The effect of severe and prolonged muscular work on food consumption, digestion, and metabolism

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Title:
The effect of severe and prolonged muscular work on food consumption, digestion, and metabolism
Series Title:
United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Bulletin
Physical Description:
67 p. incl. tables. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Atwater, W. O ( Wilbur Olin ), 1844-1907
Sherman, Henry C ( Henry Clapp ), b. 1875
Carpenter, Rolla C ( Rolla Clinton ), 1852-1919
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Govt. Print. Off.
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Washington
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Subjects / Keywords:
Nutrition   ( lcsh )
Dietaries   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Statement of Responsibility:
by W.O. Atwater, PH. D., and H.C. Sherman, PH. D., and The mechanical work and efficiency of bicyclers, by R.C. Carpenter, M.S.

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University of Florida
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lccn - apr09002644
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lcc - S21 .E7 no.98
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AA00014580:00001


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BULLETIN No. 98.


U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE,


OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,


A. C. TRUE, Director.


1. THE EFFECT


COF


iIEVERE AND PROLONGED MUSCULAR WORK



FOOD CONSUMPTION, DIGESTION, AND METABOLISM,

BY
I








THE MECHANICAL WORK AND EFFICIENCY OF BICYCLERS,



C Cr PETER .. S
|iE '+. % C A : ~ P E D T : : 3 ^ l S


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1901.


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
TVashington, D. C., June 1, 1901.
Sim: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on studies of
S the effect of severe and prolonged muscular work on food consump-
tion, digestion, and metabolism. The experiments were made with
bicycle racers in a six-day contest at the Madison Square Garden,
New York City, in December, 1898. The investigation was conducted
iby W. 0. Atwater, special agent in charge of nutrition investigations,
and H. C. Sherman, lecturer in chemistry at Columbia University,
New York City. In the nutrition investigations conducted by the
Department under the auspices of the Office of Experiment Stations
considerable attention has been paid to food in connection with mus-
S cular work. Numerous dietary studies of persons performing varying
amounts of work under approximately normal conditions have been
S made. It was believed that the present investigation, in which a large
amount of severe work was performed for a considerable period of
S time, would afford results interesting in themselves and valuable for
interpreting the results of other investigations. These studies consti-
tute part of the nutrition investigations in charge of this Office and
were conducted in accordance with instructions by its Director. In
carrying on the work valuable assistance was rendered by Messrs.
A. P. Bryant, H. M. Burr, P. B. Hawk, E. H. Hodgson, R. D. Milner,
and H. E. Wells. The success of the investigation depended in large
measure upon the hearty cooperation of the American Cycle Racing
Association, under whose auspices the contest was conducted, and of
the trainers, Messrs. John West, Joseph Quirk, and Charles McGue,
Sas well as the riders themselves, Messrs. C. W. Miller, F. Albert, and
S H. Pilkington. Acknowledgment should also be made to Dr. E. E.
Smith, through whose kindness the laboratories of Fraser & Co., of
which he is director and chief chemist, were available.
n1 The supplement on mechanical work and efficiency was contributed
Sby R. C. Carpenter, professor of experimental engineering at Cornell


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tion to the study of the energy expended in driving bicycles and has
made many experiments. The data and deductions from these have
been embodied, so far as was needful, in his present discussion.
The report is respectfully submitted, with the recommendation that
it be published as Bulletin No. 98 of this Office.
Respectfully, A. C. TRUE,
Director.,
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.

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CO NTENTS.


Page.
FOOD CONSUMPTION, DIGESTION, AND METAHOLIN.MN OF BICYCLERS. BY W. (.
ATWATER AND H. C. SHERMAN.-..--.................-... ---....-----------
Introduction-..- .... .......... ... ....... .................. ... ..--- .. 7
Previous investigations on muscular work and the metabolism of nitrogen. 8
Experiments with subjects working specifically for investigation..... 9
Experiments with professional athletes ..-- ..------..--------------.12
Previous investigations upon muscular work and the mietabolisim of
energy-Efficiency of man as a prime motor ---....----- -............ 15
Occasion and plan of the present inquiry ......-- ..-.........-....... .. 18
The subjects of the experiments..------------....... ..........--...... 19
Surroundings and experimental conditions --.-........-- .......---... .. 21
Daily record of the race ------.... --..--- ......-- --..-----...... ...... 23
Analyses of food materials and feces ---..-..--.---...--.......-....... 27
Description of samples of food and feces analyzed .................. 28
Dietary studies-Statistics of food consumed............................ 31
Dietary study No. 255, C. W. Miller .....-- ................-....... 32
Dietary study No. 256, F. Albert (previous to the race) ............. 34
Dietary study No. 257, F. Albert (during the race) ................. 35
Dietary study No. 258, H. Pilkington.........-- ..-.....--....... .. 38
Food consumption of the bicycle racers compared with that of other
athletes---............-...-- .--...................--............... 42
Digestion experiments ..--..-.......-....... ......-.................. 45
Metabolism of nitrogen--...- ..--.................................... 48
Balance of income and outgo of nitrogen........................... 50
Metabolism of energy ........-.......-...... .........-....... .... .... 52
Sum m ary............................................................ 53
MECHANICAL WORK AND EFFICIENCY OF BICYCLERS. By R. C. CARPENTER...... 57
Air resistance--....-------...... ----------..-----------...... .....--. 57
Wheel resistance ----..--...........------...----..------------........... 60
Conclusions and remarks ............................................. 66
















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ILLUSTRATIONS.





FIG. 1. Diagram of track used for six-day race, Madison Square Garden, New
York City, December, 1898................................---.
2. Curve showing wind resistance for different speeds .......-....... -.

3. Curves showing bicycle resistance........................-- --

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S'FOOD CONSUMPTION, DIGESTION, METABOLISM, AND MECHAN-
| ICAL WORK OF BICYCLERS.
iii .


FOOD CONSUMPTION, DIGESTION, AND METABOLISM OF
BICYCLERS.
By W. O. ATWATER, Ph. D., and H. C. SHERMAN, Phl. D.
INTRODUCTION.

";.. One very important phase of the science of nutrition is the relation
SQf food to muscular work. This involves such problems as the source
of muscular energy and the economical production of useful work.
SWhile naturally the greater part of the experimenting along such
Lines has been conducted with animals, a considerable number of inves-
;:: tigations conducted under the auspices of this Office and the earlier
work at the Connecticut Storrs Station have had to do with the sub-
ject of muscular work in man. Dietary studies' have been made with
(1) professional men and others performing little muscular work; (2)
farmers, mechanics, and others performing a moderate amount of
muscular work; (3) mechanics and others at severe labor; (4) men
performing for experimental purposes rather more than their usual
amount of. work; and (5) college athletes. In some of the experiments
made with the respiration calorimeter the effects of muscular work
were studied,2 as was also the case in the digestion and nitrogen
metabolism experiments conducted at the University of Tennessee.3
In order to judge of the various factors which affect any such sub-
ject and to obtain data for comparison it is generally desirable to
S carry on experiments and make observations under unusual conditions.
i In December, 1898, a six-day bicycle race was held in Madison Square
Garden, New York City, in connection with which it was found possi-
ble to study the food consumption of three of the contestants as well
as the digestibility of a mixed diet, the metabolism of nitrogen, and
'For details of these studies see U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations
::Bis. 21, 29, 31, 32, 35, 37, 38, 40, 46, 52, 53, 54, 55, 71, 75, and 84, and Connecticut
PStorrr 8ta. Rpts. 1891-1899.
'U. 8. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 44, 63, and 69.
i U: i S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 89.
7


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VmUt: xUp U vi1s cpci tAz. Lmii.HUj Lus b0 Uj uUVIaU. law ac^Uco AXi N mai'n: aK
and long continued muscular exertion. An unusual opportunity ""*f"::r""":,::
thus offered to study food in its relation to muscular work,- and 'it
believed the results will prove interesting in themselves as well ..
useful in interpreting the results of other investigations.
Before describing the experiments conducted with the bicycle race r
a brief summary of the investigations with man upon the effted o
severe or long continued muscular work on metabolism which harp .:
been conducted by other observers seems necessary. Those
cited have to do with muscular work and its effect on the metabolism 4:...^
of nitrogen and energy.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS ON MUSCULAR WORK AND THE
METABOLISM OF NITROGEN.
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Liebig, who divided foods into plastic (nitrogenous) and respiratory
(non nitrogenous) nutrients, maintained that the former were the sources
of muscular energy. This view was contested on theoretical grounds by
Mayer.' who held that the muscular system was a machine which used
for its fuel the carbonaceous and not necessarily the nitrogenous ma-
terials brought to it by the blood. Frankland called attention to a paper
by John Mayow entitled "De motu muscular et spiritibus animalibus,"'
about a century before Priestly's discovery of oxygen, in which it is
stated that muscular power arises from the combustion in the muscles
of fat brought by the blood with a gas which the lungs take up in
respiration.
Lawes and Gilbert in 1S543 showed that with animals under uniform
conditions as regards exercise the amount of excreted nitrogen de-
pends upon the amount ingested, while C. Voit a few years later
demonstrated that under some conditions at least an animal with a
uniform ingestion of protein may perform an increased amount of
muscular work without increasing the excretion of urea. Lehmann
held that the excretion of nitrogen was dependent mainly upon the
diet, but that when the latter was uniform the elimination of urea was
increased by muscular exercise.
Of the many investigations 5 on the effect of muscular-work upon


SDie organische Bewegung in ihrem Zusammenhange mit dem Stoffwechsel. Heil-
bronn, 1845, p. 5-1 et seq.
2 Opera omnia medico-physica. Hagau comitum, 1681.
Chem. Centbl., 1867, p. 770.
4 Untersuchungen fiber den Einfluss des Kochsalzes, des Kaffees und der Muskel-
bewegungen auf den Stoffwechsel, 1860; abs. in Chem. Centbl., 1867, p. 774.
3 A concise summary of 186 experiments with men and 199 with animals in which
the effects of muscular work upon the metabolism of nitrogen was studied (in a
number of cases the observations included the metabolism of carbon and energy)
may be found in U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 45, pp. 118-
135, 268--283, 355-363, 398, 411.


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lthe excretion of nitrogen we cite only those which are in some way
Blmilar to that here reported. These may be divided into two classes,
1) experiments in which the subject and his diet were under the con-
!trol of the experimenter and the work was performed for the purpose
of investigation, and (2) experiments in which the diet was not under
Control, the subjects being professional athletes performing feats of
Endurance in public, and not primarily for experimental purposes.
'A brief summary of the more important investigations of this nature
which we have found follows.

EXPEMRIENTS WITH SUBJECTS WORKING SPECIFICALLY FOR
INVESTIGATION.

Fick and Wislicenus published in 1866' the account of their investi-
gation upon the relation of exercise to the elimination of nitrogen.
These investigators experimented upon themselves, the work per-
formed being the ascent of the Faulhorn, about 6,500 feet. From
noon on August 29 until 7 p. m., August 30, they consumed only non-
nitrogenous food, the diet being made up essentially of fat. starch,
sugar, tea, wine, and beer.
The experiments proper began at 6.15 p. m. on August 29, when the
bladder was emptied. The urine formed from this time until 5.10
the following morning was collected and called night urine." The
following 8 hours and 10 minutes were occupied in the ascent and the
urine formed during this time was called the "work urine." The
urine for five hours and forty minutes after the ascent was collected
as "after work urine," and that during the night following was also
collected. The two subjects eliminated nearly the same amounts of
nitrogen, as shown in the following table:

TABLE 1.-Experiments of Fick and Wislicenus on elimination of nitrogen bty the kidneys.

Nitroger elimi-
nated.
Designation. Period covered.
Subject Subject
A. B.
Grams. Grams.
"Night urine" ............. Aug. 29,6.15 p. m., to Aug. 30,5.10 a. m. (10 hours 55 i 6.92 6.68
minutes).
S "Work urine" .............. Aug. 30, 5.10 a. m. to 1.20 p. m. (8 hours 10 minutes). 3.31 3.13
"Afterwork urine ....... Aug. 30, 1.20 p. m. to 7 p. m. (5 hours 40 minutes).... 2.43 2.42
"Night urine" a ............ Aug. 30, 7 p. m., to Aug. 31, 5.30 a.m. (10 hours 30 4.82 5.35
;, minutes).

aAt the beginning of the period in which this urine was collected the subjects consumed a hearty
i meal, consisting largely of meat.
These authors calculated the consumption of protein corresponding
to this excretion of nitrogen, and assumed that protein might yield on
S..iombustion an amount of energy equal to the sum of the heats of

SVrtljschr. Naturf. Gesell. Zirich, 10 (1865), p. 317; abs. in Chem. Centbl., 1867,
p ..769-782.









combustion of the carbon and hydrogen contained in it,; 'J
computation they concluded that the protein consumed cow
yielded only from one-half to three-fourths of the energyreq
lift the weights of their bodies to the height ascended, while .
work of forward progression and the internal work be ta
account the discrepancy would become much greater.
Frankland' having determined the actual heats of combs i
protein and urea, calculated the energy available from the cons ..
of protein by Fick and Wislicenus to be only about two-thi$:
much as these investigators had supposed.
Thus it was clearly shown that the nitrogen eliminated during.
immediately after the work could not account for enough protein ti
yield the required energy, and, indeed, that the muscular work did: nltii
cause an increased elimination of nitrogen during or immediately aiftei
the exertion. But it does not follow that such an increase does nti
normally occur. The conditions here were abnormal, in that tIe;
subjects were in a state of "nitrogen starvation," and the obsemsi|::i.!
tions were not continued as long after the exercise as more ~reeti:;
experiments have shown to be necessary in order to obtain all of the
extra nitrogen eliminated in connection with muscular work.
Parkes' published in 1867 the results of a series of experiments made
with two soldiers on a uniform mixed diet, with and without muscular:;i:
work. Each working period was of three days' duration, and w'a: ::<'
preceded and followed by periods of two or four days during which"b::i:
the subjects followed their usual occupations. We infer that the 'i:i.."
usual occupations required comparatively little muscular exertion. It:
was found that the work, which consisted in walking on level ground I
and did not, by Parkes's computations, exceed 160,000 kilogram-...
meters per day, caused a small increase in the excretion of nitrogen, i
This increased excretion, however, continued for some time after tie:
completion of the extra muscular work. ...
In 1882 North3 experimented upon himself, taking great pains .to
secure uniformity in his diet, and doing on one day of each experi6ei tl::::
a considerable amount of work, walking from 30 to 47 miles and 6ar.:::h
trying a load of about 27 pounds. As the weight of the body is not
given the amount of work can not be calculated, but it is evidently :
considerably greater than that done in Parkes's experiments, which
North considered not sufficiently severe. The increased elimination
of nitrogen with the muscular work was more immediate and more::,::
.. ... ... !
pronounced than in Parkes's experiments.
1 Phil. 31ag., 4. ser., 32 (1867), p. 182. Reprinted in Experimental Researches ii
Pure, Applied, and Physical Chemistry. London, 1877, p. 938.
'Proc. Roy. Soc. [London], 16 (1867), p. 45. U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Eap :'i-
ment Stations Bul. 45, pp. 119, 129. '
SProc. Roy. Soc. [London], 36 (1882), p.14. U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experime::
Stations Bul. 45, pp. 120, 131.
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It is to be noted, however, that in both of these investigations, in
Ihich the diet was the same in the periods of work as in those of rest,
the increased metabolism of nitrogenous material, indicated by the
Ufereased elimination of nitrogen, may have been due to the fact that
Increase of fuel ingredients was supplied to meet the increased
i~ emand for energy when work was done.
Zasietski1 made a number of experiments, each including a rest and
Sa work period, in which milk was the only food allowed, but the
quantity was not limited. The work consisted in walking from 9 a. m.
Sto 9 p. m., with short rests. The subjects were mostly peasants or
Students, and probably had not trained for the exertion. In general
no more milk was consumed on the working days than on the days of
i rest, while the average excretion of nitrogen was 9 per cent greater.
Practically all of the recent experimenting with men sustains the
view that muscular work normally results in an increased excretion of
I nitrogen when the work is at all severe and there is not a correspond-
S:ing increase in the fuel ingredients (fats or carbohydrates) of the diet.
SIt also implies that the increased output of nitrogen continues after
the work stops, so that if the experiment continues but one day the
: larger part of the increase may be found on the succeeding day.
: Among these investigations may be mentioned those of Oppenheim,'
North, Burkalov,'Argutinski,5 Zuntz,6 Krummacher,7 Pflilger, Paton,'
Sand Punine. Hirschfeld1 found no change in the nitrogen excretion
a: after exercise, but the amount of exercise taken was relatively small
Sand the fuel value of the diet was high (3,700 to 3,800 calories).
All of the investigations above mentioned differ from those reported
herewith in that the subjects were not professional athletes and did
not perform an amount of work at all approximating to that done in
the cases here reported. The same is true, to some extent, of the
recent experiments of Dunlop, Paton, Stockman, and Maccadam," but
as the amount of work performed in these was quite large, and as one

SVrach, 6 (1887), p. 866. U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul.
45, pp. 121, 122, 131.
'Arch. Physiol. [Pfliiger], 23 (1881), p. 497.
SProc. Royal Soc.- [London], 36 (1884), p. 11.
S*Vrach, 9 (1888), p. 66.
SArch. Physiol. [Pfliger], 46 (1889-90), p. 552,
I; Arch. Physiol. [Du Bois-Reymond], 1894, p. 541. It should be noted that Zuntz
tP:elieves the increased proteid metabolism to occur only when the exercise is
fficii. iently severe to cause labored breathing.
:Arch. Physiol. [Pfliger], 47 (1890), p. 451; Ztschr. Biol., 33 (1896), p. 108.
'Arch. Physiol. [Pfliiger], 50 (1891), p. 98.
Lab. Reports Royal College Phys. Edin., 3 (1891), p. 241.
orP Inaug. Diss. St. Petersburg, 1894; abs. in U. S. Dept. Ar., Office of Experiment
i.ati.ons Bul. 45, pp. 123-126, 134.
i'Aroi Path. Anat u. Physiol. [Virchow], 121 (1890), p. 504.
or. Physiol., 22 (1897), pp. 69-98.

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interest in this connection. A brief account of this inm
follows.
Five experiments were made, all with men. In three of thm
effect of moderately severe muscular exercise was studied, in o...
effect of sweating, and in one the effect of massage.. The
arrangement was similar in all cases. The subject was put oner
idly fixed diet of his own selection for a period of seven das,:
muscular work, sweating, or massage occurring on the fourt hi
This gave a sufficiently long fore period to show changes on the ex
ment day and a sufficiently long after period to show later chea .:I:::
Nitrogen was determined in the food, feces, and urine. In ae
urine, in addition to total nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, and urd:
acid were determined and in some cases sodium, chlorin, pref e rure
ammonia and extractivee" nitrogen as well.
Massage produced no marked change in the metabolism and henc&:
it was inferred by the experimenters that the changes observed to
result from severe muscular exercise are not due to the physical
effects of an increased lymph flow. The only marked effect of sweat :::::
ing upon the urine is a diminution of water and of sodium chlorid0l.;
Independently of sweating or of the condition of training, severe mu s-
cular exertion increased the excretion of nitrogen and sulphur, the 2
increase of nitrogen being due mainly to increased urea, although some :i
was due to increased creatinin and preformed ammonia.- When tnhe",,,
subject was in poor training there was also an increase in the excre-:i
tion of uric acid, nitrogenous extractives, and phosphoric acid. >:
These changes in urine were held by these investigators to indicsti"-'l
that excessive muscular work causes an increased kataboliam of pro-
tein, this being simply "muscle proteid" if the subject is in good-;.::
training, while if the subject is in poor training "this consumption of
muscle proteid is accompanied by the consumption of the proteid ocf,::,
other tissues which contain nucleo-proteids as shown by the increased
excretion of uric acid, extractive nitrogen, and phosphorus. T4bihe
may be a withdrawal of proteids from other structures to effect repaira;ll
in muscles, similar to the transference of material seen-in starvation,.
the proteid portion being retained while the nucleo-acid portion isi
excreted." '.
Of course it must be remembered that in these experiments :ith!'e
subject was not allowed to increase his diet upon the working day or wi
the days following. This may in part account for the occurreni. ii
of phenomena similar to those of fasting.
EXPERIMENTS WITH PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES. -
In the following pages are summarized the experiments of the:
second class, namely, those in which the diet was not under control, .l:
"':::.3 l;E::







13


subjects being professional athletes performing feats of endurance
public and not primarily for experimental purposes.
Flint'sL studies with the professional pedestrian Weston, which were
ducted in New York in 1870, are, so far as we know, the first, and
b some respects the best, of investigations of this class. For three
a.tnecutive five-day periods, during the second of which lie walked 317
miles, Weston was continuously under observation. The food, which
during the walk consisted chiefly of beef extract, oatmeal gruel, and
raw eggs, was carefully weighed and the nitrogen therein computed
for the most part from Payen's tables, although some analyses were
made. Nitrogen was determined in the feces, and urea, uric acid, sul-
phuric acid, and phosphoric acid in the urine. The method for
determining the uric acid was faulty and gave too low results. Even
had this not been the case there would have been an appreciable
amount of undetermined nitrogen in the urine. But in spite of the
imperfections of the analytical work, the investigation has great value,
chiefly because of the long fore and after periods. The results are
shown in the following table:

S- TABLE 2.-Flint's observations on daily nitrogen metabolism by Weston.


