Mechanical tests of pumps and pumping plants used for irrigation and drainage in Louisiana in 1905 and 1906

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Title:
Mechanical tests of pumps and pumping plants used for irrigation and drainage in Louisiana in 1905 and 1906
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of Experiment Stations. Bulletin
Physical Description:
72 p. : diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Gregory, William Benjamin, 1871-
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Pumping machinery   ( lcsh )
Irrigation -- Louisiana   ( lcsh )
Drainage -- Louisiana   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility:
By W.B. Gregory.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029606193
oclc - 16895610
Classification:
lcc - S21 .E7 no. 183
System ID:
AA00014571:00001


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96 Issued April 15. 1907.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS-BULLETIN 183.
A. C. TRUE, DIRECTOR.




MECHANICAL TESTS

OF


PUMPS AND PUMPING PLANTS


Used for Irrigation and Drainage in
Louisiana in 1905 and 1906.


W. B. GREGORY,
Professor of Experimental Engineering
Tulane Unirersit!I of Louisiana.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1907.














































THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.


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STAFF.


A. C. TRUE, Ph. D., Director.
E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Assistant Director and Editor of Experiment Stain
W. H. BEAL, B. A., M. E., Chief of Editorial Division.
ELWOOD MEAD, D. E., Chief of Irrigation and Drainage Inwestigations.


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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
Washington, D. C.. January 16, 1907.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on mechanical
tests of pumps and pumping plants used for irrigation and drainage
in Louisiana, prepared under the direction of Elwood Mead, chief of
Irrigation and Drainage Investigations, by Prof. W. B. Gregory, of
Tulane University, and to recommend its publication as a bulletin of
this Office.
Very respectfully, A. C. TRUE,
Director.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.


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CON FENTS.

Page.
Introduction ___-----------------
- Introduction ----------- ---------------------------------------- 7
Instruments used ---_-------------------------_--------------_ 9
Methods pursued_------------ ---------- ----------- 11
Probable accuracy of results -----------------------------------_ 12
Description of plants and results of tests----------------------------- 13
Plant No. 1. Abbeville 'Canal Company----------------------- 13
Plant No. 2. Abbott-Duson Canal. Main pumping p1 l:int -------------- 16
Plant No. 3, Abbott-Duson Canal, first relift ------------------------ 20
Plant No. 4, Abbott-Duson Canal, second relift-- --------------- 22
Plant No. 5, Acadia Canal_ ---------------- -------- 24
Plant No. 6, Acadia relift ------_ ---_ ------------_ -------_-- 2;
Plant No. 7, Grand Canal. old plant -------------------------------- 28
Plant No. 8, Grand Canal. new plant ------------------------------- 31
Plant No. 9. Abbott Brothers' lower farm ------------------------- 34
Plant No. 10. Wesson farm __----------------------------------- 36
Plant No. 11. Saxby farm_ ------------------------------ 38
Plant No. 12, Crowley Farming Company----------------------- 40
Plant No. 13. South Side Planting Company drainage wheel---------- 42
Plant No. 14, Algiers drainage plant 4--------------
Plant No. 15. New Orleans drainage station No. 3------------------- 47
Plant No. 16. New Orleans drainage station No. 7 ------------------- 48
Plant No. 17. Neches Canal Company 51-------------____--- _
Summary of results of all tests5------------------------------- .5
Discussion of results _----____ --__ ---__ -_---- --__---------_ 58
Drainage plants--_ ----- --------------___- -- ----- 70

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FIG. 1. Pitot tube *--- -.*1-,-------_-- -- __ ; ;i::. .

2. Drainage wheel, near New Orleans-_ --------__-_--_----- .._.-:::;....

3. Diagram showing profits and losses with Plant No. I-- -.---... .,.,i::

4. Diagram showing cost of fuel and total cost of irrigation per abM :.... ...i::.

under varying conditions-------------------------------------.


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MECHANICAL TESTS OF PUMPS AND PUMPING PLANTS USED FOR IRRI-
GATION AND DRAINAGE IN LOUISIANA, 1905 AND 1906.


INTRODUCTION.

Some of the largest pumping plants in the world used for irrigation
are located in the rice country "of Louisiana and Texas. It is only
ten or eleven years since the first of these plants of any considerable
size was established.
Rice irrigation had passed through the experimental stage, and
lands previously considered suitable only for grazing were being
rapidly brought under rice cultivation. The new industry offered
exceptional inducements to capital, as rice was an unusually profit-
able crop. The first pumping plants were located along the rivers,
bayous, and small streams, but as the area under cultivation was in-
creased it became desirable to plant rice on land that was out of reach
of the large canals. Search for underground waters was usually
rewarded; the deep wells of Louisiana and the shallow wells of
Texas have served to supply water for irrigating vast tracts that
otherwise could not have been used for rice growing.
Many of the large pumping plants, erected during the early period
of the development of the industry, showed an entire lack of consider-
ation of economy. A certain amount of water was needed and the
pumps were capable of supplying the demand, but the amount of fuel
required to do the work was entirely too great. Rice growers were
so.prosperous that questions of economy did not arise, and lack of
experience was accountable for their indifference. It is true that
some of the pumping plants built at that time were excellent ex-
amples of good engineering, but these were exceptional.
The fuel used was wood and coal. With the former the expense
was often only that of cutting and handling, but even so, it was not
cheap fuel, and plants designed to use it needed larger boiler equip-
ment than was required if coal was used.
The discovery of oil at Beaumont, Tex., in 1901, and later at many
other points in both Louisiana and Texas, has revolutionized the fuel
supply of that section. The Jennings oil field is located in the heart
of the rice country of Louisiana, and furnishes fuel for nearly all of
the pumping plants for miles around.


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giants are operate ror only tree or tour months the ye.:
proportioning of boilers to supply steam easily and e
contributes not only to the satisfactory operation. of ao ;phB.t:.
the length of life of the boilers as well. .
Many of these first plants have become conspicuous on JHccot
the size of their fuel bills. The cost of plants having diffdret
of machinery is almost a constant quantity when based on a.
amount of work to be done by the pumps. In the larger- i
reliable figures show that the economical and the wasteful pla i"nt
differ in first cost by only a small amount, and that the differ"iEc
in favor of the economical plant.,. '::
The above refers to first cost only. When the cost of fuel is d6-
sidered, the economical plant will often do the same work as :i:the:
wasteful plant for one-third of the amount. These facts have :been:ii. l.
brought home to owners of the large canals in statements of rii;al::
expenses.
Of these earlier plants, those .which represent the cheapest. and:i::.
lowest grade of machinery are now about ready for the scrap pi .ji:::i
In fact, many of them would have been replaced ere this had not 'the!
three years preceding the season of 1905 been unfavorable from al !
financiall standpoint, as the profits were lower than formerly. Th;: .:
reduction of profits has had the effect of calling attention to sources
of waste and has made the study of the economies of pumping of i
great importance.
In many sections rice farmers have the choice of pumping water:,.:
from wells ot of taking it from canals, paying for the privilege with
two sacks of rice per acre or one-fifth of the crop.
The small well plants have been found to use fuel wastefullyon .'
account of the fact that economical engines are not made in small
sizes, and also on account of the difficulties incident to pumping from
wells. More is now known of the' life of the average well, an4 the
farmer is asking whether he can afford to continue to operate his little.
plant if a canal is available.
Changes must come in the near future, and while individual ex-
perience is valuable and will aid in the settling of some of these
questions, it is not wide enough to cover all. During 1905 and 1906.
the Irrigation and Drainage Investigations of the Office of Experi-:.
ment Stations, United States Department of Agriculture, has con-
ducted tests of typical pumping plants to help in the settlement of:
these problems. The problem of drainage has also claimed some at--,;


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tention, and some of the plants tested are used exclusively for drain-
age. It is not claimed that these tests cover the whole range of con-
ditions, but it is believed that they are typical and that the deductions
are general.
INSTRUMENTS USED.

The instruments used were in part furnished by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, while others were loaned by Tulane University,
of Louisiana. Among the former were two steam-engine indicators
having reducing wheels, a. current meter, and a 100-foot tape. The
instruments loaned consisted of a Pitot tube, hook gage, pressure and
-vacuum gages, revolution counters, hydrometer, and thermometers.
In one test a Pitot tube loaned by the Mississippi River Commission
was also used.
The springs of the steam-engine indicators, the gages, and ther-
mometers were calibrated in the experimental engineering laboratory
of Tulane University. The rating of the current meter was fur-
nished by this Department, while the Pitot tube was made of such
form that its constant was known to be unity. In a few cases weirs
were used to measure the water discharged by the pumps; the weirs
were invariably of the Cipolletti form.
The form of Pitot tube used is shown in figure 1. This instru-
ment was used both in open channels, as a current meter, and to
traverse pipes to obtain mean velocity. In one case the two Pitot
tubes were used in suction pipes of a pump, and therefore under a
negative pressure or vacuum, while in another test the Tulane tube
was used in the discharge pipe of a pump under a positive pressure.
In every case the results were consistent and reliable. Readings
from Pitot tubes were invariably taken in feet of water, and the
instruments were used only where the velocity was sufficiently great
to give a difference of level on static and impact sides that could be
read with accuracy. The velocities determined in this way were from
3 to 5 feet per second. The Price current meter was often used alter-
nately with the Tulane tube, and the results were equally satisfactory
with both instruments. Following is a brief description of this
instrument and statement of the theory on which it is constructed:
The outer tube consists of hard-drawn brass tubing of approxi-
mately three-fourths of an inch external diameter. The part which
is turned toward the current of water the velocity of which is to be
measured is approximately 7 inches long. The inner tube receiving
the impact of the current is about one-fourth of an inch in external
diameter. This tube is carried inside the outer tube to the upper
end of the latter and projects about 1 inch beyond, where it is con-
nected by means of rubber tubing to one of the glass tubes placed in












































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er7. 1.-Pitot tube.
two small tubes are held in place by means of solder. The two ..
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Fro. l.-Pitot tube.
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is a small piece of brass tubing, also projecting about 1 inch and !- i ::


means of a short length of rubber tubing similar to that used it B ::::i:::
impact tube. The upper end of the outer tube is ::osed and .ff|; ."
two small tubes are held in place -by means of solder. The twop
tubes are connected at the top, and a third opening allows a r....
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tube to be attached, by means of which the water in both tubes may
be raised by suction to a convenient height for reading. A pinch
cock is used to close this tube. The channel holding the graduated
scale and glass tubes is of aluminum, the light weight of which pre-
vents the instrument from being top heavy. A handle, easily detached
by means of thumbscrews, serves to accurately align the point of the
Stube in the manipulation of the instrument.
A gland and stuffing box is also provided for use when the instru-
ment is used to traverse a pipe either under a vacuum or under pres-
sure.
When the instrument is used to measure velocity, the point is
turned to receive the impact of the current of water, while the open-
ings on the side of the tube give its static pressure. The difference
between these two pressures, measured in feet of water, is the head
corresponding to velocity by the well-known formula V=42 gh, in
which V equals the velocity in feet per second, g is the acceleration
of gravity, usually taken as 32.2 feet per second, per second, and h is
the difference of head in the two fubes in feet of water One advantage
of this instrument over the current meter is that no time observation is
required. If properly constructed, no constant is needed in the for-
mula to reduce the reading of head to velocity. Long experience has
shown that an instrument constructed as the one shown in figure 1
fulfills this requirement.

METHODS PURSUED.

In making mechanical tests of pumping plants the following ob-
servations were taken where practicable; exceptions are noted in the
description of individual tests: (1) Amount and specific gravity of
fuel oil used. In every case where this quantity was measured the
fuel used was crude petroleum. (2) The amount and temperature
of water fed to the boilers and the steam pressure. (3) The indicated
horsepower of the engine, obtained from the indicator cards and
revolutions per minute of engine. (4) The actual height through
which the water was lifted. (5) The volume of water pumped per
unit of time. The cost of fuel oil was also obtained, and in some
cases numerous other readings of minor importance were taken; they
are given in the logs of tests.
The specific gravity of the oil was taken with a hydrometer. It
was found to vary but slightly, and for this reason an average value
was taken and the number of barrels used in every case was computed
on this common basis of specific gravity of 0.895; the average tem-
perature was about 900 F. Fuel oil is bought on a basis of meas-
urements of 42 gallons per barrel, no correction being'made for dif-
fering temperatures. In most cases the oil was measured in carefully






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calibrated barrels. In a few instances it was measuredA:by.the all i .
level in a cylindrical tank. ,. .
The height through which the water was lifted was OIbtiedw)*.
direct measurement. In the test of well plants the head taken waij. b :
distance from the level at which it stood in the discharge pi;p .
suction pipe when the pump was not in operation to the po0.int M .*"Hi
which the pump elevated it. More will be said on this'point un.ii : ,ri
the description of individual tests.
In the case of large irrigation plants the discharge from the pui
was invariably measured in the discharge flume by means oft
current meter or Pitot tube. The method is given in each case .a.i.. .l...
detail. :
The amount of moisture present in the steam was not measured, as
many of the plants were in continuous operation, and openings .;iii::
steam pipes for the insertion of a calorimeter could not be ma:e.,
Mr. William Kent, the well-known authority on steam boilers, states i...
that in tests of boilers he has never found more than 3 per cent of: : ii
moisture in the steam from a well-proportioned boiler in a singi' .:le :' :
test, while the average, from a series of tests, never exceeds 1: per:i::::
cent. We may therefore conclude that the error in assumirin th~e:.::t:I
steam to be free from water, as was done in these tests, was no greater
than in some of the other observations.
While the tests reported must not be supposed to be of the highest: :l:;,:ii
degree of accuracy, they are believed to be as accurate as possibleT:'
under existing conditions. The object was to conduct tests under the ::
conditions as they were found to exist, and a rather wide field had to::::::::::::i:
be covered in a limited time.
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PROBABLE ACCURACY OF RESULTS.

The error involved in measurements is the ordinary error of obser- ;
vation. It probably does not exceed one-half of 1 per cent.
The amount of water present in the oil was determined in only one
case, and although the error from this source is difficult to estimate,
it is believed to be large in some cases. However, commercial crude
oil was used, and the amount of water present was not unusual.
In the measurement of water furnished to boilers in the test of the
larger plants the error was that in actually measuring the watdr in....
calibrated barrels, and was probably as small as one-half of 1 per
cent.
In the.three cases where a Cipolletti weir was used the error is
possibly as great as 3 per cent. The error involved in possible differ-
ences in level of water in boilers at starting and stopping of a test.
will decrease as the duration of test increases. It is believed that.
errors from this source are small.

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13

In getting the indicated horsepower of the engines the most. ap-
proved methods were employed. In every case a perfect reducing
motion was used. The error involved may possibly be as great as
3 per cent in individual cases, but probably does not exceed half that
amount in the average.
Errors in measurements of the discharge of the pumps are those
involved in the instruments used. The Price current meter and the
Pitot tube will give results that are accurate within 3 per cent. It
is probable that the mean error in most tests was less than this
amount, while under adverse conditions the error may increase to as
much as 5 per cent. In general, it is thought that the error does not
exceed that of the weirs used. or about 3 per cent.
During many of the tests indicator cards and revolutions of engine
and pump had to be taken alternately with the measurements of the
water discharged from the pumps. Slight changes of conditions
from various causes undoubtedly caused greater discrepancies than
would have resulted from simultaneous observations.

DESCRIPTION OF PLANTS AND RESULTS OF TESTS.

In general, the tabulated results are self-explanatory.
The steam pressure is given in pounds per square inch above the
atmospheric pressure.
The vacuum gage is read in inches of mercury.
The speed of engines and pumps is taken in revolutions per
minute.
By water horsepower is meant-
Cubic feet per second X weight per cubic foot X head in feet
550.
The temperature of water pumped was observed, and the cor-
responding weight per cubic foot, was used in each case.
-Indicator cards were taken with 80. 50. or 20 pound springs, de-
pending on the steam pressure carried.
The indicated horsepower is the power developed within the engine
cylinder.
PLANT NO. 1, ABBEVILLE CANAL COMPANY.

The plant of the Abbeville Canal Company is located on the Ver-
milion River, about 14 miles below Abbeville. There are 20 miles
of main canal and several miles of laterals. The area irrigated
in 1905 was 3,650 acres, although the plant has watered as much
as 6,900 acres in a season. This plant contains two horizontal re-
turn tubular boilers 72 inches in diameter by 16 feet in length;
each containing 70 4-inch flues. They furnish steam to two tandem
compound condensing Corliss engines having cylinders 14 and 26
inches in diameter, stroke 42 inches. The rods are 31 and 2g inches

























charges amounted to about one-half cent per barrel delivered a i&tft
plant. ....
The engines and pumps are run at different speeds, dependac in.i
the demand for water; "high speed" is approximately sixty re*owfiwa
tions, while "slow speed" averages about fifty revolutioid; J:.
minute.
The test was run at slow speed," and only one unit was 9opet ... ..
The mechanical condition of this plant was as near perfection iie
could be desired. The pumps and engines appeared to be in pearfecti
adjustment and operated with marked smoothness; there was :;i
entire absence of jar or water-hammer. The combined efficiency A:t li
pump and engine was extraordinarily high. It seems probable ."thiat.:i
the slow speed was favorable to a high efficiency.
On June 19, 1905, a boiler test was made, and the following d'yit::i:
the efficiency of the engine was determined. This was rendered ns6.i;,'
essary because of the lack of sufficient observers to carry on a compl0ite
test in one day.. .
Conditions were identical during the two days, as far as'the operai,i
tion of engines and pump were concerned; however, on the seco6d dni
day the plant was operated in the usual way, using the boiler-t..es ..ii
pump and the open heater. The water entered the heater at.s 'aiter
perature of 90' F. and left the heater at 2060 F. It was found th::4
a saving of 8 per cent of fuel resulted from this source.
Water and fuel oil were measured in carefully calibrated bsariTlj .ii
two being used for the water and one for oil. The barrels -wer. cali-i;
brated by filling with weighed quantities of liquid and estabis ilg'V. i=
marks to which barrels were successively filled; they were emp tie4 :
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15

into a lower tank, from which the supply was taken. The level of
the supply tank was kept constant.
Both the boiler test and that of the engine and pump were entirely
satisfactory.
The method of obtaining the efficiency of engine and pump was as
follows: The flume had a width of 6.42 feet and a depth varying
from a little over 2 feet to about 2.5 feet, depending on the stage of
water in the canal, the cross section of which was divided into twenty-
Sone rectangles, approximately square. The current meter or Pitot
tube was placed at the center of each rectangle and the velocity of
the water at that point determined. The mean velocity was taken as
the mean of twenty-one readings. Considerable time, usually from
fifteen to twenty minutes, was required for a set of readings. Direct
measurements of the depth were taken by means of a thin rule which
caused very little disturbance on the surface of the water; this was
done at seven stations, and the average used in computing the quan-
tity of water.
As soon as the water measurement was finished cards were taken
from the engine and the revolutions counted.
Although the load and all conditions were practically constant
there were slight fluctuations in speed, and the indicator cards and
revolutions per minute were doubtless taken in some cases under con-
ditions varying slightly from those under which the water measure-
ments were made. The latter may be considered as a better average,
as they extended over several minutes, while the indicated horsepower
was necessarily computed from instantaneous observations.
It is to be regretted that it was impossible to determine the amount
of moisture in the steam, but there was no opening in the pipe for a
calorimeter, and one could not be made without the risk of delaying
the operation of the plant.
The results of this test are remarkable for the high efficiency of
pump and engine, the average combined efficiency being 81.7 per cent.
Assuming a mechanical efficiency of engine of 92.5 per cent, the
average efficiency of pump would be 88.3 per cent, which is a very
high value.
The slip of the pump is also worthy of notice; its average value
was 1.6 per cent. Each revolution of the pump gave a theoretic dis-
placement of 660 gallons; the difference between the theoretic displace-
ment and the discharge actually found, divided by the former, is
the slip. Variations in results are doubtless due to slight changes in
steam pressure and consequent fluctuations in speed of engine and
pump.
The velocity observations were taken, alternately, with a Price
current meter and Pitot tube, and consequently are more convincing
than would have been the case had a single instrument been used.





























