Further investigations among fruitarians at the California agricultural experiment station. 1901-1902

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Title:
Further investigations among fruitarians at the California agricultural experiment station. 1901-1902
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of agriculture. Office of experiment stations. Bulletin
Physical Description:
81 p. : incl. tables. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jaffa, Myer E ( Myer Edward ), 1857-1931
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Dietaries   ( lcsh )
Digestion   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By M.E. Jaffa.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029579472
oclc - 27273980
lccn - agr09002667
System ID:
AA00014576:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text










U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE.


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IMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1903.


OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS-BULLETIN NO. 132.

A. C. TRUE, Director.












, FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS AMONG FRUITARIANS



AT THE




CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.








1901-1902.







By M. E. JAFFA, M. S.,

ASSISTANT PROFE sOR or AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.























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C. D. WOODE, P D., Dreci Ageor. a r ono. .Me.'.
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F. G. BENEDICTHY, Ph. D., P diooricald Expemrt on ', Mdl.e:.o:
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. K:1,

A. C. TRUE, Ph. D., "rector.
E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Assistant Director and Editor of Experiment .S'ation Record.





WV. 0. ATWATER, Ph. D., Chief of Nutrition Investigtfions, Middletown, Conn.
C. D. WOODS, B. S., Special Agent at Orono, e. :
F. G. BENEDICT, Ph. D., Physiological Chemist, Middletown, Conn. .. .4..
R. D. MILNER, Ph. B., Editorial Assistant, Middletown, Conn.

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EkPERTMENT STATIONS,
I"














TasMkington, D. C., June 20, 1903.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of investiga-
tions among fruitarians carried on at the Agricultural Experiment
Station of the University of California in 1901-2 by M. E. Jaffa, assist-
ant professor of agriculture at the University of California, and
recommend that it be published as Bulletin No. 132 of this Office.
The special object of this and the earlier work which it continues
was a study of the value of fruits and nuts when these articles consti-
tute an integral part of the diet. Nine dietary studies and thirty-one
i, digestion experiments were carried on. In the majority of the dietary
studies and all but one of the digestion experiments fruit and nuts
constituted all or almost all of the diet. The results of the investiga-
tion emphasize the fact that both fruit and nuts should be considered
i::. as true foods rather than food accessories, a fact which is commonly
overlooked.
SCredit is due Prof. G. E. Colby and Mr. C. A. Friebel for assistance
in the chemical work incidental to this investigation.
Respectfully,
A. C. TRUE,
d .iDirector.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
cea Secretary of Agriculture.






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Introduction ......--........................-----------..............------
Composition of the fruits, nuts, and other materials .......................-
Composition of feces and urine obtained in digestion experiments -.......---
The dietary studies-....--- ..---.---- ------.--.--.----------------... ---...
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 355)....-----...---------........-- ---
Dietary study of a vegetarian (No. 356) ..-...........-....-- ...........
Dietary study of a boy (No. 357) .............--------.....----- ...-- ..
Dietary study of a girl fruitarian (No. 358) --...........................
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 359) .................................
Dietary study of a student (No. 360)-.........---....---....--...---.---
Dietary study No. 361 ..............................................
Dietary study No. 362 ................................................
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 363) ....................-....-..-..-
Discussion of the dietaries.........---------- ..................
Digestion experiments..----------. ......------. -------. ----------- ---..
Experiments with W. S. M .-......--.. ...........------------. ........
Digestion experiment No. 388..--..--- ...-----.- ......-...-- -- .


Digestion
Digestion
Digestion
Digestion
Digestion
Digestion
Digestion
Digestion
Digestion
Digestion


experiment No.
experiment No.
experiment No.
experiment No.
experiment No.
experiment No.
experiment No.
experiment No.
experiment No.


389 -.....................................
390 - ..-- -
3930..---------..-----...--------.. -----
3934 -------------------.....-----..............--.----
394.....................................
396........ .....--......... ......... ...--
398.-- ..--..- ---------.- -.. ..-..- ..--- ..
401..--........ ..........- ........ ......
403.........--.----------------......-
405 ....--....... .......---------........


experiment No. 406 .........................-......-.. .-


Discussion of digestion experiments with subject W. S. M ..........
Experiments with C. P. H ......................-.....................
Digestion experiment No. 391...............-......................


Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.
Digestion experiment No.


392.....................................
395... -......-----.----- ...--..--.-....--
397.................-..-................
399-.....................................
400..------..--------------.---------------
400................... ...... ............
402.....................................
404........-..-.........................
407.....................................
408 ..........-.......-.................
409 ......- ....-- .--.......- --- ...- ... -
410.....................................
411 .....................................
412.....................................
5


CONTENTS.


Page.
7
8
12
19
19
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
29
30
34
35
35
36
37
37
38
39
39
40
41
42
42
43
47
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
53
54
55
56
56
57
58








6


Digestion experiments-Continued.
Experiments with C. P. H.-Continued.
Digestion experiment No. 413 -...--.....---- -...........- ....-....
Digestion experiment No. 414.....-.............................._
Digestion experiment No. 415 ...................-................-
Discussion of digestion experiments with subject C. P. H -
Experiments with A. V. and J. E. R ................................
Digestion experiment No. 416-......................-..............
Digestion experiment No. 417 ............- ......................
Digestion experiment No. 418............-....................
General summary of digestion experiments ....................----------.--
Income and outgo of nitrogen ......---.- ......... ....-...-........
Amount of feces on a fruitarian diet .................-...............
Metabolic nitrogen in the feces............-...--. .....................
Pecuniary economy of fruits and nuts-.--. ----- ------... -----------
Summary--.... .....-..-...-.................... ..----------------...-----


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INVESTIGATIONS AMONG FRUITARIANS IN
CALIFORNIA, 1901-2.

INTRODUCTION.
An investigation of the nutritive value of fruits, instituted by the
Office of Experiment Stations, was undertaken at the University of
California in 1900-1901, and dietaries of five fruitarians-two women
and three children-were studied. At the same time with one of the
children-a girl-a digestion experiment was made in which fruit and
nuts constituted the entire diet. A study of the income and outgo of
nitrogen and the estimation of the so-called metabolic nitrogen in the
feces were included in the digestion experiment. The results, which
were given in an earlier publication," showed in every case that though
the diet had a low protein and energy value, the subjects were appar-
ently in excellent health and had been so during the five to eight years
they had been living in this manner.
In continuing the investigations on the nutritive value of fruits and
nuts it was deemed advisable to extend the work to include, in addi-
tion to the women and children previously studied, subjects whose
lives and habits differed considerably from those of the earlier inves-
tigation. Accordingly four men were selected, two being past the
middle age and two young men university students. The elderly men
had been more or less strict vegetarians and fruitarians for years.
One of the young men had been experimenting with the fruitarian
diet for several years, while the other was accustomed to the ordinary
mixed diet.
The purposes of the inquiry were in brief: (1) To make dietary
studies and digestion experiments in which the diet should consist
exclusively or largely of fruit and nuts; (2) to obtain information
regarding the practicability of maintaining nitrogen equilibrium in
the body with an exclusive fruit and nut diet, and (3) to collect data
on the digestibility of fruit and nuts.
In studying these problems 9 dietary studies have been made in
which, with 2 exceptions, the food consisted chiefly of fruit and nuts,
and 31 digestion experiments with the four subjects just referred to,
in 13 of which fruit and nuts constituted the main and in 17 the entire
diet.
The income and outgo of nitrogen was determined in each of the
digestion experiments, and the so-called metabolic nitrogen in the
feces was also studied.
a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 107.







COMPOSITION OF THE FRUITS, NUTS, AND OTHER MATEEIALS2*

Samples of fruits and nuts and of some cereal preparations wes :..
analyzed in connection with the dietary studies and digestion experi~...i
ments. The methods were those adopted by the Association of Offi-
cial Agricultural Chemists.a In addition to the usual analyses, the:
crude fiber was determined in all samples examined as being of special
interest in a fruitarian diet. The results obtained for this constituent, :!
however, are not fully satisfactory, since the determinations of fiber :i::
in the fresh sample of fruit and in the same sample dried in the usual :
manner gave disagreeing results. The study of so-called crude fiber
in fruits deserves to receive further attention. The heat of combus-
tion of the feces and of many of the foods was determined at Wesleyan
University, Middletown, Conn. The analytical results obtained in the
present inquiry are summarized in Table 1.
Detailed descriptions of the different samples of fruits and nuts
analyzed are hardly necessary. The only fruit which requires special .
mention is No. 201, scarlet haw, a small red fruit, from the tree of
same name (Crategus coccinea), which is about the size of a cherry
and has a comparatively large seed. It is not commonly used as food.
Nos. 243 and 244, "Granose" and "Optasite," are wheat prepara-
tions. No. 246, "Gofio," is a combination of cereals, roasted until
quite brown, and then finely ground. It is eaten dry or moistened
with water, milk, honey, or fruit juice. This food product is largely.
used by the inhabitants of the Canary Islands. Nos. 247, "Fruit
Nuts," 248, "Fruit Nuts Malted," and 249, Malt Nuts," are also
cereal preparations, and apparently the grain used has been malted
during the process of manufacture.

TABLE I.-Composition of food materials used in dietary studies and digestion
experiments-composition determined.

o Carbohy- i
rates. o
Food materials. 5 ) X V ..

."

FRESH FRUITS.
Apples: Per ec. Per ct. Per ci. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Clories.
Bellflower, edible portion ..... 209 ....... 87.54 0.64 0.65 9.77 1.11 0.29 0.249
Bellflower,as purchased ...... 209a 16.3 73.28 .53 .54 8.18 .93 .24 .208
Newtown Pippin, edible por-
tion ......................... 242 ....... 82.68 .63 .15 15.15 1.21 .18 .320
Newtown Pippin,aspurchased 242a 12.3 72.51 .55 .13 13.29 1.06 .16 .281
Winesap, edible portion....... 227 .......88.04 .38 .42 10.02 .87 .27- .228
Winesap, as purchased ........ 227a 15.1 74.74 .32 .36 8.51 .74 .23 .194
Pearmain,edible portion T29 229 ....... 88.50 .36 .14 10.14 .61 .25 .210
Pearmain, as purchased....... 229a 16.4 73.99 .30 .12 8.47 .51 .21 .176
Rhode Island Greening, edible
portion ..................... 230 ....... 86.74 .48 .16 11.55 .77 .30 .237
Rhode Island Greening, as
purchased ................... 230a 14.5 74.16 .41 .14 9.87 .66 .26 .208
Spitzenburg, edible portion... 232 ....... 83.75 .51 .10 14.59 .73 .32 ,301
Spitzenburg,as purchased..... 232a 14.0 72.03 .44 .08 12.54 .63 .28 .25


Average, edible portion ....
Average, as purchased.......


....... 86.21 .50 .27 11.87 .88 .27 .257
14.8 73.45 .43 .23 10.14 .75 .23 .220


aU. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Chemistry Bul. 46, revised.


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TABLE 1.-Composition of food materials used in dietary studies and digestion
experiments--composition determined-Continued.


6
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u
Food materials. 0
34
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FRESH FRUITs-continued.

Bananas:
Edible portion ...............
As purchased..................

Grapes:
Muscat, edible portion ........
Muscat, as purchased..........
Tokay, edible portion .........
Tokay, as purchased.........
Verdal, edible portion.........
Verdal, as purchased ........
Cornichon, edible portion.....
Cornichon, as purchased.......

Average, edible portion .....
Average, as purchased.......

Oranges:
Navel, edible portion.........
Navel, as purchased ........
Navel, edible portion..........
Navel, as purchased .........

Average, edible portion .....
Average, as purchased.......

Pears:
Easterbury, edible portion ...
Easterbury, as purchased....
Duchess, edible portion .......
Duchess, as purchased ........
Glout Morceau, edible portion.
Glout Morceau, as purchased..
Winter Neliss, edible portion..
Winter Neliss, as purchased...
Guava, edible portion........
Guava, as purchased ..........

Average, edible portion.....
Average, as purchased ......

Japanese persimmons:
Large Seedling, edible portion.
Large Seedling, as purchased..
Tane Nashi, edible portion....
Tane Nashi, as purchased.....
Yemon, edible portion ......
Yemon, as purchased .........

Average, edible portion.....
Average, as purchased......

Olives:
Mission, edible portion........
Mission, as purchased.........
Mission, edible portion........
Mission, as purchased.........


212
212a


202
202a
205
205a
211
211a
207
207a


236
236a
237
237a

238
238a


204
204a
224
224a
225
225a
226
226a
235
235a

51
51a


203
203a
215
215a
216
216a

52
52a

239
239a
240
240a


Per ct.

36.'92


14.1

20.9

22. 6

23.1

20.2


28.6

22. 7

25.65


21.8

13.6

20. 1

27.0

13.2

19. 14


22. 4

18 8

30.7"

23.97


16.8

18.9


Average, edible portion..... ...... .....
Average, as purchased .......... 17.85


Scarlet haws:
Edible portion ...............
As purchased.................
Watermelon:
Edible portion ................
As purchased.................

DRIED FRUIT.
Raisins:
Edible portion ..............
As purchased ----..................
Prunes:
Edible portion .-..............
As purchased................


201.....
201a 20.

200 ......
200a 62.0


257
257a

256
256a


9.5

11.9


Per ct.
77.15
48.67

84.83
72.87
87.12
68.92
85.06
65.85
86.78
66.73

85.95
68.59

86.26
61.59
86.72
67.03

86.49
64.31

82.93
64.86
85.00
73.45
80.60
64.40
76.08
55.54
80.00
69 43

80.92
65.53

77.04
59.77
81.93
66.53
81.66
56.59

80.21
60.96

70.33
58.51
63.68
51.66

67.00
55.08

75.83
60.65

92.17
35.03



28.47
25.77

29.14
25.67


Per ct.
1.60
1.01


.81
.70
.66
.52
.69
.53
.66
.51

70.
.56

1.45
1.04
1.07
.83

1.26
.94

1.15
.89
.80
.69
.83
.66
1.02
.74
1.13
.98

.99
.79

1 61
1.25
1.16
.94
1.32
.92

1.36
1.04

2.44
2.03
2.52
2.04

2.48
2.04


1.98
1.58

.87
.33



4.55
4.12

2.54
2.24


Per ct.
0.24
.15


Per ct.
19.68
12.41


.36 13.38
.31 11.49
.15 11.36
.12 8.98
.60 12.68
.46 9.81
.21 11.39
.16 8.76

.33 12.20
.26 9.76

.16 10.84
.11 7.74
.20 10.84
.15 8.38

.18 10.84
.13 8.06

.72 13.30
.56 10.40
.26 12.97
.22 11.21
.50 16.59
.40 13.26
.28 19.17
.20 14.00
.57 16.60
.50 14.41

.47 15.73
.38 12.66


.31
.25
.55
.45
.85
.59

.57
.43

11.13
9.26
23.01
18.66

17.07
13.96


.65
.52

.10
.03



.61
.55

.59
.52


19.39
15.05
12.81
10.40
13.19
9.14

15 13
11.53

8.81
7.33
2.52
2.04

5.67
4.69

18.57
14.85

6.41
2.44



62.57
56.63

63.37
55.83


Per ct.
U.52
.33


Per ct.
0.81
.51


0.






Calories.
0.424
.267


.42 .20 0.291
.36 .17 .250
.42 .29 .241
.33 .23 .191
.50 .47 .286
.39 .36 .221
60 .36 .266
.46 .28 .205

.48 .33 .271
.38 .26 .217

.60 .69 .254
.43 49 .181
.60 .57 .246
.46 .45 .190

.60 .63 .250
.44 .47 .186

1.48 .42 .338
1.16 .33 .265
.70 .27 .268
.60 .23 .232
1.10 .38 .379
.88 .30 .303
2.78 .67 .444
2.03 .49 .324
1.31 .39 .370
1.14 .34 .321

1.47 .43 .300
1.16 .34 .289

.93 .72 .429
.72 .56 .333
2.93 .62 .346
2.38 .50 .281
2.37 .61 .376
1.64 .42 .261

2.08 .65 .384
1.58 .49 .292

3 64 3.65 .713
3.03 3.04 .593
3.05 5.22 1.080
2.47 4.23 .876

3.35 4.43 .897
2.75 3.63 .735


2.13
1.74

.18
.07



.66
.59

1.65
1.45


.84
.66

.27
.10



3.14
2.84

2.71
2.39


.468
.374

.148
.056



1.336
1.209

1.292
1.140




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TABLE 1.-Composition of food materials used in dietary studies and digeation
experiment~s-composition determined-Continued.


* ,,,


.g Carbohy-
C4 d rates.
oomae.l.J 2 s
Food materials. | X C ?D F- S

01 0 ca 0 q
P4 P4 W *4 i


CANNED FRUITS.

Peaches, as purchased............

NUTS.
Almonds:
Edible portion ................
As purchased..................
Blanched, as purchased.......
Brazil nuts:
Edible portion ................
As purchased.................
Shelled, as purchased.........
Cocoanuts:
Edible portion ................
As purchased a ................
Pecans:
Edible portion ................
As purchased .................
Shelled, as purchased .........
Peanuts:
Edible portion ................
As purchased.................
Pignolias (pine nuts), as pur-
chased .........................
Walnuts:
Edible portion ................
As purchased .................
Nut preparation:
Nut and fig "bromose," aspur-
chased ..................
Cereals:
Bread (St. Helena Sanitarium,
Cal.), as purchased..........
Granose, as purchased..........
Optasite, as purchased .......
Rice, as purchased ............
Goflo, as purchased............
Fruit nuts, as purchased ......
Fruit nuts (malted), as pur-
chased ......................
Malt nuts, as purchased.......


Per ct.
228......



249 .......
249a: 49.2
250 .......

254 ...
254a' 49.0
210 ........


231
231a


32.03


234 .......
234a 50.8
233 .......-------

255 .......
255a' 32.5

252 .......

223 .......1
223a 60.4 I


258 .......

208 .......
243 .......
244 -.......
245 .......
246 ;.......I
247 ........I
I I
248 1.......
259 .......


Per ct. Per ct. I Per et. Per ct. Per c. I Per t.
86.45 0.55 1....... 12.20 0.37 0.43


4.42
2.25
4.00

5.28
2.69
4.33

19.17
13.03

3.50
1.72
4.30

4.88
3.29

6.13

3.97
1.57

14.88


32.51
9.56
11.76
11.90
6.37
11.18

8.31
4.74


17.28
8.78
17.68

18.00
9.18
19.78

5.25
3.57

12.17
5.99
15.67

32.64
22.03

33.70

24.58
9.73

16.54


11.57
10.94
11.12
10.98
12.87
13.48

13.20
4.46


54.30
27.58
54.75

66.07
33.70
63.31

51.00
34.66

69.39
34.14
71.52

47.33
31.95

47.00

62.92
24.92

21.83


.62
1.03
.44
.06
2.82
6.05


18.64
9.47
19.19

3.78
1.93
6.00

9.67
6.57

9.14
4.50
3.79

10.61
7.16

7.47

4.75
1.88

42.17


54.01
74.39
74.58
76.35
70.43
67.21


3.42 171.75
.25 87.07


2.58
1.31
1.68

4.22
2.15
2.96

13.77
9.36

4.29
2.11
3.17

1.98
1.34

1.55

1.87
.74

2.52


.52
1.82
.45
.41
5.10
1.30

2.00
.42


*
2.78
1.41
2.70

2.65
1.35
3.62

1.14
.78

1.51
.74
1.55

2.56
1.78

4.15

1.91
.76

2.06


.77
2.26
1.66
.30
2.41
.78

1.32
3.06


Oalories.
0.247



3.129
1.6589
3.147

L 07
1.732
3.125


2.712
1.843

3.437
1. 90
3.551

3.040
2.052

2.976

3.318
1.314

2.081

1.344
1.775
L748
1.718
1.88
1.870

1.837
1.732


aShell and milk included in refuse.


A number of the foods were not analyzed, as it was believed their

composition could be assumed with sufficient accuracy from analyses

previously reported. The following table includes the data for such

foods:


TABLE 2.-Comrposition of food materials used in dietary studies-crmposilion assumed.


Food materials.


ANIMAL FOODS.
Beef:
Medium fat, edible portion....
Corned, edible portion........
Hamburg steak, edible portion.
Beef heart, edible portion .....
Beef soup....................
Pork, ham, edible portion .........


Refer-
ence Water.
No.


Per ct.
62.7
53.6
65.5
62.6
92.9
40. 3


Pro-
tein.


Per ct.
18. P
15.3
19.8
16.0
4.4
16.1


Fat.


Per ct.
18.0
26.2
13.6
20.4
.4
38.8


Carbohydrates.

Sugar, Crude
starch, fiber.
etc.


Per ct.



1.1


Per ct.
i.---.=--


a Fuel value, not heat of combustion.


10


.4
..




















...... ....
::
,":. Pi
: .':IIE;















'B



S....: .;;;I
*1












..a El. .:
:4
U

*1E:
.4"AI;

I:%


Ash.


Per ct.
1.0
4.9
1.1
1.0
1.2
4.8


Energy
per
gram.a


Calories.
2.436
3.076
2.095
2.558
.265
4.2/7


.:i..;ii.
;:
.I~i
i;,
.;;...,








11


TABLE 2.-Composition of food materials used in dietary studies, etc.-Continued.


Food materials.


Refer-
ence
No.


ANIMAL FOODS-Conlntnued.
Fish:
Striped bass. edible portion....
Lobster, edible portion ........
M ilk .......................... .....
Milkr---------------------------
Butter .............................
Cottage cheese ....................
Eggs ............ ...............

VEG ETABI.E F.OODS.
Cereals:
Bread, corn....................
Bread, white...................I
Cake, cup......................
Crackers, Graham ...... .....I
Gluten flour ...................
Oatmeal, boiled...............
Pie, pudding, etc.:
Apple pie......................
Custard pie ...................
Tapioca pudding.............
Rice custard .................
Gelatin .....................
Vegetables:
Artichoke......................
Beans, edible portion..........
Beans, baked .................
Cabbage, edible portion .......
Canteloupe, edible portion ....
Cauliflower, as purchased......
Lettuce, edible portion ........
Potatoes .......................
Tomatoes, as purchased .......I
Fresh fruits: Pomegranates, edi-
ble portion.....................
Dried fruits:
Apricots ......................
Figs, edible portion............
Dates, edible portion .........
Dates, as purchased ..........
Berries:
Loganberries...................
Strawberries ................
Raspberries, red ..............
Preserves- Apple sauce ............
Nuts:
Filbert, edible portion.........
Hickory nuts, edible portion ..
Peanut butter .................
Cocoanut milk ................
Sugar, starch, and oil:
Sugar ..........................
Sago .................. ......
Honey....................
Olive oil .......................
Whisky c ..........................


Water.


Per c0.
77.7
79.2
87.0
11.0
72.0
73.2



38.9
32.0
15.6
5.4
12.65
84.5

42.5
62.4
64.5
59.4
13.6

79.5
68.9
63.3
91.5
89.5
92.3
94.7
75. 1
94.3

76.8

29.4
22. 7
38.2
3.5. 7


Carbohydrates.

tPr- Fat. Sugar, 'r e
t starch, fiber.
etc.



Per ct. Per et. Per ci. Pier cl.
18.3 2.8 ........ ........
16.4 1.8 0.40 ........
3.3 4.0 5.0 ........
1.0 85.0 ........ .......
20.9 1.0 4.3 ........
14.0 12.0 ....
... .,,. .


7.9
7. d
5.9
10.0
20.0
2.S

3.1
4.2
3.3
4.0
84.2

2.6
9.4
7.7
1.6
.6
1.8
1.2
2.6
.9

1.5

4.7
4.3
2.9
2.7'


85.7 1.09
90.4 1.0
86.4 1 1.5
61.1 .2

3.7 15.6
3.7 15.4
2.1 29.3
92.7 .4


12.2 9.0
18.2

........ ........


-.7
1.6
9.0
9.4
2.65
.5

9.8
6.3
3.2
4.6
.1


.2
.3

4.5
.3
.51
.3
.3i
.4

1.6

1.0
.7
.3
.3


.6

.S

65.3
67.4
46.5
1.5

......
i .4

100.0)


46. 3
58.0

73.8
62.668
11.5


42.8 ...
26.1 ....
28.2 ........

31.4 ....


15.9 .8
29.1 ........
22.8 ........
5.6 ........
7.2 2.1
4.7 ........
2.9 ........
17.8 ........
3.3 .6

16.8 2.7


Energy
Ash. per
gram.a


Per 0c.
1.2
2.2
.7
3.0
1.8
.S


.7

1.0
1.4
1.02
.7

1.8
1.0
.8
.6
2. 1

1.0
2.0
2.0
1.0
.6

.9
1.5
.5

. I


62.5 ..... 2.4
62.5 %.5 1.3
55.0 2.2 1.-1
51.4 2.1 1.3

12.8 ........ .39
6.0 1.4 .6
11.7 ........ .4
37.2 ........ 7

13.0 ........ 2.4
11.4 ........I 2.1
17.1 ......... 5.0
4.6 ........1 .8

100.0 ................
78.1 ........ .3
80.8 K........ 2

51.0 ........ ........


Cal(ories.
1.025
.860
.717
7.948
1.124
1.687



2.657
2.844
3.891
4.310
3.722
.628

2.800
1.830
1.587
1.819
3.759

.805
1.632
1.640
320
.408
.309
.198
1.114
.232


1.014

2.844
3.098
2. 494
S 2.330

.582
.397
.540
1.609
7.254
7.375
, 6.228
S.342

4.101
3.605
3.351
9.304
4.030


a Fuel value, not heat of combustion.
b 6.5 per cent of refuse in this sample.
c Proportion of alcohol assumed to be equivalent to 51 per cent carbohydrates.


J


I.(i


I












EXPERIMENTS. H'

The composition of the water-free feces from the digestion experi-

ments reported beyond (pp. 35-68) is given in Table 3, while Table

4 records the amount, specific gravity, and percentage and amount of

nitrogen of the urine, the data in both cases being arranged accord-
.... ... !*- ;4


ing to subjects.


TABLE 3.--Composition of water-free substance of feces.


Whence obtained.


SUBJECT W. S. M.

Experiment No. 388:
First day....... ....
Second day..........
Third day...........
Fourth day..........

Average............


Weight
of feces
Ter
ay.


Grams.
28.85
15.00
25.40
58.50


31.94


Experiment No. 389:
First day ............. 57.40
Second day........... 40.28
Third day ........... 20.82
Fourth day........... 34.34

Average............ 38.21


15
16
17
18

18a

19
20
21
22

22a'

23
21
25
26

26a

34
35
36
37

37a

38
39
40
41

41a

46
47
48
49

49a

54
55
56
57

57a

66
67
68
69

69a


31.81
63.06
30.54
43.10


42.13

88.50
11.20
34.78
15.75


Nitro-
gen.




Per ct.
3.79
4.05
4.50
3.49


3.96


3.88
3.09
2.89
3.81

3.42

4.20
3.57
3.55
3.56


Pro-
tein.


Per ct.
23.70
25.31
28.15
21.83


Fat.


Per ct.
22.30
22.56
17.72
26.74


Carbohydrates.

Sugar, Crude
starch, fiber.
etc.


Per ct.
29.27
26.22
30.38
28.99


Per ct.
11.46
12.67
9.35
10.59


Ash.


Per ct.
13.27
13.24
14.40
11.85


I;~11-- 4 ~ 1


24.75


24.23
19.31
18.08
23.80

21.36


26.22
22.34
22.18
22.26


3.72 23.25

4.43 27.69
5.17 32.29
4.72 29.50
5.32 33.26


37.56 4.91


60.30
53.50
85.00
34.09

58.22


53.30
58.80
24.20
48.18


Average............ 46.12


Experiment No. 398:
First day ...........
Second day...........
Third day............
Fourth day...........

Average............

Experiment No. 401:
First day ............
Second day..........
Third day............
Fourth day...........

Average.............


30.69


22.33


28.71


29.91 26.90
26.83 34.89
45.83 17.76
36.78 18.55

34.84 24.53

28.21 21.23
30.06 23.46
29.25 27.83
36.07 20.94


30.90 23.37


31.32
37.87
33.21
33.53


17.90
12.75
15.50
9.58


11.02


13.19


6.75 12.21
5.52 13.42
2.54 15.79
5.32 15.55

5.03 14.24


11.07
9.56
7.34
7.57


8.89

8.58
4.69
10.15
11.10


13.27
14.58
13.40
13.16


13.60

14.51
12.40
11.64
12.53


.1. I .1 I .1.


33.98


13.93


8.63


12.77


1 I I .* I .1


3.82 23.89
3.02 18.90
3.39 21.17
3.29 20.57

3.38 21.13


4.01
3.78
4.18
3.98

3.99


25.07
23.64
26.14
24.87

24.93


26.39
25.17
20.98
21.70


24.94
39.24
45.09
45.45


10.40
5.29
3.47
3. (3


14.38
11.40
9.29
8.65


t4wt





5.434
5.290
6.104
6.1M.


6.336

5.690
5.962
6.078
5.824

5.898

5.586
5.516
5.431
5. 89


5.504

6.659
6.041
5.885
5.902


5.872


5.478
5.828
5.676
5.722


23.56 38.68 5.70 10.93 5.676


20.86
23.29
28.58
29.06

25.45


26.15
25.27
18.90
17.34

21.92


17.43
18.86
18.47
21.81

19.14


10.49
8.94
7.91
6.92

8.56


5.501
5.610
5.913
6.120.

5.786


39.59 3.49 21.84 35.14 17.40 16.39 9.23 6.027
33.69 3.48 21.75 32.15 17.54 19.02 9.54 5.908
49.79 2.93 18.30 25.67 21.58 26.47 7.98 5.657
52.38 3.12 19.48 27.85 21.67 23.44 7.56 5.778

43.86 3.25 20.34 30.20 19.55 21.33 8.58 5.842


53.80
55.28
41.17
70.98


5.27
4.88
5.48
5.94


32.91
30.53
34.26
37.10


25.02
23.36
25.16
21.52


13.55
18.61
15.39
12.62


12.88
15.72
14.11
17.02


15.64
11.78
11.08
11.74


5. 346
5.574
5.810
5.630


55.31 5.39 33.70 23.77 15.04 14.93 12.56 5. 50


. .:..... .NW
:";
... ::".ii


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


Experiment No. 390:
First day ............
Second day..........
Third day............
Fourth day..........

