse steak, 3 pounds, 48 cents (27)..... 0.68 3.1 20 15.......... 214
Pork: Bacon, 0.56 pound, 10 cents (55); ham
(boiled 1 pound. 30 cents (61); salt pork, 0.5
pound, 6 cents (64) ............................ .46 2.1 5 20 .......... 198
Eggs. 1.5 pounds, 16 cents (105) ................ 16 .7 4 3 .......... 43
Butter, 2 pounds, 60 cents (106)................. 60 2.7 1 35 .----...-- 316
Milk, 14.66 pounds, 42 cents (114)................ 42 1.9 10 12 15 207
Cream, 2.25 pounds, 21 cents (113) ............... .21 1.0 1 9 2 92
Total animal food ........................ 2.53 11.5 41 94j 17 1,070
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Flour, 9.8 pounds, 28 cents (1221; oat-
meal, 1 pound, 5 cents (131).................... .33 1.5 27 4 4 166 808
Sugar, 4 pounds, 24 cents (163 .................... .24 1.1 ................ 82 328
Vegetables: Beans (dry). 0.98 pound, 5 cents I
(177); corn (canned), 1.31 pounds, 15 cents
(18-); onions (dry), 1.5 pounds, 10 cents (189); I
potatoes, 14 pounds, 28 cents (196)............ .58 2.6 11 1 62 301
Fruit: Bananas, 3 pounds, 15 cents (218) ........... 15 ................ 9 36
Total vegetable food....................... 1.30 5.9 38 5 319 1,473
Total food................................ 3.83 17.4 79 99 3 3361 2,54


DIETARY STUDY NO. 55A.

This study was made with a French-Canadian family consisting of a
man, two women, and five children aged 14, 12, 10, 8, and 5 years,
respectively. They were all in fair health. The woman was a dress-
maker. The house was not neat. The income of the family was $30
a week. They paid $15 a month rent for six rooms. The fuel cost
them $1.50 a week. During the course of the study they spent 62
cents for tea and coffee, 10 cents for salt and pepper, 2 cents for lem-
ons, 1 cent for pickles, and 2 cents for soup greens. The woman
frequently made meat ragout.
The study continued seven days. The man took his dinners away
from home: hence the number of meals taken was as follows:


M
Man............................. ......................... ...
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to...--....
Child, 14 years (21 meals x 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to......
Two children, 12 and 10 years (42 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equiv-
alent to.......--------------------------------------.............................................
Child, 8 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent t.- ......
Child, 5 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to..-.....


eals.
14
34
15

25
11
8


Total number of meals equivalent to .-...........--- ------ 107
Equivalent to one man thirty-six days.








89

TABLE 22.-leigits find o. a4,f'l,, m, nfitr',it. iiit lilr1 lstifqI .V,1. N i"1.

Food consumed during thi whole study (7 a.iys). ('c lst..t ultri Is.,11 nil futl'l vInlu ,of fi,1, per
Imin per lay.


Kinds and amounts.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Sirloin steak. 16 pounds. 81.70 (32): soup
bone, 3 pounds, 18 cents (17). Veal chuck. 1
pound, 13 cents (37) ...........................
Pork: Sausage, 2 pounds, 25 cents (661t: liln.
8.25 pounds, $1.05 (5s): shoulder. 1.5 lpound..
22 cents (68): lard. 0. pound, 7 cents (62,.....
Fish: Trout (lake), 3 pounds, 36 cents (nia. ......
Butter, 4 pounds, 1.11 (10t;)....................
Eggs, 5.62 pounds, 71 cents (105) ................
Mlk, 17.8 pounds, 52 cents (114)................


(C"l,. ('ot. 1'r.tIin.ii


DIvlltr.'. itf',.

2.01 5. i

1.59 4.4
.36 1.0
1.11 3.1
.71 2.0
.52 1.4


F11.-1
j:ll ll.


fi r' ntlwg. f1r";m m,. .iiint'j i 'til, 'ri o'.


.0 S..


