Instruction in agronomy at some agricultural colleges


Material Information

Instruction in agronomy at some agricultural colleges
Series Title:
United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Bulletin
Physical Description:
85 p. : illus., XVII pl. ; 23 cm.
True, Alfred Charles, 1853-1929
Crosby, Dick Jay ( joint author )
Govt. print. off.
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural education   ( lcsh )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
By A.C. True and D.J. Crosby.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 029561538
oclc - 28972737
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A. C. TRUE, Director.





and 1). J. CROSBY.


1 9 03.



EJ. V. ALLEN, 11. D., and .l. W. LAWSON-UhemtPn ry, Dai
W. H. BEAL-Agricultural Physics and Engineering.
WALTER H. EVANS, Ph. D. -Botany and Diseases of Plants.
C. F. LANGWORTHY, Ph. D.-Foods and Animal Production.
J. I. ScHULTE-Field Crops.
E. V. WILCOX, Ph. D.-Entomology and Veterinary Science.
C. B. SMITH-Horticulture.
D. J. COSBY- Agricultural Institutions.

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Waslington, D. C., M(ay 18, 1903.
SrR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on courLses in
agronomy in several agricultural colleges. There is now considerable
activity in our agricultural colleges in developing and strengthening
the courses of instruction in this division of the science of agriculture.
The report has been prepared at the suggestion of the committee on
methods of teaching agriculture of the Association of American Agri-
cultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, and is an outcome of the
work of that committee. I feel sure that such a comparative presenta-
tion of courses actually being given in some of our colleges will aid in
the further development and strengthening of this line of work in
other institutions, and I therefore recommend the publication of the
report as Bulletin 127 of this Office.
The illustrations have been carefully selected from a large number
furnished by the colleges, and are intended to show distinctive features
of the equipment for instruction in agronomy at the institutions repre-
sented in the bulletin.
Respectfully, A. C. TjUE,
Secretary of Agriculture.

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Purpose and scope of this bulletin ........................- ............. ..
Work of the committee on methods of teaching agriculture....--............ 11
Syllabus of course in agronomy --------------...-------..---...-.........-..............-----------..... 13.
Outline for a course of lectures or a text-hook on agronomy ...........--. 16
Practicums or laboratory work in agronomy -......-..--------------... 18
Detailed description of courses in agronomy............----.........------.... 1
Alabama Polytechnic Institute -........--.--..-- ......--------------. 18
Exhibit No. 1.-Examinations in agronoml ----------.-----------. 21
Exhibit No. 2.-Students' field notes -...---........... ....-....... 22
The College of Agriculture of the University of Illinois ...--....-......- 23
Exhibit No. 3.-Juging corn......---------........... .... ......---. 30
Exhibit No. 4.-Students' laboratory blanks in soil physics ......... 32
Michigan Agricultural College-...-..-- -----.......-...-....--..---.. 37
Exhibit No. 5.-A few of the practicums in agronomy ...--..----... 42
Exhibit No. 6.-Examination questions in soils and crops-.....----. 47
College of Agriculture of the University of Minnesota......-------....---... 47
The University of Nebraska ...-...-- .......--...---.- .....--..--- .--- 51
Ohio State University ..............---..--.......---..----...--...... 56
Exhibit No. 7.-Laboratory work in the elementary course in soils. 59
Exhibit No. 8.-Detailed schedule of laboratory work .............. 69
Exhibit No. 9.-Examination in elementary course in farm crops .... 70
Exhibit No. 10.-List of laboratory or field practicums in elementary
course in farm crops------.. ...- -........-------...... ..-- ..--..- 71
The Agricultural Institute of the University of Gittingen .-..--..------- 74
H istory.................. ................-------. .............- -. 74
Present organization .....-- ..--- ..-..--................ ....------- 76
Requirements for admission --............-..... ..--.......--- .--- 77
Course of study ..---......--.........................--------..----- 7
Methods of instruction ...------------------.............-------......--------...................... 78
Instruction in agronomlny.-...- ......-- .......-...-.. ... .......... -79
Facilities for instruction ..- -.............-..-.... .....--.. ...---- -- 82

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PLATE I. University of Illinois, bird's-eye view of agricultural building
and experiment fields ..---.--------.......---.---... ..... 28
II. Fig. 1.-University of Illinois, class in agronomy studying root
development of corn. Fig. 2.-University of Illinois, class
in agronomy collecting samples of soil...-..---------..--.... 28
III. Fig. 1.-University of Illinois, soil fertility laboratory for analy-
sis and synthesis of soils and fertilizers. Fig. 2.-Univer-
sity of Illinois, class in agronomy in pot culture laboratory.. 28
IV. Fig. 1.-University of Illinois, soil physics laboratory. Fig. 2.-
University of Illinois, farm crops seed laboratory ------------ 28
V. Michigan Agricultural College, Agricultural Hall .------------ 40
VI. Fig. 1.-Michigan Agricultural College, students making me-
chanical analyses of soils. Fig. 2.-Michigan Agricultural
College, soils laboratory and class room ..... .....---------. 40
VII. Fig. 1.-v-University of Minnesota, Dairy Hall. Fig. 2.-Univer-
sity of Minnesota, emasculating and cross pollinating wheat.. 50
VIII. Fig. 1.-University of Minnesota, Centgener thrashing machine
and fanning-mill separator in use in the field crop nursery.
Fig. 2.-University of Minnesota, machine for planting grain
in nursery beds ..----......---- .....------------------.... 50
IX. University of Nebraska, agricultural building -------...----..- 52
X. Fig. 1.-University of Nebraska, field crops laboratory, students
judging seed corn. Fig. 2.-University of Nebraska, soils
laboratory..............------------------------------. 52
XI. Fig. 1.-University of Nebraska, apparatus for making determi-
nations of soil moisture. Fig. 2.-University of Nebraska,
experiment plats---...---....-----....... ..--------..--..---. 52
XII. Fig. 1.-University of Nebraska, seed laboratory. Fig. 2.-Uni-
versity of Nebraska, a corner in the seed storeroom .-.....-- 52
XIII. Ohio State University, Townshend Hall ... .................. 58
XIV. Fig. 1.-Ohio State University, mechanical analysis of soil. Fig.
2.-Ohio State University, torsion balance used in soil phys-
ics laboratory..- -..................................... 68
XV. G6ttingen Agricultural Institute, main building..-...-.....--. 76
XVI. Fig. 1.--G6ttingen Agricultural Institute, looking southeast.
Fig. 2.-Gottingen Agricultural Institute, looking northeast
from institute buildings across the experiment plats-....... 84
XVII. G6ttingen Agricultural Institute, greenhouse ..-------.......---..--- 84


FIG. 1. Centrifuge, shaker, and electric motor used in mechanical analysis of
soils ......................-.. .................................
2. Tubes of galvanized iron used to study effectiveness of mulches upon
moisture losses...............--..................................
3. King's aspirator to determine the effective size of soil grains -........
4. Apparatus used to study the movement of air through soils .....-...
5. Apparatus used to study percolation of water through soils ..........
6. Hot-air drying oven ---..................................----- ......
7. Centrifugal seed-grading machine -.........---.......-...-- --.......
8. Movable soil thermometer ---....-.....-..........---..............
9. Soil sampling apparatus -.....................................-....
10. Apparatus for determining specific gravity of soils ---..--............
11. Determination of volume weight, apparent specific gravity, and poros-
ity of soils .............--.........-- ...........--- ...---..-...--
12. Soil-compacting machine --....- ................. .......----.....-..
13. Determining the power of soils to retain moisture ...................
14. Rate of percolation of water through soils .................-- ........
15. Apparatus to determine the rate of flow of air through soils -...--...
16. Soil tubes for showing the effect of mulches on evaporation of water
from soils-.....................--.......- ............-.........-
17. Determining the power of air-dry soils to absorb moisture from the air..
18. Measuring capillarity in soils --.....---. ..- ..............--....
19. Apparatus for testing the adhesiveness of soils .................-....
20. Card's apparatus for testing the adhesiveness of soils................
21. Apparatus for taking soil samples............-...-.- -...............
22. Plan of experiment grounds at Gbttingen Agricultural Institute.....

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-This bulletin is based on the reports of the committee on methods
of teaching agriculture of the Association of American Agricultural
Colleges and Experiment Stations and on further inquiries made by
the Office of Experiment Stations. It is intended to supplement the
work of the committee in collating detailed information regarding
instruction in agronomy. The status of that work at the time the
committee made its sixth report (' is indicated by the following para-
graph from that report:
After consultation with the instructors in agriculture in the different colleges, it
has seemed well for your committee to undertake to present in some detail inforima-
tion regarding the courses in agriculture and the facilities for instruction in this
subject in our colleges. It is especially desirable to put on record data regarding
distinctive features of these courses and the materials for demonstration and illustra-
tion already existing in different institutions. Your committee has, therefore,
undertaken during the present year to collate such information regarding the course
in agronomy. Considerable material has already been accumulated, but some time
must elapse before it will be in form for publication. Your committee therefore
asks that it may be granted leave to print its report on agronomy in our agricultural
colleges, in whole or in part, in the next proceedings of this association, and be given
authority to negotiate with the Office of Experiment Stations for the separate pub-
lication of its detailed report on this subject.
Authority to publish its detailed report in accordance with the
above request was granted the committee, which, however, was not
able to prepare the material in time for printing in the proceedings
of the association. This Office undertook, therefore, to complete the
report and publish it.
Subsequent inquiries on the part of the Office of Experiment Stations
by correspondence, by members of the Office force making visits of
inspection to the agricultural experiment stations, and by a special
officer sent to visit a number of the colleges, showed that while many
a Presented at the convention of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges
and Experiment Stations in Washington, D. C., November 12-14, 1901.

L .t1JUctA. Li 3-aiLO aiiLL. VL 11 III .u LU FIJj. .1 10 U LLIIOLA JiUjAL I j fa1,.V.L, iA3I. J &U
(1) two colleges not connected with universities-Alabama i- ....t
South and Michigan in the North; (2) two university college ljih
schools of agriculture (agricultural high schools) connected *
them-Minnesota and Nebraska; (3) two university colleges in
no provision for preparatory work is made-Illinois and Ohio' i1
(4) a university college in Germany-the Agricultural Institute ofl
University ofGottingen.
In the detailed statements regarding the course in agronuou.ay
these institutions the four-year agricultural course has been coni
ered in a general way as to its purpose, requirements for adudmiwai
and scope; then attention has been given to agronomy, its.positSioi
the four-year course, preparation for it secured by means of preWVl
work in botany and chemistry, its scope and the method of pre
tion to the students. Under this last head an account has been g'iqt
of the equipment used, such as buildings, lecture and laboratory r1~oii'
apparatus, collections, special forms, library facilities, and land, ani".
leading features of this equipment have been illustrated. In thi !a
aration of these detailed statements Prof. J. F. Duggar, of 8A ti
Dr. C. G. Hopkins, of Illinois; Prof. J. A. Jeffrey, of 1Michi
Prof. W. M. Hays, of Minnesota; Prof. T. L. Lyon, of Nebraskt :
Prof. W. D. Gibbs, of Texas (formerly of Ohio), have r!
valuable assistance.

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The first report of the committee on methods of teaching agricul-
ture a pointed out that "one great obstacle to the intelligent discussion
of the scheme of agricultural instruction and the methods of agricul-
tural teaching is the lack of a definite nomenclature of the subject,"
and suggested "for the consideration of the association a tentative
scheme for the division of what is commonly designated agriculture
in courses of study into several distinct branches or subdivisions, and
for giving each of these branches a definite name, as follows:

1. Agronomy, or agriculture
(technical). 1
2. Zootechny, or animal in-
dustry. l
3. Agrotechny, or agricul-
tural technology. 1
4. Rural engineering, farm
mechanics, or farm
5. Rural economy or farm

Climate, soils, fertilizers, and croips-
plant production.
Animal physiology and animal produe-
Agricultural industries, e. g., dairving,
sugar making.

Roads, drains, irrigation
buildings, etc.

generall policy of farm
rural law, agricultural

systems, fairm

i ook keeping,

In its second report the committee first undertook '" to determine
the general relation of a course in technical agriculture to the other
courses of study which should be connected with this to form a four-
year course in an agricultural college," adopting as a working basiss
the following portion of the report of the committee on entrance
requirements, courses of study, and degrees:'
In the judgment of your committee, it is not too much to require the equivalent,
of fifteen hours per week of recitations arnd lectures, together with ten hours per
week of laboratory work, or practicums, including the time devoted to military
science and drill. Upon this basis the above-mentioned general studies should be
assigned a relative importance, approximately as follows:

Algebra---. ....- --------------
Geometry ------....---.. -------
Trigonometry -.........---------
Physics (class-room work) ........
Physics (laboratory work) .......
Chemistry (class-room work) ....
Chemistry (laboratory work) ....



IModern languages 3-- --140
Psychology .------..--....--..---.......... 60
Ethics or logic ..-----...-....-..-.....--. 40
Political economy ...------------ 60
General history -...----.. .------ 80
Constitutional law ..--....-----. 50

Total ...--------.........--......--.. 1,285

aReport presented to the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and
Experiment Stations at the convention held in Washington, D. C., November 10-12,
1896. See U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 41, p. 57, and
Circ. 32.
bSee U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 49, p. 29, and Circ. 37.
eSee U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 41, p. 52.


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The total number of hours included in a .four-year course, allowing fifteen oa
per week for thirty-six weeks, would be 2,140; with ten hours' laboratory woi, qi,
practicums, added, 3,600. In general terms, therefore, the foregoing general ast!di:ii:;
should comprise about two-fifths of the work required for a bachelor's degree.
The committee on methods of teaching agriculture then suggested : :i
"additional subjects to be included in a four-year course in agricul-
ture leading to the degree bachelor of science," as follows:

Agriculture .......-..-. ........ ..............................
Horticulture and forestry .....................................
' Veterinary science, including anatomy .....................
Agricultural chemistry, in addition to general requirement....-.
Botany (including vegetable physiology and pathology) --......
Zoology (including entomology) ..........................
Physiology ....-...............................--..-- ......--
Geology .......------------. --------------....... .-------....


Meteorology .........---------..............................----..........-- 60-
Dnawing -..... .-------... ....... .... .......- ..... 60

Total. ---- ----- ---.....- ---..--.---------......- 1,746

Taking up, then, the subject of agriculture, the committee recom-
mended the following allotments of time to its subdivisions:

Agronomy, or plant production.............................
Zootechny, or animal industry .............................
Agrotechny or agricultural technology .


S--o o --------
4. Rural engineering, or farm mechanics. --------.------------ 60
5. Rural economics, or farm management----................-. 60

Total.-................-- .-----------------------.... 486

It was also announced that the committee would next take up in
detail the topics properly included under the head of "Agronomy," :
" with a view to presenting a syllabus of a course in that subject which
shall'show with some fullness the topics to be treated, their relative
importance; the time which should be devoted to each, and especially
tho n rdcr onf nrPQontaat.inn whilih cnnfnlrm mnaoQt-lnenlQv tro ~ond nr tidg..

gogical principles." This was done in the third report" of the com-:
mittee, which was divided into three parts, as follows:
(1) A syllabus defining the limits of a course in agronomy, and stating the topics
included in agronomy in the order in which they should be presented to
students, i. e., in their logical and pedagogical order.
(2) A series of lecture or chapter headings showing how the syllabus for agronomy
may be applied in preparing a course of lectures or a text-book on this sub-
ject, covering ninety-nine class-room hours or periods of sixty minutes each,
i. e., three lecture or recitation periods a week.
(3) A series of subjects for practicums or laboratory exercises to be used in con=
section with the class-room work in agronomy, and covering the thirty-three::.;:
remaining hours or periods (equivalent to sixty-six hours of sixty minatei
each), assigned to the course in agronomy, i. e., one practicum per week. :

aS,-e IV. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 65, p. 79, and Circ 8:.


ii ;;


It has been the object of the committee to make such an outline tf this co urse as
can easily be adjusted to the requirements of institutions with different organization
and environment. While the syllabus is intended to limit the range of subjects
which may properly be included under agronomy, the amount of attention which
shall be given to particular topics will vary according to circumstances. Tle series
of chapters and practicums are in a measure intended simply to show a way in which
the subject of agronomy may be presented in actual practice. This is especially true
of that portion of the course which relates to individual farm crops, to which atten-
tion will naturally be given according to their relative importance in different

Theory and practice of the production of farnm crops. In
DEFINITION ..---------. agronomy we need to consider the several kinds of plants
grown as farm crops under the following subjects:

Structure anatomymy.
THE PLANT--............----- i ion.

In agriculture ias for its object the adaptation oif environ._
ILAT IRODCTIO- Iment to the anatomy and physiology of tlie plants under
cultivation, with a view to securing crops which are best
suited to the uses of llan or tlie domestic animals.