Average.. ........

Experiment No. 393:
First day............
Second day...........
Third day............
Fourth day..........

Average...........

Experiment No. 394:
First day .............
Second day ..........
Third day............
Fourth day.........

Average ...........

Experiment No. 396:
First day .............
Second day...........
Third day............
Fourth day...........


jI





.:A
i : = i:;i








.. ....i.


.. .. ..










I,,
. .., ..












..


--


I----


-------I---~~I----I


!--------------I




St






i,..










;if
I,"

I:













I-


Whence obtained.


SUBJECT W. S. M.-cont'd.

Experiment No. 403:
First day .............
S.:cond day...........
Third day ............
Fourth day...........


Weight
of feces
per
day.


Nitro-
gen.


Pro-
tein.


Fat.


I 1 1 -L I I--1~


Grains.
69.70
68.70
47.55
34.60


Average............ 55.14
I--


Experiment No. 405:
First day ............
Second day...........
Third day............
Fourth day...........

Average............

Experiment No. 406:
First day............
Second day...........
Third day...........
Fourth day...........

Average............

Average of averages.

SUBJECT C. P. H.

Experiment No. 391:
First day ............
Second day.........
Third day ..........

Average...........

Experiment No. 392:
First day ............
Second day..........
Third day ..........
Fourth day...........

Average............

Experiment No. 395:
First day .............
Second day...........
Third day...........
Fourth day..........

Average............

Experiment No. 397:
First day ............
Second day...........
Third day ...........
Fourth day...........

Average............

Experiment No. 399:
First day ............
Second day..........
Third day .............
Fourth day...........

Average...........

Experiment No. 400:
First day ............
Second day ........
Third day ..........
Fourth day..........

Average ...........


47.07
47.49
30.00
35.20


Per ct.
5.27
4.55
5.29
4.35

4.87


4.33
4.58
4.97
4.39


Per ct.
32.93
28.44
33.04
27.16

30.39


27.04
28.65
31.04
27.47


Per ct.
19.67
38.70
37.10
32.43

31.97


16.55
23.21
21.70
34.10


39.94 4.57 28.55 23.89


20.49 4.89
65.00 5.11
29.40 4.93
50.50 5.33

41.35 5.06

44.52 4.23




20.30 4.61
17.60 4.14
19.50 4.40

19.13 4.38


54.00
2.79
30.00
85.24

43.01


29.38
38.49
65.78
30.41

41.02


69.86
79.51
9.10
56.98


4.72
4.94
4.42
3.99

4.52


3.98
4.00
3.66
4.08

3.93


4.78
5.22
5.92
4.77


30.57
31.94
30.84
33.33

31.67

26.43


28.81
25.93
27.50

27.41


29.49
30.87
27.64
24.94

28.23


24.87
25.02
22.85
25.52

24.57


29.88
32.65
37.02
29.79


21.49
26.74
33.08
30.90

28.05

28.09


19.84
12.30
8.93

13.69


21.37
16.14
12.81
30.27

20.15


23.09
19.40
29.09
25.86

24.36


21.32
31.90
41.49
46.43


53.86 5.17 32.33 35.29


38.99
43.52
35.48
44.49

40.62


37.79
83.58
26.20
28.90


4.69
4.81
4.49
4.00

4.50


5.49
4.60
5.16
4.70


29.28
30.04
28.03
25.02

28.10


34.33
28.74
32.23
29.35


21.11
30.97
40.92
48.93

35.48


18.18
23.75
22.85
26.21


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


33.07
44.64
49.50

42.40


5. 32
4.25
2.31

3.96


24.52 7.32
26.98 7.26
35.84 5.38
26.30 3.03

28.41 5.75


27.82 9.45
29.11 10.93
28.59 6.68
34.96 3.19

30.12 7.56


25.01 8.27
18.15 5.88
9.27 2.59
1.61 2.14

13.51 4.72


26.96
16.13
14.20
8.72

16.50


23.07
27.50
27.73
31.73


10.14
12.89
5.47
5.83

8.58


7.70
4.82
4.91
2.34


12.96 5.374
12.89 5.139
11.76 4.938

12.54 5.150


17.30 5.063
18.75 4.663
18.33 4.935
15.46 5.829

17.46 5.122


14.77 5.510
15.54 5.437
12.79 5.751
10.47 5.924

13.39 5.655


15.52 5.268
11.42 5.938
9.63 6.528
20.03 6.613

14.15 6.087


12.51 5.314
9.97 6.189
11.38 6.603
11.50 6 897

11.34 6.252


16.72 5.259
15.19 5.648
12.28 5.880
10.37 6.273


44.12 4.99 31.16 22.75 27.51 4.94 13.64 5.765


13


TABLE 3.-Composition of water-free substance offeces-Continued.


Carbohydrates.
Heat of
or bus-
Sugar, Ash. Combs-
Sgar, Crude tion per
strc, fiber. gram.
etc.



Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Calories.
21.78 11.19 14.43 5.326
18.64 4.88 9.34 6.344
15.35 5.10 9.41 6.314
23.93 5.66 10.82 5.990

19.93 6.71i 11.00 5.994

28.41 14.48 13.53 5.242
25.36 11.82 10.96 5.704
28.50 7.26 11.50 5.310
21.04 5.27 12.12 6.138

25.83 9.71 12.03 5.598


30.12 5.60 12.22 5.566
*"20.88 8.21 12.23 5.852
20.46 3.90 11.72 6.080
18.09 4.68 13.00 5.970

22.39 5.60 12.29 5.867

23.08 I10.61 11.80 5.732





-m.

r


TABLE 3.--Compobition of water-free substance offeces-Continued.


Whence obtained.


SUBJECT C. P. H.-cont'd.

Experiment No. 402:
First day .............
Second day...........
Third day ............
Fourth day..........

Average............
Experiment No. 404:
First day .............
Second day..........
Third day ............
Fourth day..........

Average-............
Experiment No. 407:
First day .............
Second day........
Third day ...........
Fourth day...........

Average............


70
71
72
73
73a

78
79
80
81

81a

90
91
92
93

93a

94
95
96
97

97a

98
99
100
101
101a

102
103
104
105

105a

106
107
108

108a

109
110
111
112

112a

113
114
115
116
116a

117
118
119
120

120a


Weight
of feces
per
ay.-


Grams.
36.99
52.98
55.98
59.40
51.34


90.82
30.79
37.40
23.30
45.58


15.50
36.70
65.80
55.80


38.00
78.00
45.00
103.50

66.13

28.60
29.50
32.30
72.80

40.80


56.50
50.80
55.88
66.70


Nitro-
gen.


Per ct.
4.96
4.48
4.61
3.99
4.51


3.17
2.80
4.13
4.20

3.58


3.77
3.60
3.83
4.45


Pro-
tein.


Per ct.
30.97
27.99.
28. 78
24.92

28.17


19.78
17.52
25.78
26.25
22.33


23.59
22.48
23.96
27.78


43.45 3.91 24.45


3.37
3.74
4.37
4.32

3.95

4.09
4.15
4.39
4.73
4.39


21.04
23.39
27.30
27.02

24.69

25.53
25.96
28.51
29.71

27.43


3.99 24.93
3.92 24.47
4.15 25.92
4.26 26.59


Fat.


Per ct.
20.27
16.88
35.57
41.65

28.59


15.94
17.33
21.85
15.48
17.65


22.21
22.99
25.43
23.48

23.53


Carbohydrates.


Sugar,
starch,
etc.


Per ct.
27.01
29.10
18.35
18.32

23.19


Crude
fiber.


Per ct.
9.44
11.35
3.58
2.44
6.70


35.95
38.20
28.79
39.20

35.54


31.81
28.75
32.12
32.79

31.37


16.18 37.92
19.97 29.57
16.52 33.70
18.37 30.00

17.76 32.79

16.23 30.62
19.19 32.16
28.40 26.90
30.53 22.21
23.59 27.97


25.22
17.04
13.68
13.96


24.56
34.08
34.85
33.65


12.50
10.04
6.16
4.61

8.33


Ash.


Per ct.
12.31
14.68
13.72
12.67

13.35


15.83
16.91
17.42
14.46

16.16


6.04 16.35
10.42 15.36
4.19 14.30
3.52 12.43
6.04 14.61

7.24 17.62
12.52 14.55
10.82 11.66
9.30 15.31

9.97 14.79

11.04 16.58
8.99 13.70
3.93 12.26
4.57 12.98
7.13 13.88


10.90
10.37
11.89
10.44


14.39
14.04
13.66
15.36


57.47 4.08 25.48 17.47 31.79 10.90 14.36


30.53
52.48
34.40


S 39.14

2L9.10
118.00
54.00
83.66

71.19


4.26
4.40
3.82

4.16

3.67
3.16
2.80
2.97

3.15


Experiment No. 408.
First day ...........
Second day..........
Third day ...........
Fourth day...........

Average ..........
Experiment No. 409:
First day .............
Second day .........
Third day ...........
Fourth day..........

Average ...........
Experiment No. 410:
First day .............
Second day..........
Third day ..........
Fourth day..........

Average ...........
Experiment No. 411:
First day ............
Second day ..........
Third day ...........

Average ............
Experiment No. 412:
First day .............
Second day...........
Third day ...........
Fourth day..........

Average ............
Experiment No. 413:
First day ...........
Second day..........
Third day ...........
Fourth day...........

Average ...........
Experiment No. 414:
First day ...........
Second day..........
Third day ...........
Fourth day..........

Average ..........


26.61
27.48
23.90
26.00

22.96
19.72
17.50
18.55


19.55
42.87
37.90
33.44

35.80
17.91
24.62
31.80


19.68 27.53


23.02
16.96
16.84
18.60

18.86


21.41
21.09
18.93
18.82


28.05
26.73
24.73
24.05

25.89


33.84
21.44
24.89
26.00


35.22
13.83
22.61

23.89

21.95
44.25
40.83
33.32
35.09


5.56
5.13
6.00


13.06
10.69
9.59


5.56 11.11

6.49 12.80
7.52 10.60
7.76 9.29
6.58 9.75

7.09 10.61


26.07 6.92
38.58 7.92
43.24 6.33
39.92 6.88
36.95 7.01


24.12
37.88
39.91
33.36


8.22
8.04
7.07
11.04


15.94
9.81
8.86
10.55
11.29


12.41
11.55
9.20
10.78


70.84 3.21 20.06 26.54 33.82 8.59 10.99 5.878
0=199


.. _.. ... .
Heato :
combus-. :::*
tion per '"
gram, .


'"N;


CaU


ories.
5.804
5.714 ":.r
6.046
6.538 *

6.026
C" ""C
5.383
5.425
5.564
5.748

5.580

5.350
5.605
5.598
5.810
5.591 1

4.975
5.354
5.410
5.062
5.200

4.829
5. 09
5.780 .
5.744

5.415

5.400
5.144
4.962
4.822


5.082

5.134
6.444
6.224

5.934

6.272
5.736
6.098
6.132

6.060

5.861
6.324
6.365
5.962
6.128


5.987
5.641
6.049
5.834


14


- i I-- I- -I ~- I i 1


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


36.00 3.68
129.30 2.71
48.00 2.69
69.20 2.98

70.62 3.01

60.00 3.43
45.80 3.37
96.48 3.03
81.06 3.01


It
4
* 4
ii




A



S




N,


-----: i ~I---~-


-~----~---~I-------~~


1--1- -. I 1


------


-''''


i


















I.



















If





k"
It?

V





4.
I..








L!


Whence obtained.


SUBJECT C. P. H.--cont'd.


Expe
F
T


Weight
of feces
per
day.


Nitro-
gen.


Pro-
tein.


Fat.


Carbohydrates.

Sugar, Crude
starch, fiber.
etc.


I I I 1 1 1 I -


riment No. 415:a Grams. Per ct.
irst day ............. 31.80 4.36
bird day ............ 105.50 4.86

Average ............ 45.77 4.61

Average of averages,
omitting experi-
ment No. 415...... 49.89 4.09

SUBJECT A. V.


AExperimelnt Nll 416:
First day ............
Second day...........
Third day.............
Fourth day..........

Average ............


81.14
72.36
117.70
115.30

96.63


4.03
3.83
3.53
4.09

3.87


Per ct. Per ct. Per ct.
27.22 9.30 39.48
30.39 7.22 38.02

28.81 8.26 38.75


25.56 24.61 29..43


25.18
23.91
22.09
25.53

24.18


121
122

122a







123
124
125
126

126a



127
128
129
130

130a


131
132
133
134

134a


26.12
21.32
23.64
23.42

23.63


37.90
38.30
31.88
27.49

33.89


27. 76
39. 86
45.73
32.97

36.58


35.23


26.05

25.97


Per ct.
11.45
14.62

13.04


7.05


28.49 5.45
33.30 .6.67
35.60 6.12
33.54 4.46

32.73 5.67



24.75 3.04
25.04 4.07


29.63
32.59

28.00


31.60
22.94
15.54
27.17

24.31


26.16


27.19

27.37


3.80
3.84

3.69


4.43
3.09
4.26
4.50

4.07


3.88


8.34

8.26


a Three-day experiment; no feces passed on second day.


Table 4 summarizes the analytical data for the urine, the results

having been determined in connection with the studies of the balance

of income and outgo of nitrogen reported beyond pp. 35-68.


TABLE 4.-A-mowun, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine.


Labora-
tory
No.


Whence obtained.


SUBJECT W. S. M.

Experiment No. 388.
14 First day .........................................
15 Second day....................................
16 Third day ......................................
17 Fourth day......................................

Average per day..............................


Total
amount.




Grams.
1,314
1,512
1,554
1,312

1,423


Specific
gravity.


1.011
1.008
1.009
1.009

1.009


Nitrogen.


Per cent.
0.470
.331
.281
.239


.328


Grams.
6.18
5.00
4.37
3.14


4.67


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


Ash.


15


TABLE 3.-Composition of water-free substance of feces-Continued.


SUBJECT J. E. R.

Experiment No. 417:
First day ............. 71.67 3.85 24.08
Second day........... 62.28 3.67 22.92
Third day............. 55.22 3.98 24.86
Fourth day........... 39.50 4.09 25.55

Average............ 57.17 3.90 24.35

Experiment No. 418:
First day ............ 41.41 4.04 25.27
Second day........... 72.38 3.64 22.73
Third day............ 51.50 3.57 22.34
Fourth day........... 66.84 3.83 23.95

Average............ 58.03 3.77 23.57

Average of experi-
ments Nos. 417
and 418........... 57.60 3.84 23.96
Average of 30 ex-
periments, omit-
ting No. 416...... 48.30 4.14 25.88
Average of 31 ex-'
periments........ 49.86 4.13 25.83


Heat of
combus-
tion per
gram.


Calories.
4.932
4.885

4.908


.5.680


6.054
5.735
5.493
5.849


5.783


6.442
6.382
6.210
6.144

6.295


6.198
6.474
6.506
6.266

6.361


6.328


5.716


Per ct.
12.55
9.75

11.15


13.35


14.76
14.80
12.55
13.05


13.79


10.23
9.67
9.83
10.53

10.07


10.94
11.38
12.13
11.41

11.47


10.77


12.514

12.58


1-1


- -- ~- -- ---- -- -


1-- ....


--I--





.. .. ... .... ..

16

TABLE 4.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of usrine-Continud.
.. ":: ". i.....


Whence obtained.


Total
amount.


Specific
gravity.


suBJECT W. s. M.-continued.I


Experiment No. 389:
First day........................................
Second day......................................
Third day............................ ............
Fourth day......................................

Average per day...............................
Experiment No. 390:
First day ............................................
Second day...... .. ....................... ......
Third day ............ ....................... ...
Fourth day.................................... ....

Average per day..........................
Experiment No. 393:
First day .......................................
Second day.......................................
Third day ........................................
Fourth day.....................................
Average perday...............................
Experiment No. 394:
First day ........................................
Second day..........................................
Third day ......... .................... .......
Fourth day.....................................
Average per day .................................
Experiment No. 396:
First day .......................................
Second day......................................
Third day .......... ...............................
Fourth day.......................................
Average per day .............................
Experiment No. 398:
First day ................................. ......
Second day......................................
Third day ......................................
Fourth day.....................................
Average per day................................
Experiment No. 401:
First day ....................................
Second day.....................................
Third day ......................................
Fourth day....................................
Average per day..............................
Experiment No. 403:
First day ......................................
Second day........... .................. .....
Third day .......................................
Fourth day.....................................
Average per day...............................
Experiment No. 405:
First day .......................... ..........
Second day.......................................
Third day ....................................
Fourth day........................................
Average per day.......................... .....
Experiment No. 406:
First day .......................................
Second day......................................
Third day ......................................
Fourth day.............................. .....
Average per day..............................
Average of averages......................


Grams.
1,326
1,264
930
709


1,057


1.012
1.0115
1.011
1.0135


I 1I


1.012


Nitega ...


Per cent.
0.426
.421
.449
.511


.444


"


0,

-S


4


1,267 1.0135 .40 :I&
1,269 1.015 .471
1,219 1.016 .474 "78
1,240 1.012 .404 .01
1,249 1.0141 .438 -. 4.:.

1,832 1.012 .343 AI
1,217 1.014 .464 '. 5i
857 1.020 .593 5. 0oM:5
816 1.020 .653 56.8

1,180.......... .474

1,215 1.013 .458 5.S0
1,138 1.016 .645 7.4
1,018 1.018 .822 *8..87 :
1,167 1.015 .717 8.37

1,135 ...652 ?.. .4

1,680 1.012 .380 6S. ,
1,269 1.015 .386 4,9
1,215 1.013 .442 5r i*
1,266 1.013 .387 W

1,358 1.......... .8397

1,963 1.012 .354 6.65
2,028 1.014 .318 6.40r
1,622 1.014 .326 5.9J
1,179 1.0165 .397 4.68
1,698 ......... .344 5.

1,518 1.012 .382 5.80
1,357 1.013 .390 5.33
1,500 1.014 .409 6.14
1,270 1.016 .525 6.67
1,411 .......... .425 .9

1,825 1.014 .376 6. .
1,424 1.017 .566 7. ;
1,319 1.015 .508 6. 70
1,325 1.019 .616 8.16
1,473 ..... .. .50 7.41

1,518 1.012 .332 6,0
1,558 1.012 .473 1.7
1,315 1.012 .371 4.8 .
1,257 1.014 .481 6.04
1,412 .......... .414 5,88

1,619 1.012 .332 6.S 3
1,276 1.013 .404 5.16
884 1.0165 .589 5.1-
1,276 1.013 .536 6.48
1,264 .......... 446 5.6
1,383 ........ 436 6.81


Labora-
tory
No.















-
i .. ..












































'i::EE:E


Whence obtained.


Total Specific
amount, gravity.


Nit rgen.


SUBJECT C. P. H.

riment No. 391: GraI.n. Per ,il. (rams.
first day .......................... ............. ... 717 1.024 0.640 4.59
second day....................................... 1,177 1.024 .413 4.86
third day ........................................ 528' 1.016 .488 2.58

Average perday...............................I 807 1.021 .497 4.01


Experiment No. 392:
First day ............. ....................... ... 1,238 1.015 .441 5.46
Second day ....................................... 20 1.0245 .609 4.99
Third day ....................................... 625 1.025 .902 5.64
Fourth day............................................ 1,067 1.016 .435 4.64

Average per day................................ 937 .......... .553 5.18

Experiment No. 395:
First day ......................................... 766 1.021 .675 5.17
Second day ...................................... 634 1.022 .712 4.51
Third day ................................ ...... 776 1.021 .543 4.21
Fourth day............................... ....... 614 1.023 .665 4.08

Average per day.................... ............ 697 .......... .644 4.49

Experiment No. 397:
Firstday ........................................ 1,656 1.010 .389 6.44
Second day....................................... 642 1.019 .561 3.60
Third day......................................... 863 1.015 .497 i 4.29
Fourth day ....................................... 863 1.015 .441 3. 1l

Average per day...............................' 1,006 .......... .450 4.53

Experiment No. 399:
Firstday ......................................... 1,317 1.013 .321 4.23
Second day....................................... 915 1,017 .512 4.69
Third day .......................... ............. 1,717 1.010 .405 6.95
Fourth day........................................ 1,176 1.014 .389 I 4.58

Average per day ................................ 1,281 .......... .399 5.11

Experiment No. 400:
First day .......................................... 1,198 1.015 .469 5.62
Second day....................................... 654 1.0215 .696 4.55
Third day ....................................... 644 1.023 .6.59 4.24
Fourth day......................................; 854 1.017 .573 4.89

Average per day....... ................... ...' 838 .......... .575 4.82

Experiment No. 402:
First day ......................................... 1,052 1.012 .332 3.49
Second day ....................... ............... 1,016 1.016 .496 I 5.04
Third day ........................................ 1,11.M 1.016 .529 5.91
Fourth day....................................... 1,067 I 1.016 .518 5.53

Average per day .............................. 1,063 .......... .469 4.99

Experiment No. 404:
First day ......................................... 1,157 1.015 .0 5.88
Second day ........................................ 1,437 1.012 .376 5.40
Third day ........................................ 1,036 1.016 .480 4.97
Fourth day....................................... 1,177 1.015 .513 6.04

Average per day ................ ............. 1,202 .......... .464 5.57

experiment No. 407: i
First day ........................ ................. 1,238 1.015 .728 9.01
Second day....................................... 1,020 1.020 .703 7.17
Third day........................................ 1,219 1.016 .565 6.89
Fourth day....................................... 1,299 1.015 .458 5.95

Average per day ............................... 1,194 .......... .607 7.25

Experiment No. 408:
First day ..................... .................. 947 1.018 .831 7.87
Second day ..................................... 715 1.022 .932 6.66
Third day ............................. .......... 819 1.024 1.044 i 8.56
Fourth day...................................... 728 1.025 1.147 8.35

Average per day ................................---.....- .980 7.86


1453-No. 132-03--2


Labora-
tory
No.


17


TABLE 4.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine-Continued.


Expe

ST
T


68
69
70
71



72
73
74
' 75



80
81
82
83



92
93
94
95



96
97
98
99


~




t: i"illi
";;'.. I'
"' ~"'-';"" '"'
I; I
..
; ; "


18


TABLE 4.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine-Continued.


Whence obtained.


SUBJECT C. P. H.-continued.

Experiment No. 409:
First day ......................................
Second day....................................
Third day .......................................
Fourth day.....................................

Average per day .............................
Experiment No. 410:
First day .................... ....................
Second day......................................
Third day ................ .....................
Fourth day................................. ......

Average per day .............................
Experiment No. 411:
First day ........................................
Second day.....................................
Third day .....................................


Total
amount.


Specific
gravity.


I I II


Gra s.
1,797
1,472
1,217
1,520

1,502

1,050
1.480
1,122
1,720

1,343

554
1,159
472


1.015
1.015
1.014
1.013


1.020
1.014
1.020
1.012


1.026
1.017
1.027


Per cent.
0.441
.441
.398
.343

.407

.824
.497
.697
.454

.589

.977
.512
.641


100
101
102
103



104
105
106
107



108
109
110



111
112
113
114



115
116
117
118



119
120
121
122



123
124
125







126
127
128
129





130
131
132
133



134
135
136
137


-Average of averages omitting experiment No.
415 .......................................

SUBJECT A. '.
Experiment No. 416:
First day ........................................
Second day......................................
Third day .......................................
Fourth day......................................

Average per day .....................................

SUBJECT J E.R.
Experiment No. 417:
First day .......................................
Second day......................................
Third day .....................................
Fourth day .....................................

Average per day...............................
Experiment No. 418:
First day ......................................
Second day............... ......... .... ..........
Third day .......................................
Fourth day.....................................

Average per day...........................
Average of averages of experiments Nos. 417
and 418.......................................


": .. .. : ::<
.. .. ..*.....
..

: -m. :iii::
..i:. "


Nitrogen.


Grams.
7.92
6.49
4.84.
5.21

6.11

8.65
7.35
7.82
'7.81

7.91

5.41
5.93
3.03

4.79

5.15
4.69
3.40
5.91

4.79

8.40
4.83
5.32
5.42

5.99

4.47
5.47
5.46
7.16

5.64

7.26
5.41
4.59


5.75


1,014 .......... .549 5.57



1,949 1.015 .690 13.45
1,734 1.014 .552 9.57
1,424 1.017 .716 10.20
1,084 1.023 .876 9.49

1,548 .......... .690 10.68



557 1.031 1.304 7.26
776 1.021 .922 7.16
412 1.030 1.338 5. b5
480 1.032 1.585 7.61

556 .......... 1.240 6.89

436 1.039 1.994 8.69
374 1 038 1.978 7.40
437 1.041 1.794 7.84
410 1.026 1.277 5.23

414 .......... 1.760 7.29

485 .......... 1.462 7.09


"* ^ijl

.1 ::? .a,
":.:::. siE":H
....
I, 2!


... S:i


Labora-
tory
No.


Average per day ............................... 728 ......... .658
Experiment No. 412: :6 085
First day ........................................ 936 1.018 .550
Second day..................................... 938 1.020 .500
Third day ...................................... 755 1.021 .450
Fourth day........................................ 1,036 1.016 .570

Average per day ............................... 916 .......... .523
Experiment No. 413: I
First day ......................................... 898 1.020 .936
Second day....................................... 757 1.023 .638
Third day ................ .................... 1,443 1.016 .369
Fourth day....-.................................-.. 1,058 1.017 .512

Average per day............................... 1,039 .......... .577
Experiment No. 414:
First day ........................................ 750 1.014 .596
Second day................................... .554 1.026 .988
Third day ....................................... 877 1.020 .623
Fourth day..................................... 1,250 1.016 .573

Average per day............................. 858 .......... I .657
Experiment No. 415:.
First day ...................................... 1,680 1.012 .432
Second day....................................... 712 1.017 I .760
Third day ..................................... 480 1.021 I .957

Average per day ............................. 957 i..........I .601


___________ ~i~ __ ___ _____I






19

THE DIETARY STUDItS.

SThe subjects of the dietaries here reported include seven different
persons-two elderly men, two young men university students, a
woman, and two children. With the exception of the students all
were accustomed to the diet, having been vegetarians for years and
having limited their diet quite largely to fruit and nuts. One of the
students, though accustomed to the ordinary diet, had been experi-
menting with vegetarian and fruitarian diet for some time. Three of
the subjects, i. e., the two students and one of the elderly men, ate
three meals a day at the usual hours. The others ate but twice, their
first meal being taken between 10 and 11 a. m. and the second between
5 and 6 p. m. The diet included a large assortment of fresh fruits
with considerable quantities of dried fruit and nuts. Honey and olive
oil were also eaten, and cereals were used to a small extent in some of
the dietaries, and in four cases (dietaries Nos. 355, 357, 360, and 361)
some animal foods were consumed, which were limited, however, to
a little milk and eggs in dietary No. 357, and to a small quantity of
cottage cheese in dietary No. 355.

DIETARY STUDY OF A FRUITARIAN (NO. 355).

The study began October 21, 1901, and continued for twenty days.
The subject was a man 63 years old, weighing 124 pounds. The num-
ber of meals eaten was sixty, or three per day.
The subject had lived upon the fruitarian diet for upward of twenty
years, and, while he had at times used cooked vegetables and cereals,
he believed that a diet of ripe and sweet fruits with nuts agreed with
him best. During the experimental period the subject walked from
ii 4 to 8 miles a day, besides working a little at gardening.
The results of this study are given in Table 9. The figures in
parentheses after each food material in this and the succeeding tables
of dietary studies refer to corresponding figures in the first column in
Tables 1 and 2, thus indicating the values used in calculating the
amounts of nutrients of the food.




-~If


20

TABLE 5.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No.:-j "

Cost and composition of food per person: per .as ::
Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food" _-...
materials. Cost Pro- Fat s Crude ial .
t tein. fiber. va
etc.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. CW;bies.
Cottage cheese, 279 grams, 12 cents (11)............ 1 2.92 0.14 0.60 ........
VEGETABLE FOOD.
..:E"E:EE:


Honey, 133 grams, 7 cents (48)....................
Vegetables: Tomatoes, 666 grams, 4 cents (32).....
Fruits, fresh: Apples, Newtown Pippin, 6,682
grams, 22 cents (242a); bananas, 118 grams, 2
cents (212a); cantaloupe, 3,714 grams, 29 cents
228); grapes, Verdal, 7,825 grams, 69 cents
211a); grapes, Cornichon, 7.735 grams, 68 cents
207a); grapes, Tokay, 2,475 grams, 22 cents
205a); grapes, Muscat, 3,374 grams, 30 cents
(202a); scarlet haws, 2,471 grams (201a); pears,
2,802 grams, 19 cents (51a); pomegranates, 62
grams, 1 cent (33); persimmons, 2,098 grams, 46
cents (52a':; oranges, 57 grams, 1 cent (238a);
strawberries, 808 grams, 12 cents (39); water-
melon, 3,955 grams, 13 cents (200) ...............
Fruits, dried: Figs, 1,309 grams, 20 cents (35)......
Olive oil, 207 grams, 23 cents (49).................
Nuts: Almonds, 496 grams, 16 cents (249); peanut
butter, 1,006 grams, 44 cents (44)...............
Total vegetable food........................
Total food ..................................


15.23
2.81

19.02


.13


5.79
.46
10.35
36.86


5.37
1.10


225.14
40.91

13.22


0.20









18.23
5.56

.64


22 37.42 53.59 285.74 24.63
---!---- I 1- -1---


40.34


53.73


286.34


24.63


976
180
91
422
1,697
1,713


The commonly accepted dietary standard for a man at sedentary
work calls for 92 grams of protein and 2,700 calories. From the table
it appears that the protein in this dietary was less than one-half and
the energy about two-thirds, respectively, of these amounts. It is
true that the subject's weight was small; but even if the data are cal-
culated to the basis of a man weighing 150 pounds the results will
still be far below the standard.
It is interesting in this connection to compare this dietary with those
followed by the same subject in 11 four-day digestion experiments,
in which the diet was made up of several fruits and nuts alone or in
combination. (Reported on pp. 35-43 and summarized in Table 27.)
In the dietary studies the subject ate at the dictates of his appetite, but
in the digestion experiments the kind and amount of food eaten was
determined upon beforehand in every case. In one experiment the
diet consisted of grapes only, and furnished 13.75 grams protein and
1,096 calories per day. Such a diet soon becomes unpalatable, no
matter how appetizing the food may be under ordinary circumstances.
It must also be remembered that though the bulk consumed was
large, the amount of nutriment supplied was very small, owing to the
high percentage of water in the grapes, and the food is therefore not
strictly comparable with a more varied diet. In all the other diges-
tion experiments the diet was made up of fruits and nuts and furnished
more protein and energy than the food eaten during the dietary study,
the average of all the tests, including that with the grape diet, being


.. .:: 'i;





01

0.I







: *ii



....:......










