Experiments on the metabolism of matter and energy in the human body, 1898-1900

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Title:
Experiments on the metabolism of matter and energy in the human body, 1898-1900
Series Title:
United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Bulletin
Physical Description:
147 p. : illus. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Atwater, W. O ( Wilbur Olin ), 1844-1907
Benedict, Francis Gano, 1870-1957
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
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Subjects / Keywords:
Metabolism   ( lcsh )
Human body   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
By W.O. Atwater, PH. D., and F.G. Benedict, PH. D., with the cooperation of A.P. Bryant, M.S., and A.W. Smith, M.S., and J.F. Snell, PH. D.

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University of Florida
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oclc - 16464660
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lcc - QP171 .A82
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AA00014570:00001


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SU. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

S OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS-BULL 9EAo. LO 0

A. C. TRUE, Directo 1%


S SEP 196 5



EXPERIMENT b ^


ON THE


Metabolisml of Matter and Ei



F F-0E T.
1890-


BY

U.S. DEPOSITORY
k 1 1


in the Human Body,


900.


. 0. ATWATER, PH. D., AND F. G. BENEDICT, PH. D.,


WITH THE COOPERATION OF


BRYANT, M. S., A. W. SMITH, M. S.,


AND J. F. SNELL, PH. D.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1902.


A. P.


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OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.


A. C. TRUE, Ph. D.-Director.
E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D.-Assistant Director.
C. F. LANGWORTHY, Ph. D.-Editor and Expert on Foods and Animal Production.


NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS, MIDDLETOWN, CONN.

W. O. ATWATER, Ph. D.-Special Agent in Charge.
C. D. WOODS, B. S.--Special Agent at Orono, Me.
F. G. BENEDICT, Ph. D.-Physiological Chemist.
A. P. BRYANT, MI. S.-Editorial Assistant.
R. D. MILNER, Ph. B.-Assistant.
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.
Washingtm, cC.. Dcjibkr 15. 1901.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a general report of 13
experiments on the metabolism of matter and energy in the human
body, by W. O. Atwater. special agent in charge of nutrition investi-
gations, and F. G. Benedict. expert in these investigations, with the
cooperation of A. P. Bryant. A. W. Smith, and J. F. Snell. Valuable
aid was also rendered by Messrs. P. B. Hawk. H. 31. Burr. E. Oster-
berg, and others. In addition to the details of these 13 experiments
on the general subject of the metabolism of matter and energy a con-
siderable number of general deductions are drawn from the experi-
ments as a whole.
These experiments form part of a series which is in progress at Mid-
dietown, Conn.. in cooperation with the Storrs Agricultural Experi-
ment Station and Wesleyan University. They were made with the
Atwater-Rosa respiration calorimeter. The apparatus and the earlier
experiments have been described in previous bulletins of this Office
(Nos. 44. 63. and 69). Such experiments as those reported have for
their ultimate object the study of the fundamental laws of nutrition.
The results obtained are of such a nature as to warrant the conclusion
that the respiration calorimeter is a satisfactory instrument of preci-
sion. The experiments here described, like those previously reported.
yield important data regarding the transformation and the conserva-
tion of energy in the body, the demands of the body for nutrient.
the effects of muscular work upon that demand. and the nutritive values
of different nutrients and different foods.
The report is submitted with the recommendation that it be published
as Bulletin No. 109 of this Office.
Respectfully. A. C. TRUE.
D r -ctr.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary qf Aqricl ltur:.













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CONTENTS.


Page.
Introduction .... ............................--- ....... ..---- .----.----- 7
The questions studied ... ..........--- ...............-------------------- 7
General plan of the apparatus and the experiments ...--------------......- 9
Test experim ents--... ..................................--------- ----- --.-- .
Sampling of the air current for analysis .......---.--....------------------- 14
Experiments with men ------....................----------------------------------...................-- 15
Preparation, sampling, and analysis of foods ...................-------- 16
Determination of nitrates and nitrites in the water of perspiration-...---. 1
Record of body weight, temperature, and pulse rate .--.......---... .... 19
Measurement of muscular work ....................................... 20
Details of the experiments .--------...-----------.----------------------- 21
Metabolism experiment No. 11 ........................................ 21
Metabolism experiment No. 13 --------............--...--...--....... ... 2
Metabolism experiment No. 14 ...................................... 40
Metabolism experiment No. 21 ..----.......--..--.... -----............ 51
Metabolism experiment Nos. 23 and 24 --................................ 58
Metabolism experiment No. 25 ....----------------------------.-----. 71
Metabolism experiment Nos. 26 and 28 --...-------------.----------.-. SO
Metabolism experiment Nos. 29 and 31 .......-.--------.--...-- ---.... 94
Metabolism experiment Nos. 32 and 34 --.....----------.... ----------. 107
Summary and results of the experiments.............-------------....---- ..--..... 121
Scope of the investigations ----....--. ..-........--- .-----............ 121
Summary and results of individual experiments .---....---..----------- 125
Food materials supplied and consumed, and the difference in demand by
men at rest and at work ............................................ 128
* Elimination of water ................................................ 131
Elimination of carbon dioxide .--...- ..---- ..--------....--- .......... 136
Elimination of energy ................................................ 138
Income and outgo of energy .........-..... ..... ....................... 44
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METABOLISM OF MATTER AND ENERGY IN THE
HUMAN BODY.


INTRODUCTION.

The present report gives the details of 13 experiments upon the
metabolism of matter and energy in the human body, made at Middle-
town, Conn., under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, in cooperation with the Storrs Experiment Station and Wesleyan
University. These experiments, which are in continuation of those
reported in earlier bulletins of this series,a were carried on during the
years 1898 to 1900, with the same respiration calorimeter b and by the
same methods. In addition to the experiments reported in the present
bulletin, 11 other experiments, which for convenience of reference
have been numbered consecutively with these, were made with the
same apparatus at Wesleyan University, during the same years, in
connection with an independent investigation, and are reported
elsewhere.(
QUESTIONS STUDIED.

As has already been explained, the ultimate purpose of experiments
with men in the respiration calorimeter is the study of some of the
fundamental laws of nutrition, and the whole inquiry is based upon
the principle that the chemical and physical changes which take place
within the body, and to which the general term "metabolism" is ap-
plied, occur in obedience to the laws of the conservation of matter and
of energy.
No one doubts that the law of the conservation of matter governs
its metabolism in the living organism, and it is generally believed that
the law of the conservation of energy likewise applies to the metab-
olism of energy. Quantitative determinations of the applications of
this law are, however, desirable.
*U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 44, 63, and 69.
b U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 44 and 63. See also Conn.
(Storrs) Sta. Rpt. 1897, p. 212, and Physical Review, 9 (1899), pp. 130-163, 214-251.
Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. VIII, Sixth Memoir, 1902.




8

The main subjects proposed for study have been the following:
(1) The application of the law of the conservation of energy in
body. An experimental demonstration of the action of this law was ;:::
the first object sought. The. fundamental principle once proven, thi-.:
apparatus and methods can be utilized for the study of some of the..
fundamental problems of the science of food and nutrition. :
(2) The quantities of nutrients and energy metabolized by men under
different conditions of rest and muscular and mental exercise.
(3) The amounts of nutrients and energy required for internal phys-
iological work, as that of respiration, circulation, and digestion.
(4) The relation between external muscular work and the nutrients
and energy metabolized in its performance. This general problem
includes the narrower one of the power of the body as a machine to
convert the potential energy of its food and of its previously stored
material into muscular energy. Viewed from one standpoint this
latter phase of the subject is the same as that to which the expression
"the animal body as a prime motor" is frequently applied. From
another standpoint it includes the comparison of the animal body with
steam engines and other sources of power in respect to the economy
with which the energy of fuel is utilized, the fuel in the case of the
animal being its food, while in the case of the ordinary machine it is
coal, oil, gas. or wood.
(5) The transformations of nutrients and energy in mental work.
(6) The capacities of the different classes of nutrients to supply the
body with material and energy, the proportions in which they may
replace one another in building tissue or yielding energy as heat or as
muscular work, and their power to protect one another and the mate-
rials of the body from consumption.
(7) The nutritive values of food materials and the fitting of food to
the needs of the consumer.
Of the above problems all have received considerable attention
except No. 5, which has to do with food and mental work. This has I
as yet been made the especial subject of only one experiment. It is
hoped that the study of this problem may also be entered upon in the
not too distant future. Besides the problems thus detailed a number
of others have received attention. Among these are:
(8) The digestion and assimilation of food materials.
(9) The quantities of carbon dioxid, water, nitrogen, and other
materials excreted by the body as well as the energy given off -as heat .-
and as external muscular work under different conditions of work and
rest, together with the rates of elimination at different periods of the
day and night. In this connection the respiratory quotient has also
been considered.
(10) The temperature of the body and its variation during different
periods of the day and under different conditions of work, rest, and
sleep.







(11) The need of ventilation in so far as the comfort of the person
under experiment is affected by the proportions of carbon dioxid,
and water in the air in the respiration chamber.
(12) Finally, a large amount of time. thought, and labor has been
devoted to the elaboration and testing of the apparatus and methods
of experimenting. Five years were thus used before the first actual
experiments with men were made, and more or less attention is being
constantly given to the same subject.

GENERAL PLAN OF THE APPARATUS AND THE EXPERIMENTS.

The description of the apparatus and the methods of manipulation
of the experiments have been given with sufficient detail in the former
publications already referred to. It is sufficient to say in this connec-
tion that the essential features of the apparatus are a chamber large
enough to permit a man to stand up and lie down at full length: appli-
ances for measuring and analyzing a ventilating current of air: arrange-
ments for passing food and drink into the chamber and removing the
solid and liquid excreta. all of which were carefully weighed and
sampled for analysis: and devices for determining the heat given off
from the body of the man in the chamber, and, in work experiments.
for determining the heat equivalent of the muscular work done.
Measurements were made of income and outgo of both matter and
energy in the man's body during the period of the experiment. The
chemical analyses included determinations of the total quantities of
the nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, water, and mineral matter of food,
drink, and respiratory and excretory products. In obtaining the
income and outgo of energy, the potential energy of the food eaten
and of the solid and liquid excreta was determined by means of the
bomb calorimeter, and the kinetic energy given off by the subject
was measured by the respiration calorimeter and accessory apparatus.

TEST EXPERIMENTS.

Before the respiration calorimeter can be used in such experiment-
ing, its accuracy, both as a respiration apparatus and as a calorimeter,
should be demonstrated. Two methods have been adopted for testing
its accuracy; first, by generating known amounts of heat electrically,
and, second, by burning known amounts of pure ethyl alcohol within the
respiration chamber and measuring the heat and the chemical products
of combustion. The mean of five electrical tests of the apparatus,
made previous to the experiments here reported, showed a variation
between the heat actually measured and that generated so small as
to be far within the limits of experimental error. The mean of nine
experiments, in which known amounts of ethyl alcohol were burned
Within the chamber of the calorimeter and the carbon dioxid, water,





10 h..

and heat given off were determined, showed variations betwee-l
observed and the theoretical amounts no greater than are o .
obtained by the usual analytical methods employed in the lao .
The detailed description of the electrical and alcohol test expert il
may be found in earlier bulletins of this series."
Without going further into the details of the experiments it
suffice to say that they were conducted in the same way as the similar
test experiments previously reported, by burning within the caloriimW
eter a known amount of ethyl alcohol in a specially arranged lam
and determining the amounts of carbon dioxid, water, and heat givea
off. The air current which passed through the chamber and the con-.
ditions of the experiment were very similar to those when a man was
confined within the apparatus.
As stated above, the electrical tests were all made previous to the
time of the experiments here reported. Of the other test experi-:
ments, the details of which have already been published, one, No. 9,:
was made in the late spring of 1898, at the close of the second of thi
metabolism experiments here described. During the summer of 1898'
no experiments were carried on with the respiration calorimeter. The:
first test experiment of the fall commenced November 3, 1898. The
agreements between the determined and theoretical amounts of carbon
dioxid, water, and heat, while not as close as had sometimes been
found, were probably within the limits of experimental error, thus
indicating that the apparatus was in good working condition. Follow-
ing this test came metabolism experiment No. 13, reported in this bul-
letin, which was immediately followed by another test experiment,
No. 11.
About the middle of December, 1898, still another test experiment,-
No. 12, gave results which indicated that the apparatus was in satis-
factory condition, although the measurement of water was not as close
as might be desired. This test was followed by metabolism experi-
ment No. 14, the details of which are given further on. The calorim-
eter was then used for some experiments not reported in this bulletin.
At their close test No. 13 was made, which again showed the apparatus
to be in satisfactory condition, although the water determined was in
excess of the theoretical. Metabolism experiments Nos. 23 and 2B:
followed the completion of test No. 13, and one week after their co"
pletion test No. 14 was made. In this latter test, while the results
of the determinations of carbon dioxid and water given off in the appl
ratus agreed very closely with the theoretical, it was found that thei
heat measured by the calorimeter was 3.2 per cent less than the heat
theoretically given off by the combustion of the alcohol. Test expert-
ment No. 15, made in December, 1899, showed similar agreements ot!
carbon dioxid and water, and disagreement of heat. It was also found,:
aU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 63, pp. 38-74; 69, pp. 8-17.






11


by thermal a tests and electrical tests that the measurement of heat by
the apparatus was not correct. An electrical test made in the early
part of December, 1899, showed a loss of over 3 per cent of the heat
put into the apparatus. A thermal test made at this time showed that
there was trouble with the thermo-electric elements.b The difficulty
apparently lay in a slight short circuit of these at some point, which
interfered with the accuracy of the measurements.
Just when the short circuiting occurred it is impossible to say. The
test experiment preceding metabolism experiments Nos. 23 and 24
showed the apparatus to be in a satisfactory condition. Test experi-
ments made shortly after the close of these experiments showed a dis-
crepancy in the heat measured as compared with that theoretically
given off. There is nothing to indicate whether the trouble occurred
before, during, or at the close of this series of metabolism experi-
ments or in the short interval immediately following. The agreement
of the theoretical energy of the material oxidized in the body and that
measured by the calorimeter in metabolism experiments Nos. 23 and
24 would seem to indicate that the trouble did not occur until the close
of the series. Had it occurred before or during these experiments
the heat as actually determined by the apparatus would doubtless have
been about 3 per cent smaller than the amount which would have been
measured had the apparatus been in its usual condition. This would
make the heat measured by the calorimeter much smaller in amount
than the theoretical heat given off by the oxidation of material in
the body of the subject, the deficiency being larger than has been
found in previous experiments.
Since it is impossible to determine just when the trouble arose, the
details of experiments Nos. 23 and 24 are here given with the values
actually obtained, and the supposition is made that the trouble in
the apparatus occurred after the close of the experiments. The data
are, however, given by which any correction which seems fitting can
be applied. After test experiment No. 15, some repairs were made
in the apparatus, following which came test experiment No. 16. in
which ethyl alcohol was burned in the respiration chamber. In
this test the results obtained were very near the theoretical values
for carbon dioxid and heat, but nearly 4 per cent more water was
found than should have been obtained from the quantity of ethyl
alcohol burned. It was thought best, however, not to delay further
the metabolism experiments of 1899-1900, therefore no other test
experiments were made until April, 1900, at the close of metabolism
experiment No. 34. At this time test experiment No. 17 gave results
very similar to those obtained in the previous test experiment, and
indicated that the measurements of water in the test experiments were


"U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, p. 15.
bU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 63, p. 17.





12

over 4 per cent too large. This excess of water may have been 4u I
to either or.all of several causes. There may have been a small leak::
whereby air from the room was drawn into the ventilating air current-:: ll
at some point beyond the freezer "a for the incoming air; but care-
ful examination failed to reveal any noticeable leak inside the chamber,:
though later experiments implied that there may have been a leak in :i
the valve box," through which the air passed on its way from the
chamber to the meter pump. It is possible that some of the moisture
condensed on the outside of the valve box may have found its way
into the air current. This would increase the amount of water found
by analysis of the outgoing air, but would not materially affect the
determination of either carbon dioxid or heat. There may have been
evaporation of water which had condensed on the absorbers.and walls i
of the chamber before the test began; however, there could not have ::
been sufficient water present to account for all of the excess.
Taking everything into consideration we do not feel warranted in
assuming any definite error in the determination of water in metab-
olismn experiments Nos. 25-34. Such error, if it existed, would not
affect the nitrogen and carbon balance at all and would hardly affect.
the heat balance appreciably. From the figures for test experiments :
Nos. 16 and 17 it will be observed that the excess of water found over.
the theoretical amounted to not far from 1 gram per hour. If we
assume in experiments Nos. 25-34 a leak in the air current sufficient :
to account for about 1 gram of water per hour or 24 grams per day,
the values given in column e of Tables 91, 106, 122, and 138 would be
too large by a corresponding amount, and the figures in columns and
g of these same tables would be 14 calories too large. This amount
would make a maximum error of 0.5 per cent in the heat in the rest
experiments (Nos. 25, 26, and 28) and about 0.3 per cent in the work
experiments (Nos. 29, 31, 32, and 34).
The results of test experiments Nos. 1-9 have already been pub-
lished.b The results of tests Nos. 10-17 are summarized in Table 1,
together with the mean results of tests Nos. 1-9. The proportion of
absolute ethyl alcohol (by weight) in the commercial alcohol burned in
the lamp in the different test experiments was as follows: Test N, .
10. 91.03 per cent; tests Nos. 11-14, 90.85 per cent; and tests Nos.:
15-17, 90.57 per cent.
SU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 63, p. 30...
b U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 63, p. 50; 69, p. 13.





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TABLE 1.-Summary of test experiments in which deatil l'o ho! r'i. ,,roerl in fh. respirr-
fion chamilr.


Carbon dioxide.


.Alc-'ohnl
Duration. burned
in lamp.


qRe-d
quired.


Ratio of
amount
Fund. folun'd to
am, uiint
reuirrrd.


November 3 to 4. 19..........................
Novem ber 1.5 to 1d. 19S" .......................
December 13 to 14 19" .......................
February 24 to 25. 1~9 ......................
March )9 to 31, h 9..........................
December 13 to 14.1'99. ........................
December 19 to 21. 9 ..........................
April 6 to 7.190 ..............................

Total of tests 10 to 17 ...................
Total of tests 1 to 9* ....................
Total ..f tests 1 to 17 ...................


A. in.
35 4-1

*- .. ,

24 )
*52 -ki
37 -P0
2t. 12
Q, 59

2'9 11
:317 1)
r-"6 31


619. 4 1. 07-. 4
4-5. 7 47. -
1. :01.)- 1.73". 9
'25.4 1. 42s.




.......... 9 347.
. ... .. ..
.......... 19.- 9.


Alcohol
Duration. burned.
in lamp.


Water.

Ratio of.

Re- F,-.-l. found to
qu mliredunr

req uirt-d.


November 3 to 4. 1, .........................
November 15 to 16, 19S .......................
December 13 to 14, %9 ......................
February 24 to 2. 199 ........................
March 29 to 31. 199..........................
December 13 to 14. 199 .......................
December 19 to 21. 189 ......................
April 6 to 7.1900 .................. .......

Total of tests 10 to 17 ..................
Total of tets 1 to 9 ....................
S Total of tests 1 to 17 ...................


As. in. F}rrist *TraTf;._.
35 44 6 ,..7 772.5
3:? O 751.'2 '49.
-27 ... A19.4 717.2
24 () 545.7 631.9
52 40 1. Il.6 1. 1.5.7
37 40 2. 4 -J.1
26 12 4>.. .
'9 59 .539. 2 623.

269 11 .......... 6..2 7.6
317 2h) .......... 6. >r .
5.' 31 .......... 12. 2' .4


Hreat.


Alcohol
Duration. burned
in lamp.


Re-
quired.


Ratio -of
amount
Found. found tr.
amount
required.


n. n. G rai ms. ."al ories.
November 3 to 4,1896 ........ ............... 34 44 666.7 .29.
November 15 to 16. 189 ................. .... 35 00 751.2 4.-2.6
December 13 to 14,18 ...................... 27 56 619.4 3.976.9
February 24 to 25, 1899 ........................ 24 ( 545.7 3. 503.6
March 29 to 31, 1899.......................... 52 40 1,001.6 [6.4:30.7]
December 13 to 14,1899....................... 37 40 r5. [5.283.0]
December 19 to 21,1899 ...................... 26 12 43..7 2. 907.9
April 6 to 7,1900 ............................. 29 59 539.2 3.450.9

Total of tests 10to 17b .................. 269 11 .......... 51.3
Total of tests 1 to 9a ................... 317 0 .......... 41.702.
STotal of tests I to17...... ............. 56 31 .......... 655.1
.......... 1


a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, pp. 13-14.
b Omitting the determinations of heat in Nos. 14 and 15.


Date.


10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17


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14

The table shows the duration of the tests, the amount of
alcohol burned in the lamp, and the theoretical amount of ear .
dioxid, water, and heat which would have been produced by the O
bustion of the alcohol as compared with the amounts actually foundi
As previously noted, the agreement between theoretical values andiE.
those actually obtained is, as a rule, very close.

SAMPLING OF THE AIR CURRENT FOR ANALYSIS.

Two methods have been employed for sampling the outgoing current
of air for analysis. After this current of air has left the cooling apps- i
ratus where the major portion of the water has been condensed, small,
samples of about 150 liters each during every six-hour period are drawn
by the aspirators. The details of this method and the formulas used
for calculating and correcting the results are given in a previous-
publication."a
The greatest objections to the use of the aspirators as a methdd of
sampling the air are: (1) The number of corrections for temperature,. ,
barometric pressure, and tension of aqueous vapor which have to be.
made in finding the actual volume of air drawn into the aspirators;
(2) the variations in the speed of the motor driving the meter pump
and, consequently, in the volume of the ventilating air current, these
not being accompanied by corresponding variations in withdrawal of
the sample, and (3) the irregularity with which the sample is drawn.
By means of an automatic device for regulating the speed at which
the water runs out from the aspirators it has been possible of late
to make this rate very uniform. At the same time relatively small
fluctuations might introduce errors. Thus, if the aspirators emptied
more slowly than the normal at a period when the man was giving off
more than the average amount of carbon dioxid, as, for instance, when
he was weighing the "absorbers" or doing other special work, the
measured amount of carbon dioxid, as determined by the aspiratois,:.i''
would be smaller than the amount actually eliminated, and vice versa.
The meter-pump method, briefly described in a previous bulletin,':
affords, theoretically, an almost perfect means of sampling the venti-4
lasting air current. The arrangements for carrying out this method are
as follows: The air from each fiftieth stroke of the pump is collected
alternately in two tin receptacles, from which it is withdrawn by suc-
tion and passed through tubes filled with pumice stone and sulphuric
acid, and with soda lime for the absorption of the water and carbon
dioxid, respectively. In the earlier experiments in which the meter,
pump was used for moving the ventilating air current this method of
sampling had not been perfected. In test experiments Nos. 9-12 the:
UI. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 63, pp.34, 35.
bU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 63, p. 31.






