Dietary studies at the University of Missouri in 1895, and data relating to bread and meat consumption in Missouri

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Title:
Dietary studies at the University of Missouri in 1895, and data relating to bread and meat consumption in Missouri
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of Experiment Stations. Bulletin ;
Physical Description:
24 p. : incl. tables, diagrs. II pl. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Gibson, H. B
Calvert, S
May, D. W ( David William ), 1868-1937
United States -- Office of Experiment Stations
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
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Subjects / Keywords:
Dietaries   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by H.B. Gibson, S. Calvert, and D.W. May.

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University of Florida
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oclc - 23350350
lccn - agr09002594
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AA00014573:00001


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BULLETIN No. 31.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.


OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.


DIETARY STUDIES


AT THE


UNIVERSITY


18


OF MISSOURI


95


AND


DATA RELATING TO BREAD AND MEAT
CONSUMPTION IN MISSOURI.
BY

H. B. GIBSON, 8. OALVERT, and D. W. MAY,
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI.


WITH COMMENTS,
BY
W. 0. ATWATER and OHAB. D, WOODS.














WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1896.


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
&I Washington, D. C., June 15, 1896.
SSIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the food
I: supply and consumption in Missouri, made in 1895, by H. B. Gibson,
Professor of chemistry of the University of Missouri, S. Calvert, and
D. W. May. Two dietary studies of a students' club at the University
Sof Missouri and an investigation of the relative bread and meat con-
I gumption in families in the State are included in this report. These
Investigations constitute a part of the inquiries made with aid of the
ir funds appropriated by Congress "' to enable the Secretary of Agricul-
in tare to investigate and report upon the nutritive value of the various
I articles and commodities used for human food." They were conducted
under the immediate supervision of Prof. W. 0. Atwater, special agent
in charge of nutrition investigations, in accordance with instructions
given by the Director of this Office.
In carrying out the provisions of the act above cited, representative
localities have been selected in different parts of the country in order
that definite information regarding the food supply and consumption
of people living under different conditions might be obtained. The
University of Missouri, at Columbia, Mo., offered many facilities for
dietary work. It has well-equipped laboratories, and the department
of chemistry was under the direction of Professor Gibson, one of the
best authorities on dietary work in America. It was the original
intention to make a somewhat extended series of investigations, but
the work which was begun by Professor Gibson was interrupted by his
untimely death in October, 1895. Comments on these investigations
Made by Professor Atwater and Mr. Woods, and appended to Professor
Gibson's report herewith, indicate the value of the Missouri dietary
Investigations when taken in connection with those carried on elsewhere.
Professor Gibson's report and the accompanying comments by the
Special agents of this Department are respectfully submitted, with the
recommendation that they be published as Bulletin No. 31 of this Office.
Respectfully,
A. C. TRUE,
Director.
Hon. J. STERLING MORTON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
3


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CONTENTS.


Plan of investigations ......................................................
Bread and meat consumption--------.. --------------------------.------------
Bread and meat consumption................................................
The dietary studies ...-...................................... ..............-
Description of food materials analyzed .............-.......................--
Dietary studies of the college club in Missouri.................... ............
First dietary study of the college club .........................-.........
Second dietary study of the college club............-.....-- .........-...
Comments on the food investigations at the University of Missouri .-.......-
Bread and meat consumption of families in Missouri.........-.........
Comparison of dietaries of college students in Missouri, Tennessee, and
Connecticut.-.....-........-...........................................
5


Page.
7
7
9
10
13
13
16
21
21

22


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a^ ..















INVESTIGATIONS CONCERNING FOOD SUPPLY AND CONSUMP-
TION IN MISSOURI IN 1895.


This investigation has been prosecuted in two directions, namely, (1)
an inquiry regarding the bread and meat consumption in the State,
. and (2) the studies of two dietaries of a students' boarding club at
the State university.
PLAN OF INVESTIGATIONS.

The methods followed in the two dietaries described in this report
are essentially those explained by Professor Atwater in a previous pub-
lication of this Office.' The waste, however, was treated in a different
waywhich is described in detail. The methods used in analysis are
those described in the report of the Connecticut Storrs Station for 1891,
pp. 47-49, and in Bulletin No. 29 of this Office, p. 8.

BREAD AND MEAT CONSUMPTION.

The university community furnishes an excellent field for the collec-
tion of approximate statistics regarding.the dietary practices which pre-
vail throughout the State. The students represent almost every county
in the State, and are drawn from families in all the ordinary walks of
life. Information furnished by them as to the kinds and approximate
quantities of bread and meat used in their homes, while doubtless not
accurate in comparison with, for instance, the statistical results of the
study of a dietary, compares favorably with the quality of the aver-
age statistical information. With a view to the collection of informa-
tion of this character, a circular, of which the following list of questions
formed the essential feature, was placed in the hands of the students
of the university:
GENERAL STATISTICS.
Home residence.-Town, County, --
Occupation.-Please underscore the occupation of the head of your family: Farmer.
Mechanic. Business. Professional.
Family.-Number of persons over 18 years, -- Number of persons 12 to 18
years, Number of persons under 12 years, .
SPECIAL STATISTICS.
.Bread.-Please state the approximate percentages of the following kinds of bread
used in your home: Biscuit, per cent; light bread, per cent; corn bread, -
i' r cent.

SU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21.
7


W,. I









Afeat.-Please state the approximate percentages of the following kinds of ..e.t
used in your home: Beef, -- per cent; veal, per cent; pork, -- per ensti;
mutton, per cent; poultry, per cent; game, per cent; fish, pmer o ea.

Two hundred and eighty-two replies, representing as many families,
living in 74 of the 114 counties of the State, were received. These sita.W
tistics are given in a condensed form in Table 1. The proportions of li:
the various kinds of bread and meat used at the college boarding'
club are also included in the table, the quantities of biscuit and corn
bread being estimated from the amounts of flour and corn meal which
were consumed during the dietary tests. All the raised bread used at
the club was purchased at a local bakery.
The figures iu the table express percentages and not amounts. Those
for bread show the percentage which each kind is estimated to make"
of the total bread used. The same is true with the meat. That is to
say, when the reports from the farmers' families were classified and
their statements averaged, it appeared that in 142 families, living in 59
counties, the average number of persons per family was 6.4. Of every
100 pounds of "bread" used by these families 53.7 pounds were in the
form of biscuit, 30.7 pounds were raised bread, and 15.6 pounds corn
bread. Of the total weight of meat 56.9 per cent was pork, 20.9 beef
and 12.9 poultry, the remainder consisting of mutton, veal, fish, and
game.

TA.BLE 1.-Approximate bread and meat consumption offamilies in Misouri.