Total animal food ........................ 6.30 17.5 O 146
VEGETABLE FOOD-
Cereals: Bread, 24.25 pounds, 81.12 (147); corn-
starch. 1 pound, 10 cents (172); crackers, 2
pounds, 15 cents (153); doughnuts, ls.55
pounds, $1.65 (156); flour, 2 pounds, 8 cents
(122); macaroni, 1 pound, 15 cents (127); rice,
0.5 pound, 4 cents (133) ..................... 3.29 9.1 51 .5
Sugars: Sugar, 6 pounds, 36 cents (163); sirup,
6 pounds, 20 cents (166)............... ... .....6 1.6 ......... ........
Vegetables: Lettuce, 1.32 pounds, 15 cents (187);
onions (dry), 1.87 pounds, 8 cents (189): pota-
toes, 35 pounds, 63 cents (196): tomatoes,
canned, 1.78 pounds, 10 cents (209): turnips,
0.44 pound, 5 cents (212) ...................... 1.01 2. 9 1


.......... 521

........... 9
11 152
11 .t.64


349
128


2,090
512


69 321


Total vegetable food....................... 4.86 13.5 60 56 546 2,923
Total food............................... 11.16 31.0 140 202 557 4,587

DIETARY STUDY NO. 56A.

The family in this study consisted of a man, a German, weighing
172 pounds, and a woman, an American, weighing 168 pounds; three
children, aged, respectively, 14, 11, and 7 years, and weighing, respec-
tively, 120, 90, and 48 pounds. The woman was intelligent and kept
very careful records during the dietary study. She stated that she
had received help regarding food and dietaries from talks at Hull
House. She endeavored to provide a sufficient diet with good variety.
The children were in good health. They drank milk and cocoa and a
great deal of homemade root beer. The income of the family was $23
a week. They paid $11 a month rent for four rooms. The fuel cost
them about 25 cents a week. During the course of the study they
spent 35 cents for coffee, 30 cents for root-beer extract, S cents for
yeast, 5 cents for salt, 4 cents for vinegar, and 1 cent for nutmeg.
The study continued seven days. In addition to the food consumed
by the family they gave away the equivalent of one meal. The number
of meals taken was therefore as follows:
Meals.
M an........... ......................................-.......... 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to .....--...-... 17
Child, 14 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 15
Child, 11 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to ....... 13
Child, 7 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to ........ 10
Food given away equivalent to ..................... .............. 1

Total number of meals equivalent to ----.. --............... 77
Equivalent to one man twenty-six days.


Flit. c'arhi.-
, h ity, lit, .








90

TABLE 23.-- eights rend coat of food and nutrients in dietary study No. 56a.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 d

Kinds and amounts.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Rump (corned), 3.1 pounds, 24 cents (3);
flank, 1.5 pounds, 15 cents (24): soup bone, 6
pounds. "' cents (17); suet. 1 pound, 8 cents
1351. Mutton, leg, 5.5 pounds. 63 cents 14b S...
Pork: Salt pork. 0.5 pound. 6 cents (64...........
Butter. 2 pounds, 62 cents (106).................
Eggs. 6 pounds, 64 cents (105)....................
Milk. 29.32 pounds, 84 cents (114) ...............
Cheese. 1 pound, 18 cents (111) .................


ays).


II


I Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
j man per day.


Cost. Cost. Protein. Fat.


DoUars. 0'nts. Grams. Grams.


1.32 5.1 42
06 .2 .......... 8


.62
.64
.84
.18


14
17
5


Carbo-
hydrates.


Fuel
value.


Gramous, i ordes.


..........
..........
..........
26
--------..-


Total animal food ....................... 3.66 14.1 78 1 124 26.
VEGETABLE FOOD.