S Period. Occupation.


iFore period........... Comparative rest ..............
Working period .......Walking 62 miles per day.....
After period........... Rest...........................


Dura- Nitrogen.
Dura-
tion of
test. Infood. In In Gain (+) or
urine, feces. loss (-).
Days. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grains.
5 22.0 18.7 1.4 + 1.9
5 13.2 21.6 1.6 -10.0
5 28.6 22.0 2.2 + 4.4


It will be seen that during the five days of comparative rest before
the walk Weston consumed food containing (according to Flint's cal-
culation) 22 grams of nitrogen per day and eliminated 18.7 grams in
the urine and 1.4 grams in the feces, storing 1.9 grams per day in the
body. During the walk he consumed only 13.2 grams of nitrogen
per day but eliminated in urine and feces 23.2 grams, making a daily
loss of 10 grams of nitrogen from the body. During the five days
after the race he consumed 28.6 grams of nitrogen per day and elim-
nated 24.2 grams, so that 4.4 grams were stored in the body daily.
Thisinvestigation shows in a striking manner how the body may draw
pon its own protein for the performance of muscular work and after-
ards replace the material thus used. It should be noted, however,
t the amount of food consumed by Weston during his walk was
1. The fuel value of the diet and the relation of this to the
nical work performed are discussed beyond (see pp. 14 and 56).
ix years later Pavy' investigated Weston's metabolism during
1 New York Med. Jour., 13 (1870), p. 653.
:Lancet [London], 1896, I and II passim.


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three of his professional walks in England. The observations:
(1) a two-day walk without fore or after periods, (2) a three-4atp
with fore and after periods of one day each, and (3) a six-a "
with fore and after periods of six days each. The food oo~
largely of beef tea, eggs, sea moss farina, and jelly; some mest:.
bread were also taken and some amounts of brandy and chaun
were used. An approximate record of the food was kept and itsai
gen content was calculated without analysis. During the after po
of the third experiment the food was not recorded. Urea and
acid were determined in the urine. The results are briefly sumnmar
in the table herewith, the nitrogen in the urine being calculated
the present writers from the amounts of tUrea and uric acid fowu
The data are not sufficient to show the nitrogen balance.


i,.


TABLE 3.-Summary of Pary'8 observations on nitrogen metabolism by We ston..

Dura- Nitrogen ..per d ..
Period. Occupation. tion of
test. In food. In unle.
Days. Grama. Gra ...
experiment...... Walking 90 miles per day......---...--..........---2 7.4
id experiment:
ore period........ Rest............................................. 1 33. -9I
workingg period ... Walking 88 miles per day....................... 3 45.9 4:8
after period......Rest....... ........................... ..... 1 41.8 I-S
Experiment: :
ore period........ Comparative rest .... ......................... 6 31.0 a.
workingg period ... Walking .......................................... 6 4.5 Si,
after period .......Rest........................ ................ 6 (?) 1.
i------------ -I..


It is noticeable that on the two days of the first walk, when the food:
consumed contained only 7.4 grams nitrogen per day, the nitrogen
excretion was practically the same as on other walking days. Whi:l&
these experiments are not sufficiently complete to be very satisfactory
they agree with those of Flint in showing a large excretion of nitio-
gen on the walking days. In the second and third of these expen
ments, however, the food consumed contained so much protein th::at
there appears to have been little if any loss of body nitrogen.. :.
In 1878 Jones' collected and analyzed the urine passed by the pit:-
fessional pedestrian Schmehl during four of six consecutive days il.'
which he walked a total of 500 miles. The average daily excretion at:
nitrogen in the form of urea and uric acid was 25 grams. The amontlOi
and composition of the food were not recorded with sufficient aearT:ay
to indicate whether the body gained or lost nitrogen.
In 1884 Weston undertook and finished successfully a walk of 5:1
miles per day for 100 consecutive days, Sundays excluded. The let
300 miles were walked on. a level indoor track and the food consui'el.
and the metabolism of nitrogen were observed by Blyth.' The fciil
was weighed or measured and the nutrients calculated, as Blyth states,
.. ..iE":,,i


I ---


First
Secon
F
A
Third
F(
A


'New Orleans Med. and Surg. Jour., 5 (1877-78), p. 856.
'Proc. Roy. Soc. [London], 37 (1884), p. 46.






15


"analyses in my own work on 'Food,' supplemented by the
an numbers given in Konig's Nahrungsmittel,' and in two instances
7y analyses of the actual foods consumed." The urine for each day
ms collected and analyzed. The feces passed on the last fi-e days,
:Tuesday to Saturday inclusive, were united and assumed to represent
i:uthe food of the five days-Monday to Friday of the same week.
The food on Saturday being somewhat exceptional, Blyth prefers to
omit this day from the average, especially as the feces represent only
the other five. The average nitrogen for these five days (Monday to
Friday) was: In food, 37.2 grams; in urine, 25.5, and in feces, 9.8,
leaving 1.9 grams per day apparently stored in the body. In addition
to 235.8 grams of protein the average daily diet was estimated to fur-
nish 64.6 grams of fat and 799.9 grams of carbohydrates. This,
according to our usual method of calculation, would furnish 4,850
calories of energy per day. This experiment differs from any of the
others in that when it was begun the subject had already been under-
going the same severe exercise for a long time-nearly four months.
Bryant' has calculated, from estimates furnished by Miller's trainer,
the nutrients consumed by Miller during the six-day bicycle race at
New York in 1897, a year before the present experiment. According
to this estimate the diet contained on an average 262 grams of protein
and 6,100 calories per day. Nothing is known of the nitrogen excre-
tion during these days, but there is no reason to suppose that any con-
siderable part of this large amount of protein was stored in the body.
"That in this case the diet was not greatly at variance with the needs
of the body is indicated by the fact that there was but little change in
body weight during the six days."
In general all of these observations indicate that well-trained pro-
fessional athletes when engaged in severe muscular exertion metabolize
relatively large amounts of protein, the body tissue being drawn
upon unless the protein of the food is very abundant. Of course the
amounts of carbohydrates and fats in the diet will have a most impor-
tant influence, a fact which was not fully appreciated by the earlier
investigators.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS UPON MUSCULAR WORK AND THE
METABOLISM OF ENERGY-EFFICIENCY OF MAN AS A PRIME
MOTOR.

Hirn,' as early as 1856-57, attempted an investigation of the source
Muscular energy and the mechanical efficiency of the human organ-
For this latter purpose he employed a sort of calorimeter to
e the heat given off from the body. The calorimeter was a
and Hyg. Gaz., 15 (1899), p. 393.
equivalent mncanique de la Chaleur, 1858. Rewritten under the title La Ther-
use et l'6tude du travail chez les 4tres vivants. Paris, 1887.








small room or chamber inside of which the subject was placed dU
the experiment. Within the calorimeter was a treadwheel tur e
power from outside. The muscular work was done and measure iii
treading the wheel, the arrangements being such that the work idoi
by the subject during one revolution of the wheel was estimated to
equivalent to that required to raise his body through a distance eq:ii
to the circumference of the wheel. This was "positive" work. T
was also a provision for so-called "negative'" work, which is not
included in the discussion. .
The total energy metabolized by the body during the experiment:i:
was assumed to be represented by the sum of the heat given off fr '::: iil
the body as measured by the calorimeter and the heat equivalent of i:
the muscular work as determined by the treadwheel. The heatequiva- :
lent of the work done divided by this sum was taken as the measure
of the mechanical efficiency of the subject. The mechanical efficiency
was thus measured in percentage of the total energy metabolized in
the body. At the beginning of the experiment the subject worked
and breathed in the calorimeter chamber until the temperature had
become constant, when the remeasurements were commenced. Each
experiment lasted from 40) to 60 minutes, according to the ability of
the subject to sustain the labor without discomfort. Experiments
were made upon five subjects-three men. a lymphatic youth of 18, and
a strong young woman of the same age. The efficiencies varied from
17 per cent in the case of the very lymphatic" youth to 25 per cent
in the case of a strong laborer 47 years old. These calculations evi-
dently make no allowance for the heat given off from the body when
in a state of rest. If such allowance were made, the figures for effi- ..
ciency would of course become higher. Naturally the experimental
methods used at this time were not very accurate. Him himself
recognized this fact and wished to repeat his experiments. Chauveau
has also criticized the work and pointed out the modifications which
should have been introduced, and with which he hopes to repeat the
work. Nevertheless the investigation is of decided interest as being
the first, and for many years the best, of its kind.
Blythc in reporting his observations on Weston, gives estimates of
the amount of work performed by the latter, but does not calculate
the fuel value of the diet nor discuss the question of mechanical ef ii
ciencv.
Zuntz and his associates have given considerable attention to the ::
subject of muscular work and metabolism, experimenting upon differ~
ent animals, including man, and with different forms of work. The
general method in all cases involved the determination, by means of :
'Arch. Physiol. Norm. et Path., 5. ser., 9 (1897), p. 229. -
2Proc. Roy. Soc. [London], 37 (1884), p. 46.








the Zuntz respiration apparatus, of the kinds and amounts of material
oxidized in the body, and the calculation of the total energy liberated.
The external muscular work was either measured directly or calculated
from the weight of the subject, including in some cases the weight of a
burden carried, and the horizontal and perpendicular distance walked or
climbed. A careful distinction was made between the energy metab-
olized in the performance of the ordinary functions of the body, i. e.,
internal or physiological work, and the extra energy metabolized in
connection with the external work. The latter was calculated by
taking the total amount of energy metabolized during a period of work
and subtracting from it the amount metabolized by the body during a
corresponding period of rest. The difference was taken as represent-
ing the amount of energy metabolized for the performance of the
external work. Dividing the energy of this external muscular work
by the energy especially metabolized for its performance gives the
percentage mechanical efficiency of the subject.
In a comparatively recent summary of the investigations Zuntz1 has
stated that about 35 per cent of the extra energy of the food used in
connection with the external muscular work is available for that work,
practically the same value being obtained for horses and dogs as for
men. Kellner and Wolff,2 experimenting with horses by a radically
different method, have reached practically the same result.
This interesting agreement is the more surprising in view of the
conclusion reached by Kronecker and his associates, Schnyder, and
others, in studying the relation of muscular work to the production of
carbon dioxid, that the amount of the latter produced depends less
upon the amount of work performed than upon the intensity of the
exertion, and that the efficiency varies greatly with the condition of
the subject and his familiarity with the work. Schnyder3 gives an
excellent digest of the work of this character as well as that of Zuntz
and his followers.
Bryant,' using a modification of Carpenter's5 formula for computing
the work done in driving a bicycle, and reducing the fuel value of
Miller's diet by the amount believed to be necessary to maintain the
body at rest, concludes that this rider maintained during six days of
almost continuous bicycle racing an efficiency of 36 per cent.
Atwater and Rosa6 have determined the mechanical efficiency of a
man not accustomed to severe exercise who worked in this case eight
hours a day on an ergometer, which consisted of a stationary bicycle
1Experiment Station Record, 7 (1895-96), p. 547.
2Landw. Jahrb.,24 (1895), p. 125; Experiment Station Record, 7 (1895-96), p. 611.
SZtschr. Biol., 33 (1896), pp. 289-319.
'Diet. and Hyg. Gaz., 15 (1899), p. 393.
'.L. A. W. Bulletin 27 (1898), pp. 401, 445, 466.
*Phys. Rev., 9 (1899), p. 248.
20695-No. 98-01- 2


aE:,.







18 .
." :; iiigii!]
belted to a small dynamo. The whole was placed in a respiration a li
orimeter,' in which the subject remained for several days. The totai
amount of heat given off was accurately measured by means of the::
calorimeter. The work done was determined by measuring the current:
produced by the dynamo. The electrical energy was then transformed,
into heat and its amount was included in the total heat measured by '
the calorimeter. In addition to these heat measurements the total
income and outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and water were
determined. In these particular experiments the average work done
was about 40 watts per day, or 109,000 kilogrammeters, equivalent to
256 calories per day. Dividing this by the total number of calories
measured by the calorimeter, 3,726 per day, they obtain an average
mechanical efficiency of 7 per cent of the total energy metabolized.
But after deducting the average amount of energy metabolized by the
same man when at rest, which had been found by several experiments
to be about 2,500 calories, the remainder, which was assumed to be the
energy metabolized for the performance of the work, is 1,226 calories
per day, and the mechanical efficiency becomes. for these experiments,
21 per cent.

OCCASION AND PLAN OF THE PRESENT INQUIRY.

The six-day bicycle race held in the Madison Square Garden in New
York in December, 1898, offered an opportunity for observations on
the food consumption and metabolism of trained athletes under condi-
tions of unusually prolonged as well as severe exertion. It was hoped
at the outset that arrangements would be possible for determining the-
amount of work done and the mechanical efficiency of their bodies,
considered as prime motors, with some approach to accuracy. Consid-
erable material was gathered for such computations and was used by
Professor Carpenter in the preparation of the appended report on the
mechanical work and efficiency of the riders. Circumstances have not
permitted the direct experimenting with a bicycle dynamometer, which
was originally planned.
It was reasonably certain that the contestants, stimulate by the pro-
fessional importance of the race, the value of the prizes offered, and the
size and enthusiasm of their audiences, would perform an amount of
work far greater than could be expected of a man working alone for
purely experimental purposes, and probably greater than was accom-
plished by the professional pedestrian observed by Flint, Pavy, and
Blyth. It was also believed that the measurements of income and outgo
of matter could be made with considerable more accuracy and complete-
ness than was attained in the experiments which these investigators
reported. On the other hand, it was evident that the observations
'U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 63.




-- wI


19

would have to be made under considerable disadvantages and that many
of the conditions would be beyond control, since no attempt was to be
made to regulate the diet or movements of the contestants under
observation, and they were not to be subjected to any inconvenience
or delays on account of the experiments. It could not be expected,
therefore, that the results would be capable of as strict interpretation
as in the case of ordinary metabolism experiments, nor was it feasible
to observe the metabolism of the men before and after the race, as
Flint was able to do in the case of Weston in 1870.
The general plan adopted involved the determination of (1) the
amount and composition of the foods and beverages used and (2) the
amount and composition of the urine and feces excreted. Records of
the time occupied in rest and in riding, the approximate number of
hours of sleep, and the general changes in body weight were also
obtained.
Thirty-one contestants entered, and twelve finished, the race. The
observations were made upon three, one of whom withdrew early in
the fourth day, while the others continued until the close of the race,
winning the first and fourth places, respectively. The race began a
little after midnight on Sunday night and ended a little after 10 p. m.
on the following Saturday night, thus continuing one hundred and
forty-two hours. The observations were continued during the whole
time, day and night. A number of chemists connected with the nutri-
tion investigations in progress at Middletown shared with the writers
in the observations made on the race track, there being usually three
observers present at a time. The labor of making the observations
was exacting and practically continuous, as the contestants spent nearly
the whole of the time-often twenty-two to twenty-three hours of each
day-on the track.
The samples were prepared for analysis in a neighboring laboratory.
The analyses were made at Middletown, Conn., in the chemical labora-
tory of Wesleyan University.

THE SUBJECTS OF THE EXPERIMENTS.
All of the subjects had been trained for the race, and two of them
were experienced in contests of this sort. Although natives of other
countries, all had lived for a number of years in the United States and
were in the hands of American trainers, so that there is no reason to
doubt that in dietary and most other habits they fairly represent
American professional athletes. There are many reasons for believing.
that in this race Miller was the best representative of the well-trained,
well-managed athlete. In the descriptions which follow the data
regarding Miller and Pilkington were furnished for the most part by
Mr. Webt, their trainer, while the description of Albert is based
B inly on data supplied by himself.


Is ....







20

C. W. Miller.-Age, 24; height (without shoes), 5 feet 5 inehies;:-
weight in ordinary clothing when not in special training, about 1
pounds; in riding costume at the beginning of the race, 157 pounds ii
ounces; at the same time stripped, 153 pounds 14 ounces; waist meaS .
ure, 34 inches; chest measure, 38 inches; expansion, 37-42 inches.
Although a native of Germany, he had lived for six years in Chicago,
where, previous to taking up athletics, he was engaged in business.
For four years he had devoted himself mainly, and for over two years
entirely, to bicycle racing.
Mr. Miller always obeyed his trainer and manager without ques-
tion and never allowed himself any anxiety regarding business affairs
or arrangements of any kind. This circumstance is believed to have
been of some advantage to him in his work. According to the state-
ments of his trainer, he never uses alcohol or tobacco in any form,
and his system of training involved no special deprivations, and there-
fore did not wear upon him, his usual habits being such as to necessi-
tate no essential change in preparing for a race. Three or four weeks
before the present contest he went with his trainer to Cape Girardeau,
Mo., to secure the advantage of warmer weather for his training. Here
for two or three weeks he trained by riding 40 or 50 miles per day on
an outdoor track. Six days before the race he started for New York,
and from then until the race took very little exercise. During both
these periods he lived in hotels and took his meals with his trainer, who
limited his diet only by restricting the quantities of pastry and pork
consumed. Reaching New York on Friday afternoon before the race,
he remained quietly in his hotel nearly all of the intervening time,
going out only once to the garden to try the track for a few minutes
Frank Albert.-Age 28; height (without shoes) 5 feet 84 inches;
weight in ordinary clothing when not in special training, about 150
pounds; in riding costume at the beginning of the race, 138 pounds 8
ounces; waist measure, 30 inches; chest measure, 35 inches; expansion,
33-37 inches. Born in Canada of Scotch-Irish parents, he had lived in
New York City since boyhood. He early took up athletics and at the
time of these experiments had been devoting himself to foot and cycle
racing for at least ten years and had once held a world's record in the
latter.
He was his own manager, and thus had many more arrangements to
look after than did Miller. He also attended entirely to his own train-
ing, employing a trainer only at the beginning of the race. He states
that while temperate in all his habits, he habitually smokes in modera-
tion and is not a total abstainer. During the two or three weeks pre-
vious to the race he lived in a private family in New York City, not
limiting his diet except to avoid veal and fat meats. His exercise
consisted in walking several miles every day and riding for a couple of
hours, more or less, on a "home trainer," or on a rather small indoor




-~-In


21

track in the city. He took pains to secure at least eight hours of sleep
every night. During training he continued to smoke occasionally.
He took little exercise on the Friday before the race began and practi-
cally none on Saturday and Sunday. From noon of the Thursday to
noon of the Saturday before the race it was possible to observe his diet
and collect the urine. This covers practically the last day of active
training and the first day 6f comparative rest before the race.
Henry Pilkington.-Age 25; height 5 feet 7T inches; weight in ordi-
nary clothing when not in special training, about 150 pounds; in riding
costume at the beginning of the race, 141 pounds 4 ounces; waist meas-
ure, 31 inches; chest measure, 36 inches; expansion, 34-39 inches. Born
in Ireland, he had lived four years in this country. For five years he
had given much time to athletics, but this was his first attempt to ride
an endurance race. He had trained with Miller and in a similar man-
ner. In disposition he resembled Albert rather than Miller.

SURROUNDINGS AND EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS.
The Madison Square Garden, in which the race here described was
held, is practically a covered inclosure occupying nearly the whole of

Slope *-

| U
diagram




At.6 Slope
.. diagra-m
"i" Ground Plan "
of M.S. G. Track. "--.