Families. Kinds of bread. Kinds of meat.
4a
o I

Occupation. P a c

? C I- I't|
t a s

P. ct. P. et. P. ct.P. et. P. ct. P. t. P. ct. P.ct. P. .L P.et.
Mechanics ......... 14 5.1 6 46.7 41.4 11.9 40.2 2.9 32.4 3.6 11.0 2.8 .1
Business ........... 77 5.4 31 44.9 41.8 13.3 49.0 4.0 23.5 2.7 12.0 2.8 5.4
Professional ....... 48 5.4 28 52.6 36.2 11.2 47.0 3.3 25.3 4.5 11.7 3.1 5.1
Average ..... .---.. ....--.. -. 48.1 39.8 12.1 45.6 3.4 27.0 3.6 11.6 2.9 5.9
Farmers ........... 142 6.4 59 53.7 30.7 15.6 20.9 .9 56.9 2.7 12.9 2.9 2.8
University board-
ing club-......... ...... ..... ..... 45.0 46.0 9.0 66.0 ...... 26.0 ...... 6.0 ...... 10


The contrast between the food consumption of the farmers' families
(country population) and those of mechanics, business and professional
men (largely town population) is well defined, and in some respects
even striking. Especially is this true of the meats consumed. The
farmer does not have easy access to the butcher's shops, and further-
more has no conveniences for keeping fresh beef. He therefore lives
largely on pork and poultry, the former being more palatable when
preserved than when fresh, and the latter always at hand.'


..... ....... s..v ss s ... 'i..:..... .. ..... ....... ..:......;









THE DIETARY STUDIES.

The university boarding club is specially adapted to a dietary study.
l.This club, which has a membership of approximately 100, is conducted
essentially the same manner as the numerous boarding clubs which
tIwirm such a prominent feature of American college communities. Its
hiembers, with few if any exceptions, are Missourians, coming from
tiiAilies engaged in the ordinary vocations and living in all portions of
Sthe State. These young men live in a thoroughly substantial although
i. imodest fashion, their table being, in so far as practicable, copied after
i t...e dietary practices of their own homes. The extent to which they
Succeed in this may be seen from Table 1. The percentages of biscuit,
:raised bread, and corn bread do not differ essentially from those prev-
alent in the State at large; that of the beef is noticeably higher. This
! is due largely to two causes, namely, an opportunity for the storage of
Fresh meat, which is of course wanting in rural communities, and per-
lhaps more especially to the fact that the club buys its beef by the
Quarter during a considerable portion of the year.
The details of the dietaries will be found beyond (Tables 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, and 11). The preliminary test (No. 94)1 covered a period of six
consecutive days, and the final test (No. 95) a period of seven consecu-
tive days. The amount of nutrients purchased, wasted, and eaten per
Smai per day in each test and the average of the two are shown in the
following table:

TABLE 2.-Nutrients purchased, wasted, and eaten per man per day.

Protein. Fat. Carbohy-I Fuel Nutritive
d rates. ; value, ratio.

Purchased: Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
No.94 ...................... -.................. 107 169 458 3,885 .........
No.95 ..................... .................... 107 183 443 3,960 .........
Average..-......-....---...-..---.....---- .. 107 176 450 3,920 .........
Wasted:
No.94 .............. ........ ........... ......11 14 41 350 ..........
No.95........................................ 11 18 39 375 .........
Average..................................... 11 16 40 360 .........
Eaten:
No.94.........................- ............... 96 155 417 3, 540 1:8.0
No.95 ........................................ 96 165 404 3,585 1:8.0
Average........................ .......96 160 410 3,560 1:8.0

These dietaries are striking in point of their comparatively high
potential energy and wide nutritive ratio, due to the relatively large
proportions of fats and carbohydrates. The protein consumed (95
grams) is slightly below the average, and furthermore 40 per cent of
Sthe protein is of vegetable origin, principally from bread. Inasmuch as
the digestibility of the vegetable protein is slightly less than that of
the animal protein, the actual metabolism of the nitrogen compounds
Should hardly have exceeded 90 grams. This possible shortage seems

I, The numbeF of the dietary studies are laboratory numbers used in the invest.
g;;tions of which this study forms a part.






10


to have been covered by an increased consumption of fats, the averagei
amount being 161 grams. This substitution can, however, scaroeIy.b .t
regarded as detrimental, as it does not entail an undesirable et':..e
of the carbohydrates, which is usually the most noticeable dertib M
dietaries with so wide a nutritive ratio. '
The protein compounds form 14.4 per cent of the weight of the t ii:
nutrients, and their energy amounts to 11 per cent of the total en rgy
The method employed in handling the table and kitchen wastes
deserves special attention. The wastes were kept in three distinct
portions, namely, (1) meats and other animal food materials; (2) bread
of all descriptions, and (3) vegetables. No attempt was made to dry
this material, but at intervals of a few days, the interval depending
on the rapidity of the accumulation and the weather, each portion was
treated as follows:
1. Meat, etc.-All bone was removed and the edible portion was
chopped, weighed, and sampled. This sample was then prepared for
analysis in the ordinary manner.
2. Bread.-The various kinds of bread were separated, weighed, sam-
pled, and analyzed in the usual way.
3. Vegetables.-This portion of the waste was thoroughly mixed,
weighed, and sampled and the sample prepared for analysis in the
same way as the meats. Each sample of meat and vegetable waste
was analyzed separately, although "composite samples" might have
been made.
This method has two decided advantages-first, a great saving of
labor and fuel, and second, the possibility of an actual division of the
nutrients according to their respective sources, namely, animal foods,
bread and breadstuffs, and vegetables.

DESCRIPTION OF FOOD MATERIALS ANALYZED.

In connection with the dietary studies the following analyses were
made:
Beef.-The local market was considerably affected by the unusually
high prices which prevailed at the time when these dietary studies were
made (May, 1895). Much of the beef offered for sale had been raised
in the immediate vicinity, and at that season was very yoitng, watery,
and often immature as well; high prices elsewhere had forced it upon
the market before it was in the proper condition.
With the exception of the samples of porterhouse steak (86) and rib
ends (172), the analyses will be of little interest except in their present
use. The beef used at the boarding club at a given meal was of such
a varied character-often representing four or five cuts-that it was
impossible with the time at our disposal to take specimens of each
particular cut for analysis. Specimens 120-123, 124 and 125 are there-
fore samples of miscellaneous cuts of the forequarter-ribchuck, neck,







11


brisket, plate, etc., in whatever proportion the several cuts were pur-
shased in the market for each meal.
.Pork.-No. 2088 was a so-called "country-cured" shoulder. Farmers
salt shoulders and hams for winter and spring use, but do not smoke
them. Pork cured in this way is used largely in the country, and a
wasiderable quantity of it finds its way into town groceries.
Poultry.-No. 2706 was a fowl of average fatness.
Dairy products.-Nos. 11, 12, and 13 are milk from a Holstein-Friesian
herd and No. 14 is from a Jersey herd. No. 15 is a fair specimen of
Farmer's butter. Nos. 4030 and 4041 are "cottolene" and "oleomarga-
rine," respectively.
Bread, etc.-No. 5430 is wheat bread, baker's 5-cent loaf. No. 5438
is graham bread, baker's 5-cent loaf. No. 5450 is soda and sour milk
or baking powder biscuit, homemade. This is the form of wheat bread
. principally used in country districts, and also to a considerable extent
by town population. (See Table 1.) No. 5150 is wheat flour, so-called
i half patent," milled in Columbia. No. 6107 is sorghum molasses.