We may conveniently begin the study of planlt production
1yv considering the general characteristics of the environment
of plants as grown in the field.

(General factors.'

Moisture .................
Air.........-------..............------------t f1.
Soil .... Natural-------
SWith fertilizers

But environment may be col\nvnient'il ,li'vided eI ccordiil
to position, as follows:

ENVI RONMENT-.........
(Divided according to
position. (Chapters
I-III of lecture out-
line page 16.)

1. Above groin

2. Under ground

Light .......
Moistun ....
Air .........

Moisture ----
Air .........
Earth (soil)
Fertilizers ...

Study tlhe relation of
each of these factors
to plant growth, and
also briefly their ef-
fects in different conm-
binations, i. e., differ-
ent climates.

'Pint out that the rela-
tion of these factors
to plant growth may
be most clearly per-
ceived by firstconsid-
ering them in their
relation to each other

(Chapters IV-XXXI.)



Properties ...--.


Moisture ......

Tillage ---....-

Fertilizers ...
-- -

Brief geological otMaitie *..
Weathering of rocks.
Accumulation of organic matter. ..l
Transformation of organic matter-(nitriMi -
cation and denitrification, etc.).
Additions from atmosphere.



Color ........
Texture .....
Capillarity --



of soils, on.:
the bais. .at
their prm:op-:. '

Water table.

Sources----.... Hygroscopic moisture. ,.
Amounts ..--.. Rainfall...
Irrigation-Methods. ..

Drai nage .. Purpose and effects.
Drainage ...... ...;*:,,! i

Purpose. .. ::::
Conservation -

Purpose and Chemical. ..
effects. Physical. .
Methods. Biological.
SChemical. "
Methods and effects of Physical. "
action. Biological

1. According to constituents-
a. Nitrogenous.
b. Phosphoric. 'J
c. Potassic.
d. Other amendments.
Clas- ":. .
sifica- 2. According to form- .ii
tion. a. Green ma- ')"''
nures. Farm ma i .:.
S b. Animal ma- nure.
c. Commercial-classif y
principal forms. .

(Study first the general theory of ferti-: ....'::i
lizers according to above scheme and ~,
then consider in as much detail as may :
be deemed desirable different kinds. ':::of :::
fertilizers, using Schedule A.) .. ;,
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SoIL-Continued ......
(Chapters IV-XXXI.)

Fertilizers .-...

Waste and ren-

Kinds of

Scheridutl A.


Properties .

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Place in classifications.
Preparation, care, and han-

Effects .... P


Economy.. p


extent of pro-
e c 11 n i a r

Transportation lby wind and water.
Cropping-Rotation of crops, systems of

Having considered in a general way the theory and prac-
tice of plant production as related to the structure, physiology,
and environment of the plants grown as farm crops, we come
next to consider the production of different kinds of crops
more in detail.

(Chapters XXXII-

Classification .........
(The classification and
the kinds of plants to be
named undereach class
will vary according to

Methods of improve-

Cereals-Wheat, oats.
(rasses-Timothy, brome grass.
Legumes-Red clover, alfalfa.
Sugar plants-Sugar cane, sugar
Fibers-Cotton, flax, hemp.
Stimulants-Tobacco, tea, coffee.
Medicinal and aromatic plants-
Ginseng, mint.
Miscellaneous-Canaigre, peanuts.

(Chapters XXXIV-LXI.)
(The crops to be studied
will vary according to
locality and other cir-

......... .. ::: .... ... .: .. ...0.-l3
Next study individual farm crops according to the :tilr. .!!0'
ing scheme:
SNam e.::'. .....
Place in classification.
Com position. .. :::
Botanical relations.
Plc. in lo Classification. .....::
Varieties -...---.----.......--
Improvement. .... i;:|
Geographical distribution.
Choice and preparation of soil.
.:... .. : ..
Manuring. -
Seeds (or other parts of plant:
Culture ........ ----. used for planting)-electio

Place in rotation.

Preparation for use.

Obstructions to growth,
preservation, or use.


Weeds ---...-
Fungi ........
Insects .....
Birds ........
Quadrupeds -

Means of repres.




[The lectures are intended to cover 99 hours.]
*r I. General climatic conditions.
II. Plant food and growth.
III. Air as a source of plant food.
IV. The nature, functions, origin, and wasting of soils. ..
V. Properties of soils, chemical and physical. Classifications, texture, com-
position, and kinds of soils.
VI. Physics of soils as related to plant growth capillarityy, solution, diffuion,
and osmosis).


Soil temperature.
Relation of air to soil.
Soil water.
Improvement of soil through drainage.
Drainage methods.
Conservation of soil moisture.
Physical effects of tillage.
Chemical and biological effects of tillage.

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Chapter XVI.

crop in

Methods of tillage.
Methods of tillage.
Fertilizers-Methods and effects of action.
Fertilizers-Classification by constituents and form.
Sources and uses of nitrogen.
Sources and uses of phosphoric acid.
Sources and uses of potash.
Sources and uses of other amendments.
Practical advice on the use of commercial fertilizers.
Humus and green manuring.
Animal manures. General statements.
Manures produced from various animals.
Care, preservation, and application of manure.
Waste and renovation of soils.
Rotation of crops-General statements.
Rotation of crops-Systems of farming.
Farm crops-Classiicticaton, production; reason for choice.
Improvement of farm crops.
Wheat-Structure, composition, and varieties.
Wheat-Culture, harvesting, and preservation.
Wheat-Obstructions to growth, preservation, and use.
Wheat-Production, marketing, history.
Barley and rye.
G rasses.
Forage crops.
Root crops--Mangels, beets, turnips.
Sugar plants-Sugar beets.
Sugar plants-Cane, sorghum, etc.
Fiber plants-Cotton.
Fiber plants-Cotton.
Fiber plants-Flax, hemp, jute, ramie, sisal, etc.
Stimulants-Tobacco, tea, coffee.
Medicinal and aromatic plants.
Miscellaneous plants-Buckwheat, broom corn, peanuts, hops, canai-
gre, etc.

order of discussion of the different crops will be the same as in the case of
The details to be given for each crop will vary with the importance of the
any region.]
26777-No. 127--03 2


[The practicums are intended to cover S3 laboratory periods, i. e., 66 hours.]


of varieties
of varieties
of varieties
of varieties
of varieties
of varieties
of varieties
of varieties
of varieties
of varieties

of wheat in sheaf and by sample.
of wheat in sheaf and by sample.
of wheat in field.
of oats or other grain in sheaf and by sample.
of oats or other grain in field.
of potatoes by sample.
of potatoes in field.
of grasses and forage crops in field in fall.
of grasses and forage crops in field in early spring.
of.grasses and forage crops near harvest in field.

31. Study of varieties of grasses and forage crops by sample and preparation of
abstracts of station experiments on climatic and soil conditions and upon
quality and yield.
32. Study of varieties of grasses and forage crops by sample and preparation of
abstracts of station experiments on climatic and soil conditions and upon
quality and yield.
33. Study of varieties of grasses and forage crops by sample and preparation bf
abstracts of station experiments on climatic and soil conditions and upon
quality and yield.



In the Alabama Polytechnic Institute five four-year courses lead to
the degree of bachelor of science. These courses are chemistry and
agriculture, civil engineering, electrical and mechanical engineering,
general course, and pharmacy. Elementary agriculture (breeds of live
stock) is taught in the third term of the freshman year in all courses.
Agriculture is an elective throughout the sophomore year of the

"* :::: .* .: -':"

Determination of specific gravity of soils.
Determination of volume weight of soils.
The power of retaining moisture in the soil in its highest degree of looseness.
The power of retaining moisture in the soil when compacted.
Rate of percolation of water through soils.
Rate of percolation of air through soils.
Effect of mulches upon evaporation of water from soils.
Behavior of soils toward gases.
Capillary attraction in soils.
Determination of cohesion in soils.
Mechanical analysis of soils.
Mechanical analysis of soils.
Study of root systems of principal crops.
Study of root systems of principal crops.
Study of root systems of principal crops.
Study of varieties of corn in field.
Scoring ears of corn.
Study of effect of fertilizers on one or more crops in fall.
Study of effect of fertilizers on one or more crops in early spring.
Study of effect of fertilizers on one or more crops near harvest.


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course in civil engineering, and is required throughout the sopllolore
and junior years of the course in chemistry and agriculture. This
last course, then, may be considered the agricultural course of the
Polytechnic Institute. The student in this course devotes about one-
fifth of his time to English, history, and economics; about two-fifths
to pure science and two-fifths to applied sciences and technical training.
Admission to the four-year courses is by examination or by certifi-
cate from schools having approved courses of study. Applicants for
admission must be at least 15 years of age, and, if admitted by
examination, must be qualified to pass satisfactory examinations in
(1) geography and history of the United States; (2) English, including
grammar, composition, reading, and English classics; and (3) mathe-
matics, including arithmetic and algebra through quadratic equations.
".Those applicants who desire to continue the study of Latin should
be qualified to pass a satisfactory examination in Latin grammar and
the first two books of Caesar in addition to the above subjects."
The course in agronomy is given during the second and third terms
of the sophomore years. It is preceded by a two-hour course in ani-
mal husbandry during the third term of the freshman year, a two-hour
course in dairying during the first term of the sophomore year, and a
three-hour course of lectures and one laboratory exercise per week in
general chemistry during the first term of the sophomore year, and is
followed by courses in systematic and structural botany (lectures and
laboratory), plant physiology, and agricultural chemistry.
The course in agricultural chemistry is given in the senior year and
'"consists of lectures on chemistry in its application to agriculture
(two per. week, during second and third terms), and includes a thorough
discussion of the origin, composition, and classification of soils, the
composition and growth of plants, the sources of plant food and how
obtained, the improvement of soils, the manufacture and use of fer-
tilizers, the chemical principles involved in the rotation of crops, the
feeding of live stock, and the various operations carried on by the
intelligent and successful agriculturist." During the same periods the
students do laboratory work in quantitative analysis six hours per
week. The principal reference books used in agricultural chemistry
are Johnson's How Crops Grow and How Crops Feed, Lupton's Ele-
mentary Principles of Scientific Agriculture, Johnson and Cameron's
Elements of Agricultural Chemistry, Storer's Agriculture, scientific
journals, reports of the United States Department of Agriculture, and
the bulletins and reports of the various domestic and foreign agricul-
tural departments and stations. "The laboratories, which are open
from 9 a. nm. to 5 p. m. during six days in the week, are amply supplied
with everything necessary for instruction in chemical manipulation."
Instruction in agronomy is given by the professor of agriculture.
"In the second term of the sophomore year the following subjects are

studied:. Soils-chemical and physical properties, def, ects, arriind
of improvement; the control of water, including means ea cofs. i.g
moisture in times of drought; terracing, underdrainage, and open adii.
hillside ditches; objects and methods of cultivation; -agricultural4
implements; rotation of crops; and improvement of plants by crose-i; i
ing, selection, and culture. The third term of the sophomore yea;isi:
f devoted to the staple crops produced, in Alabama, to forage plaIdS.
adapted to the South, and to plants valuable for the renovation of soils.::::
The more important crops are treated with reference to varieties, soil1 i|
and fertilizer requirements, methods of planting and cultivating, and
uses." In all classes there are mid-term examinations and term-iend
Two hours per week are devoted to lectures, in which the number
of students ranges from 10 to 25, and two afternoons per week are
given up to farm practice, during which time the classes are divided
into sections of from 6 to 9 students. A part of the field work is con-
ducted by the professor of agriculture and a part is in charge of an
assistant in agriculture.
In every class the student is encouraged to independent thought bn
agricultural problems rather than to-depend on rules of thumb," so
that he may be prepared to adapt his practice in after years to changed
conditions of soil, climate, capital, market, etc.' An effort is made to
keep before the student the difference between the widely applicable
principles on which every rational system of farming rests and the
details that vary with changing conditions. The conditions of soil,
climate, etc., prevailing in different parts of Alabama are kept con-
stantly in view. As far as limited time allows, attention is directed
to agricultural literature now accumulating so rapidly in this and in
foreign countries, to the 'end that in future years the student may
know where and how to seek the information that he may need.
Among the reference books and other literature used by students in
agronomy are Soils and Crops of the Farm, Morrow and Hunt; For-
age Plants, Shaw; The Fertility of the Soil, Roberts; Corn Culture,
Plumb; The Physics of Agriculture, King; other recent Americap
works on agriculture; bulletins of the United States Department of
Agriculture and of the experiment stations in the different States, and
a number of farm journals.
Lectures in agronomy are given in the main building in a class room
provided with chairs and arm rests for 60 students, two sides of the
room being occupied by cases for specimens. Three small barns and
a gin room serve partly as laboratories for students when engaged in
indoor work. Plats on the experiment-station farm showing the effect -i,
of fertilizers, methods of culture, etc., and collections of varieties are.
used as object lessons for students.

S:.. .. :... : :l.
::.." .: : ii:* m i:


The following exhibits will give an idea of the nature and scope of
the examinations required in agronomy and of the notes taken by
students in the field:
ExHIBIT No. 1.


Exainination in beginning (gr'oiono, .seornd ferm, sophomior,' yeair.
I. (a) In what kind of weather and at what time of year can wetter soils be safely
plowed than under other conditions? Explain. (b) Does a clay or a sandy soil
contain more moisture when plants begin to wilt? Explain.
II. (a) Discuss the importance or nonimportance of the hygroscopic power of
soils. (b) Discuss the practicability or otherwise of determining what fertilizers to
apply by an analysis of the soil.
III. Discuss capillarity in the soil (direction of movement, favorable conditions,
effect of slight rain after long drought, etc.).
IV. Explain fully the effect of cultivation on the moisture in the different layers
of soil.
V. Discuss.fully the size and use of the roller and its effects on the soil. and state
conditions when it should be used.
VI. Discuss the general direction for ditches, methods of making junctions, and
draw cross section illustrating (a) carrying canal, (b) shallow hillside ditches, (c)
open drainage ditch.
VII. (a) Discuss grades for open tile drains. (b) Make drawing of homemade
level and show how used (c) in making a terrace and (.d) in giving a uniform grade
to bottom of a ditch.
VIII. Irrigation. (a) Give three commonest sources of water in order of cheap-
ness. (b) What advantages in furrow system over flooding system? (c) Whnt
levels"would head ditches follow and how would nature of soil influence the grade
of the rows?
IX. Discuss fall versus spring plowing in the Gulf States.
X. (a) Give a three-year rotation for cotton farm, showing why the crops should
follow in the order stated. (b) Outline a rotation that will put half the land in
cotton each year. (c) Construct a five-year rotation for a mixed cotton and stock
farm in the central prairie region of Alabama, stating when each crop is planted.

E'ramination in agronomit (forage phlano), third term, .soplihmore' ilear.

I. (a) What advantages has fall sowing of grasses and clovers over spring sowing?
(.t) Mention three legumes that can not be sown in fall and give best month for
sowing each of the three.
II. (a) Compare early versus late cutting of hay. (b) \When cut red clover?
III. Give means of distinguishing small grains of oats, wheat, harley, and rye.
IV. Discuss Texas blue grass.
V. Discuss redtop.
VI. Discuss white clover.
VII. Discuss culture and uses of rape plant.
VIII. Give time of sowing, amount of seed, soil requirements, and uses of melilotus.
IX. Velvet beans-uses and culture.
X. Hairy vetch-discuss best mixtures of this with other seed for given conditions.

ExHBrrT No. 2.

rtUBs m TS' II" L N OTES.

Notes .on varieties of corn.


Hickory King

Shaw .........

Arnolds ......

Station Yel-

Cocke ........

Mosby ........

Red Cob......


Number of ears
and nubbins
per 100 stalks.

















Distance from ground
to lower ear.

Ft.Ins. Ft.l
2 9 3
2 6 2
2 s 4

3 10 5
3 6 4
4 2 5
5 10 3
2 9 4
3 9 4
3 9 3
5 0 .....
3 3 3
3 5 4
3 9 4
3 2
3 7 4
4 2 3
4 6 4
5 0 4
3 0 3
4 4 4
4 2 5
3 3 4
5 0 5
4 4 4
5 7 4
5 2 5
4 0 .....
5 0 4
6 2 5
4 10 5
5 0 6
7 0 4
4 10 4
4 0 4

age dis-
ear to

5 0

4 8

of ears

ered by
5; tip
0. -


Stalks very small
and very early.
Medium light and
late; ears above
-medium nla
{Late: medium

Above medium
'height; medimu

Small stalk, long,
slender dars;

Medium or late;
prolific and well
filled. .

Tall stalks, large
ears; late to me-
dium. *

Small eared; pro

I. Bolls, position.

Notes on varieties of cotton.