613
71
267
S 14
350
713
1,519


Cereals: Bread. 2 pounds. 10 cents 1147); corn
meal. 2 pounds, cents (119): Graham meal, 2
pounds. 6 cents (124); oatmeal. 2 pounds. 10
cents (131): macaroni, 1 pound. 10 cents
(127): rice. 2 pounds. 20 cents (1331; white
flour, 1 pound, 4 cents (122): whole-wheat
flour. 9 pounds. 54 cents (123).................. 1.19 4.6
Sugars: Cocoa, 0.5 pound, 10 cents (168): sugar,
4 pounds. 22 cents (163) ........................ 32 1.2
Vegetables: Beans (dry), 0.98 pound. 5 cents
(177 : cabbage. 1.23 pounds, 7 cents (181); car-
rots. 0.26 pound. 5 cents (182 ): cucumbers. 2
pounds. 8 cents (186): lettuce, 0.88 pound. 10
cents (187): onions green 1. 5 pounds. 18cents
(1901; peas (dry). 1.s8 pounds, 5 cents (193);
peas (green). 1.36 pounds. 10 cents (1941: po-
tatoes. 14 pounds. 25 cents (196); rhubarb, 2
pounds, 5 cents (201): spinach. 3.19 pounds. 20
cents (206) ...................................... 1.18 4.6
Fruits: Apples. 9 pounds. 35 cents (214): cocoa- |
nut preparedd, 1.5 pounds. 50 cents (224):
figs, 1 pound. 10 cents (231): oranges. 4.75 1
pounds. 20 cents (238i: prunes, 1 pound, 16
cents (247i .................................... 1.31 5.0
Total ve&etat-h.: f-l ....................... 4.00 15.4
Total food ................................ 7.66 29.5


* I


1,291
323


4 16 56 382
72 28 4661 2,401
150j 1521 I 3,920


DIETARY STUDY NO. 57A.

This study was made with a Hungarian family consisting of three
men, two women, and four children, aged, respectively, 14, 12, 10, and
2 years. The children were in fair health. They drank milk, tea, and
coffee. The income of the family was not given. They paid $40 a
month rent for S rooms. The fuel cost them about S1.50 a week. In
addition to the food materials purchased they spent 67 cents for coffee,
50 cents for tea, 5 cents for soup greens. 5 cents for pickles, and 6
cents for candy.


The study continued seven days.


Two of


the men were away


during the week.


The number of meals taken was as follows:


Meals.
Man ........-..---............................. ...--- -... ------- 21
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to........... 34
Two children, 14 and 12 years (42 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equiva-
lent to................................---------......---------............ 29
Child. 10 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to.......... 13
Child, 2 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to ........ 8

Total number of meals equivalent to....-....-- .------------- 105
Equivalent to one man thirty-five days.


===:=











TABLE 24.--Weights and cost if fdni and nit rinetl' in ,hotri .1thr l/ .Yo. ., i.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days).


Kinds and amounts.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Shoulder, 10 pounds. 81.09 (19); flank, 5
pounds. 37 cents (24); sirloin. 2.5 pounds. 30
cents (32): round, 2 pounds, 24 cents (28):
suet, 5 pounds, 40 cents 135); shin, 2 pounds,
12 cents (17)................... ................
Butter, 4.5 pounds, $1.13 (106)...................
Errs, 10.5 pound". $1.10 (105).....................
Mir, 37.69 pounds, 95 cents (114) ..............
Cream, 6.72 pounds, 60 cents (113) .............
Total animal food..........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Apple pie, 1 pound, 10 cents (158);
bread, 20 pounds, 81 (147); cakes, 2.70 pounds,
26 cents (150); crackers, 2 pounds, 17 cents
(153); wheat breakfast food, 0.33 pound, 2
cents (137); flour, 9.5 pounds, 33 cents (122);
oatmeal, 3 pounds, 11 cents (131); rice, 1
pound, 7 cents (1331 ..........................
Sugar, 14 pounds, 77 cents (163).................
Vegetables: Beans (string), 2.63 pounds, 20
cents (178): cabbage. 2.47 pounds, 12 cents
(181); carrots, 3 pounds, 5 cents (182); lettuce,
0.22 pound, 5 cents (187); onions, 2 pounds, 10
cents (189); peas (green), 2.75 pounds, 10 cents
(194); potatoes (new), 7 pounds, 45 cents (196);
radishes, 0.44 pound, 5 cents (200) ...........
Fruits: Apples, 24 pounds, 60 cents (214): ba-
nanas, 3 pounds. 10 cents (218); peaches (dry),
1 pound, 15 cents (240); pears (dry), 1 pound,
10 cents (242): pineapples, canned, 3.81
pounds, 10 cents (244); prunes, 1 pound, 12
cents (247) ................... .................
Total vegetable food......................
Total food .................................


Cost.


Dolia ra.


Cost. nutrients, a nl fuel viili. of fonl per
man itper 'ilnt.