S TABLE 3.-Composition of food materials as purchased, including both edible portion and
i refuse, analyzed at Columbia, Mo.

Refer- Fuel
Kind of food material. fence Refuse. Water. r F Carby- Ash. lue
n1m- tein. drates. per
ber. pound.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per cent. Per ct. Calories.
Porterhouse steak.......... 86 14.5 49.1 16.9 18.6 .......... 0.9 1,100
Rib ......................... 172 21.0 42.6 14.2 21.4 ..-....... .8 1, 165
Roast...---................... 124 25.5 36.5 12.0 25.3 .......... .7 1,290
Do..... -................ 125 15.0 45.3 14. 1 24.8 .......... 8 1,310
Steak, forequarter ......... 120 13.5 53.2 17.1 15.2 .......... 1.0 960
Do...................... 121 13. 5 64. 4 17.3 3.7 ....- .... 1.1 480
Do ..................... 122 12. 5 52.8 16.8 17.0 .......... 9 1,030
Do..................... 123 10.5 52.0 16. 9 19.6 ......... 1.0 140
Cottolene................. 4030 ............... ...... 100.0 ......... 4,220
Oleomargarine..-........-. 4041 ........ 10.2 11.0I 86.1........... 2.7 3,650
Pork: Shoulder, salted (not
smoked) ..................... 2088 26.0 16.7 10.7 43.1 ......... 3.5 2,020
Poultry: Fowl ................. 2706 33.0 44.7 12.8 8.8 .......... .7 610
1utter............. ....... ...15 ...... 12.5 '1.2 84.7 .......... 1.6 3,595
Milk, whole..................... 211........ 88.7 3.5 3.7 3.4 .7 285
milk, skimmed.................. 12 ....... 91.3 3.5 .6 3.8 .8 160
M ilk, skimmed, sours........... 213 ........ 91.7 ........ .7 .......... ........ .........
Buttermilk .................... 4 ....... ....1491.3 ........... 1.1 ...........................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Wheat flour, roller process...... 5150 ........ 11.1 11.7 1 .8 75.9 .5 1,665
Bread ......................... 5430 ........ 31.4 7.3 .7 59.5 1.1 1,270
Bread, graham.................... 5438 ........ 30.5 7.4 2.3 58.4 1.4 1,320
Biscuit......................... 5450 ........ 22.9 9.3 13.7 52.6 1.5 1,730
Molasses (sorghum)............ 6107 ........ 27.4 ...... 69.5 3.1 1.290


3 Only water and fat determined.


ICurd.


2 Columbia laboratory number.








12 7
.... : :. : .....
TABLE 4.-Composition offresh, edible ponto offood material a.nauyseda C.SuIMba um

Refer- I1 h y-
Kind of food material, encenum- Water. Protein. Fat. u-" Ah. .
her. u

ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cam. GuIlOI .
Porterhouse steak........ 86 57.4 19.8 21.8 --.......... L 0 -o3
Rib...................... 172 53.9 18.0 27.1 .......... 10 1,480
Roast .................... 124 49.0 16.1 34.0 .......... .- 1
Do ................... 125 53. 16.6 29.2 ..........40
Steak. forequarter........ 120 61.5 19.8 17.6 ......... Li 1,110
Do ..-................ 121 74.4 20.0 4.3 .......... L3 5
Do ...... .......... 122 60.4 19.2 19.4 .......... 1.0 1,1l
Do .................. 123 58.1 18.9 21.9 .......... 1.1 1,78
Cottolene................. 4030 ...........-........ 100.0 ......... ........ 4
Oleomargarine ........... 4041 10.2 '1.0 86.1 .......... 2.7 ,,365
Pork: Shoulder, salted (not
smoked)................... 2088 22.6 14.5 58.2 ........... 4.7 ,725
Poultry: Fowl.............- 2706 06.7 19.1 13.1 .......... 1.1 90
Butter ......---. .........-.. 215 12.5 1.2 84.7 .......... 1.6 S,5S
Milk. whole................. 211. 88.7 3.5 8.7 3.4 .7 25
Milk, skimmed............... 12 91.3 3.5 .6 3.8 .8 Id6
Milk, skimmed, sour3......... 213 91.7 --......... .7 ...........................
Buttermilks ................ 214 91........... 1.1................
VEGETABLE FOOD.

Wheat flour, roller process ... 5150 11.1 11.7 .8 75. 9 .5 1,86
Bread ...................... 5430 31.4 7.3 .7 59.5 1.1 1,270
Bread, graham ...-.......... 5438 30.5 7.4 2.3 58 4 1.4 1, 0W
Biscuit .................... 5450 22.9 9.3 13.7 52.6 1.5 1,7'0
Molasses (sorghum)......... 610.......4 4.......... .......... 69.5 3.1 1,200


I Columbia laboratory number.


' Only water and fat determined.


*
TABLE 5.-Composition of water-free substance of edible portion of food materials ana.
lyzed at Columbia, Mo.


Refer- itro Protein. Fat. Carbohy-
Kind of food material. ence gen.o Protein. Fat. drats. Ash.
number. goD. dratea.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per ent.
Porterhouse steak................ 86 7.36 46.5 51.2 ........... 2.
Rib.............................. 172 6.43 39.0 58.8 .......... 2.2
Roast.............................. 124 5.16 31.6 66.7 ......... 1.7
Do............................ 125 5.69 35.6 62.5 ....L...... 1
Steak, forequarter ................ 120 8.17 51.4 45.7 .......... 2.9
Do............................. 121 12.58 78.1 16.8 .......... 5.1
Do............................. 122 7.64 48.5 49.0 ......... 2.5
Do.............................. 123 7.31 45.1 52.3 ......... 2.S
Cottolene........................... 4030 .................... 100.0 ..................
Oleomargarine.....-- ......... ...... 4041 .......... 11.1 95. 9 .......... 30
Pork: Shoulder, salted (not smoked).. 2088 2.95 18.7 75.2 .......... .1
Poultry: Fowl.......................... 2706 9.42 57.4 39.3 .......... 8.
Butter..........................5 .......... ......... 11.4 96.8 ......... L
Milk. whole.................... .......... 211 .......... 31:0 32.7 30.1 8.2
Milk, skimmed ......................... 12 .......... 40.2 6.9 43.7 9.2
Milk. skimmed, sour3 ................... '13 .......... .......... 8.4 .......... ....
Buttermilk............................ 14 ................... 126 .......... ..........
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Wheat flour, roller process............. 5150 ......... 13.2 .9 85.4 .5
Bread............................... 5430 .............. 10.6 1.0 86.8 1.6
Bread.graham-......... ............. 5438 .......... 10.7 3.3 84.0 2.0
Biscuit................ .... ........ 5450 ......... 12.1 17.8 68.2 1.0
Molasses (sorghum) .................... 6107 .......... ....... -........ 95.7 4.3


'Columbia laboratory number.


*Only water and fat determined.


- F -


1 Curd.


'Curd.




a wmmmmmm


13

DIETARY STUDIES OF THE COLLEGE CLUB IN MISSOURI.