Cotton. Field No. (Row) 6.
Variety: Dickson Cluster.
Cluster, semicluster, noncluster: Cluster.
Terminal or nonterminal,

Number: 2 to 5, generally 2 to 3.
Base limbs Length: Medium.
Internodes: Medium.
II. Stalk........... Upper limbs-Length: Short.
Compactness: Erect.
Height: Medium.
Weight ..... 10.
III. Bolls....... ---- Size (field estimate),
Point: Both acute and blunt.


, :i;; i


ii .;ii




Percentage of lint,

\'. Seed-----. ---- Weight ..... 150.
Shape and size,
Field estimate: Very early, a b e Average.

Number grown 3 6 21 10
3 best plants. Number younger.
Total..--- ..... 57 35 52 48
Percentage of bolls open, 79.
VS Prolicaelected plants (field estimate); percentage, 100.
V3 best. plants (office),
VII. Lint (field estimate),

The college of agriculture is one of the six colleges of the University
of Illinois. Candidates for admission to the college of agriculture are
required to have the same number of high school credits as candidates
for admission to other colleges of the university.
This number is 40 credits at the present time, but it will be increased
to 42 credits in 1905. By the term credit is meant the work in a sub-
ject continuously pursued with daily recitations through one of the
three terms of the high school year; or, in other words, the work of 60
recitation periods of forty minutes each, or, the equivalent in labora-
tory or other practice. Of the total numl)er of credits required for
admission, 9 must be in English, 7 in mathematics, and 6 in science
and history. For graduation from the college of agriculture, students
are required to have obtained 130 university credits. By the univer-
sity credit is meant a class period a week for one semester, each class
period presupposing two hours' preparation by the student, or the
equivalent in laboratory, shop, or field practice. The work for 79
credits is prescribed as follows:
15 credits in agronomy. 5 credits in botany.
5 credits in thremmatology. 5 credits in zoology.
24 credits in animal husbandry. 2 credits in economics.
2- credits in dairy husbandry. 6 credits in rhetoric.
8 credits in horticulture. 5 credits in military science.
15 credits in chemistry. 3 credits in physical training.
5 credits in geology.
Of the remaining 56 credits required for graduation at least 44 must
be chosen in animal husbandry or dairy husbandry, 5 in natural his-
tory, 3 in English, and 25 in technical agriculture. The remaining
credits may be obtained from any subjects offered in the university

TYVARUIA 1U4u aWUULWIA In Irl AL VIS .PCU W masAn. UAVLV tu f v quet.A W tltui, UWT jI.DJ. .
foreign language must be taken in the university if not offered for ::
admission. A thesis is also required for graduation for which from. 5
to 10 credits will be allowed according to the nature of the subject.
The students in the college of agriculture are given courses in Eng-i
lish or other languages in the college of literature and arts; courses in
chemistry, physics, geology, botany, zoology, mathematics, etc., in the
college of science; blacksmithing, carpentry, etc., in the college of
engineering, the work of the college of agriculture being devoted to
the subject of agronomy, animal husbandry, dairy husbandry, ho ti r
culture, and veterinary science, or, in other words, to the subjects in
technical agriculture.
In the department of agronomy 15 courses are offered (not including :
the courses in farm mechanics), which are described briefly in the fol-'
lowing excerpts from the college catalogue:
The semester, the days, and the class period or periods during which each comuse
is given, and the number of credits per semester for which the course counts are
shown after each course, as follows: The semester is indicated by the Roman nuier-
als I, II; the days, by the initial letters of the days of the week; the class period
or periods (of which there are nine each day, numbered consecutively from 1 to 9-),
by Arabic figures; and the amount of credit, by Arabic figures in parentheese. For
example, the abbreviations 1; M., W.; F.; 1; (3) are to be read first semester, Mon-
day, Wednesday, and Friday, first period, three credits.
1. Drainage and irrigation.-Location of drains and irrigation conduits, leveling,
digging, laying tile and pipes, filling, and subsequent care; cost of construction and
efficiency; sewers for the disposal of waste water from farmi buildings and the sew-
age from kitchen and toilet; farm water pipes, pipe and thread cutting. Class work,
laboratory and field practice. I; first half; daily; 6, 7; (24).
5. Farm crops-Quality and improvemnent.-Judging of corn (see Exhibit 3, p. 30) and
oats, wheat grading, methods of improving quality, shrinkage of grain, care of stored
crops to prevent injury and loss. Class and laboratory work. I; first half; daily;
6, 7 (or 3, 4); (2)).
6. Farm crops-Germination and growth.-Vitality and germination of seeds, pres-
ervation of seeds, methods of seeding; conditions of plant growth; peculiarities of
the different agricultural plants in respect to structure, habits, and requirements for
successful growth; enemies to plant growth;. weeds and weed seeds, their identifica-
tion and methods of destruction; fungus diseases, such as smut of oats and wheat,
and blight, scab, and rot of potatoes, methods of prevention; insects injurious to '
farm crops and how to combat them. Class room, laboratory, and field work. II;
first half; daily; 6, 7; (2*).
7. Special crops.-A special study of farm crops taken up under an agricultural
outline-grain crops, root crops, forage crops, sugar and fiber crops-their history
and distribution over the earth, methods of culture, cost of production, consumption
of products, and residues or by-products. Class work, supplemented by practical field
work and a study of the results of previous experiments, such as detasselihg corn,
injury to roots of corn by cultivation, selection and breeding of corn and other crops,
with special reference to practices which apply directly to Illinois conditions.
Students will have an excellent opportunity to study the work of the Agricultural
experiment station. II; daily; 1, 2; (5). Required: Agronomy 2, 5, 6.
8. Field experiments.-Special work by the students conducted in the field. This
work consists in testing varieties of corn, oats, wheat, potatoes, and other farm crops;


methods of planting corn, seeding grains, grasses, and other forage crops; culture of
corn, potatoes, and sugar beets; practice in treating oats and wheat for smut and
potatoes for scab and studying the effects upon the crops; comblating chinch hugs
and other injurious insects. Other practical experiments may be arranged with the
instructor. Special opportunities will be given to advanced students of high class
standing to take up experiments, under assignment and direction of the instructor
in farm crops, on certain large farms in the State, arrangements having been made
with the farm owners or managers for such experiments. II, second half, and sum-
mer vacation; daily; arrange time; (21 to 5).
Required: Agronomy 7, 12.
9. Soil physics and management.-This course is designed to prepare the student
better to understand the effects of the different methods of treatment of soils and the
influence of these methods upon moisture, texture, aeration, fertility, and produc-
tion. It comprises a study of the origin of soils, of the various methods of soil for-
mation, of their mechanical composition and classification; also soil moisture and
means for conserving it, soil texture as affecting cagillaritv, osmosis, and diffusion,
as affected by plowing, harrowing, cultivating, rolling, and cropping; of the wasting
of soils by washing; fall or spring plowing and drainage as affecting moisture, tem-
peratures, and root development. The work of the class room is supplemented by
laboratory work, comprising the determination of such questions as specific gravity,
relative gravity, water-holding capacity and capillary power of various :oils; also the
study of the physical effects of different systems of rotation and of continuous crop-
ping with various crops, and the mechanical analysis of soils. I; daily; 1, 2; (5).
Required: Physics 1, 3 (first semester's work), and Agronomy, 2.
10. Specialproblems in soil physics.-This work is intended for students wishing to
specialize further in the study of the physical properties of soils, and will include the
determination by electrical methods of the temperature, moisture, and soluble salt
content of various soils under actual field conditions; effect of different depths of
plowing, cultivation, and rolling on soil conditions; effect of different Inethods of
preparing seed beds; the physical questions involved in the formation and redemp-
tion of the so-called "alkali," "barren" or "dead dog" soils, and of other peculiar
soils of Illinois. II, or summer vacation; daily; arrange time; (5).
Required: Agronomy 9.
11. Soil bacteriology.-A study of the morphology and activities of the bacteria which
are connected with the elaboration of plant food in the soil, or which induce changes of
vital importance to agriculture, with regard to the effects of cropping and tillage upon
these organisms, and with special reference to the study of those forms which are
concerned with the formation of nitrates and nitrites in the soiil and with the accumu-
lation of nitrogen by leguminous crops. Class room and lab::ratory work. II; daily;
6, 7; (5).
Required: Botany 5; Chemistry 3b, 4.
12. Fertilizers, rotations, and fertility.-The influence of fertility, natural or supplied,
upon the yield of various crops; the effect of different crops upon the soil and upon
succeeding crops; different rotations and the ultimate effect of different systems of
farming upon the fertility and productive capacity of soils. The above will be sup-
plemented by a laboratory study of manures and fertilizers, their composition and
their agricultural and commercial value; of soils cropped continuously with different
crops and with a series of crops; of the fertility of soils of different types, or classes
from different sections of Illinois. II; daily; 1, 2; (5).
Required: Chemistry 13; Agronomy 6, 9.
13. Investigation of the fertility of special soils.-This course is primarily designed to
enable the student to study the fertility of those special soils in which he may be
particularly interested, and to become familiar with the correct principles and
methods of such investigations. It will include the determination of the nature and


quantity of the elements of fertility in the soils investigated, the effect upon various
crops of different fertilizers added to the soils, as determined by pot cultures, and,
where possible, by plat experiments. This work will be supplemented by a system-
atic study of the work of experiment stations and experimenters along these lines of
investigations. I, II; arrange time; (2 to 5).
Required: Agronomy 12.
14. History of agriculture.-Its development and practice, with particular regard to
the agriculture of those nations which have contributed most to agricultural progress,
including a sketch of the earliest agricultural practices as illustrated by the agricul-
ture of the Egyptians, the Jews, the Chinese, and other ancient peoples; followed by
a study of the development of Roman agriculture and its influences upon the practices
in other nations; a consideration of the beginnings and systems of British agriculture
with regard to their influence upon social conditions; and, finally, the development
of modem agriculture with special reference to that of England, Germany, France,
and the United States. I, second half; daily; 3; (21).
15. Comparative agriculture.--Influence of locality, climate, soil, race, customs, laws,
religion, etc., upon the agriculture of a country, and incidentally upon its people.
One crop only, and its effect, as rice; Indian corn in American agriculture and affairs.
Varying conditions under which the same crop may be produced, as wheat. Statis-
tical agriculture. Influence of machinery and of land titles, whether resting in the
government, in landlord, or in occupant. Relation of agriculture to other industries
and to the body politic. Lectures. II; F; 4; (1).
Required: Two years of University work.
16. German agricultural readings.-A study of the latest agricultural experiments
and investigations published in the German language, special attention being given
to soils and crops. The current numbers of German journals of agricultural science
will be required and used as a text. This course is designed to give the student a
broader knowledge of the recent advances in scientific agriculture, and, incidentally,
it will aid him in making a practical application of a foreign language. It is recom-
mended that it be taken after Agronomy 12. II; M., W.; 4; (2).
Required: Two years' work in German.
17. Special work in drainage and machinery. -Students may arrange for special work
in any of the lines covering drainage or farm machinery, either in the second
semester or the summer. (21 to 5.)
18. Investigation and thesis.-This course varies in the subject matter of study,
according to the department in which theses are written. The work is under the
direction of the head.of the department. I, II; arrange time; (5 to 10).

The offices, class rooms, and laboratories of the department of
agronomy are housed in the agricultural building (P1. I), which was
recently completed at a cost of $150,000. It consists of four separate
structures built around an open court and connected by corridors.
The main building is 248 feet long and from 50 to 100 feet wide, and
three stories high. The other three buildings are 45 by 116 feet, and.
two stories high. These buildings are of stone and brick, roofed with
slate, and contain, all told, 113 rooms and a total floor space of nearly 2
acres. An adjacent glass structure includes a photographic laboratory
and a pot-culture laboratory for the department of agronomy. Sev-
eral acres of land near to the agricultural buildings are used for
instruction in agronomy, chiefly by means of student experiments.
Aside from the work in farm mechanics, the department of agronomy
includes four principal divisions, viz, soil fertility, soil physics, soil

..": : a ... !r :::l
iii ii !

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bacteriology, and farm crops. Several courses of instruction are
offered in each of these divisions, and in each case instruction is given
by the laboratory method, as well as by text-books, lectures, and
reference readings. Two laboratories are provided for the work in
soil fertility. One of these is used for the analysis of soils, fertilizers.
and manures; for the determination of the elements of plant food
contained in plants and plant products, and for the preparation of soils
for pot culture experiments, which include the use of sand cultures,
water cultures, and soil cultures, with the addition or elimination of
any or all of the different elements of plant food (PI. III, tig. 1).
The second is the pot-culture laboratory (PI. III, fig. 2), which is
located in the greenhouse near the agricultural building, and in which
the pot-culture experiments are carried on by the student as a part
of his regular laboratory practice. The soil fertility analytical labora-
tory is provided with desks for 1S students' places, each desk being
made double, so that by working two sections 36 students can be
accommodated. All apparatus necessary for the analysis of soils, fer-
tilizers, etc., is provided, including analytical balances, digestion
furnaces, distillation apparatus, glass and porcelain ware, etc. The
laboratory is provided with a hood under which operations which
give off poisonous or disagreeable fumes or odors are performed. The
desks are piped for gas, compressed air, vacuum and water, and pro-
vided with sinks and waste pipes. The fertility pot-culture labora-
tory is provided with suitable tables and with several hundred glazed
pots of different sizes suitable for pot-culture experiments. Most
of the water used in the pot-culture experiments is drawn from a
400-barrel cistern, which is kept full of exceedingly pure soft water
collected from the slate roof of the agricultural building, which is a
quarter of a mile distant from the central heating plant of the uni-
versity, and hence is very free from coal smoke, etc., from the chim-
neys. For special purposes, distilled water is provided and, when
necessary, nitrogen-free water is used.
The soil physics laboratory (Pl. IV, fig. 1) is provided with a suffi-
cient number of desks to allow 24 students to work at one time, and,
by running two sections, 48 students can be accommodated. This
laboratory is well equipped with the apparatus necessary for studying
the physics of soil, including centrifugal machines and shaking appa-
ratus used in mechanical analyses (fig 1), microscopes, balances,
compacting apparatus, apparatus for determining the water content,
absorptive capacity, water-holding power, and specific gravity of soils;
several electrical instruments for the determination of temperature,
moisture, and soluble salt-content of soils; a 3-horsepower electric
motor with a line shaft, counter shaft, belting, etc.; elutriators, fur-
naces, sieves, and much other general apparatus. The laboratory is
also provided with a side table, hood, large drying oven, and store-

room. For the work in fairm drainage the
ii provided with several surveyors' leAveli.i" t,
tapelines, and all necessary tools for .i...
Students are given a considerable am:.ou.nt o p'".......
systems of drainage, running levels, digging 4 ,iN'nd
Two laboratories are provided for the study. :'ti;,
although one of these is also used during part o'; .i
ning students in general bacteriology. Thirty-two:ia
are provided for. The laboratory is equipped with i.


1.Centrifuge, haker, and electric motor ued y
.* .* .... .. *::i S

scopes, autoclaves and other sterilizing apparatus, balances, anl|SK^
materials needed for bacteriological work, including staining sol Siis
chemicals, media, etc. The hood tables and the tile-topdI4 l
"... ..

are provided with steam baths, gas, iir, vacuum, an. water ,i
and waste sinks. Adjoining the laboratory are a store roomtn p
incubating room, and an animal room with cages for keepingank
under experiment. .....
../ f ...... ... **. : :..... :.

Two laboratories are provided, for the work in farm ropE (P
.. : : r: on f w i h h s 3 .I'.eiirii ;l; !p 3 t o
1 -;

FIG. shaker,. ao.. .. .....
": I H "j.... ... .. ... .. .

materials needed for bacteriological work, ihel'ding Sitainin

chemicals, media, etc. The hood. tables and the tite-top..:.:
are provided with steam baths,g-", iir,, "CUUM, and..a rati-e
.... ...:. .... .. ...
and waste sinks' .Adjoining the laborakoryr, toreAt r M''a
incubating room, and an animal roomi with -fesor k, ":"i
under experiment.
Two laboratories are provided for &l$ ,*or, in farm, 'cra-(ip-,:,,
fig 2), one of which has 36 student places, and the other 4 ."......


.... :. .. *'., ,
.. ,. .__ ^^^^^^ 4 :. ,. x' l~ n... a l t .. ..... .. I ,., ,_._' J l l .i 0 ,n r. ___ .. .- ** ,* *
.- i -^- -- t. *:7 ".*:. '."- ". r .
*in iC". .*..* ,*., .
... .' *t .* *' '- ",*.*..,... ,....'*. ,.. ^_... ,..., *I..
: i i,, ,'' .Ii .l

:1 q






U. S. Dept. of A2r., Bul. 127, Office of Expt. Stations.





U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bul. 127, Office of Expt. Stations.