Equivalent evaporation rrom ana at -zir" (not corrected
steam), 12.03 pounds.
Total feed water per indicated horsepower hour, 22.5 pounds.


Engine and pump test, Abbeville Canal Company.


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Lbs.
129
132
136
135
134
137
132
128
126


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49.5
49.5
50.0
51.0
51.5
50.0
50.0
50.0
49.5


Indicated horsepower.


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45.1
43.5
44.6
44.9
44. 4
43.4
43.7
44.3
41.2


h pressure.

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45.2
42.5
42.5
43.0
41.6
41.2
41.0
40.4
40.3


E


90.3
86.0
87.1
87.9
86.0
84.4
84.7
84.7
81.5


Low pressure,


36.1
34.8
36.8
35.2.
35.0
34.3
34.2
33.5
34.7


1.


36.2
35.0
36.2
35.6
35.2
33.7
32.3
35.3
33.8


0
E-


72.3
69.8
73.0
70.8
70.2
68.0
'66:5
68.8
68.5


30
S V

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f^


162.6
155.8
160.1
158 7
156.2
152.4
151.2
153.5
150.0


Feet.
16.21
15.90
15.72
15.62
15.40
15.24
15.17
15.15


71.8




74.6
a


per
see.
69.9
71.5
74.6
75.3
71.6'
73.4
72.4


for qaalty ;4r
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128.1
127.6
131.4
131.1

122L 2
125.8
12, 9


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83.i9n

79.7
s82.
88.9
1.80
82. 0:
82.6


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Mean.. 132 50.1 ...... ..... ..... ...... .......... 155.6 15.55 72.6 127..6 81.7


PLANT NO. 2, ABBOTT-DUSON CANAL, MAIN PUMPING PLAXT1...


The main pumping plant of the Abbott-Duson Canal system:.:..
located about 2j miles west of Egan, La., on Bayou des Caonnes, i :;
of the streams which dnite to form the Mermnentau River.
This canal system connects with that of the Acadia Canal. The "r
are 30 miles of main canal and 15 of laterals. These two catal .
have watered as much as 23,000 acres of rice in a season, but :the:f:
acreage in 1905 was about 18,480. The main canal is 100 feet wide :
from center to center of levees. ',
The plant contains six horizontal return tubular boilers, 72 iinhe ni
in diameter by 18 feet in length, each -containing 72 4-inch fl :..ies
This plant was installed previous to the discovery of oil in that ..S-
tion. The boilers have a large heating surface, as they were ini n4
for wood fuel, .


Time.


8.20 -...-.
9.35 ...-...
9.55 ......
10.40.....
12.05 .....
12.30.....
1.05 ......
2.28 ......
2.46 ......






17


During the test, although the boilers were connected to the same
steam main, pressures were read from each boiler gage. One of the
six gages used was a standard gage, by means of which the others
were calibrated while the engines were not running, and where con-
sequently the steam pressure in all the boilers was equal.
The Jennings oil field is located about 2 miles from this pumping
plant, and a 2-inch pipe line direct from the field supplies the crude
petroleum, which has replaced wood as fuel. The cost. of fuel deliv-
ered at the plant was 35 cents per barrel of 42 gallons.
There are two direct-acting steam pumps for boiler feed. These
pumps have steam pistons 74 inches and water pistons 5 inches in
diameter, with 10-inch stroke. The plungers are inside packed.
Either is used ordinarily to supply the boilers. During the test one
furnished water from the bayou, and after it was passed through a
6-inch Cipolletti weir and measured it. was forced by the other pump
through the heater to the boilers. The depth of water over the weir
was observed by means of a very accurate hook gage.
Three heaters are used, one on the exhaust pipe of each engine. 42
inches in diameter and 8 feet 6 inches long. each containing 100 tubes
2 inches in diameter; the third is a closed heater, receiving the ex-
haust from the boiler feed pump or pumps and from the condenser
pump. The piping is so arranged that water is forced through all
three heaters before going finally to the boilers.
There are two simple condensing Corliss engines having cylinders
24 inches in diameter and 48-inch stroke.
The piston rods are 33 inches in diameter.
One jet condenser is used for both engines, diameter of steam
cylinder 14 inches, air cylinder 22 inches, stroke 24 inches.
Rope drives are used to transmit power from engines to pumps.
The engine fly wheels are 16 feet in diameter and each has 18
grooves; 1,454 feet of 11-inch rope is used in each drive.
The sheaves on the pump shaft are 4 feet 31 inches in diameter.
There are six horizontal shaft centrifugal pumps, having suction
pipes 20 inches in diameter and discharge pipes 18 inches in diameter.
Although there is a single suction pipe. the water is divided into two
equal streams as it enters the pump, by means of cored passages
around the sides of vortex chamber, so that at the eye of the pump it
receives water from both sides. This pump is identical with that
described in test No. 8 of Abbott Brothers pumping plant. Three
pumps were driven by each engine. They were arranged with their
shafts joined together by flanged couplings. so that all could be
operated at once, or only one or two, depending on the level of the
water in the bayou and the consequent lift. When the water is very
high, as during the test, all the pumps are operated. The water level
2584---No. 183-07 M--2







." "El: I" ": i "' .: ;;
is subject to considerable fluctuations, and under conditions of oex- 'd::
treme low water it may be desirable to operate two pumps or even:
only one by each engine. The discharge pipe terminates inanan el~tbow:..i.i
in each case, so that the water is discharged down the flume.
In making the test it was found that it would be impossib tii
measure the water used by boilers, in barrels, as the quantity "rei
quired was entirely too great. No method was available except .::Iti
use a weir. The error involved is that due to a 6-inch Cipollti
weir. The measurements of head on weir were taken by means o-.i:..
a hook gage, very accurate readings being obtained by means of : .:
vernier.
The load, and consequently the demand for water, was very unif eii ..."
and it is believed that the results obtained contain an extremely sma :
error. I
The boilers were examined and correction was made for the smal :
amount of leakage at blow-off.
During the test some difficulty was experienced with the fuel ot:l;
as the tanks were filled only a short time before test was begun. The::
trouble was due to the presence of water in the oil, and to some extent
to sediment getting into the oil pipes because of the low level of oil..
in the supply tank.
The water discharged from the pumps was measured by means Mf
current meter, slowly traversing the flume at three different depth ::
The depths were carefully taken at 10 different points across there:
section. The flume was about 18.7 feet wide, and the depth was about
2.7 feet. This flume is nearly 2,300 feet long, and is supported by. a :
wooden framework from 6 to 10 feet above the ground. It is several
years old, and there was some leakage. On account of the turbulence
of the water, due to the high velocity of discharge, it was necessary
to go down the flume about 1,000 feet from the pumps in order -t
find a point where the surface of the water was placid enough to per-
mit accurate measurements of depth. The mean velocity of discharge
was 14.75 feet per second, as the elbow at the end of discharge pipe was
of the same cross section as the pipe. The velocity head at discharge
was therefore 3.38 feet. The losses at entrance of suction pipe, in
suction and discharge pipe, and in the pump were all large on account
of this high velocity. This fact is clearly shown by a comparison
of the results of the one observation, taken at 3.30 p. m., with the
results of.all the other observations.
It will be seen that a reduction of average speed of pumps from
257 to 217 revolutions per minute gave a reduction of indicated horse-
power of over 50 per cent, and that, approximately, two-thirds as
much water was pumped as at the high speed. The efficiency of
engine, transmission, and pumps was correspondingly raised from
42.9 per cent for the high speed to 53.3 per cent at the low speed.,
The stage of the water in the bayou was unusually high. With a

......I..:: ..








19


normal suction head the total head would have been much greater,

and a higher speed than that found advantageous during the test

would have been required.

The results of the test are given below:

Boiler test No. 2, main pumping plant, Abbott-Duson canal, August 3, 1905.

Duration of test, 5 hours.
Total fuel oil, 7,988 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 82.15 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water, 168.50 F.
Factor of evaporation, 1.081.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 82,806 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 2120 F., 89,513 pounds.
Boiler horsepower, 519.
Average temperature of fuel oil, 89 F.
Average air temperature, 960 F.
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 10.36 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 2120 F. (not corrected for quality of
steam), 11.21 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries) per indicated horse-
power-hour, 24.7 pounds.

Engine and pump test, Abbott-Duson main plant, August 3, 1905.


Time.


-9.00.......
9.30......
10.00 .....
10.30.....
11.00.....
11.30......
12 m .....
12.30 .....
1.00.......
1.30.......
2.00.......


Steam
pressure.


Pounds.
83
86
82
79
79
79
85
82
83
85
83


Mean. 82.3

3.30 ................
4.30....... ........


Vacuum
gage.


Inches.
22.4
22.4
22.1
22.0
21.2
22.1
22.5
22. 1
22.3
22.2
22.3

22.1

..........
..........


Indicated horsepower.

Engine No. 1. Engine No. 2.

Head. Crank. Total. Head. Crank. Total.


178.7
179.5
174.2
177.5
176.4
177.2
178.9
178.9
180.6
181.5
180.6


82.7
232.3


169.7
167.9
170. 3
166.1
168.8
168.7
168.3
167.6
172.9
173.3
168.5


..........

85.2
201.9


Revolutions per minute.


Time.




9.00 .......
9.30 .......
10.00 ......
10.30 ......
11.00 ......
11.30 ......
12m. .....
12.30 .....
1.00 .......
1.30 ......
2.00 .......


Engine
No. 1.



69.0
69.0
68.5
68.5
68.25
69.0
68.5
68.5
69.0
69.0
68.75


Engine
No. 2.



69.5
69.0
69.0
68.5
68.0
68.5
68.5
68.0
68.5
68.5
68.25


Pump
No. 1.



258
258
256
256
255
258
256
256
258
258
257


Mean 68.7 | 68.6 1 257

3.80 ....... 1 58.0 I 59.0 217
4.30 ....... 74.0 75.0 276
1


Pump
No. 2.



260
258
258
256
254
256
256
254
256
256
255


348.4
347.4
344.5
343. 6
345. 2
345.9
347.2
346.5
353.5
354.8
349. 1


167.9
434.2


Head.


Feet.
16.20
16.20
16.20
16.20
16.21
16.21
16.21
16.21
16.22
16.23
16.23


256 16.21

220 16.23
280 16.23


176.9
174.3
168.8
167.5
162.6
164.6
167.2
160.7
162.4
163.8
160.5


70.2
235.2


Discharge.


Cubic .feet
per second.
155
157
156
154
156
157
158
161
156
155

156.5

101
178


163.1
164.3
158.5
158.0
155.0
155.8
157.7
151.7
156.0
154.5
153.4


340.0
338.6
327.3
325.5
317.6
320.4
324.9
312.4
318.4
318.3
313.9


75.5 145.7
200.5 435. 7


Total in-
dicated
horse-
power.


688.4
686.0
671.8
669.1
662. 8
666.3
672. 1
658. 9
671.9
673.1
663.0

671.2

313.6
869.9


Useful wa-
ter horse- Efficiency.
power.


Per cent.


284.5
288.1
286.2
282. 8
286.4
288.3
290.1
295.8
286.8
285.0


41.5
42.9
42.8
42.7
43.0
42.9
44.0
44.0
42.6
43.0


287.4 42.9

186.0 59.3
327.0 37.6







PLANT; NO I3, A.tBBOfICDflTOU PAAM 34 *LI.3,B i L ,T ,,,,
r ., '* .. *,,:.,-i 1 L t ,,, ,,J ,, ,i ,n 1 ^ *. ', "'1 ^ ^ ,...rA., ,.,. 1 .iy ." .:..,::<
This test was made of the pumping plant forming te fir re
of the Abbott-Duson canal system. .
The plant is located at Egan, La., a'bout2 mi es east of them
pumping planet.'" .. -" .' ., ., .x
The boiler equipment consists of three horizontal: retuiwrl tubuliar!m
boilers, 72 inches in diameter by 18 feet long,' each .oritairing t72
4-inch tubes." :' ; i* : I"'" "* '"
Under ordinary conditions an open heater i used. A 'direct-ajctingi
steam pump furnishes wateT to, the heaters, and a similar, pi:p ;
takes the water from the heater and delivers, it ,to the boilerse~,'.The
heater receives the exhaust from these two pumps and' also ,frotn:thei ::.:
condenser pump. During the test the"hdater' was 'iot used,'ais the
water had to be measured. The pipin was chang d so that one of
the pumps furnished water to fill two. calibrated .barrels, plad; so :I
that they could be emptied into a lower barrel, by means of a. $ ..-in ..h:.
valve and-pipe in-each.' ... ., .. ... ,i 1 .' .
The suction of the second pump was attached directly to the lower::
barrel, and this pump .was.used to feed .4e bqilers,: ,, ..,
The crude petroleum used for fuel during the test was measured
in a calibrated barrel, the amou'fi per hour being 712 pounds. The
cost of fuel-oil delivered at plant was 35 cents per barrel of 4- gallbhns.
The following day 'fuel oil was measured 'for one hour and fifty-
seven minutes, the feed-water heater being in .use., It was found
that the consumption of oil: per hour was' 60' pounds. The tern
perature of water entering boiler was 200@'F. instead of 920 F:as
found when heater was not used. 'The theoretica- gain by using the
feed-water heater is about 11 per cent, 'while the actual differenie
in fuel used amounted to nearly 20. per cent. The discrepancy. is
accounted for by the 'difference in the amount of water present in
the fuel oil.
SDuring the test on July 31 the amount of water in the fuel oil
was sufficient to put out the fires momentarily on two occasions,
and to require careful oversight of the oil burners to prevent irregu-
larities in the amount of combustion and, consequently, in steam
pressure. On the second day the oil in the supply tank had become
quite thoroughly separated from the water, the latter having set,
,tied to the bottom, and the result was that there was no trouble witA
r' __ __ I ', ",* ( ;I
the burners. .,
SMore will be said on this subject in comparing tle iresults of t'i
,Acadia plant (test No. 5) with that of the Grand Canal plhnt (fest'
No. 7), where two boilers of the same make were used under condi -
tions that were very similar as regards demands for steam. While
in one case with oil which had been stored for some time the best.
I I ," I ? I i ,






21


results of any of the tests was made by the boiler, in the other case
with oil freshly delivered to supply tanks and containing water well
mixed with the crude petroleum a very bad showing for the boiler
resulted.
The engine was a simple condensing Corliss, having cylinder
diameter of 24 inches and 48-inch stroke and rod 33 inches in
diameter.
In the rope drive 1,850 feet of 11 inch rope are used; there are
eighteen grooves on the fly wheel, which is 16 feet in diameter.
The sheave by which power is transmitted to the pumps is located
between two centrifugal pumps, each having double-suction pipes 24
inches in diameter.
The pumps are rated as 36-inch pumps, but the lift was so small
that the pumps each discharge through a rectangular opening into a
separate flume, having gradually expanding cross sections. The
two flumes are brought together at a distance of about 50 feet from
the pump into a larger flume, which discharges into the canal beyond
the plant.
During the test indicator cards were taken at fifteen-minute inter-
vals, and observations were made of steam pressure, vacuum gage,
revolutions of engine and pump, and of head pumped against.
At intervals of a half hour water measurements were taken in
the flume, and the temperature of water, oil, and air was noted.
The amount of water and fuel oil used was also carefully noted.
The measurements of the water discharged by the pumps was made
by means of the Pitot tube. The discharge flume in which the meas-
urements were made was 18.75 feet-wide. The depth of water varied
from about 1.5 feet to a little over 1.6 feet. The cross section was
divided into twenty rectangles of equal size and the mean velocity
obtained at the center of each rectangle, or, in other words, the veloc-
ity was observed at ten different stations across the flume and at two
different depths at each station.
The efficiency of engine, transmission, and pump is excellent-in
fact, the best of any of the plants tested in 1905 in which centrifugal
pumps are used. This efficiency had an average value of 64.2 per cent.
If the efficiency of the rope drive is assumed to be 95 per cent and the
mechanical efficiency of the engine as 90 per cent, the efficiency of the
pump is found to be about 75 per cent.
The results of the tests are as follows:
Boiler te.t No. 3. first relift, Abbott-Duson Canal, July 31, 1905.
Duration of test, 4 hours.
Total fuel oil, 2.886 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 65.6 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water, 92 F.








Factor of evaporation, 1.1566.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 28,629 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 212 F., 88,112 pounds.
Boiler horsepower, 240.
Average temperature of fuel oil, 1710 F.
Average air temperature, 920 F. .'
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 9.92 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 2120 F. (not corrected for quality oatf
steam), 11.47 pounds. :
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries) per indicated hor se
power-hour, 31.2 pounds.

Engine and pump test, Abbott-Duson first relift.

SIndicated horse- Revo-
Rev s power. lutions Useful
Steam lutions
Time. pre Vacuum per mn- per Head Dis- water ESit
sure gauge. ute of minute charge. horse- akieu :.
e engine. Head. Crank. Total. of power,
pump.
C .ft. .
Pounds. Inches. Feel. per sec. Per ..
2.30........ 52 22 66.0 115.8 109.0 224.8 117 11.06 ................. ......
2.45........ 68 21 66.0 121.7 119.0 240.7 117 11.04 ......... ............ .
3.00........ 65 21 66.5 108.1 115.3 223.4 118 11.07 ....... ...............
3.15........ 66 22 67.0 12-.8 125.0 247.8 119 11.12 ................... .
3.30........ 68 23 67.0 115.5 124.8 240.3 119 11.17 118 149 62.0
3.45........ 67 23 67.0 112.4 121.1 233.5 119 11.19 ......... ...... .....
4.00........ 65 23 67.0 115.6 118.5 234.1 119 11.22 116 147 62.9
4.15........ 65 23 66.5 105.8 116.8 221.6 118 11.25...
4.30........ 67 23 66.5 111.4 116.8 228.2 11R 11.25 114 145 6i."
4.45 ........ 65 23 67.0 111.4 114.1 225.5 119 11.24 ......... ........ ........
5.00........ 63 23 67.0 114.0 113.4 227.4 119 11.31 114 146 64.
5.15........ 67 23 67.0 116.8 119.3 236.1 119 11.36 ......... .... ........
5.30........ 68 23 66.8 108.7 119.8 228.5 118 11. 33 115 147 64
5.45........ 68 23 67.0 112.7 112.9 225.6 119 11.34 ...... .. ..... .
6.00........ 67 23 66.5 111.2 115.8 227.0 118 11.33 117 150 .1
6.15....... 67 23 67.0 115.6 107.7 223.3 19 11.39 ...... ................
6.30......... 67 23 67.0 111.8 107.6 219.4 119 11.36 114 14" 66.
Mean., 65.6 ......... 66.8 ....... ..... 229.8 118.5 11.24 115.4 147.1 1.2


PLANT NO. 4, ABBOTT-DUSON CANAL, SECOND RELIDT.