: 15

carbon dioxid as determined in the sample drawn by the meter pump was
slightly nearer the theoretical than the corresponding values obtained
by the aspirators. Variations in the amounts of water as determined
in the samples drawn by the meter pump were a little greater than
those for carbon dioxid. The comparative results obtained by the two
methods in test experiments Nos. 9-12 are shown in the following table:

TABLE 2.-Comparison of determinations of carbon dioxid and water in the ventilating air
current by means of the aspirators and of the meter pmnp.


S Dura-
a tion.




h. m,
9 35 55
10 35 44
11 35 00
12 27 56


Theo-
retical
amount
from
alcohol
burned
in lamp.

Grams.
1,206.9
1,159.8
1,304. 2
1,075.4


Carbon dioxid.
Determined-


By meter pump.


Gra mis.
1,199.2
1. 163. 9
1, 293. 7
1,067.7


P. (l.
99.4
100.3
99.2
99.3


Grams.
1,198.9
1,087.0
1.287.9
1,083.2


P. ct.
99.3
93.7
98.7
100.7


Water.


Theo- Deter
retical
amount
from
alcohol By meter pump.
burned
in lamp.

Grams. Grams. P. ct.
809.3 830.6 102.6
772.5 773. 5 100.1
869. 877. 2 101.0
717.2 705.7 98.4


nined-


By aspirators.


Gramsn. P. ct.
807.9 99.8
739.7 95.8
877.8 100.9
705.0 98.3


There was on the whole but little difference between the results
obtained by the two methods of sampling the ventilating air current,
except in the determinations of water in No. 10. Since the meter
pump theoretically should give a more accurate sample. than the
aspirators, and since the experimental evidence shows that the results
with the pump were at least as accurate and sometimes more so than
those with the aspirators, the determinations of carbon dioxid and
water in the sample drawn by the meter pump were employed in the
calculation of the results of all metabolism experiments made subse-
quent to metabolism experiment No. 11, although check determina-
tions by means of the aspirators were continued during several experi-
ments. In most. of the experiments the discrepancies between the two
methods were so insignificant as to be within the limit of experimental
error, and show that the determination of carbon dioxid and water
may be made with a satisfactory degree of accuracy by either of the
methods.

EXPERIMENTS WITH MEN.

The general plan of the experiments here reported in detail was
much the same as that followed in earlier experiments, the results of
which have been published in former bulletins of this series.a
For the most part the experiments here reported were made in
series, each series comprising three or more experiments which fol-
lowed one another without intermission and without the subject

SU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 44, 63, and 69.





16

leaving the calorimeter. As a rule there was a change of diet m i:
respect to one class of ingredients; for example, the replacement of :i
sugar by an isodynamic amount of fat.
In all cases a preliminary period, usually of four days' uration
preceded each experiment or series of experiments with the subject in
the chamber of the calorimeter. During this preliminary period the i
subject received the same diet as was to be served in the experiment
which would immediately follow. In addition, the excretory products
were collected and analyzed, thus making this period both a digestion
and a nitrogen metabolism experiment. On the evening of the last
day of the preliminary period the subject entered the chamber of the
respiration calorimeter and usually retired at about 11 o'clock. At
about 1 o'clock in the morning the heat measurements were begun in
order to get the calorimeter into normal condition for the commence-
ment of the second period, or the metabolism experiment proper, at
7 o'clock the following morning.
The programme followed during the experiment or series of experi-
ments was arranged beforehand. A copy of it was furnished to the
subject, and copies were also posted in convenient places for the guid-
ance of those outside.

PREPARATION, SAMPLING, AND ANALYSIS OF FOODS.

The method of preparing, sampling, and analyzing the food mate-
rials was the same as that employed in experiments Nos. 9 and 10,
already described."
With the exception of milk, the proper quantity of each kind of
food, either for each meal or for the day, was placed in glass jars pre-
vious to the beginning of the experiment, and materials which might
spoil during the course of the experiment, such as meat and bread,
were thoroughly sterilized. Butter and sugar, in quantity sufficient for
each day, were passed in with the breakfast, and the subject used, as near
as he could judge, the proportions called for by the menu for each meal.
Sufficient bread for the day was usually passed in at breakfast time
in two jars, and as nearly as possible the scheduled amounts used at
each meal. Two or more duplicate jars of each food material, as thus
prepared, were analyzed, the usual determinations being made accord-
ing to the methods already described. The milk was obtained fresh
each day; an aliquot portion was taken for the preparation of a com-
posite sample for analysis, and the proper amounts for each of the three
meals were placed in bottles:
In the following table is shown the percentage composition of the
different food materials used in the thirteen experiments reported
herewith. The values are for. the fresh, edible material as served to
the subject..
aU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, pp. 20-29,88-89.







17


TABLE 3.-Composition of food materials in metabolism experiments Nos. 11, 13, 14, 21,
23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, and 34.


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


2851
2962
2967
3022
3027
3165
3176
3186
3205
2853
2956
2970
3021
3029
3166
3177
3187
3206
2855
2972
3031
3169
3179
3024
3189
3191
3200
3202
2959


2842
2960
2840
3004
3168
3193
2852
2963
2968
3032
3164
3180
3192
3204
2481
3167
3181
3207
2961
2969


Food materials.


Beef, cooked .......
.....do...............
.....do...............
......do ...............
.....do ..............
.....do ................
.....do ................
,.....do ................
.....do ............. ..
Butter...............
.....do ...............
.....do....... ........
.....do...............
.....do ..............
.....do...............
.....do................
.....do..............
.....do...............
Milk, skimmed .......
.....do..............
.. do................
.....do ...............
...do .................
Milk, whole.........
I do-------



... do...............
.....do..............
..... do ................
.....do ..............
Milk, whole and
skimmed, mixed ...
Maize breakfast food.
.... do ................
Wheat breakfast food.
Cereal, parched ......
.....do .............
.... do ...............
Bread .............
.... do ...............
.....do ................
.....do ................


.....do ............ .
.....do ...............
..... do................
.....do ................
Ginger snaps .........
.....do...............
....do ..- -...-.....
.....do................
Cookies..............
Ginger snaps .........
Sugar.................


I I


Exper
iment
No.


11
13
14
21
23,24
25
26,28
29,31
32,34
11
13
14
21
23,24
25
26,28
29,31
32,34
11
14
23,24
25
26,28
21
29
31
32
34


13
11
13,14
11
21-24
25-28
29-34
11
13
14,21
23,24
25
26,28
29,31
32,34
11
25
26-31
32,34
13
14
(a)


,I--


.58
1.88
1.78
1.75
1.82
1.87
1.92
1.42
1.38
1.27
1.27
1.46
1.42
1.50
1.38
.92
1.03
1.00
.88
.86 '
1.04 '
...--.-1


6.93
44.39
44.81
41.20
41.39
42.20
42.72
26.07
29.49
27. 33
28.05
28.04
27.76
29.14
28.27
42.73
44.15
44.32
43.87
44.65
43.86
42.10


Nitro-, Car-
gen. bon.



Per ct. Per ct.
4.40 17.21
4.00 14.36
4.44 17.75
4.46 16.57
5.59 23.57
5.36 19.62
5.41 19.55
5.72 20.89
5.13 18.55
.15 64.76
.19 63.56
.19 62.55
.21 66.23
.17 69.16
.25 63.37
.26 65.02
.20 65.11
.20 65.58
.52 4.01
.61 4.3,5
.58 4.11
.68 4.76
67 4.63
.51 7.03
.66 8.20
.65 8.25
.66 7.95
.66 8.20


Hy-
dro-
gen.


Per ct.
2.44
2.07
2.64
2.54
3.37
2.76
2.70
2.99
2.66
10.09
10.09
10.20
10.55
10.52
10.01
10.02
10.44
10.37
.57
.61
.59
.67
.63
.94
1.26
1.26
1.19
1.21


1.04
6.49
6.42
6.03
6.17
5.94
6.30
3.82
4.33
4.11
3.98
4.03
3.99
4.30
4.30
6.45
6.41
6.61
7.20
6.68
6.73
6.48


I


I


Water.



Per ct.
66.4
70.7
66.0
66.7
56.6
62.8
62.5
60.3
64.5
12.4
10.1
10.6
8.7
9.5
8.8
9.9
9.2
8.4
90.8
90.2
90.7
89.4
90.0
86.6
Sl. 5
.4.5






4.7
S. 4
85.2


S 86.


5.

; 2






4.9
\5.6
4.1
42.7
37.2
41.7
40. 4
34.6
39.3
36.5
37.8
4.3
4.9
4.1
3.7
5.2
4.6
I.......


Pro-
tein
(Nx
6.25).


Per ct.
27.5
25.1
27.8
27.9
34.9
33.5
33.8
35.7
32.1
.9
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.1
1.6
1.6
1.3
1.3
3.3
3.8
3.6
4.3
4.2
3.2
4.1
4. 1
4.1
4.1


3. 6
11.8
11.1
10.9
11.4


Fat.



Per ct.
4.3
2.0
4.2
2.6
6.1
3.3
2.S
3.0
2.8
84.3
S5. 2


57. 5
86. S
86. 1
S5.9
86.3
7.6
.1
.1
.1
.4
.3
4.4-
5.6
5.t6
3.0
5.2


C.. I
2.5
2.6
3.5
2.6
3.2
2.7
.8
.9
.8
.8
.8
.8
.8
.8
.8






1.5
1.7
2.0
2.1
1.2
1.9


2.3
1.3
1.2


1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
2.9
1.7
1.6
2.0
1.9
2.9


... ...... 100.0


i. vlJI
8.178
8.027
8.020
8.002
8.048
8.210
.381
.439
.409
.488
.462
.782
.935
.939
.905
.913


.753
4. 437
4.467
4.052
4.13i
4. ]:ri
4.20U2
'2. 75
2. 96
2.710
2. SM)
2. 80
2. K03
2.930
2.b69
4.247
4.432
4.434
4.434
4.4;0O
4.407
3.960


SU'sed in all the experiments.

13007-No. 109-02- 2


S Heat of
Car- I nombus-
bohv- Ash. tion per
:draAtes h gram,
radeter-
mined.

Perct. Perct. Calris.
...... 1.8 1.920
...... 2.4 1.577
... 1.7 1.964
2.1 1. 27
...... 1.0 2.633
...... 1.2 2.172
.9 2.19h
.... 1.0 2.327
...... 1.0 2.075
...... 2.4 7.749
...... 3.5 7.806
2 *I -7 f i l


11.7
12.0
8.9
8. t;
7.9
7.9
s 1
9.1


q. I

5.,S
6. 1
6. 2
5.5
5.4
6.5


3.2
8.2
8.3
1.5
.6
1.7
1.4
1.5
5. 1
2.8
3.4
2. 1
1.6
2.0
2.5
6.2
8.6
8.3
7.2
10.8
8.3


5.0
5.0
4.8
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.7
4.3


5. 7
73. 4
72.9
78. 3
,$0. 4
79.1
N0. 5
45.7
47.9
46. 3
47.0
48.9
48.9
50.8
49.8
SO. 8
78.4
79.8
81.6
76.7
77.7


I






18

The composition of the feces in the experiments here reported ip.
shown in the table which follows. The composition of the urine anI
the respiratory products is shown in connection with the tabular-
details of the individual experiments:

TABLE 4.-Composition of feces in metabolism experiments Nos. 11, 13, 14, 21, 23, 24, 25,
26, 28, 29, 31, 32, and 34.

Heat of
Pro- Carbo- combat
Laboratory No. men itro- a Water. Fat. y- Ash. tion per
No. gen. bon. gen. (Nx dates
mined.

Per ct. Per t. Per ct. Per l. Pe. Per Per ctPererct. Per t. Calories.
2850.............. 11 1.59 14.30 1.98 70.6 9.9 6.4 8.8 4.3 1.554
2965 .............. 13 1.49 15.04 2.14 69.8 9.3 8.3 7.0 5.6 1.689
2974.............. 14 1.57 13.49 1.85 74.2 9.8 6.7 5.8 3.5 1.600
3033.............. 21 1.62 14.03 1.94 72.6 10.1 6.3 6.3 4.7 1.671
3033.............. 23 1.59 14.44 2.07 69.3 9.9 5.2 8.5 7.1 1.610
3036.............. 24 1.45 11.64 1.65 75.7 9.1 4.9 5.4 4.9 1.282
3171 .............. 25 1.38 13.73 2.02 69.0 8.6 3.8 11.1 7.5 1.571
3183.............. 26 1.38 11.98 1.44 72.3 8.7 3.6 8.5 6.9 1.840
3185 .............. 28 1.70 13.61 1.83 70.6 10.6 5.5 7.3 6.0 1.525
3195.............. 29 1.44 14.13 2.03 69.9 9.0 5.1 10.3 5.7 1.574
3197 .............. 31 1.52 15.19 2.13 67.5 9.5 5.1 11.3 6.6 1.698
3209.............. 32 1.21 12.87 1.86 73.2 7.6 4.5 9.6 5.1 1.449
3211 .............. 34 1.38 13.56 1.93 70.3 8.6 5.8 9.1 6.2 1.475

DETERMINATION OF NITRATES AND NITRITES IN THE WATER
OF RESPIRATION.

Defren" calls attention to the presence of nitrates, and especially
nitrites, in water of exhalation, and suggests the possibility of the
nitrogen thus given off being sufficient in amount to take into account
in studying the metabolism of nitrogen.
It is of great importance in experiments of the nature of these, in
which the balance of income and outgo of nitrogen is determined with
great care, to take account of any nitrogen which might thus be
eliminated. Since in the experiments here reported the products of
respiration are passed through a refrigerating system and cooled to a
temperature of about -20 C., there is excellent opportunity for a
study of this subject. Accordingly, in several of the experiments,
and more particularly in work experiment No. 6, already reported,b
the water condensed in the "freezers" was carefully preserved and
tested qualitatively for both nitrates and nitrites. The water con-
densed from the incoming air was tested in a similar manner. Similar
tests were also made of the water condensed on the surface of the
absorbers and collected thence as "drip."
aTechnology Quarterly, 9 (1896), p. 238. See also Experiment Station Record, 8,
p. 385.
bU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 63, pp. 77-85; 69, pp.
47-60.





19


The test for nitrites was made in the usual way. A few cubic cen-
timeters of a solution of metaphenylene-diamine in dilute sulphuric
acid is placed in a test tube; a few drops of the water to be tested are
allowed to fall into the test tube; if nitrites are present, a yellow color
is produced.
This test is said to show nitrites when present in as dilute a solution
as 1 part in 3,000,000, but in no case was any appreciable evidence of
nitrites obtained in the water condensed in the freezers. In only one
case was there sufficient coloration to warrant the statement that there
was even a trace of nitrites present. Singularly enough, while the
respired water condensed in the freezers gave no response to the test
for nitrites, that condensed on the cooling apparatus in the respiration
chamber gave a very marked nitrite reaction.
The test for nitrates was made by means of a solution of diphenyl-
amine in rather strong sulphuric acid. Two or three cubic centi-
'meters of this solution is placed in a test tube and about one-half a
cubic centimeter of the water to be tested is allowed to flow slowly
down the side of the test tube so that the two liquids do not mix. If
a deep-blue ring appears at the contact zone of the two liquids, the
presence of nitrates is shown. The results of the test for nitrates were
very marked, but there appeared to be little difference between the
amount in the water of the incoming and outgoing ventilating air
current. After making a check experiment with the alcohol lamp
burning inside the chamber the amount of nitrates in the outgoing
freezer water appeared to be materially increased. This is not sur-
prising, as the high temperature of the alcohol flame might naturally
be expected to bring about a certain amount of combustion of the
nitrogen of the air.
The test for nitrates and nitrites in the condensed water of respira-
tion indicated that the actual amounts of these were so minute as to
be ignored. It seems highly improbable that any measurable quantity
of nitrogen can be excreted in this manner.
RECORDS OF BODY WEIGHT, TEMPERATURE, AND PULSE RATE.
The subject weighed himself on a platform scale sensitive to 10
grams with a weight of 75 kilograms and capable of weighing 100
kilograms.
The observations of body temperature were made by the use of an
ordinary clinical thermometer. They were sublingual in experiments
previous to, and axillary in experiments subsequent to, No. 25. In
this latter experiment temperatures were measured in both ways. All
observations were, of course, made by the subject himself. Under
such circumstances it is not improbable that there may have been
occasional errors in the thermometer readings; at best, such observa-
tions would be less satisfactory than those which would show the
actual internal temperature of the body. In later experiments, the




..ii.....
20 "

results of which are not yet ready for publication, the body tempe.r-.
ature was measured by a specially devised electrical thermomtniet:r
inserted in the rectum, by which differences in body temperature of
0.020 could be detected.a
The observations of the pulse rate were also made by the subject.
How observations made by a person upon himself compare in relia- A
ability with those made by another person we are unable to say.
The reading and recording of weights and measurements of food
and excretory products and the other determinations outside the
chamber are controlled either by repeating the observations or by
having the quantities observed and recorded by two different persons
or otherwise. The conditions for the reading and recording of figures
for body weight, temperature, and pulse rate by the subject in the -
respiration chamber do not permit of so careful a system of checks _
for avoiding errors in the reading and recording of the figures. For
this reason, and because of the uncertainties regarding the value of
the observations of temperature and pulse rate just named, the figures
for body weight, temperature, and pulse rate are hardly as reliable as
those for the other determinations.
MEASUREMENT OF MUSCULAR WORK.

In the rest experiments the subjects moved about within the appa-
ratus as little as possible, thus avoiding all unnecessary muscular exer-
tion. In the work experiments, however, they were engaged in active
muscular work for eight hours each day. The apparatus used for
measuring the work in experiment No. 11 consisted of a bicycle belted
to a small dynamo, as in experiment No. 6.b The voltage of the elec-
tric current generated was measured, and together with calibrations
of the apparatus gave sufficient data for computing roughly the
amount of work done by the subject.
In the work experiments carried on during the winter of 1900
(experiments Nos. 29, 31, 32, and 34) the apparatus was so modified
as to give, it is believed, a more accurate measure of the work done.
In these experiments the rear wheel of the bicycle was applied
directly to a pulley fastened to the shaft of the dynamo, which was
mounted upon a rocking base, the necessary tension being secured by
means of a coiled spring which kept the pulley of the dynamo pressed
against the tire of the bicycle. This apparatus was calibrated before
and after each experiment. Inasmuch, however, as the method of
calibration was greatly improved in the experiments made during the
winter and spring of 1901, further description of the apparatus and
the methods of measuring the work done is not given in the present
publication.
aArch. Physiol. [Pfliiger], 88 (1901), No. 9-10, p. 492.
bU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 63, p. 76; 69, p. -..








DETAILS OF THE EXPERIMENTS.

The details of thirteen experiments with three different subjects are
recorded in the following pages. The methods of calculation were in
general the same as those described in a previous publication.a In
many cases the derivation of the values is indicated algebraically in
the column headings of the tables.

METABOLISM EXPERIMENT NO. 11.

Subject.-E. 0.. the laboratory assistant who served as the subject
in experiments Nos. 1 and 2, in which the necessary data for estimat-
ing the income and outgo of energy were not determined.b and in
experiments Nos. 5-10, in which these values were determined." He
was 32 years of age. 5 feet 8 inches in height, and weighed without
clothing about 70 kilograms (154 pounds).
Occupation during yper'tient.-Worked 8 hours a day upon the
stationary bicycle just described. During evenings he passed the time
in reading, writing, and resting.
Duration.-Four days, beginning at 7 a. m. March 22. 1898. The
preliminary period of this experiment began with breakfast March 18.
The subject entered the calorimeter on the evening of March 21. and
remained until 7 a. in. March 26, thus spending five nights and four
days in the respiration chamber.
Diet.-The diet during the experiment consisted of beef. butter,
skim milk. bread, ginger snaps. cereal breakfast foods. sugar. and
coffee, and furnished 124 grams of protein and 3,862 calories of energy
per day. This experiment was intended to be much the same as exper-
iment No. 9,d with the exception that the diet should furnish a con-
siderably larger amount of energy, and a considerable amount of
muscular work should be performed each day. The kinds and quanti-
ties of food served at each meal were as follows:

TABLE 5.-Diet in metabolism experiment No. 11.

Food materials. Breakfast. Dinner. Supper. Total.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
Beef ..................................................... ............... 70 100 .......... 170
Butter..................................................... ... 40 40 40 120
Milk, skimmed............................................... 150 210 390 750
Bread ................. .. ................. .............. 100 i 100 100 300
Maize breakfast food ................................. 60 .......... 50 110
Wheat breakfast food............................. ..... ................ 75 .......... 75
Ginger snaps ...................................... ................... .......... 5 75
Sugar......................... ........................... 40 3 110

SU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, p. 31, et seq.
bU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 44.
c U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. Nos. 63 and 69.
dU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69.





... .. ... ......... ... ... .

22


The amount of drink varied from day to day. On the first day the

subject was given 600 grams of coffee infusion and 600 grams of water,

making a total of 1,200 grams; on the second and third days 600.

grams of coffee infusion and 800 grams of water, making a total of

1,400 grams, and on the last day 600 grams of coffee infusion and

1,500 grams of water, making a total of 2,100 grams.

The general routine of the experiment is indicated in the following

schedule. The statistics of the diary kept by the subject are sum-

marized in Table 7:

TABLE 6.-Daily programme-Metabolism experiment No. 11.


7.00 a. m .......



7.45 a. m .......
8.20 a. m .......
10.20 a. m ......

10.30 a. m ......
12.30 p. m......
1.00 p. m .......

1.15 p. m.......


Rise, pass urine, collect drip,
weigh absorbers, weigh self
stripped and dressed.
Breakfast.
Begin work.
Rest 10 minutes, drink 200 grams
water.
Begin work.
Stop work.
Pass urine, collect drip, weigh
absorbers.
Dinner.


1.50 p.m ......
3.50 p. m ......

4.00 p.m......
6.00 p.m ......
6.30 p.m ......

7.00 p.m ......

10.00 p. m .....

1.00 a. m ......


Begin work.
Stop work, rest 10 minutes, drink
200 grams water.
Begin work.
Stop work.
Supper, change underclothes,
weigh self stripped and dressed.
Pass urine, collect drip, weigh
absorbers.
Take cover off food aperture,
retire.
Pass urine.


TABLE 7.-SummIary of diary-Metabolism experiment No. 11.


Weight of subject.


Time.


Without
clothes.


Pulse,
rate per


With minute.
clothes.