SCALE: 1'= 40.
SPole

FIG. 1.-Diagram of track used for six-day race, Madison Square Garden, New York City,
December, 1898.
a city block. It has seats around the sides for spectators and a great
court in the center. Around this court a pine plank track was con-
structed for the special purpose of the six-day bicycle race (fig. 1).
This track was straight at the sides and semicircular at the ends. The
horizontal width was 18 feet, but at all points the outer edge was raised.
is elevation of the outer edge was 3 feet at the lowest point (midway
the straight side) and 9j feet at the highest (midway of the semi-
ular end). The "banking" here adopted was said to be somewhat






22 .

greater than had been used in previous six-day contests, but decidiedlyi
less than is usually found on tracks constructed for racing at hitg:.
speed.
A heavy black line, the "pole," was drawn around the track 18
inches from the inside edge, as close as it would be practicable to ride
at a moderate rate of speed; and served as a sort of guide for the riders.
The length of this line was intended to be exactly one-tenth of a mile
and was so considered in making up the official record (fig. 1). The
contestants, however, did not follow the pole exactly and were apt to
ride outside of it, especially when attempting to pass one another. In:
consequence the distance actually covered was somewhat greater than
the records show.
Inside the track, along one of its straight sides, was a level space
about 6 feet wide. A portion of this space was assigned toeach rider.
Here his food and drink were brought and handed to him, as described
beyond (p. 32). The chemists who made the observations here reported .
occupied places in this space and had their balances and other appara-
tus for weighing and sampling the food on tables here. While engaged
in the observations they did not leave this space except to accompany
the riders to their quarters. To enable the latter to pass quickly
between the track and their quarters, gateways were provided in the
wall on the outer edge of the track at convenient points.
Miller and Pilkington were quartered in a small room under one
turn of the track and near one of the gateways just described. The
room was practically without ventilation, was lighted only by gas, and
was used to some extent as a kitchen and as a lounging room. The
atmosphere was therefore rather bad, but the temperature of the roomn- -
was kept at about normal. Most of the other riders, including Albert,
were quartered in box stalls in the basement of the building, which
had been in use during a horse show but a short time before. These
stalls were dark and rather damp and cold. That occupied by Albert
was farther from the track and on a lower floor than the room assigned
to Miller, and each trip to it necessarily involved a greater loss of
time. It is to be remembered, however, that the quarters were but
little used.
In none of the quarters was there running water, and usually only
the hands, face, and feet of the riders were bathed. This is notable in
contrast to the frequent bathing usually practiced by amateur athletes
or those whose exertions are of short duration. Miller's legs were
massaged at frequent intervals, and not infrequently, especially in the
last half of the race, his head, neck, and legs were bathed with hot
water, this being believed"to induce wakefulness.
As a result of frequent though not altogether systematic observa-
tions, the average temperature on the track was estimated as 580 to
60- F. The variations in temperature were sufficient at times to be


I
..I







S23

very noticeable. Sometimes it was cold enough to cause the riders to
complain. It was noticeable that even during the hardest riding none
of the racers under observation perspired as freely as would be ex-
pected of a man at such severe work. When they came off the track
their clothing was usually damp, but never actually wet. So far as
observed, none of the men complained of becoming warm when riding.
The clothing was of such nature that it absorbed and retained con-
siderable perspiration, the amount being great enough to prevent the
weight of the subjects being ascertained with accuracy when, as was
usually necessary, they were weighed dressed. The riders wore, as a
rule, two jerseys and two or three pairs of tights or trunks.
The glare of the lights in the evenings on the light-colored wooden
track and the dust which had gathered before the end of the week
affected the eyes of the riders slightly, especially on the last days.
Another disagreeable feature, and one of which the riders made the
most complaint, was the presence of tobacco smoke, which kept the
atmosphere always tainted and often made it very bad.
How great was the loss of sleep and how irregular were the habits
of even the best managed and most successful of the contestants
during the race will be seen from the following record of the two men
studied. Owing to unavoidable circumstances it was not possible to
obtain the details of Pilkington's record. He was not a prominent
contestant and dropped out early in the fourth day of the race.

DAILY RECORD OF THE RACE.
Before the beginning of the race each contestant was subjected to
a medical examination, special attention being given to the heart.
Physicians were on hand throughout the race for the purpose of
watching the riders, examining all who seemed greatly exhausted and
stopping any whom they saw fit. Some of these physicians were
employed by the racing association, while others were officers of the
New York City board of health and had been detailed for this duty.
.Monday, December 5.-The contestants, thirty-one in number, were
started at 8 minutes 20 seconds after 12 on the morning of December 5.
At 12.44 Miller lost one minute by changing wheels. At 3.35 a. m.
Albert left the track, feeling unwell, but returned after a rest of 15
minutes. After riding 7 miles he again rested 5 minutes.
From the start the effort of all the leading contestants, especially
Miller and two others who were not included in the investigation, was
to maintain a high speed, in the hope of wearing out their rivals as
early as possible and then to hold the advantage thus won.' Most of

1.Even in the earliest part of the race the spirits of the riders seemed largely influ-
jxied by their relative positions among the contestants. It is partly for this reason
tat the daily progress of Miller and Albert is here given in considerable detail.
*uch as Pilkington did not complete the race, details of his record are omitted.


-a


IMI


*; k







24


the time during the first half day Miller set the pace, and at the end i
of 12 hours he was in the lead with a score of 236 miles. At 12.28
p. m. he dismounted and went to his quarters; changed some of his
clothing; remained off his wheel for 12 minutes. At about the same
time Albert was off the track for 11 minutes. At 5.10 p. m. he again
left the track for 10 minutes. At 5.16 Miller left the track for 11
minutes' rest and rubbing. He appeared none the worse for his riding
and was in excellent spirits. He was also off his bicycle for 1 to 2
minutes at 6.15, 9.30, 9.45, and 10.10 p. m. The last dismount was
due to a fall. Albert was off for 16 minutes at about 10 p. m. An
hour later he was again off for 21 minutes, and at 1.26 a. m. on Tues-
day he left the track to sleep and was off nearly an hour, sleeping
most of the time. Miller had a 20-minute rest about midnight.
At the end of the day Miller had ridden 23 hours and 10 minutes
and covered 441.8 miles; Albert, 22 hours and 40 minutes, covering
402 miles.
Tuesday, December 6.-At 2.20 a. m. Miller left the track and was
off 70 minutes, sleeping about an hour. When he returned he rode
for 7 hours without dismounting, keeping, as on the first day, usually
at the head of the fastest group of riders. At 10.30 Miller went to
his room for 45 minutes, most of which was spent in sleep. On
returning he rode hard, with only three stops of 10 to 20 minutes each,
until after midnight. During this time both of his opponents had
been forced to rest, so that when he stopped, shortly after midnight, he
was only 4 miles behind the leader and was 30 miles ahead of the third.
Miller's trainer insisted on his sleeping a second time before noon of
this day. Later in the day he secured the lead.
Throughout the day Albert kept up a steady, strong pace, and by
taking little rest succeeded in covering more distance (371 miles) than
any other rider. From 2 a. m. until after noon he did not dismount.
During the afternoon he made five stops, aggregating about an hour.
When he stopped to sleep, at about 11 p. m., he held third place. He
was off from 11.05 p. m. to 12.33 a. m. and had a little over an hour's
sleep.
The day's score was: Miller, 21 hours 10 minutes,' 366.7 miles;
Albert, 21 hours 17 minutes, 371.3 miles.
Wednesday, December 7.-Miller and Albert both went on in good
spirits and excellent condition. At 2 a m. the former was second and
the latter fifth. At 4 a. m. Miller rested half an hour, and then return-
ing, rode rapidly and steadily, gaining the lead early in the morning
and holding it most of the day. He made occasional stops, the longest
being at 6 p. in., when he was off for an hour and slept most of the time.
During the day he rode 20 hours 11 minutes, covering 334.1 miles.
Albert rode all day at a steady pace. Every hour or two he would
dismount for 5 to 20 minutes for a little rest and massage, and he
usually ate at these times instead of on his wheel. The dust, smoke,




a


25

and glare had slightly irritated his eyes. He was unwilling to stop
for sleep. At midnight (after 72 hours) he held fourth place. He had
ridden during the day 20 hours 41 minutes, covering 352.7 miles.
Thursday, December 8.-At 2.27 a. m. Miller left the track for 40
minutes, sleeping most of the time. Three hours later he was again
off for 48 minutes. Albert, who had been without sleep for 30 hours,
but with a short rest every hour or two, left the track at 5.45 for 2j
hours, getting 2 hours of sleep. Returning, he rode on the same plan
as the day before, keeping a good pace, usually in the wake of one of
F the leading racers, sprinting little, and stopping every hour or two for
5 to 15 minutes. He maintained fourth place all day, gradually
increasing his lead over the fifth.
Miller, from the time of his return at 6.35 a. m. until 5.50 p. m.,
lost about 1 hour in five stops, and during the time he was on his
wheel kept up a pace of about 18 miles an hour. By noon he had
regained first place, but lost it again during one of his short rests.
When he went to his room at 5.50 he was partially bathed and well
rubbed, and then rested about 1 hour. During the evening he tied for
first place with his principal competitor, and they sprinted frequently.
During the day Miller rode 19 hours 43 minutes, covering 316.5
miles; Albert, 17 hours 13 minutes, covering 285.3 miles.
Friday, December 9.-Soon after midnight Miller's chief competitor
left the track for some time. Miller gained the lead and then rested
for about 50 minutes. Four times before noon he stopped for 15
to 30 minutes for short rests and massage, but when riding he kept
up a pace of 17 or 18 miles per hour. Between 12 and 1 the official
score shows that he covered 20.5 miles. He took a 40-minute rest at
2.30 and again at 8 p. m., with half a dozen short stops at various times
during the day. By midnight he had a lead of 37 miles. He had
ridden 1,786.9 miles in 120 hours, of which he had spent 103.9 hours
on his wheel, making the average rate, when riding, 17.2 miles per
hour. Out of the total of about 16 hours spent off his wheel it was
estimated that he had slept about 5 hours. The outside estimate of
sleep up to this time would be 6 or 6j hours.
A little after midnight Albert left the track for 2j hours. When he
returned he rode much as on the previous day, stopping sixteen times
before 9.45 p. m., when he again rested for nearly 2 hours. His rid-
ing was steady and his spirits and appetite good.
The score for the day was: Miller, 327.8 miles in 19 hours 37 min-
utes; Albert, 229.4 miles in 14 hours 30 minutes.
Saturday, December 10.-Miller stopped at 1.24 a. m. and took li
hours' sleep. Before 2 p. m. he made six shorter stops. Then he
rested an hour, after which he rode 20 minutes, then was off the track
Si hours. During the remaining 6 hours of the race he rode only
36.7 miles, but it was evident that he could easily have ridden much
more had he wished. On several occasions he rode a mile in less








26


than 3 minutes, sometimes keeping pace with the short-distanceexh6i i?
bition riders for several laps. His record for the day was 220.5 dl
in 14 hours 14 minutes, and for the six days was. 2,007.4 miles in 11
hours 5 minutes.
Until 3 p. m. Albert rode on much the same plan as on the other .
days, except that his speed was lower and his rests longer. As a rule,
he would ride 8 to 12 miles in 40 to 50 minutes and rest the remainder : :
of the hour. After 3 p. m. he rode only 21 miles in all. His record-::
for the day was 181.9 miles in 12 hours 23 minutes, and for the six .
days was 1,822.6 miles in 108 hours 44 minutes. At the end of the
race he walked without difficulty to his lodgings, a distance of about
a quarter of a mile.
While the race ended officially at 10.08, the contestants had practi-
cally stopped racing some time before. At no time after noon did
any one of the leading riders appeal to be trying to pass the one next
ahead of him, and late in the afternoon practically all of them were
off the track for some time.
Sunday, December 11.-Both Miller and Albert were seen near the
middle of the day. There was nothing in the appearance of either to
indicate that he had been through an unusual experience.
Miller gave public exhibitions upon his bicycle during the succeed-
ing weeks. Both Miller and Albert took part in a twenty-four-hour
race in New York the following month and in a six-day race in San
Francisco two months later, Miller winning the latter and breaking
his New York record.
The physical strength and endurance manifested by these men is
brought out more clearly in the following tabular recapitulation:

TABLE 4.-Recapitulation of score of Miller and Albert.


Subject.


MILLER.
M onday.....................................................
Tuesday ............. .......................................
W wednesday ................................................
Thursday ....................................................
Friday ................... ..................................
Saturday, till 10 p. m ................. ......................
I-
Total for six days.....................................
Average for six days ...................................
Total for first five days...............................
Average for first five days .............................
ALBERT.
M onday.....................................................
Tuesday ...... ................................
W wednesday ..................................................
Th ursday .....................................................
Friday ................ .......................................
Saturday, till 10 p. m ....... .............................


Riding. Rest.


Hrs. M.in. Hrs. Min.
23 10 0 50
21 10 2 50
20 11 3 49
19 43 4 17
19 37 4 23
14 14 7 46
118 5 -23 55
19 41 3 59
103 51 16 9
20 46 3 14


2 40
21 17
90 41
17 13
14 30
12 23


Total for six days .................. ................... 108 44
Average for six da ys.................................... 18 7
Total for first five days................................. 96 21
Average for first five days ............................ 19 16


1 20
2 43
3 19
6 47
9 30
9 37
33 16
5 33
23 39
4 44


a Approximate estimate.


Sleep. a


Hrs. Min.
0 0
1 40
1 35
1 10
1 5
2 30
8 0
1 20
5 30
1 6


0 0
1 30
0 20
2 0
3 40
2 0
9 30
1 35
7 30
130


Distance.
covered.


441.8
366.7
334.1
316.5
327.8
220.5
2,007.4
384.6
1,786.9
357.4


402.0
871.3
358.7
285.3
229.4
181.9
1,822.$
o308.8
1,640.7
328.1


"... ..... :


"" :
': !!!"


I


-


;I
''

''
I
.Ir



:









As already stated, Pilkington did not complete the race, and the
data of his work were not obtained in full detail. He withdrew early
on the fourth day. His score for the first three days was 863.2 miles.
Changes in body weights during the race.-As already stated, the
weighing of the riders were not accurate because they were necessa-
rily made without removal of the clothing which contained varying
and sometimes considerable amounts of moisture. The following
general statements are, however, believed to be reasonably near the
truth:
Miller lost about 4 pounds in weight on the first day of the race.
During the remaining five days the gains and losses were not great
and so nearly equaled each other that the weight at the close of the
race was practically the same as at the end of the first day. In other
words, the net change in weight for the six days is accounted for by
the loss observed on the first day, the net change for the following five
days being practically nothing.
Albert lost only about 2 pounds on the first day. The first and
second days taken together show a loss of about 3A pounds, which was
regained during the remaining four days of the race. The weight at
the end of the race was almost exactly the same as at the beginning.
Pilkington lost about 3 pounds on the first day of the race and
showed no change in weight on the second and third days.
Thus each of the riders lost weight at the beginning of the race. In
two cases the weight remained about constant after this, while in one
case the initial loss was recovered during the following days of the
contest.
ANALYSES OF FOOD MATERIALS AND FECES.

As previously stated, the investigation with the bicyclists included
(1) dietary studies, (2) digestion experiments, and (3) determinations
of the balance of income and outgo of nitrogen. In connection with
the dietary studies most of the food materials used were analyzed.
This was the more desirable since a few of the articles used were
somewhat unusual, and the composition of many of the cooked foods
could not be calculated readily from the tables showing the average
composition of American food materials. Whenever practicable a
sample was taken from each lot of food purchased or prepared, com-
posite samples being made when different lots of the same food were
used. In other cases, especially those of the prepared foods, analyses
were made of duplicate samples, which were purchased in New York
at the time of the race except as otherwise stated in the description of
samples beyond. The fruits were not analyzed, as the quantities of
nutrients furnished by them were small and the average composition
was fairly well known.







28

The analytical methods followed were those adopted by the Ansocn* i|
tion of Official Agricultural Chemists1 with such minor modifications
as have been found desirable in the experience of this laboratory and '
have been described in previous publications.'
Such samples as could not conveniently be transported in the fre s
state were partially dried in New York. All analyses were made in
the cheinical laboratory of Wesleyan University, at Middletown, Conn.
In connection with the three studies made during the race the feces
were collected and analyzed. These samples follow those of the food
materials in the description and tabulation which follow.

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES OF FOOD AND FECES ANALYZED.

No. 2979. Roast leg of lamb.-Rather well-done leg of lamb from which most of the
visible fat had been removed. Used in dietary study No. 256.
No. 2983. Beefsteak.-This was rather rare round steak containing some visible fat.
Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 2982. Chicken broth.-Prepared in the usual way by the trainer immediately
before using. Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 2995. Mutton broth.-This was rather thin broth prepared immediately before
using by stewing the mutton in water. Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 2996. Beef tea.-Prepared by the trainer from round steak. Used m dietary
study No. 257.
No. 3014. ligoral.-A commercial preparation apparently consisting of a concen-
trated beef extract mixed with some pulverized beef and strongly flavored with
celery salt. Used in dietary study No. 257. It was assumed that the vigoral used
in dietary studies Nos. 255 and 258 had the same composition.
No. 3019. Beef-tea tablets.-A commercial preparation of beef extract and vegetables
in solid form. This sample was purchased in Middletown and assumed to have the
same composition as that used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 3020. Beef juice.-Very rare round steak was cut into small pieces and pressed
by hand. The sample for analysis was prepared in Middletown in the same manner
as that used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 2976. Soup.-A thin soup prepared with mixed vegetables. Used in dietary
study No. 256.
No. 2997. Milk.-This was milk purchased from a cart and not bottled. Used in
dietary study No. 256.
No. 2998. Milk.-Bottled milk purchased from a New York City dairy. Used in
dietary study No. 257.
No. 2999. Milk.-Bottled milk from a New York City dairy. Used in dietary
studies Nos. 255 and 258.
No. 3001. Koumiss.-A commercial preparation made from cow's milk. A dupli-
cate sample was purchased for analysis. It contained 0.52 per cent alcohol assumed
as isodynamic with 0.9 per cent carbohydrates.3 Used in dietary studies Nos. 255
and 258.
No. 3002. Matzoon.-A commercial preparation made from cow's milk. It con-
tained 0.81 per cent alcohol assumed as isodynamic with 1.4 per cent carbohydrates.'
Used in dietary study No. 255.

'U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Chemistry Bul. 46, revised.
'See especially Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1891, p. 47.
s Based on their relative heats of combustion per gram, 1 gram of alcohol is isody-
namic with 1.7 grams of carbohydrates (7.1-4.2=1.7).




w


29

No. 8000. Butter.-Purchased in a New York City market. Used in dietary Htudy
No. 257.
No. S01o. Malted milk.-A commercial preparation. Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 8016. Calf's-foot jelly.-A commercial preparation of gelatin sweetened and
flavored with wine. It contained 2.44 per cent alcohol assumed as isodynamir with
4.1 per cent carbohydrates.1 Used in dietary study No. 257.
,No. 2984. White bread.-Homemade. Used in dietary studies Nos. 256 and 257.
No. 2985. Graham bread.-This was what is commonly known as graham gems.
Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 986. Biscuit.-These were the sort of wheat bread known as "raised" bis-
cuit, i. e., leavened with yeast. They were unusually dry from having been kept
for some time in a paper bag at the track. Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 2978. Oatmeal, boiled.-Prepared in the usual manner. Used in dietary study
No. 256.
No. 2988. Oatmeal, boiled.-Prepared in the usual manner. Used in dietary study
No. 257.
No. 2994. Oatmeal, boiled.-Prepared in the usual manner. Used in dietary studies
Nos. 255 and 258.
No. 2981. Rice, boiled.-Prepared in the usual manner. Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 2993. Rice, boiled.-Prepared in the usual manner. Used in dietary studies
Nos. 255 and 258.
No. 989. Cake.-Sugar cakes purchased from a local bakery. Used in dietary study
No. 255.
No. 2990. Custard pie.-Purchased from a local bakery. Used in dietary study No.
255.
No. 2991. Charlotte russe.-Purchased from a local bakery. Used in dietary study
No. 255.
No. 2975. Rice pudding.-Homemade. Used in dietary study No. 256.
No. 2992. Rice pudding.-Used in dietary study No. 255.
No. 2980. Tapioca pudding.-Homemade. Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 2977. Mashed potatoes.-Boiled and mashed with the addition of a little butter
and milk. Used in dietary study No. 256.
No. 2987. Sewed prunes.-From a jar of stewed dried prunes prepared in a pri-
vate family and brought to the track. The sample represents total edible portion
including liquor. Used in dietary study No. 257.
No. 3017. Ginger ale.-One of the commercial brands commonly sold in New York
City. A duplicate sample was purchased for analysis. No alcohol was found. Used
in dietary study No. 257.
No. 3018. Cocoa wine.-A commercial preparation commonly sold under this name.
A duplicate sample was purchased for analysis. It contained 17.36 per cent alcohol
assumed as isodynamic with 29.5 per cent carbohydrates.' Used in dietary study
No. 257.
No. 3010. Feces from Miller.-Representing food eaten during the six days of the
race.
No. 3011. Feces from Albert.-Representing food eaten during the six days of the
race.
No. 3012. Feces from Pilkington.-Assumed to represent food consumed during first
three days of the race.

1 Based on their relative heats of combustion per gram, 1 gram of alcohol is isody-
namic with 1.7 grams of carbohydrates (7.1-4.2=1.7).


..... .... .::.






'
-'C


30


TABLE 5.-Percentage composition of food materials and feces analyzed in connection
these studies.


Materials.


ANIMAL FOOD.

Roast leg of lamb.................
Beefsteak ............................
Chicken broth......................I
Mutton broth .......................
Beef tea..........................
Vigoral .............................
Beei-tea tablets ....................
Beef juice............................
Soup ........................
M ilk .................................
.....do.............................
.....do...............................
Koum iss.............................
Matzoon ........................
Butter ..........................
Malted milk ........................
Calf's-foot jelly .....................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

White bread........................
Graham bread ......................
Biscuit..............................
Oatmeal, boiled .....................
.....do.......................... ...
.....do................"..... ... ...... .
Rice, boiled.........................
.....do...............................
Cake ................................
Custard pie ............................
Charlotte russe .....................
Rice pudding .......................
.....do...............................
Tapioca pudding ....................
Potatoes, mashed ...................
Stewed prunes......................
UNCLASSIFIED FOOD.

Ginger ale .........................
Cocoa wine .......................
FECES.
Miller...............................
Albert.... .........................
Pilkington ..........................


Pro-
Water. tein.
tein.