Located about 31 miles north of Egan, La., on the main canal of
the Abbott-Duson canal system, is the second relift, The height
through which this plant elevates the water varies with the changing
level of the canals above and below the plant. During the test the
water was raised from 4.22 to 5.33 feet.
The pump has a double suction and vertical shaft. The body of
the pump is built entirely of wood, is 7 feet square on the inside, and
has corner posts and cross timbers to which the bearings are attached.
The impeller of the pump is 42 inches in diameter and 18 inches
deep. The main thrust is taken by a ball bearing above the driving
sheave.
The boiler is a horizontal return tubular, 72 inches in diameter and
16 feet in length. Water used by the boiler was measured during the
test. by means of calibrated barrels. It was then pumped direct to
the boiler. The plant contains a closed heater, but it was not in use,





r 23

Sas it had sprung a leak. The fuel was crude petroleum. The engine
Sis of the slide-valve, noncondensing type, having diameter of piston
of 16 inches and 20-inch stroke. It is connected to the pump by
means of a 14-inch rope. Total length of rope, 440 feet. There are
four grooves in the two wheels. Diameter of sheave on engine, 7
Feet 6 inches; on pump, 46 inches. This rope drive is badly designed,
Sas excessive weight is required to prevent slipping. Ropes on this
Drive have very short lives, because of the excessive tension and the
Swear due to slipping. A new rope had been put on just previous to
starting the test. The stiffness of this rope probably detracted from
the efficiency of transmission.
During the test it was found that the rope was slipping on the
pump sheave, which had become very hot, and even in a few hours
the rope showed unmistakable signs of wear. Slipping was pre-
vented in part by increasing the weights on the take-up and so
increasing the tension of the ropes. Under these conditions more
power is required to wedge the rope into the grooves and to pull it
out as it leaves the sheave than would be required in a well-designed
drive. The friction due to the increased pull on engine and pump
bearings is also unfavorable to a high efficiency. There ought to have
been a greater number of ropes used.
The combined efficiency of engine, transmission, and pump was
found to be-rather low, averaging a little less than 27 per cent. The
results show a tendency to increase as the height increased through
which the water was lifted. There is good reason for believing that
the efficiency of this type of pump is greater under more favorable
conditions. Tests made elsewhere also bear out this statement.
The measurements of the water pumped were made in the flume
about 30 feet from the pump, where the water ran smoothly and
measurements could be made with the usual accuracy.
A current meter was used, and traverses were made at two different
depths. The width of flume was 14.9 feet, and the depth varied from
about 1.1 feet to 1.5 feet.
The results of the test are as follows:

Boiler test No. 4, second relift. Abbotf-Duson Canal, Augu.st 10. 1905.
Duration of test. 4 hours.
Total fuel oil, 1,567 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 81.2 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water, 87.90 F.
Factor of evaporation, 1.164.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 17,369 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 2120 F., 20,218 pounds.
Boiler horsepower, 147.
Average temperature of fuel oil, 890 F.








Average air temperature, 97 F. 1 I I i I i *,:
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil,.11.08 pounds. ; .1
Equivalent evaporation from anO at 2120 F. (not corrected for quality of
steam), 12.90 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries) per indicated bh ."
power-hour, 35.6 pounds.' -

Engine and pump test, second relift, 4bbott-Dsson Canal.

Revolu- Indicated horsepower. Revolu-
am tions : tions .. .- Useftl .'
Steam per per Dis- water 9I8- i
Time. re- ie Head. Crank. Total. minute charge. herse i e uq: q
of en- of power.
gine. pump. ; h

Pounds. ... a per see ..
11.30............. 80 103.5 59.3 58.1 117.4 194 4.22 ........ ....... ..
11.45.............. 86 106 61.6 59.7 121.3, 198. 4.25 64.4 3 80.9, 20,t
12 m............... 84 106 68.3 66.5 134.8 198 4.33 65.1 31.9 28.7
12.15............... 71 103 61.0 56.1 117.1 185, 4.55 65.6 3..7 .;2S
12.30.............. 82 107 63.9 62.6 126.5 196 4.55 62.4 32.1 25.4
12.45............... 92 119 68.1 66.9 135 212 4.56 62.2 32.1 2 8
1.00............... 80 117 64.3 63.8 128.1 190 4.58 63 32.6 26.4
1.15............... 79 116 60.0 58.5 118.5 214 4.63 69.9 31.4 6
1.30............... 85 117 62.8 61.8 124.6 215 4.69 59.8 '81.7 25.
1.45................ 82 110 62.0 .61.3 123.3 197 4.75 64.5 84.7 .
2.00............... 81 110.5 62.9 60.7 123.6 195 4.83 61.5 33.6 17. .
2.15.......... .... 80 107.5 59.6 57.9 117.5 197 4.87 58.5 32.2 27.4,
2.30............... 80 105 60.2 59.1 119.3 194 4.96 60.1 33.8 283
2.45............... 80 102 58.9 57.6 116.5 186 5.05 58.2 388. 3 ,I 284
3.00............... 80 100 56.2 55.3 111.5 196 5.14 ............... ....
3.15............... 80 102.5 58.5 57.1 115.6 196 6.15 60.2 3..1 30
3.30................ 80 103 61.5 -60.0 121.5 196 5.33 59.2 85.7 29.4
Mean.......... 81.2 107.9 ........ ........ 121.9 197.6 4.73 61.6 33.0 26.9

PLANT NO. 5, ACADIA CAAAL. ;'

The pumping plant of the Acadia Canal is located about 2j miles
west of Iota, La. It receives water from Bayou des Cannes through,
a dredged canal several hundred feet long. This plant furnished
water for 7,000 acres of rice in 1895, of which 4,000 acres were beyond,
the relift. -As already stated, the Abbott-Duson and the Acadia,
canals are joined together. The pumps discharge the water into
a flume having an inside width of about 15 feet. The depth of water
in this flume during the test was a little less than 2 feet. This flure
is supported by a wooden framework; the distance from the surface
of the ground to the bQttom of the flume is as great as 30 to 35 feet
in some places. The length of this flume is 1,800 feet. The" flume
had been in use for several years, and although the leakage was small,
the supporting timbers had rotted badly. This was shown by an
occurrence which happened some two or three weeks after the test *
was made. One day about 10 a. m., while the plant was running as
usual, a length of about 1,000 feet of flume fell without the least
warning. The work of restoration was begun promptly, and in about
two weeks-the plant was again in operation.
The boiler equipment consists of two water tube boilers, rated by
their builders at 300 horsepower each. The feed water for the boilers


: *":*!






25


flows from the flume to two open heaters, each of which is supplied
with a pump that takes the hot water from the heater and pumps it
into the boiler. The heaters receive the exhaust from these two
boiler feed pumps and from the two condenser pumps.
In order to make a test changes had to be made in the piping and
the plant operated as follows: The water flowed to one heater and
was taken from heater and furnished to the 6-inch Cipolletti weir,
where it was measured. The other feed pump then delivered the
water to the boiler. By this method only one heater was'used during
the test. It received the exhaust of both vacuum pumps and of both
boiler feed pumps. The water was heated from a temperature of
about 88 F. to 17-2 F.
The fuel oil was measured in a calibrated barrel.
The results of the boiler tests are the best of all the boilers tested;
the ratio of weight of water from and at 212 F. to the weight of fuel
oil was 15.09. This result has been surpassed in some cases where boilers
have been tested elsewhere with crude oil as a fuel. The result is,
however, above the average and represents good conditions. An at-
tempt was made during the next day to measure the fuel oil used for
a run under normal conditions. but the breakdown of a vacuum
pump and other abnormal conditions rendered the result useless.
Two simple condensing, heavy-duty Corliss engines furnish the
power to drive the pumps. The diameter of cylinder of these engines
is 22 inches and the stroke 42 inches. The piston rods are 33 inches
in diameter. The parts of these engines are proportioned much
heavier than the ordinary Corliss. Each is provided with a jet
condenser. Diameter of steam and air cylinders, 12 and 18 inches,
respectively, and length of stroke 18 inches.
Rope transmission is used. The fly .wheels of the engines are 14
feet and the sheaves on the pump shafts 3 feet 6 inches in diameter.
There are 15 grooves for 11-inch rope. The length of rope required
in each case is 1,454 feet.
Each engine drives two horizontal-shaft centrifugal pumps having
discharge pipes 18 inches in diameter and suction pipes 20 inches in
diameter.
The pumps are identical with those of the Abbott-Duson plant.
previously described, and the plant of the Abbott Brothers, to be de-
scribed later. The head through which the water was lifted was
slightly over 30 feet, while that at Abbott Brothers' lower farm was
only about half this amount and at the Abbott-Duson a little more
than one-half. The pumps are provided with flap valves in suction
pipes.
The mean velocity of water as it is discharged from the elbows at
the end of the discharge pipe and into the flume was 13.16 feet per










second, corresponding to a velocity head of 2.87 feet. Coinm iig
the velocities and efficiencies with those found at the Abbott-Dus ..,
it will be seen that the velocity is lower in this case and the effimsie'
higher.
The results of the tests are given below:

Boiler test No. 5, Acadia plant, August 5, 1905.

Duration of test, 4.22 hours. .:
Total fuel oil, 5,641 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 106.7 pounds per square heh.
Average temperature of feed water, 171.7 F. i
Factor of evaporation, 1.083. .
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 78,610 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 2120 F., 85,135 pounds.
Boiler horsepower, 585.
Average temperature of fuel oil, 85 F.
Average air temperature, 102" F.
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 18.93 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 2120 F. (not corrected for quality o' ".
steam), 15.09 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries) per indicated hoare-
power-hour, 287 pounds.

Engine and pump test, Acadia plant.


Time.


1.30........
2.00........
2.30........
3.00.......
3.30.........
4.00.......
4.30........
5.00........
5.30.......
Mean ...


Time.


1.30.......
2.00......
2.30.......
3.00.......
3.30.......
4.00.......
4.30.......
5.00 .......
5.30.......
Mean...


Steam pressure.


Gage
No. 1.


Pounds.
107
108
110
105
102
101
102
108


Gage
No. 2.


Pounds.
109
112
107
111
104
103
104
110


Vacuum gages.


No. 1.


Inches.
16.7
19.5
19.7
19
19
19
19
19
20


No. 2.


Inches.
23
23.2
23
23
23
23
22 &
22 8
22.5


Indicated horsepower.


Engine No. 2.


Head.


163.1
163.8
162.9
160.5
163.8
164.2
164.2
161.5
164.3


Crank.


Total.


Total.


Revolutions per
minute of engines.


No. 1.


80.5
80.5
81
80.5
81
80.5
80.5
80.5
80.5


.......... 80.6


Revolutions
per minute of
pumps.


No. 1.


No. 2.


No. 2.


81
81
81.5
81
81
81
81
81
81
81


Head.


Indicated horsepower.


Engine No. 1.

Head. Crank. Total.


165.1 153 9 319 0
164.2 11.9 3la.1
164.9 161.2 32.1
165.6 157.2 32.8
169.6 160.2 30.8
167.7 155.2 322.
163.0 161.1 324.1
163.0 160.5 323.5
166.9 166.2 33..1
............ ...-- ... 353


.Dis-
charge.


Useful
water
horse-
power.


-cieny.


I _________I I F V


157.0
158.5
158.2
160.7
162.2
157.2
160.7
160.1
161.8


320.1
322.3
321.1
321.2
326.0
321.4
324.9
321.6
326.1


322.7


639.1
648.4
647.2
644.0
655.8
644.3
649.0
645.1
659.2


648.0


eel.
30.21
30.21
30.21
30 21
30.22
30.21
30.22
30. 23
30.25
30.21


Ou. feet
per see.
88.8
95.9
95.5
94.8
92.4
92.0
92.4
9.6 -


303
328
324
316
314
316
320


. 93.2 318


Per aet

....8......
50.7
0.4
49..


a.0
9. 8


I


__


I


I---I---- l------I----I ~-I-


-~ -~-


......... ----------






27
PLANT NO. 6, ACADIA RELIFT.

About a mile north of Iota, La., on the main Acadia Canal, is lo-
cated the Acadia relift. The equipment of this plant includes two
horizontal return tubular boilers 72 inches in diameter by 18 feet
in length, each containing seventy-two 4-inch tubes.
Fuel oil is used. The boilers are fed by means of two direct acting
steam pumps. The first has its steam cylinders 4U inches in diameter
Sand water cylinders 31 inches in diameter; stroke 4 inches. This
pump takes water from the canal and furnishes it. to the open heater.
The second has its steam cylinder 6 inches in diameter and water
cylinder 4 inches in diameter. The stroke is 6 inches. This pump
takes the water from the heater and pumps it into the boiler. Both
pumps and the engine exhaust into the heater. During the test the
water in the canal was found to have an average temperature of
88 F., while the water coming from the heater had an average
temperature of 194 F.
The engine is a simple noncondensing Corliss, having piston
diameter of 22 inches and stroke of 42 inches. The rod is 3.13 inches
in diameter.
Rope transmission is used. There are 10 grooves in the engine
fly wheel and on the sheave of pump; 958 feet of 12-inch rope is used.
The pump is similar to those at the Abbott-Duson first relift. It
is nominally a 36-inch pump, having two suction pipes 24 inches in
diameter. The pump discharges through a square opening into a
gradually expanding flume.
It was found practically impossible to make necessary changes in
the piping to make water measurements for a complete boiler test.
Fuel oil was measured by means of a calibrated barrel and the only
omission was in the amount of water furnished the boiler.
The discharge from the pump was measured in the flume about 50
feet from the pump. At this place the flume had a uniform cross
section and was found to be 9.27 feet wide and the depth about 1.8
feet.
A current meter was used and the cross section slowly traversed at
three different depths to obtain the mean velocity in all but two
observations, when the Pitot tube was used. These observations were
at 1.15 and 2.15 p. m. With the latter instrument the velocity was
observed at ten different stations across the flume and at three dif-
ferent depths in the first and at two different depths in the second.
The arrangement of the plant is similar to that of the Abbott-
Duson first relift, except that there is only one engine and one pump
instead of one engine and two pumps, as in the plant referred to.
There was one engine and a rope drive in each case. Both the engine
and the rope drive were larger in the case where two pumps were








used, but the loss due to frictibTri it the two cases probably waflot :
very different. The height through which the water was lifted i as -
a little greater with the two pumps than, with the single pump f, 1D
the Acadia relift, and this probably had splMe effect 9n efficipncy, :i

Partial boiler test, Acadia re.ft. i '. '. .
Duration of test, 4.45 hours. 7 1 .'.:
Total fuel oil, 1,567 pounds. ". ." :I..' jA ki J
Average steam pressure by gage, 79.4 pounds per square inch.: i:
Average temperature of feed water, 1940 F. .. .i
Average temperature of fuel oil, 870 F. -
Average temperature. of air, 950 F. ,

Engine and pump.test, Acadia relift.

Reu Indicated horsepower. Revolu- seful
Revolu- ____Revolu- Useu
Te Steam tionsper tionsper Head. ia- Wirater REffi-
Spressure. minute ofHead. ra Tot. minute of charge. horse- ciency.
Engine. pump. ; ppwert .

Cu. ft. Per, :
Pounds. :Feet. per see. 'E' ntL
11.15...... 80 68.5 69.5 66.5 136.0 117 ........ .......... .......... .......
11.45...... 80 69.5 73.9 70.9 144.8 119 9.53 70.6 .1 .
12.15...... 79 68.7 70.8 68.6 139.4. 117 9.55 71.1 76.7 I 55.0
12.45...... 78 68 65.8 62.8 128,6 .115 9.48 69.6 74.6 TA't;8.0
1.15....... 80 69 70.7 67.7 138.4 118 9.50 73.-7 791 57.
1.45....... 80 68.5 68.8 68.0 136.8 118 9.51 67.8 7.8 S
2,15....... 79 68.7 71,6 67.8 139.4 117 9.45 75.0 80.1 6 7
2.45....... 78 68 67.6 65.1 132.7 116 9.46 73.0 7&0 58.7
3.15...... 81 70 74.2 69.1 143.3 )18 9.45 70.2 74.9 52.3
Mean. 79.4 68.8 ............... 137.7 117.2 9.49 71.4 76.5 55.6


PLANT NO. 7, GRAND CANAL, OLD PLANT.

The pumping plant of the Grand Canal is located on Bayoiu Ne
Pique about 7 miles west of Iota, La. Bayou Nez Pique and the Mer-
mentau River from the western boundary of Acadia Parish, dividifig
it from Calcasieu Parish.
This canal watered about 6,100 acres in 1905, although it has in pre-
vious years watered as many as 9,200 acres of rice. There aire 17
miles of main canals and 13 miles of laterals.
The two boilers used in this plant are of the water-tube type, of the
same make as those of the Acadia plant. They have a nominal
capacity of 250 horsepower each.
An open heater was used. Water flowed from the flume to this
heater and was then pumped to the weir tank, where the amount wa.
measured by means of the 6-inch Cipolletti weir used in the tests of
the Abbott-Duson and the Acadia plants. Another pump then
forced the water into the boilers. The heater receives the exhasii
from feed pumps and condenser pump.
The engine is a simple condensing Corliss with piston diametier1f
28 inches and stroke of 48 inches. The piston rod is 4 inhdies' i






29


diameter. There is a jet condenser having a vacuum pump with
diameter of steam cylinder 18 inches, diameter of air cylinder 24
inches, and 24-inch stroke.
Rope transmission is used. The fly wheel is 20 feet in diameter and
has fifteen grooves for 1-inch rope. The sheave on the pump shaft
is 5.35 feet in diameter.
There are two horizontal shaft centrifugal pumps, having single
suction pipes 24 inches in diameter; the pumps have cored passages,
so that the water divides and enters the eye of the pump on both
sides. The discharge pipes are 24 inches in diameter at the pulnps
and are enlarged just above the pumps to 30 inches in diameter.
Pump No. 1 discharged directly into the bottom of the flume, while
pump No. 2 had a 30-inch elbow at the top and discharged into the
end of the flume.
The measurements of the amount of water discharged were made
in the flume about 150 feet from the pumps. The flume was 10.2
feet wide and the depth varied from about.1.25 feet to about 1.4 feet
during the various observations.
The current meter was used and traverses were slowly made at two
different depths.
On each side of the sheave driving the pumps is a flanged coupling,
by means of which either pump, or both, may be connected to the
driving shaft.
During the forenoon a test was made of pump No. 1, lasting two
hours.
Beginning at 2.30 p. m. a test was run for four hours, using both
pumps. During this time the boiler test was made.
At 7 p. m. two observations were made, using pump No. 2 only.
The crude oil used during this test was pumped into the storage
tank only a short time previous to the test. It was from the Jen-
nings field, but was obtained from a different firm from that supply-
Sing the fuel for the Acadia plant, the test of which has already been
described. The oil used at the Grand Canal contained quite a quan-
tity of salt water, and considerable trouble had occurred from this
cause during operations previous to the test.
No special trouble was had during the test from the salt water,
but the bad effect of using fuel containing water is plainly seen by a
comparison of the results of the boiler tests of this plant with that
of the Acadia plant, where with the same make of boilers the best
result of any the boilers tested was obtained, while at the Grand
Canal the results were the worst.
:' The same methods were used in these two tests and the results are
Equally reliable.
Reports from the Jennings field show that the percentage by vol-
ume of water present in the oil varies from almost zero to 13 per cent.









If sufficient time is allowed, water will settle to the bottom ad a::b .l
be drawn off. Commercial crude oil is supposed to contain but. 2
cent of water, but this amount is sometimes exceeded. .
The results of the tests are as follows:

Boiler test, Grand Canal, August 18, 1905.

Duration of test, 4.07 hours.
Total fuel used, 5,328 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 128.8 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water, 154.90 F.
Factor of evaporation, 1.105.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 52,873 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 212" F., 58,425 pounds.
Boiler horsepower, 416. ....
Average temperature of fuel oil, 860 F.
Average air temperature, 920 F. .
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 9.92 pounds. '
Equivalent evaporation from and at 212* F. (not corrected, for tquat iy-
steam), 10.96 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries) per indicated kaor's
power-hour. 25.8 pounds.