I
":'
-2



















:
D:ii






21

58.7 grams protein and 3,075 calories per day. In other words, the
diet of the digestion experiment when the food was limited in kind
S was more generous than that of the dietary study when the food was
selected at will. That the subject was benefited by the more abundant
diet is indicated by the gain in weight of several pounds which he
S made during the time covered by the digestion experiments.

DIETARY STUDY OF A VEGETARIAN (NO. 356.)

The study commenced November 8, 1901, and ended December 1,
lasting twenty-four days. The total number of meals taken was forty-
eight, or two per day. The subject was a man 64 years old, height 5
feet 7 inches, weighing 136 pounds.
He stated that he had been a strict vegetarian for eleven years and
S that previous to that time it had been his custom to eat but little meat.
He also said that he had led an active life, working hard with brain
S and muscle.
In Table 6 are given the results of this study.

TABLE 6.-leighls (lnd cost offood and nutrients consumed in dietary study No 356.

Cost and composition of food per person per day.
Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food Sugar
materials. Pro- t Crude Fuel
ost. tein. 'Fat starch, fiber. value.
etc.

VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
Cereals: Granose, 2,155 grams, 48 cents (243); glu-
ten flour, 454 grams, 15 cents (17); rice, flaked,
1,673 grams, 26 cents (245) ...................... 3.71 21.27 1.47 131.90 2.11 645
Honey, 1,985 grams, 109 cents (48) ............... 4.54 .69 ........ 66.81 ........259
Vegetables: Baked beans, 1,021 grams, 11 cents (26) .46 3.28 1.79 9.70 ........ 64
Fruits, fresh: Apples, Bellflower, 5,585 grams, 18
Scents (209a); bananas, 2,722 grams, 42 cents
(212a); grapes, Verdal, 3,317 grams, 29 cents
S(211a): raspberries, 397 grams, 6 cents (40)....... 4.00 3.36 2.06 4. 60 3.08 214
Fruits, dried: Dates, 425 grams, 9 cents (37); figs,
28 grams, 1 cent (35); prunes, 794 grams, 18
cents (256a); raisins, 255 grams, 6 cents (257a) .. 1.42 1.70 .29 34.32 1.01 135
A Nuts: Almonds, 907 grams, 30 cents (249); Brazil
nuts, 1,361 grams, 45 cents (254); pine nuts, 198
:,: grams, 3 cents (252); walnuts, 907 grams, 30
cents (223a).................................. 4.50 23.19 71.28 10.51 3.78 726
Total vegetable food........................ 18.63 53.49 76.89 301.84 9.98 2,043


The table shows that this dietary contains about one-third more pro-
tein and nearly 12 per cent more energy than were noted for the pre-
vious one. The corresponding figures for a man weighing 150 pounds
would be 59 grams protein and 2,444 calories.
The food eaten during this test, there is every reason to believe, rep-
resents very well the normal diet of this subject, who throughout the
whole experimental period (October, 1901, to April, 1902) remained
in excellent health and strength. It thus seems that this man could
maintain his health when the daily diet furnished only 50 to 60 grams
of protein, or about 60 per cent of the amount called for by the com-
monly accepted standard for a man at sedentary work.
Ai
VU







22

The discussion of the preceding dietary showed that more proteiin4.
and energy were furnished by the restricted daily diet during the I
digestion experiments than by the food consumed by the same subject ;'
during the period of the dietary study when he ate food chosen at will ii
As may be seen by a reference to Table 46, page 61, like conditions do'?:
not obtain for the subject of the present study. On an average the ":
daily food eaten during the 16 digestion experiments furnished 44.01 3
grams protein and 1,831 calories. In other words, when the subject
selected his daily food at will he ate somewhat more .than was the.case
when his diet was fixed upon for experimental purposes.

DIETARY STUDY OF A BOY (NO. 357).

The study continued for twenty-one days in March, 1902. The sub-
ject was the same boy as in dietary study No. 331, previously reported, ;:
and was now 10 years old. He weighed 58 pounds at the beginning
and at the close of the study.
The number of meals eaten was forty-two, equivalent to one boy for
twenty-one days or one man for thirteen days. :
The details of the study are shown in Table 7.


TABLE 7.--Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study N


Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food
materials.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Milk. 4,763 grams, 21 cents (9) ...................
Eggs, 57 grams, 2 cents (12)........................
TotQ.l animal food ..........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Bread, corn, 595 grams, 7 cents (13); I
crackers, graham, 227 grams, 5 cents (16); fruit-
nuts, 312 grams, 17 cents (247); gluten flour, 794
grams, 26 cents (17); granose, 340 grams, 8 rents
(243): malted tablets, 369 grams, 20 cents (259)..
Honey, 16 grams, 1 cent (48).......................
Vegetables: Cauliflower, 312 grams, 2 cents (29) ...
Fruits, fresh: Apples, Permain, 13,920 grams, 46
cents, (229a); apples, Pippin, 6,946 grams, 23
cents (242a); oranges, 7,626 grams, 101 cents
(238a) ............................. ..........
Fruits, dried: Figs, 482 grams, 7 cents (35).........
Nuts: Almonds, 539 grams, 18 cents (250); pea-
nuts, 312 grams, 5 cents (255); pecans. 794 grams,
26 cents (233); walnuts, 113 grams, 4 cents (223)..
Olive oil, 8 grams (49) ...........................
Total vegetable food.........................
Total food..................................


Cost and composition of food per person

Pro- Fat Sugar, Crude
Cost. tein. Ft starch, Fiber.
etc.


Cents. Grams.
1 7.49
........ .38
1 7.87


4




8


3


Grams.
9.07
.32
9.39


Grams.
11.34

11.34


Grams.


I I I I


15.44
.27


7.22
.99

16.63
.... ...


4.47
.07


1.70
.16


51.51
.38


82.15
.62
.70


129.36
14.34

8 19


.94




8.48
1.95

2.02
........


15 40.55 58.28 235.36 1?.39


48.42 I
I


67.68


246.70


13.39


a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of the Experiment Stations Bul. 107.


o. 357. 1
.:t
per day. ..

Fuel :
value.


Calories.
155 ...

159





439
2
4


535
63

524
.. ..
1,570



-


Siti~






23


The tentative standard for a boy 10 years old calls for 65 grams
protein and 1,750 calories, and it will be seen that the daily diet (48
grams protein and 1,558 calories) is far below it. It is, however, of
more than passing interest to note that the present diet furnishes
much more protein and energy than did that of the study previously
reported," which was made in the summer of 1900, which contained
but 27 grams protein and 1,255 calories per day. It is true that at
the time of the present investigation the boy was somewhat older and
consequently would normally require more protein and energy, but the
increase is about 65 per cent for the protein and 25 per cent for the
energy, which is much greater than the difference in age calls for.
The later diet was richer, presumably because it was more varied in
character. In the previous study it was strictly fruitarian, while in
the present case about 16 per cent of the protein and 10 per cent of the
energy were of animal origin, and 32 per cent of the protein and 8 per
cent of the energy were derived from cereals. In other words, in the
present case the fruit and nuts supplied only about 56 per cent of the
protein and 62 per cent of the energy of the diet.
The use of the mixed diet was accounted for by the fact that for
certain family reasons it was expected that the boy would in future
live with relatives in the East, and as they were not fruitarians, or
even vegetarians, it was deemed advisable to have the dietary include
some of the more common foods in order to accustom him to their use.

DIETARY STUDY OF A GIRL FRUITARIAN (NO. 358).
The study commenced February 28, 1902, and ended March 20, last-
ing twenty-one days. Thd subject was a girl (sister of the subject of
study No. 357) 8 years old, and weighed 37 pounds at the beginning
and end of the test.
Studies were made of the dietary of this subject during the summer
of 1900, and again in the spring of 1901, both of which have been
reported." As was then stated, her light weight and small measure-
ments were presumably due in part at least to heredity, as her mother
and grandmother were very small women.
The total number of meals taken was forty-two, equivalent to one
girl for twenty-one days or one man for eleven days.
a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 107.





tiiA


24


The table following gives the details of the study:

TABLE 8.- Wleights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. sB. .i. :I;:
o .. .... .ei:.
.': 5 ..
Cost and composition of food per person per dayi, .. .:...


Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food
materials.


VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Gluten flour, 113 grams, 4 cents (17);
fruit nuts. 113 grams, 6 cents (247); malt tab-
lets, 340 grams, 19 cents (259) ....................
Honey, 8 grams (48) ..............................
Vegetables: Cauliflower, 454 grams, 2k cents (29);
lettuce, 57 grams, 1 cent (30)....................
Fruits, fresh: Apples, Permain, 10,238 grams, 34
i.mnal i..I... n.a.. r in1


Cost.


Cents.


1.38

.17


Pro-
tein.


Fat.


Grams. I Grams.


2.52

.42


0.51

.12


Sugar,
starch,
etc.


Grams.

21.08
.31
1.02


Crude
fiber.


Grams.

0.19


Fuel
.. .. i li


C ..o r i f
..
101.
1
7 ..


Illc t5 !29a L, app es., ripp n, 5u,v103 ram, 1,
cents (242a); olives, 142 grams, 3 cents (240);
oranges, 10,408 grams, 138 cents (238a) ........... 9.14 7.63 3.10 113.69 7.46 488 "
Fruits, dried: Raisins, 28 grams, 1 cent (257) ...... ........ .06 .01 .83 .01 3
Olive oil, 104 grams, 11 cents (49) .................. .52 ........ 4.95 ........ ....... 4
Nuts: Almonds, 907 grams, 30 cents (250); pecans, .
1,191 grams, 39 cents (234); hickory nuts, 85
grams, 2 cents (43); pignolias, 113 grams, 6 cents
(252); nut and fig bromose, 340 grams, 19 cents i:
(258) ............ ........ ..................... 4.57 21.64 72.99 18.13 3.02 760,
Total vegetable food ...................... 15.78 32.27 81.68 155.06 10.67 1,40I


Some cereals and commercial articles of vegetable origin were eaten
in addition to vegetables, fruit, nuts, olive oil, and honey. Cereals
supplied about 8 per cent of the protein and between 5 and 6 per cent
of the energy of the diet. Such a dietary is not strictly fruitarian,
but as fruit and nuts, chiefly the latter, furnished about 92 per cent of .
the protein and nearly 95 per cent of the energy, it was thought best i
to classify it under that head. .
Notwithstanding the small amount of protein in this dietary the
subject seemed, as she did at the time of 'the studies made the pre-
vious year, to be perfectly healthy but very small for her age.

DIETARY STUDY OF A FRUITARIAN (NO. 359). .

The study begai March 1, 1902, and continued for twenty-one days. I
The subject, a woman, was the same as in dietary study No. 328 pre- ,
viously reported," 34 years old, height 5 feet, weighing 93.5 pounds at :
the beginning and end of the study. The number of meals taken was .
forty-two, equivalent to one woman for twenty-one days or one man
for fifteen days.
Table 11 shows in detail the results of this study.

a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 107. .





... .. ....



... .. i .. ..
.. ::q$ ;-1






25


TABLE 9.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. 359.

Cost and composition of food per person per day.
Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food Suar
materials. Pro- at starch rude Fuel
cost. tein. sta fiber. value.
etc.

VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
Cereals: Gluten flour, 198 grams, 7 cents (17);
Granose, 57 grams, 1 cent (243); fruit nuts, 57
grams, 3 cents (247); malt tablets, 85 grams, 5
cents (259) .................................... 0.76 2.73 0.45 13.28 0.20 70
Honey, 12 grams. 1 cent (48) ....... .................. .............. .45 ........ 2
Vegetables: Cauliflower, 680 grams, 4 cents (29).... .19 .58 .16 1.53 ........ 9
Fruits, fresh: Apples, Permain, 11,624 grams, 38
cents (229a); apples, Pippin, 5,812 grams, 19
cents (242a); oranges, 8,907 grams,ll8 cents (238a). 8.33 7.17 1.58 117.85 7.62 489
Fruits, dried: Apricots, 85 grams, 2 cents (34);
raisins, 57 grams, 1 cent (257) .................... .14 .31 .06 4.23 .02 16
Olive oil, 140 grams, 16 cents (49) .................. .76 ........ 6.67 ........ ........ 58
Nuts: Almonds, 1,332grams, 44cents (250); filberts,
312 grams, 10 cents (42); pecans, 28 grams, 1 cent
(233); pignolias, 1,049 grams, 58 cents (252);
hickory, 85 grams, 2 cents (43); nut and fig
bromose, 57 grams, 3 cents (258) ................ 5.62 31.69 72.18 19.49 1.95 788
Total vegetable food......................... 15.80 42.48 81.10 1 56.83 9.79 1,432


In the study with this subject previously reported the diet fur-
nished 33 grams protein and 1,300 calories per day. The above table
shows a daily consumption of almost 25 per cent more protein and
about 7 per cent more e.r'rgy. In the present study cereals formed
part of the diet, supplying 2.7 grams protein and 13.5 grams carbo-
hydrates, whereas during the former test the diet with the exceptions
of a little olive oil and honey consisted exclusively of fruit and nuts.
The tentative standard for a woman at light work calls for 90 grams
of protein and 2,250 calories, amounts which are far in excess of those
furnished by the present diet.

DIETARY STUDY OF A STUDENT (NO. 360),

This study and the two succeeding ones, Nos. 361 and 362 beyond,
form part of an investigation undertaken for the purpose of ascertain-
ing the value of an exclusive fruitarian diet for a healthy, active young
man accustomed to the conventional mixed diet.
The subject selected was a vigorous, healthy university student, 22
years old, conscientious in his studies and prominent in athletics.
The investigation was divided as follows: (1) A study of seven days'
duration (No. 360), during which time he ate his usual mixed diet; (2)
a study of nine days' duration (No. 361), during which time a large
proportion of fruit was used as a substitute for part of the meat, eggs,
arid cereals of the usual daily fare; and (3) a study of eight days' du-
ration (No. 362), during which time, with the exception of 10 grams
per day of cane sugar, the diet was composed exclusively of fruit and
nuts. Following the above two metabolism experiments oh a strictly
fruitarian diet were carried on, for the details of which see pages
67, 68.




. ". .. .i
.... ... .... ....
.. "...


26


Dietary study No. 360 continued for seven days in March, 1902, th e
total number of meals taken being twenty-one, or three per day.
The subject weighed 169 pounds at the beginning and 169.5 pounds .-:;..:
at the end of the test. It was not practicable to weigh him without ..'
clothing, but the same clothes were worn and the same scales used for 2W
both weighing.

TABLE 10.- Weights and cost offood and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. 360.
.:....


Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food
materials.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Medium fat, 992 grams, 44 cents (1)..........
Hamburg steak, 312 grams, 11 cents (3) ............
Beef heart, 113 grams, 3 cents (4)-...................
Beef soup, 454 grams, 5 cents (5) ...................
Pork, ham, 227 grams, 11 cents (6)................
Fish: Striped bass, 113 grams, 5 cents (7); lobster,
85 grams, 3 cents (8) ............................
Eggs, 66 grams, 2 cents (12) ......................
Butter, 198 grams, 11 cents (10) ....................
Milk, 563 grams, 3 cents (9) ......................
Total animal food.........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Oatmeal, 1,219 grams, 27 cents (18); bread,
1,985 grams, 22 cents (14); cake, 340 grams, 8
cents (15)........................................
Pie and puddings: Apple pie, 85 grams, 2 cents (19);
custard pie, 85 grams, 2 cents (20); tapioca pud-
ding, 85 grams, 3 cents (21); rice custard, 85
grams, 3 cents (22); gelatin, 2 grams, 1 cent 423).
Sugar and starch: Sugar, 321 grams, 4 cents (46);
sago, 9 grams, 1 cent (47).........................
Vegetables: Beans, 170 grams, 2 cents (25); pota-
toes, 1,332 grams, 4 cents (31); cauliflower, 57
grams (29) ............................... ......
Fruits, fresh: Apples, 198 grams, 1 cent (242);
oranges, 193 grams, 3 cents (238): bananas, 85
grams, 1 cent (212) .............................


Cost and composition of food per person per day.


Cost.


Cents.
6.28
1.57
.43
.71
1.57
1.14
.28
1.57
.43
13.98


8.14


1.57
.71

.86

.71


Total vegetable food ........................) 11.99
Total food .................................. 25.97


Protein.


Grams.
25.95
8.83
2.58
2.85
5.22
4.95
1.32
.28
2.65
54.63


..01
.11

7.38

.72


Fat.


Gramns.
25.51
6.06
3.29
.26
12.58
.67
1.13
24.04
3.21


SSugar,
starch,
etc.


Grams.
.-.-..-----

0.71
..........
.05

4.02....
4.02


76.75 4.78
I ==)


9.78


2.90


5.90

.12


39.80 18.70
94.43 95.45


The protein and energy furnished by the present diet are consider-
ably below the tentative standard for a man with light to moderate
muscular work, namely, 112 grams protein and 3,050 calories, but since
the subject had the opportunity to eat all he wanted and gained in
weight it would seem that the 94 grams protein and the 2,600 calories
per day were sufficient for his bodily needs.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 361.

The study commenced March 26, 1902, and ended April 3, lasting
nine days. The total number of meals eaten was twenty-seven, or
three per day. The subject weighed 168 pounds at the beginning and
170 pounds'at the close. As previously stated, the proportion of fruits
and nuts eaten was large, the purpose being to thus accustom the sub-
ject to such foods and avoid a sudden change from ordinary fare to a
fruitarian diet.


Fuel
value.


Calories.
341
92
41


17
135
27
16
212
56
996




1,091


96
181

237

40

1,645
2,581


217.79


15.60
46.86

41.32

10.23
331.80
336.58


.11
-....
-i



* F



























*;N
-;i
...I













I
* ..* .B







27

Table 11 shows in detail the results of this test.

TABLE 11.--Weights a(id cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary sitdy No'. 361.

Cost and composition of food per person per day.


Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food
materials.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Medium fat, 1,418grams, 63 cents (1): corned,
85 grams, 2 cents (2); beef soup, 425 grams, 5
cents (5) ....................... ................
Butter, 142 grams, 8 cents (10) .....................
Total animal food .........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Bread, 1,276 grams, 14 cents (14); cake.
cup, 680 grams, 15 cents (15) ...................
Pie, pudding, etc.: Rice custard, 255 gram., 8 cents
(22); tapioca pudding, 85 grams, 3 cents (21):
gelatin, 2 grams, 1 cent (23) ....................
Cane sugar, 307 grams, 4 cents (46) ...............
Vegetables: Potatoes, 1,162 grams, 4 cents (31 ;
cabbage, 85 grams, 1 cent (27); artichokes, 113
grams, 2 cents (21) ........................ ......
Fresh fruits: Apples, 170 grams, 1 cent (242);
bananas, 1,247 grams, 19 cents (212); oranges,
1,724 grams, 22 cents (238) ......................
Dried fruits: Raisins, 680 grams, 15 cents (257);
apricots, 907 grams, 6 cents (34) ................
Cooked and canned fruits: Apple sauce, 255 grams,
3 cents (41); peaches, canned, 113 grams, 4 cents
(228) ................................ ...........
Nuts: Walnuts, 397 grams, 13 cents (223) ..........


Pro- 'Sugar, Crude Fuel
Cost. t Fat. starch, rue lue
Stein. fiber. value.


Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.

7.78 36.40 34.89 0.58 ........ 473
.89 .18 15.10 ........ ......... 133
8.67 36.58 49.99 .58 ........ 606



3.22 17.29 10.20 1.0.74 0.25 773


1.33 1.S4 1.81
.45 ........ ........


13.01
38.38


.78 4.31 4.42 :28.81


4.67
2.33


5.34
9.20


.79
1.65


59.61
124.60


7.78 .14 : .25 13.63
1.45 12.20 31.22 3.28


STotal vegetable food......................... 22.01 50.32 i 50.34 432.06
Total food ................................... 30.68 6.90 100.33 432.64


........ 52
........ 314
.25 2,261
.25 2,867


It will be seen that the present dietary furnishes 7 grams less protein
and 300 calories more energy than study No. 360 with the same sub-
ject. It is interesting to note that while in the previous study fruit
furnished only 0.72 gram protein, in the present study it supplies
14.7 grams, and nuts 12.2 grams, protein per day. The total animal
protein in study No. 360 was 54.6 grams, and in the present study only
36.6 grams per day.
In this period of change from the ordinary mixed diet to one con-
taining a considerable quantity of fruit and nuts, the subject stated
that on the fourth and fifth days of the study, in addition to his regu-
lar college duties, a large amount of extra work was performed,
involving mental strain and loss of sleep. Notwithstanding this
extra demand on his vitality, his physical condition so far as could be
judged was unchanged and his weight increased two pounds. The
subject stated that, having made the comparison, he preferred a fruit-
arian breakfast to any other. In general he relished the diet consist-
ing almost exclusively of fruit and nuts.

DIETARY STUDY NO. 362.

This study began April 9 and continued for eight.days. The total
number of meals eaten was twenty-four, or three per day. During
the six days' interval between this and dietary study No. 361 the sub-


--~------


........i




*. *: : .;: .


28 1

ject continued to use a large proportion of fruit and nuts in the dietl. .
With the exception of about 10 grams of cane sugar per day, the diet
in the present study consisted entirely of fruit and nuts. The subje]t.0:.
weighed at the commencement of the experimental period 170 pounds, i:
and 168 pounds at its close. :
The details of the study follow: f


TABLE 12.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study Nonmskw 9'
i .."
Cost and composition of food per person p
Kinds, amounts, and costs of different food ....:-
materials. Sugar,
Cost. Protein. Fat. starch, va"iue.
etc. "a

VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cents. Grams. Grams. Granm. Calories. -'ii
Fresh fruits: Bananas. 4.196 rams. 65 cents (212i: .


oranges, 6,294 gram 83 cents (238)..............
Dried fruits: Dates, 737 grams, 16 cents (36); figs,
425 grams, 14 cents (35,; raisins, 454 grams, 10
cents (257)...................................
Canned fruits: Peaches, 340 grams, 11 cents (228)..
Nuts: Almonds, 567 grams, 19 cents (249); peanuts,
85 grams, 1 cent (255); walnuts, 1,418 grams, 47
cents (223)......................................
Cane: Sugar, 85 grams, 1 cent (46)................
Total vegetable food ........................


18.50


5.00
1.38

8.37
.12


33.37


18.30

7.54
.23

59.28


2.68

.99


155.03
..........


195.95

126.29
5.34

28.11
10.63


- I -- I


85.35


158.70


366.32


- 789


1,698
...,
41 "

2 :6


There were no restrictions regarding the kind and amount of fruit
or nuts to be used in this dietary. On the other hand, the subject was
instructed to eat all he wished of any fruit and nuts which he desired.
Bananas and oranges, dates and raisins, almonds and walnuts were his
favorite foods, though some other sorts of fruit and nuts were eaten.
The protein in the diet thus selected is almost identical in amount with
that furnished by the diet in study No. 361, though less by 9 grams
than in study No. 360, while the fuel value is higher in this test than
in either of the other two. In all these tests the protein is below the
requirement of the tentative American standard for a man at mod- I
erately active work. In the present test, however, the energy is equal
to that called for by the standard. It will be seen by noting the data ::
in Tables 50 and 51, experiments Nos. 417 and 418, that the unre- O
stricted fruitarian diet selected by the subject himself, which furnished
nearly as much protein and rather more energy than was consumed '
by him when using his ordinary mixed diet, was superior as regards
both protein and energy to the restricted diets of bananas, dates, and :
walnuts, and bananas, oranges, and walnuts, used in digestion experi--
ments made with the same subject.
As noted above, there was a loss of 2 pounds, but the initial weight .
was above the subject's normal, and during the test he was under
unusual strain, both physical and mental, particularly on three days Y
(April 11-13). It seems, therefore, that it is not just to ascribe the.
loss in weight during the experiment entirely to the fruit and nut diet. 5*


:II
*:


I






29

As the loss is not great, and indeed quite within the range which is
observed in the weight of persons under normal conditions during a
period of equal duration, it would seem fairer to give the diet much
credit for being able to carry an active, energetic, healthy man through
a period of unusual strain, both physical and mental, attendant upon
some' special work in addition to his regular college duties.

DIETARY STUDY OF A FRUITARIAN (NO. 363.)

The study commenced April 23, 1902, and continued for ten days.
The subject was a man who had been experimenting with the fruitarian
diet for several years. He was 25 years old and did not gain or lose
weight (without clothes), the weights for the different days, with the
exception of the third and ninth days, when no weight was recorded,
being 151.1, 153, 154.3, 153.1, 148.1, 150.3, 150.8, and 151.1 pounds.
On the fifth day the subject ate no supper and on the ninth day no
lunch. On other days three meals were eaten. The total number of
meals taken was therefore 28, which in this case was assumed to be
equivalent to one man for ten days.
The details of the study are shown in Table 13.

TABLE 13.--Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. 363.


Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food
materials.


VEGETABLE FOOD.
Fresh fruits: Apples, Pippin, 7,068 grams, 23 cents
(242a); bananas, 5,498 grams, 85 cents (212a);
oranges, navel, 13,440 grams, 178 cents (238a);
olives, 107 grams, 2 cents (240a)................
Dried fruits: Dates, 1,799 grams, 40 cents (36);
figs, 2,518 grams, 83 cents (35)............ .......
Whisky, 60 grams, 7 cents (50)....................
Nuts: Almonds, 565 grams, 19 cents (249); cocoa-
nuts, 357 grams, 4 cents (231); walnuts, 733
grams, 24 cents (223)............................
Cocoanut milk, 124 grams, 5 cents (45) ............


Cost and composition ol food per person per day.

Cost Pro- Fat. tar, Crude Fuel
Cost. tein. etc.h fiber. value.
etc.


t 'cnt.<.


28.8
12.3
.7


4.7
.5


Total vegetable food........................ 47.0


Grains.


22.30
15.90


29.66
.05
67.91


rams. Grains. Grams. Calories.


5.47 270.67 31.81 1,210
2.31 256.32 25.48 1,087
........ 5.10 ........ 20

95.00 17.47 7.43 984
.19 .57 ....... 4
102.97 550.13 64.72 3,305


This diet furnished practically 68 grams protein per day, or about
two-thirds the amount called for by the commonly accepted standards
for a man at light muscular work. The fuel value, however, slightly
exceeded the limits of the standard.
Notwithstanding the variety of foods in this diet which were selected
by the subject, it did not furnish as much protein as did the diet limited
by the experimental conditions and consisting of bananas, oranges,
and almonds, used in a digestion experiment (No. 416, Table 49) with
the same subject.






30 ":

DISCUSSION OF THE DIETARIES.

In the study of a, fruitarian diet previously published it was note&
that the foods used were almost exclusively fruit and nuts, the latterf'-
being the main sources of protein and fat, while the fruit furnished aj
the bulk of the carbohydrates, consisting chiefly of the different'sorts
of sugar, with considerable crude fiber and a small amount of starch.......
All the food was eaten raw. The cost of the diet varied from 17 cents
to 27.5 cents per person per day, and was on the average 20.7 cents.
Both the protein and the energy in every case were far below the
limits called for by the tentative American standards for persons per-
forming a like.amount of muscular work. No general conclusions
were drawn, as the data did not seem sufficient to warrant them. An
examination of the data recorded above will show that the present.
studies agree essentially with those previously reported.
In discussing the general question of a fruitarian diet it is of interest,
for purposes of comparison, to quote. the results obtained by other
investigators in studies of a vegetarian diet with subjects whose daily
fare included a considerable amount of fruit and nuts.
Voit0 studied the dietary of a vegetarian 28 years old, height 5
feet 5 inches, weighing 125 pounds, whose average daily diet con-
sisted of 131 grams pumpernickel, 438 grams graham bread, 777 grams
apples, 114 grams dried figs, 247 grams dates, 66 grams oranges, 8
grams olives, and 21 grams olive oil.
Ten years later Rumpf and Schummn reported a metabolism exper-
iment with a vegetarian 19 years old, weighing 138 pounds, whose
daily consumption of food was as follows: 330 grams graham bread,
1,160 grams apples, 260 grams dates, 140 grams Quaker Oats, 100
grams rice, 75 grams sugar, and 30 grams nuts.
Albu,d in 1901, made a digestion experiment lasting five days, with
a vegetarian, a woman, 42 years old, whose weight was 83 pounds and
height 4 feet 3 inches. Her average daily diet included 120 grams
graham bread, 400 grams apples, 400 grams plums, 200 grams grapes,
64 grams nuts (without shells), 170 grams dates, and 100 grams lettuce.
The same author reports a twelve-day dietary study of one of the
leaders of the vegetarian movement in Germany, a man 48 years old,
height 5 feet 8 inches, weighing (with clothes) 153 pounds. The aver-
age daily diet consisted of 1,000 grams potatoes, 166 grams hazelnuts,
12.5 grams peanuts, 83 grams plums, 71 grams sugar, 93 grams raisins,
354 grams apples, 63 grams oranges, and 50 grams olive oil.
In Table 14 are given the results of all the dietary studies made with
a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 107.
bZtschr. Biol., 25 (1889), p. 232.
cZtschr. Biol., 39 (1899), p. 153.
d Ztachr. Klin. Med., 43 (1901), p. 75.











fruitarians at the University of California, and, for purpose of com-

parison, the tabulated results of the German dietaries referred to

above, the average results of a number of American dietaries, and the

tentative American standards for a man at sedentary and at moderately

active work and for a woman at light work. In making the calcula-

tions it was assumed that a woman would consume seven-tenths as

much as a man at moderate muscular work. The usual factor for a

woman is 0.8, but in the present instance the subject was very small

of stature, below the average in height and weight, and did only light

housework. The factors used for the boy and girl were 11. and 0.5,

respectively.


TABLE 14.-Comiparismo of daily dietar;es of fruitarians and re'fetariann with commonly
accepted standards.