U. S. CE'o of Agr Bul. 127, O"',c of E ot Stations.





making it possible to have 60 students in farm crops at work at one
time. These desks are provided with a large number of drawers for
different samples of grains and equipped with small microscopes, tape
measures, -scales, germinating apparatus, etc. The laboratory is pro-
vided with one side case, contaiining 253 drawers for samples of corn
of ten ears each, used in instruction in corn judging and the study of
varieties of corn. There are a large number of tilting bins, holding
from 1 to 3 bushels of corn, and a large wall case contains six upright
bins, reaching nearly to the ceiling of the room, each of several
bushels' capacity, used for holding a supply of some of the stock grains
used in the farm crops work. There are six large herbarium cases for
preserving specimens of different farm crops and of weeds injurious
to farm crops. There is also a cabinet provided with a large number
of cases for a collection of insects injurious to farm crops. Adjoining
the farm crops student laboratory is a large germinating room, about
7 feet wide and 20 feet long, with wide shelving around the walls,
extending from near the floor to the ceiling, giving sufficient space for
several hundred germinators. This room is provided with steam coils
with valves so arranged that any number of coils can he used and the
temperature of the room regulated as may be desired. A large elec-
tric incubator is also provided for special germination studies. Besides
Sthe laboratory practice the students in farm crops carry on plat
experiments under field conditions, several acres being provided for
this purpose and hand tools being provided for student use.
Among the text-books and reference books most largely used in the
course in soil fertility are Aikman's Manures and the Principles of
Manuring, Voorhees's Fertilizers, Roberts's Fertility of the Land,
Johnson's How Crops Feed, Snyder's Chemistry of Soils and Fertili-
zers, Storer's Agriculture, Liebig's Agricultural Chemistry, Lawes
and Gilbert's Reports on Agricultural Investigations at Rothamsted,
and the bulletins and reports of the United States Department of
Agriculture and of the various State experiment stations.
Among the books used in soil physics are The Soil and The Physics
of Agriculture, by King; Rocks and Soils, by Stockbridge; Origin
and Nature of Soils," by Shaler; and Land Drainage, by Miles.
Books used in soil bacteriology are Manual of Bacteriology, by
Sternberg; Conn's Agricultural Bacteriology; and Fischer's Structure
and Functions of Bacteria.
Among the books used in the study of farm crops are Johnson's
How Crops Grow; Beal's Grasses of North America; Corn Plants, by
Sargent; Plant Breeding, by Bailey; Weeds and How to Eradicate
Them, by Shaw; and Storer's Agriculture.
In addition to these books the library of the University of Illinois
aTwelfth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey, Part I-Geology, pp.

contains several hundred volumes, journals, and pamphlets, in Engli~sh, 'i...:
German, and French, relating in part or wholly to the subject of agron-:. :
omy. These are accessible to all of the students in the department, but
are used more largely by students engaged in research work.
Laboratory, lecture, or field notebooks are required to be kept by
students in all courses in agronomy, and in most courses students are
required to prepare two or three essays of from 1,000 to 5;000 words HI'
each during the semester. As a rule, preliminary examinations are":
given at the end of each month and a final examination at the close o6f
the course. The student's standing or grade for the semester's work is
based upon four factors: (1) Class records of recitations; (2) prelimi-
nary examinations and written exercises; (3) lecture, laboratory, or
field notebooks; and (4) final examinations.
During the past year about 200 students took work in courses in
agronomy. Advanced classes numbered from 12 to 25 students and
lower classes contained from 30 to 75 students. Excursions are occa-
casionally made by classes to examine soils, inspect drainage systems,
to visit fields and other places of special interest and importance'to
the work of the classes.
Aside from the help of several student assistants, there are six
regular instructors in the department of agronomy. One offers courses
in soil fertility, another in soil physics, a third in farm drainage and
irrigation, a fourth in soil bacteriology, and two other instructors
give courses in farm crops.
Students in fairm crops, when judging corn, are provided with stiff
cardboard covers 9 by 41 inches, in which special.,blank forms for
scoring may be fastened. On the inside of the front cover is pasted
Form A, giving standards for varieties, explanation of points, and
rules to be used in judging. On the inside of the back cover and
fastened to it by brass paper fasteners are forms B and C. Form B
is used by the student in scoring a single ear of corn, and Form C for
recording the corrected scores of several ears.
FoRM A.-Directions for scoring.
Leth of Circumfer- Proportion
Name of variety. ear. ence of of cor to
Sear. cob.

Inches. Inches. Per cent.
Reid Yellow Dent................................................. 10 7 88 "
Golden Eagle..................................................... 9 7 90
Riley Favorite.................................... .. ......... ... 9 7 90
Learning ................. ....................................... 10 7 88
Boone County White ................ ............................ 10 7.5 86
Silver Mine..................................................... 9 7 90
White Superior.................................................. 8.5 7 88
General ........................................................... 10-11 7. -8 88



1. Uniformity: Uniform shape, size, indentation, and type of ears.
2. Shape: Shape of ear should conform to variety type, usually cylindrical,i. e., of
equal circumference from butt to tip.
3. Color: Free from mixture and true to variety color.
4. Market. condition: Ripeness, soundness, ear firm and well matured.
5. Tip: Kernels filled over the tip in regular manner.
6. Butt: Kernels swelled about ear stalk, leaving deep depression when shank is
7. Kernel, uniformity: Uniform shape, size, and conformity to variety type.
8. Kernel, shape: Wedge shaped, straight edges, and large germ.
9. Length: Varies with the variety, measure.
10. Circumference: Varies with the variety, measure.
11. Space: Furrow between tops of rows of kernels.
12. Proportion: Proportion of weight of grain to cot). Weight varies with variety.

1. The deficiency and excess in length of all ears not conforming to the standard
for the variety shall be added together, and for every 2 inches thus obtained a cut
of one point shall be made. In determining length, measure from the extreme tip
to the extreme butt.
2. The deficiency and excess in circumference of all ears not conforming to the
standard of the variety shall be added together, and for every 4 inches thus ob-
tained a cut of one point shall be made. Measure the circumference at one-third
the distance from the butt to the tip of the ear.
3. In determining the proportion of corn to cob, weigh every alternate ear in the
exhibit. Shell and weigh the cobs, and subtract from weight of ears, giving the
weight of corn. Divide the weight of corn by total weight of ears, giving the per
cent of corn. For each per cent short of standard for the variety a half-point cut
shall be made.
4. In judging color, a red cob in white corn, or a white cob in yellow corn, shall
be cut ten points. For one or two mixed kernels, a cut of one-fourth point; for three
or four mixed kernels, a cut of one-half point; for five mixed kernels, a three-fourths-
point cut; or for six or more mixed kernels, a one-point cut shall be made. Ker-
nels missing from the ear shall be counted as mixed. Difference in shade of color,
as light or dark red, white or cream color, must be scored according to variety
5. To determine the cut for space, the following rules can be applied if combined
with the judgment of the student: For less than one thirty-second inch, no cut; for
a furrow one thirty-second to one-sixteenth inch, one-half point; for more than one-
sixteenth inch, cut one point. The looseness of kernels on the colb does not apply
to space, but to maturity. The furrows or angle between the tops of the rows of
kernels is the space between rows.


FORM B.--or individual sample.

Date, -, -.
Number of exhibit, .
Name of variety, .
Length, -
Proportion grain to cob, -

Shape ..................................................
Color ............ ......................
Market condition ....................................
Tips ..................................................
Butts ..................................................
Kernel uniformity ..................................
Kernel shape............. ............................
Circumference .......................................
Proportion ..........................................

Total......... ..... ....................





100 ...........

c o .; e:'::..:; ..- s ..:.... -... :..,. : '
... .." ; ':. ".. .. ..... ..... .. :.
... ; ... :.:::... ..
.... :. ": .. .. ... .. '
S.... .. ..... .. ... ..... :

." .... .:...". .... .. .. ...
..i ..:., .::.... .

.. : ". t .
...:.. .:"... ... | :" *.,.: "

; "|.:|||;. ..." ..:.. .. .

Corrected InStinE ;S
score. or's *SfStS
S. ..;.:: ..
.. .. .... ... .....;i;; :: :,... "
.............. ..... ... .. .
.." '*?*-" .:... ... i.
............ .......... .:
......... ........ ...... .
............ ........... .. .....
............ ...... .. .:
.... ........ ............. ..


FORM C.-For several samples.

PoThts. 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1314 15116 17 18 19 202122 23 24

1. Uniformity.................. 10 .. ................
2. Shape of ear....-.....---------.........-------- 5 i....... .......... .......
3. Purity of color ............... 10 .................... ... .
4. Market condition ............ 5 ..... ... ..
5. Filling out tips............... 10 .. .... .. ..
6. Filling out butts .....-....-.. 5 .. .. .. --- .. .. ..
7. Kernel uniformity ........... 5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...
8. Kernel shape ................. 5... ..
9. Length ................... ... 10
10. Circumference ............... 5
11. Space between rows .......... 10 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
12. Proportion of corn to cob..... 20 .

Total ....................... F100 .



Experiment No. 1.


Use sand, clay, loam, and gravel as provided.
1. Weigh carefully four drying pans.
2. Place in one of each about 100 grams of each of the above soils.
3. Weigh the pan and soil carefully.
4. Spread out the soil to a thin layer by shaking, and dry for twenty-tour hours at
room temperature.
5. Weigh and repeat the' drying and weighing at intervals of four to five hour
until a nearly constant weight is obtained.
The loss of weight represents the amount of capillary, water.
Amount of capillary water found was: Sand, ; clay, ; loam, ---
gravel, ... :..:::
Define capillary water: "
Define capillary water:
.... .......i.: .. .


Experiment No. 2.

Use the air-dried soils from experiment No. 1.
1. Place about 10 grams of the air-dried soil in a tared porcelain crucible (a).
2. Weigh the soil and crucible (b) and heat in the air bath at 100 to 1100 C. for
1 hour.
3. Cool in a desiccator and weigh rapidly to prevent absorption of moisture from
the air.
4. Heat for a shorter time, cool, and weigh, repeating until the weight (c) becomes
Calculation: The loss of weight, or b-c, equals'the amount of hygroscopic water
in the sample taken.
c-a equals the weight of water-free soil.
Therefore = per cent of hygroscopic water expressed on the basis of water-free
The per cent of hygroscopic water found was: Sand, ; clay, ; loam,
; gravel,
Define hygroscopic water: -- .
From the results obtained in experiments 1 and 2 compute the percentage of cap-
illary and total water in the soil, expressed on the basis of water-free soil.
Total water content is (percentage). Sand, ; clay, ; loam, ;

In addition to the capillary and hygroscopic water, the soil may contain, under
some conditions, as immediately after a rain, a certain amount of free or gravita-
tional water. This portion of the soil water is acted upon by the force of gravity,
which causes it to percolate downward to the level of the ground water.

Experiment No. 3.
Two students will work conjointly in this experiment.
1. Into each of four beakers place about 1 gram of clay and add 200 cubic centi-
meters of water.
2. To beaker-
No. 1 add 0.2 gram calcium hydrate=0.1 per cent solution.
No. 2 add 1 gram calcium hydrate=0.5 per cent solution.
No. 3 add 2 grams calcium hydrate=1 per cent solution.
No. 4 add 0 gram calcium hydrate =Control.
3. With a stirring rod mix the contents of each beaker thoroughly and then place
a sample of each in a Nessler's cylinder and whirl in the centrifuge at the lowest
speed and note the time required to completely precipitate each solution.
4. Pour the contents of each cylinder back into the respective beaker, stir thor-
oughly and set aside, observing occasionally to determine the time required for com-
plete sedimentation in each case.
Compare in each case the cylinders and beakers containing the different strengths
of solution and the control and tabulate the results in the space below.

Time to cen- Time to
trifugate. sediment.

0.1 per cent solution .............. ..........................
0.5 per cent solution .............. ............. ...........
1 per cent solution.............................. ............
Control ............. ............ ..........................

Explain bow the lime acts and clarifies the water:

26777-No. 127-03--3



Experiment No. 4.
Two students will work together as in experiment No. 3.
1. Weigh out five 50-gram samples of the clay soil.
2. To sample-
No. I add 0. 5 per cent calcium hydrate.
No. 2 add 1 per cent calcium hydrate.
No. 3 add 5 per cent calcium hydrate.
No. 4 add 10 per cent calcium hydrate.
No. 5 add no calcium hydrate.
3. Mix each sample thoroughly in a soil pan, and add just enough water to make
4. Fill into molds in the form of sticks, using care to compress all samples to the
same degree, and transfer to the oven and bake at 1100 C. for 4 to 5 hours.
5. Test the strength of each stick of baked clay by supporting upon blocks and
suspending weights until the clay is fractured. Note weight required in each case
and fill in results below:
0. 5 per cent broke with...................- ....--...........
1 per cent broke with............-.........-..............
5 per cent broke with.............. ........................
10 per cent broke with..-....-- ..........-...-- .............
Control broke with ......---. ..- ....- .........-..............
Explain the loss of plasticity due to the lime: -

Experiment No. 5.
Use each of the four soils as in former experiments.
1. Weigh carefully in empty and thoroughly cleaned soil tube (a).
2. Fil! it with one of the soils to be tested, which must first be well pulverized if
lumpy. In filling use the soil-compacting machine, allowing the weight to fall three
times from the 6-inch mark upon each cupful of soil. Fill the tube to the crease
near the top.
3. Weigh the filled tube carefully (b).
4. The area of the bottom of the tube is 20 square centimeters. From.this com-
pute the number of cubic centimeters of soil which it contains (c).
5. Determine the amount of hygroscopic moisture in a special sample of the soil,
according to direction given under Experiment No. 2 (d).
b-(a+d)=weight of the given volume of soil.

Therefore, b-(a+d) weight of I cc. of soil=volume weight of soil.
Volume weight of soil ap specific gravity.
Volume weight of water
I find the apparent specific gravity to be as follows: Sand, ; gravel, -
loam, ; clay, .
The volume weight or apparent specific gravity of soils varies with the amount of
packing, a freshly plowed field being much lighter per cubic foot than one com-
pacted by rains or tramping.
Explain the object of using the soil-compacting machine in this experi-
nllent. -


Experiment Xo. 9.


1. Place 100 grams of the air-dried soil in a beaker and add 100 cubic, centimeters
of distilled water.
2. Mix the soil and water thoroughly and rinse the soil upon a previously sat-
urated filter with a known amount of distilled water. Cover the top of the funnel
with a glass plate to prevent evaporation.
3. Catch the water which drains away, in a graduate, and deduct the amount of
water caught from the total amount, used. The remainder represents the amount
retained by the soil.
4. With a special sample of the soil used determine the per cent of hygroscopic
Calculation.-After finding the per cent of hygroscopic water, determine the
amount of water-free soil in the 100-grain sample taken. Add the total amount of
hygroscopic water to the capillary water retained and divide the sum by the weight
of water-free soil, and the quotient will represent the per cent of water held, calcu-
lated on the basis of water-free soil.
Per cent of water retained was: Sand, ; clay, ; loam, ; gravel,

Why do you use air-dried soil in this experiment?
Why do you moisten the filter?

E.rpernimend No. 1.


1. Fill the series of tubes provided for this experiment with the finely pulverized
and sifted soils without compacting.
2. Attach the tubes successively to the aspirator and note the length of time
required to force or draw 10 liters of air through each sample of soil. .The aspirator
weight must be started from the same height in each case.
This experiment illustrates the relative aeration of soils, a question which is of
importance in connection with the subject of the growth and development of the
nitrifying and other bacteria of the soil concerned in the production of plant food.
Time required for sand, ; gravel, ; loam, ;- clay,

E.ieriment NoV. 13.


1. Close the lower end of 12 of the large glass tubes by a piece of thin muslin tied
firmly to the tubes. The tubes are then filled with the finely pulverized air-dried
soils, which have been carefully sifted to remove all small stones. These tubes are
to be filled with each soil-No. 1, by simply pouring the soil as loosely as possible
into the tube; No. 2, by compacting the soil gently by tapping the lower end of the
tube upon the bench, and No. 4, by compacting the soil ly ramming with a rod.
Care must be taken to compact the different soils to the same degree, both in the
jarring and ramming, by jarring or ramming each tube the same number of times.
The tubes are now placed in the supporting frame in such a manner that the lower
ends shall dip one-half inch beneath the surface of a tray of water.
The experiment is now ready for observation at intervals of twenty-four hours,
when the height to which the water has risen is carefully measured and recorded.

These observations should be taken daily for one week, and the results are to be noted"::

Rise .............
Total height....
Total height.......
Rise .............
Total height.......
Rise .............
Total height.......
{Rise ............
Total height.......
Rise ..............
Total height.......
Rise ...............
YTotal height.......

No. 1.1

Sand. Gravel.

No.2. No. 3. No.1. No.2. No. 3.

I..... ..... ..... ... ......
---- -....... ...... ......


No.1. No. 2. No..


.. .. .... ... .. ..
......... ......
No.1. No. N :: ::

...... ...... -. .
...... ......