Engine and pump tests, Grand Canal.

Revo- Indicated horsepower. Revo- -
Steam Vacu- lutions lutions U dl.
Time. pres- um per per Head. is- water
sure. ggem. m ute Head. Crank. Total. m ute charge. Itors-e-,i .i,
of en- of Pewer.
ginc. piunp.

Cu. It. er p er
Lbs. Inches. Feet. secon. eata.
2.30.--....-. 128 25.5 62.5 244.2 255.9 500.1 234 28.7 ........ ..............
3.00...... 129 25.8 62.5 242.5 259.0 501.5 234 28.7 68.3 221.6 4I 2:
3.30..... 132 25.8 63.0 254.5 263.5 518.0 236 28.7 ........................
4.00...... 127 25.7 62.2 241.5 249.7 491.2 233 28.7 65.6 212.8 43.3
4.30...... 129 25.7 62.7 247.0 259.5 506.5 234 28.7 68.7 223.l0. 44.0
5.00...... 130 25.8 62.5 247.0 255.2 502.2 234 28.7 69.4 225.2 44.
5.30...... 129 25.8 62.5 247.5 261.2 508.7 234 28.7 66.7 216.4 0S.S
6.00...... 128 25.9 62.8 247.8 258.5 506.3 235 28.7 70.6 229.2 4.
6.30...... 127 25.8 62.5 248.0 252.8 500.8 234 28.7 71.4 231.5 48.2
Mean. 128.8 25.8 62.6 ........ 503.9 234.2 28.7 "68.7 22.8 :4.3

TEST OF PUMP NO. 1.

10.15 .... 118 25.1 70.0 260.0 258.1 518.1 262 29.13 68.26 24.8" 43.4
10.35.... 121 25.2 70.0 259.8 260.3 520.1 262 29.13 67.21 221.4 42.5
11.00..... 118 25.0 69.5 258.0 252.0 510.0 260 29.13 69.30 228.3 44.8
11.25.--.. 118 24.6 72.8 30L 0 294.5 595.5 272 29.38 74.25 246.6 41.4
11.45 .... 118 25.2 67. 239.8 235.0 474.'8 253 29.10 63.67 209.5 01.
12....... 119 25.6 63.0 162.8 159.0 321.5 236' 28.68 46.46 150.6 40.8
12.15..... 120 25.9 0.0 104.2 110.1 214.3 224 28.57 24.66 79.6 37'.2

TEST OF PUMP NO. 2

7.00...... 122 25.5 65.4 192.5 185.8 378.3 243 28.85 49.75 162.8 42.9..
7.15...... 120 25.0 68.5 238.5 236.5 475.0 256 28.85 65.10 212.3 44.
I I I I I I IM 10 13 43 8~5 s. n.~






31


PLANT NO. 8, GRAND CANAL, NEW PLANT.
Between the pumping seasons of 1905 and 1906 extensive changes
were made in the equipment of the pumping plant of the Grand
Canal. The pumps were removed and new ones, also of the cen-
trifugal type, were installed. The boilers and the simple condensing
Corliss engine were retained, but the fly wheel 20 feet in diameter
was replaced by another of approximately 14 feet in diameter. The
rope drive connecting this engine to one of the pumps consists of six-
teen strands of 13-inch rope.
A new water tube boiler, a tandem compound Corliss engine, and
another pump were installed. The condenser used with the new
engine is of the jet type; size of pump, 14 by 20 by 24 inches. It
makes about 28 double strokes per minute. The boiler feed pump
has dimensions 8 by 5 by 14 inches and makes about 91 double strokes
per minute. These outfits are complete and separate pumping plants,
although located in the same building.
On September 20, 1906, a test was made to determine the mechan-
ical efficiency of the simple engine rope drive and pump. This test
lasted from 3.30 to 6.20 p. m. The efficiency when operating at
proper speed averaged 69.8 per cent-quite a contrast to the results
obtained in 1905.
On September 21, 1906, a test was made of the new pumping equip-
ment already referred to. This test lasted only three hours and forty-
three minutes. Fuel consumption during that time was extremely
regular, the water level of the boiler was fairly constant, and all con-
ditions favorable for accurate results. However, a longer test would
in all probability give a greater degree of accuracy, especially in the
water evaporated by the boiler and used as steam by the whole plant.
As the test was made late in the irrigating season there was very little
demand for irrigation water, and when the canal was filled to the
danger line the pumps had to be stopped.
During the test fuel oil was carefully measured in a calibrated
barrel. The heat value of the fuel oil was determined by means of a
Parr calorimeter and found to be 17,834 British thermal units per
pound, the lowest heat value the writer has ever found in an oil from
the Jennings field. No water was present in the oil. Boiler feed
water was measured by means of a 6-inch Cipolletti weir, so arranged
that the heater could be used during the test.
The steam-engine indicators used in both these tests had been cali-
brated just previous to the test. Revolutions of the engine in each
case were determined by means of a continuous counter, read at inter-
vals of five minutes. The average number of revolutions obtained
from these readings was used in computing indicated horsepower.
Revolutions of the pump were obtained from the known ratio of
pitch diameter of engine and pump sheaves.








Water measurements were mn'add with ,the" ieureat 'meter. The
flume which conducts the water from the discharge tq te ~cpal is
19.2 feet in width at the point where the water measupreneit,s wre
made. .
The current meter was slowly moved across the flume at tirree,4di-
ferent depths, the direction of movement then reversed, and the,^pat
retraced in an opposite direction. On account of ,the, unusual. with
of flume it was found necessary to. correct the: current, ypter reading
for the component of motion at right angles to the axis of.the tlv i
in each'case. ,
The height through which the water was lifted was. carefully .b-
tained by means of a tape that'had been compared with;ia steeaJtaP.
The average mechanical efficiencies of engine,, pump, and rope
drive iri the two cases agree remarkably well. The average.in (tf1
case of the simple engine was 67.4 and in case of the compound ,9 ,per
cent for observations where the proper speed was maintained., ,
The centrifugal pumps show a remarkably high: efficiency, for
a pump of that type. Their excellence is primarily due tp g99,d
design, but one, other cause is worthy of note. ,The do4bl4 suctiop
pipes enlarge from .24.. inches near. pump to 34 inches at a distance
of about 4 feet from the flange of pump; again at the, lower end ,df
the suction pipes there is a conical frustrum 9 feet long, with, a
diameter of 42 inches at intake. The vertical discharge pipes in each
case are enlarged to 42 inches a short distance above the pumps, and
just -below where they enter the bottom of the, flume they are enlarg'ed
Sin the last 5 feet, changing the cross section from a circular section
42 inches in diameter to a section 51 inches square at entraii eto
flume. Enlargement of suction pipe reduces the velocity: of the
entering water and reduces the entrance loss, while the' nlarged'dis-
charge pipe reduces the -velocity of the water discharged aid cbrse-
quently the" velocity head lost at entrance to flinui. "
The results of the test are as follows:
Boiler test, Grand ,Canal, September 21, 1906,
Duration of test,' 3.717 hours.
Total fuel oil used, 2,476 pounds. .
Average steam pressure by gage, 153.4 pounds.
Average temperature of feed water, 188.50 F.
Factor of evaporation, 1.07-1.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 28,944 pounds. '
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 212 F., 31,086 pounds
Boiler horsepower, 242.2.. ....
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 11.69 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 2120 F. (not corrected for quality of
steam), 12.56 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by' auxiliaries) per indicated horse-
power hour, 17.7 pounds.


* I. I


II








33

Test of compound engine and pump, Grand Canal, September 21, 1906.


I Pressures.


Revolutions per min-
ute of-


Indicated horse-
power.


* I
I

z


Boiler.


148
156
151
155
151
154
155
153
152
..........


Receiver.!


18
8
8
9
S 8.7
9
7.5
7.6
7.3
..........


Vacuum.


25
25.2
25.1
25
25
25.1
25
24.9
24. 8


Indicated horsepower.


Low.

Head. Crank.


108. 4
80.7
97.9
97.1
98.2
96.7
93.8
86.8
89.2
130.1


125.8
91.2
108
109.3
105.7
106.6
101.1
96
98.4
137.3


SDischarge
Total. per second.
Total. *


427
376.3
440.8
450.9
441.8
439.9
442.5
426.2
437
640.5

452.3


Cubic feet.
79.7
66.2
86.1
88.4
86.9
85.6
82.6
81.9
83.6
115.5


85.65 1


Engine.


79
74.8
78. 1
78. 7
78 5
78.6
78. 5
78.3
78. 6
86.75

79. 0


Gallons per
minute.


35,780
29,720
38,620
39,650
39,000
38,430
37,090
36,760
37,530
51,870


38,445


Pump.


169.4
160. 4
167. 5
168.7
168.3
168. 5
168.3
167.9
168. 5
186

169.3


Head.


31.47
31.49
31.56
31.57
31.65
31.67
31.70
31.74
31.75
31.87


31.66


High.

Head. Crank.


103.5
111
128.6
135.6
129.3
127.8
134.2
132.3
133.6
204.2


89.3
93.4
106.3
108.9
108.6
108.8
113.4
111.1
115.8
168.9


Useful Efficiency,
water engine
horse- drive and
power. pump.


Per cent.
284 66.5
235.9 62.7
307.1 69.7
315.7 70
311.2 70.5
306.8 (69.8
296.4 67
294.1 69
300.3 68.7
416.7 65

306.8 67.89


Test of simple engine and pump. September 20, 1906.


Revolutions
per minute of-
I -


Engine.



81.5
81.5
81.6
81.7
76. 4
76
79.2
73. 4
73.4


Pump.


174. 8
174.8
175
175.2
163.8
163
169.8
157.4
157.4


Indicated
horsepower.


High.


I a Gallons
Total. Discharge per
per second. minu te.


Head. !Crark.


255.5
251.1
246
251.2
179
176.5
211
119. 4
117.3


254 3
262.3
251
251.7
181.9
180.9
213.7
137. 5
131.6


509.8
513.4
497
502.9
360.9
357.4
424.7
256.9
248.9


Cubic feet.
95.7
99.2
100.7
97.1
70.3
69.4
82.4
44.3
45


42,980
44,520
45,210
43,580
31,550
31,140
36,980
19,870
20,200


Useful
Head. water
horse-
power.



31.84 345.2
31.85 357.5
31.85 363
31.85 350
31.65 251.8
31.63 248.3
31.73 295.8
31.44 157.3
31.44 160


Efficiency,

drive and
pump.


Per cent.
a 67. 7
a 69.6
a 73
a 69.6
a 69.8
a 69.5
a 69.7
61.3
56.2


Near
engine.


148
150
145
149
145
148
149
147
146
..........

..........


I
2
S3
S4
5
6
7
8
9
10


11.46
1.15
1.45
2.15
2.45
3.15
3.45
4.15
4.45
5.06

Mean


Time.


11.46
1.15
1.45
2.15
2.45
3.15
3.45
4.15
4.45
5.06

Mean


Time.


3.43
3.50
4.05
4.15
5.10
519
535
6.02
6.08


SThe average of Nos. 1 to 7, inclusive, 69.8.

25844-No. 183-07 x- 3







PLANT NO. 9, ABBOTT BROTHERS' LOWER 7ARW.

The test was made at the Abbott Brothers' lower farm, about 2 miles
northwest of Crowley, La. The pumping plant supplies water to 9
miles of main canals and 15 miles of laterals, and has watered as
many as 7,200 acres of rice. During 'the season of 1905 it furnished
water for about 4,000 acres.
The plant contains four horizontal tubular boilers 66 inches in
diameter and 18 feet in length, each having fifty-seven 4-inch tubes.
There are three slide-valve noncondensing engines, with piston di-
ameter of 16 inches and stroke of 20 inches.
The engine tested is arranged to furnish power by means of a rope
drive to a single-suction centrifugal pump, having a suction pipe 20
inches in diameter and discharge 18 inches in diameter. The other
two units use belts between engine and pumps. Although the
pumps have single-suction pipes, there are cored passages to carry
the water around the sides of the vortex chamber and cause it to
enter the eye of the pump from both sides. In each case 'the dis-
charge pipe is provided with an elbow at the top, so that the water is
discharged horizontally into the flume.
The fuel used is crude oil, costing 35 cents per barrel of 42 gallons
delivered at the plant. The supply is obtained through a pipe line
from the Jennings field.
During the test two boilers were used and one engine and pump.
The water used by the boilers was first pumped by one of two
direct-acting feed pumps, ordinarily used as boiler feeders, to two
barrels that had been previously calibrated, where it was measured.
These barrels emptied into another placed beneath them, which was
connected to the suction of the other boiler feed pump. This latter
pump forced the water through a closed heater, which received the
exhaust of the engine and feed pumps and in which the temperature
was raised from 80.50 F. to 189 F.
The plant has been in use for several years. The piping and stop
valves were so arranged that considerable surface of bare pipe used
to conduct steam to the engines was exposed, and acting as a con-
denser, it was also found impossible to close some of the valves com-
pletely and thus prevent leakage.
The boilers used were carefully examined and it was found that
no water was leaking from blow-off valves or elsewhere, so that all
water measured and pumped to boilers was converted into steam.
The boiler test was therefore satisfactory. At the completion of
the regular test a leakage test was conducted to determine the amount
of condensed steam passing through defective valves in the steam
pipe, and the water apparently used by the engine and auxiliaries,
as steam was corrected.






35


The leakage was found to be 16.83 per cent of the total water used.
Steam was being used by oil burners while leakage test was made,
and no correction made. As there is some leakage of steam when the
entire plant is operated, and as one or two units are often operated
alone, the cost of oil was taken from results of tests as found.
The test was made on July 20, after heavy rains. The level of the
water was unusually high in Bayou Plaquemine, but considerably
lower than it had been two or three weeks previous, when the flood
level was the highest since the irrigation of rice began in that section.
The mean lift was 15.4 feet, while ordinarily it ranges from 18 to
24 feet.
SThe water was measured in a flume 9.05 feet in width; the depth
varied from about 0.7 to nearly 0.8 foot. The average velocity varied
from 3.98 to 4.26 feet per second; it was found by using the current
meter and the Pitot tube alternately, the results obtained being the
mean of nine observations of velocity at the centers of areas, each of
which was one-ninth of the cross section of the flume.
The results were equally satisfactory with the two instruments.
Indicator cards were taken every fifteen minutes.
The average efficiency of engine, rope transmission, and pulmp was
41.9 per cent. If the mechanical efficiency of the engine is assumed to
be 90 per cent and that of the rope drive 95 per cent, the efficiency of
the pump alone was about 49 per cent.
This plant is a type of many of the early installations in the rice
country.
The results of the tests are as follows:

Boiler test. Abbott Brothers lower farm, July 20, 1905.
Duration of test, 4 hours.
Total fuel oil, 1,929 pounds.
Average stream pressure by gage, 75.1 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of'feed water, 1890 F.
Factor of evaporation, 1.058.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 25,360 pound
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 212 F., 26.831 pounds.
Boiler horsepower, 194.
Average air temperature, 82 F.
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 13.15 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 2120 F. (not corrected for quality of
steam), 13.91 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries, but not including steam
lost through valves) per indicated horsepower hour, 43.1 pounds.










Engine and pump test, Abbott Brothers' lower farm.


'Time. Steam
Tim pressure.



Pounds.
11.00...... 72
11.15...... 79
11.30...... 78
11.45 ...... 76
12.00....... 78
12.15 ...... 75
12.30.............
12.45...... 72
1.00 ....... 72,
1.15....... 72
1.30 ...... 74
1.45....... 73
2.00....... 72
2.15....... 80
2.30.......! 84
2.45.......I 73
3.00....... 12
3.19....... 69
3.36....... 62
3.51....... 72
4.05...... 75
4.25:...... 72
4.45 ....... 73


Mean...


73.9


Revo.u-
tions per
minute of
engine.



137
140
140
138
141
139
137
139
138
139
137
138
140
137
138
136
135
130
137
138
137
137


137.6


Indicated horsepower


Head.



61.4
65.4
68.7
64.6
60.7
65.1
63.9"
63.7
63.8
61.7
62.4
63.8
68.0
63.2
62.4
60. 7
55.8
49.3
61.3
63.9
61.8
63.8


Crank. Total.


58.3
61.9
65.8
60.7
63.0
62.4

60.0
60. -
60. 4
56.5
58.8
60.4
63.4
59.0
58.9
58.0
52.1
44.6
59.3
61.8
50.4
59.7


119.7
127.3
134.5
125.3
132.7
127.5
123.9
124.2
124.2
118.2
121.2
124.2
131.4
122.3
121.3
118.7
107.9
93.9
120.6
125.7
121.2
123.5


Revolu-
t.ons per
minute of
pump.



261
264
263
261
263
264
260
262
262
264
258
262
26.5
259
264
260
252
247
255
265
259
260


........ 122.2 260.5


Head.



Feet.
15.75
15.75
15.70
15.67
15.65
15.62
15.53
15.49
15.47
15.42
15.40
15 36
15.33
15 31
15.28
15. 25
15.20
15. 17
15.14
15.11
15.08
15.04


15.40


Dil-
charge. i


Cs. feet
per sec.
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
30.59
..........
27.90
28&25
28'97
30. or
-28.81
..........
26. 40
29.39
29.41
29 55
29.55


28.98


-Useful
water
horse-
power



..........
..........
..........i
..........i









a4.,
.526



50.3
50.4
50.3


.1.


50.2


PLANT NO. 10, WESSON FARM.

This plant is located on the farm of Mr. H. E. Wesson, about one-
half mile northeast of the railway station at Welsh, La.
The well is 175 feet deep; it has a 10-inch casing, with 60 feet of
strainer. The number of acres watered in 1905 was 64, while in 1904
135 acres were irrigated.
The boiler is of the locomotive type, having 72 2-inch flues, 9 feet
long, and, according to builders' rating, is of 50-horsepower capacity.
The engine is simple noncondensing, and has a cylinder 12 inches
in diameter and stroke of 15 inches. The boiler is fed by means of
a pump attached to the engine or by an injector.
The pump was a No. 8 centrifugal, with vertical shaft.
The suction pipe was 81 inches and the discharge pipe 6 inches in
diameter. 'Pump was submerged in a pit 31 feet deep and was about
18 feet under water at the time test was made.
Pump was driven by means of a belt from the fly wheel of engine,
which was 60 inches in diameter; the pulley on pump was 18 inches
in diameter. The fuel used was crude oil, costing 52.5 cents per
barrel delivered at plant.
The first cost of this plant, including well and the rough board
building, was as follows:

Engine, boiler, and shed------------------------- $1, 175.00
Pump ---------------------------- --------------- 175.00
Belt ----------------------- --------- ------ 50.00,
Well, 175 feet, at $3.50 per foot-------------------- 612. 50


Total --- -------------------------- 2,012.50


a--
":":. .






r-- s'.
...... .. .
-S-
... ...:. : ::;






.. .. .