STUDIES WITH WOMEN AND
CHILDREN, VALUES AS
i DETERMINED.

Woman,33 years old,diet-
ary No. 328. a
Woman,34 years old,diet-
ary No. 359.
Boy, 9 years old, dietary
No. 331. a
S Boy, 10 years old, dietary
No. 357.
Girl, 6 years old, dietary
No. 332.a
Girl, 7 years old, dietary
No. 333. a
Girl, 8 years old, dietary
No. 358.
Woman, 42 years old
(Albu).
Do .................

STUDIES WITH WOMEN AND
OF CHILDREN, VALUES CAL-
CULATED TO BASIS OF
MAN AT MODERATE MUS-
CULAR WORK.

S Woman,33 years old, diet-
ary No. 328. a
Woman,34 years old,diet-
i,. ary No. 359.
Boy, 9 years old, dietary
No. 331. a
r-- Boy, 10 years old, dietary
S No. 357. b
' Girl, 6 years old, dietary
No. 332.a
Girl, 7 years old, dietary
No. 333. a
Girl, 8 years old, dietary
No. 358.
Woman, 42 years old
(Albu).
:Do....................

STUDIES WITH MEN.

S Man, 63 years old, dietary
i No. 355.
Man, 64 years old, dietary
No. 356.
Man, 22 years old, dietary
I, No. 860. 6


Weight
of
subject.


Pounds.
90.0

9 .5

45.0

58.0

33. 0

35.0

37.0

83.0


Nature
of
dietary.


Fruitarian....

Vegetarian ...

Fruitarian ....

Mixed........

Fruitarian ....

.....do ........

Vegetarian -...

.....do ........
j.,


........ ...... .U ......


I..... .


..........


Fruitarian....

Vegetarian ...

Fruitarian....

Mixed ........

Fruitarian...

.....do........

Vegetarian...

.....do.......


.........l.....do ........


124.0

136.0

169.0


Fruitar'an...

Vegetarian ...

Mixed.......


Cost.


Cents.
23.7

15.8

19.9

16.0

17.0

27.5

15.7


33.9

21.0

39.8

27.0

34.0

55.0

31.4


23.0

18.1

26.0


Pro-
tein.




(r'rams.
33

43

27

48

24

40

32

31

49






47

61

54

80

48

80

64

41

59


40

54

94


Car-
Fat. bohy-
drates.




(runts. Gra nts.
59 1450

81 167

56 152

68 260

58 134

72 134

82 165

36 227

51 324






84 214

116 239

112 304

113 433

116 268

144 268

164 328

43 272

61 390


54 311

77 312

96 337


a See U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Rul. 107, p. 18.
bNot included in average. -


Fuel
value.




Caloric.v.
1,300

1,430

1,255

1,730

1,190

1,385

1,403

1,399

1,998






1,850)

2,050

2,510

2,880

2,375

2,770

2,805

1,679

2,398


1,712

2,044

2,582


Nutri-
tive
ratio.




1:
8.6

8.0

10.3

7.6

11.1

7.4

10.9

9.1

9.1






8.6

8.0

10.4

7.6

11.1

7.4

10.9


10.9

9.0

6.9


''






32

TABLE 14.-Comparison of daily dietaries of fruitarians and vegetarians with wmmoly ".
accepted standards-Continued.

Weight Nature PCar- e : '
of of Cost. tein. at. bohy- vue. te
subject. dietary. edrates. rvlu i :;:

STUDIES WITH MEN -Cont'd.
Pounds. Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories. 1.
Man, 22 years old, dietary 168.0 Mixed........ 30.7 87 100 433 2,870 7.6
No. 361.a
Man, 22 years old, dietary 170. 0 Fruitarian.... 33.4 85 159 366 2,987 8; .
No. 362.
Man, 25 years old, dietary 151.0 .....do........ 47.0 68 103 615 3,305 12.8
No. 363. .,
Average ............. ........... .......... 62 98 401 2,49 10.0
Man,48 years old (Albu)... 153.0 Vegetarian... ....... 63 66 593 3,302 11.8
Man,28 years old (Voit)... 125.0 .....do........ ...... 54 22 573 2,775 11.6
Man, 19 years old (Rumpf 138.0 .....do ........ ....... 74 28 700 3,431 10.3
and Schumm).
Average of 53 studies of ......... .................... 103 138 436 3,500 7.3
well-to-do families in
the United States.
DIETARY STANDARDS.
Man at sedentary or wo- ....... Mixed........ ...... 100 ........ ........ 2,700 6.1
man with moderately
active work (Atwater)..
Man with light to moder- .............. do .............. 112 ........ ........ 3,050 6.1
ate muscular work (At-
water).
Man with moderate mus- ..............do............ 118 56 500 3,055 5.3
cular work (Voit).
Man with moderately ac- ......... do............... 125 ................ 3,400 .2
tive muscular work (At-
water).
Woman with light to ..............do ............... 90 ........ ........ 2,450 6.1 i
moderate muscular
work, or man without
muscular exercise (At-
water).

a Not included in average.

It will be seen from the table that the results of the two iniestiga-
tions at the University of California (1901 and 1902) correspond very
closely and also agree in the main with the findings of the German
investigators quoted in showing a uniformly small amount of protein
in the daily diet. This appears to obtain whether the diet is exclu-
sively or partly fruitarian.
It will be noted that the nutritive ratios of dietaries Nos. 359 and 357
are narrower than in previous dietary studies with the same subjects.
This and the increased fuel value and the decreased cost of the dieta-
ries also observed are presumably partly due to the use of cereals in
the latter studies. A comparison of dietaries Nos. 332, 333, and 358
shows that at less cost the latter furnishes more protein and energy
than No. 332. Dietary No. 333 furnishes more protein with nearly ,
the same fuel value as stated for No. 358, but the daily cost of the
former (27.5 cents) greatly exceeds that of the latter (15.7 cents).
The tabulated results of the fruitarian and vegetarian dietaries for
men show that the minimum quantity of protein (40 grams) and energy
(1,712 calories) per day are found in dietary No. 355. It is of more
than passing interest to observe that the maximum daily protein con-
tent for the fruitarian dietaries (85 grams) is not reported with a





33


fruitarian or even with a vegetarian, but with a student accustomed
all his life to a mixed diet, who followed the fruit and nut diet for the
first time during the period covered by study No. 362. It appears
from the table that, notwithstanding the high price of meat, the cost of
the mixed dietary No. 360 (26 cents per day) is less than that of either
of the two succeeding studies made with the same subject. The fuel
value, however, is greatest in study No. 362, with a strictly fruitarian
diet, the protein being but 9 grams less than in study No. 360.
The average value for the daily protein (62 grams) of the American
vegetarian and fruitarian dietary studies made with men is practically
identical with the corresponding average for German experiments.
There is not, however, such a close agreement in the case of energy,
for in the German studies the minimum, 2,775 calories, reported by
Voit exceeds by 10 per cent the average of the American studies.
Finally, it should be noted that as regards protein all the dietaries here
recorded are decidedly deficient as compared with the commonly
accepted American dietary standard for men at similar work. The
question how much protein is necessary daily for a man in order that
he shall maintain his nitrogen balance at the most satisfactory protein
level is an exceedingly important one.
The fuel value of the dietaries here reported seems to approach
much nearer the accepted standard than the protein, and in one case
(study No. 363) is slightly in excess of it. The cost of the daily diets
varies from 18.1 cents in study No. 356 to 46.5 cents in study No. 363.
It would thus seem that for a man at moderate work a strictly fruita-
rian diet would not be economical. At the same time it seems certain
that a vegetarian diet fulfilling all the requirements of our tentative
standards could be arranged which would cost no more than the aver-
age conventional diet and might in many cases cost less. The fruita-
rian diet possesses an advantage in that there is practically no waste.
In the case of nuts and fruit of the best quality the only refuse is the
uneatable portion, such as shells of nuts, stems of fruit, etc., and in
the case of prepared cereals even this does not obtain, as the waste
(hulls, etc.) is supposed to have been removed before they have been
marketed.
It appears to the writer from his experience that one serious and
very common fault with the vegetarians is their ignorance of the nutri-
tive value of the different fruits, nuts, and vegetable foods in general,
which accounts for the selection of foods furnishing at a fairly high
price much less nutritive material than could be furnished for the
same sum or less by other vegetable foods or by more reasonable
combinations.


1453-No. 132-03- 3





34

DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS.

The object of conducting the experiments here recorded was to
gather data relative to the digestibility of fruit and nuts, not only for
the purpose of ascertaining the quantities of nutriment utilized by the
vegetarian and fruitarian, which is of course of great physiological
interest, but also in order to learn whether fruit and nuts should be
considered as sources of nourishment in any considerable degree and
not merely as luxuries or as articles of supposed hygienic or medical
value.
Thirty-one digestion experiments, which included also determina-
tions of the nitrogen balance, were made with four different men.
Two of them, W. S. M. and C. P. H., subjects of dietary studies Nos.
355 and 356, respectively, were upward of 60 years old. They had
been, as already noted, accustomed to the fruitarian and vegetarian diet
for many years. Subject C. P. H. was in excellent health throughout
the entire experimental period. Subject W. S. M. complained at differ-
ent times of numbness in the feet and fingers, which had been troubling
him for several years."1
The other two men were university students in good health. J. E. R.,
subject of dietaries Nos. 360, 361, and 362, was accustomed to a mixed
diet and was placed on the fruitarian diet for purposes of comparison,
A. V., the subject of dietary No. 363, had been experimenting with
the fruitarian diet for several years.
The usual method was followed in conducting these experiments,
which, with two exceptions, lasted four days each. All the food eaten
and the resulting urine and feces were carefully weighed and analyzed.
The energy of the urine was computed by assuming that for every
gram of protein in the digested material there would be 1.25 calories
of energy lost in the organic matter of the urine.6 The separation of
the feces was made by means of charcoal, taken either in the form of
compressed tablets or in gelatin capsules. It was somewhat difficult
at times to make an accurate separation, but in the majority of the
tests the line of demarcation between the feces colored by the char-
coal and those not so marked was clear and distinct. In nineteen of
the experiments the feces were examined for the so-called metabolic
nitrogen.
It was planned to make tests with single fruits and then combine
them in succession with the different nuts ordinarily used, as it was
thought that in this way the digestion coefficients of the different nuts
alone could be obtained by making the usual calculations and that
their comparative digestibility would also be shown. In all, ten
a Six months after the conclusion of the experiment the subject became ill, and the
physician diagnosed the case as ocomotor ataxia, which later terminated fatally.
bU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 53, p. 27; Bul. 121, p. 21.






35


different varieties of fruit and six of nuts were experimented with.
The subjects ate ad libitum of the fruits and nuts decided upon for the
experiment. In some cases the diet of a single fruit or of a fruit with
nuts proved so unpalatable that it was deemed best to supply small
amounts of olive oil, tomatoes, or other materials in addition, in a
number of cases these articles being taken simply as relishes. When
this was done the diet was regarded as palatable. It is to be regretted,
however, that owing to the difficulty of following such a diet for any
length of time only two experiments were made with a single fruit.

EXPERIMENTS WITH W. S. M.

The experiments with each of the subjects are grouped together.
Those with W. S. M. follow:

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 3S..

Kind of food.-Grape,. with small quantities of olive oil, tomatoes.
and olives.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothin .).-At the beginning of the experiment (5.3
kilograms (124 pounds) and at the close 55.3 kilograms (122 pounds).
Duration.-Four days. with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast
November 19, 1901.

TABLE 15.--Resultq flf fhic.4irri, ,..tlriunil, N. 3ij.s'.

Carbohydrates. I
Sam- Weight Total it,, Heat of
pie Kind of food. I of ma- ; organic Fat. 'Sugar. A. bus-
No. aerial. matter. t.. starch, Fiber. tion.

IGraims. am..ms. Girams. 'Nrants. Grauns. rainmi. Grams. Grami,'. vfaorics.
205a. Grapes, Tokay.... 4,S33. 481.07 4.02 25.14 %5.0 .3-4.1 I 15.95 ,11.12 2,040
202a Grapes, Muscat... 649' 83.45 .73 4.mi 2.01 74..56 2.34 1.10 357
207a, Grapes, Cornichon 1. 305 407.93 3.51 21.96 6.89 377.10 1.9.8 12.0.5 1,732
49 Olive oil......... 2 52.000 ........ ... 43
32 Tomatoes......... I 8 3.01 .08 .52 I .23 1.91 .3.5 .29, 14
240 Olives..........., 113 35.15 i .46 2.85 26.00 2.8.5 3.45 5.90 282
Total....... 10,012 1,062.61 8.80 55.01 92.93 890.60 24.07 '30.46 4.908
18a Feces (water-free)l 127.74 111.33 4. 89 30..55 29.96 37.05 13.77 16.41 688
Amount digested. ........' 951.28 3.91 24.46 62.97 853.55 10.30 14.05 4,220
Per cent digested. ........ 89.52 44.43 44.46 67.76 95.84 42.80 i 16.13 86.00
Energy of urine .......... ..... .... ...................... ....... .. 31
Energy of food ,
oxidized in the
body........... 4,189
utilized .................... ....... .. ... ... 85.34,189


During the experiment the subject eliminated 5,692 grams urine,
containing 0.33 per cent or 18.69 grams nitrogen. The average nitro-
gen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food 8.8
grams; outgo in urine 4.67 grams, and in feces 1.22 grams; indicating
a loss of 3.69 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 23.06 grams protein.





..I.


36


The diet of grapes only was so monotonous that it was hardly possi-
ble to consume the required quantity. To obviate this difficulty a
small amount of olive oil and some olives and tomatoes were.also eatei,
the total nutrients supplied by these foods being small as compared
with the grapes. The subject considered this diet quite appetizing.
During the last two nights of the period, however, sleep was inter-
mittent and toward morning a hunger was experienced.


DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 389.


Kind offood.-Grapes and Brazil nuts, with small quantities of
honey, milk, and olive oil.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothiny).-At the beginning and end of the experi-
ment, 56.2-kilograms (124 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with-breakfast
November 26, 1901.


TABLE 16.-Results of digestion experiment No. 389.


Sam- Weight Total Nitro- Pro-
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic reino
No. triala. matter. gen. ein


Grams. Grnas. Grams. Grams.
205n Grapes,Tokay .... 1,315 130.84 1.09 6.84
202a Grapes, Muscat.... 1,161 149.30 1.30 8.13
207a Grapes,Cornichon 5,244 518.63 4.28 26.74
210 Brazil nuts....... 853 785.13 26.99 168.70
48 Honey............. 42 34.28 .06 .35
9 Milk .............. 52 6.39 .27 1.71
49 Olive oil.......... 14 14.00 ................
Total ........ 8,681 1,638. 57 33.99 212.47
22a Feces (water-freelj 152.84 131.80 5.38 33.64
Amount digested. ........ 1,506.77 28.61 178.83
Per cent digested. ......... 91.96 84.17 84.18
Energy of urine ................. ........ ......
Energy of food I
oxidized in the
body............ ....... .. ............... .. ..
Per cent of energy I
utilized ......... ............. .. ........ ........


Fat.



Grams.
1.58
3.60
8.39
540.00
2.08
14.00
569.65
50.15
519.50
91.20


, Carbohydrates.

Sugar,
starch, Fiber.
etc.

Grams. Grams.
118.08 4.34
133.39 4.18
459.38 24.12
51.18 25.25
33.93 ........
2.60 ........

798.56 57.89
39.56 8.45
759.00 49.44
95.06 85.40
........ .. ......

......... ........
......... ........


During the experiment the subject eliminated 4,229 grams of urine,
containing 0.452 per cent or 18.77 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
8.50 grams; outgo in urine 4.69 grams, and in feces 1.38 grams; indi-
cating a gain of 2.46 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 15.38 grams
protein.
The subject believed himself to be amply nourished by the above
diet, and found it more enjoyable at the close than at the commence-
ment of the test.


Ash.



Grams.
3.03
1.97
14.68
30.88
.09
.36

51.01
21.04
29.97
58.75


Heat of
combus-
tion.


Calories.
554
640
2,199
6,212
137
39
130
9,911
894
9,017
90.99
224

8,798
88.72


--


----






37


DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 390.

.TKimil f food.-Grapes, Brazil nuts. and .rraiiose. with snall
quantities of tomatoes, milk, and olive oil.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothing).-At the beginning and end of the experi-
ment, 56.2 kilograms (124 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, beginining witll breakfast
December 3, 1901.

TABLE 17.-Results of diygeslion e.rleriment No. 390.

Carbohydrates. I
Sam- Weight. Total Nitro- Pro- Heat of
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic en. i Fat. Sugar. Ahm. Combus-
No. triall, matter. g I starch., Fiber. tio'n.
I etc.

Grams. Grams. Grnams. Grains. Gram.s. GruIIs. Gramsi. 'Grnmi.t. (ilbinrit.v.
205ai Grapes, Tokay.... 1,456 144.73 1.21 7.57 1.75 130.75 4.66 3.3.5 613
202a Grapes, Muscat... 1,048 134.76 1.18 7.34 3.25 120.40 3.77 1.78 7
207a Grapes, Cornichou 2,073 20(5.02 1.69 10.57 3.32 1S61.59 9.54 5. .S69
211a. Grapes, Verdal .. 1,166 130.48 .99' 6. I 5.36 114.39 4.55 1.20 5;I
243 Granose .......... 1,275 1,103.33 22. 32 139. 48 13.13 94. 40 2.32 2S. 4, 9-_
210 Brazil nuts ....... 467I 429. .S 14.78 92.37 295.67 2.S.02 13.S2 16.91 3,402
32; Tomatoes.......... 118 6.13 .17 1.06 .47 3.89 .71 .59 j 29
9 I Milk.............. 57 7.01 .30 1.88 2.28 2.85 i ........ 40 43
49 Olive oil ......... 9 9.00 ........ ........ 9.00 .........'........ ........ 84
Total ....... 7,669 2,170.34 42.61 266.45 334.23 1,530.29 39. 37 I 61.84 11,174
26a Feces (water-free)' 168. 1 I 145.33 6.21 3$. 80 52.41 39.07 15.05 23. l 1 943
Amount digested. ........ 2,025.01 36.43 227.65 2S1.82 1.491.22 1 24.32 38.66 1 10,231
Per cent digested ......... 93.31 85. 44 85.44 84.32 97.45 61.77 62.5.2 91.56
Energy of urine ............................ .. .... ..... .... .. .... .........85
Energy of food
oxidized in the ,
body ................... .......................... ........ ........... ........ 9,946
Per cent of energy
utilized ... .... .. .... ................ ........ .. ......... ........ .... 9.01


During the experiment the subject eliminated 4,995 grams urine,
containing 0.438 per cent or 21.88 grams nitrogen. The average
daily nitrogen balance was therefore as follows: Income in food 10.66
grams; outgo in urine 5.47 grams, and in feces 1.55 grams; indicating
a gain of 3.64 grams nitrogen, or 22.75 grams protein.
The subject appeared to be well satisfied with this diet.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 393.

Kind of food.-Grapes and walnuts, with a small quantity of
granose.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothing).-At the beginning of the experiment 55.8
kilograms (123 pounds) and at the close 55.3 kilograms (122 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast
December 10, 1901.







38

TABLE 18.-Results of digestion experiment No. 393.


Kind of fool.


Weight Total Nit r-
of ma- organic g -n.
trial. matter. gen.


Pro-
Itein.


(Grants. Grams. Graims. Grams.
Grapes, Verdal ... 7,950 889.59 6.74 42.13
Walnuts.......... I 680 640.02 26.75 167.14
G ranose ......... 57 50.26 1.00 6.23

Total ....... 8,687 1,579.87 34.49 215.50
Feces (water free) 150.23 129.98 6.98 43.62
Amount digeted.. ....... 1,449.89 27.51 171.88
Per cent digested. ........ 91.77 79.76 79.76
Energy of urine.. ................. .................
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ........... .......... ...... ................
Per cent of energy
utilized......... .......... ..... ...
,_______ I_ ___,_ "_


ICarbohydrates.
I Heat of
Fat. Sugar, Ash. combus-
starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.

Grams. Gramsn. Grams. Grams. Calories.
36.57 779.89 31.00 28.62 J 3,884
427.86 32.30 12.72 12.99 5,038
.59 42.40 1.04 1.29 230
465.02 854.59 44.76 42.90 I 9,147
48.79 24.17 13.40 20.25 866
416.23 830.42 31.36 22.65 8,281
89.49 97.18 70.06 52.80 90.54
........ .................. ......... 215


8,066
88.18


During this experiment the subject eliminated 4,722 grams urine,
containing 0.473 per cent or 22.34 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day therefore was as follows: Income in food

8.62 grams; outgo in urine 5.59 grams, and in feces 1.74 grams;
indicating a gain of 1.29 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 8.06 grams
protein.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 394.


Kind ,of fod.-Japanese persimmons and peanuts, supplemented
by small quantities of tomatoes, granose, olive oil, and milk.

Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothe.).--At the beginning and at the close of the
experiment 56.2 kilograms (124 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, commencing with break-
fast December 18, 1901.

TABLE 19.-ResultRfS of digelion. experiment No 394.


Kind of focld.


Japanese persim-
mons ..........
Peanuts ..........
Tomatoes.........
Granose ..........
Olive oil..........
M ilk..............


Weight
of ma-
terial.


(iiriiii ..


7, 33.M
853
45
113
28
227


Total
Total Nitro- Pro-
organic g t Fat.
matter. gul. teill.


Grt ,iu.. Gr ins. Gralms. Grams.

1,069.87 12.21 76.32 41.10
789.49 44.54 278.40 i 403.70
2.35 .07 .41 .18
99.64 1.98 12.361 1.16
26.00 ................ 28.00
27.92 1.20 7.49 9.08


Total ........ 8,604 12,017.27 ( 60.00 374.98 1 483.22
Feces(water-free) 232.89 i 207.27 7.92 49.52 54.60
Amount digested. ....... 1,810.00 52.08 325.46 428.62
Per cent digested. ........ 89.72 86.80 86.80 88.70
Energy of urine .......... ..... ... ............... ........
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body............ ........ ......... .... ..... ........
Per cent of energy
utilized......... ........ ......... .... ................


Carbohydrates.

Sugar,
starch, Fiber.
etc.

Grams. Grams.
836.50 115.95
90.50 16.89
1.49 .27
84.06 2.06

11.35 1'........
1,023.90 135.17
89.86 13.29
934.04 121.88
91.22 90.16



......... ........


Sam-
pie
No.


211a
223
243


Sam-
pie
No.


-52a
255
32
243
49
9


41a


Ash.


Grams.
35.96
21.84
.22
2.55
1.59
62.16
25.62
36.54
58.78


Heat of
combus-
tion.


Calories.
4, 725
5,715
11
444
260
172
11,327
1,320
10,007
88.83
407


9,600
84.76


........ -....- ... .. ..... ........


-~~--~------


I





39


During this experiment the subject eliminated 4,538 grams urine,
containing 0.652 per cent or 29.58 grams nitrogen. The average
daily nitrogen balance therefore was as follows: Income in food 15
grams; outgo in urine 7.40 grams, and in feces 1.98 grams; indicating
a gain of 5.62 nitrogen, corresponding to 35.12 grams protein.
This unusual diet was of the subject's own selection and apparently
was satisfactory.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 396.

Kind offood.-Pears and walnuts, with small quantities of granose
and milk.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight withh clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment 57.1
kilograms (126 pounds) and at the close 56.7 kilograms (125 pounds).
Duration.--Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast
December 26, 1901.

TABLE 20.-Results of digestion experiment No. 396.


Sam-
pie
No.


51a
223
9
243


49al


SI Carbohydrates.
Weight Total Nitro- Pro- Heat of
Kind of food. of ma- ;organic; gn te Fat. Sugar. Ash. combus-
terial. matter starch, Fiber. I tion.
etc.

Gramms. G.rai s. Grams. Gras. ra Gras. Grams. Grams. 'lries.
Pears............. 9,778 1,465.74 12.36 77.25 37.16 1,237.90 113.43 33.25 6,287
Walnuts.......... 771 725.64 30.31 189.50 485.10 36.62 14.42 14.73 5,641
Milk.............. 227 27.92 1.20 7.49 9.08 11.35 ........ 1.59 171
Granose .......... 113 99.64 1.98 12.36 1.16 84.06 2.06 2.55 444
Total ....... 10,889 2,318.94 45.85 286.60 532.50 '1,369.93 129.91 52.12 12,542
Feces(water-free)I 184.48 168.38 7.29 45.57 i45.73 41.72 35.36 16.10 1,061
Amount digested. ........ 2,150.56 38.56 241.03 486.77 1,328.21 94.55 36.02 11,4 il
Percent digested......... 92.74 84.10 84.10 91.41 96.98 72.80 I 69.11 91.54
Energy of urine.. ........ ... ............ ...... ........ ........ ................ 301
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body. .......... ... ......... ...... ....... 11,180
Perentof energy I I
utilized......... ........... ........ ... ........ ....... .. ............ 89.12


During this experiment the subject eliminated 5,4'30 grams of urine,
containing 0.397 per cent or 21.55 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
11.46 grams; outgo in urine 5.39 grams, and in feces 1.82 grams;
indicating a gain of 4.25 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 26.56
grams protein.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 398.

Kind offood.-Pears and cocoanuts chiefly, with cheese, tomatoes,
and olive oil.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment 57.1
kilograms (126 pounds) and at the close 56.3 kilograms (124.5 pounds).






40

Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast '
January 6, 1902.

TABLE 21.-Re.sdi of digestion experiment No. 398.

Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total itr P- Heat of
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic tein. Fat. Sugar, Ash. combus-
No. trial. matter. g. starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
51. Pears............. 9,986 1,496.91 12.62 78.89 37.95 1,264.23 115.84 33.95 6,421
231 Cocoanuts........ 971 773.77 8.16 50.98 495.20 93.89 133.70 11.07 5,804
11 Cottage cheese... 57 14.93 1.91 11.91 .57 2.45 ........ 1.03 81
32 Tomatoes......... 14 i .73 .02 .13 .06 .46 .08 .07 5
49 Olive oil.......... 63 | 63.00 ........ ........ 63.00 ......... ........ .......586
Total ..... 11,091 !2,349.34 22.71 141.91 596.78 1,361.03 249.62 46.12 12,897
57a Feces (water-free) 175.45 160.65 5.65 35.30 52.11 34.89 38.35 14.80 1,022
Amount digested. ........ 2,188.69 17.06 106.61 544.67 1,326.14 211.27 31.32 11,876
Per cent digested.......... 93.16 75.12 75.12 91.27 97.44 84.64 67.91 92.09
Energy of urine.. ................. ................ .. ............... ........ 133
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body.................. .. .... 11,742
Percentof energy
S utilized....... .... ........... ........ 91.06


During this experiment the subject eliminated 6,792 grams urine,
containing 0.344 per cent or 23.37 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
5.68 grams; outgo in urine 5.84 grams, and in feces 1.41 grants; indi-
cating a loss of 1.57 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 8.81 grams
protein.
The diet used in this experiment was chosen by the subject and
proved appetizing. The pears were -aten in three different ways, i. e.,
raw, baked, and combined with tomatoes in a salad, which was dressed
with a little olive oil.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 401.

Kind of.food.-Apples, dried figs, and walnuts, with some granose
and milk.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment 57.6
kilograms (127 pounds), and at the close 58.1 kilograms (128 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast
January 14, 1902.






41

TABLE 22.-Resullts of digestion e'.p.''rinwt Au. 401.

I C('arboh ydrat e-.
Sam- :Weight Total Nitro- ro- Heat of
pie Kind of food. I of ma- organic g- Fait. Suar. Ai. coibus-
No. trial. matter. s -tarch, Fiber. tiion.
I u.

GramFi. Grains. iGralis. G ra-nnss.Grams. ('rts. Gr in.. Grams. 'lon-ics.
35 Figs, dried........ 1.012 769.11 (6.96 43.51 7.0 632..50 86.02 13.16 1 3,133
230a Apples............ 7,792 w63.36 5.11 31.9.5 10.91 769.07 51.43 20.26 3, 48
223 Walnuts.......... 657 618.36 25.83 161.49 413.38S 31.21 12.28 12.55 4,11
9 Milk.............. 227 27.92 1.20 7.49 U. 11.35 ........ 1.59 172
243 Granose ........... 113 99.64 1.98 12.36 1.16 84.06 I 2.06 2.55 444
Total ....... 9.801 2,378.39 41.0.8 256.80 441.l1 1.528.19 151.79 50.11 12,048
69a Feces(water-free) 221.23 193.41 12.00 75.02 52.01 32.87 33.51 27. 2 1,235
Amount digested. ........ 2,184.98 29. 0 181. 78 3I89.60 1,495.32 118.28 22.29 10.813
Per cent digested. ........ 91.86 70.79 70.79 88.22 97.,5 77.95 44.48 89.75
Energy of urine .. ....... ........................ ........................ ........ 227
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body .. ....................... ................. ...... ........................... 10,.-
Percent of energy .
utilized ......... ........ ........ ........ ......... ...... ....... ............... 87.87


During this experiment the subject eliminated 5,645 grams urine,
containing 0.424 per cent or 23.84 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
10.27 grams; outgo in urine 5.99 grams, and in feces 3 grams; indi-
cating a gain of 1.28 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 8 grams protein.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 403.

Kind of food.-Apples, dates, and peanuts, with some granose, olive
oil, tomatoes, and milk.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothel).-At the beginning of the experiment 58.1
kilograms (128 pounds) and at the close of the experiment 58.2 kilo-
grams (128.5 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals. beerinning with breakfast
January 21, 1902.