1898. Kilograms. Kilograms.
Mar.22,7.00a.m...................... 70 73.60
12.50a. m ................... .......


7.00p. m ......................
10.00p. m ...................
Mar. 23,7.00 a. m .....................
12.45 p. m ....................
7.00p. m .................. ..
10.00p. m ..................
Mar. 24,7.00 a. m ......................
1.00p. m.....................
7.00p. m ......................
9.20 p. m ......................
Mar. 25,7.00 a. m ......................
1.00 p. m ............. .....
7.00p. m ........ ........
9.15p. m .....................
Mar. 26, 7.00 a. m ......................


70.27
............
69.82
............:
69.50
............
69.48

68.80
............
68.45

............
68.26


73.29

73.30
............
73.25
............
72.90

72.60

72.30

72.23..
72.23


............95 72............
67.95 72.10


68

68
58
78
..........
75
63
74
..........
72
60
76

72


Hygrometer
readings.
Temper-
ature. Dry Wet
bulb. bulb.

OF. OC. "C
......... 22 17.2
99 21.8 17.4

98.8 21.4 17.6
97 21.8 17
100 21.3 19
......... .......... ..........
97.4 ..................--
97.3 21.9 18.8
99.6 21.5 18.8

97 22 19
97 22 18
99.2 21.4 19
......... 21.6 19.4

......... .......... ---- .


Amount of work done.-As already stated, the subject worked 8

hours each day upon a stationary bicycle so arranged that the work

performed was transformed into heat within the apparatus and


I


1
.i










.-


















. .
,4i

I
.tii







q.i






23


measured directly with that given off by the subject. A cyclometer
registered the number of miles that would have been covered by the
same number of revolutions of the wheel, but the amount of work
done could hardly have been as large as would be required to propel a
bicycle the number of miles thus recorded. It will be observed from
the figures in Table 8 that there was considerable difference in the
amount of work done on the different days of the study.

TABLE 8.-Record of work done-Metabolism experiment No. 11.

(a) (b) (c)
Heat
Time. Cyclom- Num- Actual equiva-
eter .berof duration Rate. lent.
reading. miles. of work. axbx
0.2378

1898. Seconds. Watts. Calories.
Mar. 22, 8.20 a. m ................................... 154
4} 28 7,200,
10.20 a. m..................................... 182 25 86
} 28 7,200
12.40 p. m .................................... 210 7, 20
S 28 7,200
3.50 p. m .................................... 238 28 21 72
28 7,200
6.00 p. m ................................... 266 7, 0
Mar. 23, 8.20 a. m .................................... 266
4328 7,200
10.20 a. m.................................... 294 720075
i343 7, 200 |
12.30p. m .................................... 3379 28
42 7,200 1
3.50 p. m ..................................... 379 36 7200 28 96
6.00 p. m ......................... .............. 415
Mar. 24, 8.20 a. m ..................................... 415
) 32 7,200 f
10.20 a. m .................................... 447 26 89
12.30 p. m .................................... 479
3.50 p. m ................................... (1) (1) 7,200 25
6.00 p. m ..................................... () (I 7,
Mar. 25, 8.20 a'. m .................................... 479
) 35 7,200 1 8
10.20 a. m .................................... 514 30 103
12.30 p. m ......... .......................551 ,200
37 7, 200 *
3.50 p. m ................................... 588 41 140
26 7,200
6.00 p. m .................................... 644
Total .......................................... .......... ........ .......... .......... 746

1 Cyclometer not working.

Detailed data of income and outgo.-The quantities of nutrients ifi
the food consumed each day and the quantities rejected in the feces
are shown in Tables 9 and 10. It will be observed by comparison with
the results of some of the rest experiments reported in preceding
bulletins, that, while the protein is practically the same as in these
rest experiments, the energy in the food has been increased more than
800 calories per day in order to supply the necessary energy for the
increased muscular activity. It was quite interesting to note that with






24

increased diet and with increased work the total amount of unavailabe N :il
material excreted in the feces was considerably larger than in experi-
ment No. 9. There was not enough difference, however, in the coeffi-
cients of availability to show whether muscular work had any marked
effect upon the digestion of the food by the subject.

TABLE 9.- IVeight, composition, and heat of combustion of foods-Metabolism experiment

*Lab""
Lab-' Weight Pro- Car- Nitro- Car- Hydro- combu-
o Food materials. per Water. Fat. boh--
tory day. ein.drates gen. bon. gen. on.
No. tion

Gram.q. Grams. Gram Gramsns Grams Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
2851 Beef ............. 170 112.9 46.8 7.3 ........ 7.48 29.26 4.15 326
2S53 Butter ........... 120 14.9 .9 101.0 ........ .15 77.71 12.11 930
2.55 Skimmed milk 7.50 681.0 24.4 1.5 37.5 3.90 30.08 4.28 286
2852 Bread............ 300 128.1 26.6 4.5 137.1 4.26 78.21 11.46 773
2I42 Maize breakfast
food ........... 110 5.4 12.9 9.0 80.7 2.07 48.90 7.15 488
2840 Wheat breakfast
food ........... 75 5.4 8.2 1.1 58.7 1.31 30.90 4.52 304
2841 Ginger snaps .... 75 3.2 4.3 4.7 60.6 .69 32.09 4.85 319
Sugar ............ 110 .................. ...... 110.0 ......... 46.31 .13 436
Total ...... 1,710 950.9 124.1 129.1 4..6 19.6 373.46 55.65 3,862


TABLE 10.-Wleight, composition, and heat of combustion of feces-Metabolism experiment
No. 11.


ora- Weight after. Pro- Fat. bC Nitro- Car- Hydro- bf
tor of fees. tein. rates gen. bon. gen. tion.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
285) Total, 4 days..... 563 398.0 56.4 36.0 49.6 8.96 80.51 11.15 875
Average. 1 day... 141 99.5 14.1 9.0 12.4 2.24 20.13 2.79 219


The urine in this experiment was collected in 6-hour periods, and
the specific gravity and nitrogen content determined. The heat of
combustion was determined in a composite sample of the urine for
each day, and the carbon and hydrogen in a composite sample for the
four days of the experiment. The methods employed for determining
the heat of combustion and for computing the carbon and hydrogen
in the urine of each day have already been described." The statistics
of the outgo of matter in the urine in this experiment are given in
Table 11.

s U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, pp. 23 and 35. -:2







25


TABLE 11.--Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine by six-hour periods-Metab-
olism experiment No. 11.


Period.


7a.m. to 1 p. m ................................
1 p.m. to p. m...............................
7 p.m to 1 a. m ...............................
1 a. m to7 a.m ................................

Total ......................................
Total by composite.......................

7a.m to 1 p. m ................................
1p.m toT p. m ................................
7p. m to I a. m ................................
1 a. m to 7 a. m ................................


24-25 7 a.
1 p.
7 p.
I a.


25-26









26


Date.


1898.
Mar. 22-23








23-24


Total ....................................
Total by composite.......................

7 a. m. to 1 p. m .................................
1 p. m. to p. m......... ..........................
7 p.m to a. m ................................
1a. m to7 a. m .................................

Total ....................................
Total by composite.......................

Total, 4 days, by periods.................

7a. m. to 1 p. m ................................
1 p. m. to7 p. m ................................


Amount. I Specific
gravity.

SGrams.
326.0 1.027


Nitrogen.


Per cent. Grains.


1.25


4. v'


3.50.6 1.027 1.34 4.70
292.3 1.033 1.87 5.46
146. 8 1.031, 2.10 3. 0
1,115.7 .......... ......... 17.32
1,115.7 .......... 1.53 17.07

206.5 1.028 1.76 3.63
311.3 1.031 1.61 5.01
211.0 1.036 2.26 4.77
150.1 1.032 2.30 3.4

878.9 .......... .......... 16
b78.9 .......... 1.92 16.87

218.3 i 1.030 1.89 4.13
315.4 1.030 1.62 5.11
251.0 1.035 2.2S 5.72
133.6 1.034 2.36 3. l

918.3 .......... .......... 18.11
918.3 .......... 2.00 18.37

236.0 1.031 1.65 4.60
304.8 1.032 1.80 5.4
273.4 1.035 2.31 6.32
120.0 1.037 2.32 2.7"

934.2..... .............. 19. 1'
934.2 .......... 2.05 19. 15

3,847.1 ..................... I 71.47

157.5 1.032 2.05 3.24
216.4 1.032 1.90 4.10


TABLE 12.-Daily elimination of carbon, hydrogen, water, and energy in urine--Metab-
olism experiment No. 11.


Date.


1898.
Mar. 22-23...............
-24 ................
24-25................
25-26................

Total, 4 days .....


Amount
of urine.


Carbon.


Grams. I P. ct. Grams.
1,115.7 ...... 12.30
878.9 ...... 11.98
918.3 ...... 12.87
934.2 ...... 13.63

3,847.1 1-.32 50.78
I


Hyd


P. t.






0.38
......


0.38


Heat of combus-
tion.
rogen. Water.
Per
gram. Total.
gram.

Grams. P. ct. Grams. Calorie. Calories.
3.54 .... 1,050.1 I 0.126 141
3.45 ...... 815.0 .162 142
3.71... 849.7 .129 11
3.92 ...... 861.5 .141 132

S14.62 '92.96 3,576.3 (.139) 533
i !


*The heat of combustion of the urine was determined in the composite sample for each day and
in the total composite for four days. The heat of combustion of the urine for the experiment as
determined in this latter sample amounted to 0.139 calorie per gram, or a total of 535 calories for the
urine of the whole experiment.


Total .....................................
Total by composite.......................

m to 1 p. m ................................
m to7 p. m .................................
m to 1 a. m ................................
m to 7 a. m ................................






26.


Tables 13-15 give the results of the determinations of carbon
and water in the ventilating air current. The method of calcuMist;h
of these tables has been described in some detail in connection with
the description of results of experiment No. 5, reported in an earlier
publication.a The formulas in the column headings in some of the:i
tables indicate the method by which many of the calculations are:
made. The drip was collected but once a day and the amount has.:i
been equally apportioned among the four periods of the day. While"
this is undoubtedly erroneous, it has, in view of the lack of any data,*
seemed the most satisfactory plan. Should some other method of
subdivision seem desirable, all data are given by means of which com-
putations can be readily made. The error involved, however, does not I
affect the final results of the experiments, as the total quantities per
day are used in the computations.

TABLE 13.-Comparison of residual amounts of carbon dioxid and water in the chamber
at the beginning and end of each period, and the corresponding gain or los--MetaboliUm
experiment No. 11.


Date.





1898.
Mar. 22-23







23-24






24-25






25-26


Carbon dioxid.


Total
amount
in
chamber.



Grams.
29. 7
82.3
64.4
30.5
28.7


End of period.


7 a. m...........
1 p.m...........
7 p.m...........
1 a. m ...........
7 a.m...........
Total ........
1 p. m...........
7 p.m ...........
1 a.m..........
7 a.m ...........
Total ........
1 p.m...........
7 p.m..........
1 a.m..........
7 a. m...........
Total ........
1 p.m...........
7 p.m...........
1 a. m...........
7a.m..........


Total ........ ..........


Total,4 days. ......... ......


Gain (+)
or
loss (-)
over pre-
ceding
period.


Total
amount
of vapor
remain-
ing in
chamber.


Grams. Grams.
.......... 45.0
+52.6 54.9
-17.9 57.1
-33.9 52.3
1.8 47.8


Water.

Change
Gain(+) in
or weight
loss (-) of ab-
over pre- sorbers,
ceding gain(+)
period. or
loss(-).

Grams. Grams.

+ 9.9 +194
+ 2.2 22
4.8 27
4.5 28


Drip
from ab-
sorbers.



Grams.

114.5
114.6
114.6
114.6
114.6


Total
amount
gained
(+) or
lost (-)
during
the
period.

Grams.

318.4
94.8 ":
82.8 ;
82.1


.......... 1.0 .......... + 2.8 | +117 458.3 578.1
91.3 +62.6 56.6 + 8.8 +235 152.0 395.8
72.8 -18.5 56.8 + .2 + 7 152.0 159.2
26.6 -46.2 53.3 3.5 2 152.0 146.5
26.8 + .2 53.2 .1 1 152.0 150.9
.......... 1.9 .......... + 5.4 +239 608.0 852.4
90.9 +64.1 61.0 + 7.8 + 57 280.1 344.9
76.7 -14.2 63.5 + 2.5 +248 280.0 530.5
25.2 -51.5 57.3 6.2 -294 280.0 20.2
26.3 + 1.1 55.6 1.7 -295 280.0 1.7
.......... .5 .......... + 2.4 -284 1,120.1 838.5
98.8 +72.5 62.9 + 7.3 +177 341.7 526.0:;
82.0 -16.8 66.7 + 3.8 +155 341.7 500.5
32.3 -49.7 56.7 -10.0 -223 341.6 108.6,
35.0 + 2.7 56.8 + .1 .-222 341.6 119.?7


+ 8.7


+ 1.2


-113 1,366.6


.......... +11.8 -41


3,553.0


1,264.8
3, 523.


SU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69.






27


TABLE 14.-Record of carbon dioxid-Metabolism experiment No. 11.


Date.


1898.
Mar. 22-23






23-24






24-25






25-26


Period.


7a.m. to 1 p.m.
1 p.m. to7p. m.
7p.m. tol a.m.
1a.m. to7a.m.
Total .......
7a.m. to 1 p. m.
1p.m.to 7 p.m.
7 p. m. to l a. m.
1 a. m. to 7 a. m.
Total .......

7a.m. tol p.m.
lp.m. to7 p.m.
7p.m. to 1a.m.
la. m.to 7a. m.
Total .......
7a.m. to 1p.m.
1p.m. to7 p. m.
7 p.m.to la.m.
1a.m. to 7a. m.
Total ......


(a)

Ventila-
tion
(number
of liters
of air).


Carbon dioxid.


(b)


In in-
coming
air (per
liter).


Liters. Mg.
27,737 0.615
28,013 .601
28,740 .553
28,954 1 .611
113,444 !.......


(c)


In out-
going
air (per
liter).



Mgs.
14.229
15.161
9.955
5.474


(d)

Excess
in out-
going
air (per
liter),
c-b


Mgs.
13.614
14.560
9.402
4.863


(e) (f)
Cor-
Total reaction
excess for
in out- carbon
going diox-
air, id in
dxa. appa-
ratus.


Grams. Grams.
377.3 +52.6
407.9 -17.9
270.2 -33.9
140.9 1.8
1,196.3 1.0


(g)
Cor-
rected
weight
carbon
dioxid
exhaled
by sub-
ject,
e+f.

Grams.
429.9
390.0
236. 3
139.1

1,195.3


27,332 .582 15.586 15.004 410.1 +62.6 472.7
27,437 .742 20.249 19.507 535.2 -18.5 516.7
28,213 .551 10.045 9.494 267.9 -46.2 221.7
28,899 .611 5.817 5.206 150.5 + .2 150.7
111,881 ........................... 1,363.7 1.9 1,361.8
28,257 .586 17.465 16.879 476.8 +64.1 540.9
27,779 .561 19.690 19.129 531.4 -14.2 517.2
28,359 .563 9.542 8.979 254.6 -51.5 203.1
28,814 .599 5.312 4.713 135.8 + 1. 136.9
I+ 11 16.


113,209

28,094
27,648
28,545
28,254


112,541


.594
.586
.508
.641


17.259
22.508
10.060
6.103


......... 1,398.6 .5
16.665 468.2 +72.5
21.922 606. 1 -16.8
9.552 272.7 -49.7
5.462 154.3 + 2.7


I II


1,501.3 + 8.7


SI: : I I


1,398.1
540.7
589.3
223.0
157.0


1,510.0 I


(h)
Total
weight
of car-
bon ex-
haled in
carbon
dioxid,
gx .

Grams.
117.3
106.3
64.4
37.9
325.9

128.9
140.9
60.5
41.1
371.4

147.5
141.1
55.4
37.3
381.3
S 147.5
160.7
60.8
42.8


411.8


......... 5,459.9 + 5.3


Total, 4 days


5,465.2 1,490.4


451,075







28


TABLE 15.-Record of water--Metabolisn experiment No. 11.


Water.


Date.


1898.
Mar. 22-23






23-24






24-25






25-26


Period.


7a.m. tol p.m.
1p.m. to7p.m.
7p. m. to 1a. m.
1a.m. to7a. m.

Total .......

7a.m. to 1 p.m.
1 p. m. to 7 p.m.
7p.m. to 1a. m.
1 a.rm.to7a. m.


(a)
Ventila-
tion
(number
of liters
of air).


Liters.
27,737
28,013
28,740
28.954


(b) (c)
In in- In out-
comingL going
air (per'air (per
liter). 1 liter).


Mg.
0.888
.795
.689
.681


MJgs.
1.459
1.315
1.380
1.072


113,444 -
113,444 :........ ........


27,332 .844 1.571 727
27,437 .826 1.345 .519
28,213 ,.648 1.270 .622
28,899 .619 1.092 .473


(d) (e) (f)
Excess Total Con-
in out-
ou excessin densed
going outgo- in
.. _, outfO


air iper
l ter) ing air, freez-
lter. dxa. ers.


Mg. i Grams. Grams.
0.571 15.8 255.1
.520 15.0 304.4
.691 19.9 298. 1
.391 11.3 260.7

........ 62.0 1,118.3


19.9
14.2
17.6
13.7


- I- ~~


268.6
350.4
341.6
298.8


SI --i I


Total ....... 111,881 ........ ........ .......


7a. m. to 1 p. m.
1 p.m. to 7 p.m.
7 p. m. to la. m.
la.m. to7 a.m.

Total .......

7a. m. tol p.m.
1p.m. to7p.m.
7p.m. to 1 a. m.
1 a.m. to7a. m.


65.4 1,259.4


28,257 .824 1.640 .816 23.1 318.4
27,779 .788 1.409 .621 17.2 357.8
28,359 .713 1.429 .716 20.3 340.8
28,814 .670 1.139 .469 13.5 301.5


113,209 ......... .. ........ 74.1 1,318.5
28,094i .875 1.862 1 .987 27.7 297.6
27,648 .782 ,1.463 .681 18.8' 367.3
28,545 .628 1.374 746 21.3 342.8
28,254 .607 1.078 .471 13.3 293.6


(g)
Correc-
tion for
water re-
maining
in cham-
ber.

Grams.
318.4
94.8
82.8
82.1
578.1


395.8
159.2
146.5
150.9


852.4


344.9
530. 5
- 20.2
- 16.7


838.5

526.0
500.5
108.6
119.7


Total ....... 112,541 ....................... 81.1 1l,301.3 i 1,254.8
Total,4days 451,075 ....................... 282.6 4,997.5 3,523.8


(A)
Toti ..
water
exhaled,
e+f+g.


Grem,.
5 a. a5
414,2
400.8S
354.1
1,758.4


684.3
528.8
505.7


463.4
2,177.2

686.4
905.5
340.9
298.3


2,231.1

851. 8
886.6
472.7
426.6

2,637.2

8,803.9


- -


L


j





29

Table 16 gives the summary of the calorimetric measurements during
this experiment:

TABLE 16.-Summary of calorimetric measurements-Metabolism experiment No. 11.

(a) (b) I (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)
Water
vaporized
Correc- equals Heat Total
Heat Change Capacit rion due total uHset i oa
Heat f tem-corec- housed in heat
Date. Period. measured perature tion of perature exhaled aporia- deter-
Sterms of calo- calorim- of food tion of mined.
of C 1 rimeter. eter, and amount water, I ac+cd
Sbx60. dishes, condensed ex0.592. +f.
in
chamber.

1898. Calories. Degrfe. Calories. Calorik. Grams. Calories. Caloric.
Mar. 22-23 7a.m. tol p. m.. 1.018.9 +0.15 + 9.0 -2.2.5 280.8 166.2 1,171.6
1p.m.to7 p.m.. 965.6 + .25 +15.0 -14.1 321.6 190.5 1.157.0
7p.m.tol a.m.. 534.6 .15 9.0 .......... 313.2 185.4 711.0
1a.m.to 7 a.mm.. 275.4 ............................ 267.5 158.4 433.8
Total......... 2.794.5 .......... +15.0 -36.6 1,183.1 700.5 I 3,473.4
23-24 7a.m. to 1 p.m.. 1,032.5 + .20 +12.0 -13.5 297.3 176.0 1,207.0
1p.m.to 7 p.m.. 1,364.2 .40 -24.0 8.0 364.8 215.9 1,.548.1
7p. m.to a. m.. 482.5 + .20 +12.0 .......... 355.7 210.6 705.1
la.m.to 7 a.m.. 272. .10 6.0 .......... 312.4 184.9 451.1
Total......... 3,151.4 .......... 6.0 -21.51 1,33C.2 787.4 :,911.3
24-25 7a.m. to 1 p. m.. 1,247.6 + 05 + 3.0 ; -14.4 349.3 i 206.8 1.443.0
1p.m.to7p. m.. 1,305.5 .10 6.0 2.6 377.5 223.5 1,520.4
7p.m. tola. m.. 428.9 + .15 + 9.0 .......... 354.9 210.1 648.0
l a.m. to 7a.m.. 253.5 + .05 + 3.0 .. ........ 313.3 185.5 442.0
Total......... 3,235.5 .......... + 9.0 -17.0 1,395.0 825.9 4.053.4
25-26 7a.m. to 1p. m.. 1,229.0 .15 9.0 -11.9 332.6 196.9 1,405.0
I p.m. to7 p. m.. 1.436.5 + .10 + 6.0 17. 7 389.9 230.8 1,691.0
7p.m.tol a.m.. 510.4 .10 6.0 .......... 354.1 209.6 714.0
la.m. to 7a. m.. 299.3 .05 3.0 .......... 306.0 181.1 477.4
Total ......... 3,475. ....... -12.0 + 5.8 1. 382.6 818.4 4, 27.4
Total,4days. 12,656.6 .......... + 6.0 -69.3 5.290.9 3,132.2 15,725.5


Balance of income and outgo of matter and energy.-The original
data of income and outgo of matter and energy in this experiment
may be found in the preceding tables. Tables 17-20, which follow,
summarize the results of the experiment, showing the estimated gain
or loss of body material, and comparing the estimated energy of the
material oxidized in the body with the' heat actually determined by
means of the respiration calorimeter. In Table 17 the figures in the
third column, nitrogen in urine, include the nitrogen of perspiration,
which amounted to 0.2 gram per day; and the figures for water in res-
piratory products in the fifth column of Table 18 include the water of
perspiration which was absorbed and removed by the underclothing
of the subject, which was changed each night.a

a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, pp. 24 and 52.






30


TABLE 17.-Income and outgo of nitrogen and carbon-Metabolism experiment No. i.:''


Time.


1898.
Mar. 22-23,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.
23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.
24-25, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.
25-26, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.

Total, 4 days........
Average, 1 day......


ta)

In food.



Grams.
19.8
19.9
19.8
19.9

79.4
19.8


Nitrogen.