41.4






A.6
41.7
....I ..
S -I





g,&1
41.6
__ E 7.-? :;
<1I





37

The plant had been in use for three years previous to the season
of 1905 and was sadly in need of repairs. The engine foundation
consisted of large pieces of timber, to which the frame of the engine
was bolted. The engine frame was rather light and, as it was called
upon to furnish power considerably in excess of its rating, the com-
bination of light frame and wood foundation was accountable for
a great lack of rigidity. The overload was due principally to the
lack of alignment of the pump shaft and to the settling of the casing
and pump. In plants of this type the casing of the well, to which
the suction of the pump is attached, often settles, pulling the pump
with it, and, besides, there is more or less change in the position of
the sides of the planking forming the sides of the pit. There are
bearings for the vertical shaft at intervals, supported by timbers,
which are in turn fastened to this pit lining. It is important that
the main thrust bearing near the top of shaft, usually above the
driving pulley, shall be able not only to support the shaft, but also
the pull on the pump impeller, due to unbalanced pressures. Unless
the pump and pits are examined from time to time and alignment of
shaft carefully maintained trouble will follow.
The condition of the pump was so bad that, after intermittent use
for two weeks, the impeller had worn holes through the casing and a
new pump had to be installed. This was after tha test.
During the test it was only with the greatest difficulty that the
plant was operated; it was in as bad a condition as could possibly
exist and yet allow pumping.
The water pumped was measured by means of an 18-inch Cipol-
letti weir; the depth was obtained by means of a hook gage. The
head was obtained by getting the difference of level of water in dis-
charge pipe of pump when pump was not running and the point to
which the water was elevated by pump.
It was desired that a vacuum gage be attached to suction pipe of
pump and a pressure gage to the discharge pipe, so that the total
head, including friction, could be obtained. This was impossible,
because, as already stated, the water stood in the pump pit several
feet above the pump.
In pumping from a well the level of the water falls considerably
as soon as the pump is started.
Some head is required to force the water through the screen and
the surrounding sand and gravel. In the tests of pumps taking water
from the bayous and rivers the head used to compute efficiency was
in each case the actual distance through which the water was lifted.
In the tests of well plants the head used was that from original level
of water before pump was started to height to which water was ele-
vated. It is seen from this statement that this method puts the
pumps used on well plants at a disadvantage, as the suction head in-
creased when pumps were run, and there was no way to correct for
the' fall of water level.








Boiler test, Wessom plant, June 80, 1905..
Duration of test, 1.73 hours.
Total fuel oil, 405 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 84 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water, 880 F.
Factor of evaporation, 1.165.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 4,477 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 2120 F., 5,216 pounds.
Boiler horsepower. 87.
Average temperature of fuel oil, 91" F.
Average air temperature, 940 F.
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 11.1 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 212* F. (not corrected for quality of
steam), 12.9 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries) per indicated horse-
power-hour, 36.1 pounds.

Engine and pump test, Wesson plant.

Revolu- Indicated horsepower. Revolu- Useful
Time Steam tione per per Head D i- water U
Pressure. minute ~ a. Crn To te of "a change. ne a- .
engine. pnp. power

ft. Per
Pounds. Feet. per sec. cent.
10.00...... 89 0175 43.4 36.4 79.8 583 14.08 2.22 .54 4.4
10. 30.:.. .. 70 147 27.0 22.8 49.8 490 14.08 2.06 3.30 6.6
11.00...... 90 181 44.1 37.2 81.3 603 14.38 2.16 3.52 43
11.30...... 87 177 41.4 34.3 75.7 590 14.38 2.18 3. 4.7
Mean. 84 170 ................ 71.6 566 14.23 2:16 3.48 &0


S PLANT NO. 11, SAXBY FABM.

There was marked contrast in the condition of the machinery tested
at plant No. 10, when compared with that of No. 11.
The plant is located on the farm of Mr. C. A. Saxby, about three-
fourths of a mile southeast of Welsh, La. The number of acres
watered in 1905 was 160, from which a yield of 2,052 barrels of rice
was obtained. The well is 255 feet deep; 60 feet of screen are used.
The boiler is of the locomotive type; it had been in use for several
years, and, notwithstanding the fact that there were bad air leaks in
the breeching, it made a good showing during the test.
The fuel used is crude oil, costing 52.5 cents per barrel of 42
gallons delivered at plant.
A simple, noncondensing engine is used; diameter of cylinder 11
inches, stroke 15 inches, and diameter of rod 1l inches.
The pump is a No. 6 vertical shaft centrifugal, but is provided with
8-inch suction and discharge pipes. The plant has been in use for
three seasons. The well is said to be one of the best in that section
of the country.





:: : :






39


The cost of the pumping plant complete, including well, building,
and machinery, was $2,530.
The pump is driven by a quarter-turn belt; the distance between
centers of engine and lump pulleys was about 40 feet. Both the
engine and pump were in excellent condition.
Three sets of observations were taken of the quantity of water
pumped. These measurements were made in a small flume 3 feet in
length and 22 inches in width. The depth of water varied from
54 to 6 inches. The mean velocity was determined by means of a
Pitot tube. After three observations had been made it became neces-
sary to conduct the water from the pond in a different direction, and
this necessitated the changing of the small flume.
There was not sufficient time to do the work satisfactorily and con-
ditions had been so uniform during the observations that further
measurements were not considered necessary.
The discharge from the pump, as shown by the observations made,
varied between 1,732 and 1,598 gallons per minute.
Owing to a wet winter and spring the level of the water in the
wells of southwest Louisiana was about 10 feet higher in 1905 than
during the average season. This was favorable to well plants, as the
total head pumped against was less than usual.
The results of the tests are as follows:
Boiler test, Sarby plant, July 3, 1905.
Durataion of test, 4 hours.
Total fuel oil, 690 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 98 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water. 73.50 F.
Factor of evaporation, 1.184.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 7.210 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 212 F.. ,S.5t7 pounds.
Boiler horsepower. 62.
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 10.45 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 2120 F. (not corrected for quality of
steam). 12.37 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries) per indicated horse-
power-hour, 58.7 pounds.
Engine and pump test, Saxby plant.

Revolu- Indicated horsepower. Revolu- Useful
Time. Steam tions per tions per& Head. Dis- water Effi-
Spressure. minute of Head. Crank. Total. minute of charge. horse- ciency.
engine. I pump. power.

Cu. ft. Per
Pounds. Feet. per sec. cent.
2.00....... 95 154 15.4 14.9 30.3 520 15.25 3.56 6.16 20.3
2.30....... 103 158 15.8 15.0 30.8 533 15.25 3.57 6.16 20.0
3.00....... 100 157 15.3 14.9 30.2 530 15.25 3.86 6.67 22.1
3.30....... 96 158 15.8 15. 5 31.3 '533 15.25 ............................
4.00......' 100 157 15.7 15.0 30.7 530 15.25 ......................
4.30....... 95 156 15.2 14.6 29.8 527 15.25 ................... ........
5.00........ 97 157 15.6 15.0 30.6 530 15.25 ..................... ....
5.30....... 96 157 16.4 15.8 32.2 530 15.25 ......................
Mean. 98 156.7 ......... ... 30.7 529 15.25 3.66 6.33 20.8
I 2 i I _


e







PLANT NO. 12, CEOWLUY FARMING COAPLAT. I
Test No. 12 was made on a pumping plant on the farm of the Crow-
ley Farming Company (which is a part of the Green-Shoemaker in-
terests). This plant furnished water to irrigate 500 acres of rice in :.:l
1905, the total yield from which was 3,552 barrels, or 7.1 barrels perii::
acre.
There are three 10-inch wells, each 200 feet deep, with 82 feet of ;;
strainer. The wells are connected to a common suction pipe at the.'
pump, which is located at the middle of the top of a T, formed t
by three suction pipes, so that the pump is 50 feet from each well.
A simple noncondensing slide-valve engine, rated at 50 horsepower,
with cylinder diameter of 12 inches and stroke of 15 inches, is used.;
It was in good condition. A rope drive is used to connect the engine
with a rotary pump. Five 1-inch ropes form the drive, the sheave.
on the pump being 72 inches and on the engine 66 inches in diameter.
The pump is of the chamber-wheel type; the displacement per
revolution is 26,8 gallons, or 3.58 cubic feet.
The boiler was of the stationary, locomotive type, having ample:
capacity to furnish steam to engine; builder's rating, 60 horsepower.
The fuel used was crude petroleum. As it was stored in a cylin-
drical tank, from which oil was fed by gravity to the burners, direct
measurements of the fall of the level of the oil were taken, together
with temperature and specific gravity. From these observations the
weight of oil used was computed.
The boiler was fed by means of an injector, the immediate supply
being a wooden cistern located near the engine house.
A pipe leading from the flume into which the pump discharged
conducted water to the cistern. During the test the .valve in this
pipe was closed and the fall of water in the cistern was noted and
the amount computed from the measurements.
Water measurements were made in the flume about 75 feet from
the pump. Traverses were made by slowly moving the current meter
across the section at different elevations and the mean velocity thus
found. The width of flume was 4.05 feet and the depth varied
from slightly over 1 foot to nearly 1.6 feet.
The test was begun at 10.45 a. m. and lasted two and three-fourths
hours.
Before starting the test one of the well covers was removed and the
depth of water measured. This was done in order to get a compari-
son with the two other tests of well plants, where the distance through
which the water was pumped was taken as the difference in level of
the water standing in wells and the discharge.
The head thus obtained was used to compute the useful work in
the log of test.







A vacuum gage was attached to the suction pipe near pump and
-was read at each observation during test. The reading of this gage
reduced to feet of water and added to the height to which water was
elevated above the point where suction head was obtained gave the
total head produced by pump in elevating the water, in overcoming
friction, and in producing the flow of water. This head appears in
the log of results under the title including friction."
The difference between the two must not be charged entirely to
friction, as the water level about the wells undoubtedly fell as soon
as the pump was operated.
Two efficiencies were computed, one for each of the heads as stated
above.
The conclusion can not be drawn that the efficiencies of the other
two well plants tested, near Welsh, would have been increased pro-
portionately, for we do not know what effect was produced by the
three wells connected to one pump in the one case and to a single
well in the other two cases.
The type of pump in this case was different from that in the other
two. The efficiency in each of the three cases that may be compared
is strongly in favor of the plant under discussion, but this may be
due in some measure to the three wells furnishing the water.
The results of the tests are as follows:

Boiler test, Crowley Farming Company. July 21. 1905.

Duration of test, 2.75 hours.
Total fuel oil, 452 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 79.3 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water. 82 F.
Factor of evaporation. 1.170.
Total weight of water fed to boiler. 4.872 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 212 F.. 5.7(0 pounds.
Boiler horsepower, 51.
Average temperature of fuel oil. 930 F.
Average air temperature. 930 F.
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 10.78 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 212 F. (not corrected for quality of
steam), 12.61 pounds.
Total feed water per indicated horsepower-hour. 61.7 pounds.







Engine and pump test, Crowley Farming Company plant.


S Indicated horse- Useful work. Including friction.

Time. fO.
... I ;
Qr .4 C, 1 g S
A k


Cu.ft. Per Per'
Lbs. pr. sec. Feet. cent. Feet. cet.
10.45..... 77 135 14.2 14.6 28.8 123 ....... .....................................
11.00.... 84 136 14.1 14.7 28.8 125 4.77 15.75 8.51 29.5 28.87 15.60 54.2
11.15..... 77 135 14.1 14.9 29. 124 4.79 15.75 8.55 29.5 29.16 15.82 54.6
11.30..... 83 134 14.1 14.5 28.6 124 4.98 15.75 8.88 31.1 29.16 16.45 57.5
11.45...- 82 136 14.2 15 29.2 126 4.85 15.75 8.64 29.6 29.16 16.02 54.9
12.00 .. 76 134 14 14.4 28.4 123 4.94 15.75 8.81 31 29.16 16. 32 57.5
12.15..... 77 135 14 14.5 28.5 123 4.81 15.75 8.58 30.1 29.16 15. 89 58
12.30..... 76 135 14 14.8 28.8 123 4.89 15.75 8.73 30.3 29.16 16.14 56
12.45..... 77 135 13.9 14.5 28.4 123 ....... .............. ....... ....... ....... .......
1.00...... 80 135 14.1 14. 5 28.6 123 4.81 15.75 8.59 30. 29.16 15 90 55.5
1.15...... 83 135 14 14.4 28.4 123 4.71 15.75 8.40 29.6 29.16 15.56 54.8
Mean. 79.3 135 ....... ..... 28.7 123.6 4.84 15.75 8.63 30.1 '29.13 15.97 -556


PLANT NO. 13, SOUTH SIDE PLANTING COMPANY DRAINAGE
WHEEL.

This test was made of a pumping plant used to drain the sugar
plantation of the South Side Planting Company, on the right bank
of the Mississippi River, opposite New Orleans. It contains 1,700
acres, 1,600 of which were under cultivation in 1905.
Open ditches are used exclusively. The smaller ones are brought
together successively and terminate in a large canal leading to the
drainage wheel. The water drains away from the river. The flow
is obtained by deepening the ditches as they approach the pumping
plant, as well as from the natural slope of the land. Here the water
is elevated and then flows back into the swamps. The plantation is
protected from backwater by means of a levee.
This type of pump is used in northern Italy and in Holland. It
has long been a favorite in Louisiana, but was used much more ex-
tensively a few years ago than at present.
The wheel tested is a type of its class, but has some distinct fea-
tures in the double gearing and in the number of paddles, which is
greater than is sometimes used. The general design and method of
bracing are clearly shown in the drawing (fig. 2).
The diameter of the wheel is 28 feet; the width, 6 feet.
The test was made while pumping out the canal system, and was
necessarily short, lasting only about an hour.
A boiler test under existing conditions would have been worthless
and was not attempted.
The steam pressure is 40 pounds or less, as this is the allowed pres-
sure for the old boiler. Very little skill is required in operating this
plant, and there is a feeling of reliability in connection with the


.__ __





43


entire outfit. Ordinarily wood is used as fuel. An engine having
a cylinder 16 inches in diameter and stroke of 24 inches is used to
drive the wheel. It is of the simple noncondensing slide-valve type.
The plant is looked after and operated by an unskilled laborer
and it never gives trouble. When a rain comes in sufficient amount
to demand pumping he starts a fire. gets up steam, and runs as
long as required. Often this is but for an occasional few hours, Iut,
sometimes the wheel is run steadily for a week.


FIG. 2.-Drainage wheel, near New Orleans.


Care was exercised to so design this wheel that the water would
not be lifted unnecessarily. The backward flow through the pump
wheel when at rest is prevented by the swinging door shown in the
drawing.
The results are very satisfactory, as they show an efficiency of
engine, transmission gears, and pump in every case exceeding 38
per cent, and in two cases considerably above that figure, while the
actual lift of the pump varied from 2.4 feet to 2.86 feet.







The quantity of water pumped fell off as the level of the water. oi
the suction side fell, and varied from 20.71 cubic feet per second to: **
8.21 cubic feet per second.
During the last observation the paddles dipped into the water td.I:i
a depth of, approximately, 1 foot, and the slip or backward flowii
was quite large. The clearance on the sides of paddles was about
three-fourths of an inch. "
By referring to the log of results it will be seen that only 6.4tCl
indicated horsepower was required to drive the wheel at the last.iii
observation when lifting 8.21 cubic feet per second 2.86 feet, and 12 i; 61:
indicated horsepower when lifting 20.71 cubic feet per seeondi
through 2.4 feet.
The method of testing consisted of traversing the discharge fltu~
with a current meter and taking indicator cards and other observe
tions a* quickly as possible after traverse was finished.. By tlij
means the indicated horsepower was a little less than the mean cor-:
responding to the water measurement, but as the latter required only:;
about tin minutes the error is not great. The method used w
rendered necessary by lack of observers.
These results are confirmed by the test of a similar drainage wheel '
in New Orleans in August, 1900. The wheel tested was used at 3i
that time in one of the city drainage stations. Since the inaugura-:
tion of the new drainage system it has been taken down and removed
The log of the test shows that between 50 and 60 cubic feet of water"
per second was pumped through a height varying from 4 to 5 feet
The efficiency of engine, gearing, and pump ranged from 45 to 50 per
cent. The duty per 100 pounds of coal was approximately 13,000,000
foot-pounds; the water rate of the engine was 50.5 pounds per indi-
cated horsepower-hour. The engine was of the type used in Missis- .
sippi River steamboats; the length of stroke was 54 inches and
diameter of cylinder 18 inches. During the test the engine made.
about 35 revolutions per minute.
One of the chief objections to this type of pump is found in the
fact that it is made largely of wood and that the bolts must-be
screwed up occasionally as the wheel is inspected.
Secure foundations are especially desirable on account-'of the
weight of the wheel and the small side clearance desired for the
paddle.






45


The details of the test are given below:

Engine and pump test, Southside Planting Company drainage wheel.

Revolu- Indicated horsepower. Revolu- Usefu
tons per --f- l-- R
Time. Steam mine tions per Head. Dis- water Effi-
ime. pressure. minute minute adi charge horse- ciency.
of en- Head. Crank. Total. minute charge horse- eny.
gine. of wheel. power
gine.
Cu. ft. Per
Pounds. Feet. per sec. cent.
10. 10..... 40 61 5.59 7.84 13.43 2.00 ........ ....... .. .......... ........
10.45... 40 66 5.48 7.13 12.61 2. 17 2.4 20.71 5 59 44. 3
11.10 .. 38 68 4.77 5.60 10.37 2.24 2.8 17.20 5.41 52.2
12.15...... 36 67.5 3.67 5 13 8.80 2.22 2.7 11.23 3.41 38.8
12.30...... 37 68 3.15 3.80 6.95 2.24 2.86 8.21 2.66 38.3
Mean.' 38.2 66.1 (Av. last 4.) 9.68 2.22 2.69 14.34 4.27 43.4


PLANT NO. 14, ALGIERS DRAINAGE PLANT.

Algiers, La., is a suburb of New Orleans, situated on the right
bank of the Mississippi River, and forming a part of the city. The
drainage plant tested is one of the plants forming the drainage sys-
tem of New Orleans.. It differs from the other drainage plants of
the city in that it has its own boiler and engine equipment, while
-those of the city proper are supplied with electrical power generated
at a central power station and distributed to the various pumping
plants. Artificial drainage is a necessity, as the mean level of the
city is only about 2 feet above that of the Gulf of Mexico, and there
are large portions of the city below the mean Gulf level.
The boiler equipment consists of two 200-horsepower water-tube
boilers, fed by means of direct-acting steam pumps. Only one boiler
was used during the test. One pump was used to furnish water to
the calibrated barrels, where it was measured, and the other pump
then forced it into the boiler through a closed heater receiving the
exhaust of boiler feed pumps and vacuum pump.
The fuel used was crude oil, costing 78 cents per barrel of 42 gallons
delivered at plant.
The engine is a triple expansion of the marine type, direct con-
nected to pump. The diameters of steam cylinders are 13, 21, and 34
inches, and the stroke is 24 inches. A jet condenser and vacuum
pump of ample size were used.
The pump is centrifugal, having double suction pipes, each 36
inches, and discharge pipe 52 inches in diameter. The pump is sev-
eral feet above the level of discharge.
Before starting it was primed by means of a steam siphon.
The level of the water on the discharge side was practically con-
stant during the test, while the suction level fell as the canal was
pumped out.









At the time the test was made there was no rain, and the water:;
pumped had been allowed to accumulate in the drainage canal lead-i.:
ing to the pumping station. The pump was operated until the can ai,::
was nearly emptied, when the test had to stop.
An efficiency test was made of the boiler. It lasted but seventy. ':
minutes.
While a boiler test of this duration with any fuel other than crude ..
oil would be ridiculous, and in any case is subject to some error, this
test was as satisfactory as possible under the conditions.
The boiler had not been used for some time previous to raising :
steam for the test, and for this reason did not show as good results as:
it would had the walls been thoroughly heated before starting.
Water measurements were made by means of Pitot tubes in the suc- '
tion pipes. These pipes were made of cast iron and were 36 inches in
diameter. There were two bends in each, one a long radius bend
through 900, while the other was through about 450 in the opposite
direction.
The traverses were made in each case on an axis of symmetry and
simultaneously in the two pipes. To obtain the quantity of water
from these observations the platted traverse of each cross section'was
divided into ten annular rings of equal area, and the velocity of the
water was taken at the mean radius of each annular ring. The j
average of these ten velocities was used in computing the quantity of
water pumped.
One of the Pitot tubes was that described elsewhere and illustrated
in figure 1 (p. 10). The other was one of the tubes used by the Mis-
sissippi River Commission in tests of hydraulic dredges in 1902 and
1903.
Indicator cards, the height through which the water was lifted,
and the other observations were taken at fifteen-minute intervals. All
results were platted on a time basis; and as observations varied
regularly, it was thought best to compute results by reading the va-
rious quantities from these curves.
The boiler results are about what would be expected under the con-
ditions of the test.
The total steam used by engine, auxiliaries, and oil burners is
extremely large for a triple-expansion engine; However, the engine
load was considerably less than that which it was designed for, and
the two steam pumps and the vacuum pump were very wasteful of
steam, especially the latter.