FIRST DIETARY STUDY OF THE COLLEGE CLUB (No. 94).

The study began May 10, 1895, and continued six days.
The club was composed of 98 male students, the matron, and the household
aprvants.
I The number of meals taken was as follows:
S ;: Meals.
Men----.....--.....-----.. ..-- --..-------- .....----.. ........-.. 1, 753
Women (124 meals X 0.8 meal of man) equivalent to......------. 99
Children (20 meals x 0.7 meal of man) equivalent to............. 14

Total number of meals taken equivalent to....--....-...-- 1, 866
Equivalent to one man six hundred and twenty-two days.

Remarks.-With exception of the waste no analyses were made espe-

cially for this test. When possible the estimates of composition were

based upon analyses made for the final test; in other cases the averages

of American analyses* were taken.

TABLE 6.-Composition and amounts of food materials and table and kitchen wastes in
dietary of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 94).


Kind of food material.


i ANIMAL FOOD.
l Beef:
Steak..................
Do ..................
Roast'....................
: Oleomargarine' ..........

Total.-..............--..
Pork, etc.:
Chops.................
Shoulder I..............
Ham I ....................
Cottolene1 .............

Total...................
Poultry: Fowl'.....-........
Fish, salmon, canned........
Eggs........................
ButterIg.....................
Btter-..-...------------..-.-
Cheese.....................
Milk, whole I.............
Milk, skimmed'.............
Milk, skimmedI.............
Buttermilk 1...............


Percentage composition.


- I -


Protein. Fat.



Per cent. Per cent.
17.1 15.2
17.0 13.4
13.4 23.8
1.0 86.1

.......... \ ~. .

14.1 25. 6
10.7 43.1
10.7 43.1
.......... 100.0


i2. 8 8. 8
20. 7 10.8
13.1 9.5
1.2 84.7
26. 0 34. 2
3.5 3.7
3.5 .6
3.3 .7
3.3 1.1


Total
food
mate-
rial.


Grams.
16, 560
8,620
52, 050
16,010


.......... 93.240


9, 980
5,690
35, 150
29, 260

80, 080
790
7, 150
32.430
13,720
910
102. 060
222,720
12, 250
52,620
617, 970


17,060
100,.930
3. 520
2,610
39,350
87,540
4,760
2, 490
45,340
30, 730
230


Carbohy-
drates.



Per cent.
..........

..--.------


1.2

2. 3
3.4
3.8
3.6
3. 5


Total animal food ......................... ..........


VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals, sugar, etc.:
Cornmeal................
Flour, wheat a...........
Oatmeal..................
Biscuit, soda .............
Bread, graham' ..........
Bread, white' ...........
Crackers, cream..........
Macaroni................
Sugar, granulated........
Molasses, sorghum '.....
Cocoa..................


Total-.................


8.9
11.7
15.6
9.3
7.4
7.3
9.3
11.7

..........
21.6


2.2
.8
7.3
13.7
2.3
.7
13. 1
1.6

28.9


75.1
75. 9
68.0
52. 6
58. 4
59. 5
69. 2
72. 9
100.0
69. 5
37. 7


Weight used.


Nutrients.


Protein.


Grams.
2. 832
1,465
6, 975
160


Fat. Carbohy-
drates.


Gramns. Grams.
2,517.........
1, 155 .........
12,388 ..........
13,784 -----.......--...


11,432 I 29, 844...
I


1,407
609
3, 761


5,777
101
1,480
4,248
165
237
3, 572
7, 795
404
1,736
36, 947


1,518
11,811
549
243
2,912
6, 390
443
291

50


--1-I -1 1 i 1-- I


334, 560


24, 207


2. 555
2,452
15. 150
29,260

49,417
70
772
3,081
11,621
311
3, 776
1,336
86
579
100, 893


375
807
257
358
905
613
623
40
. .......
66


4,044


..........
..........
..........
..........

..........
86


21
3,470
8,463
441
1,842
14, 323


12,812
76,605
2,394
1,373
22,980
52,086
3,294
1,815
45,340
21,357
87


240, 143


'Composition estimated from analyses made in the subsequent dietary.

* U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 28.


..;.. .........


ME=


I


I


; --I --i-


m i i I A i l












TABLE 6.-Composition and amounts of feed mateials and table and hkithe ms O
dietary of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 94)--Continued.
U


Kind of food material.


Percentage composition.


Protein.


Fat.


Weight need.


;" 1.~


- I -


Carbohy-
drates.


Total
food
mate-
saA


Nutrients,


Protein.


Fat.


VEGETABLE FOOD-COnt'd. I


Vegetables:
Beans, dried.............
Beans, string............
Corn, canned.............
Lettuce ................
Potatoes (35.5 per cent
refuse) .................
Rhubarb.......... ....
Spinach..................
Tomatoes, canned ........

Total.................

Fruit, nuts, etc.:
Apples...................
Nectarines..............
Strawberries............

Total...................

Total vegetable food....

Total food..............

Table and kitchen waste:
Meat.....................
Do ....................
Fat...................

Total animal ...........

Bread ................
Vegetable ..............
Do ....................

Total vegetable.........

Total waste ............


Per cent.
22.8
2.2
2.8
1.1

2. 1
.4
2.1
1.2


Per cent.
1.8
.4
1.3
.3

.1
.4
.5
.2


Per cent.
59.1
9.4
19. 3
2.7

18. 0
2.2
3.1
4.0


Grams.
10,090
3,860
5,900
5,670

101,380
7,820
7,480
25, 170


Grama.
2,250
85
165
62

2,129
82
157
302


Grams.
311
15
77
17

101
31
87
50


Oswaea

5'N'
a




K32
1,067


.............................. 167,370 5,182 s509 o7, T


.4 .4 12.4 11,340 46 45 1,46
.6 .......... 14.8 8,850 53 .......... 13,10
1.0 .7 6.8 9,870 99 .0 s71

.......... ..................... 30,060 198 114 3,3s8

.......... ....... .. ........ 531,990 29,587 4, 667 270. 0

.......... ......-.............. 1.149,960 66,534 105,560 285,132


22.1 39.1 ......... 6,120 1,353 2,393 ..........
25.2 32.3 .......... 7.820 1,971 2,526 ..........
.......... 100.0 ..--.-.... 2,150- ..-----. 2,150 ....-.....

.................... ........... 16,090 3,324 7,00 ..---..

7.3 1.2 59.1 33,680 2,459 404 19, 06
6.8 12.8 43.6 8,730 594 1,117 3,808
4.3 5.3 16.7 10, 660 458 565 1,780

.................... .......... 53,070 3,511 2,086 25,49


69, 160


6, 835


9, 155


25,4 1


TABLE 7.-Recapitulation of weights and percentages of food materials and ubrifive
ingredients used in dietary of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 94).


Kind of food material.


FOR FAMILY, 6 DAYS.

Beef, real, and mutton........
Pork, lard, etc..............
Poultry.....................
Fish, etc....................
Eggs ........................
Butter..............................
Cheese.....................
Milk.........................

Total animal food.......

Cereals, sugars, starches.......
Vegetables ...................
Fruits .......................