...... ...... .....
...... .......
...... ......
...... ......
...... .. .....i

...... ...... ..... .... ...

To obtain accurate and reliable results it is necessary to use great care in filling the
tubes, observing in particular that there are no places where the column of soil is
unevenly packed or broken by coarse material. which will prevent the action of

Experiment No. 14.


Fill all the tubes with the fine prairie soils, using the compacting machine. All the
tubes should be filled to the same level.
The conical bases of the tubes are then filled partly full of water, so that the water
shall stand at the same level in each. Determine the level with the S-shaped glass
tube, and measure the depth of water very accurately with the millimeter rule. The
tubes are to be filled to the same level each day, and the amount of water added is
carefully noted. This amount represents the water lost by evaporation. The tubes
are treated as follows: Tube 1, control; tube 2, cultivated 1 inch; tube 3, cultivated
2 inches; tube 4, cultivated 3 inches; tube 5, cultivated 4 inches; tube 6, cultivated
5 inches.
The cultivation is performed each day by removing a layer of soil to the depth of
cultivation used in the tube, and thoroughly mixing it, when it is replaced.
Each tube has an area of 80 square centimeters = 12.4 square inches =wu-srs acre,
and the results are to be computed in tons of water evaporated per acre. The obser-
vations are to be taken for seven days and the results filled in below.

Depth of culture.................................. in. 1 in. 2 in. 3 in. 4 in. 5 in.
Total number grams................................ ..... .... ................... ......... .. ..
Tons per acre ......................................................... ........... .. .....

Experiment No. 15.


This experiment is conducted in a similar manner to the last, excepting that the
tubes are all filled to the same level and used as follows: No. 1, control; No. 2, 2.
inches sand; No. 3, 2 inches clay; No. 4, 2 inches muck; No. 5, 2 inches sawdust;
No. 6, 2 inches cut straw.

Control. Sand.

Total number grams..................... ................
Tons per acre....... .....................................


Muck. Sawdust.


Cut straw.



- ---



The agricultural course in this college requires four or five years
for completion, depending on the preparation of the candidates for
admission, and leads to the degree of bachelor of science. The
entrance examinations for the five-year course cover the following
subjects: Arithmetic, geography, grammar, reading, spelling, pen-
manship, and history of the United States. The holder of a teacher's
certificate, or eighth-grade diploma signed by a county commissioner
and issued by a school following the course of study outlined by
the State superintendent of public instruction, will be admitted to
the five-year course without examination. For admission to the four-
year course, students must hold diplomas from high schools on an
accredited list, or must, in addition to the requirements named above,
pass examinations in algebra through quadratic equations, in plane
geometry, in elementary physics, and in English. Candidates for
admission must bring testimonials of good character, and must be not
less than fifteen years of age.
The entrance requirements also presuppose that the applicant has the
ability to harness and drive horses, to plow, harrow, mark corn ground,
drill, operate the mower, reaper, and farn implements generally, and
to perform in a neat and workmanlike manner the details of regular
farm work. A failure to pass this examination will not exclude from
the college; another opportunity will be provided at the close of the
second year to pass on these studies. If the student then fails he will
be required to remain at the college during the summer vacation
between his second and third years, or to work for the same period on
some farm approved by the professor of agriculture. He will receive
his final examination on the subject at the beginning of the junior
Since both the four-year and the five-year courses cover practically
the same ground in agricultural subjects, only the four-year course
will be described.
The course is centered around instruction and practice in agriculture
and horticulture and the sciences directly bearing upon successful
farming. It includes the following credits: Agriculture, 60; agri-
culture or horticulture (elective), 59; anatomy, 10; bacteriology, 14;
bacteriology (elective), 24; botany, 56; botany (elective), 12; chemn-
istry, 42; chemistry (elective), 12; civil engineering, 6; civil engineer-
ing (elective), 24; drawing, 10; economics (elective), 12; English, 59;
English (elective), 12; entomology, 12; geology (elective), 10; Ger-
man (elective), 60; history (elective), 12; horticulture, 51; hygiene,4;
mathematics, 29; meteorology (elective), 12; military science and tac-
tics, 22; physics, 20; physics (elective), 12; political science, 10; psy-
chology (elective), 12; sanitary science, 6; veterinary science, 5; vet-
erinary science (elective), 36; zoology, 20; zoology (elective), 12.


S..... ....

Until the end of the first term, junior year, all four-year agricultural
students pursue exactly the same studies, but for the remaining five
terms they specialize in their technical work, electing either agricul-
ture, including dairying, stock-feeding, soil work, and farm crops, or
horticulture, including vegetable culture, pomology, and floriculture.
Instruction in agronomy is given by the professor of agronomy and
one assistant in the second and third terms of the freshman year, the
first and second terms of the sophomore year, the second and third
terms of the junior year, and the first, second, and third terms of the
senior year, and is supplemented by instruction in botany, bacteriology,
and chemistry.
The courses in botany (aside from those hearing on forestry) for
agricultural students include in the freshman year sixty-one hours of
structural botany (gross anatomy and morphology of fruits and seeds)
and thirty-three hours of systematic botany; in the sophomore year
ninety-six hours of plant histology (use of compound microscope,
preparation of slides, use of reagents, study of plant anatomy, etc.)
and thirty-three hours of ecology; one hundred and twenty-six hours
of fungi of economic importance during the first term of the junior
year; and forty-eight hours devoted to a study of grasses and weeds
during the second term of the junior year. A senior elective in plant
physiology has been announced. Instruction in botany is given in the
botanical laboratory, a building 55 by 45 feet, two stories with attic
and basement. The basement includes a fire-proof room containing
the herbarium of about 75,000 specimens, a lavatory, and large work-
room for the preparation and storing of specimens and boxes; the first
floor contains a dark room, two well-lighted rooms very fairly equipped
for histological -and physiological studies, and an office and laboratory
for the professor in charge; the second floor contains a large room for
beginners in botany and for lectures, and a study and laboratory for
the assistants; the garret has recently been fitted for use as necessity
may require.
Bacteriology is taught by the laboratory method, supplemented by
such lectures as are necessary to direct the work. After one prelinii-
nary lecture course and two laboratory courses (first, morphological
and cultural bacteriology, and second, physiological bacteriology), the
student may elect during the winter term of the senior year a labo-
ratory course in bacteriology (ten hours per week) devoted to the
biological consideration of the soil. This work is given in a new and
well-equipped bacteriological laboratory, which has just been completed
at a cost (exclusive of equipment) of $25,000.
Instruction in chemistry includes general elementary chemistry
(ninety-eight hours during the first term of the freshman year), quali-
tative analysis (one hundred and twenty hours during the second term
of the freshman year), organic chemistry (ninety-eight hours during




the fir.t term of the sophomore year), and agricultural chemistry (sixty
hours during the second terni of the sophomore year and sixty hours,
elective, during the second term of the senior year). The course in
agricultural chemistry includes the history.of agricultural chemistry;
the composition of plants, sources of the organic constituents of plants,
how to increase their quantity and availability;, the soil and the influ-
ence of physical agencies on its chemical condition; the nature and
action of the ash elements in plant growth; manures and manuring;
intensive and extensive agriculture, and conservation of fertility; the
chemistry of fodders and stock feeding, of ripening of fruits and
grains. The aim in these lectures is to state and solve the chemical
problems of the farm. The chemical laboratory building contains a
lecture room for 150 students, analytical rooms fitted with evaporating
hoods and tables for (S students, the professor's private laboratory and
study, and a suite of rooms for students in metallurgy and quantitative
chemical analysis, and is well equipped with chemical apparatus and
The courses in agronomy are introduced by a course of twenty
lectures on the formation, character, and distribution of soils; the
agencies still at work in soil formation and soil destruction; and the
care required to be exercised to preserve the soils of agricultural
districts. These lectures are given during the last four weeks of the
second term of the freshman year and are illustrated by samples of
soil, rock, etc., and by the stereopticon, and are supplemented by
laboratory work and oral quizzes. During the third term of the
freshman year, ten hours per week are spent in studying soils as
regards their characteristics, functions, needs, and treatment in agri-
culture; drainage, its theory and practice; reasons for the different
operations of the farm and the tools used; the planning of farm work,
etc. Throughout this work the lantern is used to illustrate the talks
and the student is taken to the tool room and to the field for observa-
tion. It is the aim to have quizzes at least as often as once per week.
Two hours daily of the first ternl of the sophomore year'are devoted
to lectures and laboratory work in agricultural physics, including
(besides rural engineering and farm mechanics) laboratory work in
the mechanical analysis of soils, the determination of moisture in
soils, green and dry fodders, roots and grains, and experiments in
moisture and air movements in soils.
The subject of farm crops is given in lectures five hours per week
during the second term of the sophomore year. In this course, "good
seed and conditions affecting its vitality, general requirements for
successful plant growth, conditions governing the time and depth of
planting, rate of seeding, etc., and the principles of plant improve-
ment, are discussed. The history, distribution, general characteristics,

.. ... : .. ..

adaptability, uses of the several farm crops, and the best me theod
producing them are studied." ...
In the second term of the junior year the student inay elect "' agi: ...
cultural experimentation." In this course one hour per day is given'
to lectures and individual work on the part of the student r-' thijel
experiment station wbrk and literature of this and other countrile.::a, ".
the organization and work of the United States Department of Arti
culture, methods of experimentation, and the principles underyiigi | ....
the same. Each student is required in closing up the term's work tWi6:
outline an experiment along some practical .line of live stock, di .... i'iry";
ing, soils, or crops, and to submit the outline to the class for criticisma."::''::::
and discussion. The experimentation is continued during the third ::
term two hours per day. For example, the student electing an experil:'':i

FIG. 2.-Tubes of galvanized iron used to study effectiveness of mulches upon moisture losses.
ment in agronomy, such as tests of forage crop mixtures, variety tests
of field crops, fertilizer experiments, etc., is allotted the necessary
land, furnished team, implements, seed, etc., and is required to carry
through his experiment and report upon it.
The object of this work is twofold. To the young man going back
to the farm it gives a training which enables him at once to pass upon
the merits of any line of work described in station literature and to
appropriate that portion of it which may be of value to himself; to
the young man going into technical fields it gives a training which
should give strength and reliability to his work."
In the senior year an elective in soil physics is offered. In this
course ten hours per week during the first term are devoted to lectures
and laboratory work, embracing a study of the physical properties and


U S. Dept. of Agr., Bul. 127, Office of Expt. Stations,




characteristics of soils, such as determining the specific gravity, apparent
specific gravity, water movements, capillarity, etc. During the winter
term ten hours per week are devoted by the student to original inves-
tigation work along some line agreed upon between the student and pro-
fessor in charge. During the spring
term ten hours per week, seven
weeks, are devoted to advanced work
in soils, including lectures, labora- a
tory work, studying soluble salts in
soils by the electrical method, the
pore space in natural soils, etc.
The building in which the instruc-
tional and laboratory work in agron-
omy is chiefly conducted is built of
brick, is 53 feet long, 54 feet wide,
and two stories high, with attic and
basement, and is known as Agricul-
tural Hall (P1. V). The basement
of this building contains a large lab-
oratory for agricultural physics, a
small laboratory for mechanical
analysis of soils (Pl. VI,fig. i),store-
rooms, etc., and connects with small
plant house. The first floor contains
offices, a dark room, and a large gen- I
eral lecture room provided with 90
square feet of blackboard, two cases I
of wall maps, a stereopticon, and a
12 by 12 foot lantern screen. The
windows of this and other rooms in
the building are provided with cloth
curtains and wood blinds. The lan-
tern slides at present include illus-
trations of different phases of soil
formation and soil destruction and of
different kinds of farm machinery. l
New slides are being added. The
soils laboratory, which also serves
as a lecture room, is on the second FIG. 3.-King's aspirator to determine the ef-
floor of Agricultural Hall (Pl. VI, tetive size or soil grains.
fig. 2) and is supplied with apparatus as follows: Four sets of galvan-
ized iron tubes (fig. -2) for the study of moisture movements in soils
and three sets of brass tubes for the study of water and air movements'
(figs. 3 and 4) in soils; a L" King's aspirator" (fig. 3) for determining the
effective size of soil grains; a Whitney's bridge" for determining


the soluble salts in soils; apparatus for the mechanical analysis of
soils: a steam drying oven and a hot-air drying oven (fig. 6); trays id
case, sampling auger, and sampling tube for field work in soils; a
torsion balance and a number of other balances; four compound micro-
scopes and one micrometer slide; a number of samples of typical soils
from other States, as well as samples of Michigan soils, to which .
samples additions are being made as rapidly as opportunity permits; a
grade level and rod; specific gravity bulbs, drying tubes, and sundry
glass and rubber -tubing and glassware. The room has about 120
square feet of blackboard.
The college farm comprises over 400 acres, not including the campus,
orchards, gardens, stock yards, and the experiment station plates. It .
is divided into twenty pasture, field, and wood lots. At present the
several acreages are about as follows: Woods, 140;. wild pasture, 30;
tame pasture, 37; hay, 69; and roots, cereals, and forage crops, 141
acres. The soil is a drift soil and ranges from a sandy soil to a fine
clay soil, all of which is interspersed with coarse gravel and hard heads
and bowlders. The farm machinery is up to date in every particular ,.
and includes a large collection of modern types of implements a nd:::'::`
machines, as well as some of the older types, which are used by: tih.:::
students in making comparisons of draft, work, effect on soils, etc.
The library contains over 21,000 bound volumes and about 5,000 "
pamphlets, and is rich in scientific works. The tables of the r eing
room are supplied with all the leading agricultural papers and joU~ael. I
In matters concerning crops and soils reference is made, first of al.:.
probably, to station literature, then to Storer's Agriculture,. Kio's:: '::
works, and others of Bailey's Rural Science Series, and the' Rothfam- :;i
sted reports.

The movement of air through different soils.
Description of apparatus.-The apparatus used for the study of air movement
through soils consists of an aspirator, as shown in fig. 4, and 12 brass tubes 1@
inches in height and having a diameter of 3 inches. These soil tubes are all filled to
the depth of 1 inch with a coarse sand, and above the sand are filled to a depth of 1 '
inches with the different soils indicated in the table. By means of apparatus pre-
pared for the purpose the soils are introduced into the tubes and packed so that any
difference in the pore space in the soils must be due to the physical properties of the
soil. It will be seen that the variation of size of soil grain, variation in the propor-
tions of large and small grains, variation in amount of organic matter present, .et. ....
must be the factors resulting in the differences in the rates at which the air moves : .:.
through the soil.
Observe that we have not the conditions in the soil in the cylinders that we have. :
in the soil in the field, and that with this apparatus we are studying only the effects
resulting largely from the properties named.

EnATUM.-On pages 43 and 44 the cuts have been transposed, i. e., the
apparatus shown on page 43 is for the study of percolation of water through
s~il aund the apparatus shown on page 44 is for the study of the movement of
air through soils.

..... ...





Detai,'s of the practicum.-
1. With the rubber tube detached from soil tubes, lift the aspirator weight, allow w-
ing bell to fall to bottom of aspirator tank.
2. Attach rubber tube to soil tube No. 1.
3. Now carefully lower weight until it is just sustained by pressure (if air 11uon
the bell.
4. With watch note time required for the hand to pass over three divisions of tllc
dial, recording time as indicated in a table like the one below.
5. In like manner attach rubber tube to Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and S :intl note andll
record the time required to pass over three divisions of the dial.



FIG. 4.-Apparatus used to study the movement of air through soils.

G. In like manner attach rubber tube to Nos. 9, 10, 11, and 12 and note the time
required for the hand to pass over one division on the dial. Multiply this time by
three and introduce in table.
7. Make computations and fill in as indicated in thle table.


Sand ..............................
Sand, with 3 per cent lime ........
Peat ...........................
Clay loam....... ...............
Clay, with 3 per cent lime.........
Clay ............... ..... ... ...

NTmbr ime. Relative
Number ___ ______ rate cf
of cylin- nitove
der. Initial. Final. Net. Average. ir mo

S1 ::::::::::::::::::::: : -- .- ------
F 3 1:.....:........ ........i
4 ..................... ... ... ........ ..........
5 .......... ......... ...... -
-- ------- l- ----- ---''~' .~." '
S .......... :....... ........
......... 0 ................. .........I
12 :........ ........ ..........

Percolation of water through different soils.
Description of apparatus.-This apparatus (fig. 5), consists of soil tubes similar to
those used for the study of the rate of air movement through soils differing only in ii.
having tubes at the top by which the series may be connected by pieces of rubber
tubing and supplied automatically with water so that the head or pressure in all the
tubes can be kept constant. The tubes are filled in the same manner with soil as for
studying air movements, and the rate of percolation depends upon the same physical
properties of the soils as in the case of the movement of air.
Details of the practicum.-
1. See that the water supply is properly arranged.
2. Tare the glass or cylinder of each soil tube and record its weight in the proper
place in a table like the one shown below, but do not return them imy under
the drain tubes.
3. Remove corks from drain tubes and insert wire drips.
4. When water drops from all the wires, place the glasses and cylinders quickly
under the drain tubes, noting the time.