TABLE 23.-Remsult of digestion experiment No. 403.

i, Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total tro ro-Heat of
pie Kind of food. 4 of ma- organic gen t Fat. Sugar, Ash. combus-
No. trial matter starch, Fiber. tion.
I etc.
SI
Grans. i Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. s. COlories.
242a Apples............. 6,105 917.57 5.37 33.57 7.94 811.3.5 64.71 9.77 :3,782
37 Dates............. 1,071 605.02 4.63 28.92 I 3.21 550.40 22.49 I 13.92 2,495
255 Peanuts .......... 694 642.38 36.23 226.51 328.50 73.63 13.74 I 17.77 4,651
32 Tomatoes ......... 54 2.80 .08 .48 .22 1.78 .32 1 .27 13
49 Olive oil.......... 64 64.00 ........ ........ 64.00 ................. ........ 595
243 Granose .......... 113 99.64 1.98 12.36 1.16 84.06 2.06 2.55 444
9 Milk..............! 227 27.92 1.20 7.49 9.08 11.35 ........ 1.59 172
Total ........ 8,328 2,359.33 49.49 ,309.33 i 414.11 1,532.57 103.32 45.87 12,152
77a Feces (water-free), 220.55 195.85 10.82 67.60 69.15 43.56 15.54 24.70 1,315
Amount digested.!........ 2,163.48 38.67 241.73 344.96 1,489.01 87.78 21.17 10,837
Per cent digested. ......... 91.70 78.14 78.14 1 83.29 i 97.16 84.96 46.15 89.16
Energy of urine .. ........ ......... ................. ........ .......... ....... ........ 302
Energy of food I I I
oxidized in the
body ........... ........ ........ ....... ..... ... ........ ......... ........ ........ 10,535
Percentof energy i I
utilized ........ ........ ...... ........ ........ ........ ......... ........ ... ... 86.70
l i




. 4,: 'A...:*


42

During this experiment the subject eliminated 5,893 grams urine,
containing 0.503 per cent or 29.64 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
12.37 grams; outgo in urine 7.41 grams, and in feces 2.70 grams;
indicating a gain of 2.26 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 14.13 grams
protein.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 405.

Kind of food.-Apples, dates, pecans, with a little granose and
cottage cheese.
Subject.-W. S. M.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning and close of the experi-
ment 59 kilograms (130 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast
January 28, 1902.

TABLE 24.-Results of digestion experiment No. 405.


Kind of food.


Apples............
Dates ............
Pecans ...........
Cottage cheese ...
( ranose .........
Total .......
Feces (water free)
Amount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine ..
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ...........
Percent of energy
utilized.........


Carbohydrates.
Weight Total Pro-
of ma- i organic ro- Fat. I Sugar
trial. matter. starch, Fiber.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
8,305 1,248.24 7.31 45.68 10.80 1,103.73 88.03
],365 771.2'2 5.90 36.85 4.10 701.60 28.67
594 '559.23 14.90 93.08 424.81 22.51 18.83
45 11.80 1.51 9.41 .45 1.94 ........
45 39.68 .79 4.92 .46 j 33.48 .82
10,354 ,2,630.17 30.41 189.94 440.62 1,863.26 136.35
159.76 140.48 7.25 45.32 37.32 41.37 16.47
........ 2,489.69 23.16 144.62 i 403.30 1,821.89 119.88
........ 94.66 76.16 76.16 91.53 97.78 87.92
........ ......... ........ ........ ........ ......... .......

........ ......... ........ .
I ....... I......... ---. --
........ ......... ........ ........ ........


Heat of
Ash. combus-
tion.


Grams. Calories.
13.29 5,145
17.75 3,182
9.21 4,652
.81 65
1.02 1 177
42.08 13.221
19.28 893
22.80 12,328
54.18 93.23
......... 181

-----...- 12,147
......... 91.88


During this experiment the subject eliminated 5,648 grams urine,
containing 0.413 per cent or 23.33 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
7.00 grams; outgo in urine 5.84 grams, and in feces 1.81 grams;
indicating a loss of 0.05 gram nitrogen, corresponding to 0.31 gram
protein.
Concerning the diet used in this test the subject stated that it was
enjoyable throughout and eaten with increasing relish.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 406.

Kind of food.-Apples, raisins, and walnuts, with peanuts, peanut
butter, granose, cottage cheese, and butter.
Subrjeet.-W. S. M.


Sam-
pie
No.


242a
37

243


SMia


-~--






43

Weight (with/ clothe0s).-At the beginning :and close of the experi-
ment 59.4 kilograms (131 pounds).
D)trtion.-Four days, with twelve meals, bwegillining with breakfast
February 4. 1902.

TAnn 25.R.-Rsit i.s of difr.Sl;in (.rpwriment No. 401.


I
Weight Total
Kind of fond I of mn- nrganie


Nitr,-


Pro-


Fa t


Carbohydrates.
Suiigir I ch


Heat i f
Pf'll1f 1 htl1_-


-.---*" --g n. teIn I .
trial. matter. te. sltrch, Fiber. tion.


Grams. Gramins. Grainms. Grants. Gramsl. Graii.s. Grnims.. 1Gramns. C(ailri s.
Apples............... 7,24 1,175.93 6. 8S 43. 03 10.17 1,039. 8. 93 12.52 4,847
Raisins........... 1,33 915.05 I 9.74 60.88 8.16 ,S7.1 l 8.3 42.01 3,941
Walnuts ......... 1,039 37. 12 16.16 101.00 2-58.90 19.53 7.69 7.90 3,009
Butter........... 2 24.0s 0 .2 23. ........ ........ .08 325
Grano-e .......... 113 99.64 1.9s 12.36 1.16 84.06 2.06 2.55 444
Peanuts .......... 73 67.58 3. N 23. x3 34.55 7.75 1.45 1. S7 46
Peanut butter.... 59 54.81 2.77 17.29 27.43 10.09 ........ .30 395
Cottage cheese ... 73 19.13 2.44 15.26 .73 3.14 ........ 1.31 105
Total ........ 10,547 !2,.743.34 43.83 273.93 36-4.90 2,001. 55 102. 96 |6. 54 13,552
Feces (water-free I 165.39 1 144.92 8.46 52.93 47.10 i 31. S9 10.. 0 20.47 975
Amount digested ......... 2,598.42 35.37 221.00 317.80 1,966.66 92.96 4S.07 12,577
Percent digested. ........ 94.72 30.70 s. 68 87.10 9s.:5 2 00 9.0 70.2.
Energy of urine.. ....... .......... ............... ........ ........ ....... 276
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body .................. ................. ................ ......... ........ ....... 12,301
Percentof energy
utilized.... .. ...... ................. ........ ........ ... 9.... 7..... .. .


During this experiment the subject eliminated 5,q055 grams urine,
containing 0.446 per cent or 22.57 grams nitrogen. The average nitro-
gen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food 10.96
grams; outgo in urine 5.64 grams, and in feces 2.12 grams; indicat-
ing a gain of 3.20 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 20 grams protein.
The subject stated that the combination of fruits and nut. used in
this test was quite satisfactory. The raisins were seeded and with the
nuts made into a sort of mincemeat, which was eaten with great relish.

DISCUSSION OF DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS WITH SL'BJECT W.. S. 1.

A study of the foregoing experiments brings to light a large amount
of interesting data. In order to facilitate a review of these the results
have been summarized in the following tables.
Table 26 shows the weight, composition, and fuel value of the food'
eaten per day during the different experiments; Table 27 summarizes
the coefficients of digestibility for each of the eleven experiments, and
Table 28 gives a summary of the income and outgo of nitrogen as
determined for the individual experiments.


Sam-
ple
No.


242a
257
223a
10
243
255
44
11


89a







44


TABLE 26.- Weight and conrposition of food per man per day.


Ex-
peri-
nl -il


Kind of fo4d.


No. I



388S Grape, assorted..
:3j9 (rapes, and Bra-
zil nuts........
390 Grapes, Brazil
nuts, granose...
393 Grapes, walnuts,
granose.........
391 Japanese persim-
mons, peanuts
(milk, 227grams)
396 Pears, walnuts,
(milk,227grams:
granose, 113
grams) .........
398 Pears, cocoan ut ..
401 Dried figs,apples,
walnuts........
403 Apples. dates,
1 peanuts ........
405 Apples, dates,
Pecans .........
406 Apples, raisins, I
walnuts .......

Average, 11
experi-
ments....


Weight Total Nilr,-
of ma- organic gn.
terial. matter.


(Grats. Granm. ramls..
2,503 265. 65 2.20

2,170 409.64 8..50

1,917 542.58 10.66

2,172 394.97 1 8.62


2,151


2,722
2,773

2,450

2,082

2, 589

2, 37


504.31


579.74
587.134

594. (0

589.83

657.58


15.00


11.46
5.6S

10.27

12.37

7.60


Pro- Fat
tein. Fat.


Grtins. GrmiJ.
13.75 23.23

53.12 142.41

66.61 83.56


93.74


71.665
35. 48

64.20

77.33

47.48


685.S1 i 10.96 i 8.48 I


2,379 528. 37


9.39 58. 70


Carbohydrates.

Sugar.


starch,
etc.

Gramins.
222. 65

199.64

382.57
.** n A- -


1 6. 26 a 13. 05.


120.80 255.98


133.13 342.48
149.19 340.26

110.40 382.05

103.53 I 383.14

110.15 465.86

91.23 500.39


107.63 335.33


Heat of
Ash. combus-
tion.


Grams. ihlories.
7.61 1,047

12.75 2,198

15.46 2,487

10.72 i 2,017


Fiber.


Grams.
6.02

14.47

9.84

11.19


33.79


32.48
62.41

37.95

25.83

34.09

25.74


26.71


2,400


2,795
2,936

2,647

2,634

3,037

3,075


2,479


TA BLE 27.-Si mr(nary of digestion experiments.


Kind of food.


Grapes, with small amount of olive
oil, tomatoes, and olives.........
Grapes, Brazil nuts................
Grapes, Brazil nuts, granose......
Grapes, walnuts, granose..........
Persimmons and peanuts (milk,
227 grams) ......................
Pears, walnuts, milk, granose.....
Pears and cocoanut................
Dried figs, apples, walnuts ........
Apples, dates, peanuts............
Apples, dates, pecans...............
Apples, raisins, walnuts...........

Average, 11 experiments.....


Total
organic
matter.


Per ct.

89.52
91.96
93.31
91.77

89. 72
92.74
93.16
91.86
91.70
94.66
94.72

92.56


Protein.


Per ct.

4-.43
84.17
85.44
79.76

86.80
84.10
75.12
70.79
78.14
76.16
80.70

79.96


:Carbohydrates.


Fat.


Per ct.

67.76
91.20
84.32
89.49

88.70
91.41
91.27
88.22
83. 29
91.53
87.10

88.61


Sugar,
starch
etc.

Per ei.

95.84
95.06
97.45
97.18

91.22
96.98
97.44
97.85
97.16
97.78
98.25

96.88


Fiber.


Per ci.

42.80
85.40
61.77
70.06

90.16
72.80
84.64
77.95
84.96
87.92
90.30

81.86


Ex-
peri-
ment
No.



38.

389
390
393
394

396
398
401
403
405
406


Ash.



Per ct.

46.13
58.75
62.52
52.80

58.78
69.11
67.91
44.48
46.15
54.18
70.14

58.47


Energy
avail-
able.


Per ct.

85.36
88.72
89.01
88.18

84.76
89.12
91.06
87.87
86.70
91.88
90.78

88.78


,

::il


15.54


13.03
11.53

12.53

11.47

10.52

17.14


12.58






45


TABLE 28.-Income and outyr of nitrogen.


Kind of food.


Ex-
peri-
ment
No.


388
389
390
393
394

396

398
401
403
405
406


Nitr


In considering these and the succeeding digestion
must be remembered that the digestibility of the food
the coefficients of digestibility, depend on many factors.
been so freely discussed in previous publications of thi


Grapes, assorted, whole period (4 days).............
Average for 1 day ..................................
Grapes, Brazil nuts, whole period (4 days).........
Average for 1 day ..................................
Grapes, Brazil nuts, granose, whole period (4 days).
Average for 1 day .................................
Grapes, walnuts, granose, whole period (4 days)...
Average for 1 day ..................................
Persimmons, peanuts (milk, 227 grams), whole
period (4 days) ..................................
Average for 1 day .. ..........................
Pears, walnuts (milk, 227 grams; granose, 113
grams), whole period (4 days)....................
Average for 1 day ................................ .
Pears, cocoanut, whole period (4 days) ............
Average for 1 day ..............................
Dried figs, apples, walnuts, whole period (4 diays).
Average for 1 day .............. .................
Apples, dates, peanuts, whole period (4 days)......
Average for 1 day ...............................
Apples, dates, pecans, whole period (4 days).......
Average for day ............................
Apples, raisins, walnuts, whole period (4 days)....
Average for 1 day .............................


this present instance it is not necessary to treat the matter in detail.
It might not be out of place, however, to call to mind some of Praus-
nitz'sb observations in this connection. He points out that there are
three possibilities-either (1) each food digests as if it were used alone,
or (2) one is hindered or (3) is helped in digestion by the presence of
others. For the experiments under discussion the question is an
exceedingly important one.
It appears from an examination of the data in Table 32 that in the
first experiment, No. 388, in which the diet consisted entirely of grapes,
the coefficients of availability for protein are extremely low. This
may be accounted for in several ways. The protein of the grape mlay
contain considerable amid nitrogen, although an examination of the
data for the urine and feces would tend to an opposite view. The total
amount of protein supplied by the food during the experimental period
was 55 grams, while the feces contained 30.55 grams, or over 60 per
cent, implying either a large amount of undigested protein or an
unusual excretion of nitrogen in the so-called metabolic products. A
reference, however, to Table 55, page 73, showing the metabolic nitro-
gen of the feces, indicates that for the experiment the feces contained
about 1.3 grams of nitrogen in the so-called metabolic products, while
the average of the 11 experiments is 1.35 grams. Whether the low

a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21, pp. 53-80. See also
Konig's Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, 1889, p. 46.
bArch. Hyg., 1893, p. 626.


Nitr(


In food. In urine.

Gramns. Gramis.
8.80 18.69
2.20 4.67
33.99 18.77
8.50 4.69
42.64 21.88
10.66 5.47
34.49 i 22.34
8.62 5.59
60.00 29.58
15.00 7.40
45.85 21.55
11.46 5.39
22.71 23.37
5.68 5.84
41.08 23.94
10.27 5.99
49.49 29.64
12.37 7.41
30.41 23.33
7.60 5.83
43.83 22.57
10.96 5.64


ogen.

In fees. Gain (+)
or loss ( ).

Graims. Grams.
4.89 -14.78
1.22 3.69
5.39 + 9.83
1.35 + 2.46
6.21 +14.55
1.55 + 3.64
6.98 + 5.17
1.74 + 1.29
7.93 +22.49
1.98 + 5.62
7.29 +17.01
1.82 + 4.25
5. 64 6.30
1.41 1.57
12.01 + 5.13
3.00 + 1.28
10.82 + 9.03
2.70 + 2.26
7.26 .18
1.,1 .05
8.46 +12.80
2.12 + 3.20


experiments it
, and therefore
The point has
s Office a that in






46


coefficient obtained in this instance is due to the indigestibility of the
grape protein, or whether it is a case of personal equation, or whether
it is to be accounted for by the monotony of the diet, is one of the
many questions which this investigation has given rise to.
The coefficient of digestibility for sugar, etc., is fairly high. That
for the fat (ether extract) is low, but as we are not perfectly familiar
with the composition of this material little can be said regarding its
digestibility.
The food eaten in this experiment is less than a maintenance diet,
as proved by the loss in body protein and total weight. The results
obtained from experiment No. 389 are much more satisfactory in every
way. The amount of protein was almost four times and the energy
more than double the quantity ingested in the previous experiment.
The coefficients of digestibility, 84 per cent for protein, 91 per cent
for fat, 85 per cent for fiber, and 58 per cent for mineral matter, are
all far higher than those reported for the grape experiment. This
implies that the Brazil nut is quite thoroughly digested, at least by
this subject. Whether like conditions would obtain with other sub-
jects is a question for further study. The Brazil nut does not find as
much favor with fruitarians generally as either the almond or walnut.
When walnuts were substituted for Brazil nuts, as in experiment
No. 393, a decided lowering of the digestive coefficients was noticed,
which tends to show that for this subject at least walnuts are not as
well assimilated as Brazil nuts.
It is of more than passing interest to note the high digestibility
observed in experiments Nos. 394 and 398 for a diet consisting in the
main, respectively, of Japanese persinmmons and peanuts and of pears
and cocoanut. These two combinations are not usually considered to
be inviting or appetizing even for one meal, yet this subject subsisted
on each of them for four days. During the first test he gained 140
grams in body protein, while during the second he lost about 39 grams.
It appears from a consideration of experiment No. 401, in which the
main foods used were apples, dried figs, and walnuts, and No. 406,
where the diet consisted chiefly of apples, raisins, and walnuts, that
the raisins were more thoroughly digested than the dried figs. This
point is further emphasized by referring to Table 22, which shows for
the period covered by experiment No. 401 a gain of 32 grams protein,
while for experiment No. 406 a gain of 80 grams is recorded. The
fact that the diet used in the latter experiment contained some pea-
nuts and peanut butter may account to some extent for the increased
digestibility but not for the great difference observed.
A comparison of the results of experiments Nos. 403 and 405, in
which apples and dates were eaten, combined in the former test with
peanuts and in the latter with pecans, indicates that for this subject
there is little choice between the two nuts as regards digestibility.
The main difference observed was in the fat.


I: i


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:i






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.Mi
.:!

i





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i :

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47


The average coefficients of digestibility for the fruits and nuts in the
above experiments made with this subject indicate that these foods
possess a high nutritive value. This is shown further by the fact that
during the entire experimental period of eleven weeks, from November
19, 1901, to February 7, 1902, while living upon a diet consisting
mainly of fruit and nuts the subject gained 7 pounds in body weight.
It appears from Table 28 that the income of nitrogen in the food was,
with the exception of experiment No. 394, generally low. The
minimum quantity of nitrogen, recorded for experiment No. 388,
namely, 2.2 grams per day, was naturally coexistent with the maximum
loss. It would seem from the results of experiment No. 405 that with
a diet furnishing about 4,400 calories of energy this subject required
about 8 grams of nitrogen per day for the maintenance of nitrogen
equilibrium, for with a daily income of 7.6 grams of nitrogen there was
a loss of only 0.a5 gram. In two experiments, Nos. 388 and -')8,
where the income fell still lower, there was a corresponding greater
loss of body protein. In the remaining experiments, notwithstanding
the small income of nitrogen, there is recorded an average daily gain
varying from 1.28 grams of nitrogen in experiment No. 401 to 5.62
grams in experiment No. 394.
EXPERIMENTS WITH C. P. H.
The details follow of the digestion experiments nmde with C'. P. H.,
who, as previously stated, was a man about 60 years old and in excellent
health. For many years he had been accustomed to a diet similar to
that eaten during the experimental period.
DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 391.
Kind of fod. -Bananas.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothe.s).-At the beginning and close of the experi-
ment, 61.7 kilograms (136 pounds).
Duration.-Three days, with eight" meals, beginning with breakfast
December 2, 1901.
TABLE 29.-Results qf digestion experiment No. 3.1.

I Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total tro Pro Heat of
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic e. ti Fat. Sugar, Ash. combus
No. trial. matter. i starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Cahlrics.
212a Bananas.......... 6.520 906.28 10. 53 65. 85 9.78 809.13 21.52 33.2.5 3,839
29a Feces (water-free) 57.40 50.21 2.52 15.78 7.93 24. 22 2.28 7.19 296
Amount digested. ....... 856.07 8.01 50.07 1.85 7,4.91 19.24 26.06 3.543
Per cent digested. ................. 76.07 76.04 18.92 97.01 89.40 78.38 92.30
Energy of urine.. ........ ......... ........ ........ ...... ..................... 63
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ......... ............... ...... .... .... 3,480
utilized .............. ..... ...... ...... .... .. ....... ..... ... ........ 90.66

aThis subject usually ate but two meals per day,





48

During this experiment the subject eliminated 2,422 grams uriie, :
containing 0.497 per cent or 12.03 grams nitrogen. The average "i:
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food !
3.51 grams; outgo in urine 4.01 grams, and in feces 0.84 gram; ....
indicating a loss of 1.34 grams, corresponding to 8.38 grams protein.
The subject usually rose at 6.30 and took a cold-water sponge bath,
followed by gymnastic exercises. He was engaged in literary-work,
though he also exercised about four hours daily in the open air.
This diet of bananas became exceedingly monotonous, and the subject
craved some variation soon after the commencement of the experi-
ment. The fruit was eaten both raw and cooked, and was most
pleasing when toasted, with a little salt added. It was noticed that .
when raw bananas were eaten the subject was not hungry as soon as
when the toasted fruit was eaten. Ordinarily the subject ate but two
meals a day, but he found that two meals of bananas were not suffi-
cient to keel) him from being hungry all the time. He stated that he
felt as well at the close of the experiment as at the beginning, except
that he was hungry for something which bananas did not furnish and
which he thought nuts or something akin to nuts would supply. He
did not think that bananas should have all the credit for his continued
health and good physical condition, since he believed that he could have
fasted for the three days and still have been strong and well, provided
he could have had at least eight hours sleep per day.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 392.

Kind offood.-Bananas and almonds.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weiqg/t (wit/i clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment 62.8
kilograms (138.5 pounds), and at the close 62.6 kilograms (138 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
December 10, 1901.

TABLE 30.-Re.suld of digestion e.rperiment No. 392.

Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total Heatof
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic itro- Pro- Fat. Sugar, Ash. ombus-
No. trial. matter. gen. tein. starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.

Grams. Grains. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
212a Bananas.......... 7,058 981.05 11.41 71.28 10.59 875.89 23.29 36.00 4,154
249 i Almonds......... 481 446.38 13.30 83.12 261.19 89.66 12.41 13.37 3,317


S Total ......
33a Feces (water-free)
A mount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine..
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ...........
Per centofenergy
utilized.........


7,539 1,427.43 24.71 154.40 271.78 965.55 35.70 49.37 7,471
172.03 143.49 7.41 46.34 41.63 47.16 8.36 28.54 931
........ 1,283.94 17.30 108.06 230.15 918.39 27.34 20.83 6,540
........ 89.91 70.01 70.00 84.70 95.13 76.59 42.19 87.53
........ ......... ........ ........ ........ ......... ........ ........ 135

........ ................. ........ .------------ .... .-----........---... ......--------. ----6,405
........ ......... -- -........ ....... .. ......... ........ ........ 85.73


;" """ "'"






49


During this experiment the subject eliminated 3,75o grains urine,
containing 0.553 per cent or 20.73 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follow.-: Income in food
6.18 grams; outgo in urine 5.18 grams, and in feces 1.86 grains: indi-
cating a loss of 0.86 gram nitrogen, corresponding to 5.38 grams
protein.
During the first day of this test the subject ground the almonds to a
fine paste, thereby causing a separation of the oil. This pasty mass,
closely resembling peanut butter, did not digest well. During the suc-
ceeding three days he ate the nuts without grinding, and they seemed
to digest more easily. The diet was appetizing and very satisfactory
to the subject, who believed that he could follow it much longer than
four days and also work hard, both physically and mentally.
The results of the experiment, however, do not bear out this belief.
The nitrogen equilibrium was not kept up, the energy utilized was
very low, and there was a slight loss of body weight.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 395.

Kind of food.-Bananas and walnuts.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment 63.2
kilograms (139.5 pounds), and at the close of the experiment 62.1
kilograms (137 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with six meals, beginning with first meal
December 18, 1901.
TABLE 31.-Restuldt of digestion experiment .Vu. 395.

Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total1 i- Pro Heat of
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic Fat. Sugar. Ash. combus-
No. trial. matter. n. t search, Fiber. tiou.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grai.ms. Grams. Gramts. C(alries.
212a Bananas.......... 6,180 859.07 9.99 62.41 9.27 767.00 20. 39 31.52 3,637
223a Walnuts........... 1,050 391.33 16.34 102.17 261.65 19.74 7.77 7.9S 3,058
Total ....... 7,230 1,250.40 ,26.33 164.58 270.92 786.74 28.16 39.50 I 6.695
45a Feces (water-free) 164.06 142.14 i 6.36 39.73 41.2.5 48. bl 12.35 21.92 930
Amount digested. ........ 1,108.26 19.97 124.85 229.67 737.93 15.$1 17.5S 5,765
Percent digested. ........ 88.60 75.85 75.85 1 M4.79 93.o r 5t6.12 44.52 84.85
Energy of urine ........................................................ ................ 156
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body............ ................ .. ........ ....................... ....... ..... -5,609
Percent of energy I '
utilized....... ........ ........ ..... .......... ...... .. 3.78

During this experiment the subject eliminated 2,790 grams urine,
containing 0.644 per cent or 17.97 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
6.58 grams; outgo in urine 4.49 grams and in feces 1.59 grains;
indicating a loss of 0.50 gram nitrogen, corresponding to 3.13 grams
protein.
1453-No. 132-03- 4






50


As above noted, only six meals were taken during this test--on te ":
first day, one; on the second day and third day, two meals each; and i
on the fourth day, one meal.
The subject noticed that the diet used was monotonous, and that;. :
he did not look forward to mealtime with any degree of pleasur-
able anticipation. He also observed that while his general health
remained good, when running up hill his legs became weak before
reaching the top, which did not happen when using a diet of cereals,
legumes, fruit, and nuts. Undoubtedly the loss of weight would
have been much less and more meals would have been taken during
the experiment had the subject been able to eat the food with more
relish.
DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 397.

Kind offood.-Apples and walnuts.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (wi':th clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 63.1
kilograms (139 pounds), and at the close of the experiment, 61.9 kilo-
grams (136.5 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with nine meals, beginning with breakfast
December 26, 1901.

TABLE 32.-Resutll of (ligestion experiment No. 397.

i Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total N, ro- Heat of
pie I Kind of food. of ma- organic gen. tein. Fat. Sugar, Ash. combua-
No. trial. matter. ge. tein. starch, Fiber.- tton.
etc.
Grams. Graims. Grams.. Grams. Grams. Gram. Grams. Gram.s. (Clories.
209a: Apples............ 4,593 467.56 3.89 24.34 24.80 375.70 42.72 11.02 2,100
223a Walnuts.......... 1,589 592.23 24.74 154.60 S96.0J 29. 7 11.76 12.08 4,599
Total ....... 6,182 1,059.79 28.63 178. S 420.80 405.57 54.48 23.10 6,699
53a Feces(water-free)! 215.45 143.24 10.75 67.18 70.49 33.66 11.91 32.21 1,276
Amount digested.'........ 876.55 17.88 111.76 350.31 371.91 42.57 ........ 5,423
Pir cent digested. .... 82.72 62.46 62.46 83.25 91.70 78.14 ...... 80.95
aergy of urine .. ........ ......... ........................... ... ....... ......140
Energy of food .
oxidized in the
body........... ..... .................... ...... .5,288
Per cent of energy
utilized................... ........ ........ 78.86

During this experiment the subject eliminated 4,024 grams urine,
containing 0.450 per cent or 18.14 grams nitrogen. The average :
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
7.18 grams; outgo in urine 4.53 grams, and in feces 2.69 grams;
indicating a loss of 0.04 gram nitrogen, corresponding to 0.25 gram
protein.
The subject stated that he did not find this diet as sustaining as
when baananas were used in the place of apples. Usually two meals
sufficed for the day's need, hut on the second day of the experiment






51

be felt the necessity of a third meal, which was eaten about 7 p. m.
In this instance the physiological results are entirely in accord with
data of the test. The diet furnished only a small amount of nutri-
ment, and as a natural consequence the subject felt weak and unable
to perform his usual gymnastic exercises or to take his accustomed
long walk.
DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 399.

Kind of food.-Apples and almonds.
S Subject. -C. P. H.
S Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 63.7
kilograms (140.5 pounds), and at the close, 61.9 kilograms (136.5
pounds).
SDuration.-Four days, with eight meals. beginning with breakfast
January 6, 1902.

TABLE 33.-Re.salts qf digestion experiment No. 399.


Sam- Weight Total Nitro- P
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic g tein.
No. trial. matter. g"

SGrams. Grams. Gras. Grs. Grams.r
209a Apples............ 5,840 594.50 5.04 30.95
249 Almonds ......... 851 789.69 23.53 147.04
Total ........ 6,691 11,384.19 28.57 1 77.99
61a Feces (water-free)' 162.48 144.10 7.29 45.56
Amount digested. 6,528.52 1,240. 10 21. 2A 132.43
Per cent digested. ......... 89.61 74.48 74.41
Energy of urine ........ ......... ........ ........
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body.......... ................. ................
Per cent of energy
utilized .................. ......... ................


Carboh ydrates.
Fat. Sugar,
starch, Fiber.
etc.

Grams. GraGrms. Grans.
31.53 477.70 54.32
462.10 158.60 21.95
493.63 636.30 76.27
58.00 26.45 14.09
435.63 609.85 62.18
88.23 95.85 81.53


---


Heat of
Ash. combus-
tion.

Grams. C(rloric..
14.02 2,683
23.66 5,883
37.68 8,566
18.38 1,018
19.30 7,548
51.22 88.11
........ 165


7,383
86.18


During this experiment the subject eliminated 5,125 grams urine,
containing 0.399 per cent or 20.45 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
7.14; outgo in urine 5.11 grams, and in feces 1.82 grams; indicating
a gain of 0.21 gram nitrogen, corresponding to 1.31 grams protein.
The subject drank no water during this experiment and although
apples are quite succulent and supply considerable water, the lack of
it as a beverage may tend to account to some extent for the loss of 4
pounds in body weight. The fact that there was such a decrease
in weight combined with a slight increase in protein would seem to
warrant such a conclusion.
The subject found himself becoming steadily weaker as the experi-
ment continued. He omitted much of his usual exercise and consider-
ably shortened his daily walk,


--


----


__






.5 2 ..: .......
52

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 400.

Kind offood.-Apples, bananas, walnuts.
Subject.-C. P. H. ...
Weight withh clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 64 kilo-
grams (141 pounds), and at the close, 64.2 kilograms (141.5 pounds). I
Duration.--Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
,January 14, 1902.

TABLE 34.-Results of digestion experiment No. 400.

Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total Nitro- Pro- Heatof'
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic r Fat. Sugar, Ash. combus..
No. trial. matter. starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
209a Apples........... 3,968 403.97 3.36 21.04 21.43 324.60 36.90 9.52 1,820
212a' Bananas.......... 4,196 583.24 6.78 42.38 6.29 520.72 13.85 21.40 2,470
223a Walnuts.......... 1,531 570.60 23.84 148.97 381.52 28.78 11.33 11.63 4,441
Total ....... 9,695 1,557.81 33.98 212.39 409.24 874:10 62.08 42.55 8,731
65a Feces (water-free) 176.47 151.23 8.63 53.91 40.28 48.14 8.90 25.24 1,006
Amount digested. ........ 1,406.58 25.35 158.48 368.96 825.96 53.18 17.31 7,725
Per cent digested......... 90.30 74.61 74.61 90.15 94.48 85.66 40.68 88.47
Energy of urine .......... ................... ...... ....... ................ 198
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body...... .... ...... ..... .. ...... ........ .......... ........ ........ ........ 7,527
Per cent of energy
utilized............................. 86.20 .!