Per ct.
60.86
57.58
92.74
95.10
94.93
41.81
10.76

90.98
86.75
88.40
87.65
88.33
90.35
10.57
2.46
81.38


35.79
26.24
16.74
81.52
88.92
86.18
77.62
88.45
23.80
56.60
47.28
73.98
70.67
81.05
74.10
78.05


89.30
72.04


Per ct.
29.62
28.69
3.56
1.08
2.51
a 13.81
a 16.06
a 6.13
1.36
3.15
2.86
3.08
3.62
3.08
1.12
14.69
5.31


10.65
10.49
8.66
2.94
1.58
1.99
2.85
.69
7.59
5.67
4.81
3.22
3.15
5.00
2.27
.73


2979
2983
2982
2995
2996
3014
3019
3020
2976
2997
2998
2999
3001
3002
3000
3013
3016


2984
2985
2986
2978
2988
2994
2981
2993
2989
2990
2991
2975
2992
2980
2977
2987


3017
3018


3010
3011
3012


Fat.


27.08
10.19
38.24


Carbo-
hy-
drates.


Ash.


I
t


.: I

tion per
n. .:I
.*:


2764 *

.861
.266
cl.350
c.9%
c.381
.410
.790
686 ..
.721
.625
.571
8.005
4.302
.900


a The proteid nitrogen was determined by Mallet's method (U.S. Dept. Agr., Division of Chemistry
Bul.54) and multiplied by 6.25. In our hands Mallet's method gave slightly higher and somewhat
more concordant results for proteid nitrogen than did the bromin method. (See Bul. 54, above.)
b As these preparations contained some carbohydrates which could not be satisfactorily determined
by direct estimation, they are calculated by difference in the usual way. The result thus obtained is.
obviously inaccurate, but is comparable to the so-called "carbohydrates" of other analyses. In esti-
mating the carbohydrates by difference the total nitrogeneous matter was computed by multiplying
the total nitrogen by 6.25.
c Heat of combustion estimated from percentage composition by use of the factors proposed by
Atwater and Bryant in Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 104.

A few of the food materials consumed were not analyzed. These

were such as previous investigations had shown to be of nearly uniform

composition or were used in very small amounts. It was assumed

that their composition could be calculated with sufficient accuracy

from available data. The values used for this purpose are shown in

the following table, together with the calculated heats of combustion

per gram.'

'The heats of combustion were computed by use of the factors proposed by Atwater
and Bryant in Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 104.


Ref-
er-
ence
num-
ber.


I1 I


Labo-
ra.
tory
num-
ber.


26.95
42.76
22.55


.1


Per ct.
6.79
12.91
2.05
3.26
1.69
1.84
.24
1.77
4. 66
3.91
3.79
2.58
3.16
86.04
8.70



.59
.58
9.84
1.10
.64
.52
1.80
.06
12.71
9.88
21.89
2.52
2.62
5.26
6.42
.38


Per ct. Per ct.
........ 1.62
........ 1.27
........ 1.58
........ .52
........ 76
b8.90 16.01

.... 4 .... i.i
4.68 .76
4.13 .70
4.70 .78
4.52 .95
2.67 .74
........ 2.27
70.25 3.90
14.83 .19


51.42 1.55
60.75 1.94
62.16 2.80
13.58 .86
8.54 .32
10.37 .94
17.29 .44
10.55 .25
54.73 1.17
26.40 1.45
25.29 .73
19.62 .66
22.73 .83
7.93 .76.
15.81 1.40
20.13 .71


10.58 .06
35.88 3.23


18.95 27.02
34.82 12.23
9.54 29.67





. ..


I


.06 ........
.... ........


2.797
.182
8.870
.883
.501
.604
.996
.478
8.773
2.506
2813
1.200
1.890
1.114
1.816
.975


c450
c1.500


5.070
6.204
5.480




WV W


31

TABLE 6.-Assumed percentage composition of foods not analyzed.

Ref- Calcula-
er-o Carbo- ted< heat
ence Food materials. Refuse. Water. Fat. hv- Ash. tof com
Mum- rates. bustion
ber. per gram.

ANIMAL FOOD.
t Beef: Per cf. Per t. Per ef. Per ct. Pcr ct. Per rt. Olries.
86 Steak (all lean) .................... 73.50 23.20 2.50 ........ 1.20 1.550
87 .....do............................ ........70.00 21.30 7.90 ........ 1.10 1.950
Lamb:
8 Chops................................ 47.60 21.70 29.90 ........ 1.30 4.070
89 Gravy................................. 13.70 4.70 81.80 ........ .30 8.040
40 Poultry: Chicken.................. ........ 59.90 27.00 11.50 ........ 1.30 2.620
41 Fish: Salmon, canned .................... 63.50 21.80 12.10 ....... 2.60 2.380
42 Eggs............. .............. ........ 73.70 13.40 10.50 ........ 1.00 1.770
43 Butter ..................................... 11.00 1.00 85.00 ........ 3.00 7.920
UNCLASSIFIED FOOD.
44 Soup: Tomato, canned..................... 90.00 1.80 1.10 5.60 1.50 .430
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals:
45 Bread, Vienna ........................ 34.20 9.40 1.20 54.10 1.10 2.920
46 Bread, graham ....................... 35.70 8.90 1.80 52.10 1.50 2.870
47 Cake, wedding (as average of
fruit cakes) ........................ 17.30 5.90 10.90 64.10 1.80 3.980
48 Crackers, graham ..................... 5.40 10.00 9.40 73.80 1.40 4.550
49 Crackers, soda ........................ 5.90 9.80 9.10 73.10 2.10 4.480
60 Doughnuts............ ................ 18.30 6.70 21.00 53.10 .90 4.570
Sugars, starches, and oils:
61 Sugar ....................... .............. ................. 100.00 ........ 3.960
62 Licorice drops (as coffee sugar)......... ........ ................ 95.00 ........ 3.750
Vegetables:
53 Celery, edible portion ................. 94.50 1.10 .10 3.30 1.00 .200
54 Lettuce ........................ ........ 94.70 1.20 .30 2.90 .90 .210
55 Peas, stewed a ...................... 73.80 6.70 3.37 14.57 1.50 1.200
66 Potatoes, plain boiled......... ........ 75.50 2.50 .10 20.90 1.00 1.010
57 Tomatoes, raw ...................... 94.00 1.20 .20 4.00 .60 .250
68 Tomato pickles, green................ 93.80 1.10 .40 4.00 .70 .260
Fruits:
59 Apples................................ 84.60 .40 .50 14.20 .30 .630
60 Apples, as purchased ......... 25.00 63.30 .30 .30 10.80 .20 .470
61 Bananas ............................. 75.30 1.30 .60 22.00 .80 1.000
62 Grapes, Malaga ....................... 77.40 1.30 1.60 19.20 .50 .980
63 Oranges, edible portion................ 86.90 .80 .20 11.60 .50 .520
64 Pears................................. 84.40 .60 .50 14.10 .40 .640
65 Peaches............. ...... ......... 88.10 .70 .10 10.80 .30 .480

a Composition assumed from that of sample analyzed in connection with dietaries of university
boat crews.

DIETARY STUDIES-STATISTICS OF FOOD CONSUMED.

The statistics of the amounts and composition of the foods used by the
several men under observation were gathered, and are reported as far as
possible, in accordance with the methods for dietary studies which
have been elaborated and followed in the series of studies of food and
nutrition to which these experiments belong.1 In some cases special
methods were necessary on account of conditions under which the
observations were made.
No regular meals were eaten. The food was taken at such intervals
and in such amounts as suited the convenience of the subject and the
judgment of his trainer. The food was prepared in part outside the
building, in part at the quarters of the several subjects, and in part at
their stands, which were in the space beside the track, which is

S U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 21, 29, etc.; and Connecticut
torrn Sta. Rpts. 1891-1897.






32


described above. Especially during the earlier days of the race maoi
of the food was administered in a liquid or semiliquid form. Whe .
ever a rider desired food he called to his trainer in passing the |
stand. The food was then put into a small tin cylinder of known..
weight, and the whole weighed by the chemist in attendance. A sig-
nal was then given to the rider, who diminished his speed so that the
cylinder could be handed to him, and caught in his hand as he rode by.
He swallowed the food while riding, and returned the cylinder when
passing the stand again. The rider and attendants were very careful
to avoid spilling any of the food in handling it after it had been
weighed. In a few cases, however, there was a slight loss of food in
handing the cylinder to the moving rider or receiving it from him.
In such cases it was necessary to deduct the amount which appeared
to be thus lost. Such accidents were very rare, and can not be
regarded as introducing serious errors. When the cylinder was
returned it was weighed, and this weight subtracted from that of
cylinder and contents to determine the amount actually eaten.
The residue in the can was usually quite small, and in cases in which
mixtures were fed the composition of this small residue was assumed
to be the same as of the original mixture. When fruit was given the
edible portion was weighed and handed directly to the rider, who
always consumed it completely.
The results of the several dietary studies are tabulated beyond.
Following each entry of the amount of a food material is a number
in parentheses which corresponds with the number given the same food
material in Tables 5 and 6, thus indicating the figures used in com-
puting the nutrients in the food. For example, the figure 42 in paren- .
theses after the first food material in Table 7, eggs 43 grams, refers to
reference No. 42 in Table 6 and shows the assumed composition of the
eggs. The fuel values were calculated as explained beyond, p. 52.
The numbers of the dietary studies 255-258 are those used in the
series of such studies made in connection with the general nutrition
investigations to which these studies belong.
DIETARY STUDY NO. 255, C. W. MILLER.
This study covered the entire period of the bicycle race-December
5 to 10, inclusive. Each portion of food, excepting the meat extract,
the supply of which was weighed daily, was weighed immediately
before being eaten. Most of the weighing of food were made on a
torsion balance, with metric beam graduated to 5 grams and sensitive
to 1 gram. This balance was mounted on a small table at the side of
the track. As already noted, the foods taken during the greater part
of the time were mostly liquid or semiliquid, and were eaten as a rule
without dismounting. Toward the end of the race, when Miller dis-
mounted more frequently and spent more time in his quarters, he ate









33


Sa considerable part of his food there. This food was weighed on a
spring balance, sensitive to one-half ounce, but as the quantities taken at
a time on these occasions were relatively large, and the weighing could
be done at leisure, the proportional error was probably not much
greater than at the track side.
,The amount and composition of the food consumed each day, and
during the whole period, as well as the averages per day, are shown
in the following table:


TABLE 7.-Foods and nutrients consumed by C. WT. Miller, December 5-10, inclusive.


Kinds and amounts of food consumed.


Nutrients and fuel value.


Protein.


SI ----- 1----


ANIMAL FOOD.

Eggs, raw, 43 gms. (42); milk.690 gms. (12); koumiss,
7,138 gms. (13). Total animal food..............
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Boiled rice, 360 gms. (25); sugar, 72 gms. (51); raw
apples, edible portion, 480 gms. (59). Total vege-
table food ......................................
Total food ................ ..................
ANIMAL FOOD.
Vigoral, 127 gms. (6); eggs. 173 gms. (42): milk,
2,779 gms. (12); koumiss, 482 gms. (13). Total ani-
m al food.........................................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Boiled oatmeal, 418 gms. (23): boiled rice, 225 gms.
(25); sugar, 92 gms. (51); apples, 300 gms. (59);
oranges, 699 gms. (63). Total vegetable food.....
Total food ....................................
ANIMAL FOOD.
Vigoral, 311 gms. (6); milk, 4,937 gms. (12). Total
animal food ....................................


Gra
3J


ms.
85.4




4.4


Fat. Carbo- : Fuel
hydrates., value.
'I


Grams.
214.9




2.6


I- 1I- -


289.8 217.5




143.8 138.3




16.7 5.2
160.5 143.5



195.1 192.8


Dec.





Dec. 6





Dec. 6










Dec. 7











.Dec. 8


44.1
236.9



37.8





40. 1


77.9


Grams. Calories.
355.0 4,624


178.2


533.2 5,397


163.7


2, 547


282.7 1,276
446.4 3,823


259. 7


3,658


467.9 2,493
727.6 1 6,151



43.8 689





375.5 2,056
419.3 2,745
1


Date.


VEGETABLE FOOD.
Bread, Vienna, 35 gms. (45): charlotte russe, 142
.gms. (28); boiled oatmeal. 280 gms. (23); boiled
rice, 371 gms. (25); rice pudding, 226 pms. (30);
sugar, 53 gms. (51); apples, 320 gms. (59); oranges,
1,683gms. (63). Total vegetable food............. 40.2
Total food ..................................... 235.3
ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef extract. 43 gms. (6): matzoon. 476 gms. (14);
milk, 581 gms. (12). Total animal food .......... 38.5
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Charlotte russe, 71 gms. (28); rice pudding, 737 gms.
(30): apples, edible portion. 798 gms. (59), or-
anges, edible portion,661 gms. (63). Total vege-
table food ........................................ 35.1
Total food .................................. 73. 6

20695-No. 98-01-3


I


_I ____


-i-


533.2 5,397


.1











TABLE 7.-Foods and nutrients consumed by C. W. Miller, Decembe. 5-10,
Continued.


Kinds and amounts of food consumed.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Grams.
Beef extract, 9 gms. (6): eggs, edible portion, 94
gms. (42); milk, 823 gms. (12). Totalanimal food.; 39.1


VEGETABLE FOOD.
Charlotte russe, 170 gms. (2a); custard pie, 839 gms. '
(27): boiled oatmeal, 86 gms. (23): boiled rice, 300
gms. (25): canned tomato soup, 113 gms. (44); su-
gar, 25 gms. (51);apples, edible portion, 870 gms.
(59). Total vegetable food....................... 65.1
Total food................................... 104. 2
ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef extract. 5 gms. (6); milk, 1,985 gms. (12). To-
tal animal food................................ 61.8
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Charlotte russe. 170 gms. (28): custard pie. 867 gms.
(27); boiled rice, 252 gms. (25): rice pudding, 170
gms. (30): sugar. 19 gms. (51); sugar cakes. 57 gms.
(26); wedding cake. 85 gms. (47): apples. 1,296
gms. (59): Malaga grapes, 865 gms. (62). Total
vegetable food..................................... 90.1
Total food .................................... 151.9
Average per day, animal food................ 127.3
Average per day, vegetable food ................ 41.9
Average per day, total food................... 169.2


I.. .. ...:i.


Nutrients and fuel value. .i.:t.

Protein. Fat h p
- hyd-ata. ... I


Grams.
41. 3


126.5


167.8 499.3


75.4


164.1


S. i,


Gram.
39L5


459.8


98.6


79L 1


239.5 88.7
116.7 150.2
63.8 425.9
.I.


180.6


585.1


..":... ;;: .::





"S i
... ... i.














8,
2,Sr0


In addition to the food, Miller consumed on the different days the
following quantities of coffee infusion: December 5, 767 grams;..
December 6, 1,446 grams; December 7, 693 grams; December 8, 820 ;
grams; December 9, 2,147 grams; and December 10, 798 grams.
Numerous analyses in this laboratory have indicated that the quantity -
of nitrogen in coffee infusion is so minute as to have no appreciable
effect upon the nitrogen balance.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 256, F. ALBERT (PREVIOUS TO THE
RACE).

This study covered two days shortly before the race.' It began with
dinner December 1 and closed with breakfast December 3. The mea.
were taken at Albert's home. There was no special diet. The foods
eaten were those prepared for the family. As previously noted,
Albert avoided an excess of fats and sweets. The food served hik.
at each meal was weighed on a spring balance similar to that used ih,
dietary study No. 257. Due account was taken of uneaten residues.
The details of the dietary study are shown in the following table:



.. .... i .


Date.


1898.
Dec. 9


Dec. 10


...........


~_







35


f TABLE 8.--Fholod cd nutrients consumed by Fra k Albert, December 1-3.

'I;. Nutrient. and fuel value.
Date. Kinds and amounts of food consumed. Carbo- Fuel
pProtein. Fat Carbo- Fuel
SProtein. Fat. hydrates. value.

ANIMAL FOOD.
898. Grams. Grans. Grams. Calorie.
Dec.1-2 Sirloin steak, lean, 142 gms. (36): roast leg of lamb,
170 gms. (1); gravy from lamb, 14 gms. (39): eggs,
170 gms. (42); butter, 71 gme. (43); milk,964 gms.
(10). Total animal food ........................ 137.9 1 149.6 45.1 2,141
VEGETABLE POOD.
White bread, 198 gms. (18); graham bread, 28 gms.
(46); boiled oatmeal, 397 gms. (21); rice pudding,
213 gms. (29); sugar, 28 gms. (51); lettuce, 85 gms.
(54); stewed peas, 85 gms. (55): prepared mashed
potatoes, 213 gms. (32); tomato pickles, green, 57
gms. (58); apples, as purchased, 99 gms. (60): ba-
nanas, edible portion, 86 gms. (61); canned
peaches, 142 gms. (65). Total vegetable food .... 56.6 29. 5 335.7 1,883
Total food ................................... 194.5 179.1 380.8 4,024
ANIMAL FOOD.
Dec. 2-3 Round steak, lean, 99 gms. (37); sirloin steak, lean,
99 gms. (36): canned salmon, 57 gms. (41); eggs,
114 gms. (42); butter, 78 gms. (43); milk, 255 gms.
(10). Total animal food ......................... 80.5 107.4 11.9 1,377
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Bread, 283 gms. (18); boiled oatmeal, 354 gms. (21);
rice pudding, 184 gms. (29); sugar, 57 gms. (51);
stewed peas, 113 gms. (55); plain boiled potatoes,
100 gms. (56); tomato pickles, 71 gms. (58); vege-
table soup, 298 gms. (9); canned peaches, 142
gms. (65). Total vegetable food ................. 62.4 19.9 356.3 1,902
Total food..................................... 142.9 127.3 368.2 3,279
Average per day, animal food................ 109. 2 128.5 28.5 1,759
Average per day, vegetable food .............. 59.5 24.7 346.0 1,892
Average per day, total food.................... 168.7 153.2 374.5 3.651


DIETARY STUDY NO. 257, F. ALBERT (DURING THE RACE).

This study covered the six days of the race (December 5 to 10,
inclusive). Some of the subject's food was brought from his home;
the rest was prepared at his stand by the track side. The conditions
attending the dietary study were less favorable for accuracy than
were those in the study made with Miller. The space available for
the work was very small, the table was in a crowded corner where it
was frequently shaken, and the weighing had to be made very quickly.
For these reasons it did not seem practicable to make the weighing on
anything more delicate than a spring balance. A very accurate spring
balance was obtained which was usually read to one-fourth ounce, but
when time allowed could be made to indicate one-eighth ounce. At
first each lot of food was weighed, but as the amount taken at a time
was usually quite small it was soon seen that there was a possibility of
considerable error in the weighing. As soon as practicable (on the
i, second day) it was arranged to have most of the articles of food used
: by the rider kept separate from that of his attendants. The rider's
Foods were then weighed at the beginning and end of each day, thus











greatly reducing the number of weighing and the probable..
Even aftei this was done, however, the amounts of food eaten w
probably less accurately determined than in dietary studies Nosa S i
and 258. During the last half of the race Albert consumed the'
greater part of his food while resting at his stand beside the tra&:nii';
The details of this dietary study are given in the following table:

TABLE 9.-Foods and nutrients consumed by Frank Albert, December 5-0.

Nutrients and fuel value.
Date. Kinds and amounts of food consumed.. Fat hydia a
Protein. Fat. hCrte. a |
hyr te. al.

ANIMAL FOOD.
1898. Grams. Grams. Grams. OGortf .
Dee. 5 Beefsteak, lean,85 gms. (36); beef tea, 440 gms. (5);
eggs, 241 gms. (42); butter, 142 gms. (15); milk,
531 gms. (11). Total animal food ................ 79.9 177.8 21.9 2,0l i
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Bread, 368 gms. (18); graham bread, 85 gms. (19)
graham crackers, 6 gms. (48); boiled oatmeal,
694 gms. (22); boiled rice, 241 gms. (24); sugar,
63 gms. (51); celery,78 gms. (53); apples, 376
gms. (59). Total vegetable food ................. 68.9 14.0 465.2 2,380
UNCLASSIFIED FOOD.
Ginger ale, 1,680 gms. (34); calfs-foot jelly, 42
gms. (17); malted milk,91 gmi. (16). Total un-
classified food ......... ....... ....... ......... 16.7 7.9 247.9 1.15


Total food ......................... ........ "I 165.5
ANIMAL FOOD.
Dec. 6 Beefsteak, lean,28 gms. (36); beef juice, 128 gms.
(8); lamb chops,78 gms. (38); chicken, 42 gms.
(40); chicken broth, 170 gms. (3); eggs, 57 gms.
(42); butter, 64 gms. (15) milk, 116 gms. (11).
Total animal food............................... 60.4
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Bread, 198 gms. (18); graham crackers, 6 gms. (48);
boiled oatmeal, 347 gms. (22): sugar, 119 gms.
(51); licorice drops, 18 gms. (52); celery, 78 gms.
(53); raw tomatoes, 220 gms. (57): raw apples,
edible portion, 269 gms. (59); California grapes,
99 gms. (62); oranges, edible portion, 135 gms.
(63); stewed prunes, 376 gms. (33). Total vege-
table food ..................................... 37.0
lUNCLASSIFIED FOOD.
Ginger ale, 1,248 gms. (34); calf's-foot jelly, 99
gms. (17); malted milk,82 gms. (16). Total un-
classified food ................................. 18.1
Total food ................................... 115.5 i
ANIMAL FOOD.
Der<. 7 Beefsteak, lean, 50 gms. (36); beef juice, 14 gms.
(8): beef-tea tablets, 10 gms. (7); vigoral,18gms.
(6); lamb chops, 14 gms. (38); chicken, 85 gins.
(40): chicken broth, 283 gms. (3); eggs, 369 gms.
(42): butter, 78 gms. (15); milk, 142 gms. (11).
Total animal food ............................... 107.0
VEGETABLE FOOD.
SWhite bread, 177 gms. (18); graham gems, 184
gms. (19); boiled oatmeal, 532 gms. (22); sugar
177 gms. (51); celery. 78 gms. (53); raw tomatoes.
29 gms. (57); vegetable soup, 191 gms. (9); apples,
edible portion, 192 gms. (59); Malaga grapes, 138
gms. (62); oranges.edible portion,326 gms. (63):
stewed prunes, 170 gms. (33). Total vegetable
food .............................................. 56.38


199.7 735.0 5,549


97.9 4.8 1,178

-N.