Ca'nrb-,) Fuel
:t.i hylrat.mmN v .


f,'rtfruII ,'rfrl ti. i l 'f/orn/'l.


(:cot. Protein.
CI.


2.52 7.2 50 81i ..........' 965
1.13 3. 2 1 50 ........... 449
1.10 3.2 18 13 .......... 188
.95 2.7 1 i 19 24 329
.60 1.7 '2 t; 4 166
6.30 18.0 7I 7 1 4 28 2,097

II




2.06 5.9 1 51 11 316 1,593
.77 2.2 ........ ........ 724




1.22 3.5 5 1 27 137



1.17 3.3 3 2 70 310
5.22 14.9 59 17 594 2,763
11.52 32.9 146 201 622 4.860


DIETARY STUDY NO. 58A.

This was a Bohemian family consisting- of three men, two women,


and four children, aged, respectively, 13, 11, 9. and 5 years.


The chil-


dren were in good health.


They all drank coffee.


$12 a week and boarders paid $3.50 a week each.
a house of four rooms for $10 a month. They
coffee in addition to the food materials purchased.
The study continued seven days. The number
as follows:


The father earned
The family rented
spent 54 cents for


of meals taken was


Meals.
Three men....... ..... .......--... -. ..-..-.....-...-. .......-.... 63
Two women (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to.......... 34
Child, 13 years (21 meals X 0.7 meal of man), equivalent to....... 15
Child, 11 years (21 meals X 0.6 meal of man), equivalent to....... 13
Child, 9 years (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to........ 11
Child, 5 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to....... 8

Total number of meals equivalent to..---.......---------... 144
SEquivalent to one man forty-eight days.


. .... ......








92

T.\ BL 25.- 1I';ights aind cost of food and nutrients in dietary lsudy No. 58a.


Food consumed during the whole study (7 days). Cost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.

Kinds and amounts. Cost. Cost. Protein. Fat. Carbo- Fuel
hydrates. value.

ANIMAL FOOD..
Dollars. Cent. Grains. Grants. Grantms. Calories.
Beef: Shin, 10.5 pounds, 53 cents (17). Mutton.
leg, 7.5 pounds, 68 cents (48). Veal chuck, 8.5
pounds, 85 cents (37) .......................... 2.06 4.3 37 19 .......... 317
Pork: Sausage, 2 pounds, 20 cents (66); sparerib,
12.5 pounds, 81.44 (5) .......................... 1.6 3.4 18 39 .......... 419
Butter. 1.5 pounds, 43 cents (1061................. .43 1.0 ......... 12 .......... 107
Eggs, s.25 pounds, 83 cents (105)................ .83 1.7 10 1 7 -......... 102
Milk, 21.99 pounds, 63 cents (114)............... .63 1.3 7 9 11 152
Cheese, 1 pound, 5 cents (110).................... .05 .1 2 ........ .......... 8
Total animal food ........................ 5.64 11.8 i 74 : 86 1 11 1,105
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Flour (white), 19.6 pounds, 47 cents
(1221: flour (rye), 12.5 pounds, 27 cents (121) .. .74 1.6 30 3 232 1,035
Sugar, 14 pounds, 77 cents (163 ................. .77 1.6 ................. 132 528
Vegetables: Beans (string), 5.25 pounds, 10 cents
(178): cabbage, 2.47 pounds, 15 cents (181);
carrots, 0.25 pound, 5 cents (182): lettuce, 1.25
pounds, 10 cents (181); onions, 1.25 pounds, 5 |
cents (189): potatoes, 3.5 pounds, 9 cents (196). .54 1.1 2 ........ 11 52
Beer, 7 pounds, 35 cents (259).................... 35 .7 ... .... .. 8 32
l~~~~ ~ ------ ------ --- ^ -_^ _^ ^ ^- ^ -
Total vegetable food....................... 2.40 5.0 3: 3 383 1,687
Total food ................................ 8.04 16.8 106 89 394 2,792


DIETARY STUDY NO. 59A.