During this experiment the subject eliminated 3,350 grams urine, .
containing 0.575 per cent or 19.30 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
8.51 grams; outgo in urine 4.82 grams, and in feces 2.16 grams;
indicating a gain of 1.53 grams nitrogen or 9.56 grams protein.
The bananas were sliced and cooked to a mush without adding water
or salt. They were found to be more palatable than when eaten either
raw or toasted.
This test was much more satisfactory than the previous one in many
ways. The weight was slightly increased and there was an appre- "
ciable gain in protein. The subject remained in good physical con-
dition during the entire experimental period, exercising and taking
long walks. On the second day he ran almost a mile in six minutes,
and remarked that he could have kept up the exercise longer. He
also performed considerable mental work during the four-day experi-
ment, writing as late as midnight on two occasions.





53

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 402.

Kind of food.-Apples, bananas, almonds.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight withh clothes).-At the beginning and end of the experiment,
64.2 kilograms (141.5 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
January 21, 1902.

TABLE 35.-Results of digestion e.rperimeni No. 402.


Kind of food.


Apples.... .......
Bananas.........
Almonds .........
Total.......
Feces (water-free)
Amount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine..
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body............
Per cent of energy
utilized.........


Weight
of ma-
terial.


Grams.
3,515
3,572
1,333
8,420
205. 35


i; Carbohydrates.
Total Heat of
.oal Nitro- Pro- IHeatof
organic n tro tPr Fat. Sugar. i sh. combus-
gen. tein. arch
matter. starch, Fiber. t ion.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grans. Grains. ('alorics
357.81 2.98 18.63 18.98 287.51 32.69 8.44 1,612
496.52 5.77 36.07 5.36 443.30 11.79 18.22 2,100
1,236.98 36.85 230.32 723.80 248.47 34.39 37.06 9,199
2,091.31 45.60 285.02 748.14 i 979.28 78.87 I 63.72 12,911
177.81 9.16 57.20 I 61.09 46.56 12.96 27.5 1,244
1,913.50 36.44 227.82 I 687.05 932.72 65.91 36.18 11,667
91.51 79.93 79.93 | 91.84 95.24 83.57 57.25 90.36

......... ........ ........ ........ ......... ........ ........ 1,3285

......................... .... ........ 88.15
...... .... ..


During this experiment the subject eliminated 4,253 grams urine,
containing 0.469 per cent or 19.97 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
11.41 grams; outgo in urine 4.94 grams, and in feces 2.29 grams; indi-
cating a gain of 4.13 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 25.81 grams
protein.
The diet of apples, bananas, and almonds was eaten with consider-
able relish. The subject believed that he could, if necessary, main-
tain his condition on this diet; but for the sake of variety he felt that
it would be well to add food made from cereals and relishes, such as
honey, etc. On such a diet he believed he could perform heavy man-
ual labor. During the study he exercised a great deal every day, and
was also occupied with considerable mental work.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 404.

Kind of food.-Apples, bananas, and Brazil nuts.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 64
kilograms (141 pounds), and at the close 63.5 kilograms (140 pounds).
Duration.-Four days with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
January 28, 1902.


Sam-
pie
No.


209a
212a
249


73a


~-------






54

TABLE 36.-Results of digestion experiment No. 404.


Sam- Weight
pie Kind of food. of ma-
No. trial.


Grams.
209a Apples............ 5,840
212a Bananas.......... 3,374
254a Brazil nuts ....... 1,021


Total .......


Feces (water-free): 182.31 152.83
Amount digested......... 1,380.09
Per cent digested......... 90.04
Energy of urine..1........ .......
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ......................
Percent of energy
utilized......... .... ...........


Total Nitro-
organic
matter. gen.


Graras. Grams.
594.50 4.96
468.97 5.45
469.45 14.99


6.27
19.13
75.34


I Carbohydrates.


Pro-
tein.


Grams.
30.95
34.08
93.72


Fat.


Grams.
31.53
5.06
334.08


Sugar,
starch,
etc.

Grams.
477.70
418.70
19.70


Fiber.


Grams.
54.32
11.13
21.95


39.12
119.63
75.34


31.59
339.08
91.47


S64.31
851.79
92.98
.........


17.81
69.59
79.62
... .....


Ash.


Grams.
14.02
17.21
13.78


29.48
15.58
34.51


.i ;;" iii.



Heat of
combII- :
tion.


CWaorea. .
2,679
1,986
8,897


998
7,564
88.31
150

7,414
86.61


During this experiment the subject eliminated 4,807 grams urine,
containing 0.464 per cent or 22.29 grams nitrogen. The average nitro-
gen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food 6.37
grams; outgo in urine 5.57 grams, and in feces 1.57 grams; indicating
a loss of 0.77 gram nitrogen, corresponding to 4.81 grams protein.
It appears from the above results that although the subject consid-
ered this diet pleasing and appetizing he did not partake of the bananas
and Brazil nuts quite so freely as he did of bananas and almonds in
the previous combination. There was a constant craving for greater
variety and especially for cereals and vegetables. The general health
of the subject continued excellent throughout the experimental period.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 407.

Kind of food.-Apples, bananas, pecans.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothes).-At the commencement and close of the
experiment 63.5 kilograms (140 pounds).
Duration.-Four days with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
February 4, 1902.


TABLE 37.-Results qf digestion experiment No. 407.


Kind of food


Apples...........
Bananas .........
Pecans............
Total .......
Feces (water-free)
Amount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine .
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body...........
Per cent of energy
utilized........


IWeight Total ro
of ma- organic Nit
trial. matter. gen.


Grams. Grams. Grams.
4,110 418.40 3.48
4,818 669.68 7.79
453 426.52 11.35
9,381 11,514.60 22.62
173.80 149.28 6.91
.........1,365.32 15.71
. ........ 90.15 69.46


Pro-
tein.


Grams.
21.78
48.66
70.99


141.43
43.18
98.25
69.46


Fat.


Grams.
22.20
7.22
324.00


353.42
41.71
311.71
88.19
........


Carbohydrates.

Sugar, I
starch, Fiber.
etc.

Grams. Grams.
336.20 38.22
597.90 15.90
17.17 14.36


951.27 68.48
54.91 9.48
896.36 59.00
94.24 86.16




......... ........


10,235 1,532.92 25.40 158.75 370.67 916.10 87.40 45.01 8,562


Sam-
ple
No.


209a
212a
233


93a


Ash.


Grams.
9.86
24.57
7.02


41.45
24.52
16.93
40.85


.. .


Heat of
combus-
tion.


Calories.
1,884
2,836
3,551


8,271
981
7,290
88.13
123

7,167
86.65


I I 1-- 1


I ....


--~- -- ~---- -


.. ". :Jf':" *t-x...i il'


.


.

.
.


l


~"~""'j""""




55

During this experiment the subject eliminated 4,776 grams urine,
containing 0.607 per cent or 29.02 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
5.68 grams; outgo in urine 7.25 grams, and in feces 1.73 grams;
S indicating a loss of 3.30 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 20.63 grams
protein.
From the above results it appears that the diet during this test was
less sustaining than that used in experiment No. 404. The subject had
been suffering from a slight laxative condition, which quickly disap-
peared upon the present diet. The general impression is that fruits
are more or less of a cure for constipation, but in the case of this sub-
ject the combination of fruit and nuts had the opposite effect.
The subject during this test again felt a craving for some kind of
cereal food, but maintained his usual good health and spirits, notwith-
standing the loss of body protein. Had the experiment lasted for
eight or ten days this probably would not have been the case.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 408.

Kind offood.--Apples, bananas, pecans, and granose.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 64.6
kilograms (142.5 pounds), and at the close, 64.2 kilograms (141.5
pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
February 11, 1902.

TABLE 38.-Results of digestion experiment No. 408.
I I Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total Nitro- Pr Heat of
ple Kind of food. of ma- organic tPi Fat. Sugar, Ash. combus-
No. trial. matter. l oin starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams.i Grams. Grams. Gramss. Grams. Gras. Calories.
209a Apples ........... 568 57.82 0.48 3.01 3.07 46.46 5.28 1.36 260
212a Bananas.......... 2,042 283.82 3.30 20.62 3.06 253.40 6.74 10.41 1,203
233 Pecans ........... 340 320.10 8.52 53.28 243.15 12.89 10.78 5.27 2,663
243 Granose.......... 992 874.74 17.37 108.52 10.22 737.95 18.05 22.42 3,887
Total........ 3,942 1,536.48 29.67 185.43 259.50 1,050.70 40.85 39.46 8,013
97a Feces(water-free) 264.50 225.35 10.64 66.49 48.16 83.68 27.02 39.15 1,'374
Amount digested. ....... 1,311.13 19.03 118.94 211.34 967.02 13.83 0.31 6,639
Per cent digested. .......... 85.34 64.16 64.16 81.45 92.04 33.86 ........ 82.88
Energy of urine................ .............. ................. ................ 149
Energy of food
bxidized in the
body ....................................... ........................ 6,490
I Percentofenergy
S utilized......... ........ ........ .............. ................. ........ ........ 81.02
l__I_________ II________

During this experiment the subject eliminated 3,209 grams urine,
containing 0.980 per cent or 31.43 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
7.42 grams; outgo in urine 7.86 grams, and in feces 2.66 grams; indi-
cating a loss of 3.10 grams, corresponding to 19.38 grams protein.





56

A thick pudding was made of the bananas cooked in their own juicd
with the addition of granose. This dish the subject declared to be
very palatable and satisfying. The apples were eaten either baked or .
stewed. The subject considered this diet very palatable and did not
crave any other foods.
DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 409.
Kind offood.-Oranges, bananas, pecans.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 64.9
kilograms (143 pounds), and at the close, 64.2 kilograms (141.5 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
February 18, 1902.
TABLE 39.-Results of digestion experiment No. 409.

Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight, Total Nitro- Pro- Heat of
pie Kind of food. of ma- ;organic No. Pro- Fat. Sugar, Ash. combus-
No. trial. matter. gen. ein. starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
238a Oranges .......... 2,381 227.86 3.57 22.38 3.10 191.90 10.48 11.19 964
212a Bananas.......... 4,480 622.76 7.24 45.25 6.72 556.00 14.79 22.85 2,638
233 Pecans ........... 567 533.81 14.21 88.85 405.50 21.49 17.97 8.79 4,439
Total ....... 7,428 1,384.43 25.02 156.48 415.32 769.39 43.24 42.83 8,041
101a Feces (water-free) 163.20 141.01 7.33 45.80 41.69 43.11 10.41 22.19 900
Amount digested. ........1,243.42 17.69 110.68 373.63 726.28 32.83 20.64 7,141
Per centdigested. ........ 89.82 70.70 70.72 89.96 94.40 75.93 48.19 88.80
Energy of urine .......... ........ .... .... ............ .......... ............. 138
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ........... ........ ......... ........ .. ... ............. 7,003
Per cent of energy I
utilized......... .......... ........ ........... ............. ................ 87.12

During this experiment the subject eliminated 6,006 grams urine,
containing 0.407 per cent or 24.46 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
6.25 grams; outgo in urine 6.11 grams, and in feces 1.83 grams;
indicating a loss of 1.69 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 10.56 grams
protein.
It was noted by the subject that the diet used in this test was very
"weakening." It had been his custom to exercise an hour each day
by climbing a steep hill, and to run part of the distance. This he
could do without difficulty when on a diet which includes cereals, but
not on the diet used in the present test.
DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 410.
Kind of food.--Oranges, bananas, pecans, granose.
Subject.-C. P. H.
WTeight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 64.2 kilo-
grams (141.5 pounds), and at the close, 63.7 kilograms (140.5 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
February 25, 1902.
I:






57


TABLE 40.-Results of digestion e.,per;imot No. 410.


Kind of food.


Bananas..........
Oranges .........
Pecans ...........
Granose ..........

Total .......

Feces (water-free)
Amount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine..
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ...........
Per centof energy
utilized.........


Weight
of ma-
terial.


Grains.
3,968
1,418
290
880


Total
organ i
matter.


Grams.
551.51
135.71
273.02
775.96


6,556 11,736.20

229.88 196.74
........ 1,539.46
........ 88.67


" '


Nitro-
gen.



Grains.
6.41
2.13
7.27
15.41


31.22

9.40
21.82
69.89


Pro-
tein.



Grams.
40.07
13.33
45.44
96.26


Fzit.



Gramins.
5.95
1.84
207.40
9.06


Carbon\

Suga r,
starch,
etc.

Gramins.
492.40
114.30
10.99
654.62


195.10 224.25 1,272.31

58.75 39.86 73.09
136.37 184.39 1,199.22
69.89 82.23 94.26
........ ........ .........


7,299

84.53


During this experiment the subject eliminated 5,372 grams urine,

containing 0.589 per cent or 31.63 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food

7.81 grams; outgo in urine 7.91 grams, and in feces 2.35 grams;
indicating a loss of 2.45 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 15.31 grams

protein.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 411.


Kind offood.-Oranges, dried prunes, walnuts.

Sabject.-C. P. H.

Weight (with. clothes).-At the beginning of experiment, 65.8 kilo-

grams (145 pounds), and at the close, 64.0 kilograms (141 pounds).

Duration.-Three days, with six meals, beginning .with breakfast

March 4, 1902.

TABLE 41.-Results of digestion experiment No. 411.


Kind of food.


Oranges ..........
Prunes ..........
Walnuts.........

Total.......
Feces (water-free)
Amount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine..
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body...........
Percentof energy
utilized.........


Weight
of ma-
terial.


Total
organic
matter.


Grams. Grams.


1 f32


1 fiZ W


1,587 952.81
1,388 517.32

S4,507 1,616.75
117.41 104.51
........ 1,512.24
........ 93.53


Nitro- Pro-
gen. tein.



Grams. Grams.
2.30 14.40
5.69 35.55
21.61 135.06

29.60 185.01

4.92 30.76
24.68 154.25
83.38 83.38
........ ........


Fat.



Gramis.
1.99
8.25
345.90

356.14

41.51
314.63
88.34



........


Carbohydrates.

Sugar, ; Ash.
starch, Fiber.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams.
123.49 6.74 7.20
886.00 23.01 37.93
26.09 10.27 10.55


1,035.58 40.02

25. 79 6.45
1,009.79 33.57
97.48 83.89


55 68
12.90
42.78
76.85


containing 0.657 per cent or 14.42 grams nitrogen.


Sam-
pie
No.


212a
238a
233
243


105a


Sam-
pie
No.


238a
256a
223a


10811


Hei t of
combus-
tion.


Calories.
628
3,990
4,021

8,639

709
7,930
91.80
193

7,737
89.58


During this experiment the subject eliminated 2,195 grams urine,


I


1I


l


........ ........
I........ ..---- .---


The average


drantes. I
i Heat of
Ash. combus-
Fiber. tion.


Graums. Grams. I' alorris.
13.09 20.24 2,336
6.24 6.66 582
9.10 4.50 2,273
16.02 19.89 3,444

44.54 51.29 8,635

25.04 33.15 1,165
19.50 18.14 | 7,470
43.78 35.37 i 86.51
........ ......... 171






58


nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food,
9.87 grams; outgo in urine 4.81 grams, and in feces 1.64 grams;
indicating a gain of 3.42 grams nitrogen, or 21.38 grams protein.
This experiment was originally planned as a four-day test, but
owing to the laxative character of the diet, which the subject attrib-
uted to the prunes, it was deemed advisable to shorten it to three
days. The subject noted that while this diet did not make him ill,
it did cause him to feel very weak. Had a smaller quantity of prunes
been used, perhaps the results would have been different.
Notwithstanding this intestinal trouble and loss of body weight, the
results indicate an appreciable gain of body protein. This is more
important than the loss of body weight, which was presumably due
to the loss of fluids occasioned by the diarrhea.


DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 412.


Kind of food.-Dates, olives (pickled ripe), walnuts.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 63.5
kilograms (140 pounds), and at the close, 64.4 kilograms (142 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
March'11, 1902.


TABLE 42.--Results of digestion experiment No. 412.


Kind of food.


Dates.............
Olives ...........
Walnuts..........
Total .......
Feces (water-free)
Amount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine..
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ..........
Per cent of energy
utilized.........


Weight Total
of ma- organic
trial. matter.


Grams. Grams.
2,129 1,202.88
908 228.88
623 232.14
3,660 1,663.90
284.76 255.35
.......1,408.55
........ 84.71
........ .........


Nitro-
gen.


Grams.
9.20
2.96
9.71
21.87
8.79
13.08
59.81


Pro-
tein.


Grams.
57.48
18.52
60.62
136.62
54.92
81.70
59.81


Fat.



Grams.
6.39
169.41
155.20
331.00
71. 15
259 55
78.41


Carbohydrates.

Sugar,
starch, Fiber.
etc.

Grams. Grams.
1,094.30 44.71
18.52 22.43
11.71 4.61
1,124.53 71.75
108.52 20.46
1,016.01 51.29
90.35 71.48


During this experiment the subject eliminated 3,665 grams urine,
containing 0.523 per cent or 19.15 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
5.47 grams; outgo in urine 4.79 grams, and in feces 2.20 grams;
indicating a loss of 1.52 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 9.50 grams
protein.
The subject believed the combination of dates, olives, and nuts to be
an ideal fruit diet for him; and his physical condition and the fact that


i

;,i;"iil
;; "
''ir


Sam-
ple
No.


37
240a
223a


112a


Heat of
combus-
tion.


Calories.
4,957
1 7i9


Ash.



Grams.
27.68
38.40
4.74


70.82
29.41
41.41
58.47


*1-


1,800
8,509
1,702
6,807
80.00
102

6,705
78.80


iirg
.....:::;iiiiiII
;icila
ii



:;


"'

'ii

a
1
,
E
;i.
II
nl
ilil



I
;ilr
;ii





59


he increased his weight during
at least it agreed with him.
equilibrium be maintained the
have been increased.


the experimental period showed that
In order, however, that the nitrogen
proportion of nuts in the diet should


DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 413.

Kind offood.-Dates, olives, and almonds.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 64.4
kilograms (142 pounds), and at the close, 64.0 kilograms (141 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
March 18, 1902.

TABLE 43.-Results of digestion experiment No 413.


Kind of food.


Weight
of ma-
terial.


Total
organic
matter.


Grams. Grams.
Dates............. 2,494 1,409.08
Olives ........... 1,389 350.18
Almonds ......... 312 289.53
Total ....... 4,195 2,048.79
Feces (water-free) 282. 50 252. 53
Amount digested. .........1,796.26
Per cent digested. ........ 87.68
Energy of urine ...............
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ........... ........ .........
Percent of energy
utilized......... ........ .........


Nitro-
gen.


Grams.
10.78
4.53
8.63
23. 94
8.18
15.76
65.84


SCarbohydrates.
ro- Heat of
tn Fat. Sugar. Ash. combus-
ei starch, Fiber. i tion.


Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
67.33 7.48 1,281.90 52.37 32.42 5,814
28.33 259.20 28.34 34.31 58.75 2,681
53.92 169.40 58.16 8.05 8.67 2,159
149.58 436.08 1,368.40 94.73 99.84 10,654
51. 17 73.17 107.66 20.53 29. 97 1,747
98.41 362.91 1,260.74 74.20 69.87 8,907
65.80 83.22 92.14 78.34 69.98 83.60
........ ................. .........123

8,784
........ .. ......... ...... 784
, ...... .... .. ......... .-.-.- ........ ........ 82.45


During this experiment the subject eliminated 4,156 grams urine,
containing 0.577 per cent or 23.97 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income ill food
5.98 grams; outgo in urine 5.99 grams, and in feces 2.05 grams; indi-
cating a loss of 2.06 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 12.88 grams
protein.
The subject seemed to relish the diet. The only criticism made was
that for a longer period the diet would have been greatly improved
by the addition of some cereal food. If the kind of food was
unchanged more nuts would have been required to maintain nitrogen
equilibrium.
DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 414.

Kind offood.-Dates, olives (pickled ripe), almonds, granose.
Subject.-C. P. H.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 63.5
kilograms (140 pounds), and at the close, 64.6 kilograms (142.5 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with eight meals, beginning with breakfast
March 25, 1902.


Sam-
pie
No.


37
240a
249


116a

I
|






60

TABLE 44.-Results of digestion e27)eriment No. 414.


Kind of food.


Dates............
Almonds .........
Olives............
Granose ..........
Total.......

Feces (water-free)
Amount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine..
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ...........
Per cent of energy
utilized.........


,Weight
of ma-
terial.


Grams.
1,502
340
566
680


Total Nitro-
organic gen.
matter, gen.


Grams. Grams.
848.61 6.49
315.51 9.40
142.69 1.85
144.35 11.90


Pro-
tein.


Grams.
40.56
58.76
11.55
74.39


Fat.



Grams.
4.51
184.60
105.61
7.00


Carbohydrates.

Sugar,
starch, Fiber.
etc.

Grams. Grams.
772.00 31.54
63.38 8.77
11.55 13.93
50.58 12.38


3,088 1,451.16 29.64 185.26 301.72 897.51 66.67 68.29 9,604


283.34


252.98
1,192. 18
82.15


8.96
20.68
69.77


56.03
129.23
69.76


75.20
226.52
75.08


97.37
800.14
89. 15


24.38
42.29
63.42


During this experiment the subject eliminated 3,431 grams urine,
containing 0.657 per cent or 22.56 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food

7.41 grams; outgo in urinc 5.64 grams, and in feces 2.24 grams;
indicating a loss of 0.47 gram nitrogen, corresponding to 2.94 grams
protein.
The subject was well pleased with the diet used in this experiment,
but stated that he would have relished occasionally a few green vege-
tables or some ripe, fresh fruit in addition.


DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 415.


Kind offood.-Gofio a (a parched cereal preparation).
Subject. -C. P. H.
TIIight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment, 64.0
kilograms (141 pounds), and at the close, 63.1 kilograms (139 pounds).
Duration.-Three days, with seven meals, beginning with break-
fast April 1, 1902.

TABLE 45.-Results of digestion experiment No. 415.


Kinrtof food.


Gofio (a parched
cereal prepara-
tion) ...........
Feces (water-free)
Amount digested.
Per cent digested.
Energy of urine..
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ...........
Percent of energy
utilized.........


Weight
of ma-
terial.


Total
organic
matter.


Grams. Grams.


1,305
137.30
.. .


1,190.39
123.02
1,067.37
89.66


Carboh:
Nitro- Pro- I Fat. Sugar,
gen. tein. starch,
starch,
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.

26.87 167.94 1 36.80 919.10
6.51 40.72 10.58 52.66
20.36 127.22 26.22 866.44
75.77 75.77 71.25 94.27
S.... .... ........ ........ .........

........ ........ ........ .........-

.... .. ... ... -- -- -- ---


yd rates.


Fiber.


Grams.

66.55
19.06
47.49
71.36



i.....=...


Heat of
Ash. combus-
tion.


Grams. Calories.

31.45 5,414
[--
14.2h 672
17.17 4,742
54.60 87.59
........ 159

........ 4,583
....... 84.64


a See description of samples No. 246, p. 8.


Sam-
ple
No.


37
249
240a
243


120a


Ash.



Grans.
19.53
9.45.
23.94
15.37


Heat of
combus
; tion.


Calories.
3, 499
2,347
1,095
2,663


30.36
37.93
55.54


1,674
7,930
82.59
162

7,768
80.89


Sam
pile
No.


246


122a


I


.






61


During this experiment the subject eliminated 2,872 grams urine,

containing 0.601 per cent or 17.26 grams nitrogen. The average

nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food 8.95

grams; outgo in urine 5.75 grams, and in feces 2.17 grams; indicating

a gain of 1.03 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 6.44 grams protein.

As previously stated, gofio is a mixture of cereals roasted and

ground, which is quite commonly eaten in the Canary Islands.

A diet consisting of only one article of food-and an unpalatable

one at that-can not be satisfying, and it, is natural that the subject

experienced some difficulty in 'carrying out the experiment. The

nitrogen equilibrium, however, was more than maintained, although

there was a decrease of 2 pounds in the body weight. During the

experimental period the subject worked a long time each day at

gardening.

DISCUSSION OF DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS WITH SUBJECT C. P. H.

The results obtained in the digestion experiments with subject

C. P. H. are summarized below, Table 46 showing the weight and

composition of the food eaten per day, Table 47 the percentages

digested, and Table 48 the balance of income and outgo of nitrogen

during the periods covered by the digestion experiments.

TABLE 46.- Weight and composition of food per mnu per dayt.'


Kind of food.


Bananas..........
Bananas and al-
monds ..........
Bananasand wal-
nuts ............
Apples and wal-
nuts ............
Apples and al-
monds..........
Apples, bananas,
and walnuts....
Apples, bananas,
and almonds ...
Apples, bananas,
and Brazil nuts.
Apples, bananas,
and pecans.....
Apples, bananas,
pecans, and
granose.........
Oranges, bananas,
and pecans.....
Oranges, bananas,
pecans, granose.
Oranges, prunes,
walnuts ........
Dates, olives,
walnuts ........
Dates, olives, al-
monds ..........
Dates, olives, al-
monds, granose.

Average of
16 experi-
ments ....


Weight
of ma-
terial.


Total
organic
matter.


Grams. Grams.
2,173 302.09

1.885 356.86

1,808 312.60
1,546 264.95

1,673 346.06

2,424 389.45

2,105 522.83 1

2,559 383.23

2,345 378.65

1,011 384.11

1,857 346.11 I

1,639 434.06

1,502 538.91
915 415.97

1,049 I 512.19

772 362.79


1,704 390.67


Nitro-
gen.


Gramns.
3.51

6.18

6.58

7.16

7.13
8..50

11.41

6.35

5.66

7.42
6.26

7.80

9.87

5.47
5.98

7.41


7.04


aWith the exception of Nos. 391 and 411. represei
day represent the averages of four-day tests.
bAsh of Nos. 397 and 408 not included in average.


Pro-
tein.


Gram s.
21.95

3.. 60

41.14

44.74

44.50

53.10

71.25 I

39. 69

35.36


46.36

39.12
48.78

61.67

34.15

37.39

46.31


44.01'


Fat.


Grains.
3.26


67.95

67.73

105.20

123.41

102.31

187.04

92.67

88. 35

64.87

103.83
56.06

118.71
82. 75

109.02

75.43


90.56


Ca rbohyd rates.

Sugar, Crude
starch, fiber.
etc.


Grams.
269.71

241.39

196.69

101.39

159.08

218.52

244.82

229.02

237.82

262.67
192. :.;5
318.08

345.19 I

281.13

342.10

224.38


241.52


Heat of
Ash. combus-
Stion.


Grams. Grams. IClorics.
7.17 11.08 1,160

8.92 12.34 1,601

7.04 9.8 1,402

13.62 5.77 1,322

19.07 9.42 1,844

15.52 10.64 1,882

19.72 15.93 2,845

21.85 11.25 1, 54

17.12 10.36 1,792


10.21

10.81

11.14

13.34

17.94

23.68

16.67


14.48


9.86

10.71

12.82

Is. 56

17.70

24.96

17.07


b 13.77


1,623

1,751
1,825

2,579

1,676
2,196

1,942


1,831


nting averages of three-day trials, the figures per


Ex-
pen-
ment
No.


391
392

395

397

399

400

402

404

407

408

409

410

411

412

413

414


*







62

TABLE 47.-Summiary of digestico e.rperiments. ..


Carbohydrates.
Ex- Total Heatof
peni Kind of food. organic Protein. Fat. Sugar, Ash. com-
mo. matter. starch, I Fiber. tio .
No. tion.
etc. I

Per ct. Per t Per Per t. iPer ct. Per et. Par c.
391 Bananas ........................ 94.46 76.04 18.92 97.01 89.40 78.38 90.66
392 Bananas and almonds............ 89.91 70.00 84.70 95.13 76.59 42.19 85.73
395 Bananas and walnuts............. 88.60 75.85 84.79 93.80 56.12 44.52 83.78
397 Apples and walnuts ............. 82.72 62.46 83.25 91.70' .78.14 ........ 78.86
399 Applesand almonds.............. 89.61 74.41 88.23 95.85 81.53 51.24 86.18
400 Apples, bananas, and walnuts.... 90.30 74.61 90.15 94.48 85.66 40.68 86.20
402 Apples, bananas, and almonds ... 91.51 79.93 91.84 95.24 83.57 57.25 88.15
404 Apples, bananas, and Brazil nuts. 90.04 75.34 91.47 92.98 79.62 34.51 86.61
407 Apples, bananas, and pecans..... 90.15 69.46 88.19 94.24 86.16 40.85 86.65
408 Apples, bananas, pecans, granose. 85.34 64.16 81.45 92.04 33.86 ........ 81.02
409 Oranges, bananas, pecans ........... 89.82 70.70 o9.96 94.40 75.93 48.19 87.12
410 Bananas, oranges, pecans, granose 88.67 69.89 82.23 94.26 43.78 35.37 84.53
4111 Oranges, prunes and walnuts-..-. 93.53 83.38 88.34 97.48 83.89 76.85 89.58
412 Dates, olives, and walnuts........ 84.71 59.81 78.41 90.35 71.48 58.47 78.79
413 Dates, olives, and almonds....... 87.68 65.84 83.22 92.14 78.34 69.98 82.45
414 | Dates, almonds, olives, and gra-
nose............................ 82.15 69.77 75.08 89.15 63.42 55.54 80.89
Average of 16 experiments.. 88.71 71.76 86.16 93.70 74.60 a54.02 84.76

a Average of 14 experiments.

TABLE 48.-Income and outgo of nitrogen.