9.0 431.8 2,005




7.1 201.3 978
114.0 640.9' 4,11.






132.7 7,5 1i tO








13.6 56WL7 2. WO












TABLE



Date.


Nutrients and fuel value.
I


Kinds and amounts of food cuunsumed.


Protein.


F. Carbo-
S hydrates.


ITNCIASSIFIED FOOD).

Cocoa wine. 170 gms. (35); ginger ale, 2,459 gnms.
(34); calf's-foot jelly, 213 gms. (17); malted
milk, 78 gms. (16). Total unclassified food.......,
Total food .................... ........
ANIMAL FOOD.

Beefsteak, lean, 71 gms. (36); beefsteak, 71 gms.
(2); beef juice, 11 gms. (8); beef-tea tablets, 5
gms. (7); vigoral, 27 gms. (6); mutton broth,539
gis. (4); chicken, 64 gms. (40); chicken broth,
340 gms. (3); eggs, 283 gms. (42); butter, 198 gms. i
(15); milk,312 gms. (11). Total animal food ...
VEGETABLE FOOD.

Bread, 170 gms. (18); "raised" biscuits, 43 gms.
(20); doughnuts, 49 gms. (50); graham gems, 397
gms. (19); sugar, 142 gms. (51); apples, 390 gms.
(59); bananas, 92 gms. (61); Malaga grapes, 99
gms. (62); oranges, edible portion, 64 gms. (63);
pears,283 gms. (64). Total vegetable food ......

UNCLASSIFIED FOOD.

Cocoa wine, 198 gms. (35); ginger ale, 1,581 gms.
(34); calf's-foot jelly, 269 gms. (17); malted
milk, 36 gms. (16). Total unclassified food.......


Total food......................... ........

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beefsteak, lean, 170 gms. (36); chicken (cooked)
capon, 156 gms. (40); chicken broth, 305 gms.
(3); eggs, 56 gms. (42); butter, 220 gms. (15);
milk, 149 gms. (11). Total animal food .........

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Bread, 553 gms. (18); soda crackers, 28 gms. (49);
graham gems, 128 gms. (19); tapioca pudding, 170
gms. (31); sugar, 135 gms. (51); celery,49 gms.
(53); apples, 418 gms. (59); Malaga grapes, 156
gms. (62); oranges, 234 gms. (63); pears, 319 gms.
(64); stewed prunes, 319 gms. (33). Total vege-
table food .....................................
UNCLASSIFIED FOOD.

Cocoa wine, 43 gms. (35); ginger ale, 1,623 gms.
fd4\. ,ltA -f t Cif ll' 1t, r 1ms- 1/ m1 Slt


(J ;, c,A o-.rw b Jelly, u )Lk* ) \ f aUJ -Le
milk, 21 gms. (16). Total unclassified food.......

Total food..................... ............

ANIMAL FOOD.

Beefsteak, 64 gms. (2); lamb chops, 71 gms. (38);
mutton broth, 276 gms. (4); chicken, 85 gms. (40);
chicken broth, 425 gms. (3); eggs, 114 gms. (42)r
butter, 92 gms. (15); milk, 269 gms. (11). Total
animal food ...................................

VEGETABLE FOOD.

Bread, 142 gms. (18); biscuits, 57 gms. (20); soda
crackers, 28 gms. (49); graham gems, 269 gms.
(19); tapioca pudding, 142 gms. (31); sugar, 241
gms. (51); apples, edible portion, 85 gms. (59);
Malaga grapes, 78 gins. (62); pears, edible por-
tion, 510 gms. (64). Total vegetable food ........


(ran im.

24.2


(;ra ni. '

6.8


Grams.

407. 5


188.0 153.1 j 978.7


126.2


73.0




20.5


255.8


23.4




3.1


15.3







665.2




303.5


219.7 282.3 984.0





106.7 229.5 6.1


93.8


12.4


23.5




1.8


212.9 254.8


98.8







62.3


158.6







22.2


758.3




225.0


989.4






11.1







643.6


37


9.-Foods IfIfI 7 trienls 'ntisumned by ."a iak Albert, lerrmher :;-10-C*nitinued.


Fuel
value.


'Dee.
Dec.


Dee. 8


Dec. 9


Dec. 10


Calories.

1,833

6,207







2,959







3,245




1,357


7,561


2,597








3, 712




990


7,299






1,925







3,101


I ~- ----l --------- :---- r ~


111-*-- i


1










TABLE 9.-FoOls t and iutrients consumed by Prank Albert, December 5--10-Ctliii



Protein. Fat. Carbo- ..
hydrates. Wl;o
UNCLASSIFIED FOOD. .. ii
1898. Grams. Gra. rs.Grams. Gra. Oes i
Dec. 10 I Cocoa wine, 113 gms. (35); gingerale, 914gms. (84);
calf's-foot jelly, 220 gms. (17); malted milk, 7
gms. (16). Total unclassified food ............... 13.2 0.6 174.7 3;
1I- *


Total food .................


----------------------- 4 -*. ....80,..:


I"'
'1*


4.1
p.i


I~i.-








Iii
I,
[I,





















Li


..................................... -VS. 0 AV.. 'Si., "'
Average per day, animal food................ 96.5 176.4 11.1 2, : l
Average per day, vegetable food ............. 65.3 17.6 588.0 2,8lt "
Average per day, unclassified food ........... 17.5 4.5 260.5 :1,1i
Average per day, total food.................. 179.8 197.6 8i 9. ,
-------------------------_______________^

The amount of coffee infusion consumed on the different days was as::
follows: December 5, 857 grams; December 6, 1,951 grams; Decem-
ber 7, 1,707 grams; December 8, 2,431 grams; December 9, 1,427
grams, and December 10, 1,638 grams. On December 5, 517 grams of
tea infusion was consumed. None was drunk on the following days..
As previously noted, it was possible to observe the diet and col- ,.
lect the urine of this subject from noon of the Thursday to noon of
the Saturday before the race. This period covered practically the last
day of active training and the first day of comparative rest before the
contest. The results of observations of food consumption for these
two days are shown in Table 8, above. On the first day the food con-.
tained 195 grams of protein (31.2 of nitrogen) and 4,025 calories of
energy; on the second, 143 grams of protein (22.9 of nitrogen) and
3,280 calories. During the two days the subject eliminated 24.5 and
14.1 grams of nitrogen, respectively, in the urine (see p. 50). Thus,
while the potential energy of the diet was but very little above the
averages found for farmers, mechanics, and professional men, and con-
siderably less than the average of college athletes in studies made in
the United States,' the protein was considerably higher than in the
former and rather higher than in the latter. It appears, however, that-
a considerable portion of this protein was stored in the body, since the
urine contained much less nitrogen than the food, and the amount in the
feces could account for more than a part of this difference.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 258, H. PILKINGTON.
i: I
This study covered the first three days of the bicycle race (December
5 to 7, inclusive). The food was prepared in the same way as that
served Miller (No. 255), and the same methods were followed in .
weighing the food consumed and collecting the samples. The detail i.
of the dietary study follow:

'U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 21 and 75; also U. S. Deot.
Agr. Yearbook, 1898, p. 450; Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1897, p. 153.


.-.
H .








839

TABLE 10.-Foods and nutrients consumed by Henry Pilkington, December 5-7, inclusive.


Kinds and amounts of food consumed.


: 898.
Dec. 5


Nutrients and fuel value.

Protein. Fat. Carb..- Fuel
hydrates. value.


Grams.
223. 6


Gramas.
185.6


14.2 3.0
237.8 188.6


ANIMAL FOOD.
Eggs, 79 gms. (42); milk, 1,600 gms. (12); koumiss,
4,522 gms. (13). Total animal food...............
VEGETABLE POOD.
Boiled oatmeal, 506 gms. (23); boiled rice, 574 gms.
(25): sugar, 89 gms. (51); apples, 19 gms. (59). To-
tal vegetable food...........................
Total food ...................................
ANIMAL FOOD.
Vigoral,85 gms. (6); eggs, 46 gms. (42): milk, 1,496
gms. (12); koumiss,8,233gms. (13). Total animal
food ..............................................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Boiled oatmeal, 131 gms. (23); boiled rice, 756 gms.
(25); sugar, 85 gms. (51); oranges, 255 gms. (63).
Total vegetable food ............................
Total food...................................
ANIMAL FOOD.
Vigoral, 156 gms. (6); butter, 28 gms. (43); milk,
4,165 gms. (12); koumiss, 175 gms. (13). Total an-
imal food....................................


146. 5


Gramns.
279.6


204.8
484.4



224.0


Calories.
3,789



926
4,715




3,023


208.0


190.8 148.2 432.0 3,932
_____________________I __________________ __________________ ______________________________


156.5


VEGETABLE FOOD.
Bread, 307 gms. (45); boiled oatmeal, 768 gms. (23);
boiled rice, 350 gms. (25); sugar, 80 gms. (51); ap-
ples, 150 gms. (59); oranges, 85 gms. (63). Total
vegetable food .................................. 47.8
Total food .................................. 204.3
Average per day, animal food................ 187.0
Average per day, vegetable food ............. 23.9
Average per day, total food .................. 210.9


189.0


217.6


*",291


8.9 393.7 1,893
197.9 611.3 5,184
173.7 240.4 3,368
4.5 268.8 1,242
178.2 509.2 4,610


The amount of coffee infusion consumed on the different days was.
as follows: December 5, 552 grams; December 6, 457 grams, and
December 7, 605 grams.
In the preceding tables the fuel.value of the diet was calculated by
Rubner's factors, which are in common use. According to these each
gram of protein in the average mixed diet has a fuel value of 4.1
calories, each gram of fat 9.3, and each gram of carbohydrates
4.1 calories. These factors were proposed by Rubner in 1885,' and
were based upon such data as were available at the time. A large
amount of experimental research has, however, accumulated within
recent years which makes it possible to determine these factors with a
closer approach to accuracy. Atwater and Bryant recently published
an article which contains a general summary2 of the data bearing upon
the determinations of factors for estimating the fuel value of the


SZtschr. Biol., 21 (1885), p. 377.
"Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 73.


Date.


181.0



9.8


Dec.


Dec. 7


_


------------









mixed diet. In the article referred to the. factors 4.0, 8.9, and &.
proposed as expressing much more clearly the average fuel value of -i'
gram of protein, fats, and carbohydrates, respectively, than do
corresponding factors of Rubner. :.
In deducing these factors the results of a considerable amount
late experimental inquiry were summarized, including (1) analyst e.::i1
of over 4,000 specimens of American food materials; (2) a large n*uIii;
ber of European and American determinations of the nitrogen fai:!ta: :r :::
of protein and of the heats of combustion of food materials and of the:ii
proteids, fats, carbohydrates, and other compounds occurring in them;i
(3) a considerable number of determinations of the ratio of the heat :::i
of combustion of solids of urine to the amount of nitrogen present|
including 46 late American determinations of the urine of men .sub
sisting upon different diets, made chiefly in connection with digestion
experiments; (4) the proportion of different kinds of food materials
and of nutrients in the ordinary mixed diet, as shown by the results of
185 dietary studies lately made in the United States; and (5) the
digestibility of the nutrients of different food materials, as indicated
by European and American digestion experiments, including nearly
100 experiments lately made in the United States on the digestibility
of a mixed diet by healthy men.
Most of these data have accumulated since Rubner made his estimates
in 1885. Thus for the heat of combustion of urine, which is an
important factor in determining the fuel value of the protein, he had
only the results of a small number of determinations on the urine of
dogs. Moreover, Rubner's estimates were based upon determinations
of heats of combustion by the Thompson-Stohmann calorimeter, which
has been found to give lower results than are obtained by the more
highly developed bomb calorimeter now commonly used.
In discussing the factors for fuel value as proposed by Rubner and
those as proposed by Atwater and Bryant, it is necessary to carefully
define the terms used. The sense in which the expression "fuel value*
is here used is stated in the following definition:
By fuel value is understood the energy (heat of combustion) of the
material of the food which is capable of oxidation in the body. For
the total food it is the total energy less that of the corresponding
unoxidized materials of the feces and urine. For the protein it is
likewise the total heat of combustion less that of the corresponding.
unoxidized residues of these excretions. For the fats and carbohy-
drates it is the total energy of the food less that of the corresponding
unoxidized material of the feces."
Rubner's fuel value or "iWarmewerth" of protein was obtained in
practically the same way as the new factor for the fuel value of pro-
tein. In his "Warmewerth" of fats and carbohydrates, however, no


** .,. .a







41

allowance was made for the ankounts lost in the feces. The difference,
therefore, between Rubner's "WWarmewerth' and the term fuel value
here used is: For the fats and carbohydrates, Rubner's Warmewerth"
'is the total heat of combustion, whereas the fuel value is that amount
less the heat of combustion of the corresponding compounds of the feces.
For the protein the Warmewerth and the fuel value both represent
!I the heat of combustion of the total protein, less the sum of the heats of
Combustion of the protein of the feces and the solids of the urine. Aside
I from this difference there is a further variation between Rubner's esti-
mates for tWarmewerth" and those here given for fuel value, which
has already been referred to, namely, the smaller values for heats of
combustion as determined by the Thompson-Stohmann calorimeter
upon which Rubner first based his factors.
Nevertheless, it is only just to say that considering the paucity of
Rubner's data and the fact that he made no allowance for either the
undigested material or the metabolic products of the feces properly
belonging to the carbohydrates and fats, the results are certainly very
close to those arrived at by the use of the more extensive data now
available.
The data given in some detail in Tables 7, 9, and 10 are summarized in
Table 11. This table also gives the fuel value of the food as computed
by the old and the new factors. In addition, there are added for pur-
poses of comparison, the fuel values actually found by experiment.
These latter values are in every instance slightly lower than those
computed by use of the new factors, and are very much lower than the
values as computed by use of the old factors. They indicate that in
these particular cases even the new factors are somewhat too large.
These factors, however, were applied to the results obtained in
twenty-seven experiments made in connection with investigations with
the respiration calorimeter, and were found on the average to give
results differing by only one-tenth of 1 per cent from the actual fuel
values as determined by experiment.

TABLE 11.-Summary of nutrients and fuel value of food consumed each day by the
different riders.

Fuel value.
Subject and day. Protein. Fat. Carbohy old By new
drates. By old By new
factors. factors.
MILLER.
Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories. Calories.
First day, Dec. 5............................... 290 218 533 5,397 5,232
Second day, Dec. 6 .............................. 160 1 144 446 3,823 3,706
Third day, Dec. 7................................. 235 237 728 6,151 5,961
Fourth day, Dec. 8 ................................. 74 78 419 2,745 2.666
Fifth day, Dec. 9.................................. 104 168 499 4,035 3,907
Sixth day, Dec.10......... ............ ......... 152 240 885 6,477 6.284
Average of 6 days ............................. 169 181 585 4,770 4,626
Fuel value as actually determined................... .............................. 4,583









42


TABLE 11.--Summory of nutrients and fuel value of food consumed ealc dg .Iip
different riders-Continued. :
... '** i[$ i


Subject and day.


Protein.


ALBERT.
First day, Dec. 5.........................................
Second a y, Dec. 6 .......................
Third day, Dec. 6..................................
Third dav. Dec. 7...................................
Fourth day. Dec. 8.................................
Fifth day, Dec.9..................................
Sixth day, Dec. 10 .................................
Average of 6 days ...........................
Fuel value as actually determined...........
PILKINGTON.
First day, Dec. 5...................................
Second day, Dec. 6.................................
Third day. Dec. 7..................................
Average of 3 days ..........................
Fuel value as actually determined..........


Grams.
165
116
188
220
213
174


Fat.


Grams.
200
114
153
282
255
181


Carbohy-
drates.
-i



Grams.
735
641
979
984
989
829


FutelTaiae.

By old nyw
factors ae


Clorifea. OnCra


6,649
4,161

7,299
6,802


179 198 859 6,006
.......... .......... .......... .......... 6


238 189 484 4,715 4,M
191 148 432 3,9m2 A
204 198 611 5,184 6 B'


4,610
..........


4,4W


FOOD CONSUMPTION OF THE BICYCLE RACERS COMPARED WITH
THAT OF OTHER ATHLETES.


The food consumption of these bicycle racers is compared with that
of other athletes and of different classes of men at severe and at ordi-
nary occupations in Table 12, which follows:

TABLE 12.-Comparison of average daily food consumption of persons with severe mucular
'work.


C'-
'.


MIiller during 6-day race, 1898....................
Pilkington during 3 days of the 6-day race, 1898...'
Albert during 6-day race, 1898.....................
Albert during preliminary period, 1898 ..........
Weston,5-day preliminary to 5-day walk, 1870b ..
Weston during 5-day walking race, 1870b.........
Weston. 5 days following 5-day walking race,
1870b ...................... ....................
Weston. ninety-fifth to ninety-ninth day of 100-
day walkb......................... ............
Weston, 3-day walking race, 1877 c ................
1~ eston, 6-day preliminary to 6-day walking race,
1877 d ............................................
Weston, 6 days of walk, 1877 d........................
Miller during 6-day bicycle race, 1897 e ..........
Sandow in time of exhibitions of strength ......
Harvard University boat crew, Cambridge, 1898 g.
Harvard freshman boat crew, Cambridge, 1898 g..
Harvard University boat crew, New London,1898g
Harvard freshman'boat crew, New London, 1898g.
Captain of Harvard freshman crew, New London,
1898 ............................................
Yale University boat crew, New Haven, 1898g ....


Pro- Fat Carbohy- Fuel
tein. drates. value.

I 'I
Grams. Grams. Grams. Cb s.
169 181 5s8 4,770
211 178 509 4,610
179 1981 8591 6,095


169 153
149 141
94 66
197 168
236 65
294 1951
218 102
300 158
262 192
244 151
162 175
153 223
160 170
135 152


181
170


155
145


375
226
154


454
780
941
462
606
791
502
449
468
448
416
487
375


3,650
2,860
1,635
4,230
4,770
6,877
3,735
5,185
6,100
4,460
4,130
4,620
4.075
3,675
4,315
3,706


a Calculated by dividing the sum of carbohydrates and 21 times the fat by the amount of protein.
b Flint, New York Med. Jour.. 13 (1870), 653. See also p. 13, above.
c Blyth. Proc. Roy.Soc. [London], 37 (1884), pp. 46-5. See also p. 16. above.
d Pav., Lancet, 1896, II, passim. See also p. 13, above.
eBryant. Diet. & Hyg.Gaz.,15 (1899),p.393. See also p. 14. above.
f Langworthy and Beal, Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1896, p. 158.
g U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 75.


41*
. (1, "8 I
its


Nutri-
tive
ratla


r


L2
2.9


4.2
L2



&2
4.7
3.1

4.6
&5
L2
6.1
L'

5 1


i


--


i









TABLE 12.-Comparison of arerage daily food consumption uf liersos with scercrce inrmelar
k work-Continued.
I I

SI Pro- Carbohy-' Fuel NuLri-
tein, Ft rates. value.
value.

Grams. Grauns. Grants. Calories. I:
PD Yale University boat crew. New London, 1898 a... 171 171 434 1 4,070 4.6
21 Foot-ball team, Connecticut. 1889 6................ 181 292 557 5,740 I 6.8
S 22 Foot-ball team, California, 1897 e .................. 270 416 710 7,885 t. 1
28 Dock laborers, Cronstadt, Russia d ................216-220 95 931 5,595 5.3
24 New York builder (large and muscular), average
of 2 studies e................................... 195 242 718 5,995 6.5
25 Average of 14 mechanics' familiesf............... 103 150 402 3,465 7.2
26 Average of 10 farmers' families. .................. 97 130 467 3,515 7.8
S27 Average of 14 professional men's families ....... 104 125 423 3,325 6.6

saU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 75.
b Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1891, p. 128.
cU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 84.
dVestnik Obsh. Hig. Subed. i Prakt Med., 31 (1896), No. 1, Pt. VIII,p.4: abs. in U.S. Dept. Agr.,
Experiment Station Record, 10 (1898-99), p. 678.
eU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 46, p. 51.
f U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook, 1898, p. 450.