47

The results of the tests are given below:

Boiler test, drainage plant. Algiers. La., .ugust 31, 1905.

Duration of test, 1.17 hours.
Total fuel oil, 700 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage, 140.6 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water. 196.2 F.
Factor of evaporation. 1.064.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 7,257 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 2120 F., 7.722 pounds.
Boiler horsepower. 191.
Average temperature of fuel oil. 83 F.
Average air temperature, 890 F.
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil. 10.37 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 2120 (not corrected for quality of
steam), 11.03 pounds.
Total feed water (including steam used by auxiliaries) per indicated horse-
power-hour, 32 pounds.

Engine and pump te.st. Algern drainage plant.


Steam
pressure.


Time. ."

4<


c
c:
3S
B


SLbs. Lbs.
11.30...... 137 115
11.45...... 139 117
12.00 ..... 140 118
12.15......1 141 1 119
12.30....... 146 124
Mean... 140.6 118.6


Indicate

Intei
c High. dia
0o
2


101.3 33.3 34.5
102.7 33.4 34.9
102.4 133.0 34.8
103.7 34.1 35.3
104.1 1 33.6 35.9
102.8 ...... ...


31.2
31.4
30.9
31.6
31.6


d hor

rie-


rsepower.


Low.


I..


te.
Zj

1 Lu /.
.i .-r C.) r 1


Feet. p. sec. P. ct.
31.2 32.8 32.0 195.0 4.83 142.4 77.7 39.8
31.5 30.4 31.8 193.4 5.56 137.8 86.5 44.7
31.3 29.6 30.6 190.2 6.69 132.2 100.0 52.6
31.4 30.9 31.4 194.7 7.83 125.1 110.S 56.9
32.1 30.4 31.2 194.8 9.24 114.2 119.3 61.2
...... ............ 193.6 6.83 130.5 98.8 51.0


PLANT NO. 15, NEW ORLEANS DRAINAGE STATION NO. 3.

The turbine pump tested is located at station No. 3 of the New
Orleans drainage system. It was installed as a fire pump and has
been used principally to prime the larger pumps at the station. The
pump is a two-stage turbine, having a 6-inch suction and a 4-inch dis-
charge pipe. It is driven by a direct current motor on the same bed
plate. A rotary converter in the station receives an alternating cur-
rent from the central power house of the drainage system and fur-
nished a direct current to the motor driving the pump.
The discharge head was measured by means of a pressure gage on
the discharge pipe near the pump. The suction was measured by
means of a vacuum gage on the suction pipe near the pump. Both
gages were carefully calibrated. The total head was obtained by re-
ducing both these observations to feet of water, correcting for the
















-raigeu Inar Llt wateUr Lnwetu quA1Lly LU Lu weir. .n5e upui UL waMirM '
over the crest of the weir was measured by an accurate hook g.ge. -"''
The electrical losses were measured and corrections made.
The friction of pump and motor was obtained when pump was .:.il V
primed, and one-half was charged to each in getting the efficiency of.
pump, assuming the friction to be constant for all loads.
Observations were taken, beginning with the discharge valve closel:I
and then opening it slightly and again taking observations as soon
as all conditions were constant; then valve was opened a little mo r
and the process continued until the discharge valve was wide open. 5
Some trouble was experienced with the thrust bearing, on account
of heating, but the test was not seriously interfered with.
The results of the test are given below:
Pump test, New Orleans drainage station No. S.

Head. ....



Time.per Per P Pr

Feet. Feet. feet. Feet. sec. cart. weat, nfll .
9.50...... 1,000 140 101 18.95 2.20 136.2 142.8 0 0 0 0 0
9.55...... 978 138 126 23.31 3.06 140.0 147.6 .241 .597 9.98 42.8 50.3 8;.
10.00..... 967 136 176 32.09 6.46 127.3 139.1 .32 .923 14.54 45.3 50 .1'
10.03..... 955 134.3 194 34.92 8.72 115.7 130.3 .362 1.101 16.25 46.8 53.1 .O "
10.06..... 960 134 208 37.36 10.20 104.2 120.7 .387 1.216 162 44.5 80.7 C
10.09..... 960 134 217.3 39.03 12.23 92.5 111.5 .408 1.316 16.O 42.5 48.3 8 .
10.12..... 956 133.5 225 40.26 13.48 81.0 101.6 .427 1.409 16.20 40.2 46.6 O.
10.15..... 956 133.5 236 42.23 14.95 69.4 92.0 .446 1.,504 15.67 37.1 42.0 8.3
10.18..... 956 133.5 242 43.31 16.20 57.8 82.0 .459 1.571 14.59 33.7 3 .1 8L.
10.21.t... 949 132.5 247.5 43.96 18.01 46.3 72.7 .476 1.657 13.62 81.0 85I ILS
10.24..... 949 132.5 254.2 45.15 19.37 34.7 62.9 .489 1.727 12.30 27.2 30.8 K4
10.27..... 949 132.5 260.5 46.27 21.01 23.1 53.1 .495 1.759 10.57 22.8 2S J8.4
10.30..... 949 132.3 264.0 46.82 21.53 16.2 46.7 .495 1.759 9.30 19.8 2L4 88.4


PLANT NO. 16, NEW ORLEANS DRAINAGE STATION NO. 7.
This plant has been recently installed at station No. 7 of the New
Orleans drainage system to take care of the ordinary drainage of
a portion of the city; for this reason it is called a constant-duty
unit. During heavy rains the drainage is disposed of by means of
the large centrifugal pumps of the station. The latter are electric-
ally driven.
The gas engine is a 3-cylinder vertical, of the 4-cycle type, each
cylinder 121 inches in diameter, stroke 18 inches. Gas is supplied
from a suction producer. The engine is connected by means of a






49


flexible coupling to a horizontal shaft which in turn drives a vertical
shaft through bevel gears. At the lower end of the vertical shaft is
the impeller of the centrifugal pump. The suction pipe of the pump
is 36 inches in diameter, while the discharge pipe enlarges from 20
inches diameter at pump to 30 inches diameter at a distance of a few
feet.
The fuel used was pea anthracite coal; it was carefully weighed.
A preliminary test was made, using a prony brake on engine and
taking indicator cards. When the engine developed 100 brake horse-
power it was found that the indicated horsepower as computed witl
uncorrected springs was almost exactly the same figure. The springs
were nominally rated at 200, but on calibration they were found
to be in error by 16.6 per cent. This correction was applied and the
indicated horsepower was found to be 120 when the brake horse-
power was 100 and the revolutions approximately 300 per minute.
The mechanical efficiency of the engine was therefore 83.4 per cent.
As the revolutions varied but little from 300, it was thought. best
to take the indicator cards obtained during the test and, having
corrected for the springs to compute the indicated horsepower and
then subtract 20 to give the brake horsepower, or, in other words, the
developed horsepower of the engine. The horsepower given pump
(called in log Pump H. P.) was obtained by subtracting 25 from the
indicated horsepower in each case, as a preliminary test had shown
the friction of gears and bearings between the flexible coupling and
the shaft just above the pump to be 5 horsepower, and the friction
of engine, as stated above, was 20 horsepower.
Water horsepower was computed in the usual way. The head was
that between suction and discharge basins on the two sides of the
pumping station. The water had to pass through 50 or 60 feet of
pipe, but enlargements at entrance and discharge ends and low veloc-
ity reduced the losses in the piping.
The velocity of the water was obtained by means of the Pitot tabe.
Traverses were made at fifteen-minute intervals across the discharge
Spipe about 30 feet from the pump; observations were taken at such
Distances from the center that the mean velocity could easily be com-
puted. The discharge pipe, 30 inches in diameter, was divided up
into ten areas, all of which, with the exception of that at the center,
were annular rings. The tube'was placed at such positions that the
mean velocity in these annular rings was obtained on both sides of the
center. For each traverse nineteen observations were made. The
results platted in the curves were the mean of three readings for each
point. In the circle at the center of the pipe, containing one-tenth of
the area of cross section, but one observation of velocity was taken,
while in the annular rings two observations were taken, one on either
25844-No. 183-07 M--4














test trouble was experienced with the indicator -on cylinderN._I
and some of the cards were not as satisfactory as could be d
For .this reason the indicated horsepower and results depende
that quantity may be somewhat in error. The error may anmo t*
per cent or possibly more in the efficiency of the pump, the true
being less than that stated..
The friction of gears, bearings, and so forth had to.be d -
when running light; the friction loss probably changes slightly li
increased load. .
The measurements of coal used, the head pumped against, and:
amount of water pumped were satisfactory and, fortunately, i
are the most important factors.
Approximately 1.1 pounds of coal was'used per brake horepowm
hour, or about 0.9 pound per indicated horsepower-hour.
The duty in millions of foot-pounds per 100 pounds of 'oal .a.Si
found to be 119.6, while the duty per million British thermal units
fuel was 82.4; this is an excellent showing.
The heat value of the pea anthracite coal was found, by means .of a..
Parr calorimeter, to be 14,374 British thermal units per pound. The
percentage of energy in the fuel that appeared as indicated hin$ :
power was therefore 20.75 per cent; as developed or brake horse-
power, 16.2 per cent; and as useful work, 10.6 per cent.
Cost of coal, $8 per ton delivered at plant.

Producer gas plant, Station No. 7, February 1, 1906.




PO.f. Per
Time. Feet. ce :
S6.2 30.04 3 0 .5 1.5 4.3 .....



1.1 ....... 2 *0 ....... ...... ...... ...... 6.2 20 3 12. 4.1
2.00. 297 147.5 88.3 68.3 6. 3 6. 4 31.12 7.28 20.85 13. 07 4 1 o. 5 '1. W '

2.15 ....... 297 151.0 90.4 70.4 65. f 6.23 30.58 7.04 20. 35 1.31 ,46.1 70.5 ...... .
2.80 ....... 294 157.5 93.3 73.3 68.3 6. 23 30.58 6. 87 20. 35 13. 48 4 7 G 4 2:4, .1
2.45....... 296 143.5 85.6 65.6 60.6 6.19 30.38 &65 20.35 13.70 47.1 7T.7 .
3.00 ....... 296 151.o 90.1 70.1 65.1 6.18 30.34 & 80 20.40 3.00 45. 7 71.7 1 i
3.15 ....... 297 143.5 85.9 65.9 00.0 6.15 30.19 6.85 20.40 13.55 46.3 76.0 .....
3.30 ....... 296 147.,5 88. 0 'o. 0 63.o 6.16 30.24 6.89 20.40 13.5 41 78 S. & U'.: A
.45 27 145.7 87.3 7.3 62. 14 .70 20.40 1. o 468 7 1



4.00 ....... 298 154.5 92. 8 72.8 67. 6.09. 29.89 6.00 20 40 18.80 46.7 ALI W 1aWI.A.
1.15....... 298 152.8 91.8 71.8 ......8 6.12 30.04 6.87 20.3541 13.15 4 1 .0 .........
4.30....... 297 13.2 97. 8 77.3 72.8 6.34 30.1234 7.30 20.43 13.107 4.1 61.9 L.6 .M..
4.45....... 297 152.2 91.4 71.4 65.4 6.12 30.04 7.05 20.45 13.40 45. 6707 ..........
5.00....... 299 162.7 98.1 78.1 765.1 &.19 30.34 6.80 20.45 13.75 46.7 71.7 2:.7
5.15 ....... 3029 145.7 88. 68.1 63. 6. 21 30.24 7. 0089 20.45 13.51 46.4 73.S. 3. rk .,6

Mean ...... ...... 90.6 70.6 ....... ......... ....
..... .. "... .... .
i
.. .. ..... ... *::./ ..






51


PLANT NO. 17, NECHES CANAL COMPANY.
The Neches Canal Company furnished water to irrigate approxi-
mately 22,000 acres of rice during the season of 1906. The main
pumping plant is located on the bank of Pine Island Bayou, a tribu-
tary of the Neches River, about 6 miles north of Beaumont, Tex.
At this plant the water is elevated from 31 to 35 feet, depending on
the stage of water in the bayou. A canal, with levees 150 feet from
crown to crown, conducts the water from the main pumping plant to
the relift about 2 miles distant, where it is again elevated 10 feet.
Beyond the relift plant there are 23 miles of main canal and about
18 miles of laterals through which the water is distributed to the
rice fields. The cost of pumping plants, canals, and laterals was
$500,000. The system has been operated four seasons.
The tests described were made on August 8 and 9, 1906. The
plant tested was the first lift or main pumping plant of the Neches
Canal Company. On the first day one-half of the plant was oper-
ated, while on the second day the entire plant was run.
The boiler equipment of this plant consists of two water-tube
boilers, each of 400 nominal horsepower, having 3,675 square feet of
heating surface. Each boiler has two drums 42 inches in diameter,
21 feet in length, and 180 4-inch tubes 18 feet long. A breeching 72
inches in diameter conducts the burned gases to a steel stack of the
same diameter, resting on a brick base. The length of stack is 90
feet and the total height above furnace about 115 feet.
Steam is conducted from the boilers by separate pipes to a main
which supplies the various engines. By means of a stop valve the
two halves-of the plant may be separated and boiler No. 1 used to
supply steam to engines Nos. 1 and 2, and boiler No. 2 used with en-
gines Nos. 3 and 4. There are steam separators above each engine.
The fuel used was crude petroleum. It was fed to the furnaces by
gravity, as the storage tanks are located at a height considerably
above that of the furnaces. Steam is used to atomize the oil.
There are- four tandem compound condensing Corliss engines;
dimensions, 18 by 36 by 48 inches; piston rods, 4j and 34 inches in
diameter. Each engine is direct connected to a rotary pump by
means of a flexible coupling. Keys of Babbitt metal are used in the
couplings. These keys are made strong enough to carry the load, but
will shear in case a piece of wood or other obstacle gets into the
pumps.
The pumps are two-lobed cycloidal of 39 inches pitch diameter.
The impellers are 52 inches in length and 584 inches in diameter;
the displacement is 605 gallons per revolution; the bearings are 11
inches in diameter by 30 inches in length.
Two vertical vacuum pumps are used, one for engines Nos. 1 and
:2 and another for engines Nos. 3 and 4. They are of the jet type.
|I





























r "r .-.-.- i _j ..
were closed on both days; the other leaks from the steam main. ::|
small and no attempt was made to measure them.
On the first day continuous counters on engines Nos. 3 and. 4, wa
read at intervals of five minutes. Readings for fifteen-minute interim;
vals are given in the general log. For computing the indicated house
-power the revolutions were taken from the five-minute intervns dia ':'
ing which the cards were taken. Indicator cards were taken ei yt::!
half hour. ...... ':
The discharge from the two pumps was carefully measured in flume,
No. 2 by means that will be described later. In this way the displace-
ment of pumps and their discharge were compared. and the mechia-
ical efficiency of engines and pumps determined.
Observations were also taken at half-hour intervals of boiler pres-
sure, the temperatures of feed water, calorimeter, water pumped, .ir,
and fuel oil. A draft gage connected to an air valve in the breaching
gave the draft in inches of water.
Fuel oil was carefully measured in a calibrated barrel and its spe-
cific gravity observed throughout the test by means of a hydrometer
The amount of boiler feed water was measured by means of a welt.
On the second day, when the whole plant was in operation, the total
water discharged from both flumes was measured; at intervals ot
fifteen minutes the water measurements were made, so that they were
repeated in each flume at half-hour intervals.





53

The head was carefully measured in the same manner as on the
previous day.
The fuel oil was carefully measured. The steam pressure was held
exactly as on the previous day. In this way the total useful work
done and the amount of fuel required to operate the entire plant were
measured under conditions exactly corresponding to the previous day.
Feed water was measured only during the test of August 8. As the
tests were to represent as nearly as possible the conditions of ordinary
operation it was desirable to use the heaters, the water level in which
was only about 2 feet above the center of the feed pump. The high
temperature of the feed water made it necessary to have the water
flow by gravity to the pumps. The pipe connections were short and
the measurement of feed water in calibrated tanks could only be
accomplished by the aid of an extra pump or by taking cold water
from the flume. A trapezoidal Weirr 6 inches in width was intro-
duced between the heater and pump by slight changes in the piping.
The discharge from the weir was into a barrel connected to the suc-
tion of the feed pump. The height of the water above the sill of the
weir was measured by a hook gage. In this way the plant was
operated under normal conditions and the water measured with con-
siderable accuracy. The weir had been previously calibrated in the
hydraulic laboratory of Tulane University, Louisiana, and its con-
stant determined. It is believed that the error involved does not
exceed 2 per cent, and that it is probably only half that amount.
By this method all the water fed to the boiler was measured. The
steam generated by the bbilers was used by main engines, by vacuum
and feed pumps, and for atomizing the fuel oil.
'The quality of steam was obtained by means of a throttling calorim-
eter in the vertical pipe coming from the boiler, a short distance
above the junction of the vertical pipe with the horizontal main.
The conditions of the boiler test were extremely uniform; the water
level changed very little and the rate at, which water was supplied to
the boiler was not varied throughout the test. Steam pressure, qual-
ity of steam, and the temperature of the feed did not vary perceptibly.
Boiler pressure and vacuum were read by means of calibrated gages.
The error of the thermometer used in the calorimeter was known
and the correction applied.
Two indicators were used on engine No. 3 and two on engine No. 4.
All were supplied with wheel reducing motions. Each cylinder of
each engine was supplied with three-way cocks. On the high-pressure
cylinders 80-pound springs were used, while 20-pound springs were
used on the low. The springs were calibrated after the test and the
corrections applied where necessary.
The barrel in which the fuel oil was measured was calibrated by
means of an accurate spring balance.


















The head was extremely constant. All linear measurements taken :ii
means of a tape were corrected by comparison with a steel tape.
The discharge of pumps Nos. 3 and 4 is into a common flume, builf<
of one-fourth-inch steel, having an inside width of 8.71 feet. Tie
depth of water in the flume was obtained by measuring the distane::i
from an angle iron across the top .of the flume and subtracting the :l
distance from angle iron to the surface of the water. The depth
varied little from 4.17 feet throughout the test; each time -six-:||o s
tions were taken and averaged. ..
Two instruments were used alternately to determine the velocity-
a current meter and a Pitot tube.
The average of all readings taken with the current meter gives. a"
discharge of 152.99 cubic feet per second, -while the average displace
ment of the pump for corresponding readings averages 152.90. The
average of all readings of discharge obtained by means of the Pitot
tube gives 152.79 cubic feet per second; the average displacement for
corresponding readings is 152.92. The agreement in both cases is
remarkable and can lead to but one conclusion, viz, that the dis-
charge of the pumps is practically equal to their displacement.
The writer believes the results to be as accurate as could be obtained
with a weir.
Boiler test, Neches Canal Company, August 8, 1905.