The family in this study consisted of a man, Irish, weighing 145
pounds, and a woman, English, weighing 109 pounds, and two chil-
dren, one 6 years old, weighing 45 pounds, and one 4 years old,
weighing '29 pounds. They were in fair health. The children drank
tea and coffee three times a day. The income of the family was $9 a
week. They paid $9 a month rent for three rooms. The fuel cost
them 50 cents a week. In addition to the food materials purchased,
they spent 60 cents for tea and coffee.
The study continued seven days. The number of meals taken was
as follows:
Meals.
M an............................................................ 21
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to ---------....-- 17
Child (21 meals X 0.5 meal of man), equivalent to ..'...........- 10
Child, 4 years (21 meals X 0.4 meal of man), equivalent to........ 8

Total number of meals equivalent to........................ 56
Equivalent to one man nineteen days.








93

TABLE 26.-- fe1iglt flitn d c t ot nif *rulnI r I hiri nl' i d i;l, rd!l .slf,,l f .\' ..; .'*i,


Food consumed duiriing tihe whol, stiidyv 7 Ila.-., i.


Kind.s atd atn u tsiln.


ANIMAl. Fi0l.

Beef: Rump steak. 3 pounds, 33 cents i30I;
Sound steak, 1 pound, 10 cents I2si: sirloin
steak, 1.28 pounds, 18 cents (32 1; flank steak.
1.5 pounds. 15 cents (24): shoulder :3.5 ploundls.
46 cents (19); corned beef, 7 Ipo,(ndi 49 cent's
2); sausage (frankfurt). 0.5 pound, 5 cents'
(5). \eal chops. 1 pound, 15 cents (411 .......
Pork: Bacon (smoked), 1 pound, 12 cents (1.i;
chops, 1 pound, 12 cents (.si: lard, 1 pound,
12 cents (62 : pork (salt), 1 pound. 14 cents(64).
Fish, white, 2 pounds, 12 cents (1031 ............I
Butter, 2.5 pounds. 63 cents (106) ................
Eggs, 4.25 pounds, 56 cents (105) ...............
Mik, 8.38 pounds. 24 cents 11 4.................
Cheese, 0.75 pound, 10 cents, ill) ...............


C( ,.t. ( ist. IPren iin. Fin. n, lrt' -


1.91

.50
.12
.63
.56
.24
.10


1i. 1

2.6
.6
3.3
:3.0
1.3
.


]-'lm
v;tIsii,.


71 7t ..........


..........
..........
..........
..........
11-
..........


Total animal food ........................ 4.06 21. 4 107 219 10 2, 416
VEGETABLE F ol).


Cereals: Apple pie. 2 pounds. 24 cent~ (tl):
bread, 7 pounds. 30 cents (1471: cake, 1.5
pounds,30 cents (150; doughnuts. 1.13pounds. *
5 cents (156): flour. 24.5 pounds, 60 cents (122).
Sugar, 3 pounds, 18 cents (163)...................
Vegetables: Cabbage. 1.23 pounds, 8 cents (181 ):
corn (canned), 1.31 pounds. 10 cents (IS4):
cucumbers. 4 pounds, 10 cents (186): onions
(dry), 5 pounds, 15 cents t 1s9 : onions (green). ,
0.75 pound. 25 cents 1 190): potatoes, 21 pounds.
45 cents (196): radishes, 0.66 pound. 5 cents ,
(200): string beans, 1.97 pounds. 15 rents (178):


1.49
.18


7.s ss 21
.9 ......... ........


2. '79
2,%S


turnips, 0.88 pound, 7 cents (212) .............. 1.40 7.4 14 2 110 474
Total vegetable food ...................... 3.07 16.1 ll2 2.3 757 3.6'41
Total food ................................. 7.13 37.5 20o 242 767 i .0L7



DIETARY STUDY NO. 61)A.


This study was made with a Scotch family colnistingo of three men


and a woman.


The woman was in crood health, but this was due to


carefulness in diet, as she was not naturally strong.


iThe income of


the family was $20 a week and 89 a week from boarders. They occu-
pied three rooms and a store, for which they were paying by install-
ments, and which would rent for about $Go6 a month. In addition to
the food materials purchased they spent 21 cents for coffee and 16
cents for tea.