(b) (e) (d) (e) f)
Gain
In In (+) food. In
feces. urine. a feces.
a-
(b+e).

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
2.2 17.5 +0.1 373.4 20.1
2.3 17.1 + .5 373.5 20.2
2.2 18.3 .7 373.4 20.1
2.3 19.4 -1.8 373.5 2 20.2

9.0 72.3 -1.9 1,493.8 80.6
2.2 18.1 .5 373.5 20.2


aIncluding nitrogen in perspiration, which amounted to 0.2 gram per day.

TABLE 18.-Income and outgo of water and hydrogen-Metabolism experiment No. 11.


Time.


1898.
Mar. 22-23, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.............
23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............
24-25, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............
25-26, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............

Total, 4 days.....................
Average, 1 day...................


Time.


1898.
Mar. 22-23, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............
23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............
24-25, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............
2--26, 7 a. m to 7 a. m ..............

Total, 4 days ...................
Average, 1 day ................


Water.


(a)

In food.



Grams.
950.9
950.9
950.9
950.9

3,803.6
950.9


(b) (c)

In drink. In feces.



Grams. Grams.
1,200 99.5
1,400 99.5
1,400 99.5
2,100 99.5


6,100
1,525


398.0
99.5


(d) (e) (f)
In respir-j Appar-
In urine, atory ent los,
prod- a+b-(c
ucts.m +d+e).


Gra ins.
1,050.1
815.0
849. 7
861.5


3,576. 3
894.1


Grams.
1,762.2
2,190.4
2,256.1
2,699.2


8,907.9
2,227.0


Grams.
- 760.9
- 754.0
- 85.4
- 609.3


-2,978.6
- 744.7


Hydrogen.


(g)

In food.



Grams.
55. 6




55.7

55.7


(h) (t: (1) (m) (n)
SAppar- Loss Total
In feces. Iu urine. entgain,, from gain (+)
-lh +i].- water, or loss
). f+9. (-), I+ .

Grams.i. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
2.S 3.5 49.3 84.6 35.3
2.8 3.5 49.4 8 3.8 34.4
2.8 3.7 49.1 94.9 45.8
2.8 3.9 49.0 67.7 18.7

11.2 14.6 196.8 331.0 -134.2
2.8 3.7 49.2 82.7 33.5
i


a Includes water from perspiration in clothes--3.b grams first day, 13.2 second day, 25third day, and
62 fourth day, a total of 104 grams.














If


Carbon.


(g)

In
urine.



Granus.
12.3
12.0
12.9
13.6

50.8
12.7


(A)
Inre-
spirar
tory
prod-
ucts

Grams.
325.9
371.4
38L 8
411.8

1,490 .4
372.6


Gain





Grms.
+ 1.1
- S30.L
-40.9
- 72.1

--128t9
- 32.0


CI


Iii~








;in
'4ii



IF


-~------


1 ,


Waer






31


TABLE 19.-Gain or loss of protein (XYX6.25), fat, and water-Metabolim' experiment
No. 11.


Time.


1898.
Mar. 22-23, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..............
23-24,7 a. m.to 7 a.m ............
24-25,7 a.m.to 7 a. m .............
25-26,7 a. m. to 7 a. ..............

Total, i days .....................
Average. 1 day...................


(a)

Nitrogen
gained
(+) or
lost (-).


Grams.
+0.1
+ .5
-.7
-1.8

-1.9
.5


(b)

Protein
gained
(+) or
lost (-),


(C)
Total
carbon
gained
(+) or


(d)
Carbon
in pro-
tein
gained
(+) or


ax6.25. lost (-). lost (-),
bxO.53.

Grams. Grams. Gram.s.
+ 0.6 + 15.1 +0.3
+ 3.1 30.1 +1.6
4.4 40.9 -2.3
-11.2 72.1 -5.9

-11.9 -128.0 -6.3
-- 3.0 32.0 -1.6


(e) (f)
Carbon
in fat, Fat
etc., gained
gained (+) or
(+)or lost (-),
lost (-), e+0.765.
c-d.

Grams. Gramns.
+ 14. 8 19.3
31.7 41.4
38.6 50.5
66.2 86.5

-121.7 -159.1
30.4 39.7


Time.


Total
hydrogen
gained (+)
or lost (-).


1898.
Mar. 22-23, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ...............
23-24,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ................
24--25,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ................
25-26.7 a. m. to 7 a.m ................

Total, 4 days......................
Average, 1 day ...................


Grams.
- 35.3
34.4
45.8
18.7

-134.2
33.5


(hi

Hydrogen
in protein
gained (+)
or lost (-).
b x0.07.


Gramis.
0.0
+ .2
.3
.8

.9
o


Hydrogen Hdrogen
i n fai in water.
gained (+ I etc..
or lost (-) gained I i
f:,0.12. 'or lost ( 1.
gp-h+i).

Gramw. Grams.
+ 2.3 37.6
5.0 29.6
6.1 39.4
--10.4 7.5

-19.2 -114.1
4.8 2.S.5


S11

Water
gained t +
or lost I --.
k x9.


Gramis.
338.4
266.4
354.6
67.5

-1,026.9
256.7


TABLE 20.-Income and outqo of energy-Metabolism e.rperimentl ". 11.


(a) (b) t ) (d, (li I. f
Esti-
i Esti- ES. I mated
i mated mated 'energy
heat of of ma-
Heat of Heat eat of
H o Heat com- trial
Time. com- o com- corn-
bustion bustion bustion Ol-
bustion of of pro- of fat sized
eaten. of eces urine, ind gained in the
gained galor body.
S(+) or (- or a-ib
lost (-i -) C+d
,) .

Calo- Colo- Calo- C(lo- Calo- I Clo-
1898. rides. rif. ri,. r r. ri .s. : ri, s.
Mar.22-23, 7a.m. to 7a. m.. 3. 62 219 141 3 181 3,31S
23-24.7 a. m.to 7 a.m.. 3,S62 219 142 -lb 389 3, 72
24--25,7 a. m. to 7 a. .. 3, S62 219 11s -25 47. 4, 025
25-26,7 a. m. to 7 a.m.. 3, 62 219 132 -64 13 4.388

Total, 4 days........ 15.448 876 533 -6S '-1.196 15.603
Average. 1 day...... 3.862 219 133 -17 374 3.901


Heat
deter-
mined.


Heat
deter-
mined
greater
S+) or
less( 1
than
esti-
mated.
,I -.(


Heat
deter-
mined
greater
S+) or
less -
than
esti-
mated.
h-f.


Calo- Cdo-
riis. rit-. Pt r ci.
3. 473 +155 -4.7
3.911 + 39 -1.0
4.054 29 -.7
4, S8 -100 -2.3

15.726 123 ........
3:.932 + 31 -


I





32

METABOLISM EXPERMEtNT NO. 18.

Subject.-E. O., as in experiment No. 11. His weight with !
clothing was 70 kilograms (154 pounds).
Occupation during experiment.-Reading, writing, etc., with little'
muscular activity. The experiment was a so-called rest experiment, ii
although the subject moved around rather more than in earlier an.d::
later experiments of a similar kind.
Duration.-Three days, beginning at 7 a. m. November 8, 1808 &
The preliminary period of the experiment began with breakfast
November 4. The subject entered the calorimeter on the evening of
November 7. It was intended to continue this experiment four daya, *1
but the discovery of a leak in the ventilating air pipe beyond the point :
where the samples for analysis were taken necessitated discarding the. :
results for the fourth day.
Diet.-The diet during the experiment was quite similar to that in
experiment No. 11, except that it furnished 117 instead of 124 grams,.i
of protein and 2,596 instead of 3,862 calories of energy per day. The !i
kinds and quantities of food served at each meal and the quantities of
drink consumed each day were as follows:

TABLE 21.-Diet in metabolism experiment No. 13.
FOOD.

Food materials. Breakfast. Dinner. Supper. Total.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. 'i
Beef ........................................................... 100 135 ......... 286 :
Butter ......................................................... 10 15 20 45
Milk, whole................................................. 210 .......... 390 600
M ilk, skim m ed ........................................................... 150 .......... 150.
Bread ...................................................... 50 100 125 27
Maize breakfast food............................ .......... 50 .......... .......... 50
Ginger snaps............... ................................... ....................25 25
Sugar ........................................................ 20 10 10 40

DRINK.
I..
CfeCoffee Cofe
Time. Coffee Water. Time. ffee Water .
infusion. infusion.

Grams. G Grams Grams. Grams. .P
Breakfast ................... .... 300 .......... Supper ...................... 300 ..........
10.30 a. m ........................... 200 10.00 p. m ...................... ... 2.0..
Dinner........................ 300 .......... Totalforday.......... 900 600
Total for day........... 900 600
3.30 p. m ............................. 200


The general routine of the experiment is indicated in the following
schedule. The statistics of the diary kept by the subject are sum- !
marized in Table 23.




........







33


7.00a. im .....



- 7.45 aw. m ......
10.30 a. m.....
1.00 p. m......


1.30 p. m......


TABLE 22.-)Daily programme-Metabolism e.rperiment No. 1.3.


. Rise, pass urine, weigh self 3.30 p. m...... Drink 200 grams w,
stripped, collect drip, weigh 6.30 p. m...... Supper.
absorbers. 7.00 p.m..... Pass urine, collect
.Breakfast. absorbers.
Drink 200 grams water. 10.00p. n..... Drink 200 grams
. Pass urine, collect drip, weigh self stripped, tak
absorbers, aperture, retire.
. Dinner. 1.00 a. m...... Pass urine.


water.


t drip, weigh


water, weigh
e cap off food


TABLE 23.-Summary of dianry-Melabolism e.rperiment No. 13.


Time.


Weight of subject.


Without
clothes.

Kilogra m..


1898.


With
clothes.

Kilogra m.s.


Nov. 8,7.00 a. m ..................... 69.36 72.50
10.30 a. m .................... ............ ............
2.00 p. m ....... ........ .......................,
5.30 p. m ............. ..................... ............
7.00 p. m ..................... ......................
9.00 p.m .................... ............. ............
10.00 p. m .................. 69.50.........
Nov. 9, 7.00 a. m ........... .......... 68.59 ..........


10.30 a. m ................... ............
2.00 p.m ................................
5.30 p.m ..... ....................... ...
9.00 p. m ..................... ..............


Nov. 10,







Nov. 11.


10.00 p. m ...................
7.00 a. m ....................
10.30 a.m ....................
2.00 p.m ....................
5.30p.m ....................
9.00 p.m .....................
10.00 p.m ...................
7.00 a. m .....................
10.30 a.m ....................
2.00 p. m .....................
5.30 p. m .....................
9.00 p. m ..................
10.00-p. m .....................


69.71
68.91
-----..------


69.16
(19.00
............
...... .....
............


69. 58


............
............
............
............
............

............
. .. .. .. ...


Hygrometer
Pulse Temper- readings.
rate per nature.
minute.- I Dry bulb. Wet bulb.


F. i o ( I C.
57 96.0 20.4 15.0
65 96.6 20.. 15.5
66. 99.2 20.0 15.6
60 98.6 20.4 16.0
..................... 20.6 15.8
60 97.0 ....................
. I-- . .


56
63 ,


68
64 .
.....I. .
58 I
65
S i


61


62


. ,
64
65


69


95.6 !
97.6
97.4
97.0
97.5


96.0
96.6
9.0
97.9
97.8 1


95.9
96.8
98.6
98.0
98.6


20.0
19.8
20.7
20.8
20.0
.......... .....
19.5
20. 1
20.6
20.2
19.6


19.5
19.6
20.0
20.0 .
20.8 ;


15.2
15.4
15.4
15.6
15.4


14.6
15.0
15.4
15.3
15.0


14.6
14.6
16.1
16.0
16.7


............
............ "
............ ."
............
............
............
............
............
73.40 .


Detailed data of income and outgo.--The weight, composition, and

heat of combustion of the food eaten and of the feces are shown in

the following tables. As has already been stated, the intention was

to continue the experiment four days, but the discovery of a leak in

the ventilating air pipe made all results after 7 a. m. of November 12

unreliable. As the discovery of the accident was made after breakfast,

it was not practicable to administer charcoal for the separation of the

feces until supper on November 12. The food, however, during this

day was the same in kind and amount as during the previous days of

the experiment proper, and a considerable portion of the time was

passed within the respiration chamber.

13007-No. 109--02- 3


" I ... i I


__ _~_ __


.......I





34


TABLE 24.- Weight, composition, and heat of combustion of foods-Metabolism er
No.. 1.

Lab-
Carbo- Heit 1W.
S Food materials. Weight Water. Pro Fat. Nitro- Car- Hydro-e o
tory per day. tein. h gen, -h
N. draes. g rates.n.gen.

Grams. Grams. GramamsGrs. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. O lor.s,
2962 Beef ............. 235 166.1 59.0 4.7 ........ 9.40 33.75 4.86 3
2956 Butter ........... 45 4.5 .5 38.3 ....... .09 28.60 4.54 f
2959 Milk (whole and "'|
skimmed)...... 750 650.3 27.0 24.0 42.8 4.35 51.98 7.80 .
2963 Bread ............ 275 102.3 23.6 14.0 131.7 3.79 81.10 11.91 816
2960 Maize breakfast :
food............ 50 2.9 5.6 4.1 36.5 .89 22.41 3.21 223 :
2961 Cookies.......... 25 1.3 1.4 2.7 19.2 .22 11.16 1.67 112
Sugar ............ 40 ....... ........ ........ 40.0 ........ 16.84 2.59 158
Total....... 1,420 927.4 117.1 87.8 270.2 18.74 245.84 36.58 2,5 i


TABLE 25.- Weight, composition, and heat of combustion of feces-Metabolism experiment i
No. 13.

La b-
Lab- Carbo- Nitro- Car- Hydro- Heat of
ora- Weight Water. Pr- Fat hy Nitr.o- Car- Hydro- mbu
tory of feces. tein. drates. gen. bon. gen. tion.
No.

Grams. Grams. Gramis. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
2965 Total,4 days ..... 296 206.6 27.5 24.6 20.7 4.41 44.52 6.33 500
Average, 1 day ... 74 51.7 6.9 6.2 5.2 1.10 11.13 1.58 125


It has proved a difficult matter to preserve urine so that there shall
be no decomposition of the urea into ammonium carbonate. About 2
cubic centimeters of commercial formalin was added to the composite i
sample of the urine for each day as a preservative, but owing to una-
voidable delays it was, in many instances, impossible to determine the:
heat of combustion of daily samples until some days after the experi-
ment closed. In experiment No. 13 the heat of combustion of the corn- i
posite sample for the four days was found to be 0.081 calorie per gram
fresh urine, corresponding to 677 calories for the total urine for theJ
period. Later determinations of the heat of combustion of the daily
composites gave results showing that a decomposition of the urine had -ij
been. going on. This decomposition was not shown by a loss of any
appreciable amount of nitrogen, the decomposition products remaining
largely in solution. The heat of combustion of the urine was, however
largely reduced. This is easily understood by comparing the heat of.;
combustion of urea with that of ammonium carbonate, the former::i:
having a heat of combustion of 2.537 calories per gram as compared?&
with 0.75 for the latter as actually determined in one sample of comril
mercial ammonium carbonate. In this experiment, therefore, theQ!
heat of combustion of urine for each day is computed after- the same




:" .
"..... *JC






35


manner" as the carbon, hydrogen, and water-free substance for each

day; in other words, it is assumed to vary with the nitrogen and in
the same relative proportion.

TABLE 26.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine by si.-hour periods-Metab-
olism experiment No. 13.

Date. Period. ount Nitrogen conent.
Sof urine. gravity. gen co

1898_ Grams Pr eril cnt Gra s


8

8-9


7 a. n
1 p. n
7 p. U
1 a. n


. to 1 p. m ................................ 767.2 1.015 0.78 5.9'
. to 7 p. m ................................ 918.0 1.012 .68 6.24
. to 1 a. m ................................ 855.2 .......... .70 5.99
. to 7 a. m ............. ................. 175.3 1.023 1.65 2.89

Total.................................. 2,715.7 ........... .......... 21.10
Total by composite...................... 2,715.7 1.012 .77 20.91


to 1 p.
to 7 p.
to 1 a.
to 7 a.


m .................................
m ..................................
m ......... ..................
m .................................


Total ..................... ...............
Total by composite.......................

i. to 1 p. m ................. ..............
. to 7 p. m ...............................
a. to 1 a. m ............................
i. to 7 a. m ..............................

Total ....................................
Total by composite......................

1. to 1 p. m .................................
a. to 7 p. m ... ............. ..... ......
a. to 1 a. m .................................
a. to 7 a. m .................................

Total ...................................
Total by composite......................

Total, 4 days, by periods .................
Composite, 4 days .......................


503.6 1.020 .91 4.58
550.5 1.017 .96 5.29
708.2 1.012 .82 5.81
223.8 1.018 1.39 3.11

1,986.1 .......... .......... 18.79
1,986.1 1.013 .95 18.87

524.2 1.014 .88 4.61
405.5 1.022 1.27 5.15
647.7 1.014 .91 5.90
376.4 1.010 .79 2.97

1,953.8 .................... 18.63
1,953.8 1.015 .95 18.56

653.0 1.013 .75 4.90
374.3 1.022 1.33 4.98
403.0 1.020 1.18 4.75
275.8 1.017 1.22 3.36

1,706.1 .................... 17.99
1,706.1 1.016 1.05 17.91

.......... 76.51
8,361.7 .......... .90 75.26


TABLE 27.-Daily elimination of carbon, hydrogen, water, and energy in urine--Metab-
olism experiment No. 13.

A t Heat of combustion.
Date. oun Carbon. Hydrogen. Water.
ofurine. Pergram. Total.


1898. Grams. P. ct. I Grams. P. ct. Grams. P.ct. ras. Calorie. Calories.
Nov.8-9 .................. 2,715.7 ...... 16.38 ...... 4.6 ...... 2,629.2 ............ 187
9-10 ................ 1,986.1 ...... 14.58 ...... ....... 1,909. 1 ........... 166
10-11 ................ 1,953.8 i...... 14.45 ..... 4.1 ...... 1,877.5 ..... ...... 165
11-12 ............... 1,706.1 ...... 13.96 ...... 3.9 ...... 1,632.4 ........... 159

Total, 4 days........ 8,361.7 0.71 59.37 0. 20 16.7 96.28 8,048.2 0.081 677
I I ___I ____

The amounts of carbon dioxid and water of respiration and perspi-
rition during the different periods in this experiment are shown in

Wables 28-30. There was but little condensation of water upon the
Lpbsorbers and no "drip."

,i U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, p. 35.


Nov.


7 a.
1 p.
7 p.
1 a.




a.
7 a.
1 p.
7 p.
1 a.


7 a.
1 p.
7 p.
1 a.


9-10
10







10-11
11






11-12
12







36


TABLE 28.--Comparison of residual amounts of carbon dioxid and water in tfM Q
at the beginning and end of each period, and the corresponding gain or loss-Metak
experiment No. 13.


Date.





1898.
Nov. 8-9 7
'1
i 7


10-11


End of period.






a. m ............
p.m.............
p.m............
a. m............
a. m..........


Total ........

1 p. m.............
7 p. m ...........
1 a.m ............
7 a.m............


Total ........

1 p.m...........
7 p.m...........
1 a. m ............
7 a.m .............

Total ........


Carbon dioxid.


Total
amount
in
cham-
ber.


Grams.
30.8
38.8
41.0
27.6
26.1


Gain (+)
or loss (--)
over pre-
ceding
period.


Grams.
............
+ 8.0
+ 2.2
-13.4
1.5


ii.... : I:: *


Water.


Total
amount of
vapor re-
maining in
chamber.


Grams.
37.6
40.3
42.8
43.6
36. 9


Gain (+)
or loss (-)
over pre-
ceding
period.


Grams.


+2.7
+2.5
+ .8
-6.7


Change in
weight of
absorbers,
gain (+)
or loss(-);


Grams.
............
+35
+45
+2
+2


.. ...









4.-
gained (+)
or 1lt (-4







+47.65
+2.8
-4.7


.......... 4.7 ........... .7 +84 +88.


38.3
37.1
27.6
28.5


..........


12.2
1.2
9.5
.9


+ 2.4


40. 1
41.1
39.2
37.2


+3.2
+1.0
-1.9
-2.0


+7
-39
-10
-10


i I I -- I


4 .3


-52


36.4 + 7.9 38.6 +1.4 +48 +49.4
39.8 + 3.4 38.8 + .2 +12 +12.2
29.1 -10.7 38.3 .5 -23 -28.5
29.7 + .6 35.6 -2.7 -24 -26.7


+ 1.2


-1.6


+13


+U..4


TABLE 29.-Record of carbon dioxide


in ventilating air current-Metabolism experiment:
No. 13.


Date.






1898.
Nov. 8- 9







9-10







10-11


Period.


7a.m.to 1 p. m.
1 p.m. to 7 p. m.
7 p.m.to l a. m.
1 a.m. to 7 a. m.

Total .........

7a.m. to 1 p.m.
1 p.m. to 7p.m.
7 p.m. to 1 a.m.
1 a.m. to 7 a.m.

Total ........


7 a.m.
1 p.m.
7p.m.
1 a.m.


to 1 p.m.
to7 p.m.
to1 a.m.
to7 a.m.


Total ........

Total, 3 days.


(a)


Ventila-
tion
(number
of liters
of air).



Liters.
26,872
26,795
27,554
27,448


Carbon dioxid.


In incoming
air.

(b) (c)

Per Total,
liter. axb.


Mg. Grams.
0.641 17.2
.623 16.7
.579 16.0
.618 16.9


(d) (e)

Total
In out- excess
going in outgo-
air. ing air,
d-c.


Grams.
239.3
239.1
216.5
145.9


Grams.
222.1
222.4
200.5
129.0


(f)
Correc-
tion for
amount
remain-
ing in
cham-
ber.

Grams.
+ 8.0
+ 2.2
-13.4
1.5


(g)
Corrected
amount
exhaled
by sub-
ject,
e+$.


Grams.
230.1
224.6
187.1
127.5


(A)

Total
weight
ex-
haled,
gxf.
A.


Grasm.



51.0
4.8


108,669 ........ 66.8 840.8 774.0 4.7 769.8 3 a :

26,372 .622 16.4 215.9 199.5 +12.2 211.7 ST:
26,072 .633 16.5 216.9 200.4 1.2 199. 2 5.3:
27,920 .599 16.7 223.3 206.6 9.5 197.1 8.6
27,549 .559 15.4 145.8 130.4 + .9 131.3 S&LS

107,913 ........ 65.0 801.9 736.9 + 2.4 739.3 201.