Ex- Nitrogen.
peri- Kind of food.
ment Gain
No. In food. Inurine. Infeces. rGi (o1-)

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
391 Bananas, whole period (3 days)...................1 10.53 12.03 2.53 -- 4.03
Average for 1 day.................................. 3.51 4.01 .84 1.34
392 Bananas and almonds, whole period (4 days)...... 24.71 20.73 7.42 -- 3.44
Average for 1 day .................................. 6.18 5.18 1.86 .86
395 Bananas and walnuts, whole period (4 days)...... 26.33 17.97 6.36 + 2.00
Average for 1 day.................................I 6.58 4.49 1.59 + .50
397 Apples and walnuts, whole period (4 days)........ 28.63 18.14 10.75 .26
Average for 1 day .................................. 7.16 4.53 2.69 .07
399 Apples and almonds, whole period (4 days) ....... 28.57 20.45 7.29 + .83
Average for 1 day................................. 7 14 5.11 1.82 + .21
400 Apples, bananas, and walnuts, whole period (4
days)..... ................................... 33.98 19.30 8.63 + 6.05
Average for 1 day ................................. 8.49 4.82 2.16 + 1.51
402 Apples, bananas, and almonds, whole period (1
days)............................................. 45.60 19.97 9.15 +16.48
Average for 1 day ................................. 11.40 4.99 2.29 + 4.12
404 Apples, bananas, and Brazil nuts, whole period
(4 days) ........................................ 25.40 22.29 6.27 3.16
Average for day ............................. ... 6.36 5.57 1.57 .79
407 Apples, bananas, and pecans, whole period (4
days)............................................. 22.62 29.02 6.91 -13.31
Average for1 day .................................. 5.66 7.25 1.73 3.33
408 Apples, bananas, pecans, and granose, whole
period (4 days) ................................. 29.68 31.43 10.64 -12.39
Average for 1 day ................................. 7.42 7.86 2.66 3.10
409 Oranges, bananas, and pecans, whole period (4
days) ............................ ... .... 25.02 21.46 7.33 6.77
Average for 1 day ..... ....................... 6.25 6.11 1.83 1.69
410 Oranges, bananas, pecans, and granose, whole 3
period (4days)............................... 31.22 31.63 9.40 9.81
Average for 1 day ................................. 7.81 7.91 2.35 2.45
411 Oranges, prunes, and walnuts, whole period (3
days) .......... ............................ ..... 29.60 14.37 4.93 +10.30
Average for 1 day ................... ..... 9.87 4.79 1.64 + 3.43
412 Dates, olives, and walnuts, whole period (4 days).1 21.87 19.15 8.78 6.06
Average for 1 day .......................... .... 5.47 4.79 2.20 1.52
413 Dates, olives, and almonds, whole period (Idays).i 23.94 23.97 8.19 8.22
Average for 1 day ................................. 5.9 5.99 2.05 206
414 Dates, olives, almonds, and granose, whole period
( days) ............................ ....... 29.64 22.56 8.96 1.88
Average for I days ...................... .. .... 7.41 5.64 2.24 .47
415 Gofin (prepared cereal), whole period (3 days) .... 26.87 17.26 6.52 + 3.09
Average for 1 day .................................. 8.95 5.75 2.17 1.03





63


It appears that the minimum amount of food eaten per day was
during experiment No. 391, in which the diet consisted exclusively of
bananas. This furnished only 22 grams of protein and 1.160 calories
of energy, and while, as was to be expected, there was a loss of body
protein, it is somewhat surprising that the subject did not lose weight.
This is presumably due to the large quantity of water ingested with
the bananas. From Table 47 it is seen that the coefficients of diges-
tibility in this experiment, for all the nutrients except fat, are very
satisfactory and in each case considerably above the average for all
the tests with the subject. The body utilized over 90 per cent of the
energy supplied by the diet, the corresponding average for the 16
experiments being 84.76 per cent. This can perhaps be accounted
for on the supposition that the body, having so little nitrogenous
material at its disposal, was compelled to use all supplied to the utmost
advantage, or the subject may have had some idiosyncracy favorable
to the digestion of bananas.
The maximum food consumption during this series of experiments
is noted for experiment No. 402, with a diet of apples, bananas, and
almonds. During this experiment about three and a half times as
much protein and energy were consumed as in experiment No. 391.
In this case the maximum average daily gain of protein (4.13 grams)
was also observed. It is of interest to note that during the two
experiments, representing, respectively, the maximum and minimum
amounts of food eaten, the body weight remained constant. The fact
that 79.9 per cent of the protein was digested and 88.15 per cent of
the energy was available indicates the high nutritive value of the
combination of apples, bananas, and almonds.
The high digestibilty of the almond, as compared with walnuts,
Brazil nuts, and pecans, is shown by a comparison of the results of
experiments Nos. 399 and 402 with those of experiments Nos. 400,
404, and 407.
The coefficients of digestibility in experiment No. 397, where walnuts
were used, are all lower than in No. 399, where almonds were eaten in
place of walnuts. This is especially true of the protein and energy,
the percentages being 62.56 and 78.87, and 74.48 and 86.17, respec-
tively. In the other four experiments the combination of apples and
bananas remained constant, while a change was made in the variety of
the nut. In No. 402, where almonds were eaten, the coefficients are the
highest, and in No. 407, in which pecans were used, the coefficients are
the lowest. A reference to Table 46 shows that during experiment
No. 407 the amount of protein furnished by the diet was but 35.36
grams per day, the lowest reported for any of the experiments in
question. Again it is of interest to note that, with the exception of
experiment No. 400, the coefficient of digestibility of protein varied
directly with the amount consumed per day during the four experi-
mental periods.





64

The great difference between the quantities of food eaten duar
these four experiments may have arisen from several causes. It mayi
be that the almonds were more palatable, and that this accounted tfor
the increased consumption of food in No. 402; or possibly the dieftf:
became too monotonous during the fourth period (experiment No. 40T),'i 4
and therefore less fool was eaten. On the other hand, it will be::
observed that the maximum amount of food ingested was not with i
experiment No. 400, the first of the series with apples and bananas :
with nuts, but during experiment No. 402, the second of the series, ':
and that in the third experiment, No. 404, when Brazil nuts were
used, there was a sudden drop of over 45 per cent in the protein and
nearly 35 per cent in the energy in the diet. A comparison of exper-
iments Nos. 412 and 413, in which there was an entirely different com-'
bination of fruits, also emphasizes the high digestibility of the almond.
Notwithstanding the fact that almonds were used in experiment No.
413, thus putting it at a disadvantage as regards the monotony of the
diet, the coefficients of digestibility of all the nutrients and energy are
appreciably higher than in experiment No. 412. In view of these data
the conclusion seems warranted that almonds possess a higher coeffi-
cient of digestibility, at least for this subject, than do either walnuts,
Brazil nuts, or pecans.
The reason of the low coefficient of digestibility for protein in exper-
iment No. 392, as noted earlier, is that the almonds eaten were ground
to a paste and in this form did not agree with the subject, but caused
indigestion. In view of this fact almonds were not compared with
the other nuts in the foregoing discussion.
It appears from the tables that the diet which resulted in the highest
coefficients of digestibility furnished next to the highest protein and
energy per day, and induced next to the highest net increase in body
protein, was a combination of oranges, prunes, and walnuts. This
dietary, however, was so laxative for the subject that the experiment
had to be terminated at the end of the third day.
The diet consisting of dates, olives, and walnuts, used in experiment
No. 412, yielded the lowest coefficients of digestibility.
While it appears from Table 47 that a combination of apples,
bananas, and pecans (experiment No. 407) is as digestible as a diet of
oranges, bananas, and pecans (experiment No. 409), a reference to
Table 48, showing the income and outgo of nitrogen, indicates that in
the latter case the loss of body protein is only about one-half that
noted for the former.- But it must be remembered that in experi-
ment No. 409 about 25 per cent more pecans were eaten, thus sup-
plying a notable increase in the daily protein as compared with
experiment No. 407.
Chemical analysis has shown that the apple contains very little pro-
tein, and a study of the data in Table 47 would seem to indicate that,





65


for this subject at least, the quantity present has a very low coefficient
of digestibility. The coefficient for the protein in a diet of bananas
and walnuts was 75.85 per cent. When apples were substituted for
bananas the coefficient was 62.56 per cent, and again when apples and
bananas were used in combination with walnuts (experiment No. 400)
the coefficient was 74.63.
Comparing experiments Nos. 407 and 408 and Nos. 409 and 410 it
would seem that the addition of granose to the diet lowered the coeffi-
cients of digestibility of all the nutrients and the coefficient of availa-
bility of the energy. In view of the relatively high coefficients of
digestibility of foods like granose it is more than likely that the lower
values observed were due to the granose interfering with the digestion
of the nuts.
The coefficients of availability of the gofio used in experiment No.
415 compared very favorably with the averages obtained for the 16
experiments with fruit and nuts with the same subject given in
Table 47.
Considering all the experiments, the average coefficient of digesti-
bility of fat, 86.16 per cent, implies that the fat of the nuts possesses
a high nutritive value. This average would be materially increased if
experiment No. 391, showing the minimum 18.06 per cent, were not
included in the calculation. The maximum digestibility, 91.84 per cent,
was noted for experiment No. 402. in which the diet consisted of
bananas, apples, and almonds.
The results given in Table 47 indicate that in every experiment the
sugar and starch of the fruits and nuts were very well assimilated. The
minimum, maximum, and average coefficients of digestibility for
sugar, starch, etc., are 89.15 per cent, 97.48 per cent, and 93.73 per
cent, respectively. The digestibility of the crude fiber ranged from
19.71 per cent in experiment No. 388 to 89.41 per cent in experiment
No. 411, and was on the average 74.36 per cent. The highest coeffi-
cient of digestibility for the mineral matter (78.38 per cent) was noted
in experiment No. 391, and the lowest (34.51 per cent) in experiment
No. 404.
As may be seen by reference to Table 48 there was a loss of body
protein in eleven of the sixteen experiments. The average daily loss
of nitrogen ranged from 0.04 gram (0.25 gram protein) in experi-
ment No. 397 to 3.30 grams (20.63 grams protein) in experiment No.
407. The maximum gain (4.12 grams) is reported for experiment No.
402 and the minimum gain, 0.21 gram nitlA n, in experiment No. 399.
It thus appears that in order to attain nitrog4equilibrium this subject
required about 8 grams of nitrogen (50 grams protein) per day, when
the daily food furnished not far from 1,800 calories of energy. It
must be remembered, however, that much depends on the source and
digestibility of the protein. In experiment No. 408 the daily diet of
1453-No. 132-03- 5






66


-b. ';


apples, bananas, pecans, and granose furnished 7.42 grams of nitro-
gen, which evidently was insufficient, as there was recorded an average
daily loss of 3.1 grams nitrogen. Again, in experiment No. 407, with
a diet of the same fruit and nuts but no granose, the daily income of
nitrogen was 5.68 grams and the loss 3.3 grams.

EXPERIMENTS WITH A. V. AND J. E. R.

The digestion experiments made with the subjects A. V. and J. E.
R. follow. Both were young men, university students, and in good
health. Neither subject was used to a vegetarian or fruitarian diet,
though A. V. had been experimenting with such diets for a number-
of years.
DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 416.

Kind qf fonod.-Bananas, oranges, almonds.
Subject.-A. V.
lWeight (without clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment 68.9
kilograms (152 pounds), and at the close 69.4 kilograms (153 pounds).
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast,
May 5, 1902.

TABLE 49.-Result.s of digestion experiment No. 416.


Kind of food.



Bananas.........
Oranges ..........
Almonds .........


Weight Total Nitro- Pro-
of ma- organic gen. tein.
trial. matter.


Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
7,081 984.31 11.44 71.52
10,474 976.30 17.43 108.94
990 918.73 27.37 171.07
------------- I-----


Total....... 18,545 2,879.84 56.24 351.53
126a Feces (water-free) 386.0 333.99 14.91 93.16
Amount digested. ........ 2,539.35. 41.33 258.37
Per cent digested. ........ 88.20 73.51 73.51
SEnergy of urine...... .... ..... ..................
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body .......... ................. ..........
Per cent of energy I
utilized ......... .............


Fat.


Grams.
10.62
11.52
537.60
559. 74
91.45
468.29
83.64



........


Carbohydrates.
Heat of
Sugar, Ash. combus-
starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
878.80 23.37 36.11 4,168
810.80 45.04 49.23 4,181
184.52 25.54 27.52 6,821
1,874.12 93. 95 112.86 15,170
127.78 21.60 52.51 2,227
1,746.34 72.35 60.35 12,943
93.18 77.02 53.47 85.26
......... ................ 323

................ 12,620
......... ........ 83.19


During this experiment the subject eliminated 6,191 grams urine,
containing 0.69 per cent or 42.71 grams nitrogen. The average nitro-
gen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food 14.06
grams; outgo in urine 10.68 grams, and in feces 3.73 grams; indicat-
ing a loss of 0.35 gram nj en, corresponding to 2.19 grams protein.
Owing to the larger lmisumption of nuts the protein supplied per
day during this test was 30 per cent more than the daily protein aver-.
age for the same subject in dietary No. 363 (p. 29). The fuel values
for the two studies (3,305 and 3,155 calories, respectively) show


'iil


..Ri


Sam-
pile
No.


212a
236a
249






67

a much closer agreement. In spite, however, of the comparatively
larger quantity of protein consumed there was a slight loss of nitrogen,
thus implying that this subject required between 15 and 16 grams per
day, with about 3,300 calories of energy, in order to attain nitrogen
equilibrium. The data recorded indicate that the body assimilated the
food very thoroughly.


DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 417.


hind of food.-Bananas, dates, walnuts, with a small quantity of
sugar.
Subject.-J. E. R.
Weight (with clothes).--At the beginning of the experiment 76.7
kilograms (169 pounds), and at the close 75.3 kilograms (166 pounds).
Duration.--Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast
May 6, 1902.

TABLE 50.-JResult.l qof d/ye.stio ex.perimnent N,. 417.


Weight Total Nitro-
Kind of food. of ma- organic ge.
trial. matter. ge


Graims. Grams. Grams.
Bananas.......... 3,005 I 417.68 4.86
Dates............. 964 544.66 4.16
Walnuts.......... 1,290 480.71 20.08
Sugar............. 258 258.00 ......
Total ....... 5,517 1,701.05 29.10
Feces (water-free) 228.67, 205. 73 8.86
Amount digested. ....... 1,495.32 20.24
Per cent digested. ........ 87.90 69.56
Energy of urine .........................
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body ........... ........ ......... ........
Per cent of energy I
utilized ........ .... .. .... ...... ...


Carbohydrates.
Pro-
tein. Fat. Sugar,
l starch. Fiber.
etc.

Grams. Grams. Grams,. Grams.i.
30.35 4.51 372.90 9.92
26.03 2.89 495.5u 20.24
125.50 321.41 24.25 9.55
........ ........ 258.00 .......
181.88 328.81 1,150. 65 39.71
55.36 79.47 62.56 8.34
126.52 249.34 ,1,088.09 31.37
69.56 75.83 I 94.58 79.00
........ ........ ......... ........,


Ash.


Heat of


Grams. (Caldri .s.
| 15.24 1.76',s
12.53 2,250
9.80 3,722
........ 989
37.57 8, 729
22. 94 1,445
S14.63 7,284
38.94 83.44
158


........ 7,126
1 wm


i I I I I


During this experiment the subject eliminated 2,225 grams urine,
containing 1.40 per cent or 27.54 grams nitrogen. The average nitro-
gen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food 7.28
grams; outgo in urine 6.89 grams, and in feces 2.21 grams; indi-
cating a loss of 1.82 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 11.38 grams
protein.
This experiment was preceded by a preliminary period of three
days, during which the subject followed the same diet as in the diges-
tion experiment. During this time there was no appreciable loss of
weight. The subject had to perform an unusual amount of hard work
during the test proper, which accounts, in part at least, for the loss of
weight experienced. Furthermore, he drank very little water.


Sam-
ple
No.


212a
37
223a
46


130a


........ ........ .........
I


::::::::




:.... .:....:::; ;

68

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT NO. 418.

Kind offood.-Bananas, oranges, walnuts, with a small quantity of
sugar.
Subject.-J. E. R.
Weight (with clothes).-At the beginning of the experiment 75.3
kilograms (166 pounds), and at the close 75.9 kilograms (167.5 pounds). :
Duration.-Four days, with twelve meals, beginning with breakfast
May 13, 1902.
TABLE 51.-Results of digestion experiment No. 418.

Carbohydrates.
Sam- Weight Total Nitro- Pro- Heat of
pie Kind of food. of ma- organic te.Fat. Sugar, Ash. combus-
No. trial. matter. gen. ten. starch, Fiber. tion.
etc.
Grams. Grams. I Gramss. Grams.G Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
212a Bananas.......... 2,438 338.88 3.93 24.62 3.66 302.55 8.05 12.43 1,434
238a Oranges, navel... 4,051 387.93 6.09 38.11 5.27 326.70 17.85 19.05 1,663
223a Walnuts.......... 1,304 486.05 20.30 126.89 324.99 24.52 9.65 9.91 3,784
46 Sugar ........... -190 190.00 ................ ........ 190.00 ........ ........ 751
Total....... 7,986 1,402.86 30.32 189.62 333.92 843.77 35.55 41.39 7,632
134a Feces (water-free) 232.13 205.48 8.71 51.41 85.93 55.86 9.28 26.64 1,479
Amount digested. ........ 1,197.38 21.61 135.21 247.99 787.91 26.27 14.75 6,153
Per cent digested. ........ 85.35 71.28 71.31 74.26 93.40 73.90 35.64 80.63
Energy of urine .......... ................. ........ ........ ................. ........ 169
Energy of food
oxidized in the
body............ ........ ......... ........ ......................................... 5,984
Percentofenergy
utilized ......... ........ ......... ............ ............. .. 78.41

During this experiment the subject eliminated 1.657 grams urine,
containing 1.76 per cent or 29.16 grams nitrogen. The average
nitrogen balance per day was therefore as follows: Income in food
7.58 grams; outgo in urine 7.29 grams, and in feces 2.18 grams;
indicating a loss of 1.89 grams nitrogen, corresponding to 11.81 grams
protein.
The subject considered the diet of bananas, oranges, and walnuts
more palatable than the previous one of bananas, dates, and walnuts,
but a comparison of the results of the two tests does not indicate that
the amount of nutrients eaten or assimilated was increased.
In dietery study No. 362, p. 27, with the same subject, the daily
diet furnished 85 grams protein and 2,937 calories of energy, amounts
which are far in excess of the average values for the two experiments
just reported. In no case was the amount to be eaten limited, but in
the digestion experiments the diet was limited to two kinds of fruit
and one of nuts, while in the dietary study the variety of fruits and
nuts was largei-, as may be seen by reference to Table 12.
Considering this and the preceding experiment, the average daily
income of protein, 46.44 grams, was evidently below the limit of
tolerance for this subject. In both experiments a loss occurred which
was almost identical. It would appear, then, that the nitrogen limit
of this .subject was about 10 grams per day, when the diet furnished
about 1,900 calories of energy.






69


GENERAL SUMMARY OF DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS.

It is of interest to compare the average amount of nutrients digested
by the different subjects, as is done in Table 52, which also includes
the average results of a large number of tests with young men on a
diet consisting of ordinary food materials, but in many cases supplying
a large proportion of fat or carbohydrates as compared with protein,
and of a large number of tests with young men on an ordinary mixed
diet.
TABLE 52.-Summnariy of difgetion e.irperinmnlts.


Subjects and number of experiments.



Subject C. P. H., 16 experiments...........
Subject W.S. M., 11 experiments ..........
Subject J.E.R.. 2 experiments ............
Subject A. V., 1 experiment ..............
Average, 30 experiments............
Average of 50 experiments with
young men on diet of ordinary
food materials supplying in many
cases large proportions of fat or
carbodydratesa ...................
Average of 93 experiments with
young men on ordinary diet b.....


I Carbohydrates.
Total I
organic Protein.' Fat. Sugar. Ash.
matter. I starch, Fiber.
etc.

Per critl. Per cet.' Per ct. Per ct. Pe. P c. r rt.
88.71 71.76 86. 16 93.70 74.60 54.02
92.56 79.96 88.61 96.88 81.86 58.47 I
86.74 70.44 75.05 94.06 76.58 37.21
88.20 73.51 83.64 93.18 i 77.02 53.47
90.26 75.30 86.43 95.10 I 78.54 54.76
*i


90.80 95.30
93.30 95.00;


Energy
avail-
able.


Per ct.
84.76
88.78
0. 14
83.19
.,6.13


97.60
97.70


a Conn. i(torrs) Station Rpt. 1901, p. 235.
bConn. (Storrs) Station Rpt. 1899, p. 87.

The lowest coefficients of digestibility were found with subject
J. E. R., and the highest with subject W. S. M. The high coeffi-
cients noted for the latter subject may be accounted for in part by the
addition to the diet of small quantities of relishes, such as olive oil,
tomatoes, and olives, which possibly increased the flow of digestive
juices, or may be due to the fact that he had been longer accustomed
to the diet.
As will be seen from the figures in the above table, the average
coefficients of digestibility of carbohydrates obtained for the fruits
and nuts compare favorably with those quoted for a mixed diet.
While coefficients of digestibility can easily be calculated from the
foregoing data for the several fruits and nuts alone, it seems unwise
to do so at present. Later, when more data have accumulated, par-
ticularly regarding the digestibility of fruits and nuts in a mixed
diet, it should be possible to obtain coefficients of digestibility which
will stand the test of criticism and be of practical use in determiining
the real nutritive value of dietaries containing such foods.


""~"'


........ i.......






70. ..

INCOME AND OUTGO OF NITROGEN.

As will be seen by reference to the tables reporting the results of
the individual tests, there was considerable variation in the income and
outgo of nitrogen with the different subjects. Table 53 summarizes the
data on this topic, recording the tests in which maximum and minimum
gain or loss was noted, and also shows the energy in the several cases.

TABLE 53.-Income and outgo of nitrogen--Summary of daily maxima and minima
gains and losses.

Exper- Nitrogen. Energy
iment Gain (+) of daffy
No. In food. In urine. In feces. orlossGain (+) diet.
orloss(-).
SUBJECT C. P. H. (16 EXPERIMENTS).
Grams. Grains. Grams. Grams. Calories.
407 Maximum loss........................... 5.66 7.25 1.73 -3.33 3,279
397 Minimum loss .......................... 7.18 4.53 2.69 .04 ..........
402 Maximumgain......................... 11.40 4.99 2.29 +4.12 2.768
399 Minimum gain .......................... 7.14 5.11 1.82 + .21 1,712
SUBJECT W. S. M. (11 EXPERIMENTS).
388 Maximum loss .............. ............. 2.20 4.67 1.22 -3.69 ..........
405 Minimum loss ............ ........ ...... 7.60 5.84 1.81 .05 2,870
394 Maximum gain .......................... 15.00 7.40 1.98 +5.62 ..........
393 Minimum gain ........................... 8.62 5.59 1.74 +1.29 ..........
SUBJECT J. E. R. (2 EXPERIMENTS).
418 Maximum loss........................... 7.58 7.29 2.18 -1.89 2,544
417 Minimum loss ............................ 7.28 6.89 2.21 -1.82 2,910
SUBJECT A. V. (1 EXPERIMENT).
416 Loss ....................................... 14.06 10.68 3.73 .35 3,798

As may be seen by reference to the table, the daily excretion of
nitrogen in the urine in these experiments with fruitarian or vegeta-
rian diets was small. It must be remembered in this connection that
under ordinary conditions the daily excretion of nitrogen in the urine
depends mainly on the amount of nitrogen ingested in the food and
not on the nature of the diet, and in these tests the amount of protein
in the food eaten per day was small.
It appears that for subjects W. S. M. and C. P. H. the minimum
daily losses (0.04 gram and 0.05 gram) are reported for the experi-
ments where the nitrogen ingested is 7.18 grams and 7.60 grams,
respectively, thus implying that to attain nitrogen equilibrium, with
the same amount of energy as was furnished by the diet studied, these
subjects should receive at least S grams of nitrogen per day. The
loss of nearly 2 grams of nitrogen per day, experienced by subject J.
E. R. in the two experiments with an income of 7 to 8 grams per day,
would seem to indicate that, at least in a fruitarian diet with the same
amount of energy, the nitrogen required daily would be about 10
grams.
The comparatively large daily income of nitrogen (14.06 grams)
reported for subject A. V. was insufficient for the maintenance of his
nitrogen equilibrium, although it was practically twice as great as that
) i







(7.14 grams) of subject C. P. H. in experiment No. 399, where a slight
gain of nitrogen was noted.
It is true that the above results are not in harmony with those
observed with the ordinary mixed diet, yet at the same time they are
not unique. Voit, Rumpf, and Schumm, and Albu. as already pointed
out (p. 30), have reported experiments with vegetarians whose average
daily income of nitrogen was far below the tentative standards hbut yet
was found to be sufficient either to just maintain the nitrogen equilib-
rium or to cause a slight gain. Hirschfeld,a Kumagawa,bKlemperer,"
Peschel," Caspari, Siven,f Neumann, and others have conducted
metabolism experiments with subjects on mixed diets furnishing much
less nitrogen than the commonly accepted standards call for and have
found that the nitrogen equilibrium can be maintained with small
amounts of protein in the food.
As regards the experiments quoted, it will be seen that the minimum
amount of protein necessary to maintain the nitrogen balance varies
between wide limits. Klemperer reports the minimum amount 33
grams of daily protein and the writer the maximum 87.9 grams. In
the former case a gain is noted and in the latter a loss. It thus
appears that with one subject, weighing 141 pounds, 33 grams protein
and 5,018 calories were more than sufficient to attain nitrogen equilib
rium; another subject, A. V., weighing 150 pounds, with a diet fur-
nishing 87.9 grams protein and 3,155 calories, suffered a slight loss of
nitrogen. These findings serve to emphasize the conclusion of Caspari
that the minimum amount of daily protein required varies with the
individual and may even vary with the same individual at different
times.
It must be remembered that although again of nitrogen was reported
by Albu when the daily diet supplied only 34 grams protein and 1,400
calories the subject was a very small woman, weighing but 83 pounds.
Sivenh brings out one point in his conclusions, in full accord with the
results of the present investigation and which should serve as a warn-
ing to anyone contemplating any appreciable decrease in the protein
of the daily diet, namely, that when the protein of the food is increased
after the body has suffered a loss of nitrogen, there is at once an effort
to attain nitrogen equilibrium, and it appears that any gain of nitrog-
enous body material is a comparatively slow process. This apparently
indicates that the living substance must be slowly formed from the
protein furnished by the diet.
aArch. Physiol. [Pfliiger], 41 (1887), p 533.
bArch. Path. Anat u. Physiol. [Virchow], 116 (1889), p. 370.
cArch. Path. Anat. u. Physiol. [Virchow], 116 (1889), p. 362.
dDer Eiweissbedarf des gesunden Menschen, Inaug. Diss., Berlin, 1890.
eArch. Anat. u. Physiol., Physiol. Abt., 1901, p. 323.
fSkand. Arch. Physiol., 11 (1901), p. 308.
gArch. Hyg., 45 (1902), p. 1.
ASkand. Arch. Physiol., 11 (1901), p. 330.




;- ; :
*.. .. -', :. .:: .
.... -- ii
** *
::.:: .:,:.
:: ;'. .


72


Even if it could be proved by a large number of experiments thatt
nitrogen equilibrium can be maintained on a small amount of protein,
it would still be a great question whether or not it would be wise to do
so. There must certainly be a constant effort on the part of the
human organism to attain this condition, and with a low protein supply
it might be forced to do so under conditions of strain. In such a case
the bad results might be slow in manifesting themselves, but might
also be serious and lasting. It has also been suggested that when
living at a fairly high protein level the body is more resistant to
disease and other strains than when the protein level is low.

AMOUNT OF FECES ON A FRUITARIAN DIET.

It is interesting in this connection to compare the composition of
the water-free feces from the digestion experiments here recorded
with similar data from other sources, as is done in the following table:

TABLE 54.-Comparison of composition of water-free feces.


Whence obtained.


Average 11 experiments;
subject, \. S. M.
Average 16 experiments;
subject, C. P. H.
Average 2 experiments;
subject, J. E. R.
Average 1 experiment;
subject, A. V.
Average of above 30 ex-
periments.
Average 12 experiments.a.
Average 14 experiments. b.
Average 10 experiments. d.


Nature of diet.


Fruitarian........
.....do ............
.....do ...........
.....do ............
.....do............
Bread and milk ..
Mixed...........
Bread and milk..


Weight Nitro-
of feces. gen.


(Grams. Per ct.
44.52 4.23
49.89 4.09
57.60 3.84
96.63 3.87
48.30 4.14
65.3 5.22
119.0 4.87
96. 4 3.02


CPar-
Pro- Fat. bhCr-
tein. drates.


Per cl. Per ct. Per ct.
26.43 28.09 33.69
25.56 24.61 36.48
23.96 35.23 30.04
24.18 23.63 38.40
25.88 26.06 35.53
31.82 15.33 33.01
30.42 24.54 21.75
18.89 13.94 37.42


Heat of
Ash. combus-
tion per
gram.

Per ct. Calories.
11.80 5,732
13.35 5,680
10.77 6,328
13.79 5,783
12.54 5,716
18.98 5,479
23.29 c4,316
29.75 5, 568


a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 85.
b U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 117.
c Heat of combustion calculated.
d U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 121.

An examination of the above table shows that the average amount,
49.38 grams per day, of water-free feces from the 30 digestion experi-
ments with fruitarian diet is much less than the corresponding amount
reported for either bread and milk or mixed diet. It is also consider-
ably below the average weights, 71.16 grams and 56 grams, of water-
free feces from digestion experiments with vegetarians reported by
Voit" and Albu respectively.
It will be observed that the feces from the experiments with mixed
diet and the average from the 12 experiments with bread and milk
diet are much larger in amount and contain more protein than the
average of the feces from the fruitarian experiments. The latter,
however, contain more fat and carbohydrates.

SZtschr. Biol., 25 (1889), p. 234.
bZtschr. Klin. Med. [Berlin], 43 (1901), p. 75.


I:

.i
*::..:


"::
" i

I
.,ii


";?1
.....:



I
*11
'4i




H'
qJ... :


.... .
.... iii






73

It thus appears from the table that the feces from the digestion
experiments made with fruitarians here reported are not excessive in
amount, as has usually been found to be the case with experiments
with a vegetarian diet containing very little or no fruit.

METABOLIC NITROGEN IN THE FECES.