It will be seen from this table that the bicycle racers' dietaries are
high both in protein and energy. On the other hand, they did more
than two ordinary days' work in one. Taking into account the nitrogen
metabolized in excess of the amount supplied by the food,1 we may say
that the total protein metabolized was about twice as much as the
available protein of the food of the average American mechanic or
professional man and the average energy about 50 per cent greater.
Here, however, we must note that Albert's diet supplied 25 to 30 per
cent more energy than Miller's or Pilkington's. The college boat
crews (studied in summer) stand about midway between the average
of men of ordinary occupations and the professional bicycle racers
here reported. Weston's diet showed such great variations in the
different studies made with him that an average of the results would
be of doubtful value. Perhaps, however, it may be safe to assume
that his diet during the last days of his 100-day walk would repre-
sent the demands of his body when worked almost up to its capacity
for physical exertion. At this time his dietary supplied a little more
protein than that of any of these bicycle racers here reported, although
the amount actually metabolized in the body was probably more nearly
equal to that observed with them. As regards energy, his supply was
about the same as that of Miller and Pilkington and less than that of
Albert.
The nutritive ratios shown in Table 12 are seen to vary greatly. In
studies of the kind here reported it seems hardly proper to attach
great importance to this ratio, for it would seem that these athletes
were able to supply during the few days of the race considerable
protein from their own bodies, and that the food was selected with a
view to easy digestibility rather than to its proportion of protein. In

See discussion of nitrogen balance, p. 50.






44

other words, it seemed that during the days of the race the question i;
a well-balanced ration became subordinate to that of an easily digested
and agreeable one. As the results show (see p. 50), deficiencies in' t
supply of protein were apparently made good by utilizing mates~ ri.i.
of the body tissue without injury, but it is evident that any markeli
disturbance of the digestive apparatus would have been fatal to i '.
prospects of any contestant.
If the nutritive ratio of Miller's diet be calculated for each day it:
will be found to be narrow at first (1:3.5 for the first day) and gradsi;;-...ii.
ally widening as the race progressed, until at the end it was decidedly!
wide (1:9.4 for the last day). This is, of course, accounted for by theJ:i
fact that at first almost the only foods were milk and koumiss, while
later large quantities of cereals were used, and toward the last the
rider was allowed to indulge in fruits and pastry. The trainer's rea-
son for thus regulating the diet was to insure good digestion and
regular movements of the bowels. Whether the change in nutritive
ratio was of any advantage it is impossible to say. No such change
was found in the case of Albert.
Notwithstanding these variations a consideration of the nutritive
ratios is not without interest. Albert shows little difference in this
respect from the average American families, while Miller has a nar-
rower ratio, not far from the average of the college boat crews.
Pilkington, who remained in the race for only three days, shows a
still narrower ratio; about the same as Miller's ratio for the same
days. Miller's average ratio is considerably wider than any ratio found
for Weston, but had the former not been allowed to indulge in fruit
and pastry toward the end of the race there would have been little, if
any, difference.
In general these results seem rather to confirm the impression that
intense exertion is best supported by a diet with a narrow nutritive
ratio; that is, by a diet with a large amount of protein in proportion
to the fat and carbohydrates.
It is interesting to note that Albert consumed considerable amounts
of sugar, taking it principally in the form of ginger ale. The use of
sugar in the diet of soldiers and others whose work is heavy and pro-
longed is being much discussed. It is sometimes recommended also
for athletes, whose exertions are intense but of short duration. For
the latter cases, however, it has been more generally believed that a
diet consisting largely of animal food, and furnishing more protein, is
preferable. This subject will be found discussed in previous bulletins
of this Office.
'U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bul. 93, and U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment
Stations Bul. 75.







45


DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS.

In order to determine the outgo of nitrogen through the intestine,
and incidentally the digestibility of the diet under the conditions of
unusually severe work, the feces from each of the subjects were col-
lepted and the portions corresponding to the food eaten during the
race were separated and analyzed. The methods followed in these
digestion experiments were such as have been used in other studies of
the series to which these belong.' The separations were made by
means of lampblack given with the last meal before the race and the
first meal after. These separations were not very satisfactory, the
differences in color being less pronounced than is usual. This was
probably due to the fact that the subjects did not take meals at regular
intervals, but ate small quantities of food very frequently, so that the
lampblack would be more likely to be mixed with the residues of pre-
ceding or succeeding meals than under ordinary circumstances. While
these errors in separation may be sufficient to somewhat affect the
results when considered simply as those of digestion experiments, they
can not have any very serious influence upon the main question studied,
since neither the balance of income and outgo of nitrogen nor that of
energy could be much altered by such small errors as may have occurred
in the separation of the first and last portions of feces in a six-day
metabolism experiment.
The weight of the dry matter of the feces excreted by each man cor-
responding to the food eaten during the days covered by the experi-
ment was as follows: Miller (six days), 252 grams; Albert (six days),
235.6 grams, and Pilkington (three days), 179.1 grams. The composi-
tion of the dry matter of the feces is shown in Table 5.
The results of the digestion experiments are shown in Tables 13-15.
The amounts of the different nutrients and the heats of combustion are
calculated from the total quantities of the different kinds of food mate-
rials consumed and their composition and potential energy per gram,
as shown in Tables 5 and 6. The difference between the amounts of
nutrients in the total food eaten and the amounts rejected in the feces
gives the amounts actually available to the body. The proportion of
any given nutrient thus digested is termed its coefficient of digestibility
under the given conditions. The heat of combustion of the incompletely
oxidized matter excreted in the urine ranged from 1.32 to 1.23 calories
'U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21, p. 57, and Bul. 53, p. 25;
also Connecticut Storr Sta. Rpt. 1896, p. 163.
It is of course understood that the feces contain not only the undigested residue
of the food, but considerable quantities of metabolic products, so that the results of
experiments of this kind show, not the quantities of nutrients actually digested, but
rather the approximate amounts which are actually available to the body for the
building of tissue and the yielding of energy. For discussion of this subject see Con-
necticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1897, p. 156.












peC g.i.m u.L xruL-u LutnculuumiouL AIn uiguOetUU CApruIWifln i 0.. ii.i:-. g
value for the "heat of combustion of urine"is computedfi
available protein (946 grams), allowing 1.32 calories of energy
each gram of this protein as unavailable for use in the body ow4'
its excretion in the incompletely oxidized material of the uri.iii
experiment No. 96 the corresponding value is obtained by multipM
the available protein by 1.28, and in experiment No. 97 by multiply
the available protein by 1.23, these being the factors found by atoul
determinations of heat of combustion of the urine of each of .
determnatios of eat o combstionof"th urin of eb of'


subjects.


TABLE 13.-Details of digestion experiment No. 95, Miler.


Food materials.


Vigoral ...................................
Beef extract ...................... .....
Eggs, raw ...-........-....................
Milk ........................... .........--
Koumiss ..................................
Matzoon-------------
Matzoon ...................................
Bread .....................................
Oatmeal ................................
Rice ......................................-
Rice pudding ..........-....-..............
Charlotte russe ..-........................
Sugar cake ...-..........................
Wedding cake ...........................
Custard pie ............................
Tomato soup ........-................-...
Sugar ...... ...........................
Apples ...................... .............
Grapes ..................................
Oranges..................................
Total..............................


Weight I -
oeight Protein
material.! (N. x6.25)


Grams.
438
57
310
11,795
7,620
476
35
784
1,508
1.133
553
57


Grams.
60
8
41
363
276
15
3 .
16
10
36
27
4


Fat.


Grams.
8
1
33
447
197
15
4
1
29
121
7


8 5 9
1,703 97 168
113 2 1
261
261 ------.. ... .......-
4,064 16 20
865 11 14
3,043 24 6
34,900 1.014 1,061


3010 Feces (water free)........................ .......... 68
Urine ........................................ ----------.......... ..........---- ...
Amount digested ................................ 46
Coefficients of digestibility (per cent) .... ......... 93.3
!


68

1,013
98. 7


". "::... ^~ii; i i;iii


tili""'E : / ] 'iiii.
(deter-
nta). ,
doff:





98
is
:m

4M.

1,W5
216


1,AN
2,P 0






_,4W
$.8.
,m..
t B~~:"


a Composition assumed from previous analysis of similar materials.

TABLE 14.-Details of digestion experiment No. 96, Albert.


Food materials.


Beefsteak ................................I
.....do....................................
Beef juice...............................
Beef tea........ ....... .... ........
Beef-tea tablets................................
Lamb chops.-...........................
Mutton broth ..........................
Chicken ...............................
Chicken broth..........................
Eggs....................................
Butter ................................
Milk ......................................
Vigoral ................................--
Calfs-foot jelly ........................... -


Weight Protein
of N. 6.25)
material.I(N x6.25


Grans.
404
135
153
440
15
163
815
432
1.523
1,120
794
1,519
45


999


Grams.
94
39
9
11
2
35
9
117
54
150
9
43
6


Fat.


Grams.
10
17-
17
27
49
27
50
31
118
683
59
1


Carbohy-I
dates.


Grams.
..........

---------
..........


----------


4
148


a Composition assumed from previous analysis of similar materials.


Labora-
tory
No. of
sample.,


3014
(a)
(a)
2999
3001
3002
(a)
299
2993
2992
2991
2989
2990
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)


Carboby-
drates.

dm

Grams.
5
.----------
aMt
344
13
19
81
25
140
31
55
450
6
261
166
353

3,6511


48

3,'463
96.6


Labora-
tory
No. of
sample.


2983
3020
2996
3019
(a)
2995
(a)
2982
(a)
;3000
2998
3014
3016


Heat of
tin
(deter-
mined).

Osaioria


I "


---------; ---- i ~


.. ..... ... .... ...... ;









47

TABLE 14.-Details of digestion experiment ANo. 96, Albert-Continued.


Food materials.


Weilht
material.
i material.


Soup ......................................
Oatmeal .................................
Rice ...................................
Crackers, graham........................
Gems, graham ............-...............
Bread, graham............................
Soda crackers............................
Biscuit..................................
Bread...... ..............................
Doughnuts..............................
Tapioca pudding..........................
Smar .................................
lery............................ ...........
Tomatoes ............ ........ ...........
Apples...................................
Bannas .................................
Grapes...................................
Oranges..................................
Pears al........... ........................
Prunes ...................................
Ginger ale ................................
Licorice drops ............................
Cocoa wine .............................
Malted milk .............................
Total....-...........................

Feces (water free).....................
Urine .....................................
Amount digested.....................
Coefficients of digestibility (per cent)...


Grams.
191
1,573
241
12
978S
85
56
100
1,608
49
312
877
283
249
1,730
92
570
759
1,112
865
9,505
18
524
315


Labora-
tory
No. of
ample.


Protein Fat.
(N. x6.25)


Grams. Grams.
3 3
25 10
7 4
1 1
103 6
S 9.........
5 5
8 10
171 9
3 10
. 16 16.
3 ..........
3 ..........
1 1
7 9
1 1
7 9
6 2
7 6
6 3
S6 ..........
.......... .....
----- .. .. ..---- n
461 27!


Carbohy-'
drates. I


Gramis.
9
134
42
9
594
52
41
62
S27
26
25 ,
877
9
10
246
20
109
88
157
174
1,006
17


29076
2988
2981
.(al
295
a


a

a)
a
a
a)
a
a)
a)
a)
a)
a)
a)
a)


30,661 1,074 1 1,183 5,158 37,842
236 101 24i 82 1,229

......... 973 1,159 5,076 35,270
........... 90.6 98.0 98.4 93.2


a Composition assumed from previous analysis of similar materials.

TABLE 15.-Details of digestion experiment No. 97, Pilkington.


Food materials.


Vigoral................................
Eggs ..................................
Butter ................... ...............
M ilk .....................................
Koumiss ................................
Bread..............................
Oatmeal (boiled).......................
Rice (boiled) ............................
Sugar ...................... .............
Apples .................................
Oranges................................


Heat of
Weight Protein F Carbohy- bcom-
of x 6.25) date
material. dras (deter-
mined).

Grams. G Grams. Ga Grams. Calories.


241
125
28
7,261
7,930
307
1,405
1,680
254
169
340


33 4
17 13
.......... 24
224 275
287 205
29 4
28 7
12 1
.......... .........
I .1i
3 1


21
..........
341
358
166
146
177
254
24
39


323
221
222
5,234
4,856
896
849
803
1,006
106
177


I -
Total.................-........ ... : 19,710 634 I 535 1,526 14,693
Feces (water free) ........................ 179 40 68 17 981
Urine ....-...............-................ -........ .. ........... ............. ... 742
Amount digested .............................. 594 467 1,509 12,970
Coefficients of digestibility (per cent) ..... ..... 93.7 87.3 98. 9 18.3
3. 8 9 ,.


a Composition assumed from previous analysis of similar materials.

The results tabulated above show that the digestion was normal, at

least as regards quantity; in other words, the proportions of nutrients

digested and made available by these men with severe and almost con-
tinuous muscular exercise were not essentially different from those
found with men under ordinary conditions.'

:Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 87.


Heat of
combus-
tion
(deter-
mined).

Calories.
78
788
241
55
3,112
270
251
387
4,497
224
348
3,473
57
62
1,090
92
559
395
712
843
3,992
68


.6-6


221 749
221 1,355


3011


Iabora-
tory
No. of
sample.


3014
(a)
(a)
2999

(a)
2994
2993
1a)
a)
a)


3012


I


I








METABOLISM OF NITROGEN.
Collection and analysis of urine.-The urine of each twentyti ..
hours was collected in glass jars, sealed, and carried to the laboratory
where it was measured and the specific gravity and nitrogen cQuiue
determined. The volume was measured by use of an accurately grmda.
ated and calibrated glass cylinder of 2 liters capacity. The -speohif
gravity was determined by a carefully calibrated spindle. The weighti
was calculated from the volume and specific gravity as thus ~ound.i
The nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method in weigihed
samples of about 5 grams each. The heat of combustion was deter- '
mined by burning in oxygen on filter blocks in a bomb calorimeter,
as elsewhere described.'
Tests for albucmin and sugar in -urine.-In addition to the quantita-
tive determinations already mentioned, each day's urine of each sub-
ject was tested for albumin and sugar. No trace of either was found
in any of the samples.
Nitrogen lag.-Since the men urinated only at long intervals, it is
probable that in many cases a considerable quantity of the urine formed
on one day may have been carried till the next, so that the excretion
of any particular day may indicate very little as regards the actual
metabolism of that day. The excretion for the six days, however,
probably represents more accurately the nitrogen metabolism for that
period. In the experiments of Dunlop, Paton, Stockman, and Mac-
cadam, referred to above, the greater part of the extra excretion of
nitrogen was found in two cases on the day following that on which
the work was done, and in one case on the second day following. I -
there had been a similar lag in the excretion of nitrogen by the sub-
jects studied in the bicycle race, the figures would show less than the
total amount of body protein actually metabolized. Such a discrepancy
is not improbable, but there are two reasons for thinking that it nxay
not have been great. In the first place, it seems probable that the
extra metabolism of body protein may very likely have taken place.
mainly in the earlier part of the race, when the amount of work was.
greatest. If this were true the excretion of this extra nitrogen would
be practically complete before the end of the week. In the second
place, as the severe muscular work continued for so long a period,
there would probably be a tendency toward equilibrium of total nitro-
gen metabolism and total nitrogen excretion, in which event the.
nitrogen lag would continue for a shorter time after the end of the- "
experiment, and might be largely covered by the last twelve hours of
the race, in which the amount of work done by each of the subjects .
was comparatively small.
1U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, p. 23.










49


This view is strongly confirmed by the results obtained by Flint and
by Pavy' in studying the metabolism of Weston during the days of
walking and the days which followed the walks. In the study made by

Flint the ingestion of nitrogen was more than doubled in the days
following the race while the excretion was not noticeably increased.

Pavy found that on the days following the severe exercise there was
a very marked diminution in the amount of nitrogen excreted while
the amount ingested apparently was not greatly changed.
The following tables show the quantitative data determined regard-

ing the urine of each of the subjects:


TABLE 16.-Statlitics of urine-Miller, December 5-10, inclusie.


Date.


1898.
December 5.................
6...............
7..................
8..................
9..................
10 .... ..............
Total pr d ..............
Average per day.............:


Volume.


C. c.
1,845
2,520
2,375
2,080
1,605
1,385


11,810
1,968


Calcu-
Specific lated
gravity. weight.

Gra inls.
1.028 1,897
1.027 2,588
1.029 2,444
1.027 2,136
1.028 1,650
1.029, 1,425


- .... I


12,140
2,023


Nitrogen.

Percent. Total.

CI Gra Ims


1.850
1.65
1.89
1.67
1.86
1.89


35. 1
42.7
46.2
35.7
30.7
26.9
217.3
36.2


Heat of combustion.

Pergram.i Total.

Calories. I 'dalries.
0.143 271
.148 343
.148 362
.138 295
.156 257
.152 217

.......... 1,785
........... 298


TABLE 17.-Statistics of urine-Albert, December 1-3. (Previous to the ri'e.)


DCalcu- INitrogen. Heat of combustion.
Date. Volume. Specific lated ________
gravity. lted
i gr weight. Per cent. Total. Pergram. Total.

1898. C. c. Grams. I Graii. Calories. Calories.
December 1 ..............-.. -1,670 1.0275 1,716 1.43 24.5 ....................
S................... 960 1.026 985 1.43 14.1 .......... ..........

Total .................... 2,630 .......... 2,701 ........... 38.6 0.114 308
Average 1 day................. 1,315 .......... 1,351 .......... 19.3.......... 154


TABLE 18.-Statistics of urine-Albert, December 5-10, inclusive.


Date.


1898.
December 5..................
6..................
7.................
8.................
9...................
10..................

Total ....................
Average 1 day................


Calcu- Nitrogen. Heat ofcomliustion.
volume. Specific lated
gravity. weight. Percent. Total. Pergram. Total.

C. c. Grams. Grams. Calories. Calories.
1,340 1.031 1,382 1.83 25.3 0.1451 200
1,560 1.030 1,607 2.04 32.8 .159 256
1,680 1.031 1,732 2.25 39.0 .186 322
1,945 1.031 2,005 2.25 45.1 .133 267
910 1.030 937 2.14 20.0 .192 180
2,565 1.027 2,634 1.51 39.8 .125 329

10,000 .......... 10,297 .......... 202.0 1,554
1,667 .......... 1,716 .......... 33.7 ..........259


See p. 13.

20695-No. 98-01--


~----- -~--


.


..........
.......... I


_. "








50

TABLE 19.-Statistics of urine--Pilkington, December 5-10, inclausie. .

t. Secfi Calcu- Nitrogen. Heatof
Date. Volume. Specific lated ---
ity weight. Percent. Total. Pergram.

1898. C, c. Grams. Grams. Calories.
December 5 ................... 1,880 1.026 1,929 1.70 32.8 0.118
6.................. 2,720 1.:022 2,780 1.57 43.6 .116
7................... 2,220 1.029 2,264 1.78 40.3 .14
Total ...................... 6,820 .......... 6,973 .......... 116.7 ..........
Average I day................ 2,275 .......... 2,324 .......... 38.9 .........
.. ::

BALANCE OF INCOME AND OUTGO OF NITROGEN.

From the data already given regarding food, feces, and urine, the
balance of income and outgo of nitrogen can be calculated. In the
table which follows are given the average amounts of nitrogen per
day in the food, feces, and urine of each of the subjects. The accuracy
of each balance of income and outgo of nitrogen is proportional to
that of the corresponding dietary study. As the bladder was not
emptied regularly at midnight, it is believed that any attempt to state
the balance by days would be misleading. The average amounts of
nutrients consumed are also shown in the table:

TABLE 20.-Nutrients arid cerg! of food and nitrogen balance in the three experiments.
Average per day.

Dura- i Income in food. Nitrogen.
tion of'
Subject. experi- Pro- F Carbo- Fuel In In In
experi-.ro I Fat. I [eccl. Lea
meiit. tein.o hydrates. value. food. urine. feces.

Days. Grtmivt. rams. Grams. Calories Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
Miller ................. 6 169 181 585 4,770 b29.4 36.2 1,8 8.6
Albert .................. 6 179 198 559 6,095 c29.1 33.7 2.5 7.1
Pilkington ............. 3 211 178 509 4,610 d36.0 38.9 2.2 5.1

a This does not include the nonproteid nitrogenous constituents of meat extracts and vigoraL See
note on p. 30.
bThis includes 2.3 grams of nouproteid nitrogen in meat extract and beef juice omitted in table of
food consumed, p. 33.
cIncludesO.4 grams of nonproteid nitrogen in meat extract and beef juice omitted in table of food
consumed, p. 36.
d Includes 2.3 grams of nonproteid nitrogen in meat extract and beef juice omitted in table of food
consumed, p. 39.