FIG. 5.-Apparatus used to study percolation of water through soils.

5. At the end of 45 minutes quickly remove glasses and cylinders.
6. Remove wire drips and insert corks in drain tubes.
7. Weigh glasses and cylinders with contents and record weights in the proper
place in the table.
8. Make proper computations and introduce results in table.


Clay ...............
Clay loam...........
Bandy: .............
Peat ..............

Number Weight IWelihd
of of em ty cylinder
cyhnder. c and con-
cylinder.yli er. tents.

,- i:r:::::i::l------ iiiii-iiiii.
r !

:. .... ......... ..........

:1......... .......... .........
.......... ..........
......... ..........

of water
ing in 45

.. .mm.s. .


tion in45

rates of

Tons per
per hour

per hour
perco- -



Determination f ,li sioilstitrc.

To take samples:
1. Provide yourself with soil tube, mallet, and three soil trays.
2. Having determined place for taking soil sample, pack the surface of the s4il
lightly with the foot. Press or drive the tube intu the ground until the 1-foot mark
on the tube is even with the surface of the ground. Give the tube a turn. Place
one hand firmly over the top of the soil tube to keep out air and with the other hand
grasp and slowly withdraw the tube.
3. Remove cover from one of the trays, invert the soil tube, and allow the core to
pass from the tube into the tray. Put cover on tray at once.
4. Return soil tube to the hole and press or drive down until the 2-foot mark on
the tube is even with the surface of the ground. Remove as before ant place the
core in a second tray.
5. In like manner secure core from third foot and introduce into a third tray.
6. Pass to another point and as before secure cores of the first, second, and third
foot, respectively, and introduce the cores into the trays containing the first, second,
and third foot, respectively, already obtained.
7. Repeat until composite samples of four are obtained.
To dry samples:
8. Weigh each tray with contents, recording weights of each. Remove covers and
place trays in drying oven.
9. After forty-eight hours replace covers and weigh trays with contents, carefully
recording weights. Be sure samples are dry.
10. Remove the dry soil from trays, wipe the trays carefully and.weigh, recording
11. Determine (a) loss of moisture from the soil, (b) weight of dry soil, and (c)
the per cent of moisture in each soil estimated on dry weight of soil.

To take samples:
1. Provide yourself with two soil trays and a spade.
2. Having determined place to take samples dig a hole 1 foot deep anl a little
wider and longer than the width of your spade. See that one side is perpendicular.
Remove all loose soil from bottom of hole.
3. With spade cut off a slice 1 inch thick from the perpendicular side of the hole
to a depth of 6 inches, allowing soil to fall to the bottom of the hole where it should
be quickly crumbled and mixed ant freed from stones larger than a small marble.
4. Place about one-half pint of this soil in one of the trays and cover. Remove the
rest of the soil from the bottom of the hole.
5. With spade finish cutting the slice to the depth of 1 foot and proceed as above
to mix and free from stone.
6. Place one-half pint of this soil in the second tray and cover.
7. Selecting another point proceed as above to take samples of the first and second
6 inches, respectively, and place the samples so taken in the trays with the samples
of the first and second 6 inches already taken, respectively.
To dry the samples:
8. Weigh each tray with contents, recording weights of each. Remove covers and
place tray in drying oven.
9. After forty-eight hours replace covers and weigh trays with contents, carefully
recording weights. Be sure samples are dry.
10. Remove the dry soil from trays, wipe the trays carefully anl weigh, recording
11. Determine (a) loss uf moisture from soil, (6) weight of dry soil, and (c) the
per cent of moisture in each soil estimated on dry weight of soil.



Determination of moisture in green crops, fodders, roots, and grains.


(a) Green crops.

Cut sample close to

ground. Either fold or tie into short bun-
dles or cut into short lengths and put into
a tray.
(b) Fodder (including hay and straw).
Cut a quantity of the material in a feed
cutter or with a knife, mix well, and fill
tray with sample.
(c) Roots. Select one or more typical
roots, clean with a good brush or wash
and wipe carefully. With a sharp knife
slice in tray quickly and cover.
(d) Grain. Place about one pint of
cleaned grain in a tray. If it is desired
to determine the moisture of corn in the
ear select a typical ear having all of its
kernels and place in tray.

FiG. 6.-Hot-air drying oven.


For the- material placed in the trays it
is sufficient to record the number of the
Upon those materials not placed in
trays a tag bearing your name should
be placed.

You will need to determine: (a) Net
weight before drying; (b) Net weight
after drying; (c) Loss of moisture by
With this data determine the per cent
of moisture in the undried material.


Place material in hot-air oven (fig. 6)
having temperature of 1200 C. Drying
should continue until materials have
reached constant weights. This will usu-
ally be accomplished in twenty-four
hours, but sometimes as much as forty-
eight hours are required.
[Each student is given from six to eight
materials to dry. In some cases he is
required to go to the bin or field to pro.-
cure them.]


ExillmiT No. 6.

[This ,,et of lqucstion is c-ovurs in a general way\ the work done 4luirinl the spring term of the freshman
1. What is meant by tillage? What are the chief objects sought in tillage? Tell
quite fully how one of these objects is accomplished.
2. Explain the action of the common American plow. How does it differ fromi the
English plow? Speak briefly of their relative merits. What objections to the co'm-
mon plow? What may we do toward obviating some of the bad effects?
3. Why do we cultivate? Describe an ideal cultivator and ideal cultivation.
4. What are some of the methods for removing the surplus water from land?
5. What will govern each of the following: Depth of drain, distance apart of
drains, size of tile to be used. '
6. What grade should tile drains have, what is the least grade allowable, and
what precaution should be taken in laying a drain at such a grade?
7. How should laterals he connected with drains? Where and how should silt
wells be constructed?
8. What is meant by rotation of crops? Why do we rotate at all?
9. Outline what you would call a good rotation, and give reason for the presence
of each crop in the rotation.
10. When would you apply barn manure? At what rate, and why?
11. Speak of the value of clover as a crop. Why is it difficult to grow clover in
Michigan? Tell how you would secure a stand of clover.
12. The effect of lime upon soils? Why? Would you apply lime to the soils of
Michigan? If yes, at what rate and why? If no, why not?
13. What. difference between a goodi truck soil and a good grass soil, and why is
each soil especially adapted to its own crop?
14. In what way is the size of soil grain related to (a) the water holding capacity
of tle soil, (I) the plant feeding qualities, and (c) to the retaining of plant foods
against percolation?
15. How does the attount of moisture required to grow a crop compare (a) with
our annual rainfall, (1) with the water content of our soils in the month of March?
What objections to summer fallowing?


Candidates for admission to the College of Agriculture of the Uni-
versity of Minnesota must have the equivalent of either a three-year
course in the school of agriculture plus one year of work of high-
school grade in algebra, geometry, English, history, and economics,
or a four-year course in a city high school plus one or two years in
the school of agriculture. The school of agriculture is a technical
high school, in which agriculture and subjects closely related to it
largely predominate. These subjects include agricultural botany,
chemistry and physics, dairy chemistry, agronomy, farm accounts,
animal husbandry, dairy husbandry, fruit growing, vegetable garden-
ing, etc., presented in a way to fit young men for successful farm life
or for entrance to the college of agriculture.
The college course in agriculture is designed for those graduates of the school of
agriculture and students from other institutions equally well prepreed who desire


further instruction in practical agricultural science, in the sciences related to agri.-
culture, and in literature and the arts. Since all students who enter this course
have had the technical, scientific, and general work offered in the school of agricul- ...
ture, the college course includes only advanced work of a collegiate grade. This
course designs to efficiently prepare students for either farm life or for the work of
the agricultural specialist. It emphasizes the importance of plant and animal pro-
duction and the upbuilding of rural hdmes and farm life, while the biological and
physical sciences are made prominent.
Following the four years of preparation in practical agricultural lines in the school
of agriculture, the freshman and sophomore years are devoted largely to the study of
the sciences. The technical subjects relating to agriculture and household economies
are mainly offered as electives in the junior and senior years, when the freedom for
election enables the student to choose as a specialty a major science or an agricultural
or a household subject around which to group related elective subjects. The elective"
courses during the last two years give an ojlportunity for further culture in literary
and philosophical lines and for becoming more proficient in scientific research work
in some of the many problems pressing for solution in the development of the State
and national agricultural experiment stations. The instruction in the various tech-
nical agricultural and household divisions in the college course is for the most part a
continuation of the work in these subjects in the school of agriculture, each subject
being treated from a more technical standpoint. Students who have first graduated
from the agricultural school are ready in their junior and senior years to elect spe-
cialties for study and research work along lines in which they hope to work' after
The subjects in the school of agriculture which more especially pre-
pare for the collegiate work in agronomy are agricultural chemistry,
agricultural botany, agricultural physics, and the subjects included
under the title of agriculture.
Agricultural chemistry is divided into dairy chemistry; chemistry
of foods, soils, and fertilizers, and domestic chemistry. Under the title
of soils and fertilizers the student receives instruction in the composi-
tion of soils and their properties, the sources of plant food, the kinds.
and amounts of foods required by crops and the best ways of supplying
these demands, the various forms in which plant food exists in the
soil, farm manures, their uses and action upon the soil, the income
and outgo of fertility from the farm, soil exhaustion and soil improve-
ment, the rotation of crops, as based upon the chemistry of soils and
the principles governing the conservation of the fertility of the soil.
Laboratory practice forms an important feature of all the work in
agricultural chemistry.
Agricultural botany is taught with special reference to its bearing
upon the everyday problems that present themselves to the farmer
and the gardener. By means of flowers and plants from the green-
house and nursery, studied under the simple and the compound micro-
scope, students are given a clear idea of the general principles of plant
structure and vegetable physiology.
In agricultural physics the general principles of physics'are taught,
special stress being laid upon those principles which to the greatest
extent enter into the business of the farmer. About half of the time


is aevoted to experimental work which includes capillarity of soil;
diffusion and osmosis of gases and liquids; heating, lighting, and ven-
tilation; farm machinery, in particular pumps, eveners, pulleys, milk
testers, centrifugals, incubators, windmills, steam and gasoline engines;
friction and lubricants; tensile strength of wire and binding twine of
different grades; lightning and lightning protection.
The work designated "agriculture" in the school of agriculture
includes (1) "introductory agriculture-soils; selecting and planting
farms; subduing the fields; drainage; irrigation; fences; roads; build-
ings; water supply; groves and introductory lessons concerning farm
business, farm life, and the relations of general science to agriculture;"
and (2) field crops and farm management, comprising instruction in
remodeling farm plans, production and management of farm manures,
rotation and handling of field crops, care and use of pastures and
meadows, weeds and their destruction, and the laws of heredity and
variation in plant breeding, together with instruction in methods of
breeding the leading field crops.
The college course in agronomy includes soil physics, field crops and
seed, and plant breeding. Instruction in soil physics is given in the
divisions of agricultural physics and agricultural chemistry, while
that in field crops and seed and in plant breeding is given mainly by
the professor of agriculture.
Under the head of field crops and seed are considered the botany,
cultivation, use and place in the rotation of the various cereal, forage,
root, fiber, sugar, and miscellaneous crops. Special attention is given
to the subjects of permanent, rotation, annual, and shift pastures and
to soiling crops; to permanent and rotation meadows, and to the pro-
duction and preservation of all kinds of dry-cured and ensiled fodders.
A thesis on one or more field crops is required of each student.
The work in plant breeding includes instruction on such subjects as
heredity, variation, science of breeding, breeding as an art, improve-
ment by nature and under scientific experimentation, securing founda-
tion stocks, value of very large numbers, immense value of the occa-
sional individual which can transmit qualities of peculiar value, use
of an ideal, use and misuse of the score card, intrinsic qualities, fancy
points and distinguishing marks, pedigree records of prepotency,
fundamental principles underlying the arrangement of the record
books, bibliography and terminology, study of the literature of breed-
ing. Attention is also given to the botany of the reproductive organs
of field crops, field-crop nursery management, producing new qualities
by hybridizing and by change of environment, hybridizing versus cross-
breeding, in-breeding and self-fertilization, originating varieties and
improving standard varieties, methods of disseminating new varieties,
seed and plant introduction, experimentation in the theories relating
26777-No. 127-03- 4


to heredity, vaiation and practical breeding, seed growing as afar1
business, seed merchandising.
Elective practicums give opportunity to gain practical experien e i~
to acquire greater manual dexterity in doing farm work, to securei:"i
practice in conducting experiments, and to gain experience in teaching '::
agricultural subjects.
Agronomy is taught in dairy hall (P1. VII, fig. 1) in temporary J::
quarters which include one good recitation room, offices, and laboratory: 3
room. There is also' a seed-breeding laboratory which furnishes ;:'i
facilities for special instruction in field seeds and in laboratory work'
in plant breeding. The college possesses a stereopticon with several
hundred lantern slides, including illustrations of crops, implements,
machinery, processes of drainage, etc.; imported models of wheat and. ..
of clover flowers and seeds; many charts of root systems and illustra-
tions of floral organs which have been drawn at this institution; also
maps and designs of farm plans, both for laying out new farms and
for reorganizing old ones. Several hundred pasteboard boxes 24
inches long, 13 inches wide and 5 inches high, such as tailors use for
suit boxes, are annually filled with bundles of weeds, grasses, and forage
crops. These serve in the classes for material to tear apart, examine
the seeds, and get acquainted with the general appearance. Seeds are
also preserved in bottles. The collection of farm machinery in use at
the university farm is supplemented by collections on exhibition at the
State fair grounds, adjoining the farm, and at warehouses in St. Paul
and Minneapolis.
One unique feature of the office equipment is a special index filing
case. Here are collected newspaper clippings, manuscripts, and
references to literature in the library. These are put on sheets,
54 by 8i inches, separated by division cards, and arranged under a
scheme similar to that used by the Office of Experiment Stations in
classifying special index cards of the station literature. This filing
case now contains much material and is referred to constantly by stu-
dents in the college course in writing essays and theses' in connection
with their class work. Each student who writes a thesis on a farm
crop or other subject is required to furnish a copy for this filing case,
and to include any bibliography he has been able to collect on that
subject. Thus the students are assisting in building up the contents
of this filing case and it is recognized by them as very valuable.
No text-books are as yet in use, instruction being given almost
entirely by lectures. The agricultural library now contains 6,000
books and about 6,000 pamphlets, including reports and bulletins.
Aside from the large number of pamphlets and other publications of
the different agricultural institutions and societies, a large number of
the more important technical and agricultural magazines are kept on
file, bringing together all the agricultural literature of any importance..

U. S. D-pt rf Agr., Bul. 127, Office of Expt. Stations.





U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bul. 127, Office of Expt. Stations.




The university farm contains 2 50 acres of land, of which about 150
acres are devoted to experiment station and college of agriculture
work. The soil is a mixture of clay and sand. and is well adapted to
the various uses to which it is put. On the portion of the farm used
by the college and station there are many experiments in farm manage-
ment, rotation of crops, treatment of pastures, imlprov\ement. of crops
by breeding (P1. VII, fig. 2), etc. In the plantt breeding experiments
there are annually planted nearly 30()0,,4,) individual plants, including
grains, clovers, root crops, etc., and for much of this work special
machinery has been devised (tig. 7 and P1. VIII, figs. 1 and 2).

l .. -.. '. ^. ', ". ." '. .-".. 1 ; -

Fli. 7.-CLntrifugal C''d-gri(liIIng iiuna-hine.