27,290 .592 16.2 221.5 205.3 + 7.9 213.2 i8.1
26,362 .591 15.6 218.4 202.8 + 3.4 206.2 Ot
28,340 .551 15.6 224.5 208.9 -10.7 198.2 'Cj4
26,904 .579 15.6 145.7 130.1 I+ 6 130.7 IL B

108,896 ....... 63.0 810.1 747.1 + 1.2 748.3 2~0.


+10.3
-8-1L,

-12.0


-61.7


I


- --


,i;ii
' .- .,,......, ~il


..........


- 1.1


2,256.9


325, 478


194.8


2,452.8 2,258.0 ,







37


TABLE 30. -Record of water in ventilating air current-Metabolism experiment No. 13.


Period.


7a. m.to 1 p.m.
1 p. m. to 7 p. m.
7 p. m. to I a.m.
1 a.m. to 7 a. m.

Total.........


a. m. to 1
p. m. to 7
p. m. to 1
a. m. to 7


p.m.
p.m.
a. m.
a. m.


Total ........


a.m. to 1
p.m. to7
p. m. to 1


p.m.
p.m.
a. m.


a.m. to a.m.


Total.........08,896

Total, 3 days.. 325,478


(a)

c.
I-.





0,0
a








Liters.
26,872
26, 795
27, 554
27,448

108,669

26,372
26,072
27,920
27, 549

107,913

27, 290 ,
26,362
28, 340
26, 90


(g)







x
C .
Xcr


C-


S(h)

i-



s--a
C1"

4-)


,- -
I-c
0-

C"-
C
I-


l'
i"=
a

C j

S.-
-I-
-'3
S--
,*


0--


Water in in- Water in outgoing air.
coming air.

(b) (c) (d) (e) (.)
C

C, C



I IV
2 e If=3 5 c
4-




JMgs. Grams. Grais. Gramni. Grams.
1.135 30.5 166.9 50.5 217.4
1.108 .29.7 1&4.8 41.7 209.5
1.040 28.7 197.1 .50.5 247.6
.980 26.9 157.6 43.5 201.1

....... 115.8 686.4 189.2 875.6

1.015 26.7 167.8 46.5 214.3
1.045 27.2 160.7 44.7 205. 4
1.073 30.0 181.9 50.7 1 232.6
.970 26.7 165.7 41.1 206.8

....... 110.6 676.1 183.0 859.1 1

1.01; 27.6 163.1 49.0 212. 1
1.082 28.5 171.7 43.3 215.0
1.022 29.0 183.8 51.0 234. 8
.890 23.9 152.7 38.2 190.9

....... 10960 671.3 181.5 852.8

....... 335.4 2,033.8 553.7 2,587.5


Date.


1898.
Nov. 8-9







9-10







S10-11


Grams. Grams. Grams.
186.9 +37.7 224.6
179.8 +47.5 227.3
218.9 + 2.8 221.7
174.2 4.7 169.5

759.8 | +83.3 843.1

187.6 +10.2 197.8
178.2 -38.0 140.2
202.6 -11.9 190.7
180.1 -12.0 168.1

748.5 -51.7 696. S

184.5 +49.4 233.9
186.5 +12.2 198.7
205.8 -23.5 182.3
167.0 -26.7 140 3

743.8 +11.4 755.2

2,252.1 +43.0 2,295.1






38

Table 31 summarizes the result of the calorimetric measureime:n
during this experiment.

T AII.E 31.--.S,,m m nry of calorimetric measutrement.-Metabolism experiment No. I. -

in) Ib) r) (d) (e) (f) (g .
Water
Svaporize d
SCorrec- equals Heat Total
Heat Change Capacity tion due total used n hat
Date. Perio,. measured of tem- correc- to tem- amount dutI--
Date. Period. perature tion of perature exhaled zato- do
in terms ofcalo- ealorime- of food less atenf
of CU. rimeter. ter,bx60. and amount exOu.e, uI '
dishes, condensed ex0" +
in cham-
ber.

18Cw. ('llorkis. IDJgr.,. Calori c. I Colories. Grams. Calorfea. Calor
Nov. s-9 7a.rm. l) 1 p.m.... 530.2 +0.02 +1.2 30.3 189.6 112.2 618.3
I p.m.to 7 p.m.... 570.7 00 0 43.4 182.3 108.0 86.8
7p. ni.to 1 a.m .... 46i1. .04 -2.4 .......... 219.7 130.1 5689.5
la.m. to7 I .... 293.4 + .02 1 +1.2 .......... 167.5 99.2 898.8
Total........ 1,56.1 ......... ........ 73.7 759.1 449.5 2,281.9
9.-ll 7a.m. t 1 p.m... 4S5. + .01 + .6 30.8 190.8 112.5 568.f
1 j.m. t7p I.m ... 493.5 .01 .6 43.3 179.2 106.1 565.7
7 p.m. rt I 1.t1.... 4-54.4 .03 -1.8 .......... 200.7 118.8 571.4
I a.m. ti 7 i. m... 30S.w I + .04 +2.4 .......... 178.1 105.4 416.6
Tcal l........ 1.742..5 .......... + .6 74.1 748.8 442.8 2,111.8
i-11 i 7n.m.tr Ip.m..... I 45.3 .04 +2.4 29.2, 15.9 110.1 568.6
1 p.m. 7 p.m .... 496.1 .07 -4.2 44. 1lG.7 110.5 567.6
7 p.m. I a.m .... 439.7 .10 +6.0 ..........I 205.3 121.5 567.2
1 m. ro 7 ia. ..... 320.9 .U.1 -3.0 .......... 164.3 97.8 415.2
T ........ 1,742.0 .......... +1.2 74.0 742.2 439.4 2,108.6
T'ital.3:lav.3 5,340.6 ...... ...... +1. -221. s 2,250.1 1,331.7 6,452.8


Bfdln/cie ,f ;nconic antd itutg o ,f iattelir anld ncr'y.-The calculated
income and outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and energy are shown
in the Tables 32-35.
The subject was not as nearly in nitrogen equilibrium as in many of
the previous experiments, and the loss of nitrogen on the first day of
the experiment was much greater than. on the 2 days following. In
connection with these experiments it has become a matter of frequent
,observation that the elimination of nitrogen in the urine seems to be
affected by numerous causes little understood. Thus in this experi-
ment the elimination of nitrogen in the urine during the 4 days
preliminary to the experiment amounted to 15.3, 14.8, 20.9, and 21.4
ramsm. respectively, while the nitrogen eliminated in the urine during
the 3 days of the experiment proper amounted to 21.1, 18.8, and 18.6
grams, respectively. It is difficult to understand the exact cause for
the large elimination of nitrogen during the 2 days preceding the.
experiment and the first day in the apparatus. It was doubtless due
to some physiological or psychic cause, but well illustrates the large
fluctuation which may occur in the excretion of nitrogen without "



.1
HI







39


change of diet. It is possible that nervous excitement may affect the
excretion of nitrogen and that the increased elimination of nitrogen
here observed may have been due in part to an incident which pro-
duced such excitement at about this time. A recent experiment by
one of us (F. G. B.), however, regarding the effect of nervous excite-
ment on the elimination of nitrogen gave negative results. In experi-

ment No. 13 the elimination of nitrogen on the fourth day, the day on
which the experiment would have terminated had there not been an
accident, was 18 grams, a smaller amount than on any of the preceding
days.

TABLE 32.-Income and outgo of nitrogen

Nitrogen.


Carbon.


Time.




1898.
Nov. S-9,7 a.m. to 7 -
9-10,7 a.m. I) 7
10-11,7 a. m. to
Total,3 d
Average,


(a) Ib) (c) (tGai
I Gain
In In In I+ 1or
food. feces. urine. loss (-
a-(b
+C).

Grnuiis. Grains. Graiis. U (rf(/).I
i.m .... 18.7 1.1 21.1 -3.5
a.m... 18.8 1.1 18.$ -1.1
7a.m.. 18.7 1.1 1. 6 -1.0
6.ay .. .2 3.3 5 .5 -.5.
iday.. 1.7 1. I 19.5 -1.9


(e) ) (g)

In In In
food. feces. urine.


Gramis. IGramsti GraIiis.
245.n 11.1 16.4
245.9 11.2 14.6
245.S 11. 1 14.4

737.5 33.4 4,5.4
245..s 11.1 15.1


TABLE 33.-Income (ind outgo of water atid lIydrogen-Meh.l0oliRmt e.,rprimenf No. 1S.


Time.




1898.
Nov. 8-9, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m................
9-10,7 a. m. to 7a. m...............
10-11. 7 a. m. to 7 a. m...............


(a)
In
food. d


Grriiin. G
9"27.4 1
927.4 1
927.4 1


Total. 3 days ....................... 2,782.2 4,499. 2
AV-erage, 1 day................... 927.4 1,499.7


Water.

I( ) ( ) (dc i' )
In respir-
In In In atorv
rink. feces. urine. prod-
ucts.

rt(fil.<. ,499.2 51.7 2,629.2 843. 1
,500.0 51.7 1,909.1 696.
,500.0 51.7 1,877.5 755.2


155.1 i 6,415.8
51.7! 2,138.6


2,295.1
765.0


(f I
Appar-
ent loss,
a+b-
(IC + d+ el.

('Granig.
-1,097.4
- 230.2
- 257.0

-1,584.6
- 52S.2


Time.


1Ih,9x.
Nov. 8-9, 7a. m. to 7a. m ................
9-10, 7 a.m. to 7 a.m................
10-11, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............
Total. 3 days.....................
Average. 1 day...................


Hydrogen.

(g) (h) (i) (1) (an) (n)
S Appar- Loss Total
In In In ent gain, from gain +)
food. feces. urine. water, or
(h+ i. f9. loss (-,
I+m .

I--
Granis. Grains. Gras. Gram. GramR. raims.
36.6 1.6 4.6 +30.4 -121.9 -91.5
36.6 1.6 4.1 i +30.9 25.6 + 5.3
36.6 1.6 4.1 +30.9 28.6 + 2.3

109.8 4.8 12.8 +92 2 --176.1 -83.9
36.6 1.6 4.3 +30.7 58.7 -28.0


th)
In re-
spira-
tory
prod-
uets.

Goit111s.
209. ,
201. 6
204. 1

615..5
205.2


ik)
Gain
( + or
loss (-)
"-(f+
!l+h).


+ S.5
+18.5
-4- 16.2

+43.2
-14.4









TABLE 34.-Gain or loss of protein (N X 6.25), fat, and water-Metabolism experime |
No. 13.

(a:1 (h) (c) (d) (e) (U)
Carbon Carbon
r Protein Total in pro- in fat, Fat
Time. Nitrogen gained carbon i tein etc., gained
Timc g (+) or gained I gained gained (+) ar
o lst(-), (+) or (+)or (+) or lot(-)
lost() ax6.25. lost(-). lost (-), lost (-), e 0.765.
b x 0.53. e-d.

1898. 1 Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Gramws.
Nov. 8-9, 7 a. m. to 7 R. m................. -3.5 -21.9 + 8.5 -11.6 +20.1 +26.3
9-10,7 a. n. to 7 a. m................ -1.1 6. 9 +18.5 3.7 +22.2 +29.0 -
10-11, 7a. m. to 7 a. m.......... .... -1.0 6.2 +16.2 3.3 +19.5 +25.5
Total, 3 days....................... -5.6 -35.0 +43.2 -18.6 +61.8 +80.8
Average, 1 day..................... -1.9 -11.7 +14.4 6.2 +20.6 +26.9

(9) (h) (i) (k) (1)
d Ce Hydrogen
Total Hydrogen Hydrogen in water, Water
Timet. hydrogen "protein in fat etc., gained ()
gained ) gained (+ gained (+) gained (+) orlot(
or lost (-). o los (-, or lost(-), orlost(-), kx9.
Sb x 0.. fx0.12. g-(h+i).

1898... Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
Nov. ?4-9, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ................ -91.5 -1.5 +3.2 -93.2 -838.8
9-10, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ............... + 5.3 .5 +3.5 + 2.3 + 20.7
10-11, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m .............. + 2.3 .4 +3.0 .3 2.7
Total, 3 days ....................... -83.9 -2.4 +9.7 -91.2 -820.8
Average, I day ..................... -28.0 .8 +3.2 -30.4 -273.6


TABLE 35.-Income find outgo of energy-Metiabolism experiment No. 13.

(a) (b) (C) (d) (e) () (g) (h) (i)
Esti-
mated Esti-
mated Esti- Ested Heat Heat
heat mated maed deter- deter-
Heat of heat of energy mined mined
of Heat Heat co- of a- great- great-
co of o bus- bus- trial Heat er +) er +)
Time. C c om-o o oxi-
bus- com cobus- tion of tion of deter- or ess or ess
bus- bus- died
ftion ofi pro- fat in dt mined., g )
on tion of tion of t ained inthe m
eat. feces. urine. gained (+) orin boy est- e) sti-
(+) or lost -(-+ mated, mated,
lost (_) f g-f h -f.
f+e).

Calo- Cain- Calo- Calo- Calo- Calbo- Cado- Oalo- Per
1898. ries. ries. ries. ries. rie rs. rides. ries. ries. cent.
Nov. 8-9, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m .. 2,596 125 187 -126 +247 2,163 2,232 + 69 +3.2
9-10,7 a. m. to 7 a. m 2,596 .125 166 40 +273 2,072 2,112 + 40 +2.0
10-11,7 a.m. to a. m 2,596 125 165 35 +240 2,101 2,10 + 7 + .3
Total, 3 day........... 7,788 375 518 -201 +760 6,336 6,452 +16 .......
Average, I day ....... 2,596 125 173 67 +253 2,112 2,151 + 39 +1.8


METABOLISM EXPERIMENT NO. 14.

Subject.-E. 0., who served as the subject in experiments Nos. 11
and 13 here reported. His weight without clothing was about 64 kilo-
grams (141 pounds). It will be noticed that he had lost about 6 kilo-
grams in weight between the last experiment and this one. During
the intervening time he had a severe cold.





41


Occupation during experiment.--Reading and writing, with as little
muscular and mental activity as possible. The subject was consider-
ably more quiet during this rest experiment than during the previous
one.
Duration.-Four days, beginning at 7 a. m., December 20, 1898.
The preliminary period continued 3 days, beginning with breakfast,
December 17, 1898. The subject entered the respiration chamber on
the evening of December 19.
Diet.-The diet during the experiment was much the same as during
the previous experiment, and furnished 94 grams of protein and 2,513
calories of energy per day. The kinds and quantities of food served
at each meal and the quantities of drink consumed each day were as
follows:
TABLE 36.-Diet in metabolism e.rperiment No. 14.

FOOD.


Food materials.


Beef.........................................................
Butter ................... ..................................
Milk, skimmed................ ...............................
Bread ................................... .......................
Maize breakfast food..........................................
Ginger snaps..................................................
Sugar ...... .................................................


Breakfast.1 Dinner. Supper. Total.

Grauims. Gramns. Grams. Grainis.
553 105 ......... 160
20 25 25 70
200 .......... 250 450
95 105 110 310
50 .................... 50
........... .......... 30 30
20 20 24 64


DRINK.


Coffee
Time infusion.

Gramis.
Breakfast .................... 300
10.30 a. m .......... ........... ..........
Dinner ....................... 300
3.50 p. m ..................... ..........


\Water.


Time.


Gramn. s
.......... I Supper ......................
200 10.00 p. in ....................
.......... Total for day .........
200


Coffee tr
infusion.

Gramis. Grams.
300 ..........
.......... 200
900 600


The general routine of the experiment is shown in the following
schedule. The statistics of the diary are summarized in Table 38.

TABLE 37.-Daily programme--Metabolism experiment No. 14.


7.00 a.m ..... Rise, pass urine, weigh self 3.30 p. m...... Drink 200 grams water.
stripped, collect drip, weigh 6.30 p. m...... Supper.
absorbers. I7.00 p. m...... Pass urine, collect drip, weigh
7.45 a. m ....... Breakfast. absorbers.
10.30a. m ....... Drink 200 grams water. 10.00 p. m..... Drink 200 grams water, weigh self
1.00 p. m ....... Pass urine, collect drip, weigh stripped, take cap off food aper-
absorbers. ture, retire.
1.30 p. m....... Dinner. 1.00 a. m...... Pass urine.
I "







42


TABLE 38.-Summary of diary-Metabolism experiment No. 14.


Date.


Weightof
subject in
under-
Sclothes.


1898.
Dec. 20,7.00 a. m .........................
10.30 a.m ........................
5.30 p.m ........................
9.00 p.m ........................
10.00 p. m .......................
Dec. 21,7.00 a. m ........................
10.00 a. m .......................
2.00 p. m .........................
5.30 p. m ........................
9.00 p.m .........................
10.00 p. m .......................
Dec. 22,7.00 a. m ........................
3.00 p. m ........................
10.00 p. m .........................
Dec. 23,7.00 a.m .........................
3.00 p.m ..........................
10.00 p.m .......................
Dec.24,7.00 a. m ..........................


Kilogra is.
63.59
............
............


64.28
63.59


63.96 .....
63.10

64.28
S63.23

63.95
62.64


Pulse rate
perminute.


64
67
65
66

57


61
60
62
60


Hygrom- ter reaigu "
Hygrometer readings.


Tempera-
ture.


oF.
99.0
99.2
99.4
99.1


98.2
98.6
98.2
98. 6
98. 6

98.2
99.4
99.6
99.5
99.2 ,
97.9
97.2


Wet bulb.....

OC.


Dry bulb.

oC.
20.8
21.4
21.2
21.3
............ .
21.0
21.4
21.1
21.3
21.2

21.4
21.4
21.4

21.0
21.1
21.4
21.4


Detailed data of income and outgo.-The


income

made.

and the


usual determinations of


TABLE 39.- 'eight, composition, and heat of combustion of foods-Metabolism experi-
ment Ne. 14.


Food materials.


Beef .............
Butter ..........
Skimmed milk...
Bread ..........
Maize breakfa,-t
food...........
Sugar ............
Ginger snaps.....


Weight
per day.


Grains.
160
70
450
310

50
64
30


Water.



Grams..
105.6
7.4 '
405.9
129.3

2.9

1.4


Pro- Carbo-
Fat.J hy-
tei. drates.


Grams. Grams. Grams.
44.5 6.7 ........
.8 59.9 ........
17.1 .5 22.5
24.5 8.7 143.5


5.5

2.0


S 4.2

I 2.5


36.5
64.0
23.3


652.5 94.4 82.5 289.8


and outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and energy were

The quantities of nutrients in the food consumed each day

quantities rejected in the feces are shown in Tables 39 and 40.


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.



2967
2970 1
2972
2968
2960



2969


Nitro-
gen.


Gramis.
7.10
.13
2.75
3.94


.89

.31

15.12


Car-
bon.


Grams.
28.40
43.79
19.58
84.72

22.41
26.94
13.16


Hydro-
gen.


Grains.
4.22
7.14
2.75
12.74

3.21
4.15
2.02


Heat of
combus-
tion.


Calories.
314
553
198
840

223
253
182


15.6
17.0
16.4
16.
...........
162
16.4
16.4
17.1
16.6

16.6
16.6
17.1
16.7
17.1
16.9
17.0


iiii.iiii;;;ii
.:


i4


Tntal........ 1,134


239.00 36.23


2,513





43


TABLE 40.-IWeight, composition, and heat of combustion of feces-Metabolism experi-
ment No. 14.
Lab- Heat of
Weight I Carbo- Nitro- Car- Hydro Heat of
or of Water. 1 Fa. ombus-
tor feces. tein. draies. gen. bon. gen
Nofeces. tion.

Grams. Grami. Grams. Grains. Grais. Graims. Grams. iGrants. Calories.
2974 Total, 4 days..... 218.8 162. 3 21.4 14.7 12.7 3.43 29.52 4.04 328
Average, 1day... 54.7 40.6 5.4 3.7 3.2 .86 7.38 1.01 82


The amount and composition of the urine during this experiment
are shown in Tables 41 and 42. As usual, the urine was collected in
6-hour periods, from which composite samples were made for the
whole day.
After the urine for the 6-hour periods had been analyzed for nitro-
gen in the usual way. the small remaining portions were, as has been
the custom, discarded, although the daily composite samples and the
total composite sample for 4 days were saved until all possibility of
their being required for future analysis had passed. Immediately
after the urine for the 6-hour periods had been discarded, it was
discovered that there were certain errors in the determinations of
nitrogen, which rendered the results more or less uncertain. The
nitrogen was predetermined in the total composite, and the results of
these redeterminations appear in Table 41. These results are used in
the calculation of the outgo of nitrogen instead of the sum of those
in 6-hour periods, inasmuch as the latter, although in most cases
very nearly the same, are thought to be, if anything, less accurate.
The heat of combustion of the total composite sample of urine for
the 4 days of this experiment was determined soon after its close, but
the determinations of the daily composites were. as explained in the
description of the previous experiment, unavoidably postponed so
long that the urine had partially decomposed. The heat of combus-
tion of the urine for each day in this experiment is therefore com-
puted in the same way" as the carbon, hydrogen, and water-free sub-
stance. The urine was not collected after the close of the experiment.

"U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 69, p. 35.






44


TABLE 41.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine by .ix-hour periods--Mfe
lisn, experiment No. 14.


Date.


1898.
Dec. 20-21








21-22








22-23








23-24


267. 6


7 a.m.to 1 p.m ..................................
1 p.m .to 7 p.m ................. .................
7 p.m to 1 a.m .... .............................
1 a.m to7 a.m ..................................

Total ................ .....................
Total by composite.......................

7 a.m .to 1 p.m .................................
1 p.m .to7 p.m .................................
7 p.m .to 1 a. m ................................
1 a.m. to7 a.m ................................

Total .......... ..........................
Total by composite......................

7a.m.to 1 p.m ................................
1 p.m .to7 p. m ..................................
7 p.m.to 1 a. m .................................
I a. m. to 7 a. ...............................

Total ...................................
Total by composite.......................

7 a.m .to 1 p.m ..................................
1 p.m.to 7 p.m ................................
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ...............................
1 a.m to 7 a. m .......................... .......

Total ................ ....................
Total by composite.......................

Total of composites......................
Composite, 4 days..........................


Amount
of urine.

Grams.


Nitrogen content.; : :i


Per cent. Grawms .
1.98 ...... ... i
1.78 ..........


Specific
gravity.



1.028
1.028
1.023
1.027


1.025

1.023
1.019
1.013
1.016
1.016


315.9
345.8
161.7

1,091.0
1,091.0

241.7
426.6
573.1
221.0

1,462.4
1,462.4

352.6
491.2
590.4
164.5

1,598.7
1,598.7

263.5
497. 4
703. 7
181.3


1.011
1.022


.66
1.34


1- *I I


1,645.9 .........
1,645.9 1.024

5,798.0 .........
5,798.0 .........


.91


........12
1.12


TABLE 42.-Daily elimination of carbon, hydrogen, water, and energy in urine-Metab-
olism experiment No. 14.


Date.