When considering the digestibility of any article of food it is quite
important that allowance be made for the so-called metabolic prod-
ucts.a At present there is no accurate method in vogue for the
separation of the metabolic nitrogen from the nitrogen belonging to
the undigested residue of the food in question, which is necessary
in determining the true or absolute digestibility. The coefficients of
digestibility of protein, therefore, which are obtained without taking
into account the metabolic nitrogen, are lower more or less than they
should be.
If, however, the digestibility of any food or combination of foods
is looked at in another light, the matter appears somewhat differently.
Whether a certain amount of nitrogen is lost to the body through the
undigested residue of the food, or whether it is lost through the
metabolic products, makes practically no difference as regards the net
income of nitrogen from the food: or, in other words, the real value of
that food or food combination as a source of nitrogen to be utilized for
other functions of the body than digestion.
The metabolic nitrogen in the feces in nineteen of the experiments
was determined, the method followed being the same as that previously
used;b that is, the feces were treated successively with hot ether, hot
alcohol, hot water, and cold limewater, reagents which experiment
has shown dissolve the metabolic products present.
The results of these analyses are given in Table 55.

TABLE 55.-Total nitrogen in feces and nitrogen corrected .fOr "metabolic products.

II Nitrogen-


Ex-
peri-
ment
No.


Kind of food.


Dura-
tion of
test.


Amount
of feces I In feces In meta-
(water- treated tret boli prod-
free). feces. ucts.
agents.


SUBJECT C. P. H.
Days. Grains. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
391 Bananas. 1st day..................... ........ 20.30 4.61 3.20 1.41
Bananas, 2d day ............................. 17.60 4.15 3.65 .50
Bananas, 3d day.............................. 19.50 4.40 3.69 .71
For whole period .............. 3 57.40 4.41 3.50 .91
392 Bananas and almonds, 1st day....... ........ -54.00 4.72 3.30 1.42
Bananas and almonds, 2d day............... 2.79 4.94 3.59 1.35
Bananas and almonds, 3d day....... ........ 30.00 4.42 3.52 .90
Bananas and almonds. 4th day...... ........ 85.24 3.99 3.29 .70
For whole period .............. 4 172.03 4.31 3.34 .97

aSee discussion of the subject in U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations
Buls. 85 and 107.
b U. S. Dept. of Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 107.







74 '


TA BLE 55.- To/ai nitrogen in feces and nitrogen corrected for metabolic produts-C'td.
.


Kind of food.


SDura-
tion of
test.


Amount
of feces
(water-
free).


SUBJECT c. P. H.-continued.
SDays. Grains.
Bananas and walnuts, 1st day............... 29. 38
Bananas and walnuts, 2d day ............... 38.49
Bananas and walnuts, 3d day ............... 65.78
Bananas and walnuts, 4th day....... ........ 30.41

For whole period .............. 4 164.06

Apples and walnuts, 1st day......... ........ 69.86
Apples and walnuts, 2d day ................ 79.52
Apples and walnuts, 3d day ......... ....... 9.10
Apples and walnuts, 4th day......... ....... 56.98

For whole period .............. 4 215.46
I-


395





397





399





400


........ 38.99
........ 43.52
---4 35.48
44.49


Nitrogen-


In un-
treated
feces.


Per cent.
3.98
4.00
3.66
4.08


In feces
treated
with re-
agents.


Per cent.
2.78
2.92
2.88
3.30


In meta-
bolic prod-
ucts.



Per cent.
1.20
1.08
.78
.78


3.88 2.95 .93

4.78 3.19 1.59
5.22 3.53 1.69
5.92 4.22 1.70
4.77 3.34 1.43


4.99

4.69
4.81
4.49
4.00


4 162.48 4.49
4 162.48 4.49
I- _


37.79

83.58

26.20

28.90


5.49

4.60

5.16

4.70


3.40

3.69
3.59
3.69
3.15

3.52

4.05

3.31


3.73

3.33


1.59

1.00
1.22
.80
.85

.97

1.44

1.29

1.43

1.37


4 176.47 4.89 3.53 1.36


36.99

52.98

55.98


-........ 59.40

4 205.35

....... 90.82

........ 30.79

........ 37.40


4.96

4.48

4.61

3.99

4.46


3.81

3.47

3.53

2.99

3.41


I i +


3.17

2.80

4.13


2.61

2.24

3.35


Apples and almonds, 1st day ........
Apples and almonds, 2d day.........
Apples and almonds, 3d day.........
Apples and almonds, 4th day........

For whole period .............

Apples, bananas, and walnuts, 1st
day ................................
Apples, bananas, and walnuts, 2d
day ........................
Apples, bananas, and walnuts, 3d
day ..................................
Apples, bananas, and walnuts, 4th
day ...............................

For whole period .............

Apples, bananas, and almonds, 1st
day ......... ... ..................
Apples, bananas, and almonds, 2d
day .........................
Apples, bananas, and almonds, 3d
day .................. ...........
Apples, bananas, and almonds, 4th
day ..............................

For whole period ..............

Apples, bananas, and Brazil nuts,
1st day ............................
Apples, bananas, and Brazil nuts,
2d day ............................
Apples, bananas, and Brazil nuts,
3d day ..........................
Apples, bananas, and Brazil nuts,
4th day ...........................

For whole period .............

Average of experiments .......
SUBJECT W. S. M.
Grapes, assorted, 1st day.............
Grapes, assorted, 2d day ............
Grapes, assorted, 3d day ............
Grapes, assorted, 4th day ............

For whole period ............

Grapes and Brazil nuts, 1st day.....
Grapes and Brazil nuts, 2d day ......
Grapes and Brazil nuts, 3d day ......
Grapes and Brazil nuts,'4th day .....

For whole period .............

Grapes, Brazil nuts, granose, 1st day..
Grapes, Brazil nuts, granose, 2d day..
Grapes, Brazil nuts, granose, 3d day..
Grapes, Brazil nuts, granose, 4th day.

For whole period .............


4 127.75

57.40
........ 40.28
........ 20.82
........ 34.34

4 152.84

........ 31.81
........ .06
........ 30.54
........ 43.10

4 168.51


1.15

1.01

1.08

1.00.

1.05


.56

.56

.78

.72

.68

1.05

.87
.82
1.51
1.00


3.82 2.77 1.05

3.88 3.08 .80
3.09 2.01 1.08
2.89 2.04 .85
3.81 2.65 1.16


3.53


2.56


4.20 3.19 1.01
3.57 2.61 .96
3.55 2.66 .69
3.56 2.55 1.01

3.68 2.72 .96


Ex-
peri-
ment
No.


........ 23.30 4.20 3.48

4 182.31 3.44 2.81
2.8

........ 166.90 4.36 3.31

........ 28.85 3.79 2.92
........ 15.00 4.05 3.23
........ 25.40 4.50 2.99
........ 58.50 3.49 2.49


388





389






75


TABLE 55.-Total nitrogen in feet and nitrogen corrected for metabolic products..-C' t'd.


Nitrogen-
r,-- ---,


Kind of food.


rBJEcTr w. s. M.-continned.


393 Grapes, walnuts,
Grapes, walnuts,
Grapes, walnuts,
Grapes, walnuts,

For whole
394 Persimmons and
Persimmons and
Persimmons and
Persimmons and

For whole

396 Pears, walnuts,
granose (113 gr
Pears, walnuts,
granose (113gr
SPears, walnuts,
granose (113 gr
Pears, walnuts,
granose (113 gr
For whole

398 Pears and cocoa:
Pears and cocoa
Pears and cocoa
Pears and cocoa

For whole

401 Dried figs,apples,
Dried figs,apples,
Dried figs,apples,
Dried figs,apples.

For whole

403 Apples, dates, an
SApples, dates, an
Apples, dates, an
Apples, dates, an
For whole

405 Apples, dates, an
Apples, dates, an
Apples, dates, an
Apples, dates, an

S For whole

406 ApDles.raisins,an


granose, 1st day....
granose, 2d day ....
granose. 3d day ....
granose, 4th day ...


Dura-
tion of
test.


Amount
of feces
(water-
free).


Days. I Gramis.
........ 8& .50
........ 11.20
......... 78
........! 15.75


In un-
Streated
feces.



Per cCit.
4.43
S 5.17
S 4.72
5.32


I I fecet
treated
with re-
agents.


Per cent.
3.04
4.03
3.37 '
3.74 i


In meta-
bolic prod-
ucts.


P1 r cnt.
1.39
1.14
1.35
1.58


period .............. 4 150.23 4.65 3.26 1 1.39

peanuts, 1st day.......... .. 60.37 3.82 2.44 1.38
peanuts, 2d dav.... .. .. 53.50 3.02 2.23 .79
peanuts, 3d day.... ........ 85.00 3.39 2.43 .96
peanuts, 4th day.......... 34.00 3.29 2.32 .97
period .............. 4 232.96 3.41 2.37 1.04

milk (227 grams),
1 a-. -. 4 Al 0 1


,aU st d 1 ................
milk (227 grams),
ams), 2d day....... ........
milk (227 grams),


.10. OU

58.80


;. ,'N.


3. 7S


1. La
1.10


ams), 3d day............... 24.20 4. 18 3. 05 1.13
milk (227 grams),
ams).4th day....... ........ 48.18 3.98 2.39 1.59

period .............. 4 184.48 3.95 2.71 1.24

nuts, 1st da................ 39.59 3.49 2.40 1.09
nuts, 2d day ........ ........ 33.69 3.48 2.23 1.25
nuts, 3d day ........ ........ 49.79 2.93 1.76 1.17
nuts, 4th day....... ........ 52.38 3.12 2.05 1.07


period .............

and walnuts, Istday.
and walnuts,2d day.
and walnuts.3d day.
and walnuts,4thday


period .............. 4

d peanuts, 1st day.. ........
d peanuts, 2d day..........
d peanuts, 3d day..........
d peanuts, Ith day ........

period .............. 4

d pecans, 1st day... ........
d pecans, 2d day ... ........
d pecans, 3d day ... ........
d pecans, 4th day.. .......

period .............. 4

id walnuts 1st day.. .......


Apples,raisins,and walnuts. 2d day.. ........
Apples, raisins, and walnuts,3d day ..........
Apples,raisins,and walnuts, 4th day. ......
For whole period .............. 4


Average of experiments .......


4 175.45

........ 53.80
........ 55.28
........ 41.17
........ 70.98


221.23

69.70
68. 70
47.556
34.60


3.22 1 2.08 ( 1.14

5.27 3.44 1.83
4.88 3.56 1.32
5.48 3.43 2.05
5.94 3.59 2.35

5.43 3.52 1.91

5.27 3.28 1.99
4.55 a2.42 2.13
5.29 2.50 2.79
4.35 2.31 2.04


220.55 4.91 2.69 2.22
47.07 4.33 3.18 1.15
47.49 4.58 3.bl .77
30.00 4.97 3.59 1.38
35.20 4.40 3.38 1.02

159.76 I 4.55 3.49 1.06
20.49 4.89 3.25 1.64
64.98 5.11 3.23 1.88
29.40 4.93 3.81 1.12
55.50 5.33 3.15 2.18

165.37 5.12 3.31 1.81
178.10 4.21 2.86 1.35


As will be seen by the figures in the table, the metabolic nitrogen

is equal to the total nitrogen in the untreated feces less the amount
remaining in the feces after treatment with the reagents; that is, it is

equivalent to the amount dissolved out by the reagents. In a previous

experiment it was found that the solvents above mentioned dissolved
42 per cent of the total nitrogen present.


a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 107.


Ex-
peri-
ment
No.


I






76

The average amount of metabolic nitrogen in the feces in the
experiments with the three subjects was 42.0, 32.1, and 24.1 per cent,
respectively, or a general average of 32.7 per cent, a value which
agrees very closely with that found by Woods and Merrilla for a man
on bread and milk diet, viz, 32 per cent. In later experiments not
yet published the same authors with a different method of examina-
tion obtained much higher results. They state, however, that they
consider that the ether, alcohol, and limewater method yields the most
trustworthy results.
It would seem desirable and necessary to accumulate more data
regarding metabolic nitrogen before drawing any definite conclusions.

PECUNIARY ECONOMY OF FRUITS AND NUTS.

The object of this discussion is to present one side of the pecuniary
economy of food, especially fruit and nuts. The composition and
digestibility of nuts and fruits has been discussed in the foregoing
pages, but little has been said regarding their comparative cost as
sources of nutrients and energy.
The table below shows the comparative cost per pound of the total
protein and per 1,000 calories of energy when furnished by different
fruits and nuts and food products derived from them, and also the
amount of nutrients and energy furnished for 10 cents rating the
foods at certain average prices per pound. For purposes of com-
parison a few of the more common foods have been included also. As
already noted, fruits contain very little protein, therefore no matter
how low the price of the fruit per pound the cost of the protein must
of necessity be high. Nuts, on the other hand, being rich in protein,
would supply this nutrient at a much lower cost. The principal nutri-
ent in fruits belongs to the group carbohydrates. Nuts are rich in
fats. Both fruit and nuts therefore are sources of energy, the amount
varying within rather wide limits.

TABLE 56.-(omparatire cost of total nutrients and energy in different food materials at
a erage prices.

Amounts for 10 cents.
Price Cost of Cost of To a
Price pound 1,000 Tota
Kind of food material, per poudcalories weight Po Carbo-
pound. ene. of food Fat. hy- Energy.
ein. energy. mate- tein. rates
Serial.

Fresh fruits: Cents. Dollars.: C'ents. 'Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. Calories.
Apples ....................... 1 5.00 7.30 6.67 0.02 0.02 0.72 1,467
Apricots ..................... 3 3.00 11.8 3.33 .03 ....... 42 849
Bananas ................. ... .. 7 8.75 23.3 1.43 .01 ........ 21 429
Cantaloupes ................. 31 11.67 38.9 2.86 .01 ........ 13 257
Cherries...................... 4 4.45 11.6 2.5( .02 .02 .40 862
Figs.......................... 7 4.67 18.4 1.43 .02 ........ 27 543
Grapes ....................... 4 4.00 I 11.9 2.50 .03 .03 .36 837
Lemons...................... 7 10.00 48.3 1.43 .01 ........ 08 207
Limes ....................... 21 3.57 17.2 4.00 .03 .02 .24 580
Nectarines................... 8 I 13.33 28.1 1.25 .01 ........ 19 356
a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 85.







77


TABLE 56.--Comparative cost of total materials and energy in different food materials at
average prices-Continued.


Kind of food material.


Fresh fruits-Continued.
Oranges.....................
Olives................... ....
Peaches.....................
Pears....................
Persimmons ................
Pineapples..................
Plums......................
Prunes ...................
Pomeloes ...................
Pomegranates .............
Watermelon ...............
Dried fruits:
Apples ......................
Apricots ...................
Citron........................
Currants ...................
Dates ......................
Figs........................
Pears.......................
Peaches...................
Prunes......................
Raisins......................
Jams, preserves, etc.:
Apple .......................
Apple sauce.................
Apricot sauce ...............
Currant .....................
Cherry ......................
Currant and raspberry.......
Blackberry..................
Damson .....................
Gooseberry...................
Grape ......................
Figs (stewed) ...............
Orange marmalade .........
Pineapple marmalade .......
Prune sauce ................
Peach jam ..................
Pear jam....................
Pineapple...................
Plum .......................
Quince....................
Strawberry .................
Tomato jam ................
Raspberry ..................
Jellies:
Apple .......................
Barberry.....................
Blackberry .................
Cherry, first quality .........
Crab apple.................
Currant ...................
Grape.......................
Guava ......................
Huckleberry................
Pineapple...................
Peach.......................
Plum ............... .........
Orange......................
Pear .........................
Quince......................
Raspberry...................
Strawberry..................
Canned fruits:
Apricots.....................
Cherries...................
Pears........................
Peaches.....................
Pineapp e..................
Juices:
Apple (fall pippin)..........
Blackberry...................
Crab apple ..................
Grape (Ives seedling)........
Orange (Florida navel)......


Price
per
pound.


Cost of
1 pound
pro-
tein.


Cents. Dollars.
6 10.00
10 4.90
4 8.00
3 6.00
10 9.62
4 9.76
3 3.33
3 4.29
5 8.33
10 6.66
1 7.50


12 7.50
10 2.13
3i 6.00
.10 4.17
10 5.26
15 I 3.50
12 4.28
15 3.06
10 5.56
10 4.35

16 91.43
16 53.33
16 8.42
16 16.00
16 32.00
16 26.66
16 20.00
16 32.00
16 32.00
16 40.00
16 13.33
16 26.66
16 53.33
16 32.00
16 32.00
16 53.33
16 40.00
16 22.85
16 53.33
16 26.67
16 14.56
16 22.85

16 53.33
16 32.00
16 66.67
16 14.56
16 40.00
16 40.00
16 53.33
16 53.33
16 228.57
16 40.00
16 80.00
16 32.00
16 80.00
16 100.00
16 80.00
16 40.00
16 53.33

16 17.78
16 14.56
16 53.33
16 20.00
16 29.10

20 37.04
20 57.14
20 250.00
20 83.33
20 34.48


Cost of
1,000
calories
energy.



Cents.
35.2
13.6
25.1
11.5
34.3
3.8
8.1
9.0
28. 4
21.7
25.0


8.9
7.75
1.97
6.7
6.9
10.2
7.4
10.8
8.4
6.9


13.8
40.5
16.0
11.9
12.1
12.8
26.2
13.0
13.2
12.7
20.4
10. 1
12. 7
37.2
13.0
14. 1
12.7
12.6
12.8
12.0
13.8
12.3

12.2
13.5
14.6
11.0
13.1
13.4
13.1
10.5
13.8
13.0
13.2
13.7
10.3
12.6
13.3
13.3
13.5

47.1
38. 9
45.5
53.2
28.6

140.8
133.3
200.0
128.2
181.8


I Amounts for 10 cents.


Total
weight Pro- Carbo-
of food re. Fat. hy-
mate- rates.
rial.

Pounds. Pounds. Founds. Pounds.
1.67 0.01 ........ 0.14
1.00 .02 0.14 .07
2.50 .01 ........ .19
3.33 .02 .01 .42
1.00 .01 ........ .13
2.50 .01 ........ .13
3.33 .03 ........ .61
3.33 .02 ......58
2.00 .01 ........ .17
1.00 .02 .02 .20
6.67 .01 ........ .18

.83 .01 .02 .55
1.00 .05 .01 .63
3.33 .02 .05 2.60
100 02 .02 .74


1.00
.67
.83
.67
1.00
1.00


.03
.02
.03
.02
.02






i.. .. ..
I...




.01
.......




........

.......

I.......



I........
.01








I-.......
..... ,


.03

.04


.I
.03



.01 i


.50 1....... I....... I


.71
.50
.61
.45
.62
.69


Energy.



Calories.
284
737
398
866
292
263
1,232
1,115
352
460
400

1,121
1,290
5,078
1,495
1,450
988
1,357
926
1,190
1,445


i


"'
'~~"~"
~~~"~"







78


TABLE 56.-Comparative cost of total materials and energy in different food materils at
average prices-Continued.


Kind of food material.


Juices--Continued.
Peach .......................
Pear (Bartlett).............
Pineapple...............
Plum (Damson) .............
Plum (wild fox).............
Mixed fruit...................
Berries:
Blackberries...............
Cranberries .................
Currants..................
Gooseberries...............
Huckleberries ..............
Loganberries ...............
Raspberries.................
Strawberries ..............
Whortleberries...............
Nuts:
Almonds.....................
Beechnuts..................
Brazil nuts..................
Butternuts...................
Chestnuts....................
Cocoanuts...................
Filberts......................
Hickory nuts ...............
Lichi nuts ...................
Peanuts....................
Pecans......................
Pine nuts ...................
Pignolias ...................
Pistachios...................
Walnuts ....................
Butters:
Apple ......................
Peanut......................
Beef, fresh:
Porterhouse steak..........
Round .......................
Mutton:
Leg, hind ....................
Loin chops................
Pork: Ham, smoked ............
Fish:
Cod, dressed ................
Halibut, steak or sections....!
Shad, whole ................
Fish: Canned sardines..........
Shellfish:
Oysters, "solids," 50 cents
per quart .................
Crabs, 15 cents ..............
Eggs: Hen's, 24 cents per dozen..
Dairy products:
Whole milk................
Cheese, cheddar ...........
Skim milk ..................
Flour, meal, etc.:
Entire wheat flour..........
Gluten flour ................
Wheat flour, patent roller
process, high grade and
medium ....................
Macaroni and vermicelli ....
Wheat breakfast food........
Oat breakfast food...........
Bread, pastry, etc.:
White bread ................
Rye bread .................
Sugars, etc.:
Sugar........................
Candy .....................
Vegetables:
Beans, dried .................
Celery ......................
Potatoes, 90 cents per bushel.


ICost of
Price 1 pound
pound. tien.
tIen


Cents. Dollars.
20 90.91
20 222.22
20 54.05
20 46.51
20 142.85
20 133.33

7 5.38
5 12.50
5 3.33
5 10.64
4 6.67
7 6.42
7 7.00
7 7.78
4 5.71

15 1.30
10 .77


15 1.74
15 3.95
8 1.54
5 1.72
15 2.00
9 1.55
35 20.60
7 .36
15 2.94
8 1.27
25 .75
20 .90
15 3.06

5 10.00
20 .68

25 1.31
16 .84

20 1.30
16 1.23
22 1.55

10 .90
18 1.17
20 2.12
40 1.67

25 4.17
15 1.90
16 1.22

3S 1.06
16 .58
2 .59

214 .18
15 i .75

2k .22
25 1.87
7', .62
2i .45

5 .54
5 .56

6 ........
20 ........

5' .22
5 5.56
1V .83


Cost of
1,000
calories
energy.



Cents.
126.6
96.2
83.3
88.5
101.0
172.4

25.9
23.3
18.9
19.2
11.6
26.5
27.4
40.0
10.3

9.0
5.5
9.0
34.9
8.5
3.5
9.5
7.1
40.0
3.6
8.1
5.4
8.8
6.7
17.0

5.6
7.1

22.5
17.9

22.2
10.2
13.1

46.5
38.3
52.6
42.1

108.7
76.9
25.2

10.5
7..5
11.8

1.5
8.8

1.5
15.2
4.4
4.1

4.2
4.3

3.2
11.2

3.1
71.4
4.8


Amounts for 10 cents.

Total
weight Pro- Carbo-
of food tin. Fat. hy- Energy.
mate- tendrates.
rial.


Pounds.
0.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50

1.43
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.50
1.43
1.43
1.43
2.50

.67
1.00
.67
.67
1.25
2.00
.67
1.11
.29
1.43
.67
1 91r


Pounds.






0.02
.01
.03
.01
.02
.02
.01
.01
.02

.08
.13
.06
.03
.07
.06
.05
.06

.28
.03
n


.40 .14
.50 .11
.67 .03

2.00 .01
.50 .15

.40 .07
.62 .12

.50 .07
.62 .08
.46 .06

1.00 .11
.56 .08
.50 .05
.25 .06


.40
.66
.62


2.86
.62
5.00

4.00
.67

4.00
.40
1.33
1.33

2.00
2.00

1.67
.50

2.00
2.00
6.67


.02 .
.05
.08

.09
.17
.17

.55
.13

.46
.05
.16
.2"2

.18
.18


Pounds.






0.01
.01

.02

.01
.08

.20
.34
.23
.06
.06
.51
.21
.28

.42
.25
35


.20
.27
.12


Pounds.
0.04
.06
.06
.06
.05
.03

.16
.20
.26
.27
.42
.18
.18
.10
.34

.06
.08
.02

.44
.29
.04
.04
.13
.27
.05
.11
.03
.08
.02


....... .94
.23 .09

.07 .........
.08 .........

.07 I.........
.20 .........
.15 ,.........

.02. .........
.02 ........


....... .01
.01 ........
.06 ........

.11 1 .14


.08
.02



.02
.10

.03
.01


.03
.01i


2.88
.43

3.00
.30
1.00
.88

1.06
1.06

1.67
.48

1.19
.05
.98


Calories.
79
104
120
113
99
58

386
430
530
520
862
377
865
250
975

1,112
1,820
1,109
288
1,181
2,826
1,055
1,404
254
2,767
1,237
1,845
1,138
1,498
593

1,780
1,412

444
555

445
977
770

215
266
190
238

92
129
394

925
1,330
850-

6,700
1,131

6,600
658
2,261
2,460

2,430
2,360

3,106
892

3,210
140
2,068


."... p.


';


I


I





79


From the data in the above table it appears that the fruit juices are
the most expensive sources of protein among the fruits and their
products and that dried fruit is the cheapest, although the latter is far
outranked in this respect by the nuts.
The average price per pound of the protein of nuts ranges higher
than the corresponding average of meats, but the cost (36 cents) per
pound of peanut protein is lower than that reported for meats, fish,
eggs, milk, dairy products, prepared cereals, and gluten flour. The
only foods mentioned in the table which furnish protein at a less cost
than peanuts are the flours and dried beans.
The nuts are the cheapest source of energy for the strict fruitarian,
the peanut ranging far ahead of any other variety. The price. 3.6
cents for 1,000 calories of energy, recorded for peanuts is considerably
less than the corresponding cost noted for any of the animal foods,
and is below that given in the table for potatoes at 9 ) cents per bushel.
Wheat flour supplies energy more cheaply than peanuts, but the cost
of 1,000 calories, when supplied by sugar at 6 cents and by dried
beans at 5 cents per pound, approaches very closely to the cost when
furnished by peanuts. The peanut deserves special mention because
it is the cheapest of the domestic nuts, containing the highest percent-
age of protein, with maximum fuel value and minimum refuse.
As may be seen by a reference to the table, 10 cents will purchase
more protein and energy when expended for the flours and meals than
in any other way, but it must be remembered in this connection that
these are the raw materials requiring considerable preparation before
they are palatable. This is not necessary with fruits and nuts, except
in the case of the peanut, which is usually roasted before it is considered
palatable by most persons, though there are those who prefer it raw.
While it is true that 10 cents will buy more animal protein than
fruit protein, it will on the average purchase fully as much energy
when spent for fresh fruits and more in the case of dried fruits than
when expended for lean meats. When considering nuts it is readily
observed that 10 cents will buy about the same amount of nut protein
as of animal protein, except in case of cheese and skim milk. If
spent for peanuts, it will purchase more than twice the protein and six
times the energy that could be bought for the same expenditure for
porterhouse steak.
It is of more than passing interest to note that 10 cents worth of
peanuts will contain about 4 ounces (120 grams) of protein and 2,767
calories of energy, which is more protein than that furnished by any
of the diets and more energy than most of the diets used in the experi-
ments here reported. Although peanuts supply protein and energy
for a smaller sum than bread, they are outranked by dried beans, which,
at 5 cents a pound, will supply for 10 cents over 200 gnras of protein
and 3,040 calories of energy. If more peanuts and dried beans had





8()

been used by the fruitarians studied, the diet would have been e '
and the cost decreased. ;".
The almond, so much in favor with fruitarians, furnishes ft
cents about one-third the protein and less than one-half the ene
supplied by peanuts.
SUMMARY.

A review of the results of the studies of the fruit and nut dietsedt
to bring out the following points of interest perhaps more promit
nently than some others:
While some of the dietaries make it plain that it is possible to obtain
the requisite amount of protein and a proper fuel value from a fruits2!H^:'
rian diet, still the majority of those studied fell far below the tentative:::,
standards. At the same time it is not just to ascribe this entirely i
the form of diet. These same people might have consumed no larger:: ,g
quantities of nutrients on a mixed diet.
The nutritive value of the fruitarian diet is shown most clearly iw":
the case of the university student, who, though entirely unaccustomed: :i.'
to such fare, gradually changed from an ordinary mixed diet to one'of.
fruit and nuts without apparent loss of health or strength. He was
then able for eight days to carry on his usual college work and also for
part of the time to perform heavy physical work on an exclusively X
fruitarian diet without any material loss in weight. :..
It would seem from the data that it was more difficult for two of the
subjects to obtain the requisite amount of protein when on a limited..
diet of one kind of nut combined with fruits than it was when they were,
unrestricted and ate of a variety of each. In nearly all cases where the .
diet was limited in variety, consisting of combinations of one or two
fruits with one kind of nuts, the subject uniformly complained of a
constant craving for something else, as green vegetables or cereals.
At such times it was found that the coefficients of digestibility were
lower than those recorded when the subject ate some vegetables or
cereals which made the diet more appetizing. '
The dietaries which included cereals furnished more protein and
energy in most cases than those which were limited strictly to fruit
and nuts.
The chief sources of nutriment in fruits are the carbohydrates, which,
judging by results of the experiments here reported, possess a
coefficient of digestibility only slightly lower than the carbohydrates
of the mixed diet.
The cost of the food per person per day in the nine dietary studies
varied from 18 cents to 46 cents.
The amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine was small, as would
be expected when the diet contains so little protein. Nitrogen equi-
librium was maintained in 14 of the 31 digestion experiments, and in







some cases this was done with a smaller amount of protein than was
usually consumed by the same subject during the dietary studies.
The feces excreted per day during the digestion experiments were
less in amount than has been noted in some experiments with a mixed
diet or a diet of bread and milk. This is contrary to what has been
found usually with a vegetarian diet made up of bread and other cereal
foods, garden vegetables, etc., and containing little or no fruit and
nuts. The percentage of so-called metabolic nitrogen in the feces
examined did not exceed that found by other investigators in feces
from a bread and milk diet.
Although it is undoubtedly advisable to wait until more data have
been gathered before making definite statements regarding the digest-
ibility of different fruits and nuts, enough work has been done to
show that they are quite thoroughly digested and have a much higher
nutritive value than is popularly attributed to them. In view of this
it is certainly an error to consider nuts merely as an accessory to an
already heavy meal and to regard fruit merely as something of value
for its pleasant flavor or for its hygienic or medicinal virtues.
As shown by their composition and digestibility, both fruit and
nuts can be favorably compared with other and more common foods.
As sources of carbohydrates, fruits at ordinary prices are not expen-
sive; and as sources of protein and fat, nuts at usual prices are
reasonable.
In the present investigations the question of the wholesomeness of
a long-continued diet of fruit and nuts is not taken up. The agree-
ment of one food or another with any person is frequently more or
less a matter of personal idiosyncrasy, but it seems fair to say that
those with whom nuts and fruits agree can, if they desire, readily
secure a considerable part of their nutritive material from such sources.

0
1-153-No. 132-03- 6









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