It will be noted that notwithstanding the large amounts of protein
and energy in the dietaries each of the subjects lost a considerable
amount of nitrogen during the period of the race. In addition to thei
large amount of protein in his food, averaging 211 grams, the rider.
who continued in the race three days (Pilkington) metabolized about
33 grams of body protein, equivalent to about 41 ounces of lean flesh
per day. That is to say, the total nitrogen excreted in urine and fe
exceeded the total nitrogen of the food by 5.1 grams per day, whi
(multiplied by 6.25) corresponds to 33 grams of protein, which m
have been supplied from the store in the body. The body protein




- .1


51
thus reduced by 33 grams per day. Assuming lean flesh to contain
25 per cent protein, this would correspond to 132 grams, or about 41
Ounces per day.
The subjects who rode six days (Miller and Albert) had average daily
incomes of 169 and 179 grams of protein, respectively. In addition to
This Miller metabolized about 54 grams of body protein, equivalent to
about 8 ounces of lean flesh, and Albert about 44 grams of body pro-
tein, equivalent to about 6i ounces of lean flesh per day. It will be
remembered that Weston, when studied by Flint, lost an even greater
amount of nitrogen per day (10 grams, equivalent to 62.5 grams of
protein), while the same pedestrian, when studied by Pavy a few years
later under similar conditions as regards exertion, consumed much
larger amounts of proteid food, and thus apparently received more
nitrogen than he excreted. The experiments upon Weston seemed to
show that whenever he subjected himself to severe exertion he metab-
olized large amounts of protein, body protein being drawn upon in
some cases while in others sufficient food was consumed to protect the
tissues from such loss.
In the present experiments none of the three subjects consumed
sufficient food to avoid this loss of body protein, although all were
supplied with as much food as they wished, and could have had any
desired quantity of readily available protein. Why the body should
use its own substance under such circumstances is a question which at
present can not be satisfactorily answered. The fact that such was the
case, each of the contestants who finished the race consuming during
the period body protein equivalent to 2 or 3 pounds of lean flesh, and
that no injury resulted therefrom, would seem to indicate that these
men had stores of protein which could be metabolized to aid in meet-
ing the demands put upon the body by the severe exertion, without
robbing any of the working parts, and at the same time relieving the
system of a part of the labor of digestion. Possibly the ability to
carry such a store of available protein is one of the factors which
make for physical endurance.
There is, however, one source of outgo of nitrogen which has not
been taken into account in these experiments, and which may be of
considerable importance, namely, the elimination of nitrogen in the
form of urea in the perspiration. The quantity of nitrogen which may
thus be eliminated may be considerable. Schaefer' cites various deter-
minations of the quantity of urea and nitrogen excreted in the perspi-
ration. Thus Favre found 0.044 gram urea per 1,000 cubic centimeters
of perspiration, and Funke 1.55 grams urea in 1,000 cubic centimeters
of perspiration. Argutinsky found 0.363 and 0.410 gram of urea in
i 225 and 330 cubic centimeters of perspiration, respectively. The same


'Text-book of Physiology, Vol. I, pp. 671-673.







52


investigator also found 0.7 gram of nitrogen by extracting with di
tilled water the clothes worn by subjects actively walking or climbing'
during a considerable portion of the day. In experiments with the
respiration calorimeter' the amount of nitrogen found in the clothes
by extraction with distilled water varied from 0.2 to 0.4 gram per ,
day. C. C. Easterbrook found in some experiments carried on upon
himself that the perspiration contained from 0.1 to 0.3 per cent urear.
A still more pronounced elimination of nitrogen in the perspiration
was found by Eijkmann3 in experiments carried on in the tropics upon
some Malay medical students. Three experiments were made. The
first lasted 12 hours, during which 0.222 gram of nitrogen was excreted.
The second experiment continued 24 hours, during which time there
was found in the perspiration 0.761 gram of nitrogen. The third
experiment likewise continued 24 hours, and there was an elimination
of nitrogen in the perspiration amounting to 1.362 grams. The sub-
jects were engaged in light occupation.
It is possible, therefore, that the loss of body nitrogen may have
been appreciably greater than we have calculated-perhaps one-fifth
greater.
METABOLISM OF ENERGY.

Total energy metabolized.-The total income of energy in the food
and the outgo in urine and feces in the different experiments has
already been shown in Tables 13-15. The difference between the
income and outgo has been called the available energy of the food.
The energy of the material actually oxidized in the body may be greater
or less than the available energy of income according as the subject is
losing or storing body protein and fat.
The nitrogen lost by the subjects during the time of the investiga-
tion is taken as a measure of body protein metabolized in excess of the
protein in the food consumed. The energy which the body obtained
from this protein may be calculated and the estimate for the energy of
the food increased by a corresponding amount.
As regards the energy obtained by the body in these experiments
from the combustion of its nonnitrogenous constituents-fat and per-
haps carbohydrates-we have no positive knowledge. It might be
supposed that changes in the weight of the body would he due to gain
or loss of lean flesh or of fat. If this were the case the amount of fat
gained or lost would be indicated by the change in weight after making
allowance for the change in lean flesh, corresponding to the gain or
loss of nitrogen. The changes in weight of the men studied were
'U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, and unpublished material.
"Scottish Med. and Surg. Jour., 6 (1900), p. 120.
3 Arch. Path. Anat. u. Physiol. [Virchow], 131 (1893), p. 170. Also abstracted in
U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 45.







53


approximately determined by weighing the men daily (usually in
riding costume) as nearly at midnight as possible. Making the calcu-
lation just indicated and computing the liberation or storage of energy
which would correspond to the apparent loss or gain of fat we reach
impossible results, the indicated metabolism of energy sometimes being
a negative quantity and at other times exceeding 25,000 calories in a
day. In view of this and of the well-known fact that the water con-
tent of the body, as well as that of the clothing, is subject to consider-
able variations, we are forced to regard the fluctuations of body weight
as being chiefly due to gain or loss of water. That the riders may
have lost some fat during the race is certainly not improbable; but
as we have no means of determining its amount we are forced to
neglect this source of energy in computing the amount metabolized.
Assuming that all the available energy of the food was metabolized
and adding to this energy the estimated heat of combustion of the
protein contributed by the body, we obtain the results given in the
following table:
TABLE 21.-Computation of energy of material metabolized exclusive of body fat lost.

Total
I Duration energy Average
Subject. ofexper- energy Average
t- metabo- per cay.
Iment lized.

Days. Calories. Calories.
M iller .............................................................. 6 2.,917 4, .20
Albert........................................................ .. ....... 6 36,441 .174
Pilkington .................................... .................... 3 13.391 4,4614

The figures in Table 21 thus show the actual energy metabolized
according to the data obtained for the total energy of income and
outgo as determined by the heats of combustion of foods, feces, and
urine and the estimated energy from the body protein used.
It is much to be regretted that the data do not show how much
of other body material than protein was lost during the experiment.
Of course the only way to determine this loss would be by a respira-
tion apparatus. The ideal experiment would be made in a respiration
calorimeter with a bicycle ergometer to show the balance of income and
outgo of energy as well as material. Such experiments are being made
with the respiration calorimeter at Wesleyan University, although not
with athletes capable of such exertion as the leading contestants in the
race here referred to.
SUMMARY.

The bicycle race at the Madison Square Garden in 1898 covered 142
consecutive hours, from 12.08 a. m. on Monday, December 5, to 10.08
p. m. Saturday, December 10. During this time the chief contestants
took only such rest or sleep as was absolutely necessary, working on
an average of about five-sixths of the whole day, and sleeping very







54


little. Of the three contestants in the race who served as subjects f
the investigation reported in this bulletin, two were experienced aEnd
held out to the end, while the third withdrew on the fourth day of the,
race. During the first 72 hours of the race he had ridden 863 miles.,:;:
The subjects who continued in the race until its close won first and
fourth places, respectively. The winner, C. W. Miller, was, as previ-
ously stated, rather short but very muscular. During the first five
days of the race he rode about 21 hours and slept about 1 hour each
day. On the last day he rested and slept more, but even when this day
is included he worked, on an average, 20 hours out of the 24, and of
the 4 hours of rest only about 1 hour and 20 minutes was spent in
sleep. His tremendous endurance is shown, not only by his riding
2,0017 miles during the week, but perhaps even more strikingly by the
fact that the fatigue and strain produced no sign of either physical
or mental weakness.
The second subject. Frank Albert, was older than Miller, 2 or 3
inches taller, and weighed several pounds less. His labor was not
quite so intense and severe, since he rode about 185 miles per day less
and did not have such close rivals for his position in the latter part of
the race as did Miller. Nevertheless, the feat of riding 109 of 142 con-
secutive hours and covering 1,822 miles within this period is sufficiently
remarkable. His condition at the end of the race was apparently as
good as at the end of the first day.
The kind of food consumed by Miller was determined by his trainer,
and for the most part was carefully planned in advance of the race in
accordance with experience gained in similar contests, and consisted of
simple foods, most of them liquid or semiliquid. No water was drunk
during the contest. No alcoholic beverage, except in so far as the very
small quantities of alcohol in koumiss might entitle it the appellation,
was used. Considerable quantities of coffee were also consumed after
the first day, but no other stimulant or beverage.
Albert's food was much more varied than Miller's and not so strictly
governed by his trainer.
The foods eaten by Pilkington on the three days during which he
remained in the race were similar to those which Miller consumed on
the same days. The amount of each food used by each rider was
determined by weighing, and, unless its composition was already fairly
well known, each food was sampled and analyzed. Thus the actual
nutrients con-sumed by each subject were determined.
The urines and feces were collected and their amounts and composi-
tions determined. Thus the availability of the nutrients of the food,
and the outgo of nitrogen from the body were found. By comparing
the amount of nitrogen thus eliminated with the amount ingested i.a
the food, the gain or loss of nitrogen is found. 4








55


Some of the more important of the quantitative data of the expleri-
ments are summarized in the following tables:

TABLE 22.-Summary of oare'try e t minespent on t/ei' irhe'l nd fli at'f, re'r,'rri per dlt*q.


Rider.


M miller ............... .... .....
Albert..........................
Pilkington .....................


Working time per day.I. Distance vovrv 1per itiiy.
idal Maxi- Mini- Maxi- Mili-
days. m. m average. mum. mu

I. h. i. m. m i s. .Mii. Mii/,..
S 6 23 I0 14 14 4 20 1: 441. a 220.3 ':i.
. 6 22 -0 12 23 18 27 I 402.0 a 1,l.9 3tl:3.
3 ........ .......... ......... .................. .. 2.7.7
n I


r Saturday, tsee p. '26.

TABLE 23.--Summnary qf tarerage daily income ( ,I(Id vItulf, ,if ,ioli,,, ,t1nd /o.ss qf imol//
protein.


Rider.


Nitrngein.

In food. In ixt'es. In urilne.


LoS ..


lI'lt loss
oif lily"
prothiii.


olr l F,. tI, I S. < i tt .. I' it t.. f< 't'il iS.
M miller ............................................. a29.4 1.s 36. 2 s. i 53.8
Albert.............................................. 29.1 2.5 33. 7 7.1 44.4
Pilkington ........................................ c 3 .0 2.2 3s. .5.1 31.9

aThis includes 2.3 grams of nouproteid nitrogen in minat extract andl bef.f juicci oinitted in tiblh of
food consumed.
bIncludes 0.4 gram of nonproteid nitroglen in meat extract and beef juice omitted iii table otf foe.d1
consumed.
cIncludes 2.3 grams of uonproteid nitrogen in meat extract and bet-f juice 1nmitledl in table uf (ftidt
consumed.

TABLE 24..-Sumnnairt q f average daily amotunots of prnOttlt e til tfi'crg/fy i/ the..t f*Wl u-i
actailable for use standd ( atuall ,nehtboliz'd.


Protein.
Rider.
Rider. In total In avail- Metibl-
food. able food. lized.

firtllli. (il'G lllra I 'rtllfr.1 .
Miller .................................... 169 151 223
A lbert ................................... 179' 1 .-2;
Pilkington.............................. 211 197 24:

a Exclusive of that derived from bldIy far.


Energy.

In tetal In avail- Mctaibl-
fcdil. able fuI'dI. lizeld.,

I 'i it. I i.; id it. ', ti.i i ..
4. 957 4,547 4,7.'.1
t;. :(1 5, .71 0., (6C
4.Xs9S 32: .*I. 114


These tables, which summarize only the more important data reported
and discussed in the different sections of this buIllletiin abovO. show
some facts which seem to us of considerable interest. Amono- these
are (1) the long duration of the periods of work-often 22 to 24 hours
per day and averaging 1r to 20 hours: (2) tile great ;Lamounl0 t of work
performed, averaging a ride of over 300 miles per (day: (3) the fuel
values of the dietaries which, although high (about .5o per cent above
the average found for American farmers and mechanics). are not greater
than have been found in a number of dietaries of men doing onIly a
small fraction of the amount of work: (4) the proportion of protein in
the dietaries, which is rather high in each case. averaging 1(;W to 211
grams per day, or nearly twice as much as is ordinarily- found in the
Sdietaries of farmers or mechanics: and (5) the fact that the subjects,


I
4


I






56


although ingesting such large amounts of protein, drew upon
stored in the body to such an extent as to lose considerable quanti i
of nitrogen, the amounts thus lost averaging, respectively, 8.6, 7.1,
and 5.1 grams per day exclusive of the nitrogen eliminated in the
perspiration.
The only previous studies which we have found in which the work :
was similar are those conducted by different investigators upon the *
professional pedestrian Weston. Taking Miller as being in some ;
respects the most satisfactory and typical of the subjects studied by us,
and the one regarding whom our data are the most nearly accurate, a
comparison with Weston may be of interest.
So far as we can judge from the data available, Miller, while under
our observation, worked a greater proportion of the time and exhibited
a greater amount of mechanical power than did Weston in any of the
periods during which his metabolism was observed. His diet fur-
nished considerably more protein and much more energy than did
Weston's in 1870, but in 1876, when Weston took sufficient food to
keep his body from losing nitrogen, his dietary was considerably larger
than Miller's, both as regards protein and energy. The total nitrogen
metabolized by Miller was not greatly different from what was found
for Weston during his three walks in 1884. In 1870 Weston metabo-
lized considerably less nitrogen.
The nutritive ratio in Weston's dietaries was quite narrow, 1:4.2 to
1:5.7. In Miller's dietary the ratio is narrow for the earlier and wide
for the later days of the race and for the whole period is 1:5.9, or some-
what narrower than the averages found in American families and near
the average found for boat crews. Albert's dietary shows a ratio of-
1: 7.3, which is very close to that of the average of American dietary
studies. As explained above (p. 43), the nutritive ratio may be greatly
influenced by the use of certain foods which are selected because of
their effects upon digestion rather than nutrition.
These experiments would seem to favor the following inferences:
(1) That trained athletes undergoing unusually severe exertion demand
a largely increased supply of easily digested food of such kinds as
L agree with the subject, and that the availability of such food is not
greatly affected by the loss of sleep and almost continuous muscular
exertion; (2) that under such circumstances the metabolism of nitrogen
as well as that of energy is increased, body protein being drawn upon
unless the food is very abundant; and (3) that trained athletes appear
to be able to lose relatively large amounts of body nitrogen without
any apparent ill effects.
It is conceivable that equally severe and prolonged exertion might.
perhaps be undergone without increased metabolism of nitrogen, pro-
vided the supply of fuel material was very abundant. This question,
however, can be settled only by experiments in which the diet is under.:.
control.


















MECHANICAL WORK AND EFFICIENCY OF BICYCLERS.
By R. C. CARPENTER, M. 31. E.,
Professor of Experimental Engineering, Cornell Unirersity, Ithaca, N. Y.
No dynamometrical measurement was made of the mechanical work
performed by the various riders who were the subjects of the investi-
gations recorded in this bulletin; consequently an exercise of judg-
ment is required in order to determine the probable conditions which
affected the resistances to be overcome.
Th6 various external resistances can be discussed under two general
heads: (1) That of the air, and (2) that of the wheel.

AIR RESISTANCE.
Resistance offlat surfaces.-Authorities are not entirely in harmony
as to the resistance produced by a body moving through the air with
a definite velocity. Smeaton,' in 1750, published a table showing the
relation between wind pressures and velocities which had been obtained
by experimenting. This table corresponded to the formula p = 0.005
av2, in which p equals the pressure produced per square foot, a the
area exposed in square feet, and v the velocity in miles per hour. This
formula was used extensively to aid in the design of large windmills,
in the construction of which Smeaton was very expert. A. R. Wolff2
deduces from theoretical considerations a table substantially like that
given by Smeaton for a temperature of 450 F., but would indicate a
pressure 10 per cent greater at 00 F. and 10 per cent less at 1000 F.
Allen Hazen3 states that experiments with whirling arms, with plates
exposed to direct wind and on locomotives, have shown that the formula
p= 0.0058 ar' is correct up to a velocity of 40 miles per hour. Pro-
fessor Kernot, of Melbourne, in some recent experiments obtains
p = 0.005 av2, which agrees with Smeaton's formula. Various other
authorities have given different values for the wind pressure, probably
because of some condition not noticed or corrected which affected the
1Kent's Mechanical Engineer's Pocket Book, p. 492.
2The Windmill as a Prime Mover, p. 9.
3 Engineering News. July 6, 1890.
57



k. :.....L....







58


results. Thus. Marton gives p = 0.004 ra'; Whipple and Dies, p
0.0029 ar'; and Crosby' p= 0. fat, in which f is a constant to.
determined.
The weight of evidence would indicate that the wind pressure
plane bodies is very nearly equal to the amount represented by the::
formula. p = 0.005 a c'.
The pressure on a rounded body is considerably less than on a flat::'
body: thus the pressure on a cylinder or cone is equal to one-half that c
of its diametrical planes.
Air 'reistatce of r,' iers.-The air resistance which a rider must over- ..
come depends upon his body exposure. The data given on pages 20 '
and 21 show that Miller was 5 feet, 4 inches in height, and had a waist
measure of 34 inches. while Albert was 5 feet 81 inches in height with
a waist measure of 30 inches. One of these men being somewhat the
taller and the other somewhat the broader, it seems quite probable
that the exposure of each was about the same. This exposure would
depend to a considerable extent upon the position in which they rode,
it being noticeably smaller in the scorching position than when riding
bolt upright. These men are reported to have ridden in a semiupright
position, as would probably be necessary because of the prolonged
time of the race. The total exposure of a man of similar dimensions
riding bolt upright has been found to be about 61 square feet, in the
semiutpright position 6 square feet, and in a scorching position a little
over 5 square feet. The resistance on account of the rounded nature
of the body is considered by the best authorities about equal to one-.
half of that of a plane of equal dimensions. From the author's best
calculations the exposed surface in the semiupright position would be
equivalent to a plane of about 3 square feet.3 At times it is doubtless
equivalent to as much as 4 square feet. and during short intervals of
scorching was doubtless much reduced. In some previous calculations
the author concluded that a small man riding for a short distance could
bend his body into such a form that the resistance due to the air would
not exceed 1.5 square feet of plane surface.' In the following calculi-
tions it has been assumed that the exposure of the riders was equiva-
lent to 3 square feet of plane surface.
The work done in overcoming the wind resistance is equal to the
pressure multiplied by the distance passed through in a given time.
] Kent's Mechanical Engineer's Pocket Book, p. 492.
SKent's Mechanical Engineer's Pocket Book, p. 493.
3According to unpublished results obtained by A. P. Bryant, at Middletown,
Coun.. the total exposure of a bicycle rider of about the build of Albert, when in
different positions. as ascertained by measuring the shadow area, was as follows:..
When sitting bolt upright it was equal to 6.4 square feet; when sitting semiupright,.
5.9 square feet. and in the "scorching" position, 5.2 square feet.
'See L. A. W. Bulletin, May, 1898, and Sibley Journal, Dec., 1899, p. 58.' "







59


Thus if the pressure is expressed by the formula p = 0.005 a'.2, the
work done in foot pounds per minute, /i'. is expressed by the formula
ir = 0.005 ,(' ` d. From this latter formula the following table of
air resistance is constructed, showing the total amount of work done

r I zf nnn.I F I I I I I IIII I I I


I


0
0


0
0--------------------






0 -


0----, -/---__
-----------------------------------------------

*:====:il:l=:i:i;===E -:-


36C

34

32(

300

U28(
F-
Z 26(

S24C

22C
a
200
1.
180
D.
0 160
IL,6


-- --- ---i= I- --z==-
KV zz~zzzlzLL l~zif~r~lL/


14 000 I ---- -


I
/
If

I/
--------------::
---------------------------------_---_____-_


/- -
-------------- L-- -- _- __________

----------------^---- ----------_L

1---4-:
/" i


6 a8
SPEED


I'
IN


!2 14 16 18 20 22 24
MILES PER HOUR .


26 28 3(


FIG. 2.-Curve showing wind resistance for different speeds. expressed in foot-Ioiltund
3 square feet of exposed plane surface.


per minute, for


per minute with an equivalent exposure of 3 and of 4 square feet.
The results expressed in the last two columnns of this table are shown
graphically in fig. 2. This diagram is more convenient for actual use
than the values in the table, as the amounts of work done at rates inter-
mediate between those given in the table are readily found.