Total vegetable food-..

Total food...............


Food
material.


Weight in grams.

S Nutrients.


Pro-
tein.


Fat.


F I I


93,240 11,432
80,080 5,777
790 101
7,150 1,480
32,430 4,248
13,720 165
910 237
389,650 13,507

617,970 36, 947

334,560 24, 207
167,370 5,182
30,060 198

531,990 29,587

1, 149, 960 66,534


29, 844
49,417
70
772
3,081
11,621
311
5,777


Carbohy-
drates.


..........
..........

86


21
14,216


Weight in pounds.


Food
ma-
terial.




205.6
176.5
1.7
15.8
71.5
30. 2
2.0
858.9


Nutrients.


Pro-
tein.



25.2
12.7
.2
3.3
9.4
.4
.5
29.8


Fat.


65.8
108. 9
.2
1.7
6.8
25.6
.7
12.7


Carbehy-
drate.






0.20
----------
........ ii
.10
8L03


100,893 14,323 1,362.2 81.5 222.4 81. 6
110 0,893


4,044
509
114

4, 667

105,560


240,143
27,279
3,387

270,809

285, 132


737. C
369.0
66.2

1, 172.8

2, 535. 0


53.4
11.4
.4

65.4

146.7


8. 9
1.1
.3

10.3

882.7


M9.40
020
7.50

597.10
IWO::'


----------1 I r r


-L


-1.


..........









15


I TABLU 7.-Recapitulation of weights and percentages of food materials and nutritive
ingredients used in dietary of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 94)-Cont'd.


Kind of food material.


PER MAN PER DAY.

Beef, veal, and mutton.......
Fork, lard, etc...............
Poultry.......................
1 Fish, etc.....................
SEggs..........................
SBtter........................
Cheese........................
Milk..........................

Total animal food.......

Cereals, sugars, starches.......
Vegetables ...............--..
Fruits .....................

Total vegetable food.....


Weight in grams.


Food
material.


150
129
1
12
52
22
1
027

994

538
269
48

855


Nutrients.


Pro- Fat.
tein.


18
9

2
7


22

59

39
9


48


48
79

1
5
19
1
9

162

6
1


7


Carbohy-
drates.



..........
..........




23

23

386
44
5

435


Totalfood .............. 1,849 107 169 458


PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL FOOD.

Beef; veal, and mutton........
Pork, lard, etc.................
Poultry.........--...........-
Fish, etc.......------...---------
Eggs..-.......... ...........
Butter .....................
Cheese........................
IMilk.........................

Total animal food........

Cereals, sugars, starches.......
Vegetables ...................
Fruits .........................

Total vegetable food.....

Total food ...............


Per cent. Per ct. Per ct.
8.1 17.2 28.3
6.9 8.7 46.8
.1 .1 .1
.6 2.2 .7
2.8 6.4 2.9
1.2 .2 11.0
.1 .4 .3
33.9 20.3 5.5

53.7 55.5 95.6

29.1 36.4 3.8
14.6 7.8 .5
2.6 .3 .1

46.3 44.5 4.4

100.0 100.0 100.0


Per cent.



.........
..........






5.0

84.2
9.6
1.2

95.0

100.0


Weight in pounds.


Food
ma-
terial.


0.33
.29

.03
.11
.05

1.38

2.19

1.19
.59
.11

1.89

4.08


Nutrients.

Pro- Fat. Carbohy-
tein. rates.



0.04 0.11 ..........
.02 .18 ..........
....... ....... ..........
.02 .01..........
....... .04 ..........
------.------..............
.05 .02 0.05

.131 .361 .05

.09 .01 .85
.02 ...... .10
....... ........ .01

.11 01 .96

.24 .371 1.01














I I ..........
S....... ....... ..........
....... ...... ..........






.............. ..........

........ ....... ----------


TABLE 8.-Ntrients and potential energy in food purchased, rejected, and eaten in dietary
of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 94).


Nutrients.


Kind of food material.


Food purchased:
Animal ......-........-.....................---........
Vegetable........................................

Totql.............................................

Waste:
Animal.......... ................ ....--............
Vegetable...............................................

Total .................................................

blood actually eaten:
S Animal ........................ ...-..-..........
S Vegetable..................................... ...
STotal.................................................


Protein. Fat. Carboh.
rates.

Grams. Grams. Grams.
36,947 100,893 14,323
29,587 4,667 270,809

66,534 105,560 i 285,132


3.324 7,069 ..........
3,511 2,086 25.491

6, 35 9,155 25,491


33, 623 93, 824 14, 323
26,076 2,581 245,318

59,699 96,405 259,641
59,W9/ ~.05 1 8.0I


Fuel
value.


Calories.
1,148,510
1.275,030

2,423,540


79,370
138,310

217,680


1,069,140
1,136,720

2,205,860


___


- '--









16

TABtL 8.-Nutrients and potential energyin food purchased, rejected, and a i n is i
of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 9d)--Continued.

Nutrieat.
Kind of food material. ":
Prot ein. Fat. Carbon
-- a---- -


PZB MAN PER DAY.
Food purchased:
Animal..........-------.................................
Vegetable...............................................
Total ................... ................... .........
Waste:
Animal ...................... ...............
Vegetable-........... ...... ........................
Total ................................ .................
Food actually eaten:
Animal.......................------------------- ........
Vegetable...............................................
Total ...................................... .........
PERCENTAOGS OF TOTAL FOOD PURCHASED.
Food purchased:
Animal................ ..... ..........................
Vegetable....... ........................................


I ramn*.
59
48
107


Gra"ms.
162
7
160


Gram.
23
435
45a


5 11 ..........
6 3 41
11 14 41

54 151 23
96 155 417



Per cent. Per cent. Per ent.
55.51 95.6 5.0
44.5 4.4 5.0.


Total ..................................... .......... .... 100.0 100. 0 100.0 1Oi 0a
Waste: I I
Animal............................... .. ....... ... 5.0 6.7 ....... ...
Vegetable...-...........- ........ ..... ........... ....... 5.3 2.0 8.9 &L
Total ................ ....... .......................... 10.31 8.7 89 9.0
Food actually eaten:
Animal................. ............ ................... 50.5 88.9 5.0 a.1
Vegetable.......... .... .............. ............... 39.2 2.4 861 4L9
Total .L....... -...--......... ...... ... -...-.--.....--8.7 91.3 91. L


SECOND DIETARY STUDY OF THE COLLEGE CLUB (No. 95).

The study began May 20, 1895, and continued seven days.
During this period the club was composed of 95 male students, the matron, aa
household servants.
The number of meals taken was as follows:

Men ....-.....-- ...-..........-..--......----------.------.----- 1,978
Women (156 meals X 0.8 meal of man) equivalent to.-----.------ 125
Children (40 meals x 0.7 meal of man) equivalent to.......--...----- 28

Total number of meals taken equivalent to---..--..---...- 2,131
Equivalent to one man seven hundred and ten days.

A considerable number of food materials were analyzed in th s die-
tary, as was also the refuse. Such analyses are designated in the table
following on page 17 by the letter a.