Amount
of urine.


189._' Gramns.
Dec.20-21.................. 1,091.0
21-22................. 1,462.4
22-23.................. 1,598.7
23-24 ................ 1,645.9

Total,4 days......... 5,798.0


Carbon. Hydrogen.


P. c.' Grams. P. cf.
...... 14.09 ......
...... 11.97 .....
...... 11.40 ......
...... 11.24 ..

0.84 48.70 0.24


Grains.
4.02
3.42
3.26
3.21


13.91


W$



P.ct.


......


96.08


Heat of combus-
tion.
water.
Per Total.
gram.

Grams. Calorie. calories .
1,037.3 .......... 164
1,416.8 .......... 140
1,555.3 .......... 133
1,603.1 .......... 11

5,612.5 0.098 568


Period.


Amount


S 1.49
1.95

..........
1.72

1.59
1.18
.82
1.08


1.016 1.09

1.019 1.04
1.016 .98
1.012 .74
1.022 1.46

.......... ..........
1.015 .95

1.022 1.19
1.016 .97


.......... .


19.22 -
18.77







15.96
15.94







15.25
15.19
..........


15.03
14.98


64.88
64.94


~~-----~-----


:I i


'


I


. ... ... ...






45


The amounts of carbon dioxid and water given off in respiration and

perspiration during the experiment are shown in Tables 43-45.

TABLE 43.-Comparison of residual amounts of carbon dio.rid and water in the chamber
at the beginning and end of each period, and the corresponding gain or loss-Metabolism
experiment No. 14.


Carbon dioxide.


Date. i
*


End of period.


1898.
Dec. 20-21 7 a.m............
1 p.m............
7 p.m............
1 a.m .............
7a.m............

Total .......

21-22 1 p.m.............
7 p.m............
1 a.m.............
7 a.m.............


22-23 1 p. m
7 p.mn:
1 a.m
7 a.m


23-24 1 p.
7 p.
1 a.m
7a. m


Gain (+)
Total or
amount loss (-)
in cham- over
ber. preceding
period.

Grams. Grams.
30.6 .. ..........
38.0 + 7.4
35.2 2.8
27.1 -- 8.1
24.0 3.1


- Afi


Water.


Total i Gain (+)
amount or
of vapor loss(-)
remain- over
ing in preceding
chamber. period.

Granms. Grams.
40.3 ............
46.0 + 5.7
44.7 1.3
49.5 + 4.8
39.4 -10.1


.......... V ......... ---
33.4 + 9.4 39.8
35.5 + 2.1 46.7
27.9 7.6 45.4
27.0 .9 42.3


Total.................. + 3.0 ... .....

............. 37.7 +10.7 44.2
............. 41.6 + 3.9 48.2
............. 37.1 4.5 53.2
............. 28.9 8.2 45.8

Total ....... .... .... + 1.9 ............

............. 37.4 + 8.5 44.5
............. 37.6 I + .2 45.9
............. 27.5 -10.1 50.9
............. 23.8 3.7 46.4
l -


Total.......


- 5.1 ............


- .9

+ .4
+ 6.9
- 1.3
- 3.1


Change in Total
weight of amount
absorbers gained +)
gain (+) or lost --)
or during the
loss (-). period.

Grams. Grams.
............ .... ........
-10 4.3
+19 +17.7
8 3.2
7 -17.1

-6 6.9

2 1.6i
+ 7 +13.9
1 2.3
0 -3.1


+ 2.9 + 4 + 6.9

+ 1.9 8 6.1
+ 4.0 +22 +26.0
+ 5.0 3 + 2.0
- 7.4 3 -10.4

+ 3.5 + 8 +11.5

- 1.3 -16 -17.3
+ 1.4 + 8 + 9.4
+ 5.0 + 5 +10.0
- 4.5 + 3 1.5

+ .6 ............ + .6






4 6 "...


TABLE .44.-Record of carbon dioxid in ventilating air current-Metabolism experimwt$
No. 14.


Date.






1898.
Dec. 20-21






21-22






22-23






23-24


Period.


7 a.m. to 1 p.m.
1 p.m. to 7p.m.
7p.m. to 1 a.m.
1 a.m. to 7 a.m.

Total .........

7 a.m. to 1 p.m.
1 p.m. to7 p.m.
7 p.m. to 1 a.m.
1 a.m. to 7a.m.

Total .........

7a.m. to 1 p.m.
1 p.m. to 7p.m.


7 p.m.
1 a.m.


to I a.m.
to 7 a. m.


Total ........

7a.m. to 1 p.m.
1 p.m. to 7 p.m.
7 p.m. to 1 a.m.
1 a.m. to 7a.m.


Total .........

Total, 4 days..


(a)


Ventila-
tion
(number
of liters
of air).



Liters.
26,170
26,608
27,430
27,525


In incoming
air.

(b) (c)
P.r Tont 1


liter.


Mg.
0.634
.566
.555
.591


axb.


Grams.
16.6
15.1
15.2
16.3


Carbon dioxid.


(d)

In out-
going
air.



Grams.
221.6
225.6
226.5
161.7


(e)
Total
excess in
outgo-
ing air,
d-c.


Grams.
205.0
210.5
211.3
145.4


(f)
Correc-
tion for
amount
remain-
ing in
cham-
ber.

Grams.
+ 7.4
2.8
8.1
3.1


Cor-
rected
amount
exhaled
by sub-
ject,
e+f.

Grams.
212.4
207.7
203.2
142.3


(h).
Total
weight
of car-
bon ex-
haled,



Grams.
57.9
56.7
55.4
38.8


107,733 ........ 63.2 835.4 772.2 6.6 765.6 208.8

26,971 i .598 16.1 217.0 200.9 + 9.4 210.3 67.4
26,507 .597 15.8 218.6 202.8 + 2.1 204.9 55.9
27,130 .571 15.5 214.5 199.0 7.6 191.4 52.2
26,989 .576 15.5 154.2 138.7 .9 137.8 37.6

107,597 ........ 62.9 804.3 741.4 + 3.0 744.4 203.1

26,093 .595 15.5 219.8 204.3 +10.7 215.0 58.6
27,152 .615 16.7 220.7 204.0 + 3.9 207.9 56.7
27,485 .616 16.9 229.6 212.7 4.5 208.2 56.8
27,580 .639 17.6 157.9 140.3 8.2 132.1 36.0

S108,310 ........ 66.7 828.0 761.3 + 1.9 763.2 208.1

26,9,1 .625 16.8 224.5 207.7 + 8.5 216.2 58.9
27,059 .577 15.6 232.1 216.5 + .2 216.7 59.1
27,818 .552 15.3 227.8 212.5 -10.1 202.4 55.2
27,533 .576 15.8 151.0 135.2 3.7 131.5 35.9


109,381 ........

433,021 ........


63.5 835.4

256.3 3,303.1


771.9


- 5.1


766.8


3,046.8 6.8 3,040.0


209.1

829.1





47


TABLE 45.-Record of water in ventilating air current-Metabolism experiment No. 14.


Total.........


(a) Watei
comii
c










Lilers. Igs.
(b)


Period.









7 a.m. to 1 p.m.! 26. 170 1.023
1 p.m. to 7 p. m. 26, 608 .888
7 p. m. to a.m. 27,430 .853
1 a. m. to 7 a. m. 27, 525 .870


107,733 ....... 97.8
- I -19;


7a.m. to 1 p. m. 26,971
1 p.m. to7 p. m. 26,507
7 p.m. to 1 a. m. 27, 130
1a.m. to 7 a. m. 26,989

Total......... 107,597

7a.m. to 1 p. m. 26,093
1 p.m. to7 p.m.' 27,152
7 p.m. to a.m. 27,485
1 a. m. to 7 a. m. 27,580
I-~
Total......... 108,310

7a.m. tol p.m. 26,971
1 p.m.to7 p.m. 27,059
7 p.m. to a.m. 27,818
1 a.m. to 7 a. m. 27,533

Total......... 109,381

Total, 4 days.. 433,021


. 868
. 882
. 86
.894



.884
.930
.952
.871



.942
.927
.874
.886


23.4 i
23.4
24.0
24.1


Water in outgoing air.

(d) (c) (.)

c c a


r in in-
ug air.

(c)




.5


c-



Grams.
26.8
23.6
23.4
24.0


C0-
rC
4.6






Gra s. I
46.6
41.6
1C


1898.
Dec. 20-21







21-22







22-23







23-24


390.5 3,545.6 683. 8
Kio~ssh


-4-



E-

Grnms.
241.7
261.5


(g)


Grams.

E -
5-








Grams.
214.9
237.9


o "
-c

a



Gn rlns.
195. 1
219.9
229.8
222.2

867.0

203. 5
222.4
220. 1
215. 7


1.027.8 932.9

242. 5 219. 4
262.3 237.0
289.0 262.8
266.1 242. 1

1,059.9 961.3

260.1 234.7
277.1 252.0
282.1 257.8
281.0 256.6


1,100.3


4,229.4


1,001.1


Date.


3,838.9 1 +12.1 3,851.0


____


94.9 861.7 166.1

23.1 203.5 39.0
25.3 220.1 42.2
26.2 241.9 47.1
24.0 224.4 41.7

98.6 889.9 170.0

25.1 216.2 43.9
25.1 235.6 41.5
24.3 235.6 46.5
24.4 239.6 41.4

99.2 927.0 173.3


4.). I Zi-4.t L. *
41.1 263.3 239.3

174.4 '1,041.4 943.6

40.7 I 244.2 220.8
40.4 262.8 239.4
45.4 265.5 241.5
39.6 255.3 231.2


(h) (iI
--




c o 1
4. 3 210.















3.1 228.1
Qa H
< ._ y

























+ 2.0 264. +
-1Gras. Gr23as
- 4.3 210.6
+17. 7 255. 6
- 3.2 248.3
-17.1 222.2

- 6.9 936.7

- 1.6 219.2
+13. 253. 3
- 2.3 239.2

- 3.1 228.1

+ 6.9 1939.
- 6.1 213.3

+26.0 263.0
+ 2.0 261.S
-10.4 i231.7

+-11.j5 972. 8

-17.3 217.4
+ 9.4 261.4
+10.0 267.
- 1.5 255.1

+ .6 1,001.7






48


Table 46 summarizes the heat measurements during this experiam .i

TABLE 46.-Summary of calorimetric measurements-Metabolism experiment No i:: 14


(a) (b)



Heat Change
DatePeriod. meas- ot tem-
Date. eo. ured feature
in terms of calo-
.r i -


Uol .20.




Calories.
7 a. m. to 1 p. m... 546.0
1 p.m. to 7 p.m... 509.9
7 p.m.to 1 a.m... 444.3
1 a.m.to7a.m... 328.3

Total....... 1,828.5

7 a.m. to1 p.m... 466.5
1 p.m.to7p. m... 478.3
7 p.m.to la.m... 364.4
1 a.m. to 7 a.m...i 271.5


Total......

7 m. to 1 p.m...
1 p.m.to7 p.m...


7 p.m. to 1 a.m...
1 a. m. to 7 a.m...

Total.......

7 a.m. to p.m...
1 p. r. to 7p.m...
7 p. m. to 1 a.m...
1 a. m. to 7a.m...

Total.......

Total, 4 days


1,580. 7

458.3
502. 5
408. 9
297.0

1,666.7

503.7
514.6
403.0
247.7


rlmeter.




Degree.
+0.06
+ .05
00
+ .05

..........
.02
04
.05
00


+ .05
.05
+ .05
.05

...........

+ .02
00
+ .04
00


1,669.0 I.........

6,744.9 i..........
I


(c (d) I (e) (f) ()
Water va-
Sporized
Capacity Correc- equals
Capacity on due total Heat Total
correc- t t amount used in heat
tion ofpertue exhaled vapori- deter-
calorm-of food less nation of mined.
eter, and amount water, a+e+d
bx60. dishes, con- ex0.592. +f.
densed
in cham-
ber.

Calories. Calories. Grams. Calories. C(ories.
+3.6 20.3 220.6 130.6 659.9
+3.0 43.3 236.6 140.1 S0.7
0 .......... 256.3 151.7 686.0
+3.0 .......... 229.2 135.7 4db7.0

+9.6 63.6 942.7 558.1 2,332.6
-1.2 24.3 221.2 131.0 572.0
-2.4 42.3 246.3 145.8 579.4
-3.0 .......... 240.2 142.2 503.6
0 .......... 228.1 135.1 406.6

-6.6 66.6 935.8 554.1 2,061.6

+3.0 21.8 221.3 131.0 570.5
-3.0 37.3 241.0 142.7 604.9
+3.0 .......... 267.8 158.5 570.4
-3.0 .......... 234.7 139.0 483.0

.......... -59.1 964.8 571.2 2,178.8

+1.2 25.4 233.4 1 138.2 617.7
0 41.4 253.4 150.0 623.2
+2.4 .......... 262.8 155.6 561.0
0 .......... 252. 1 149.3 397.0

+3.6 66.8 1,001.7 593.1 2,198.9

+6.6 -256.1 3,845.0 2,276.5 8,771.9


'I


1898.
Dec. 20-21






21-22


22-23


23-24


a
;ii






49


Balance of income and ,ut show the income and outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and energy

in this experiment, and the average for 4 days.


TABLE 47.-Income eiml ouiff(yip l, ilr; oiftlen

Time.


1898.
Dec. 20-21,7 a. m. to a7. in ..
21-22,7 a. m. to 7 a. n..
22-23,7 a. in. to 7 a. m..
23-24,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..

Total, 4 day< ........
Average, 1 day......


Nitro gen.

( I I i (c I dI I (I

In in In i, In





1 1 3. 4 1-. -4.; 23 .
l15.1 9 1.. 1) -2.1; 2:39. 0
15-. 1 .y 15.2 -1.0 ; 39.0

1.1 .8S 1-.0 .7 "239.)

tl;U. 4 3.4 64. -7.9 i %6.U
15. 1 .9 16.2 --2.0 2:9.0
I :3.


Carbon.

( I i I/ I til
In i-r?-
In In pirai-

Sll'-.
r rine. ItI




7. 4 14. 1 .'t".
7.4 12.0 203.1
7.4 11.4 20S.i
7.4 11.*2 209.1

29. ; 4S. 7 ,,29. 1
7. 4 1-2.2 2U'7.3


TABLE -48.-Income and outgo of wai,'r uul ,itnd i'i rI-.litvtoi.nii t,'.lru' riment tou. 14.


Time.


Dec. 20-21.7 i. m to 7 a. ................
21-22,7 i. in. to 7 a. m ................
22-23,7 a.m. i) 7 a. .................
23-24,7 a. m. to 7 1. m................

Total, 4 days .....................
Average, 1 day....................


"1it r.


(vi I


Ill fcul. Ill drink. In i < *t.' -. In u iii l.-.


(,fiai Irl. f i;v I Itvs.. I' l'(uI.
G 2. .i 1. 500 40. ; 107.
1;,52.S 1. .>00 40.6 1, 411t6.
6.2. 5 1..:,1o 410. 1, .-5.. 3
6.52.5 1. 500 40. 1, 6l03. 1

2.j610.0 6. o00 162.4 5.,612. 5
652.5 1,500 40. i; 1. 403. 1


Time.


I Hdrogen.


g)oo.
In food.


1898. Gran ..
Dec. 20-21, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m............... 36.2
21-22, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ............. 36.2
22-23, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m .............. 36.2
23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m .............. 36.2

Total, 4 days....................... 144.8
Average, 1 day .................... 36.2


i t) i ) 1 ) 1 r ) / ( ',
Total
Appar- Lo-,- gain (+)
In feces. In urine. eni gain. irom or lo-s
I -ih+/ i. water, (-,
f-9. I/-+m.

Gram<. ( Gr'nt. (Gramit. GramIs. Gmra s.
1.0 4. 1 31.1 + 15.3 +1 .4
1.0 3.4 31.8 27.2 + 4.6
1.0 3.2 32.0 16.2 -11.2
1.0 3.2 32.0 54.8 -22.8

4.0 I 13.9 126.9 -112.9 +11.0
1.0 | 3.5 31.7 2S.2 + 3.5


13007-No. 109--.12- 4


I ; ll
I --- I+ l
I,,-, )
S-It I +




+ b.7
+16.5
+12.1
--11.3

+4 .6
-r-12.1


I I
Inl re--
lire ii -



If Iflit.'.
936. 7
939. .
972. .
1.O11n.7

3. sMl.
912. .'


AI I-
,,-h-
( r--a -- ).



- 137.9
- 244.7
- 416.2
- 492.9

-1,01..9
- 254.0


II')





"'
50


TABLE 49.-Gain or loss of protein (NX6.2.5), fat, and water-Metabolism expe~nlrat
No. 14. : :. :


Time.


189S.
Dec. 20-21, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m .............
21-22, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..............
22-23. 7 a. in. to 7 a. in .............
23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ...........

Total, 4 days......................
Average, 1 day ...................




Timtv.


1898.
Dec. 20-21, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m .............
21-22, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ............
22-23, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ............
23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m .............

Total, 4 days ......................
Average, 1 day ....................


(a)
Nitro-
gen
gained
(+) or
lost (-).


(b)
Protein
gained
(4-) or
lost (-),
a x. 6.25.


(C)
Total
carbon
gained
(+) or
lost (--).


Grams. Grains. Grams.
-4.6 -28.7 + 8.7
-1.6 -10.0 +16.5
-1.0 6.3 +12.1
.7 4.4 +11.3

-7.9 -49.4 +48.6
-2.0 -12.4 +12.1


(d)
Carbon
in pro-
tein
gained
(+) or
lost (-),
b x0.53.

Gra ns.
-15.2
5.3
3.3
2.3


-26. 1
- 6.5


(g) (h.) (i)
Total Hydrogen Hydrogen
hydrogen in protein in fat
gained + gained (+);gained (+)
gained t ) orlost (-), or lost (-),
or lost (--). b0.07. f+0.12.


Grams. Grams. Grams.
S +46.4 -2.0 + 3.8
+ 4.6 .7 + 3.4
-14.2 .4 + 2.4
S -22.8 .3 + 2.1

+14.0 -3.4 +11.7
S + 3.5 .8 + 2.9


(e)
Carbon
in. fat,
etc.,
gained
(+) or
lost (-),
c-d.

Grams.
+23.9
-21.8
h +15.4
+13.6


I -


+74.7
+18. 6


(k)
Hyrogen
in water,
etc.,
gained (+)
or lost (-),
g-(h+i).

Grams.
+44.6
+ 1.9
-16.2
-24.6

+ 5.7
+ 1.4


Pat
gain ed
(+)or.

e-0.?e&


Grams.
+31.2
+28.f
+29.1
+17.8


+97.6
+24.4


(1)
Water
gained (+)
or lost(-),
kx9.


Grams.
+401
+ 17
-146
-221

+ 51
+ 13


TABLE 50.-Income and outgo of energy-Metabolism experiment No. 14.


Time.


1898.
Dec. 20-21, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.
21-22, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.
22-23, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.
23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.

Total, 4 days..........
Average. 1 day .......


(a)


Heat
of
com-
bus-
tion of
food
eaten.


Calo-
'ries.
2,513
2,513
2, 513
2,513


10,052
2,513


I


ti
f


(b)



leat
of
?om-
bus-
on of
eces.





7naM-


S082
82
82
82
82_


(e)



Heat
of
com-
bus-
tion of
urine.




Calo-
ries.
164
140
133
131


(d) (e)
Esti-
mated Esti-
heat mated
of heat of
com- corn-
bus- bus-
tion of tion of
pro- fat
tein gained
gained (+ i or
(+) or lost
lost (-).
(- ). I

Calo- Calo-
ries. ries.
-165 +293
58 +268
36 +189
25 +167


II I I .I-


-284
- 71


+917
+229


(f)
Esti-
mated
energy
of ma-
terial
oxi-
dized
in the
body,
a- (b+
c+d
+el.

Calo-
ries.
2,139
2,081
2,145
2,158


(g)




Heat
deter-
mined.





Calo-
ries.
2,333
2,061
2,179
2,199


(h)

Heat
deter-
mined
great-
er (+)
or less

tan
esti-
mated,
g-f.


Calo-
ries.
+194
20
+ 34
+41


(i)

Heat
deter-
mined
great-
er (+)
or les

taZ
esti-
mated,



Per
cent.
+9.1
-1.0
+1:6
+1.9


8,523
2,131


8,772
2,193


+249
+ 62


+2.9


I


I-


(








METABOLISM EXPERIMENT NO. 21.

Suject.-A. W. S., a physicist, who served as the subject of experi-
ment No. 4, made before the respiration apparatus had been perfected
as a calorimeter." He was 25 years of age and averaged about 70
kilograms (154 pounds) in weight.
Occupation during expernient.-Reading, writing, etc.. with as little
muscular activity as practicable.
Duration.-Three days, beginning at 7 a. m. February 12, 1899.
Diet.-The diet consisted of beef, butter, whole milk. bread, parched
cereal, and sugar, and furnished 97 grams of protein and 2,264 calories
of energy per day. The kinds and quantities of food served at each
meal and the quantities of drink at different periods of the day were
as follows:

TABLE 51.-Diet i metabolism e.rpe'rimeiti NY. 21.

FOOD.


Food materials.


Break ast.

Grafnl n.s


Beef ......... ..............................
Butter .......................................... ......
Milk, whole................................................... 25
Bread ......... .......................................... .5
Parched cereal................................................. 3
Sugar ..................................... ...... ................. 4


I5
7
0
i5
;
0


Dinner,

Grains.
105
10
175
100


. ..........


Supper. Total.

Gr.mis. GramI .
.......... 160
13 30
325. 750
155 310
.......... 30
.. .. .. ... 45


DRINK.


Time.



Breakfast ..............................
10.00 a. m ..............................
Dinner................................
3.30 .......................... ..........


Water. Time.

Grauis.
300 Supper .................................
200 10.30 p. m ..............................
300 Total for day.....................
200


The general routine of the experiment is indicated in the following
schedule. The statistics of the diary kept by the subject are sum-
marized in Table 53, below:

TABLE 52.-Daily programme-Metabolism experiment No. 21.


7.00 a.m ....


7.45 a. m ....

1.00 p. m....


...Rise, pass urine, weigh self I 1.15p.m...... Dinner.
stripped and dressed, weigh 6.00 p.m...... Supper.
absorbers. 7.00 p.m ...... Pass urine.
.. Breakfast, drink 200 grams. 10.30 p.m..... Pass urine, weigh self stripped,
water. take cap off food aperture,
... Pass urine. i retire.

aU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 44, p. 51.


1Vater.

Graens.
300
200
1.500







52


TABLE 53.-Summary of diary-Metabolism experiment No. 21.


Time.



1899.