Students who make a specialty of agronomy assist in these experi-
ments. Farms in the vicinity serve as a basis for designing farll
plans and working out problems in farm management.
The industrial college of the University of Nebraska offers several
four-year agricultural groups (courses) leading to the degree of bach-
elor of science-a technical group a general general group, and two special
groups. The technical group is intended for graduates of the three-
year course in the school of agriculture. '"The studies in the general
groups are arranged to meet the needs and requirements of those
students whose primary object is a broad and general education."
Those in the special groups are for students fitting themselves to be
instructors in agricultural subjects or to be experiment-station work-
ers," and '"have been planned and coordinated to enable students to
direct their work so as to meet their individual needs and preferences."
Candidates for admission to the general and special groups must pre-
sent certificates from accredited schools, academies, or colleges, or
must pass examinations (1) on the following required subjects: English,
four years of language (ancient or modern or both), algebra through
'.. : ~~~Z~ Z"15 -' ":%" "- ., ,.", ';...'.' : ";"" :" "-" ":%,. -...; .-:


logarithms, plane and solid geometry, and elementary botany, chenis-
try, and physics; and (2) on a sufficient number of the following ub-
jects for a total of 11 credits: Language, history, manual training,
physical science, natural science, plane trigonometry, mechanical .: :
drawing, physiology and hygiene, physiography, civics, and political
economy. .... .
"All the courses in the first year of residence are prescribed, .ad ;
form the common bases of both the general and the special groups .
offered." The courses included in this year and the number of house .!'
per week for each course are mathematics 5, modern language 4, phys ;.-
ics 3. English 2, chemistry 2, military drill 1. The work in chemis itry i.
includes "a careful study of the occurrence, methods of preparation,
and properties of the common elements and their chief compounds"
After the first year the courses are mostly elective. At least 40 per
cent of the work of the last three years is taken in agriculture and
chemistry or agriculture and botany, but "no student shall take or
receive credit for more than forty hours' work in any department
during his undergraduate course."
Agronomy at the University of Nebraska "includes on the instruc-
tional side the subjects of soils, field crops, farm management, and the
care and use of farm machinery." The course in soils includes the
following: The origin, deposition, and natural transportation of soils;
physical and chemical constitution of soils and subsoils; influence of
.the size of soil grains on the rate of solution of plant food, drainage,
aeration, water storage, capillarity, etc.; forms in which water exists
in soils; movement of water in the soil; soil temperatures; evapora-
tion of water from the soil; methods of soil treatment for conserva-
tion of soil moisture; the significance of a chemical analysis of soil;
fixation of fertilizing materials; nitrification; availability of plant
food; tillage, reasons'for tillage, effect of drifting, effect of plow-
ing wet or dry soil; subsoil plowing, water-holding power of loose
and compact soils; disking, listing, etc.; the application of barnyard
and green manures and commercial fertilizers. Given by the profes-
sor of agriculture.
This is followed by "field crops, their general composition and their
relation to the air and soil; useful and essential ingredients of the ash
of plants; functions of the ash constituents of plants and the forma-
tion of plant substance; functions of the roots, stems, and leaves of
plants; the breeding of cereals; a treatment of each of the principal
field crops, somewhat according to the following scheme: Characteris-
tics, varieties, vitality, climate, soil, manures, tillage, seeding, culti-
vation, harvesting, preservation, position in rotation, uses. Given by
the professor of agriculture."
Following these two courses is a laboratory course in the "Proper-
ties of soils." continuing throughout the year and given by the pro-
fessor of agriculture and the instructor in agriculture.


~111~~~~~ ~~ ~ C~~~~_ _1__ _~_~J_~_1__~ __~~I_~~~ _~~~~~~I___~ ~ ~~__~~I __ ~_~ _~~_~__ __ 1_~_~_1~_~~_ ~_~_~

U. S. Dept.'of Agr., Bul. 127, Office of Expt. Stations.




U S. Dept of Agr., Bul. 127, Office of Expt Stations.




U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bul 127, Office of Expt. Stations.




i ;


Elective courses are offered as follows:
Methods of investigation with soils. A study in detail of
reported experiments, the object being to familiarize the
student with the methods of scientific investigation in the
subject under discussion.
'"Methods of investigation with field crops. Conducted
similarly to the above.
"Plant food in the soil; a series of pot experiments.
"Production and movement of crops as affecting prices.
"Sugar-beet culture. History of the culture of the sugar
beet. Effect upon general agriculture of sugar-beet culture.
Varieties of the sugar beet. Types. Composition and struc-
ture of the beet plant. Soils and climatic conditions adapted
to raising sugar beets. Preparation of the soil. Planting the
seed. Cultivation. HarvestiiloinSiloing. Seed pro-
duction; breeding, establishing of strain. Position of
the beet crop in the system of crop rotation.
"'The laboratory work [in soils] consists of the follow-
ing demonstrations: Determination of specific gravity
of soils; determination of the volume weight of soils:
power of loose soils to retain moisture; the power of
compact soils to retain moisture; rate of per-
colation of water through soils; rateof perco-
lation of air through soils; effect of mulches
on evaporation of water from soils; behavior
of the soil toward gases; capillary attraction A
of the soil; the power of soils to fix ammonia."
Instruction for students in these courses is
by meansof lectures and laboratory practice,
using books of reference throughout almost
the entire course. In the study of field crops
the experiment station publications are used
very freely. Students fitting themselves to
be instructors in agricultural subjects or to
be experiment station workers are given
every opportunity to study the methods of
agricultural investigations at the agricultural
experiment station farm.
Class rooms and laboratories used for in-
struction in agronomy are in the general agri-
cultural building(Pl. IX). One class room,33
by 20 feet (P1. X, fig. 1), contains specimens
of plants, seeds, etc., used for purposes of in- FIG. 8.--Mov'able soil t
A, hollow steel tube.
struction in field crops. One laboratory, 33 l iet i
9isolid steel plunger, 19
by 20 feet (PI. X, fig. 2), is used for demon- lhich closely fts n he
stations of various properties of soils; og ster (8 inches


- 'I


J- U
(I ia





. inch inter-
hes long; B,
inches loug,
tube A; (',
the tube A.


This laboratory is provided with desks, water, gas, etc., and may be
considered a well-equipped laboratory. The desks are 3j feet high
and 4 feet wide, with drawers and cupboards on both sides and water
and gas cocks in the center. The apparatus is designed to record
soil temperatures (fig. 8), to take
samples ofs oils (fig. 9), to deter-
mine soil moisture (Pl. XI, fig. 1),
and to test a number of prop-
erties of different soils, for in- lil
stance, the water-holding power
of loose and compact soils, the
rate of percolation of air through
soils, and certain other physical
properties, some of the apparatus
for which was designed by Pro-
fessor Gibbs, formerly of the Ohio
State University. I i
About 50 acres of land are used
for purposes of instruction, al-
though other land used for experi-



ila. 9.--Soil-sampling apparatus: A, hollow steel sampling tube, I inch internal diameter, 45 inches
long, marked every 3 inches; B, solid steel rod, 464 inches long, which closely fits A; C, ejector;
D, driving head for sampling tube; E, aluminum cans for soil samples; F, case for sample cans.
mentation may also be considered as a part of the instructional
equipment (PI. XI, fig. 2). Forty acres are divided into subfields of
exactly 5 acres each. These fields are not fenced, but are divided by
roadways, the land occupied by which is not a part of the 5-acre tracts,


The roadways are 1 rod wide. Four of the subfields are severally in
rotations, intended to demonstrate the effect of manuring and of period-
ically seeding to grass. For instance, subfields C and II are each year
planted to the same crops and the same character of manure applied
in equal quantities, the only difference being that at certain intervals
subfield H is allowed to lie in grass for a period of years, while subfield
C is cropped continuously. The following is the rotation:

Subfield C. Sublield H.

1898.................... Corn manuredd I ..................... Broiusits h rnlis.
1899.................... Corn.................................. Brio a s inerim iN.
1900.................... Oats .................................. B itrr, tLs iiltrin is.
1901.................... W inter wheat ........................ Bro inus ineri,'is.
1902.................... Corn manuredd in winter)........... Corn (top-dressing of manure before
plowing up Br nits incrnis).
1903.................... Oats .................................. Oa): ts.
1904 .................... W inter wheat ........................ W inter wheat.
1905.................... Corn Imanured in winter ........... Corn Imanured in winter.

Subtields D and I are in similar rotations, except that subfield D does
not receive any manure and that the crops grown on these fields are not
the same as those on the other two subfields during the same year. The
remainder of the subtields are lised for growing new and not generally
grown crops or for particularly good varieties or strains of varieties
of common crops. In another field are 10 acres divided into plats of
one-fifth acre, und each of these is planted to a particular perennial
forage plant or combination of such plants. These are mostly grasses
and clovers. They serve as an object lesson in profitable seeding to
pastures and meadows in this region. Hurdles of special size are
provided for fencing these, so that any one of them may be pastured
when desired. In this manner the pasturage value is demonstrated.
There is also a field of about 10 acres divided into experiment plats
of one-tenth acre each. These, although primarily for experimenta-
tion, are also of value for purposes of instruction.
For instruction in implements and machinery, there are walking,
riding, and disk plows; breaking plows; disk. spike, acme, and spring-
tooth harrows; subsurface packer; roller; subsoilers; press drills;
lister; corn planter; mowers; rake; hay loader; hay tedder; binder;
thrashing machine, etc. There are, for instruction in soils, samples
of soils from nearly a hundred different localities in the State. These
have been analyzed mechanically and the original soil and its constit-
uent parts arranged in small vials on a card showing the percentage of
the various sized particles. There is a collection of about 90 of the
native grasses in the State and some 200 specimens of grains (P1. XII,
figs. 1 and 2).
The college classes in soils use Snyder's Chemistry of Soils and
Fertilizers, but the course is given largely by means of lectures. In
field crops frequent use is made of Farmers' Bulletins and State agri-
cultural society reports, and of Morrow and Hunt's Soils and Crops of



the Farm. The principal books of reference for classes in soils are i
Conte's Elements of Geology, Warington's Chemical and Physica
Properties of Soils, Wahnschaffe's Scientific Examination of Soils,
Johnson's How Crops Feed, Storer's Agriculture, and Roberts's Fer-
tility of the Land; for classes in field crops, the publications of the
various experiment stations and of the United States Department of
The agricultural library contains complete or nearly complete sets
of the Annals of Agriculture, Journal of the Royal Agricultural So-
ciety of England, Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural
Society of Scotland, Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, Journal of
Agriculture, Journal fiir Landwiirtschaft, Centralblatt fur Agricultur-
chemie, Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der Agricultur-Physik, an
almost complete set of the publications of the various State experi-
ment stations, and a fairly complete set of the publications of the
United States Department of Agriculture. There is also a fairly
complete collection of text-books and other books dealing with agri-
culture in a general or special way, besides files of the more important
agricultural newspapers. Altogether, in that section of the library
pertaining to agronomy there are upward of 1,500 volumes.
The four-year course in agriculture leading to the degree of bachelor
of science in agriculture is given in the College of Agriculture and
Domestic Science of the Ohio State University. This course is
designed not only to make specially trained agriculturists, but also
educated men. The course presupposes that a young man has had a
high school training or its equivalent, and that he has had the train-
ing in farm matters that necessarily comes to a young man who has
lived on a farm. It supplements this training, but does not displace
it. About one-third of the time of the student during the four years
is or may be devoted to language (English or foreign), history, and
economics; about one-third to pure science, and one-third to technical
or professional training. Electives in the senior year allow for some
variation in this regard.
Applicants for admission to this course must be at least 16 years of
age and have graduated at a State normal school, or approved high or
preparatory school, or have passed examinations in the following sub-
jects: English grammar, composition and rhetoric, English classics;
arithmetic, algebra, plane geometry; descriptive and physical geogra-
phy, elementary botany, and physics; civil government or general
history; and Latin (grammar and four books of Caesar), or French
(grammar and simple reading and translating), or German (grammar
and reading, not less than 300 pages).
The course in agronomy is given during the third or junior year of


the college course and is preceded by instruction in agricultural chem-
istry (during the first and second years), physiological and economic
botany and vegetable pathology (during the first year), and horticul-
ture (during the second year).
In chemistry the course includes lectures and laboratory work on
the principles of chemistry and chemical nomenclature, organic chem-
istry, and the application of chemistry to agriculture. The latter is
given during the third term of the first year and includes the following
topics: Ingredients of plants, organic and inorganic, essential and non-
essential; sources of plant food, air, and soil; nature of soil, mechan-
ical portion, nutritive portion, assimilable, and reserve plant food;
soil exhaustion and amelioration; barnyard manure, its sources, com-
position, and preservation; commercial fertilizers, their rational use
and methods of determining the needs of soils. In the second year
there are lectures and laboratory work on the industries related to
agriculture (e. g., manufacture of sugar, starch, vinegar, and liquors);
and the analysis of fertilizers, feeding stuffs, dairy products. sugar
and sugar producing plants, fruits and vegetables, water, soils, oils,
fats, grains, etc. The lecture rooms and laboratories are thoroughly
equipped with apparatus and chemicals for the use of instructors and
The course in botany includes elementary, physiological, and eco-
nomic botany, and vegetable pathology, with lectures and recitations
three times a week and laboratory and field work twice a week. In
economic botany the student receives instruction and practice in
handling the microscope and has the opportunity of learning much of
the important modern methods in technique. The main part of the
course in vegetable pathology is devoted to a study of the parasitic
fungi most destructive to cultivated plants, and the means of their
prevention forms the last part of the course. Instruction in botany
is given in the botanical building which contains a large lecture room,
museum, herbarium, three laboratory rooms, dark room, drying room,
storeroom, and offices. The lecture room will, the coming year, con-
tain a stereopticon furnished with electric light; a large number of
charts, many of them colored lithographic photographs and mounted
illustrative specimens are the principal appliances for daily class work.
In this room are placed fifteen of the more important popular journals
of botany for the use of students. The botanical books in the univer-
sity library, a valuable and growing collection, are largely used for
reference in connection with the several courses. The museum con-
tains a large amount of illustrative material; the native medicinal
plants and the collection of Ohio woods being very complete. The
State herbarium consists of between 12,000 and 15,000 sheets of Ohio
plants. The general herbarium is about the same size. Professor
Kellerman's private herbarium of 20,000 specimens, mostly parasitic

*.::. .. '" :' .: .... ... .'


fungi, is also used by the department. The large laboratory is well
equipped with dissecting and compound microscopes; also the asual
appliances for doing both elementary and advanced histological work.
One of the small laboratories is devoted to experimental work in vege-
table physiology and the other to systematic botany. The greenhouse
attached to the botanical building is an important adjunct to the
department. There are four sections containing a total of nearly
3,000 feet of glass. It contains a large number of illustrative plants,
perhaps 3,000 specimens, representing the principal plant families and
belonging to several hundred species. The greenhouse furnishes much
fresh material for laboratory use. It is also used as a laboratory to
carry on special work when growing plants are used.
The courses in agronomy are given by the professor of agriculture
and the instructor in agronomy and include two elementary courses
during the second and third terms of the junior year and two advanced
elective courses during the first and second terms of the senior yer.
The courses in the order in which they must be taken are as follows:
Elementary course in soils.-Lectures and recitations three times a
week upon the origin, formation, kinds, and physical properties of
soils and their improvement by cultivation, fertilization, drainage, and
irrigation. Practicum once a week in laboratory, testing physical
properties of several soils; determining the relation of soils to beat,
moisture, air, and fertilizers, and making mechanical analyses. For a
detailed description of the laboratory exercises in this course, see
Exhibit No. 7, page 59.
Elementary course in farm crops.-Lectures and recitations three
times a week upon the history, production, marketing, cultivation,
and harvesting of farm crops. For a list of examination questions
indicating the scope of this work, see Exhibit No. 9, page 70. Prac-
ticum once a week with growing and dried specimens of fArm crops,
including grasses, clovers, and other forage crops. A list of labora-
tory or field practicums in this course is given in Exhibit No. 14,
page 71.
Advanced course in soils.-Lectures and recitations once a week on
the physical properties of soils; the relation of soils to heat, air, and
moisture; the effect of fertilizers on soil structure and fertility; con-
sideration of practical methods of tillage as affecting crop producing
power of the soil. Laboratory and field experiments during two two-
hour periods each week. A detailed schedule of laboratory work in
this course is given in Exhibit No. 8, page 69.
Advanced course in,'farm crops.-Lectures and recitations once a
week on (a) the effect of climate, soil, and markets on the distribution
and adaptation of farm crops in the United States; (~) the best method
of crop production, including a careful study of the details of field


i iri*;u *^^~I V ".
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_, __ ^ v



*F J X-- : jlr ........! ..
or *.HN--B **e ^3A

.1 "


experimentation as set forth in experiment station bulletins and
reports and the publications of the United States Department of
Agriculture; (c) the consumption of farm crops. Practicums twice a
Instruction in these courses is given largely by means of lectures,
but frequent use is made of such text-books as The Soil and the Physics
of Agriculture, by King; and Soils and Crops of the Farm, by Morrow
and Hunt; and of bulletins, monographs, and reports issued by the
experiment stations and Departments of the United States Government.
Instruction in agronomy, as in other branches of agriculture, is
given in the university building known as Townshend Hall, which was
completed in 1898 at a cost of $100,000.
Townshend Hall (Pl. XIII) is 260 feet long, and varies in width from 64 to 78 feet.
It contains two stories and a basement, which is 14 feet high, making the building
practically three stories high. The walls above the basement line are of gray pressed
brick. The basement walls and the front entrance are of Bedford, Ind., Oolotic
limestone, and the trimmings are of terra cotta of the same color as the brick. The
roof is of dark-red tile. The building is of slow-burning construction throughout,
with painted interior brick walls, exposed beams, maple floors, and hard pine finish.
The lecture rooms and laboratory for the course in agronomy are on the first floor of
this building.
The s-il physics laboratory is supplied with apparatus for studying the specific
gravity of soils; volume weight of soils; power of loose soil to retain moisture; power
of compact soil to retain moisture; rate of flow of air through soils; rate of percola-
tion of water through soils; effect of mulches on evaporation of water from soils;
effect of cultivation on evaporation of water from soils; power of dry soil to absorb
moisture from the air; and the capillary rise of water through soils. Mechanical
analyses are also made of typical soils.
In the study of soils, the large glass house with its equipment of railroad tracks,
trucks, and pots affords opportunity for the student to test. the adaptability of crops
to various soils; the fertilizer requirements of soils and to experiment on various
other problems of crop growth.
In the study oif crops, large use is made of the collection of dried specimens of
grasses, grains, and seeds. The grass garden contains about 25 varieties of grasses
and clovers growing side by side where comparisons may be made as to the value of
each for pasture, meadow, and. grass. The farm is \visited frequently by students
who make observations and studies of the practical methods there employed in the
growing of crops.