Al:*i


. . .......... ......... : ....:::.......... ....


3abfla


as
404

1,715
I,=-
3,58




5LL









17


TABLE 9.-Composition and amounts of food materials and table and kitchen wastes in
dietary of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 95).


Kind of food material.


Beef: ANIMAL FOOD.
Steak, forequarter (a) ........
Do ....-----........---------
Steak, forequarter I...........
Steak, forequarter (a)........
Do....................
Steak, porterhouse (a)........
Roast, miscellaneous (a)......
Do .......................
Roast, miscellaneous '........
Roast, chuck'................
Rib ends (a)..-..-..--.........
Dried and smoked............
Bologna.....................
Oleomargarine..............

Total........................
Pork, etc:
Shoulders, salted (a).........
Cottolene................

Total(a) ..................
Poultry: Fowl (a)................
Eggs .........- ......-.--- .......
Butter (a)......................
Cheese .........................
Milk, whole (a).......-........
Milk, skimmed (a)..............
Milk, skimmed, sour (a)..........
Buttermilk (a)....................

Total animal food..........
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals, sugar, etc:
Corn meal..................
Flour, wheat (a)..............
Oatmeal.....................
Biscuit, soda (a).............
Bread, graham (a)............
Bread, wheat (a)...........
Crackers, cream..............
Sugar, granulated ..---.......
Sugar, brown (a).............
Molasses, sorghum (a)........
Cocoa ......................
Total........ ............
Vegetables:
Beans, string............
Cabbage, edible portion......
Corn, canned .................
Lettuce ....................
Onions....-...........
-Peas, shelled ................
Potatoes (31.5 per cent refuse).
Radishes....................
Rhubarb....-............
Spinach .....................
Tomatoes, canned............
Total.......................
Fruits, nuts, etc.:
Bananas, pulp................
Jelly ....:: ..................
Pears .......................
Strawberries.................
Total............... ........

Total vegetable food ......

Total food ..................


341-No. 31--2


Percentage composition.


Protein.



Per ct.
17.1
17.3
17. 3
16.8
16. 9
16.9
12.0
14.1
13. 1
17. 0
14. 2
31.8
18. 0
1.0


10.7


12.8
13.1
1.2
26. 0
3.5
3.5
3.3
3.3


Fat.



Per ct.
15.2
3.7
3.7
17. 0
19.0
18. 6
25. 3
24.8
25 .1
13.4
21.4
6.8
19.7
86. 1


43. 1
100.0


8.8
9.5
84. 7
34.2
3.7
.6
.7
1.1


Carbohy-
drates.


Per cent.

..........




..........
..........


0. 6
..........
..........










2.3
3.4
3.8
3.6
3.5


Weight used.


I ____________________________________


Total
food mate-
rial.


Gram.q
9,750
10,660
5, 330
5,440
10,210
9,750
10,770
9,980
16,560
11,340
3,740
680
2,270
14,630


Nutrients.


Protein.


Grams.
1,667
1,844
922
914 1
1,726
1, 6.18
1,292
1,407
2,169
1,928
531
216
409
146


Fat.


Grains.
1,482
394
197
92.3
2,001
1,813
2, 725
2,475
4,157
1,520
800
46
447
12.506


121,110 16.819 31,578

19,160 2, 050 I 8,258
49,220 .......... 49,220

68,380 2,050 57,478
16,100 2,061 1,417
41,280 5,408 3,921
23,250 279 19,692
8,160 2,121 2,791
142,770 4,997 5,283
274,430 9,605 1,647
44,430 1,466 311
58,970 1,946 649


Qarboiy.-
'drates.

Grams.
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........





4


4
----------
..........
..........
.--.------
.---------













188
4,854
...-------












10,428
..--------




1,600
2,064


........................ 798,880 46,752 124,767 19,138


8.9
11.7
15.6
9.3
7.4
7.3
9.3


2.2
.8
7.3
13.7
2.3
.7
13. 1


75.1
75.9
68.0
52.6
58.4
59.5
69.2
100.0
99.2


22,230
99,680
4,880
680
45,930
89,360
7,140
36,400
29.140


1,978
11,663
761
63
3, 399
6,523
664
...........


489 16,695
797 75,657
356 3,318
93 358
1,056 26,823
625 53,169
935 4,941
.......... 36.400
.......... 28.907


........ ........ 69.5 25,860 ..... 17,973
21.6 28.9 37.7 340 74 98 128
.. ..... .......... 361,640 25,125 4,449 264,369

2.2 .4 9.4 4,990 110 20 469
2.1 .4 5.8 4,310 91 17 250
2.8 1.3 19.3 25,520 715 332 4,925
1.1 .3 2.7 3,180 35 9 86
1.5 .4 8.9 1,930 29 7 172
4.4 .5 16.1 2,270 100 11 366
2.1 .1 18.0 90,150 1,893 90 16,227
1.0 .1 4.6 11.000 110 11 506
.4 .4 2.2 17,690 70 71 389
2.1 .5 3.1 12,470 262 62 387
1.2 .2 4.0 14,180 170 29 567

----...... .... ........... 187,690 3,585 659 24344

1.2 .8 22.9 1,360 16 11 312
1.1 ........ 77.1 4.540 50 .......... 3,500
.5 .6 10.6 16,330 82 I 98 1,732
1.0 .7 6.8 16,330 163 114 1,111
........ ........ .......... 38,560 I 311 223 6,655

................ .......... 587,8900 i29.021 | 5,331 295,368

............... -..... 1,386,770 75,773 i 130,098 314,506

SEstimated from other analyses.


.Al.












TABLE 9.-Composition and amounts of food materials and table and .kites was4Wh
dietary of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 95)-Continued.


Kind of food material.


Percentage composition.


Weight used.


- _-I ... ... .~


Protein.


Fat.


Carbohy- Total
Caioby- food ma-
dratea, trial.


Nutrients.


Protein.


Fat.


VEGETABLE FOOD--Continued.


Table and kitchen waste:
Meat (a)...................
Do ........-- ..--..-....--
Do --.....-.-..........
Fat.........................

Total animal...........

Bread, wheat (a)..............
Bread, graham (a)...........
Biscuit, soda (a)..............
Vegetable (a) ...............
Do .......................
Do .......................

Total vegetable............

Total waste................


Per et.
21.9
23.4
22. 1


Per ct.
23.7
37. 7
35. 0
100.0


7.3 .7
7.4 2.3
9.3 13.7
2.7 2.9
3.0 3.6
2.8 5.0
-I


Per cent.
..........
..........
..........
..........

..........


Grams.
6,350
6,350
6,010
4,540

23,250


Grams.
1, 391
1,480
1,328


4, 205


_________________________ 1- I


59.5
58. 4
52.6
13. 6
15.3
12.5


26,650
6,920
8,960
5, 780
5,780
9,070


.......... 6,410


1,945
512
833
156
173
254


8,078


Grams.
1,505
2,31
2,103
4,540

10,542


187
159
1,228
168
208
454


12,946


CeA*;';


.elow...
..........