The study continued seven day-s.


from home each day.
lows:


Two men ate their lunches away


Hence the number of meals taken was as fol-


Meals.
Three men..... ........................ ... ................ ---- 49
Woman (21 meals X 0.8 meal of man), equivalent to....--..-..---- 17

Total number of meals equivalent to----.--....--------................- 66
Equivalent to one man twenty-two days.


(',Il. lIUI .rlt nt-, Ulan' fu.Il vn11n. if fina I pi,,.r
IIIll lt p r [ Ill


f)O/1!'rn.. ( f Il. f f;ri oii... I'i;IrII.,. Iotlid.f, i 1, S.,




... .......
........ ... .. ..
.. ..... ..
... ......... .. .. .... ...
... .......


94


TABLE 27.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients in dietary study No. 60a.


Food. cons-nmed (luring the whole study (7 days).


C'ost, nutrients, and fuel value of food per
man per day.


Kinds and amounts.


ANIMAL FOOD.

Beef: Tenderloin steak. 3.25 pounds, 49 cents
(:321. Veal, neck, 7.75 pounds, 95 cents (42) ...
Pork: Bacon (smoked).0.75 pound, 8 cents (55):
chops. 1.5 pounds. 23 cents (5A); sausage, 1.5
pounds, 18 cents (66) .........................
Bulter, 2 pounds. 50 cents (106) ................
Ezgs, 7.5 pounds. 75 cents (105) .................
Cream, 1.13 pounds, 10 cents (113)...............
Milk, 1-.66 pounds, 35 cents (114) ..............

Total animal food.........................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Cereals: Bread, 10 pounds, 58 cents (147); cake,
1 pound, 25 cents (150): crackers, 1 pound. 18
cents (153); pies, 2 pounds, 28 cents (158); rice,
0.5 pound, 4 cents (133) .......................
Sugar, 2 pounds, 11 cents (163)..................
Vegetables: Beans (green), 0.66 pound, 7 cents
(178); onions, 2 pounds, 10 cents (189); pota-
toes. 25 pounds, 50 cents (196); rhubarb, 3
pounds, 5 cents (201); spinach, 3.19 pounds,
10 cents (206); tomatoes (canned), 3.56 pounds,
24 cents (209)................................
Fruit: Bananas, 6 pounds, 25 cents (218).........

Total vegetable food ....................

Total food............. ....... .............


Cost.



Dollars.

1.44

.49
.50
.75
.10
.35


Cost.


Cents.

6.5

2.2
2.3
3.4
.5
1.6


3.63 16.5


Protein. Fat. h Carbo-
hydrates.


Grams.

33

10

20
1
10

74


1.33 6.1 25
.11 .5 .......




1.061 4.8 12
.25 1.1 1

2.75 i 12.5 38

6.38 29.0 1 112
iI


Grams. (rams.

18 ........


31
35
15
4
12

115





10


I...........

1
15
15


Fuel
value.


Calorie.

292

316
312
214
42
207


16 1.383


1 87 405
1 18 85

12 309 1,495

127 25 2,678
I


SUMMARY AND GENERAL DEDUCTIONS.

The results of the Chicago dietary studies are summarized in the

following table:

TABLE 28.-Summary of results of dietary studies with Chicago families.


Dietary
stud y
No.


29a
30a
31a
32a
33a
34a
35a


Families.


American, native .....................
..... do ................................
.....do ...............................
....do.................................
.....do .................................
.....do ..................................
.....do .................................

Average .........................


36a American, German descent ...........
37a .....do .................................
38a .....do ..................................
39a .....do ................. ........... ...
40a !.....do .......... ......................

Average .........................

41a American, Irish descent .............

Average all American families...

42a Germ an ................................
43a .....do .............. ... ..............
44a '.....do ................... .... .........

Average ................. .......


Cost. Protein. Fat.


Cents. Grams. Grams.
22.6 108 81
26.3 105 133
19.5 94 147
31.6 119 13.5
33.4 130 239
30.3 138 191
19.0 123 133
I-
26. 1 117 151

29.9 119 152
18.6 110 106
22.2 105 94
16.5 111 87
18.5 100 157

21.1 109 i 11

34.5 1611 153

24.9 117 139

20.9 109 124
20.6 114 183
33.0 153 175

24.8 1 125 161


SCarbo- -Fuel
hydrates. value..