Feb. 12, 7.00 a. m
12.43 p. m
6.45 p. m
10.00 p. m
Feb. 13, 7.00 a. m
12.45 p. m
6.50 p. m
10.05 p. m
Feb. 14, 7.00 a. m
12.45 p. m
7.25 p. m
10.00 p. m


Feb. 15, 7.00 a.m .......................


Weight of
subject
without
clothes.

Kilogra ms.


Pulse rate
per min-
ute.


69.48 70
............ ............
............ ............
69.80 64
69.35 74



69.84 61
69.34 70



69.43 67
69.05 72


Tempera-
ture.


OF.
97.8
............
............
97.1
97.5
............


97.1
97.0
............


98.0
97. 4


Hygrometer reading,


Dry bulb.


C.
19.80
19.90
19.70
19.75
20.00
19.80
19.70
19.80
20.00
19.65
19.80
19.70
20.30


Wet bulb.


00.
15.15
15.20
15.40
15.00
14.10
15.30
15.10
15.40
15.00
15.50r
15.80
15.80
15.70


Detailed data of income and outgo.-The usual statistics of income

and outgo of matter and energy are shown in Tables 54-61, which

follow.

Experiments not reported here, covering 10 consecutive days, pre-

ceded experiment No. 21. During this time the bowels were slightly

lax. This prevented separation of the feces for the preliminary

days from those for experiment No. 21. The total feces for 13

days are therefore recorded, as well as the average per day for this

experiment.


TABLE 54.-lWeight, composition, and heat of combustion
ment No. 21.


of foods-Metabolism experi-


Food materials. per
day.


Grams.
Beef............... 160
Butter ........... 30
Milk, whole...... 750
Bread ............ 310
Cereal, parched.. 30
Sugar ............ 45

Total....... 1,325


Water.



Grams.
106.7
2.6
649.5
12f9 3
1.8


Pro-
tein.


Grams.
44.6
.4
24.0
24.5
3.4


Car-
Fat. bohy-
drates.


Grams. Grams.
4.2 .......
26.3 ........
33.0 37.5
8.7 143.5
.2 24.1
......... 45.0


II I I Il-


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.



3022
3020
3024
2968
3004


Nitro-
gen.


Grams.
7.14
.06
3.83
3.94
.55
........|


Car-
bon.


Grams.
26.51
19.87
52.72
84.72
12.42
18.95


Hydro-
gen.


Grams.
4.06
3.16
7.05
12.74
1.85
2.92


Heat of
com-
bustion.


Calories.
292
245
587
840
122
178


,


........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................


889.9


15.52


215.19


31.78


2,264


96.9


72.4 250.1






53


TABLE 55.--Weight, composition, aind heat of combustion of feces-Metabolism experi-
ment No. 21.


Lab- Ieight Pa ro- Cat r Nitro- Car- Hydro- Heat of
or,- of Water Fat. bohy- I t'om-
tory fece. tein. rates. gen. bon. gen. bustion.
No.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grains. Calories.
3033 Total, 13days... 831.7 603.8 84.0 52.4 52.4 13.47 116.69 16.13 1,307
Average, I day... 63.9 46.4 6.5 4.0 4.0 1.04 8.9s 1.24 100

*This period includes the 3 days of the experiment and 10 days of a preliminary experiment not
reported herewith.

The elimination of nitrogen in the urine during this experiment is

summarized in Table 56, which also gives the details of the* total
amount of urine and its nitrogen content in each 6-hour period. The

daily elimination of carbon, hydrogen, water, and energy in the urine
is shown in Table 57.

TABLE 56.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine Iy si.r-htoir periods-Metab-
olism experiment No. 1.


SAmount Specific
of urine. gravity.


Nitrogen content.


1899.
Feb. 12-13







13-14







14-15







12-14
12-14


GI aiius.
7 a.m.to 1 p.m ................................. 135.7 1.015
1 p. m to p. m ............................... s06.8 1. 009
7 p. m. to 1 a. m ................................ 224.0 1.015
1 a.m.to 7 a. m ................................. 214.4 1.017

Total ....................................... 80. .........
Total by com posite ........................ 1, 0.9 1.014
7 a.m. to 1 p.m ................................. 5S. 1. 01U
1 p. m. to 7 p. m ................................. 536. 1.014
7 p. m .to l a. m ....................... ......... 39.s. 1.010
1 a. m .to 7 a. m .............. .................. 223.5 1.026

Total ......................... ...... ... 1. 74.. 1 ..........
Total by comp'ssite...................... 1,748.1 1.015

7a.m.tol p.m ................................ 637.5 1.010
1lp.m.to 7 p.m ................................ 656.6 1.012
7 p.m.to 1 a.mn ......................... ....... 441.5 1.009


1 a. m


P I'* C Ilt.
0.93
.5.

1.74


..7

86

.62
1.79


.94

.67
.74
55


4.05
4.68
2.04
3.73
14.50
14.62

5.06
4.67
2.42
4.00

16.15
16.43

4.27
4.86
2.43


i.to 7 a. m .............. ......... ........ 229.7 1.025 1.69 3.88
Total ............ .. ... .1,965..................... 1,965.3 ...... ............. 15.44
Total by composite ...................... 1,965.3 1.012 .79 15.53
Total, 3 days, by periods ................. 5,394.3 ....................' 46.09
Total by composite........................ .-,394.3 1.013 .8.5 46.15


Date.


Period.


i







54


TABLE 57.-Daily elimination of carbon, hydrogen, water, and energy
olism experiment No. 21.


Date.


Amount
of urine.


I I


1899.
Feb.12-13..................
13-14.... .............
14-15...................

Total, 3 days.........


Gra ms.
1,680.9
1,748.1
1,965.3

5,394.3


Carbon. Hydrogen. W



P. ct. Grams. P. ct. Grams. P. ct.
...... 10.18 ...... 2.89 ......
...... 11.34 ...... 3.21 ......
...... 10.85 -.....- 3.07 ......

0.60 32.37 0.17 9.17 96.9


later.


in. urinin



Heat of combugi
tion.

Per Ta
gram.


I I


Gra ms.
1,628.3
1,689.5
1.909.3

5,227.1


Calorie.


.070....
..........
..........

6.070


Calories.
119


127

376


ThIe details of the measurements of carbon dioxide and water in the

ventilating air current are shown in Tables 58-60, which follow.


TABLE 58.-Comparison of residual amounts of carbon dioxide and water in the chamberat
the beginning and end of each period, and the corresponding gain or loss-Metabolism
experiment No. 21.


End of period.


Sa. m ......................
1 p.m ......................
7 p. nm............... ....
1 a. m ......................
7 a. m ......................

Total ................


13-14 1 p. m.....................
7 p.m .......................
I a. ......................
7 a. ni ......................

Total ................

14-15 1 p. m .......................
7p.m ......................
1 a. .......................
7 a. m .......................

Total ................


Carbon dioxid.


Total
amount
in
chamber


GramIs.
32.7
37.4
42.5
29.1
27.4



38.5
45.8
33.9
28.7

..........

46.7
44.0
29.3
25. 7

..........


Gain (+)
or
loss (-)
over pre-
ceding
period.


Gramis.


+ 4.7
+ 5.1
-13.4
- 1.7

- 5.3

+11.1
+ 7.3
-11.9
- 5.2


Water.

Change
Total Gain (+) in
amount or weight
of vapor loss (-) of ab- -
remain- over pre- sorbers,
ing in ceding gain(+)
chamber.' period, or
loss(-).

Grams. Grams. Grams.
38.1 .......... i........
38.6 + .5 ..........
40.3 + 1.7 .........
38.6 1. ...........
35.0 3.6 ..........

.......... 3.1 ..........

41.6 + 6.6 i -1
43.3 + 1.7 -1
41.0 2.3 .........
35.0 6.0 ..........


+ 1.3 ........... 0

+18.0 45.0 +10.0
- 2.7 44.9 .1
-14.7 41.6 3.3
- 3.6 35.7 5.9

- 3.0 .......... + .7


Date.


1899.
Feb. 12-13


Total
amount
gained
(+) or
lost -)
during
the
period.

Grams.


+ .5
+ 1.7
1.7
38.6

3.1

+ 5.6
+ .7
2.8
6.0


- 2.0

+11.0
-.1
- 3..3
- 5.9

+ 1.7


-2

+1





+1


~~


~


. ------- --- ----- .-- -- -- --------- ----






55


TABLE 59.-Record of carbon dio.rid in rentilating air current--Metabolism experiment
No. 21.


Date.





1899.
Feb. 12-13







13-14







14-15


Period.


7 a. nm. to 1 p. nm..
1 p. m. to 7p. m..
7 p. m. to 1la. mi..
1 a. m. to7a. m..

Total .........

7 a.m. to 1p.m..
1 p. m. to7 p. m..
7 p. m. to Ia. m..
1 a.m. to7a. m..

Total .........

7 a. m.to 1 p. m..
1 p. m. to 7 p. m..
7 p.m. to 1a. m..
1 a. m. to 7 a. in..


(a)

Ventila- I
tiin
t number,
of liters
of air).


In incoming
air.


Ib)
Per
liter.


Ie I
Total,
axb.


Carbon dioxid.

(d) (c)
Total
In out- excess
going inourgo-
air. ing air.
d( ,


Liters. .V,.s. Grams. Grains.


26,528 0. 50 15.4
26,608 .595 15.8
27.8b9 .574 16.0
28, 031 .554 15.3

109.0t63 ........ 62. 7

26.505 .569 15.1
26.079 .589 15.3
28,410 1. 046 29.7
28,070 2. 430 B. "

109,064 ....... 12S. 3

26,652 .608 16.2
26,204 .600 15.7
27,251 .57, 1.
27,.s75 .629 17.5


Grai t.F.


(h)

tf} I) Total
Correc- Corrected'
tion for amount feigar
aiiloInt exhaltd cr-
rcmain- by ub- b lex-
ingin jet t, hled
hamnber +f/. i T.

r1 MnS.. G(1rais. IGrains.


239.3 223.9 4.7
239.7 222.9 5.1 1
214.9 19'.9 -13.4
l3. 2 17.7 -- 1.7

857.1 794.4 5.3

243. 2 22'. 1 -11.1
223.2 207.9 7.3
243.2 213.5 -11.9
204.3 13i. 1 5.2

913.9 7..6 1.3

246.9 230.7 -18I
241.7 226. O 2.7
232.9 217.1 -14.7
162.7 145.2 3. 1;


Total ......... 107.982 ....... 65. '2 84.2 l. 3


Total, 3 days..


22S. 6 62. 3
229.0 62.5
1N5.5 50.6
14't6.0 39. 8

7.9.1 215).2

239. 65.2
215.2 5,. 7
201. 5;.
130.9 :35.7

786.9 214.6

24-. 7 67. s
223. 3 110. 9
202. 4 5:2. 2
141.6 t:,. 6

S16. 0 222. 5


326,109 ....... 256.2 2. 655.2 2.399. 7.0 2.392.0 n52.3
325,109 256. 6.55 .i'


TABLE 60.-Record of water in rentilating air ,urrent-M.lfi, tli/di s .Cl/, riit it No. 1.


i i




2Date. Period.
Date. Period.
-i


.j


WVater in in-
coming air.

(b) i. c


4.
<


\\'Rt'er in OLtlR.1inr 1:1
air.




I- .(

Ii -
-' -l ~ .-

S-L
-


I-,
-c
-LI
. -- -- .-,


I-




L : =
--.. ,
.-- .
-IN-IK


1899.
Feb. 12-13







13-14







14-15


7 a.m. to p. m..
1 p. m. to 7 p. m..
7 p.m. to a. m..
1a.m. to7a. m..

Total ........

7 a.m. tol p.m..
1 p. m. to7 p. m..
7p.m. to 1a. m..
1 a. m. to7a.m..

Total .........

7 a. m. to p. m..
1 p.m. to 7p. m..
7p. m. tola. m..
1 a.m. to 7a.m..


Liters.


26, 528
26,60S
27, 896
28,031


gll7.


0. 740
. 756
. 758
.721
721


19.6
20.1
21.2
20. 2


Gra Il,.
194.5
193.0
179. 9
179.9


109.063 ...... 81.1 755.4


26,505 .739 19.6
26,079 .749 19.5
28,410 .775 22.0
28,.070 .84 23. S

109,064 ...... 84.9

26,652 .797 21.3
26,204 .804 21.1
27, 251 .766 20.9
27,875 .75- 21.0


195.9
198.4
208.9
192. 7

795. 9

199.5
213.9
219.3
200.8


(,ani. iram....
34..' 229. 3
36. s 229. ,,
43.7 231.7
34.8 214.7

150. 1 905.. 5

36.1 232.0
33. 8 232.2
43.6 252.5
35. 9 228. 6

149.4 945.3

35. 6 235. 1
34.9 248.
40.9 260. 2
35.3 236.1


209. 7
209. 7
210.5
191.5


GCiv ints.
- 0.5
1.7
1.7
3.6


Griuns.
210.2
211.4
20. 8
190.9


S24.4 3.1 S21.3

212.4 + 5.6 218.0
212.7 + .7 213.4
230.5 2.3 22. 2
201. 6.0 19. 8

S60.4 2.0 s5S.4

213. S +11.0 224.8
'27.7 .1 227.6
239.3 3.3 2.6.0
215.1 5.9 209.2


Total .........107,982 ...... 84.3 833.5 146.7 90.2 895.9 + 1.7 .97.6


250. 3 2, 384. 8 446. 2
I


2, 831.0 .2,50.7 3.4 4 2,577.3
i


326,109 ......


Total, 3 days.. -




........ ... I .


56


Table 61 shows the amount of heat carried away in the water cur-
rent and in the water vapor in successive 6-hour periods.

TABLE 61.--i Summary of calorimetric mea-strements--Metabolism experiment No. 21.


Date.






1899.
Feb. 12-13 7 a.
1 p.
7 p.
1 a.


13-14 7
1

1



1
14-15 7

7
1


Period.


(a)


Heat.
measure
in terms
of Cr,.


(b)


Change
of tem-
perature
of calo-
rimeter.


(c)

Capacity
correc-
tion of
calorim-
eter,
bx 60.


Calories. Degree. Calorie.
m. to 1 p.m.. 531.5 +0.02 +1.2
m. to7 p.m.. 495.2 .02 -1.2
m. to 1 a. m.. 427.3 + .01 + .6
m. to 7 a. m.. 264.8 .03 -1.8
Total........ 1,718.8 .02 -1.2
m to 1 p.m .. 534.9 .......... .......
m. to7 p. m.. 473.2 + .02 -1.2
m. to I a. m.. 427.7 .01 .6
m. to 7 a.m.. 301.6 .03 -1.8
Total........ 1,737.4 .02 -1.2
m. to 1 p. m.. 583.4 .03 -1.8
ni.t o7 p.m..! 493.7 + .06 +3.6
m. to I a. .. 426.7 .01 .6
m. to 7a.m.. 297.7 + .01 + .6
Total........ 1.801.5 + .03 +1.8
Total,3days. 5,257.7 .......... .6


(d) (e)
Water va-i
porized
Correc- equals
tion due total
to tern- amount
perature exhaled
of food less
and amount


(f)

Heat
used in
vaporiza-
tion of
water,
a%,n l;W


(g)


Total
heat de-
termined,
a+c+
d+f.


dishes. con-
densed in
chamber.
-- --- ---- j ---
Calories. Grams. Calories. Calories.
+12.7 210.2 124.4 689.8
+ 9.7 211.4 125.2 628.9
.......... 208.8 123.6 551.5
......... 190.9 113.0 376.0
+22.4 821.3 486.2 2,226.2
+ 8.8 219.0 129.7 673.4
+ 8.1 214.4 126.9 609.4
.......... 228.2 135.1 562.2
.......... 198.8 117.7 417.5
+16.9 1 860.4 509.4 2,262.5
+ 4.7 223.8 132.5 I 718.8
+ 9.1 227.6 134.7 641.1
.......... 236.0 139.7 565.8
.......... 209.2 123.9 422.2
+13.8 896.6 530.8 2,347.9
+53.1 2,578.3I 1,526.4 6,836.6


Balance of income and iutgo of matter and energy.-The income
and outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and energy are shown in
Tables -)2-65.
In earlier experiments it was assumed that. body fat contained 76.5
per cent carbon and 12 per cent hydrogen, with a heat of combustion
of 9.5 calories per gram. Late determinations of the composition and
heat of combustion of body fat by Benedict and Osterberga essentially
confirm these factors, showing 76.1 per cent carbon, 11.8 per cent
hydrogen, and 9.54 calories per gram. These latter factors have been
used in the computations of results of all experiments including and
subsequent to No. 21. This change in factor, however, makes ex-
tremely little difference in the final results, so that it has not been
thought best to recalculate those for experiments preceding No. 21
according to the new factors.

a Amer. Jour. Physiol., 4 (1900), p. 74.


t


1






57


TABLE 62.-Income and outgo of nitrogen and carbon-Metabolism experiment No. 21.


Time.


1899.
Feb. 12-13,7 a. m. to 7 a. m .......
13-14,7 a. m. to 7 a. m .......
14-15,7 a. m. to 7 a. m .......

Total, 3 days ..............
Average. 1 day ............


Nitr

(a) (b)

In In
food. fcre-.

,- I


G ins.
15.5
15 5
15.5

46.5
15.5


Ulli4.
1.0
1.1
1.0

3.1
1.0


)gen.


u


Carbon.


(c) (d)
Gain
(+l
I + I
In or loss
rine. I I.

-c i.


Gois.
14.5
16.2
15.4

46.1
15. -


U-Is.
0

.9
--2.7

.9


(e) (.fI

In In
food. fecrs.


215.2
215.2
215.2

645. 6
215.2


GIllI.
9.0
9.0
9.0

27.0
9.0


(!/ ( h) I /-
In re- in
411-I
rIn1 t spiPr or lis.
1in c. In I Ir
prod-
ti -I +


Gm. G Gn..
10.2 215.2 -19.2
11.3 21-.6 -19.7
10.9 222.5 -27.2

32.4 652.3 i -66.1
10. 217.4 -22.0


TABLE 63.--Lincoe indl owitgo of water ,anld ei(lroge,.-M.fIbolits e.iXperiment No. 21.

Water.


Time.




1899.
Feb. 12-13,7 a.m. to 7 a. m .......
13-14,7 a.m. to 7 a.m .......
14-15,7 a. m. to 7 a. m .......

Total, 3 days...............
Average, 1 day.............


(aI )hi (cb) ii

In food. In drink. In feces. In urine.



Graomts. Gra. G is. Gramn. Grains.
889.9 1,385.4 46.4 1.628.3
889.9 1,383.8 46.4 1.6. 9.5
889.9 1,38-1.9 46.4 1,909.3

2,669.7 4,154.1 139.2 5,227.1
889.9 1,3-4.7 46.4 1,742.4


I, I i/( I
In respira- Appar"nt
IfMr\l
products. a+b-c+


Grand' Graims.
s21.3 220.7
856.4 320.6
897.6 57.'.5

2,577.3 -1,119.8
.%59. 1 373.3


Time.


1899.
Feb. 12-13,7 a. m. to 7a. m........
13-14,7 a. m. to 7 a. m........
14-15,7 a. m. to 7 a. mn........

Total,3 days ..............
Average, 1 day ...........


Hydrogen.


(g)


(h


In food. In feces. i In urine.



Gramnts. Gralm.. Grains.
31.8 1.2 2.9
31.8 1.3 3.2
31.8 1.2 3.1

95.4 3.7 9.2
31.8 1.2 3.1


(/)
Apparent
ga in.
/-i1i+ii.


( M I ( n)
Lo.s from Total
water, gain 1 +) or
-l. I- (-- p,
.f /+m.


Grams. Gratsl. Gram.s.
+27.7 24.5 + 3.2
+27.3 35.6 8.3
+27.5 64.3 -36.8

+82.5 -124.4 -41.9
+27.5 41.5 -14.0


TABLE 64.-Gain or lo0s


of protein (XX6.2.5), fat, and n'ater-Metabolism experimentt
No. 21.


Time.


1899.
Feb. 12-13,7 a. m. to 7 a. m .......
13-14,7 a. m. to 7 a. m .......
14--15,7 a. m. to 7 a. m .......

Total, 3 days...............
Average, 1 day........ ....


Nitrogen
gained
(+) or
lost (- 1.


Grams.


(b)

Protein
gained
(+) or
lost ( --),
a x6.25.


Grams.


0. 0
--1.8 -11.3
- .9 5.6

-2.7 --16.9
- .9, 5.6


(c) (d)

Total Carbon in
carbon protein
gained gained
+)or +)or
lo+s or lost (-i,
lost --). bx 0.53.


Grams. Grams.
-19.2 0
-19.7 -6.0
-27.2 -3.0

-66.1 -9.0
-22.0 -3.0


(e) (f)
Carbon
it fat, Fat
etc., gained
gained (+'1 or
(+) or lost (-),
lost (--), e-0.761.
c-d.

N: ants. Grams.
-19.2 -25.1
-13.7 -17.9
-24.2 -31.6

-57.1 -74.6
-19.0 -24.9


-----~-


II






58


TABLE 64.-Gain or los of protein (XX 6.25), fat, and weater-Metabolism p iif f (
No. S1-Contin ued. .


M) (h) (i) (k) (.)
Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen
Total inl pro- in fat in water, Water
Time. hydrogen teinKgained gained ietc., gained gained
gained (+ or +or (+ )or (+) or
(+ or lost ), lost (-), lot (-), lost (-),
lost ( -). b;0.07. f ..U.118. g-(h+i). kx9..

1''Ju. Granii. I;raimsi. firimn Gramsn. Grams,
Feb. 12-13,7a.m. to7 a.m ................. + 3.2 0 -3.0 + 6.2 + 56
13-14,7 a m. to 7 a. in ................ .8 -2.2 5.3 48
14-15,7 a. m. ti 7 a. in ................ -36.8 .4 -3.8 I -32.6 -298
-Total, 3 days ..................... 41.9 -1. 2 -9.0 -31.7 -286
Average, 1 day................. ..... -14.0 .4 -3.0 -10.6 95


TABLE 65.-Income mid oatlno ep, eiiry-Mcltbbolism e.rperiment No. 21.


Time.


SCOlo- ,
1899. rid's.
Feb. 12-13,7 a. m. to 7 m ..... 2,264
13-14,7 a.m.to 7 a.m ..... 2,24
14-15,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..... 2,264
Total,3 days............. 6,792
Average. 1 day........... 2,264


Heat of H f Htet of
corn- i leat of
bustion c'mu.- bustion
ofood button f
ofaI. food I C VS lt'
eatelln. urine.


Clo,-

100
100
100
300
100


C(lo-
rio.,..
119
132
127
37K
126


Esti-
mated
heat of
bi stiiin
of pro-
tein


ce) I ( ) (y)
Esti-
Eqti- mated
mated energy
heRat of nfma-
('o rn- terima Heat
)busltion 'oxl- deter-
of fla dizcdin mined
rained the


gaieio +) orU body,
(+)or lost a-(b+
lost c+e
+e).