Duration of boiler test, 5.592 hours.
Total fuel oil, 6,384 pounds.
Average steam pressure by gage. 140 pounds per square inch.
Average temperature of feed water, 1990 F.
Factor of evaporation, 1.053.
Total weight of water fed to boiler, 79,651 pounds.
Equivalent water evaporated from and at 2120 F., 83,872 pounds.
Boiler horsepower, 434.6.
Average temperature of fuel eil, 91" F.
Average air temperature, 890 F.
Water apparently evaporated per pound of oil, 12.47 pounds.
Equivalent evaporation from and at 2120 F (corrected for quality of steam),
13.14 pounds.






55


Engine and pump test, main pumping plant, Neehes Canal Company, August 8, 1906.


Revolul
Time. Boiler nmir
pressure.

No. 3.


1.45..................
2.00 ..........' 140
2.15........... I.........
2.30........... 140
2.45........... .... .....
3.00........... 140
3.15. .......... .........
3.30...........| 140
3.45.....................
4.00........... 140
4.15...... ... .......
4.30............ 140
54.45.....................
5.00-.......... 140
5.15 .....................
5.30........... 140
5.15.......... ..........

6.30)........... 140
6.30........... 140
6.45.... ..... .........
7.00............ 140
7.15 .......... ..........
7.30........... 150


54.3
55.3
55.0
55.1
55.1
55.0
55.2
55.1
55.0
55.1
54. 9
54. 9
55.1
55.1
55.1
55.1
55 1
55.1
55.1
55.3
55.0
55.1
55.2
55.2


tions per
nute.


Indicated horsepower.

Engine No. 3.

High. Low.


No. 4. Head. I Crank.
I -


57.. ........ .. ............
57.7 95.8 95.0
58.3 ........................
58.3 ................. ......
58.3 98.6 1 97.8
58.4 ............ ............
58. 6 97.9 94. 5


57. 9
58.5
58.5
58.5
58.5
58.5
58.5
58.7
58.7
58.4
58.4
58.5
58.6
58.5
58.6
58. 7
58.5
58.4


Head.


65. 2
............-

67. 1

74. 2


Total.
Crank.


57.9 313.9
............ .........

59.4 322.9
62............ 329.........
62.5 329.1


94.3 92.7 69.9 62. 6 319.5

94.9 94.1 70.1 62.8 321.9
............ ............ ............ ............ .........
95.4 93.9 : 67.0 59.9 316. 2
............ ............ ............ ............ .. ......
95.2 1 94.8 70.3 61.2 321.5

93.2 94.3 71.3 60.7 319.5
.. --.. --..... ............ ............ ............ .........
94.6 94.0 | 72.9 60.8 322.3
............ ............ ............ ............ .........
92.0 94.8 71.9 60.7 319.4

95.6 92. 2 70. 3 63.3 321.4

95.9 93.3 70.4 63.6 323.2


Indicated horsepower-Continued.


Engine No. 4. I


High.

Head. Crank.


Low.
Total.
Head. i Crank.


I
......... 107.8 104.0 i 63 21 59.6 :334.6 648.5
.......... .. .... ... ..... ... ....... ....... ...... ...
.......... ........ ........ ........ ........ ......... ........
.......... 107.9 103.2 65.4 59.9 336.4 659.3
.......... 101.7 100.0 681 61.0 330.8 659.9
.......... ........ I" i _6 i "" .... .- .:. .".".. .. .. .
.......... 105.2 101.OLO 69.5 62.3 1338.0 657.5

.......... 1035i6 100 0 69.7 62.0 335.2 657. i
.......... ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........
.......... 105.3 10i.0mo 69.2' 62.2 337.'5 653.7
.......... ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........-
......... 105.0 101.2, 69.1 62.0 337.3 58.8
.......... ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ I........
.......... 104.1 99.2 70.5 63.8 337. 6 657.1

........ 105.71 100.7 6 69.8 63.7 339.9 1 662.2
.......... ........ --------.......... ........ .........
.......... 103.1 100.0 69. 1 61. I 33" .3 652.7
.......... ................ ....... ...... ."..-- ----... -
.......... 107 0099.2 71.2 62.0 335.1 i' 656.5
.......... ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........
.......... IM6" o.'4 70.5 62.5 337.0 660.2
Ie .
Averages ............. ... ........ ........ ....... 657. 7


Grand Dis- Head.
total, charge. I


Cu. ft.


pe


Useful Effi-
water ciency of
horse- pump
power. and en-
gine.


r sec. Per cent.
150.6 31.61 538.6

151.3 31.65 541.3....
153.8 ..... ........... .
151.3 31.63 541.1 8 82. 02
154 3 ........
151.3 31.62 541.6 82.07
151, 8
153.6 31.61 549.2 83,58
154.9 ......... ........... .. .. .
154.7 31.62 553.3 84. 20
151.5 ...... ... .... ......
154.1 31.62 1 551.2 84.32
152. 3........
155.1 I 31.62 554.9 84.22
151.9 ........ .......... ... ...2
152.3 1 31.62 544.8 82.80
153.4 4.
153. .4 3. .... ........ ..... .......9
....... 31.62 548.5 82.91
153.3 ....... .. ... I. ... .... ..
....... 31 62 542.6 83. 13
150.2 ................... ..........
152.7 31.62 546.2 83.21
153.1 ....... .......... ..... .....


....... 31.62

152.7 31.62 546.1
Si


83.25


SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF ALL TESTS.


S The principal results of all of the tests reported in the preceding

pages are summarized in the table following.
Lit! "


Time.


1.30.
1.45.
2.00.
2.15.
2.30.
2.45.
3.00.
3.15.
3.30.
3.45.
4.00.
4.15.
4.30.
4.45.
5.00.
5.15.
5.30.
5.45.
6.00.
6.15.
6.30.
6.45.
7.00.
7.15.
7.30.


































15 Fuel oil per hour, barrels.............. j. 5 2.3 L25 427 Lia 4,
16 Fuel o1 per minute, pounds.......... 18 26.62 12.03 6.53 2228 &P7 21
17 :1 per indicated horsepower hour, 2.04 1 8 14 2 20 6
17 Rounds--1. o138 &14 &22 106 1
1 pounds ........................... o.. 2.20 23 14 2 ,06 -
18 Oil par water horsepower hour, 2.48 187 2 1
pounds .............................. a42.69
19 Heat value per pound of oil, B. T.U.. 19,500 19,500 19,500 19,500 19,500 19,00 19,
20 Heat equivalent of oil per minute, :
B. T. U .......................... 111,300 519,300 234500 127 300 4,00 114,50 43
21 Total steam per minute, pounds...... 5 4 276.0 119.3 .4 810. 5 ........
22 Heat per minute to produce total
steam, B. T. U. ..-..-............... 66 300 288100 133300 81 40 324800 -..--. 231'2
23 Boiler efficiency, per cent.............. 596 5.-5 M8 840 8 ....... 4
24 Heat equivalent of I. H. P. per min-
ute, B. T. U........................ 6,600 28,450 9,750 5,170 27,500 5,840 21,80
25 Ratio of heat values of I. H. P. and
of total steam, per cent ............ 9.96 9.88 7.3 6.34 & 46 ........ 25
26 Ratio of heat values of I. H. P. and
of oil, per cent....................... 5.93 5.48 4.15 405 6.33 5.1 L
27 Heat equivalent of W. H. P. per min-
ute, B. T. U......................... 5,410 12,190 6,240 1,400 13,500 3,250 9,1
28 Ratio of heat values of W. H. P. and
of total steam, per cent.....-..... &16 4.23 468 1.72 416 ........ 400
29 Ratio of heat values of W. H. P. and
of oil, percent ..................... 4.85 2.35 2.6 L & 11 2.84 2.22
30 Duty in million foot-pounds per 1,000
pounds of steam ................... 72.1 34. 40.7 150 338 ........ 3.9
31 Duty in million foot-pounds per mil-
lion B. T. U. in fuel ............... 37.8 18 3 20 7 & 5 24. 2 22.1 17. 3
32 Cost of fuel oil per barrel of 42 gallons,
cents ............................... 235 35 35 35 35 35 35
33 Cost of fuel oil per hour, cents...... f 238 178. 4 80 6 43.8 14.4 3 3 146.3
1 025.7 I
34 Water pumped, gallons per minute.. 32,560 70,290 51, 830 27,660 41,820 32,030 30, 8
35 Cost of fuel for raising 1,000,000 gal- J 78 2.61 2.31 57 L 97 2. 16 2.8
3 lbns foot cents .................... o.8
6 ost of fuel to raise 1 acre-foot 1 foot, R. 26 85 75 82 .6 AO
I cents................................ 0.28 -
37 Cost of fuel to raise 2 acre-feet 20 feet, : 10 M 0 73 Ns 28 a
S cents ................................ o0 7 6
38 Cost of fuel to raise 2 acre-feet 20 feet, 21.7 ? 6 3 10. 7 7 .1 bL
Sat 80 cents per barrel, cents......... 23.4 46 43 7 7 4
Cost of fuel to raise 1 acre-foot of n4 138 4 & 10. a t 6 2.
Water to surface, cents.............. o4 3 -8

Tandem compound condensing Corliss. I Electrically driven.
b Simple condens ng Corlies. a Three-yllnder vertical.
c Simple noncondensing slide valve. a Second test, see page 52.
4 Simple noncondens ng Corliss. y Cycloldal rotary.
STriple-expaneson condensing, vertical. I Horizontal fire tube.

p







57


Summary of results of tests.


Plant number.


11 12

Crowley
Sax- iFarm-
by's ing Co.'s
plant. plant.


Grand
Canal,
new
plant


(a)
452.3
Cent.
31L65
85.65
306.8

67.89
Open.
(A)
153.4
188& 5
242.2

18 58

1256
2.11

1L 1

L 47

2.14
-17,834

197,970
129.6

134,200
67. 9

19,185

14.3

97

13,013

9 70

6.57

78.16

5L 14

45
95.1-
38,445
L30

.424

16.96

18.84

13.43


8 9


13 14 15 16 17 17

South Alg;er Nw New Main a n No.
South A ers i Orlzans Orleans Mai _Man
Side ri I OrIzans Orlans T plant plont,
drain- dran- drainage drainage Neches Ne ces
age statin sNen hes eces
agee age station staticn Canal. Canal.
wheel. plant. No. 3. No. 7.
I I


Abbott
Bros.,
lower
farm.


(c)
122.2
Cent.
15.4
29.0
502

41. 9
Closed.
32

75.1
189. 0
194

1L5

13.91
1.54

8.04

3.95

9.61
19,500

156,800
105.6

108.000
68.9















35
53. 9
13,000
4.52

1.48

59

83.5

22.8


10


Wes-
son's
plant.


(C)
7L 6
Cent.
14.2
2.16
348

5.0
None.
(0)
84.0
88.0
87


12.87
.74

3.90

3.27

67. 2
19,500

76,000
43.0

48,400
63. 7

3,040

6.27

4.0

148

.31

.19

2.67

1.51

52.5
39.1
967
47. 4

15.45

618

589

21. 4


(c)
30.7
Cent.
15. 3
3.66
6.33

208
None.
(1)

98.0
73.5
62


12.36
.55

2.88

5.62

27.27
19,500

56,240
30.0

34,300
61.0

1,300

3.80

2.32

268

.78

.48

6.96

3.73

52.5
28. 9
1,642
19 2

6.27

251

225

95.9


(h) 1


(C)
28.7
Rotary
15.7
4.84
8.63

30.1
None.
(I)
79. 3
82.0
51


12.61
.52

2.74

5.73

19.02
19,500

53,400
29.6

33,500
62.8

1,210

3.61

2.27

366

1.10

.69

9.65

5.34

40
21
2,172
10.21

3.34

134

156

52.4


,)
3
4


k Water tube.
I Locomotive type.
a Bas!s 34.5 pounds from and at 212 OF.
SHeater in use.


o Heater not in use.
P Coal, prices based on ton.
9 Reckoned from temperature of feed.


(c)
9.68
Wheel.
2.7
14.3
4.20

434
None.











.........






.........

S.........









i






I
.........














.........


(e) (f) (g)
193.6 ......... 90.6 '
Cent. ......... Cent.
6.8 14.31 13.4
130.5 ......... 30.5
98 8......... 46.2

51.0 ......... 51.0
Closed. I
Closed. ......... .... .....

140.3 ......... .........
140.6 - -
19 2 ........ .........
191 I ---------

......... ......... ......... ,

1L 03 ..................
L 91 ......... ........

10.0 ..................

3.1 i......... p.83 1b.

6.07 I......... 1.67 b.
19,500 ........ 14,374

103.7 ...............


Si ,
106,500 ......... .',
54.6 .......... .........

8,200 ......... 3,840

7.68 ....... .......

4.211......... 20.75

4,190 ......... 1,960

3.93 ........ ........

2.15 ......... 10.6

31.4 ......... .........

16.7 ......... 82.4

78 ......... 80
149.2 ......... 30.9
58,600 ......... 13,700
6.3.5 ......... 2.8

2.08 2.18 .859

83 ...... .. .34

43.4 ......... 11.6

14.1 ......... .........


(a)
657.7
( )
31.62
152.9
547. 9

83.3
Open.
(k')

140.0
199
434

8.32

13. 14
3. 62

19.04

1.74

2.09
18,790

357,780
241. 4

241,500
67. 5

27,900

11.55

7.8

23,200

9.61

6.5

75. 4

50.05

65
236
68,620
1.81

.5-56

22.24

17.11


( a)
32.01
291.6
1,055.7

Open.

140






6.33

33.23


1.89
18,790

624,400







.......

; 44,772


7. 16


55. 8

65
412
131,220
1. 63

.50

20.05

16.4










compute tne results, in most cases, on a neat Dasis. Iins was mao..
possible by the fact that the fuel was crude oil. The heat valt eoZ
oil from the Jennings field was obtained from experiments wit:
Parr calorimeter at Tulane University. The results were confined.!
by information obtained from many sources, and as a result te
heat value of 19,500 British thermal units per pound of oil was
where not otherwise stated. Attention has already been called ,
the presence of water in some of the oil used and to the uncertain!ij
as to its amount. It is important that the water in crude oil 1'"
allowed sufficient time to settle and to be drawn off from the bottom:
of supply tanks. The loss due to water intimately mixed with the
oil may be enormous, even when no trouble is experienced by having,::
the fires put out. Low boiler efficiency may be due to several causes,
among which may be named: (1) Kind of burner used; (2) ar&-
rangement of fire-brick checkerwork to receive the impact of th6e
flame; (3) proportions of boiler, particularly the heating' surface
per boiler horsepower; (4) water intimately mixed with the' fuel oil 'J
and (5) too great an excess of air. :I
The amount of steam used by burners to spray the oil varies from:i
3 to 8 per cent, while in exceptional cases it may run as. high as 12 or .
possibly 15 per cent. The average burner will probably use 6 per '
cent of the total steam in this way. The small pipes used to conduct 'j
steam to burners present considerable condensing surface, so that the' 'I
steam entering burners must contain a large percentage of moisturel .:
Latent heat is required to convert the water intosteam and more ;1
heat to raise the steam to the furnace temperature, while the steam
enters the flue at the temperature of the gases formed by combus-
tion. The more steam used by the burners, the less the amount to
give up its energy as indicated horsepower and the greater the
amount of heat lost in the furnace. Extensive tests conducted else-
where have shown conclusively that the arrangement of the fire-brick
checkerwork in a furnace where fuel oil is burned has a marked
effect on efficiency. Attention has already been called to the fact
that the boiler which showed the best efficiency had the smallest
amount of heating surface per boiler horsepower. The fact has
also been noted that two boilers of the same type, those of the
Acadia plant and of Grand Canal, and of nearly the same size, gave
widely varying efficiencies. The difference is chiefly accounted for
by the amount of water in the oil.
The efficiencies of the boilers tested were remarkably low; in only
one case did the efficiency exceed 70 per cent. The Acadia plant gave





59


nearly 75 .per cent, but in this respect it stands alone, as the next
highest was less than 70, and in a few cases efficiencies approximating
55 per cent were obtained. Many of the boilers tested were designed
for using wood as fuel, while the others were intended for coal. It
seems probable that in many cases the heating surface is too large
for using oil economically. Another source of loss is in too liberal a
supply of draft area. A large supply of oxygen is absolutely neces-
sary, but the draft which corresponds to highest economy, other
things being equal, is that which is just sufficient to prevent smoke.
It is a very simple process to cut down draft area until smoke appears,
and then to increase it until the point is reached where smoke disap-
pears. However, this loss is too often overlooked.
The heat to produce the steam is reckoned from the temperature of
feed, assuming dry and saturated steam. The error involved is
small; this error is certainly less than that involved in measuring
the discharge from the pumps.
Indicated horsepower and water horsepower were both reduced to
the heat basis. By multiplying horsepower per minute by 42.42 the
equivalent British thermal units are obtained.
Having computed these quantities, it is possible to locate losses in
the plant. In this way boiler efficiency, the percentage of heat in
total steam, appearing as indicated horsepower, and the percentage
of heat equivalent of water horsepower to that in the oil, to that in
total steam, and to the indicated horsepower, all become known.
The mechanical efficiencies of engine, transmission, and pump vary
within wide limits. .It is impossible to compute the efficiencies of
pumps without assuming the mechanical efficiencies of the engines,
which will probably range from 90 to 93 per cent. Where pumps are
not directly connected, as in every case except the Abbeville plant,
the Algiers drainage plant, and the Neches plant, the efficiency of
transmission must also be assumed; the probable value will range
from.90 to 95 per cent.
The final comparison of pumping plants must be made on a
financial basis. In designing a pumping plant for a certain set of
conditions, not only the cost of oil must be considered, but also inter-
est on the investment, depreciation, repairs, and wages. In order to
put the comparison on a practical basis, the cost of plants of different
types was obtained from many sources as well as the cost of operating
plants and distributing water.
Much information regarding the amount of fuel required in
various plants, in addition to that obtained from the tests, was
Secured. It was found that in general the plants tested were typical
of their class with the exception of plant No. 10.
i































located and where the water supply is known to be ample. Tei
actual'lift is to be 20 feet as a maximum.. -
It is assumed that the building will cost the same in any case. The
type of boilers, engines, accessories, and pumps may vary. Prices
and estimates have been obtained from as many sourced as possibltO'I
and specifications carefully studied and compared. It would ma~esi
festly be unfair to state, specifically, the sources of this information,
as nearly all was confidential. The discussion will, therefore, be-con-
fined to a general statement, giving average results of this inquiry.
In making comparisons reliability, running expenses-which include
depreciation and repair, interest on investment, wages, and eost of
fuel-will be considered. A part of the running expenses. ae coa-
stant-that is, they do not vary from year to year, as they are pro-
rated on the investment; they, will be larger as the investment is
larger.
The quantity most liable to fluctuation is the fuel bill. This is a
function of several variables: (1) The price of oil per barrel all
calculations have been based on the use of fuel oil, as it has been
found most economical at present prices in this section. If in the
future the cost of fuel oil should advance from any cause to more
than $1 per barrel, many will return to coal as a fuel, if its present








price is maintained. It has been found that a fair comparison be-
tween the two fuels is on the basis of 3- barrels of oil per ton of
average soft coal. Of course, it costs more for wages to burn coal
than it does for crude oil. (2) The amount of water pumped, which'
will vary considerably in different seasons. (3) The head pumped
against, the amount of the variation of level of the water supply in
some places being as great as 10 to 15 feet. (4) The type of plant.
The first of these variables depends on the market and on proximity
,of the oil field. The second and third vary according to the amount
of rainfall during the irrigating season. The fourth will affect
the amount of the fuel bill according to economy of operating.
To the above plant charges, as they may be called, must be added the
canal expenses. It has been found by examining a great deal of
reliable data that on the average the first cost of right of way, canals,
flumes, and laterals is about $10 per acre irrigated. This would mean
an investment of $90,000 for an acreage of 9,000. Now, capital when
once invested in canals and flumes is no longer convertible into
money, and the rate of interest would therefore have to be larger
than on the plant investment. Six per cent is assumed as a fair basis
for canals and flumes and 5 per cent for the plant. The canal charges
are therefore as follows:
Interest at 6 per cent on $90,000-__-------- ---------- 5, 400
Depreciation, maintenance, repairs, and cost of distributing
water-- ----------------------------_ 000
Total expenses -.-----------_____.- 13,4-00
SExpenses per acre, 13,400-9,000=$1.49, say $1.50.
These figures agree with many actual average cases.
For the purpose %f comparison five types of plants have been
taken: X
Plant No. I, consisting of water-tube boilers, compound condensing
engine, and high-grade centrifugal pump.
Plant No. II, consisting of water-tube boilers, compound condens-
ing engines, and rotary pumps.
Plant No. III, consisting of water-tube boilers, simple condensing
Corliss engine, and centrifugal pumps.
Plant No. IV, comprising what would ordinarily be called a cheap
outfit "-horizontal return tubular boilers, slide-valve noncondens-
ing engines, and cheap centrifugal pumps.
Plant No. V, which is a small well plant, with locomotive type of
boiler, small slide-valve engine, and vertical-shaft centrifugal pump.
Area to be watered by Plant No. V, 150 acres.
Each of the above plants is to be equipped with suitable acces-
sories, such as feed-water heaters, boiler-feed pump, and, in the case
of condensing plants, with vacuum pumps.

