Experiments are arranged with reference to the number of labora-
tory periods in the term, and since there are ten to twelve periods, 12
experiments have been planned which are described on the following
pages. The experiments are designed with special reference to the
practical demonstration of some of the important principles underly-
ing soil physics, and to supplement class-room teaching with actual
work with the soil itself.
The following soils used in the experiments are typical agricultural

S *


soils selected on the Ohio State University farm with reii~t their
differences in texture and crop producing power:
No. 1. Muck soil. Selected from a very fertile cornfd.
No. 2. First bottom alluvial loam. Very fertile.
No. 3. Second bottom sandy loam with considerable clay.
No. 4. Fine sand (0.25 millimeter to 0.1 millimeter in diameter).
No. 5. Coarse sand (0.5 millimeter to 0.25 millimeter in diameter).
The soils are brought from the fields and air-dried in the laboratory.
Numbers 1 to 3 are sifted through a 2-millimeter sieve having circular
holes, and numbers 4 and 5 through finer sieves. The soils are then
placed in numbered bins in the laboratory.
The following is a list of the laboratory experiments with descrip-
tions and illustrations of each:

Experiment No. 1.


SThis experiment shows weights of the various soils as compared with the weights
of equal volumes of water. The specific gravity of most soils is about 2.5-that is,
soil calculated free of air space weighs 2.5 times as much as an equal volume of

Fla. 10.-Apparatus for determining specific gravity of soils.

water. The more organic matter a soil contains the less its specific gravity. In
general, the specific gravity of a soil decreases inversely as its content of organic
matter.- Specific gravity must not be confused with apparent specific gravity, which
will be explained in experiment No. 2.
With a' flask of 50 cubic centimeters capacity and provided with a ground-glass
stopper, drawn out to an open capillary tube (fig. 10), determine specific. gravity of
four soils which will be provided-Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Fill flask with distilled water so that no air bubbles appear after the ground-glass
stopper is inserted. Note temperature of water in flask. Wipe flask dry and weigh.

S ." ..... .i::... 4.
". ... :: t :: ;:i i

S *" iii:

.. ? ..


Pour out about one-half of the water in the fla k and put in a weighed quantity (10
grams) of the soil, which has been previously dried at 110 C. for twenty-four hours.
Place the flask in a shallow water bath and boil for two minutes in order to drive out
the soil air. Fill the flask with distilled water and bring to the same temperature at
which the previous weight was taken. Weigh. (See that flask is full when weight
is taken.)
Calculaiirn.-Add weight of soil used to weight of flask filled with water and deduct
therefrom weight of flask filled with water and soil. The difference expresses the
weight of a volume of water equal to the quantity of soil used.
The specific gravity is found by dividing the weight of the soil taken by the weight
of the water it has displaced.
E.rperin,'td No-V. J.


Determine tlie volume weight of four soils, Nos. 1, 2, :;. an l 4. Weigh the empty
tubes (fig. 11) carefully. I'se the soil direct from the bins and pour into the tube the
measure level full. Then place the tube in the compacting machine fig. 121 and

FIG. 11.-Determination of volume weight, apparent specific gravity, and porosity of s::ils.

allow the weight to fall six times from the 12-inch mark. Pour ii another measure
of soil and repeat. Continue this until the tube is filled to the mark near the top.
Weigh. Determine at the same time with a special sample the hygroscopic water
which escapes at 1100 C. Also determine the number of cubic inches, or centimeters,
occupied by the soil in each tube.
Calculations.-Subtract the weight of the empty tube plus the weight of hygro-
scopic water in the soil used from the weight of the filled tube. This will be the
weight of the given volume of soil. The volume weight of a cubic centimeter of soil
should then be calculated.
By dividing the volume weight of the soil with the weight of the same volume of
water, the apparent specific gravity of the soil is obtained.
By dividing this apparent specific gravity with the real specific gravity of the soil
obtained in experiment No. 1, and substracting from 100, the remainder expresses


the per cent of porosity of the soil, i. e., the space which, in the dry soil, is occupied
by air.
The volume weight of a soil varies with the amount of packing. A freshly plowed
soil is much lighter per cubic foot than the same soil packed by rains or by tramping.
In other words, soil has an apparent and a real specific gravity. Average field soils in
good tilth have an apparent specific gravity
of about 1.2, and when entirely free from
air, a real specific gravity of about 2.5.
The compacting machine referred to
above was designed to pack all the soils
into the tubes uniformly and thus elimi-
nate, in a large degree, the error due to
unequal packing in different tubes when
making comparisons of apparent specific
gravity of different soils. The machine
does not do the work with absolute exact-
ness, but seems to be a decided improve-
ment over the uncertain method of filling
by hand, which at best gives very unsatis-
factory results.

Experimend No. 3.

Use soils Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5 in this ex-
periment. .Place disks of damp cheese
cloth in the bottom of the tubes (fig. 13)
I and then weigh the tubes carefully on the
torsion balance. Fill the tubes up to the
mark, 1 inch from the top, by pouring the
soil in gently, leaving the soil in the tubes
in a very loose condition, with much air
space throughout the mass. Weigh the
filled tubes. Place the filled tubes in the
empty galvanized iron box. Pour water
in the box until the water level almost
reaches the tops of the tubes, thus allow-
ing the water to percolate up through the
soils. When the water level in the tubes
comes up to the level of the water in the
box remove the tubes and place them in
the frame, where the water is allowed to
percolate out of them. Glass plates should
be placed over the tops of the tubes to
prevent evaporation. The tubes should
be weighed from day to day until the
FIG. 12.-Soil-compacting machine, minimum weight is reached-until perco-
lation ceases.
The difference in weight between the tubes filled with dry soil and the wet soil will
be the amount of water retained by the loose soil. In order to get the total water
content of the wet soil, it is necessary to add to this the weight of hygroscopic water
which the dry soil contained. The hygroscopic water of the dry soil should be
determined with a special sample taken at the time the tubes are filled.


Calculate the total number of pounds of water retained per cubic foot of dry soil
and also the number of surface inches of water it represents.
This experiment illustrates the power of different types of loose soil to retain
water. One of the advantages of cultivating soil is to make it loose in structure so
that rain will be absorbed and retained more thoroughly than would he the case if
the soil were uncultivated. Study results from this experiment in connection with
those of experiment No. 4 for compact soil.

E.cpier'int AN. 4.


Use soils Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5 in this experiment. Place disks of almost cheese cloth
in the bottom of the tubes (fig. 13). Weigh and then fill within 1 inch of the top
in'the following manner: Pour in 1 measure of soil. Place cylinder in com'pacting
machine and drop weight six times from the 12-inch mark. Pour in another ineas-
ure and repeat. Continue this until cylinder is filled within 1 inch of the top.

FI 13.-Determining the power of soils to retain mn istiure.

Place the filled tubes in the empty galvanizeil iron ibox. P lur water inl the box
until the water level almost reaches tile tops of the tubes, thus allowing the water to
percolate up through the soils. When tlie water level in the tubes comes upl to the
level of the water in the box remove tlie tubes an;d place them in til n frame w here
the water is allowed to percolate out. of them. ( the tops of the tubes to prevent evaporation. The tubes should lie weighed frini
day to day until the minimum weight is reached-until percolationl ceases.
The difference in weight between the tubes filled with dry soil and the wet soil will
be the amount of water retained by the compact soil. In order to get the total water
content of the wet soil it will be necessary to add to this the weight of hygroscopic
water which the dry soil contained. The hygroscopic water of the dry soil should
be determined with a special sample at the time the tubes are filled.
Calculate the total number of pounds of water retained per cubic foot of dry soil
and also the number of surface inches of water it represents.
This experiment illustrates the power of different types of compact soil to retain
The results of this experiment should be studied in connection with those of
experiment No. 3.

.. :: :..".... : .

experiment No. 5.

.. .. .. .: .. i:
The series of tubes (fig. 14) having been filled within 1'inch of the overflow pj "':
with soils Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, the compacting machine is used. :,:
After each measure of soil was put in the weight is dropped twice from the 6-inch
mark. The surface of the soil in each tube is covered with 1 inch of coarse grvel
to prevent the soil being disturbed by flowing water.
See that all tubes are connected by rubber tubing and the extreme ends of iall
tubes corked.
Pour in distilled water gently and keep the cylinders almost level full. After the
flow into the glass flasks has become uniform, note the number of cubic centimeters
which flow through in half an hour. Determine this by measuring in a graduated.

FIG. 14.-Rate of percolation of water through soils.

The character of soils used may be examined in the boxes in the laboratory. The
tubes are numbered to correspond with the soil numbers.
.This experiment brings out the differences between soils in regard to the rate of
percolation of water through them. Other things equal, it is desirable that a hoil
should allow water to pass through slowly, holding moisture the greatest length of
time within the reach of crop roots.

Experiment No. 6.


Soils Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are used in this experiment. The cylinder numbers
correspond with the soil numbers.
The compacting machine was used in filling the cylinders (fig. 15). After each
measure of soil, the weight was dropped three times from the 12-inch mark.
Open the cock on the copper cylinder and detach the hook holding the weights.
Allow the copper cylinder to sink by its 'own weight. Attach the rubber tube to
soil tube No. 1. Attach the weight hook and note the number of degrees passed-by
the pointer in 10 minutes or a longer time, if it be necessary in case of the fine-
grained soils. Record the weight for each of the five soils, calculating the weight per

N:::: ':. .:.^ ..


This experiment has a direct practical bearing (in the question of soil ventilation.
Soil air is essential to the life of nitrifying and other bacteria which develop fertility.
Other things equal, the more readily soil will allow air to circulate through it, the
more favorable conditions will be for the formation of plant food.

* FIG. 15.-Apparatus to determine the rate of flow of air through soils.

S Experiment No. 7.


The cylinders (fig. 16)
with first bottom soil

are 18 inches deep by 4 inches in
from the Ohio State University

diameter, and are filled
farmi. The compacting

Fl(. 16.-Soil tubes forshowing the effect of mulches on evaporation of watcr from soils.

machine was used in filling the cylinders to insure comparatively uniforin compact-
ness of soil in all cylinders.
No. 1. Not mulched.
No. 2. Not mulched.
No. 3. Surface cultivated 2 inches deep. (Soil mulch).
No. 4. Surface cultivated 2 inches deep. (Soil mulch).
No. 5. Mulched with 2 inches of coarse gravel.
No. 6. Mulched with 2 inches of fine sand.
No. 7. Mulched with 2 inches of sawdust.
No. 8. Mulched with 2 inches of cut straw.
26777-No. 127--03---5

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No. 9. Not mulched. (Placed in draft).
No. 10. Not mulched. (Placed in draft).
Fill the cylinders to the same level with distilled water every twenty-four ah gM:I:
for one week and keep a careful record of the amount of water used each day; 'T :,ihe
"S" glass tube (a, fig. 16) will be used to determine the exact level to which the '!I
tubes should be filled.
The cylinder which evaporated the least water during the period of observation
should be the one having the most effective mulch. a
In recording results show the amount of water put in each cylinder daily, and also
the total amount for each cylinder for the entire run of the experiment..

Experiment No. 8.


Use soils Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 in this experiment. Place 400 grams of air-dry soil from
the bin in a shallow zinc tray (fig. 17), spreading it out as uniformly as possible.

FIG. 17.-Determining the power of air-dry soils to absorb moisture from the air.

After weighing the tray (lid on) with the soil, place an empty weighed box, together
with the others (lids off), upon a shelf in the pneumatic trough. Place a thermome-
ter in the trough and at each weighing read the temperature. Weigh each box (lid
on) every twenty-four hours and deduct the increase in weight of the empty box
from the increase in weight of each of the other boxes. Repeat the weighing every
twenty-four hours until with the same conditions of temperature an approximately
constant weight is obtained. The moisture retained is calculated for 100 grams of the
soil dried at 1100 C. Add to this increased weight per 100 grams of air-dry soil the
weight of hygroscopic water contained in 100 grams of the air-dry soil. This will
give the total amount of water taken from the air by 100. grams of water-free soil.
Determine the hygroscopic moisture of each soil with a special sample at the time
of starting the experiment.
This experiment brings out the fact that dry soils absorb only a very small amount
of moisture from the air, even when the air is saturated, thus correcting an opinion
which is prevalent but erroneous.


Experiment No. 9.


Use soils Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 in this experiment. Place a cheese-cloth disk in
the bottom of each tube (fig. 18) to prevent the escape of soil grains. Use the com-
pacting machine to fill the tubes, allowing the weight to drop twice from the 12-inch
mark after each measure of soil. \Veigh the filled tubes carefully and place them in
the frame with the lower ends standing in about 1 inch of distilled water, which
should be maintained at constant level.
As the water rises by capillarity into the
soil the tubes will increase in weight.
Weigh the tubes carefully each day for
one week, noting the daily increase in
each tube and also the total increase
for each tube for the period.

'.rperinment No. o10.


In this experiment soils Nos. 1, 2, 3,
and 4 will be used. The adhesiveness
will be determined by measuring the

FIG. 18.--Measuring capillarity in soils.

force required to overcome the molecular attraction in a column of moist soil 1
square inch in cross section.
Weigh out roughly 150 grams of soil No. 1 and 180 grams each of Nos. 2, 3, and 4.
Determine the force required to start the empty movable cage (a) by running sand
from the rubber tube (b) into the tin pan (c) until the weight is sufficient to cause
the cage to move (fig. 19). See to it that the cages are clean and the bearings clean
and oiled. The weight of the pan plus the sand it contains represents the force
required to overcome the friction of the empty cage, and should be deducted from
the total breaking force in each subsequent test of soil.
Empty the weighed sample of soil upon the "mixing board" and add a small
quantity of water. Mix soil and water thoroughly by hand working. Enough
water should be added to bring the soil to its maximum adhesiveness.
Pack the roll of mud thus formed into the mold, holding the cages together firmly;
then with the spatula scrape off the top level with the upper edge of the mold.
Attach the pan to the hook at the end of the wire. Pour sand into the pan in a
constant stream until the weight is sufficient to separate the cages and break the soil
column. Weigh the pan with the sand it contains and deduct therefrom the weight
required to overcome the friction of the empty cage. The result represents the adhe-
sive strength of a column of moist soil 1 square inch in cross section.

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Care should be exercised to fill the molds as nearly as possible in the e man: .
ner in each test. ,
With this same roll of mud make four tests, using varying amounts of water. fliai:":ill
proportion of water may be reduced by adding more dry soil. Test each of the Y .
types of soil in the above manner, using the highest test of
each for comparisons of maximum adhesiveness. j

Experiments Nos. 11 and 12. : ;"::..
A modification of the method used in the laboratory of. the ..
Bureau of Soils of the United States Department of Agricul-
ture. (Pl. XIV, fig. 1.) ;
Twenty grams of "fine earth" are weighed out and placed
in a porcelain or glass mortar. Enough .water is added to
give the soil the consistency of paste. The mixture is then
rubbed with a rubber-tipped pestle. ..i...:
In rubbing there should be just enough pressure to detach
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FIo. 19.-Apparatus for testing the adhesiveness of soils.

adhering particles and not enough to break the grains. After five minutes' rubbing
more water may be added, and after letting it stand for two or three minutes the
turbid liquid is decanted into a beaker, "A." Repeat this pestling and decanting
until an examination through the microscope shows the grains to be perfectly clean.
When clean the grains show sharp outlines and are transparent, while any adhering.
finer particles make them round and deeply colored. This pestling may require 15,
minutes to an hour or more.
When the material is thoroughly disintegrated, it is transferred from the mortar
to a No. 2 or No. 3 beaker, which is then filled with water, stirred and allowed to
stand a few minutes, after which it is carefully decanted, leaving the last 20 or 30 cubic
centimeters, the liquor being added to the beaker "A.". This is repeated until the-
sand is free from clay, fine silt, and much of the silt. The sand should be tested
with the microscope. All particles smaller than 0.05 millimeter are silt or fine silt

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