00

30



00
)0





30

30

30
\n


I0I


Iuu I I Il--I- J 'I I I -- -911 E11- ---1
inn - '_ -


0


12000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000


i '


I


0 12 n r







60

TABLE 1.--Total air resistance overcome by riders at different speeds.

Wind pressure against Work done by riders -
I riders, per minute.
Wind _
Speed per a p ree Exposure Exposure Exposure Exposure
f. equivalent equivalentequivalent equivalent
foot. equva
l to 4 square to 3 square to 4 square to 3 square
feet. feet. feet. feet.

Miles. Pounds. Pounds Pounds. Ft.pounds. Ft. pounds.,
5 0.125 0.5000 0.375 220 186
7F .281 1.125 .843 743 562
10 .500 2.000 1.500 1,760 1,320
15 1.125 4.500 3.375 5,940 4,455
20 2.000 7.000 6.000 14,010 10,530
25 3.125 12.500 9.375 27,500 20,625
30 4.500 18.00 13.500 47,520 35,640


The data here used give only the average speed for each day, and
the results are therefore computed from such information. As the
wind resistance increases with the square of the speed, this necessarily
makes some error, which may be considered, however, as compensated
for by riding in a bent position so as to expose less surface when
moving at a high rate of speed. It seems probable from the habits of
most riders that such compensation may have occurred; if so, the
results will not be greatly in error.

WHEEL RESISTANCE.

The author has made numerous experiments on various types .of
bicycles to determine the power required to overcome the various
mechanical resistances. Quite an extended account of these tests was
recently published' and the results need only be referred to in this
article.
The friction of the driving mechanism, whether chain or bevel gear,
absorbs much less mechanical force than that of the tire. The best
grades of chain gear require less mechanical power to propel them
than the bevel gear, but considering the great amount of force
absorbed by the tire, this difference is not material.
The following table shows the work, in foot-pounds, required to.ver-
come the internal (gear and bearing) friction of five grades of wheels,
with different amounts of force applied to the pedals, and the corre-
sponding percentage of efficiency of the wheels. The results are
deduced from a series of experiments.

1Sibley Journal, Nov. and Dec., 1899, pp. 58, 94.


S ."..-
....":j :
:: iEE











TABLE


I:

Tota
work
_per
qinut




Ft. lb
2,5C
A In


2.-Friction inrtolred in the driving of various chain and chainless bicycles at a speed
of 15 miles per hour.


1e

;e.


D.
n0
Ar


, 0UUU
7,500
10,000
12,500
15,000
17, 500
20,000
25,000


Chain
Mean
pedal Fric-
pres- tion
sure. a per
per
min-
ute.
-i
Ft. bs. lbe.
10.2 50
20.4 57
30.6 64
40.8 71
51.0 78
61.2 86
71.4 93
81.6 100
102.2 107


gear A.


Chain gear H
and best
chainless.


Fric-
Eff- tion
ciency. peri
nite.

Per ct. F. Ibs.
98 150
98.8 241
99.2 271
99.3 331
99.4 392
99.4 453
99. 5 514
99.5 575
99.6 636


Chain gear C.


Fric-
Effi- linll Effi-
per ee .
Ruin
eieney, ralin ciency.
ute.

Per ct. Ft. lbs. Pi r ct.
94.0 25U 90.0
95.8 332 94.3
96.4 414 94.5
96.7 496 95. 1
96.9 578 95.4
97.0 660 95.6
97.1 742 95.7
97.2 825 95.8
97.3 907 96.2


Chainless gear
No. 1.

Fric-
tion i Effi-
per eiency.
min-
ute.


Ft. Ibs.
208
288
367
469
549
640
723
812
875


Per ct.
91.6
94.25
95.1
95.3
96.6
95.7
95.8
95.94
96.5


Chain less gear
No. 2.


Frir-
tion
per
min-
ute.

Ft. Ibs.
783
M13
842
893
923
965
997
1,037
1,040


Eti-
icncy.


Per ct.
f67. 5
3.8
I 88.S
91.0
912.6
93. 6
94.4
94.8
95. 9


a Mean pedal pressure for wheel with 6j-inch crank and with 70, gear.

The following table shows in a similar manner the amount of work
lost because of the friction of the tire on a single wheel when working
under conditions similar to those under which the data in the preced-

ing table were obtained. In estimating the total resistance of the bicy-
cle, the results in this table should be doubled and added to the internal
resistances as given in the preceding table.

TABLE 3.-Tire friction of rear wheel at a speed of 15 miles per hour, with different amounts
of total work.


Very thin racing
Ver thin racing Heavy racing tire. Light road tire. IOrdinary road tire.
MIean tire.
pedal i Ii -
pres- Frictn Friction Fricton Friction i- Friction E
sure.a per min- cien per min- i per min- per min- i-
te. ency. e. ciency. ute. eriencmi ute. ciencv.

Ft. lbs. Ft. lbs. Per et. F. lbs. Per ct. Ft. lbs. Per ct. Ft. b. Per ct.
10.22 525 79.0 1, 156 53.8 1,625 35.0 2,000 20.0
20.4 608 87.8 1,219 76.7 1,696 66.0 2,108 57.8
30.6 691 90.8 1,282 82.8 1,767 75.5 2,216 70.6
40.8 774 92.3 1,345 86.6 1,838 81.6 2,324 76. 7
51.0 858 93.2 1,408 88.8 1,909 84.8 2,432 80.6
21.2 941 93.7 1,471 90.2 1,980 86.8 2,541 b3.2
81.6 1,025 94.8 1,534 1 92.2 1 2,150 89.2 2,650 86.7
102.2 1,108 95.6 1,596 93.6 2,221 91.9 2,758 ,88.9
JI


a Mean pedal pressure for wheel with crank 6i inches long and with 70! gear.

The above results were obtained by deducting from the friction of
the entire wheel, with tire, the friction of the same wheel without tire.
It is quite probable that the riders in the six-day races would select
the best grades of bicycles and those which were propelled with the
least expenditure of power. The author has found that riders are
generally expert in selecting wheels which have the least friction.
Hence it appears that it is fair to assume that the force required to
propel the wheels would correspond to the lowest results in Table 3,
and those next lowest in Table 2. This latter supposition is believed
to be rather more probable, for the reason that the lowest results in
Table 2 are to be considered as exceptional.



Li


Total
work per
minute.


F. bs.
2,500
5,000
7,500
10, 000
12,500
15, 000
20, 000
25,000


I






62

For the purpose of facilitating computations of results a
(fig. 3) has been prepared, on which is shown the resistance in f
pounds per minute due to gearing and also to the best racing tire,
responding to a total resistance which is given at the bottom of
diagram. This diagram is constructed for a speed of 15 miles
hour. For a speed greater than 15 miles the resistance is increased
each case by an amount which was determined by test and was equal to"
the amount given in the table multiplied by one-ninetieth of the increase
in speed. Thus, if the amount in excess of 15 miles per hour be.de.i|!
noted by x, the increased resistance would be that given in the diagram:.
times x, which is to be added to the value obtained from the diagram.
Experiments made in Sibley College laboratory show that for a differ-::
erice in weight of 15 pounds the total resistance does not increase more

L1250
Dr000----
Z z
0-






b 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 ,8600 200o 000 24000 20 28000
TOTAL WORK. FOOT POUNDS PER MIN
00

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 22010 24UM am 28000
TOTAL WORK. FOOT POUNDS PER MINUTE
FIG. 3.-Curves showing bicycle resistance, speed 15 miles per hour.

than 2 per cent. As this correction is smaller than the probable error
of computation, it has not been considered best to make use of it.
From data given earlier in this bulletin (pp. 23-27) we know the-
distance ridden each day and the time spent in riding, from which
we may compute the average speed per hour. By use of figs. 1 and 2
the total resistance due to gear and tire friction and to wind pressure
may be computed. These results are shown in Tables 4 and 5. The
values in the fifth column for resistance due to wind pressure are
taken directly from fig. 2 at the average speed per hour. Those in
the fifth column, bicycle resistance, are found from fig. 3 in the fol-
lowing manner: The total resistance will be equal to the wind resist-
ance plus the gear resistance and the tire resistance' of both wheels.
In the computation for the total resistance of the bicycle the friction work of the
gearing and the friction work of the two wheels have been added. In a previous-cal- -
culation, to which reference has been made, the total wheel resistance was taken as
that of the gearing plus that shown by the dynamometer for one wheel, it being at that
time thought that the work of friction of the rear wheel when running on the dyna-
mometer was nearly equal to that of two wheels on a level surface, for the reasoai :








F'


i;;


TABLE 4.-Energy supplied and work done (a) by! C. 1'. Miller.


Dis-
tance.
Date. cover-
ed each
day.


Miles.
Dec. 5............. 441.8
6............. 366.7
7......... .... 334.1
8............316.5
9............. 327.8
10.............. 220.5
Average6days' 334.6
Average5days 357.4


Time
spent
on
wheel
each
day.


Hours.
23.16
21.16
20.18
19.72
19.62
14.23
-19.68
20.77


Aver-
age
dr aia


SResistance overcome
per minute.


per I Bicy-
hour. dle.

Foot-
Miles. pounds.
19.07 1,927
17.32 1,692
16.55 1.590,
16.05 1,542
16.71 1,587
15.46 1,508


Wind. Total.


Foot- I Foot-
pounds. pounds.
9,000 10,927
6,750 8,442
5,850 7,440
5,325 6,867
6,000 7,587
4,950 6,458


17.00 |................
17.20 ...............


Heat
Totalwork equiva- Total en-
done each lent of ergy in
Sday. work food.
done.


Foot-
pounds.
15, 104,159
li 717_ 93


IV, I DIP"
9,008,352
8, 12.-, 034
8,931,416
5, 513, M0
. 9,580,127
10,393,385


Calories.
4,917
3,471
2,917
2,631
2,892
1,786
3,102
3.366


Calories.
5,900
4,108
6,577
2,890
4,238
6,788
b4,993
..........


aExposure assumed to be equivalent to 3 square feet.
bThe energy in the food for individual days is computed by use of factors as explained above (p.-).
The average for the six days was determined by burning samples of the foods in the bomb calorimeter,
and hence differs slightly from the computed average.

that the power was absorbed by a wheel of about the diameter of the bicycle wheel
on which the rear wheel rested and which was put in motion by the rear wheel.
Subsequent investigation seems to indicate that the track friction is practically
independent of the size of the dynamometer wheel which absorbed the work, and
consequently to obtain the full resistance of the bicycle it is necessary to add that
caused by the gearing to twice that due to one wheel as shown by the dynamometer.
This hypothesis may be slightly in error and may make the tire resistance greater
than that actually overcome, but the correction is not relatively a large one, although
sufficient to reduce the total resistance about 7 per cent and make a corresponding
reduction in the efficiency of the rider.

















7:.
!i o .


63


The total resistance in foot-pounds per minute multiplied by 60 gives
the amount of work done each hour, and this latter quantity multi-
plied by the number of hours spent on the wheel gives the total
amount of work done during the day. The heat equivalent of the
work done is computed by dividing the total number of foot-pounds
of work by the mechanical equivalent of 1 calorie-3,088 foot-pounds.
From the data and computations given in Table 4 it would appear that
the heat equivalent of the average amount of work done by Miller per
day was 3,102 calories, while the total energy of the food was only
4,957 calories. Even allowing for a considerable consumption of body
fat, the ratio of heat equivalent of work done to total energy of food
and body tissue consumed must be extremely large. It will be noted
that the "work done" is the extreme muscular work, i. e., the mechan-
ical energy applied to the pedals of the wheels.


---


'


_







64'

TABLE 5.-Energy supplied and work done (a) by F ank Albert.

Di Time Resistance overcome
Ds spentAver- per minute. Heat
tance sent age Total work equiva- Totaleit-
Date. cover- we speed done each lent of ergy
eday. each per Bicy- Wind Total. day. work ood
day. da. hour. ele. done.
day.."c.

I Foot- Foot- Foot- Foot-
Miles. Hours. Miles. pounds. pounds. pounds pounds. Calories. COoriesC
Dec. 5............ 402.0 22.66 17.75 1,745 7,200 8,945 12,161,622 3,988 5,88
6............ 371.3 21.28 17.40 1,703 6,870 8,573 10,946,006 8,545 4,387
7............ 352.7 20.68 17.10 1,683 6,550 8,233 10,215,506 3,808 6,568
8............. 285.3 17.21 16.60 1,602 5,925 7,527 7,772,380 2,517 7,97'
9............ 229.4 14.50 15.85 1,550 5,250 6,800 5,916,000 1,916 7,704
10............ 181.9 12.38 14.60 1,420 4,125 5,545 4,118,826 1,334 6,121
Average6days 303.8 18.11 16.80 ........ ........ ........ 8,521,723 2,760 b6,807
Average5days 328.1 19.26 17.05 ........ ................ 9,402,303 3,045 .........

a Exposure assumed to be equivalent to 3 square feet.
bThe energy in the food for individual days is computed by use of factors as explained above. The
average for the six days was determined by burning samples of the foods in the bomb calorimeter,
and hence differs slightly from the computed average.
The figures in the last column of Tables 4 and 5 show the total
energy in the food. The values for the individual days are computed
by use of factors for heats of combustion of the different nutrients in
mixed diet which were proposed by Atwater and Bryant,' which allow
5.65 calories of energy for every gram of protein in the food, 9.4 calo-
ries for every gram of fat, and 4.1 calories for every gram of carbohy-
drates. The average energy in the food for the six days was found by
actual determination of the heat of combustion of the foods consumed,
but the computations were not made for individual days. The average
for the six days of the study is therefore that actually determined, while
the amounts for the individual days are computed approximately by
use of the factors. By reference to Table 4 it will be observed that
the total work done by Miller is computed to have been over 15,000,000
foot-pounds, or 7,500 foot-tons, on the first day, and 5,500,000 foot-
pounds, or 2,750 foot-tons, on the last day of the race. The corre-
sponding heat equivalent of the work done is computed by dividing
the total number of foot-pounds of work by the mechanical equivalent
of one calorie, i. e., 3,088 foot-pounds, and ranges from 4,917 calories
on the first day of the race to 1,786 calories on the last day. The
average heat equivalent of the work done in the six days amounted to
3,102 calories. At the same time, the food consumed furnished 4,957
calories, making an apparent efficiency of over 60 per cent. It is
probable, however, that there was a greater or less consumption of
body fat during the experiment, the energy of which should be added
to that of the food consumed in estimating the total income, thus
diminishing the apparent efficiency. How much this loss of body fat
amounted to can not be estimated for the reasons already pointed out
(see p. 52). If we assume that the equivalent exposure of the bicycle
rider was 4 square feet, computations similar to those recorded in
Connecticut Storrs Sta. Rpt. 1899, p. 73. These factors differ from those more
recently determined. See p. 39. ,





i;


Table 4 serve to. show that the total work done each tay ranged from
nearly 20,01 H.I,o0l)o to nearly 7,000),MI000 foot-pounds, and the correspond-
ing heat equivalent from 6,381 to 2,256 calories, averaging 3,994
calories.
The amount of work done by Albert was slightly less than that by
Miller, ranging from 12,000,000 to 4,000,000 foot-pounds per day with
a corresponding range in heat equivalent from 3,938 to 1,334 calories.
The average heat equivalent of the work done per day during the six
days is 2,760 calories, and the average energy in the food as found by
actual determination of the heat of combustion is 6,307 calories, lmak-
ing an apparent efficiency of nearly 45 per cent. The same uncer-
tainty as to the amount of body fat consumed exists in this as in the
previous case, so that we can reach only a very approximate value for
the efficiency of the rider. If the equivalent exposure of the rider is
assumed as equal to 4 square feet, the total amount of work done each
day varied from nearly 16,000,000 to a little over 5,000,00o foot-
pounds, with a corresponding range in heat equivalent from 5,088 to
1,686 calories, with an average for the six days of 3,547 calories.
Regarding the probable error of the computations given in Tables 4
and 5 the author is prepared to say but little. The factors determin-
in:
ing the wind pressure upon subjects are not definitely known, and the
S pressure may have been greater or less than that assumed. When one
rider followed another it would be less. On the other hand, it is
extremely probable that the recorded distance traveled is less than the
actual distance, since the riders, much of the time, especially when
riding in bunches, were a greater or less distance outside of the pole"
or line which was taken for the measurement of the track. Further-
more, the calculations make no account of increase of work that must
have occurred in ascending the slight grade at each end of the course
which would be brought about by the travel of the rider on a track
some distance from the pole. These conditions should not change the
efficiency more than 10 per cent. One thing seems certain; the amount
of work performed each day by the riders was very large indeed, and
the efficiency appears to have been noticeably greater than that obtained
by the best steam or oil engines. The best record of any heat engine
is probably that of the Deisal motor. This has produced, in a test by
James Denton, 1 horsepower on the brake for a consumption of 0.54
pound of kerosene oil. This would be equivalent to 8,300 heat units
per horsepower, the oil being valued at 18,604 heat units per pound;
in this case we should have an efficiency of transformation equal to
about 33.7 per cent. The best record of a steam engine is the Nord-
berg pumping engine at Pittsburg, which shows an efficiency per
indicated horsepower, on the basis of total heat supplied, of 22.7 per
cent. Per delivered horsepower this amount would probably be 10
per cent less.
20695-No. 98--01- 5


65






66


With the exception of the Deisal motor the best record of any-
engine per delivered horsepower is about 16.5 per cent efficiency.
From this comparison it would seem that the human machine
decidedly superior to any heat engine which has been developed i
form so as to be of any value for practical use. 4

CONCLUSIONS AND REMARKS. 11
The calculations would indicate that both Miller and Albert pos-'
sessed( great physical strength and endurance and that Miller must:
have been a remarkable physical giant. His results seem unprece-
dented, especially when expressed numerically. Dr. R. H. Thurston"
states that the average work of a man is to be considered as about
2,000,000 foot-pounds per day, rising occasionally to an amount 50 per
cent greater. Considering 2,000,000 foot-pounds per day as the work
of an average man, it will be noted that the energy exerted by Miller
during five days of the race was more than five times greater than this
amount, and that exerted by Albert was nearly as much. It is quite
possible that the calculated results make the energy expended greater
than it should be, although a reexamination of the calculations fails to
show any reason for reducing the results. It is possible that the wind
exposure may have been less than assumed, although it is not believed
that the equivalent plane surface could have been less than 2.6 square
feet. Had the exposure been as small as this, which is hardly proba-
ble, the resistance due to the wind would have been reduced slightly
over 13 per cent. The wheel resistance, as previously remarked, may
be slightly high. The total of these corrections would reduce the
energy expended by about 11 per cent. It is believed, however, that
the results given are the most probable.
As before stated, the only accurate measurement of the energy
developed by the bicycle riders would be that obtained with a dyna-
mometer applied to the pedal of the bicycle, and at the present time
such data are not available.
Most of the data which are published pertaining to the work accom-
plished by a man relate to the energy which can be applied day after
day under usual working conditions and is much less than might be
applied when a man was exerting himself to the utmost.. Under the
conditions of the race the amount of energy exerted can be considered
about the limit of human strength and endurance. This is reasonably
many times greater than would be exerted by the ordinary laborer
working under the routine of his usual occupation.
Believing that additional data regarding the average energy equiva-
lent to the day's work of a man would be interesting, the statement of

'The Animal as a Prime Mover, Smithsonian Report for 1896.




-I


67


a few authorities relating to this subject is presented in the following
table:

TABLE ti.-Power f Iiun.


Foot-
pounds Foot-
Kind of wurk. P per min- pounds per
ute for I day (aver-
short age).
periods.


Authority.


Bicycle riding, 10 seconds ..............................
Bicycle riding, 1." seconds..............................
Bicycle riding, 96 seconds..............................
Bicycle riding, 1 hour...................................
Walking backward and forward on a tilting lever.....
Soldier carrying knapsnck (Ruhlman)................
Men raising beetle .....................................
Climbing stairs for 8 hours............... ...............
Man walking for 10 hours ...............................
Man lifting heavy hammer 5 hours ...................
Pushing on lever in circular path .....................
Working on treadmill 7 hours ........................
Average work of man...................................
Raising water with pump..............................


19,000
9,080
8,750
6,000
6,640
5,000
4,080
1,032
3,987
3,808
3,667
3,360
3,330
2,400


.............
............
............
3,981,000
3,000,000
1,224,000
1,935,360
2,394,000
1,142,400
2,200,000
1,480,000
2,000,000
1,000,000


.1. B. Denton a.
Do.
Do.
R. C. Carpenter b.
Trautwein r.
Thurston d.
Trautwein c.
Weisbach d.
Do.
Do.
Trautwein c.
Do.
Thurstonc.
Trautwein c.


aIron Age, Oct.. 1897, p. 14.
b Sibley Journal, 1899, p. 59.
cTrautwein's Engineer's P'ocketbtook, p. 607.


( Mechanics of Engineering,2 (1877). p. 74.
e The Animal as a Prime Mover, Smithsonian Report,
1896.


It is quite generally believed that the amount of energy expended by
a laborer is nearly inversely proportional to the length of the working-
day, taken, of course, with certain limitations. This would indicate
that the amount of energy expended during a day of twenty-four
hours might be uniform, which is, of course, scarcely ever true.



0


































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