Grams. Calories.
433 2,886
489 3,560
232 2,613
458 3,510
756 5,673
356 3,677
441 3,441

452 3,623

3o 3,189
428 3,095
443 3,031
487 3,167
267 2,867

393 3,070

910 5,647

465 3,566

229 2,457
485 4,025
501 4,173

405 3,552


=i:




an


fT TABLE 28.--Summary of results of dietary studies with C'hirgo fa milies--C' ntinued.

Die tary I trbo- Fuel
study Families. Cost. Protein. Fut. 'hydrates. value.
No.
Cents. Grams. i rnamsi. I Grn fraloris.
45a Irish............. ........... ........... 23.5 101 109 : 35; 2,799
46a ....do ................................ 31.7 145 1I8 512 4, 124
47a ......do ................................. 27.8 167 239 552 5,004
48a i.....do ................................. 32.9 168 1S2 30 3, K13
S49a ......do ................... ............... 21.6 112 123 55-1 3.739
05.a .....do ... ........................... 18.1 94 101 290 2,46;2
Average .......................... 25.9 131 154 441 3,060
51a English................................... 41.s 189 198 454 4,335
62a English-Bohemian ..................... 37.2 111 65 459 2, 60
53a English-American...................... 31.9 137 13 317 3,446
54a German-English........................ 17.4 79 99 336 2,543
55a French-Canadian ...................... 31.0 140 202 557 4, 87
I:: 56a German-American ..................... 29.5 150 152 492 3,920
57a Hungarian ............................ 32.9 146 201 622 4,860
58a Bohemian .............................. 16.8 106 89 394 2, 792
Ii* 59a Irish-English .......................... 37.5 209 242 767 6,.057
I; 60a Scotch................................. 29.0 112 127 32.5 2,878
Average, all (32) studies ......... 26.8 127 149 457 3,664

S' The cost of the diet per man per day varied in these studies from
S 16.5 cents in the lowest to 41.8 cents in the highest, but in most cases
the range above or below the average, 26.8 cents, was considerably
[I within these limits. In none of the Chicago studies was the expense
S as small as in two of the Philadelphia studies, but in three of the for-
mer it was larger than the largest among the latter.
EIIn only three of the Chicago studies was the quantity of protein
less than 100 grams per man per day. In two of these it was 94 grams
I and in one 79 grams. Probably in the latter case the figures should
really be larger. One of the two men in the family was ill during
the time of the study and doubtless ate less than he would when well,
I.. but in the calculations of the results of the study he has been credited
with three full meals each day.
Concerning the dietary study No. 51a, with 189 grams of protein
per man per day, and study No. 59a, with 209 grams, it has already
been mentioned that the results are considered doubtful. Of the
remaining studies the results of a few showed fairly large quantities
of protein and energy per man per day, but the diet in the majority
supplied not very far from the average of all the studies, namely, 127
grams of protein per man per day. This is practically the same as
that of the commonly accepted American standard for a man at mod-
erate muscular work, i. e., 125 grams per day. The energy of the
average, 3,664 calories per man per day, is but 164 calories above
that given by the standard just mentioned.
As in the case of the Philadelphia studies, the data concerning the
occupations of the families were so few that but little can be said
i; regarding the adequacy of the diet; but it may be inferred that it was
sufficient. The families in these studies were more intelligent and were
i in better circumstances than were those in Philadelphia. They had




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96

regular incomes, which in a number of cases were more than enough
to provide a comfortable living. It is therefore doubtless safe to
assume that these people ate at least as much as they needed.
The Chicago families were on the whole rather less economical than
those in Philadelphia. In the average of all the Chicago studies each
cent spent secured 4.7 grams of protein and 137 calories of energy,
while in the average of the Philadelphia studies there were 5 grams
of protein and 144 calories of energy for each cent of the cost. As
was the case in Philadelphia, the Chicago families also differed widely
in respect to the economy of their purchases. Thus in study No. 81a
the family spent 19.5 cents per man per day and secured 94 grams of
protein and 2.613 calories of energy, while the family in study No.
35a for practically the same expenditure, 19 cents per man per day,
obtained 123 grams of protein and 3,441 calories of energy. The
family in study No. 39a secured 111 grams of protein and 8,167 calo-
ries of energy for 16.5 cents, while the family in study No. 52a obtained
the same amount of protein, 111 grams, and about 300 -calories less
energy, or 2,860 calories, at a cost of about two and one-third times
as much, 37.2 cents. There are several other examples of the fact
that some of the families paid very much more than was necessary
for the quantities of nutrients and energy obtained.
The costliness of the diets in these studies was not due to inability
to purchase in quantities. Several of the articles used in these studies
were bought in this way, the principal one being flour, which was
bought in every case by the bag or barrel. The chief reason for the
lack of economy in the purchase of food was inattention to or igno-
rance of the relation between the cost of food and its actual nutritive
value.
COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS.

