Food requirements of the human body

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Title:
Food requirements of the human body Suggestions for teachers in secondary schools
Series Title:
S.R.S. Doc. 50. A.I.--3
Physical Description:
6 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Barrows, Harry Percy
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Food   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Prepared by H.P. Barrows ...
General Note:
At head of title: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. States Relations Service.
General Note:
Based upon farmers' bulletin 808, How to select food--I, What the body needs.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029619787
oclc - 28170555
lccn - agr17000902
System ID:
AA00014579:00001


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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
STATES RELATIONS SERVICE
SA. C. TRUE, Director. f


POOD REQUIREMENTS OF THE H$M BOOY1- t-
SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS IN SECONDAb tOI$)c
i INTRODUCTION.

The present high cost of food materials is the cause of a general
interest in the economical use of human food. Before we can ap-
proach efficiency in the selection and use of foods, we must under-
stand some of the basic principles which underlie the food require-
ments of human beings. Although much may be done to make this
principle clear to adults, the subject, to have a far-reaching effect,
should be taught to a greater number of students in our public
schools. Surely there is no subject more important than the human
Body and its needs. We should give at least as careful a considera-
tion in our schools to problems which arise in the feeding of the
human family as we do the feeding of live stock. A series of bulle-
tins on How to Select Foods should be welcomed by teachers as well
as housewives.
RELATION OF SUBJECT TO CURRICULUM.

A phase of home economic,.-Although a study of the food re-
quire cents of the human body may involve technical questions be-
yond the reach of secondary students the elementary principles may
be made sufficiently clear to form a basis for a course in cooking. The
subject should be dealt with in a more exhaustive manner in a course
in dietetics. Either a class in cooking or a class in dietetics will find
in the bulletin applications of principles with detailed suggestions for
practical work.
Relation to physiology and general biology.-Progressive teachers
of human physiology, whether they are teaching the subject as an
independent course or as a phase of general biology, are making
every effort to bring the subject into direct connection with the
present-day needs of the students. A consideration of the food re-
quirements of the body will have much more meaning when trans-
lated in terms of food materials found on the market and which are
being used by the students daily. In connection with a study of
human nutrition, classes in physiology may devote several lessons
*-3-~ -. r-. *."....c ------------------- ------ -- -- --
.ipon armers' Bulletin 808, How to Select Food.-I, What the Body Needs.
by H. P. Barrows, Specialist in Agricultural Education, under the direction
: Lane, Chite Spedalist to Agricultural Education, States Relations Service.
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profitably to a discussion of the question, How to Mect
cussed in Farmers' Bulletin 808.
'A pa -of the course in general science.-Courses in ga|
ar. beco"'ng more and more popular as a means of:
iieeds Af students entering the high school. The most. : .
teachers of general science are fitting the course to meet the
the local community as well as adapting it to meet the needs
students.
Inasmuch as a study of the food requirements of the human
involves a number of the sciences and has a direct relation to
students and their present-day needs, it makes an excellent
consider in a general science course.
Correlations.-If the girls are studying human nutrition ini
economics at the same time they are taking a course in ph'ysig
there should be close cooperation between the teachers with a vi
of correlating the subjects. In the main the principles should: b
learned in the physiology class and applied in home economics. blb- 3
wise thee will be opportunities in home economics for the applii ?
tion of other phases of biology and chemistry, whether learned i'
a special course or in the course in general science. If the boys ..
studying the general principles of nutrition in their course in aui
mal husbandry, there should be little difficulty in applying th o.~
principles to human nutrition in one of their science courses. Tihe
teacher should know what other subjects his students are taking and,
have taken in order that there may be effective correlation without '
wasteful duplication. The courses the students have had and te.
age and capacity will determine largely the way the subject is ihan-
died. An understanding of the nutritive value of food based on :l
energy values and the working out of nutritive meals, which will:
be comparatively simple to students who have had some physip ,
may be technical enough to discourage younger students. The appoii-
cation of principles as brought out in the bulletin should be within
the reach of all high-school students.
CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION.
Use of reference material.-Special courses in home economics d
ing with the general principles of nutrition or with the preparatisi
of foods may be based upon somewhat extensive outlines with t
and references. In connection with such courses, Farmers' Bull
808, How to Select Foods-I, What the Body Needs, will be welcozmidi
as an additional reference to aid in making a somewhat technicir
subject clear to younger students as well as for the practical
tions given. This bulletin may very well be made the basis for
consideration of the subject, given in connection with physt
or general science as suggested. If the students are able to g io
CL R O I RO ..., ,"I ....
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deeply into the subject, or if there is time to treat any phase of the
subject more extensively, an. abundance of reference material is
available. A list of department publications on related subjects is
given at the end of this document. These other bulletins may be
used to adapt the work to the needs and interests of individual stu-
dents. A student interested in dairying may make a special report
on milk as food, or a student whose interests are in connection with
horticulture may be assigned a bulletin on the use of fruit as food
or upon the food value of potatoes. Where there is not time for
these reports to be given orally, written reports to the teacher may
be required. The school should keep a file of these bulletins for ref-
erence use, and should encourage students to make individual col-
lections of the bulletins in which they have a special interest.
Use of illustrative material.-In visualizing lessons on food re-
quirements the blackboard may be used to good advantage in showing
the relative composition of foods in a graphic way. Suggestions
for such graphs may be obtained from the reference material. A
series of 15 colored charts showing the composition of foods may
be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., for $1. These charts have proved
.very helpful in connection with the teaching of foods and nutrition.
Although the students may secure some idea of the food for vari-
ous family requirements from the lists given, a more lasting impres-
sion will be given from such illustrations as those contained in the
bulletin. A still better impression will be given if the actual food
materials all illustrated are placed before the students.
Sequence of subject matter.-With beginning students it will be
well to approach the subject in an inductive manner as the topics
are discussed in the bulletin. Beginning with concrete material as
discussed under the heading, "The Day's Food," the more abstract
principles of food requirements are approached through the topics,
" What the Day's Food Should Provide," and Grouping Foods to
Show Their Uses." The latter topic is essentially a discussion of the
composition of foods.
Students who have had some chemistry and physiology may begin
with the composition of food and the needs of the human body in
nutrition and then show the application of the principles as involved
in working out meals for the family.