....I


15,48
4,713
atm
884
1,134


27, 415


TABLE 10.-Becapitulation of weights and percentages of food materials and ustriieW
ingredients used in dietary of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 95).


Kind of food material.


FOR FAMILY, 7 DAYS.

Beef, veal, and mutton.......
Pork, lard, etc..-...........
Poultry-----............-----....
Eggs ................ .......
Butter.......................
Cheese........---..............
Milk....................

Total animal food......

Cereals, sugars, starches....
Vegetables ................
Fruits ..................

Total vegetable food-..

Total food..........

PER MAN PER DAY.

Beef, veal, and mutton.......
Pork, lard, etc............
Poultry....................
Eggs.................. .....
Butter ......................
Cheese.........................
Milk........................

Total animal food.....

Cereals, sugars, starches ....
Vegetables ................
Frits ................ ........


121.110 16,819
68.380 2,050
16,100 2,061
41,280 5,408
23,250 I 279
8,160 2,121
520,600 18,014

798,880 46,752

S361,640 25,125
187,690 3,585
38,560 1 311

587,890 29, 021

1,386,770 i 75,773


24
3
3
8

3
25


31,578
57, 478
1, 417
3, 921
19,692
2,791
7,890

124, 767

4,449
659
223

5,331

130, 098


4 266.9
..........150.7
.......... 35.5
.......... 91.0
.......... 51.3
188 18.0
18.946 1,147.7

19,138 1,761.1

264,369 797.3
24,344 413.8
6, 655 85.0


295, 368

314,506


..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

27


1,296.1

3, 057. 2


.37
.21
.05
.13
.07
.03
1.62


37.1 69.6
4.5 126. 7
4.6 3.1
11.9 8.7
.6 43.4
4.7 6.2
39.7 17.4

103. 1 275.1

55.4 9.8
7.9 1.4
.7 .5

64.0 11.7

167. 1 286.8


.05
.01
.01
.02

.01
.05


0.40
41.80



5828s
S3. d
14.70

651.10

as. 80


..........
..........
..........


..B


1,125 66 I 176 27 2.48 .15 .39 .06


35 6
5 1


Total vegetable food... 828 41 7

Total food............. 1,953 j 107 183


I----1 ~ '~~ ~~--i


1.12
.58
.12


.08
.01


416 1.82 .09

443 4.30 .24


.01 .8.


.01 ..5

.4o .!
.oil


-I-


63,160 3, 873 2, 404 ,415


-









19


TABLE 10.-Recapitulatiow of weights and percentages of food materials and nutritive
ingredients used in dietary of the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 95)-Cont'd.

Weightin grams. Weight in pounds.


Kind of food material.


P~ZRC TAGES OF TOTAL FOOD.

Beef, veal, and mutton.......
Pork, lard, etc..............
Poultry ......................
Eggs.......................
Btter......................
Cheese......................
Milk ........................

Total animal food......

Oerels, sugars, starches....
Vegetables ..................
Fruft .......................

Total vegetable food...

Total food............


Food
material.


Per cent.
8.7
4.9
1.2
3.0
1.7
.6
37. 5

57. 6

26. 1
13.5
2.8

42.4

100.0


Nutrients.


Pro-
tein.


Per ct.
22. 2
2.7
2.7
7.1
.4
2.8
23. 8

61.7

33. 2
4.7
.4

38. 3

100.0


Fat.


Carbohy-
drates.


Food
ma-
terial.


Per ct. Per cent.
24.3 .......... ........
44.2 .......... ........
1.1 ..................
3.0 .......... ........
15.1 ..................
2.1 .......... ........
6.1 6.1.......

95.9 6.1 .......

3.4 84.1.......
.5 7.7.......
.2 2.1 .......

4.1 93.9 ......

100.0 100.0 ........


Nutrients.


Pro- Fat.
tein.


..l....l
........
i........
.'...'.."
i.o......
l----- ------
l....."' .-


Carbohy-
drates.



..........


..........
..........
..........
..........


TABLE 11.-Nutrients and potential energy in food purchased, rejected, and eaten in dietary
Sof the college club in Missouri (dietary No. 95).


Kind of food material.


Food purchased:
Animal ...................................................
Vegetable...................................... ..........

Total .................................................

Waste:
Animal.---....... .....................................
Vegetable................................................

Total.....................................................

Food actually eaten:
Animal ............................... .................
Vegetable... --..-......................... ................

Total ................ ..............................

PER MAN PER DAY.
Food purchased:
Animal............ ...................................
Vegetable.................................... .......

Total .................................................

Waste:
Animal ........... ...............................
Vegetable ...................... .......................

Total .........................................................

Food actually eaten:
Animal .............................................
Vegetable ................................. ............

Total .................................. ..............

PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL FOOD PURCHASED.
Food purchased:
Animal ......... ..... ..... .................
Vegetable................... ..........................

Total.............................................


Nutrients.

Protein. Fat.


Grams. Grams.
46,752 124, 767
29,021 5,331

75,773 130,098


Fuel
Carbohy- value.
drates.

Grams. Calories.
19,138 1,430,480
295,368 1,379,570

314,506 2,810,050


4,205 10,542.........
3,873 2,404 27,415

8,078 12,946 27,415


42,547 114,225 19,138
25,148 2,927 267,953

67,695 117,152 287,091


66
41

107


6
5

11


60
36

96


Per cent.
61.7
38.3

100.0


176
7

183


27
416

443


115,280
150,640

265,920
I -

1,315,200
1,228,930

2, 544,130



2,020
1,940

3,960


15 .......... 165
3 39 210

18 39 375


161 27 1,855
4 377 1,730

165 404 3,585
I _I -


Per cent.
95.9
4.1

100. 0


~- _____ ________________


Per cent. Per cent.
6.1 50.9
93.9 49.1

100.0 100.0


-- !:1ii,,..:.. .......... i; ..... ...


,I-


........ ..........

........ ..........
........ ..........
........ ..........

..................

...................









20

TABLE 11.--Nutriensa andpotential energy in food pmr ohaed, rejeted, and eatns in ms
of tke college club is Missouri (dietary No. 95)-Continued.


Nutrient. I


Kind of food material.


PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL FOOD PUBCHABED--continned.
Waste:
Animal ........................... ..................
Vegetable................................................
Total ............ ..............................

Food actually eaten:
Animal ..........................................
Vegetable......................... ....................
Total..................................................


Protein.


Per cent.
5.6
5.1

10.7

56.1
33.2


Fat.


Per cent.
8.1
1.8

0. 9

87.8
2.3


Carbohy-
dratea.


Per cent.
8.7

8.7

6.1
85.2


1 I -


pud
TlvUB


Per cent.
4.1
6.&4
0.5

43.7
E?48


89. 3


90.1


9L3


00.5


r *V
















COMMENTS ON THE FOOD INVESTIGATIONS AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF MISSOURI.



By W. O. ATWATER and CHASE. D. WOODS.