Something perhaps should be said regarding the results of the
dietary studies in Philadelphia and Chicago, considered as a whole.
It should be remembered that the studies were carried on some years
ago. before some of the experimental methods at present followed had
been devised. Furthermore, it was hardly possible with the limited
time and equipment at the investigators' disposal to make an entirely
satisfactory record of the foods purchased and eaten, and conse-
quently, in many cases considerable dependence had to be placed upon
information given by the families themselves. Certain errors are
almost sure to occur in studies of this kind, even under favorable cir-
cumstances and with the most careful attention on the part of those
conducting the investigations, especially under conditions like those
attending the work in Philadelphia, where the families studied were
almost without exception quite ignorant and untrained. The chief
source of error lies in the possible tendency of the family to give a





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97

false impression of their food consumption; in some cases by purchas-
ing larger quantities than usual or by reporting larger amounts than
were actually purchased, and in other cases by omitting to mention some
of the purchases made. For instance, it appears that families who
had formerly been in more comfortable circumstances would some-
times be ashamed to let an outsider know how economically they were
now living, and perhaps how insufficiently they were nourished. In
Such cases there might be a tendency to procure more food during the
FI time of the study than ordinarily. Other families, suspecting an
opportunity for pecuniary assistance, might be tempted to purchase
less food than usual, or to conceal food already on hand. Another
possible source of error is in the failure to make proper record of
the number of meals taken by each member of the family or by any
visitors.
It is noticeable that quite generally the results of dietary studies
among poor families, where the statistics are recorded by the families
S themselves, indicate a larger food consumption than is found in the
more reliable studies in which the food materials were actually weighed
by those conducting the investigations. This was very forcibly illus-
trated by the results of dietary studies in Chicago in 1895 and 1896,
S described in a former publication of this Office." In 25 studies in
which the data were collected entirely by the investigators the
S average cost of the diet per man per day was 17.9 cents, and the
average quantity of protein 116 grams, and of energy 3,160 calories.
The persons in charge of these studies also conducted at the same
time 28 others, in which the statistics were kept by the families them-
selves. These were made with families in the same localities and
living under the same circumstances as the others, but the average
cost of the diet per man per day as recorded was 22.1 cents, the
Average quantity of protein 147 grams, and of energy 3,550 calories.
A comparison of the individual studies shows that where the statistics
were furnished by the families the differences in results with different
families were very much wider than in the studies made entirely by
the investigators.
In the dietary studies in Philadelphia reported in these pages the
families were not very intelligent and were in destitute circumstances;
the chances for errors were therefore comparatively large. The fami-
Slies in the Chicago studies here reported were more intelligent and
;| were in more comfortable circumstances, so that the possibilities of
4 error in this case seem smaller. Bearing these facts in mind, it is
i evident that too sweeping conclusions should not be drawn from the
results of the studies themselves or from the averages as compared
i with those of later studies of families in similar circumstances.
I a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 55.
25580-No. 129-03- 7







98

Considering the net results of these dietary studies they were of
undoubted value to the settlement associations under whose auspices
they were made. They furnished more accurate information than
could have been gained otherwise regarding the ways of living, the
adequacy of the diet, and the faults in methods of purchasing, cooking,
and serving food. The information gained, it is believed, has been
utilized in many ways to the advantage of all concerned.
Investigations like the above have been carried on in many other
localities and under a variety of conditions. Of such work as a whole,
it seems fair to say that it has materially assisted the attempts which -
have been made to help families like those studied in Philadelphia and
Chicago to better methods of living.


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