PRACTICAL WORK.
School practiunms.-Classes in home economics will doubtless have
a kitchen and dining room in which meals may be prepared and
served. In the more advanced courses in cooking each of the girls
should have opportunity to plan and prepare meals on her own





4.1

responsibility. Such work not only gives practice needed it
nection with preparation and serving, but also furnishes th-
test as to whether the principles of food selection have been gr
Whether it is possible to give the actual practice in preparing
or not, abundant.practice should be given in the planning of
It is preferable to have most of this work that of individual m
to be criticized by the class as a whole.
The sample meals given on page 6 of the bulletin may be considrei
suggestive. They may be modified to meet the needs of a family
different size or adjusted to meet market conditions. It will
well to assign problems to indii idual students to work out meals for,
various purposes and then have them criticized by the class in th.
light of what the bulletin suggests.
Home practicum8.-In connection with science classes or classes in .
home economics which do not have equipment adequate for practidhK :'
for all an effort should be made to link the practical work of the hotel. -.
with the instruction given at school. The menus planned at school
may be prepared and served at home. An accurate record of the work
done and the materials used, with costs, should be kept and a report
made to the class. Such home practicums may very well supplement .i
the practice work at the school, as the home work is done under the"
conditions of actual life. Girls who do not have charge of the home 'I
cooking may help their mothers in taking advantage of the sugges'-4
tions of the bulletin.
A school project.-In a number of schools more extensive practice *`
is given for the class as a whole, such as preparing and serving meael
regularly for members of the faculty or others. In a Virginia school A
the class in home economics prepares a luncheon regularly for the
members of the local farmers' institute in connection with thet
monthly meetings. Even some small schools having no regulr-
kitchen equipment and making no attempt to give a definite course i
home economics are securing good results in the preparation of school
lunches for students. For directions for the preparation of th.eei
lunches see Farmers' Bulletin 712, School Lunches.
A home project.-If there is opportunity for any members of the
class to take hold of the selection of food for the family at home tIs
such a manner that the work m'ay be planned and carried out i
definite way in connection with the work at school, school credt
should be given for this work according to its educational value. TV
have such"educational value the work should present problems new
to the student; it should involve a definite plan and the keeping of
accurate records and accounts; with a written report of the war
done; and should have the supervision of the teacher or some
competent person.1








COMMUNITY SERVICE.

Although a permanent foundation for greater economy and effi-
ciency in the feeding of the human race may be laid best by teaching
the subject in the schools there is a pressing need at the present time
to take information concerning the selection of foods direct to the
adult consumer. Teachers of home economics and related science
who have the spirit of community service are doing a good deal to
aid school patrons and others interested in lowering the cost of living.
Some teachers have organized classes for adults in which the selection
and preparation of food is taken up in a practical way. Others have
given public lectures and demonstrations. As a rule demonstrations
are more interesting and profitable than lectures. Lectures accom-
panied by lantern slides or charts may be made interesting and profit-
able, however. The bulletin may very well furnish the material for
the beginning number of a series of lectures on How to Select Foods.
The concrete food materials arranged to meet different needs as
shown in the illustrations of the bulletin will help to illustrate such a
lecture.
Any community service in which the students take part has a
double value as it gives practice to the students and helps to develop
within them a social spirit. In connection with the work in home
economics an exhibit of food materials, equipment, and methods of
preparation at the school should be helpful in arousing interest in
the community. Each member of the class should be assigned some
demonstration or given some other active part in such an exhibit
1 The following department bulletins, while they deal with problems of teaching
agriculture, may be suggestive to teachers of home economics and other sciences: 346,
Home Projects in Secondary Courses in Agriculture, and 385, School Credit for Home
Practice in Agriculture.