Cost of irrigating per acre 5.-9..-------
There are no canal charges, as the plant belongs to the farm.
This plant corresponds in cost and expense of operatiAg, inchcud ing
cost of fuel, to that tested as plant No. 11.
It is typical of its class and rather above the average. The well is
said to be one of the best in that part of the country. In order -:.-':l
supply 2 acre-feet per acre for 150 acres, the well plant will need tet
be operated ninety days eighteen hours per day. With the lawie.l:il
pump the plants are operated eighty days eighteen hours per day .l.
each case to furnish 2 acre-feet for the 9,000 acres irrigated.
Next consider plant No. IV. This plant has been designed t:oI
meet the demand stated for our big canal plt. It is made up, of :
cheap centrifugal pumps, rope driven from slide-valve engines; the
steam is supplied by horizontal return tubular boilers. Many of this
type were installed in the early years of rice irrigation in Louisiana.
Strange as it may seem, actual figures from estimates show the cost
of installing this plant to be as much as 10 per cent more thanthe cost
of installing a plant of the same capacity but having high-grade
machinery. This is easily explained when we consider that a slide-
valve engine uses from 30 to 40 pounds of steam per indicated horse
power-hour as against 15 to 20 for the compound condensing,
The pump will not have a high efficiency, and this will increase. the
engine horsepower and the size of boilers needed. It takes very little
more fuel to generate steam at 160 to 200 pounds pressure for tihe
compound engine than at 100 for the slide-valve engine; leaving the
pumps and accessories out of consideration, the boiler capacity in the






63

two plants must bear approximately the ratio of 2 to 1. The founda-
tions and settings are also much more expensive for the wasteful
plant.
Taking the average of a number of high-grade plants the total
cost per water horsepower is just about $100, perhaps a trifle less in
some instances. Now, 67,500 gallons per minute pumped against
20 feet of actual elevation is about 340 water horsepower, so that
one proposed plant with high-grade machinery would cost about
$34,000. The slide-valve plant which has been under discussion
would cost 10 per cent more, or $37.400, and the fuel consumption for
the season of eighty days would be about 14.000 barrels of oil.
With the slide-valve engine a greater allowance must be made for
depreciation than for the compound engines. The following assump-
tions are therefore made:
Repairs and depreciation, at 10 per cent------------- $3. 740. t(
Interest, at 5 per cent----------------------------- 1.870.00
Wages of employees ------------------------------- 1.000. 00
Total fixed charges --------------------------- 6. 610. 00
Fixed charges per acre---------------------- .734
Fuel per acre---------------------- .78
Canal charges per acre ------------------------------ 1.50
Total cost of irrigating per acre--------------- 3.01
Plant No. III is now to be considered. This plant has water-tube
boilers, simple condensing Corliss engines, and good centrifugal
pumps. The cost is about $34.000. the same as the compound con-
densing plant. It is a good, reliable, easy running plant, but the
fuel consumption is high, as 8.100 barrels of oil are needed. The bill
of cost is as follows:
Repairs and depreciation, at 8 Ier cent ------------- $2.720. ()
Interest. at S per ent ---------------------------- 1.7. 00
Wages of employees------------------------------- 1.000. 00
Total fixed charges _-----__ ------_---_- -5. 420. 00
Fixed charges per acre--------- .602
Fuel per acre _--------------------_--- ------ _--.45
Canal charges per acre ------------------------------1. 3)
Total cost of irrigating ler acre----- 2.55
Plant No. II is in actual operation. The cost assumed is the price
for the machinery at the present time. The cost is 20 per cent greater
Than for Plant No. I. The outfit is made up of water-tube boilers
and high-grade rotary pumps. driven by compound condensing en-
gines. The increase in cost is due to the rotary pumps. It will be
seen later that under the conditions assumed this increase in cost

















Total fixed charges -----------------_--- 6.. ,46 00 .':
Fixed charges per acre -------- ------------- 72
Fuel cost per acre ------__--------------------------- .21
Canal charges ___ ___------__---__--------- --1.50
Total cost of irrigation per acre .---------------- 2.43
Plant No. I is now to be considered. It is made up 9f water-tuWl:::
boilers carrying 160 to 200 pounds; high-pressure compound con:
densing engines, having a steam economy of 15 pounds or less. perif:i:
indicated horsepower hour. These engines are direct-connected to
well-designed centrifugal pumps having a guaranteed efficiency of 0,.
per cent at full load and proper speed. A fuel consumption ofhi
4,500 barrels of oil is assumed for a season when the plant is to be-;:`
operated eighteen hours each day for eighty days.
As already stated, the cost of this plant erected and ready for opta
eration is $34,000. The running expenses would be as follows:
Repairs and depreciation at 8 per cent ------------- $2, 720. 00
Interest at 5 per cent ------------------ 1,700.00
Wages of employees ------------------------ -1,000. 00
Total fixed charges ------ ---------- 5,420.00
Fixed charges per acre----- ------------------ .60
Fuel per acre ---------------------------- .25
Canal charges ------------------------------------ 1.50
Total cost of irrigating per acre------------- 2.35 :
There are two other types of plants to be mentioned, neither of
which, so far as the writer knows, has been used for rice irrigation.
The first of these consists of an outfit having centrifugal pumps direct-
connected to steam turbines, the steam to be supplied by water-tube
boilers. The guaranteed duty is 78,000,000 foot-pounds of work per
1,000 pounds of dry steam supplied at the turbine throttle, which is I:
about the same as for the compound engine-centrifugal pump plant.
The price of this outfit is, however, 20 per cent in excess of that of
Plant No, I, or about equal to that of Plant No. II with no better
economy than Plant No. I. This consideration alone would suffice t-
exclude using a turbine plant. There are other considerations which
will confirm this decision. In order to operate a centrifugal pump .
economically against a head fluctuating between 10 and 20 feet it I





65


would be necessary to vary the speed. The steam turbine is essen-
tially a high-speed machine, and the pumps suitable for high lifts.
Slow speeds can only be had at a great sacrifice of economy. It might
be possible to gear down a steam turbine to drive a rotary pump, but
the transmission losses would probably be so large as to make the plan
impracticable.
The engineers of the rice district are altogether unacquainted with
the operation of turbines; for this reason it would be unwise to
intrust the operation of a turbine plant to any but the very best
of stationary engineers. This would probably result in an increase in
wages for plant operation.
The other type to be mentioned is the producer gas-engine outfit.
This engine is the latest development in the science of power genera-
tion. Plants are being installed under a guarantee of furnishing a
brake horsepower hour on 1.25 pounds of anthracite coal. The total
efficiency, or ratio of heat equivalent of developed horsepower to the
heat energy of the coal for this outfit will range from 14 to 20 per
cent, while the compound condensing engine will give about 10 per
cent, disregarding steam used by burners and accessories. The cost
of the producer plant would be nearly twice as great as the cost of
Plant No. I. The price of fuel oil would have to advance consid-
erably above present rates before the comparison of this plant with
those of the better types already considered would be of interest.
Furthermore, the gas engine is likely to be less reliable in operation
than is the steam engine, and it is less familiar to the men who would
have to run the plants. For intermittent operation, with the plant
laid by for three-fourths of the year, the producer gas plant is not
well suited. For these reasons this plant will not be further con-
sidered.
It will now be of interest to compare the cost of irrigating per acre
with these various plants.
The first case to be examined is the cost of irrigating a farm of
150 acres by means of a well plant and by taking water from a canal
company. In many sections the two alternatives are offered, while
in other places water must be obtained from wells. In the latter
case the only question of interest is whether the farmer can afford to
raise rice at the cost of installing and operating a well plant. As-
sume an 8-barrel crop and that the average price of rice is $3 per
barrel. In case water is taken from a canal system, the charges of
the canal company will be X) 8 X $3 = $4.80 per acre. With rice
selling at $2.50 per barrel the amount paid the canal company
would amount to -~ X 8 X $2.50 = $4.
When the farmer raises a 10-barrel crop, and the price is $3 per
barrel, the cost will amount to $6, while if the price of rice is $2.50,
the 10-barrel crop will cost $5 to irrigate from a canal.
25844-No. 183-07 ---5












assumed. In general, it may be said that 8 barrels is nearer the::..
average yield than is 10 barrels. Wells are uncertain, and in many
cases their lives are short. With the conditions as assumed, the
desirability of using one method or the other would be dependent on
the yield, the price of rice, and the amount of flood water needed.
It must be remembered that this comparison is based on approxi-
mately 2 acre-feet of water to be supplied per acre. During a season
of plentiful rain the amount of water pumped would be considerably
less than this amount; in this case the well plant would not need to
be operated for the full ninety days, and therefore the cost of irrigat-
ing would be reduced, while if water is taken from a canal the cost is,
independent of the amount used. During the last two seasons the
rainfall has been so plentiful that the amount of flood water re-
quired has been much less than for the average season. The result
has been that the farmers having good well plants have saved money
by operating their own plants. The conditions assumed in the
problem must. be clearly kept in mind, for the conclusions apply only
for these assumptions. The method is applicable to any set of condi-
tions, and each separate problem may be solved in this way.
Next the canal plants to irrigate 9,000 acres will be considered. In
order to bring the results together so that comparisons can easily be
made, the following table, which is based on an average crop of 8
barrels per acre, has been prepared:

Cost and profits for pumping water for rice irrigation, with an average crop of 8 barrels
per acre.
Fixed Rice at $2.50 per barrel.
charges Cost of Total
Number of Total in- per acre, fuel per costper Amount Percent
plant. vestment, including rofit Profit on profit on
canal acre acre received per acre. 9,000 acres, invest-
charges. per acr. ment.

1 ...... ..--- $124,000 82.10 $0.25 $2.35 $4.00 $1.65 $14,850 12.0
2 ............ 132,000 2.22 .21 2.43 4.00 1.57 14,120 10.7
3........... 124,000 2.10 .45 2.55 4.00 1.45 13,050 10.5
4............ 127,400 2.24 .78 3.01 4.00 .99 8,910 7.0
5. .......... ............ 3.50 2.42 5.92 ............ .................................

Rice at $3 per barrel.
Minimum
price for
Per cent price for
Number of plant. Amount Profit r Profit on profit rice, to
received Pitper 9,000 nvet- make
per acre. acre. acres. meit plant just
pay ex-
penses.

1.......... .......................... .... 4.80 $2.45 $22,050 17.8 $1.47
2 ........................................ 4.80 2.37 21,330 16.25 1.52
3........................................ 4.80 2.25 20,250 16.3 1.59
4........................................ 4.80 1.79 16,110 12.6 1.88

From the above discussion it is evident that under the assumed
conditions Plant No. I would be the best investment. It should






67


be noted, however, that Plants Nos. I and II will be equally good
investments when fuel oil costs about $1.50 per barrel, as the cost
of irrigating an acre with either will be $2.85. With fuel oil at $1
per barrel the total cost per acre of irrigating with Plant No. I
will be $2.60, while with Plant No. II it will be $2.64. The cost of
this plant is $34,000 and the cost of the right of way, canals, flumes.
and laterals would be $90,000, making a total investment of $124,000
for Plants Nos. I and III, $132,000 for Plant No. II, and $127,400
for Plant No. IV. Total acreage to be irrigated, 9,000.
In order to cover conditions too wide to be included in the above
discussion without hopeless entanglement in details, curves have been
platted showing, besides the quantities already discussed, the fol-
lowing varying conditions (figs. 3 and 4) :
(1) Cost of fuel oil per barrel:
(2) Inches in depth of water supplied to irrigated lands;
(3) Head pumped against;
(4) Type of plant; and
(5) Acres irrigated.
The first three of these variables are almost entirely beyond our
control. We may select by means of this diagram the type of plant
most suited to a given set of requirements. The plants are all as-
sumed to be equally reliable in operation. The conditions are not
wide enough to cover all possible cases; for instance, the head pumped
against may be considerably in excess of 20 feet. There are plants
in Texas which lift the water CO feet or more. The cost of canals
and flumes will be a minimum in a level country having just the
desirable slope to the land to make the distribution of water a simple
problem, while the cost will be a maximum where the country is
rolling and numerous flumes and high canal embankments are re-
quired.
While all deductions are based on the average conditions found in
the plants tested, the methods can be applied to any set of conditions.
The second plat shows the profits and losses of canal companies
under the following varying conditions:
(1) The market price of rice per barrel;
(2) Total cost of irrigation per acre; and
(3) Yield in sacks per acre.
The first of the above variables is beyond our control. The other
plat shows the conditions determining the cost of irrigating. The
yield depends on (1) the climatic conditions of the season. (2) the
Quality of the land, (3) the energy and skill of the farmer cultivating
the rice crop, and (4) the reliability of water supply.
In this plat the profit or loss per acre is shown and, assuming a
crop of 9,000 acres and an investment of $124,000 by the canal com-
pany, total gain or loss and the percentage on investment have been
laid off on separate scales.














ecL Umy.
economy.


400


TFL I au A e LAr ir tA wa i CLait t& ilaUEIlLy anIl unan
These are in no way opposed to each other, but, on


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30


40


Fro. 3.-Diagram showing profits and losses from Plant No. I.

contrary,. are both attributes of high-grade machinery. The propor-
tions must be such that an accident to a portion of the machinery will
not paralyze the entire plant. There should be at least two units, and
the figures given in this discussion have all been based on this assump-
tion.








69


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COST OF FUEL PER ACRE
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. 4.Diagram sowing cost of fuel and total cost o irrigation per acre under ing conditions.
FIo. 4.-Diagram showing cost of fuel and total cost of irrigation per acre under v'nl trying conditions.


1


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It is estimated that nearly one-half of the area of Louisiana is
alluvial formation, having been deposited in recent geological a
by the great river. Like all alluvial soil it is of great fertility, and
the semitropical climate makes this land, when properly drai :i
very productive; Sugar cane, cotton, and rice are the staple cropC-
Along the Mississippi the elevation of the land is sufficiently gr
to make natural drainage practicable. The land slopes back frol
the river to the swamps. The strip of land on both sides that ..i
drained by natural slope and cultivated varies in width from 1 to 9
miles. In many places the strip has been widened by artificial drai- 2!
age, and nearly every plantation could be increased in area by one-:i
third in this way. These conditions obtain not only along the Mit::4
,issippi, but also along many of its tributaries and outlets.
In the southern part of the State are vast tracts of the richestle j
lands, too low to be successfully cultivated without the aid of arti-':i,
ficial drainage except in seasons of unusually small rainfall. Colonies :i
have already started to reclaim this land in some sections and in:
numerous projects are now under consideration having for their::;:
object the reclamation and settlement of these lands, the level of
which is nearly the same as the Gulf of Mexico. The general plan ::i
is to build a protection levee around a tract of land.and by means of ]
open ditches to drain the water to a pumping plant where it is 3!i
pumped out over the levee. It is essential that the levees protecting,,.j!
reclaimed land be of sufficient height to keep out the backwater due i
to storms on the Gulf. A strong wind from the south often raisesl'i
the water level several feet so that tracts near the coast require :
levees of considerable size.
The problem is similar to that of reclaiming the low lands of Hol-
land, with the exception that in Louisiana the lands already reclaimed
and those to receive attention in the near future are relatively much
higher than some of the lands reclaimed in Holland. The reason
is obvious. Lands in general in this section have not yet advanced
in value sufficiently to make it desirable to reclaim any but the highest
and most favorably located. However, the movement is well started,
and the next few years will witness great progress along these lines.
A pumping plant to remove drainage water is of the greatest im-
portance in these undertakings.
Louisiana produces more sugar cane than any other State in the
Union. The alluvial lands along the Mississippi and in the southern
part of the State are extensively planted to sugar cane, and nowhere
is drainage of greater importance. Rainfalls of from 5 to 7 inches are
not at all uncommon, and such a downpour flooding the fields of cane,


"*:.1







even temporarily, may inflict an injury on the soil that will reduce the
yield, even if the cane is not directly injured. Open ditches are used
and the drainage pumped over the levee protecting the rear of the
plantation into the swamp.
A great variety of pumps are used. The height through which the
water has to be elevated is small and the volumes large. The average
lift varies from 3 or less to 10 feet, but is usually nearer the lower
figure than the higher. Some of the pumping plants are extensive in
size and have thoroughly modern machinery.
The prime requisites for these plants are (1) reliability and (2)
economy of operation.
The first is absolutely essential; the second is desirable. but under
the conditions is not easy of attainment.
The pumping plants used to drain plantations are operated inter-
mittently; when a rain comes steam is raised and the pump started.
The run may be for a few hours or. in exceptional cases, for several
days, depending on the precipitation and consequent run-off. With
the low lifts these pumps are not expected to be very efficient. Among
the types used for drainage may be mentioned the centrifugal, rotary,
and centrifugal with a wooden casing, the Dutch drainage wheel, and
occasionally a wheel with blades that scoop up the water and dis-
charge it near the shaft.
The centrifugal pump with a wooden casing is-particularly suited
to elevating large volumes of water through small heights. The only
metal parts are the pulley, shaft, bearings, and impeller. It is
cheaper than all-metal pumps, and has been extensively used on
sugar plantations. A test of one of these pumps used for irrigating
is given under the head of plant No. 4. It is believed that the
efficiency found in that test is unusually low on account of the
inefficiency of the rope drive.
Another type of pu1mp that has long been justly popular for drain-
age work is the Dutch drainage wheel. It is probably the most effi-
cient pump built for low lifts, and is capable of moving large vol-
umes of water. A test of one of these wheels is described as plant
No. 12. The efficiency for lifts of less than 3 feet was between 35
and 50 per cent. This form of drainage wheel is successfully used
for lifts up to one-fourth of the diameter of the wheel. The diam-
eter usually ranges from 25 to 30 feet.
As these plants are operated at very irregular intervals, it is not
necessary that the boilers and engines be of the highest grade, as it
would be impossible to get a high efficiency even from the best and
most economical outfit under the circumstances. The machinery
for such plants nmutt be good and reliable, and not at all complicated.
so that it may be safely intrusted to men who are not skilled engi-
neers, as only on a few of the largest plantations is the drainage









































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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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