After Professor Gibson had presented the foregoing, as a preliminary
report of the food investigations undertaken by himself and associates
at the University of Missouri, and before he had opportunity to give it
the final revision which had been contemplated, he was stricken with
an illness which proved fatal. His greatly lamented death not only
prevents the contemplated elaboration of the results already obtained,
but interrupts for the time the inquiries into the food economy of the
people of Missouri which had been so successfully begun at the uni-
versity. Much that Professor Gibson hoped to say and do must there-
fore be left unsaid and undone until the work can be taken up by
others. Meanwhile the writers, with whom Professor Gibson had been
associated for a number of years before going to Missouri and who
have been familiar with his work there, add here a few comments.
THE BREAD AND MEAT CONSUMPTION OF FAMILIES IN MISSOURI.
The method of inquiry and the results detailed on pages 7, 8 are of
no little interest. Of course, statistics obtained by this method are
always incomplete, but with the limited time and funds at Professor
Gibson's disposal it is not easy to see how better answers to the ques-
tions as to the kinds and the relative amounts of meats and bread used
in the ordinary households could have been obtained, and the number
of families represented in the report is so large as to give decided
value to the average figures.
It is to be remembered that these statistics are from families of the
classes whose sons were at the university. It would seem, therefore,
that they could hardly be assumed to represent exactly the eating
habits of the average people of either the country districts or the cities
of Missouri.
It will be observed that the term "bread" includes (1) ordinary wheat
bread raised by use of yeast and designated as "raised" bread; (2)
"biscuit" made from wheat flour but not fermented, and (3) "corn
Spread" made from maize.
21


--::: .... L a









The figures of the last column of the table, "Other meats,
include game and fish. The figures show the proportion which
kind makes of the total amount consumed, but give no indication uof :I
absolute quantities per person or per family for a given time.
How largely the sources of supply regulate the character of the
consumption is illustrated by the following sable, taken from the fi
given on page 8:
TABLE 12.-Kinds of bread and meat eaten by families in country and city.

Kinds of bread. Kinds of meat.
Beef, Oer
Raised. Biscuit. Corn. veal, Pork. meuts,
matton. oe "i
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per *n#.
Farmers living in country, with lim- I
ited access to markets-....... ...---- 31 54 16 24 57 1.
Families living in cities or larger towns,
with better markets.................. 40 48 12 53 27 2 W

Evidently there is relatively much less of raised bread and more of
corn bread and biscuit eaten in the country than in the town. It would
seem natural to assume that the larger proportion of yeast-raised bread
in the cities is due to bakers, to the ease with which good quick-acting
yeast can be obtained, and to the fact that city people have more con-
venient markets to buy in and more ready money. The effect of supply
upon the kinds of meat eaten is even more evident. Pork is easily
raised on the farm, and in the form of salt pork, bacon, and bam is
readily preserved for later use. On the other hand, city people can
always have fresh beef, veal, and mutton from the markets.. That "I
this accounts largely for the fact that pork constitutes 57 per cent oF
the meat supply of the farmers' families and only 27 per cent of that
of families living in the large towns is hardly to be doubted, though, t"
course, the relative cost may be a factor also. The fact that beef, vea j:
and mutton make more than half of the total meats eaten by well-totd
people in the cities and less than a quarter of that used by thrifty
farmers is naturally explained in the same way.

COMPARISON OF DIETARIES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS IN MISSOU3!%.
TENNESSEE AND CONNECTICUT.- ,

It will be interesting to compare the results of the studies of the two"i
dietaries of the students' club at the University-of Missouri with those
of investigations of other college clubs. The only other studies of thiW
character made in the United States, and at present available
exactly comparable with these, so far as we are aware, are several se"
of dietary studies of students' clubs at Wesleyan University,1 M
town, Conn., and at the University of Tennessee,2 Knoxville, Tenn.
'Connecticut Storrs Station Reports, 1891-1894, and U. S. Dept. Agr., Offiee
Experiment Stations Bul. 21.
SU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 29.








23

The students of the University of Missouri were mostly residents of
that State, and it would seem fair to assume that their eating habits
would be more or less such as they had acquired at home, although the
;.diet in Columbia would be somewhat modified by the markets in that
Vaeity at the time when the dietaries were made.
J n the following table the results of the dietary studies at the three
'colleges are summarized. There is also appeuded to the table for com-
parison a suggested dietary standard for a man at light work.' These
comparisons are based upon the quantities of food actually eaten and
not upon the total food purchased.

TAB&L 13.-Comparison of nutrients in food eaten by college clubs in Missouri, Tennessee,
and Connecticut.
[Quantities per man per day.]

Kind of food material. Protein. Fats. Carbohy- Fnel Nutritive
drates. values. ratio.

FOOD EATEN.
In Missouri: Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
Animal ................... -................ 57 156 25 1, 785 ..........
Vegetable ...---------------------------- 39 4 385 1,775 .........
STotal. .....-.... ....---.. .......... .......--96 160 410 3,560 | 1: 8.0
In Tennessee:
Animal........-.............-....... ....-- .. 43 114 12 1,280 ..........
Vegetable ............ .................. ...... 49 13 467 2,240 .........
Total..-....--......-........------------------ 92 127 479 3,520 1: 8.3
In Connecticut:
Animal..--.---.....- ---.. ----.------.. --..... 63 131 21 1,560 ..........
Vegetable ......------...- ..-- ............... 36 8 315 1,580 ..........
Total .-..-... ............. --................ 99 139 336 3,140 1: 6.7
Average of above:
Animal--..--..------ --- -----------........... 53 131 19 1,505 ........
Vegetable .....--..-...------------...--. 42 9 400 1,915 ..........
Total............. ..- .......-- ...... 95 140 419 i 3,420 1: 7.8
Suggested standard for man with light muscular
work (Atwater).....-- ..... ....----.....-..--. 112 ................. 3,000 1: 5.5


We are far from urging that these results portray accurately the
dietary practices of the people of the different sections represented by
the young men in the three institutions. Still the families represented
were doubtless numerous enough to represent fairly well the people of
their classes and communities.
The case was similar with the club at Knoxville, whose members
were nearly all from Tennessee. The homes of the students at Middle-
town were scattered through the northern Atlantic States, though a
few were from other States and countries. The larger number were
from towns with markets in which the available food materials were
very similar to those in Middletown. The cost of board, like the gen-
eral living expenses of the students at Middletown, was decidedly
larger than that of the young men at Knoxville and Columbia.

U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21.




........... .. .
.. ..;':E. .. .. : .. .."" E .. ".. :'..











had an excess of the nutrients (fats and carbohydrates) which .
simply as fuel and tend to make the nutritive ratios wide. The
ard represents nothing more than the attempt to state in a general : i
the proportions of nutrients which physiological experiment on tflbosiii..
hand and observations of the dietary habits of the best fed people qiil
the other imply to be most appropriate. Among different dietaries
here summarized the narrowest nutritive ratio is found in those repr.-.!i
senting the people who were most favorably situated with respect to
both the kinds of food materials at their disposal and the pecuniary
ability to select at will. The inference is that the diet of all, ua:
especially of those in the more Southern States, would be improved by
diminishing the carbohydrates and fats and increasing the protein.'

'See reference to the same subject in discussion of the dietaries of the students at
the University of Tennessee, U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bl. 29.


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