; .. ........



PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRIj
CULTURE PERTAINING TO FOODS AND THEIR PREPARATIONS


.AVAILABLE FOR REE DISTRIBUTION BY TE DEPA


Title.


Meats: Composition and Cooking.............................................
Beans, Peas, and Other Legumes as Food......................................
Principles of Nutrition and Nutritive Value of Food............................
Canned Fruits, Preserves, and Jellies............................................
Cereal Breakfast Foods.........................................................
Preparation of Vegetables for the Table...........................................
Evaporation of Apples..............................................................
Use of Fruit as Food...........................................................
Food Value of Corn and Corn Products.........................................
Canning Vegetables in the Home..............................................
The Use of Milk as Food................................................... ....
Care of Food in the Home.........................................................
Bread and Bread Making..........................................................
Economical Use of Meat in the Home...........................................
Canning Peaches on the Farm ..................................................
Canning Tomatoes at Home and in Club Work........................... .........
Mutton and Its Value in the Diet...........................................
Sugar and Its Value as Food....................................................... ..
Pop Corn for the Home ........................................... ...........
Uses of Corn, Kafir, and Cowpeas in the Home..................................
Corn Meal as a Food and Ways of Using it......................................
Production of Clean Milk........................................................
Home Manufacture and Use of Unfermented Grape Juice.......................
Honey and Its Uses in the Home...........................................
School Lunches...............................................................
Food for Young Children.......................................................
How to Select Foods. I. What the Body Needs...............................
Bread and Bread Making........................................................
Food Value and Uses of Poultry...............................................
Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes and Other Starchy Roots as Food.....................
Eggs and Their Value as Food..................................................


S. / ":': :i
-4I
24i


FOR SALE BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS.


Title. Publication. Prise.


Fish as Food............................................................ Farmers' Bulletin 85.... 10.05
The Food Value of Beans;.............................................. Farmers' Bulletin 169.. .05
Meat on the Farm: Butchering Curing and Keeping.................... Farmers' Bulletin 183... .05
Durum Wheat for Macaroni and Bread Making......................... Farmers' Bulletin 251... 05
Digestibility of Fish and Poultry........................................ Farmers' Bulletin 276... .05
Cooking Cereal Foods................................................... Farmers' Bulletin 316... .05
Nuts and Their Uses as Foods.......................................... Farmers' Bulletin 332... .05
Cooking Beans and Other Vegetables................................... Farmers' Bulletin 342... .05
Jelly and Jelly Making.................................................. Farmers' Bulletin 388... .05
Market Classes and Grades of Meat..................................... Farmers' Bulletin 435... .05
The Utilization of Dairy By-Products as Food........................... Farmers' Bulletin 486... .05
Cheese and Its Economical Uses in the Diet............................. Farmers' Bulletin 487... .05
Uses of the Sweet Potato...................................... .......... Farmers' Bulletin 517... .05
Extension Course in Vegetable Foods................................... Department Bulletin 123 .10
Studies on Fruit Juices................................................. Department Bulletin 241 .05
Fats and Their Economical Use in the Home........................... Department Bulletin 469 .05 '




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WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 19iT-::


Publication. .;''


Farmers' Bulletin 3
Farmers' Bulletin I., .
Farmers' Bulletin .I .
Farmers' Bulletin ... .I
Farmers' Bulletin S.
Farmers' Bulletin 2N`. "
"Farmers' Bulletin.~ S .
Farmers' Bulletin 9. ,
Farmers' Bulletin Xs
Farmers' Bulletin 359.
Farmers' Bulletin 3.
Farmers' Bulletin 38T.
Farmers' Bulletin 30.
Farmers' Bulletin 301.
Farmers' Bulletin 4X.
Farmers' Bullet ......
Farmers' Bulletin ;:.'"
Farmers' Bulletfinai
Farmers' Bulaletia .
Farmers' Bulletin
Farmers' Bulleiln
Farmers' Bulletin
Farmers' BIufi 4A&
Farmers' Bulletin 80 .
Farmers' Briulltlu fit
Farmers' Bulletin 711t
Farmers' BulletiL 8MU
Farmers' Bulletin 803
qIept. Bulletin 467.
Dept. Bulletin 46..
Dept Bulletin 471.


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