Cnao- Colo- Calo-
ries. ris. rie's.
0 -236 2,281
65 -168 2,265
32 -297 2,366
97 -701 6,912
32 -234 2,304


Calo-
ries.
2,226
2,263
2, 348
6,837
2,279


METABOLISM EXPERIMENTS NOS. 23 AND 24.

These experiments were consecuit\ve and form the last of the experi-
ments of 189S-99.
S,!jvct.-E. O., as in experiments Nos. 11, 13, and 14, described
above.
Occ-up)ttiimn uri;ng t 1',p, r1,n t.-Reading, writing, etc., with as little
mu.scular and mental activity as practicable.
Dration.-Three days each. Experiment No. 23 began at 7 a. m.,
March 16, and ended at 7 a. m., March 19, at which time experiment
No. 24 began and continued 3 days. An experiment not here re-

poited immediately preceded experiment No. 23, so that the subject
actually spent 9 days in the respiration calorimeter. The usual pre-
liminary period preceded the whole series of experiments.
Die-t.-The diet consisted of a basal ration of beef, butter, milk,
bread, parched cereal, sugar, and horseradish, furnishing 124 grams
of protein and 2,546 calories of energy per day. This basal ration


(h)
Heat
deter-
mined
great-
er +)

t i b
esti-
mated
g-f.

Calo.
ries.
- 55
- 2
- 18
- 75
-25


()
Heat
deter-
mined
great-
er(+)
or les
(-)
than
esti-
mated
h-.f.


P. t.
-2.4
- .1
- .7


-1.1


--









was consumed alone in experiment No. 23, but was increased by a
supplemental ration of 130 grams of sugar per day in experiment
No. 24. The kinds and quantities of food served at each meal, and
of drink at different periods of the day are given in Table 66.

TA.BLE 66.-IDirf in m'abolism c.)pcriment., Nos. 23 finld 4.

FOOD-BASAL RATION.


Food mattrrinlb. Brrlkfast. IDinner. "upper. Total.

(rains. (Iratiii Gruit. Grams rl.
Beef................................... ... ........ .. ..... 75. 75 .......... 150
Butter ............ ...... ............................... 15 20 20 55.
Milk, skimmed ................................... ...... 350 390 :WA 1, 1:30
B rea d .......................................... .............. .5 100 15: 310
Parched cereal ....................... ........................ 45 1 .................... 45
Sugar ................ .. ... .. ......... ................. 40 ......... .......... 40
Horseradish ............... ......... ... ..... .... ................ ......... 30

Used with coffee infusion.
b Used chiefly with breakfast and dinner for relish.


FOOD-S-IPPLENIENTAL RATION.

Metabolism experiment No. 24 ......... ...... ....................... ungar, 130 grams.

DRINK.


Time.


Collic
(.ofee Water.


Grai n. Gri'in.s.


Breakfast ....................... 26 ..........
10.30 a. m .................. .. .. .. ........ 201
Dinner ................ ......... ..........
2.30 p. m ..................... .......... 21)


Time. inf'on. Water.

tGrmi'is. Gramns.
Supper ....................... 6 ..........
11.00 O p. i ................... ........... 200
Total for day ........... 7. 0 "600


*The subject did not always drink the full schedule allowance of coffee and .,f watr. The actual
amount of water consumed each day is shown in the second column of Table 7S.

The general routine of the experiment is shown by the following
schedule. Table 68 summarizes the main statistics of the diary kept
by the subject during this series of experiments.


7.00 a. m.

7.45 a. m.
10.30 a. m
1.00 p. m.
1.30 p. m.


TABLE 67.-Daily programme-lMttaboli.m experiments N'.os. .23 oil 24.


...... Rise, pass urine, weigh 'elf, 3.30 p. m...... Drink 2(K) LrmIis water.
Sweigh absorbers. 6.30 p. m...... Supper
......' Breakfast. 7.00 p. m..... Pa.. urine.
...... Drink 200grams water. 11.00 p. min..... Drink 20U0 eramn water, take cal
.....Pass urine. off foo(d aperture. retire.
...... Dinner.


)






60


TABLE 68.-Sutnmmary of diary-Metabolism experiments No,


Time.


1899.
Experiment No. eS.
M ar. 16, 7.00 a. m .........................
3.30 p. m .........................
10.45 a. m ........................
Mar. 17, 7.00 a. m ........................
3.30 p. m ................ .......
10.50 p. m ........................
Mar. IS, 7.00 a. m .........................
3.40 p. m .......................
10.50 p. m .......................
Experiment No. %Z.


Weight of
subject
without
clothes.



Kilogram s.
72.89
............

72.67



72.70
..-..-.------


Mar. 19, 7.00 a. m ............... .......... 72.68 t
3.30 p. m ....... .............. ...........
10.50 p. m ........................ ............
Mar. 20, 7.00 a. m ......................... 72.70
4.00 p. m ...................................
10.50 p. m ........................ ............
Mar. 21, 7.00 a. m ......................... 72.97
3.50 p. m .................. ............
10.00 p. m ........................ ............
M ar. 22, 7.00 a. m .........................' 72.90


Pulse rate Tempera-
per minute. ture.


OF.
97.0
98.9
98.4
97.0
98. 0
98. 0
96.8
97.6
98.3


96.9
98.5
98.8
97.0
99.0
99.0
96.6
99:2
99.4
97.-S


: ... .. "


s. 23 and 24.

Hygrometer readings.


Dry bulb.




OC.
20. 2
20.0
20.4
20.4
20.0
20.2
20.3
20. 2
20. 1


20.2
19.8
20.2
20.0
20.2
20.4
20.2
20.2
20.6
20.8


Wet bulb.


OC.
1.5.3
15.8

16.0
15.1
15.2
15.4
14.6
1. 0
15.2


14.6
14.0
15.0
14.8
15.4
15.6
15.0
15.2
16.0
16.8


Dcfta;ld data of income and outgo.-The kinds and amounts of
different food materials and nutrients in the daily diet are shown in
Table 69. An experiment not reported here preceded No. 23. No
separation of the feces was made between that experiment and No. 23,
but it was assumed that the undigested material and the metabolic
products would not be essentially different in the two experiments.
Charcoal was taken with supper March 18 and with breakfast March
22 in order to mark the feces from the diet during experiment No. 24,
which began with breakfast March 19 and ended with supper March
21. Table 70T shows the amount and composition of the feces during
the experiments.


I






61

TABLE 69.--Weight, composition, and heat of combustion of foods-Metabolism experiments
A.os. 23 .ind 24.


Lab-
ora- Food materials. Weight Watr. Pr-
tory per day. tein.
No.

Basal ration. Grats. Grarz,. Gramns.
3027 Beef ............' 1.50 b4.9 52.3
3029 Butter .......... 5o ,5.2 .6
3031 Skimmed milk.. 1,130 1,025.0 40.7
3032 Bread ........... 310 125.2 24.5
3004 Parched cereal.. 45 2.7 5.1
...... Sugar ........... 40 ......... ........
3069 Horse-radish.... 30 26. 4


Total ration 1
day, experi-
ment No. 23. ......... 1.269.,


1,:3.6 6S.S


Supplemental ra-
tion. I
Rock candy...... 130 .................
Total ration 1
day, experi-
ment No. 241 ........ 1,260.8 123.6


Carbo-
Fat. hy-
dra t s.


-1
4


Nitro- Car-
gen. bon.


ias1i G( rt' 9. 2 ......... S. 3S
17.7 ........ .09
1.1 .4.2 6. 55


(IG'aims..
35. 35
3-. 03
46.1144


Hydro- Heat of
g n. tion.


Gra mI.
5.05
5.79
6.67


Calorit .,.

441
462


10.5 145.7 3.94 86.95 12.34 896
.3 36. 2 .82 l1.. 3 2.7S 13
........ 40.0 ........ It;.,4 2. 59 158
........I 2.5 .06 2.70 1. 11
I ______i-- ___


27S. 6



130.0


19.84 2



..o. ....


68.S 401.8 19.S4 21


44.94 35.40



-54.72 43.4-2



19..66 43.,52


515



3,061


TABLE 70.- Weight, composition, and hlIt of comb.Xstlion of fc'e>-M-tlboli's, c:.rlpri
,wns XNo.s. 23 i. nd 24.


CarbIo-
Fat. hy-
drate:-.


i Heat of
Nitrr.c- Car- Hyirv rc-
gen. h)bn. genl.
Intion.


IExperiment ,o.?S3. Grals., Gmras. G. Grs.0.-.: ri .n. .ro(rs. GI.rtS. i;raml. taloriks.
3035 i Total,6 days ..... 42'5.7 295.0 12.1 2'2.1 36.2 6.77 61.47 ..i 6
SAverage, I day... 70.9 49.2 7.0 .7 6.0 I 1.13 10.25 1.17 114
Experiment -Vo. 24.
3036 Total, 3 days ..... 270.0 204.4 24.5 13.2 14.6 3.91 31.43 1 4.46 347
Average, 1 day... 90.0 68.1 %.2 4.4 4.9 1.30 10.4S 1.49 116


aThis period includes the 3 days of the experiment proper and3days of a preliminary experiment
not reported, here.

The urine in these experiments, as in those preceding, was collected
at intervals throughout the day. Instead of dividing the 24 hours
into four equal period;, however, the day was subdivided into two
periods of 6 hours, one of 4 and one of 8 hours. The object of this
was to avoid waking the subject at 1 o'clock at night, since he experi-
enced some difficulty in dropping to sleep readily afterwards. Tables
71 and 72 give the data for the amount and composition of the urine
during these experiments. The urine was not collected after the close
of the experiments. The urine had begun to decompose before the
heats of combustion of the daily samples could be determined, con-
sequently the daily elimination of energy has been computed accord-
ing to the manner followed under similar circumstances in experi-
ments Nos. 13 and 14.


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


Weight
of
feces.


Water.


Pro-
tein.







62


TABLE 71.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine by 6-hour periods---Med a-
olism experiments Nos. !3 and 24.


Date.


1S99.
Mar. 11--17


17-1.


18-19


Period.


Amount
of urine.


Expcri-iint Vo. 23. Gras.

7a.m. t, I p.m ............... ... ......... ...... 498.6
1 p. m. to 7 p. m................................. 844 .8
7 p. m. t ll p.m.............................. .. 374.6
11 p.m to 7 a.m ............ .......... ......... 1.1

Total ................................... ...........
Total 1by composite ....................... 2,299. 1

7 a.m to 1 p. m ................................. 4U1 2.9
1 p.m to7p.m .................................. 834.3
7 p.m. tn 11 p. m ................. ............... 315.2
11 p.m. to 7 a.m............................... 697.6

Total ................................... ..........
Total by compn -ite........................' 2,20. 0

7a.m. to 1 p.m .................................. 312.7
1 p.m. to7p.m ................................. 663.3
7 p.m to 11 p. ............ ..................... 588.1


11p.m.to7a.m... ........... ....
11 p.m to 7a. m ... .............................


432. 1


Total ..................................... .... ......
Total by composit ...................... 1,996.'2

Experiment NiV. 2 .


Specific
gravity.


Nitrogen coDtent


Per cet. GraIM
1.011 0.66 3.29
1.010 .68 5.74
1.020 1.32 4.96
1.010 .83 4.82

.......... .......... 18.80
1.013 .81 18. 0

1.017 1.14 4.59
1.011 (a) .........
1.014 .861 2.97
1.010 .82 5.72

S (b
............... ...... ( b)
1.012 .86 1 19.61

1.018 1.31 4.10
1.010 .63 4.18
1.017 .96 5.65
1.013 1.05 4.54

.......... .......... 18.47
1.013 .91 18.17


19-20 7a.m. to 1 p.m .................................
1 p.m. to7 p.m ......... ........................
7 p.m to 11 p. m .......... ......................
]1 p.m to 7 a.m .................................

Total ............... ....................
Total by composite.......................

20-21 7 a.m to 1 p.m ..................................
1 p.n. to 7 p. m........... ..................
7 p.m. to 11 p.m .........................
11 p.m to 7 a.m ............ .....................

Total ............. ................. .....
Total by composite........................

21-22 7a.m to I p.m .................................
1 p.m to 7 p.m .................................
7 p.m to ll p.m .................................
11 p.m. to 7 a.m ...................................

Total .........................................
Total by composite........................


409.9
770.3
2R5. 2


1.016
1.012
1.017


760.1 1.010


1.12
.76
1.16
.75


2,22.5.5 1.014 .89

344.4 i 1.018 1.19
661.8 1.013 .87
294.2 1.019 1.20
570.5 1.011 .82

.......... .......... ..........
1,870.9 I 1.013 .96
--I
490.0 1.012 .84
651.6 1.014 .85
257.1 1.017 1.12
462.x 1.014 1.02


1,861.5


..........01
1.014


.........94
.94


SSample decomposed before percentage of nitrogen was accurately determined.
b Nitrogen iu composite taken for computations.


Mar.


4.59
5.85
3.31
5.70


19.45
19.81

4.10
5.76
3.58
4.68

18.07
17.96

4.12
5.54
2.88
4.72
4-f
17.26
17.50


III


I 1







63


TABLE 72.-Daily elimination of carbon, hydrogen, water, and energy in urine-Metab-
olism experiments Nos. 23 and 24.


Date.


1899.

Experinment No. 23.

S16-17............... .
17-18.................
18-19............... .

Experiment No. 24.

.19-'20 ................
20-21................
21-T22...............

Total, 9 days ....


mon Carbon. Hydrogen.
of urine.


Grams.
2,299.1
2,280.0
1,996.2


P. el.


Gra ms.
12.11
12.62
11.90


2,225.5 ...... 12.53
1,870.9 ...... 11.64
1,861.5 1...... 11.11

18, 540.8 0. 58 107.53


P. 1r. Gr wus. P. e

... 3.70

...... 3.49 ....


I 3. 67
...... 3.41 ....


Heat of combus-
tion.
Water. ti
Pergram. Total.




t. fram.. C;,,ri. Calories.
. 2,234..3 .......... 140
.. 2,212.4 .......... 146
-. 1932. 5 ......... 137
1. ,q)_. 5 13


2, 1. .5
1,. 08.6


3.26 ...... 1,802.0


0.17 31.52 96.9 17,965.3
I


14-5
134


.......... 12.

0.067 1.1242


aThis period includes the 6 days of experiments 23 and 24 and 3 days of a preliminary experiment
not reported here.


Mar


..=


I






64


The results of the determination of carbon dioxid and water in the

ventilating air current are given in Tables 73-75:


TABLE 73.-Cbmparison of residual amounts of carbon dioxid and water in the chamber
at the beginning and end of each period, and the corresponding gain or loss-Metabolism
experiments Nos. 23 and 24.


Date.


1899.
Mar. 16-17








17-1i







18-19









Mar. 19-20


Carbon dioxid.


End of period.


7 a.
1 p.
7 p.
1 a.
7 a.



1p.
7 p.
1 a.
7 a.


Total
amount in
chamber.


Gain (+)
or loss (-)
over pre-
ceding
period.


Experiment No. 23. Grams. Grams.

nm ..... ................... 24.5 ............
m ....................... 44.3 +19.8
m ..................... .. 40.9 3.4
mI ....................... 29.8 11.1
m ...................... 25.2 4.6

Total ............................. + .7

mi ................... .... 39.9 +14.7
m ........ ............... 36.3 3.6
m ........................ 26.7 9.6
nm ....................... 25.0 1.7


Total .................. .............


1 p. m ........................
7 p. m .......................
1 a. m ........................
Sa. m .............. ..........


1 p.
7 p.
1 a.
7a.


20-21 ]
7
1
7



21-22 1
7
1


45.0
42.1
27.3
26. 4


- .2


+20.0
- 2.9
-14.8
- .9


Total .............. ............... + 1.4 ............

Experiment N.V. 2!.

n. ...................... 40.3 +13.9 37.9
m ....................... 34.9 5.1 35.1
m ...... .................. 26.6 8.3 39.0
i ...................... 27.8 + 1.2 38.9

Total............................... + 1.4 ..........

nm....................... 45.6 +17.8 40.2
m ............. ......... 38.6 7.0 41.5
m ......................... 29.1 9.5 41.1
m ....................... 24.1 5.0 36.7

Total................. ............. 3.7 ............

m ....................... 41.2 +17.1 39.6
m ....................... .44.4 + 3.2 44.6
m ....................... 26.5 -17.9 44.3


7 a. nm ....................... 30.4 + 3.9 46.8

Total.............. .......... 6.3 ...... .....


Water.


Total
amount of
vapor re-
maining in
chamber.


Grams.
35.2
40.5
43.2
45.6
37.7



40.1
41.8
37.4
33.5


Gain (4-)
or loss (-)
over pre-
ceding
period.


Grams.


+ 5.3
+ 2.7
+ 2.4
7.9


+ 2.5


Total
amount
gained(+)
or lost(-)
duringthe
period."


Grams.


+ 5.3
+ 2.7
+ 2.4
7.9


+ 2.5


+ 2.4 + 2.4
+ 1.7 + 1.7
- 4.4 4.4
- 3.9 3.9

- 4.2 4.2


39.2 + 5.7 + 5.7
39.7 + .5 + .5
38.4 1.3 1.3
34.5 3.9 3.9


+ 1.0



+ 3.4
- 2.8


+ 4.4


- 2.2

+ 2.9
+ 5.0
- .3
+ 2.5

+10.1


+ 1.0


+ 4.4


- 2.2

+ 2.9
+ 5.0
- .3
+ 2.5

+10.1


SThe variations in the weights of the absorbers were so small as to be within the limits of error in
weighing. They are not taken into account in the calculations. There was no drip.


I 1


I







S65


STABLE 74.-Record of carbon dio.id in ventilating air current-Metabolism experiments
Nos. 23 and 24.


Carbon dioxid.


In incoming
air.


t \


In out-


(t)
Total
exces -
in Aiut-


u ici3 \uf) \.-) going I gig
of air). Per Total, air. goair
liter, axb d-c.



E.rperiment No. 23. Liters. .11g. Grams. Grams. G(am,.
7a.m. tol p.m ... 24,857 0.700 17.4 2341.9 -217.5
1 p. m. to 7 p. m... 26.329 .706 18. 6 245.9 227.3
7 p.m to 1 a.m... 27,749 .609 16.9 233.3 216.4
1 a.m. to 7 a.m... 27,618 .567 15.7 151.3 135.6

Total ........ 106,553 ....... 68.6 865.4 796.8

7 a. n. to 1 p. n ... 27,110 566 15.4 236.3 220.9
1 p. n. to 7 p. m ... 26,569 .556 14.8 232. S 218.0
7 p. m. to 1 a.m ... 28,339 .582 16.5 225.7 209.2
a.m.to 7 a.n ... 28,209 .5, 8 16.6 152.1 133.5

Total ........ 110,227 ...... 63.3 S46.9 783.6

7 n. m.to 1 p. m ... 26,108 .566 14.8 248.3 233.5
1 p.m to 7 p. m ... 26,608 .548 14.6 227.4 212. S
7 p.m. to 1 a.n .. 27,694 .577 16.0 235.9 2i9.9
1 a. to 7 a.. .. 27,572 .578 15.9 148.7 132.S


1899.
Mar. 16-17







17-18







18-19










19-20







20-21







21-22


Experiment No. 2".

7a.m. to 1 p.ni ...
1 p.m. to7 p.m ...
7 p.m. to 1 a. m ...
1a.m. to 7 a. ...

Total ........

7 a. m. to 1 p. m ...
1 p.m. to 7 p. n ...
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ...
1 a. m. to7 a. m ...
S Total ........

7 a.m. to 1 p. in...
1 p.m. to 7 p.m...
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ...
1 a. m. to 7 a.m ...

Total ........

Total, 3 days.


....... 61.3 860.3

....... 193.2 2,572.6


799.0

2,379.4


I .1
Correc-
tion for
amount
remain-
ing in
chamber.


(I )
Cor-
rected
amount
exhaled
by sub-
ject,
e+f.


Gralln,. i (G'ranls.
+19. 237.3
3.4 223.9
-11.1 205.3
4.6 131.0

+ .7 797.5

+14.7 235.6
3.6 214.4
9.6 199.6
1.7 133.8


Total
weight
of car-
bon ex-
haled,
gf I.


Grams.
64.7
61.1
56.0
35.7

217.5

64.2
58.5
54.4
36.5


- .2 783.4 213.6

S20.0 253.5 69.1
- 2.9 209.9 57.2
-14.8 205.1 55.9
- .9 131.9 36.0

+ 1.4 800.4 218.2

+ 1.9 2.381.3 649.3


I _


27,538 .580 16.0 241.6 225. +13.9 239.5 65.3
27,829 .557 15.5 243.3 227.8 5.4 222.4 60.6
27,889 .65N5 18.2 248.6 230.4 8.3 222.1 60.6
27,385 .639 17.5 153.7 136.2 + 1.2 137.4 37.5

110,641 .......... 67.2 887.2 820.0 + 1.4 821.4 224.0

26,295 .564 ,14.8 256.4 241.6 +17.8 259.4 70.7
26,624 .572 15.2 251.0 235. S 7.0 228.8 62.4
27,671 .601 16.6 237.5 220.9 9.5 211.4 57.6
27,938 .549 15.3 159.9 144.6 5.0 139.6 38.1

108,528 ....... 61.9 904.8 842.9 3.7 839.2 228.8

26,162 .609 15.9 249.4 233.5 +17.1 250.6 68.3
26,049 .582 15.1 243.4 228.3 + 3.2 231.5 63.1
27.718 .575 15.9 277.7 261.8 -17.9 243.9 66.5
27,370 .571 15.6 165.2 149.6 + 3.9 153.5 41.9

107,299 ....... 62.5 935.7 873.2 + 6.3 879.5 239.8

326,468 ...... 191.6 2,727.7 2,536.1 + 4.0 2,540.1 692.6
326, 68 .... I II


13007-No. 109-02- 5


(a)

Ventila-
tion
(number
f 1


Period.


Date.


Total ........ 107,982

Total, 3 days. 324,762


A.'1






66


TABLE 75.-Record of water in ventilating air current-Metabolism experiments is
and 4.


(a) Water in outgoing air. (g) (A)
incoming air.

S (b) (C (d) (e) ()

Date. Period. o '


-.* o l f ia4
OcJo a Fc 00 8 5.i E .a s i
C c> c < < C -- 0 E 6


1899.
Mar. 16-17







17-18






18-19












Mar. 19-20






20-21






21-22


Experiment
No. eS.


7 a.m. to 1 I. im..
1 p.m. to7 p.m..
7 p.m. to 1 H.n..
1 a.m.to7 a.m..

Total........

7 a.m. to 1 p.m..
1 p.m. to 7 p.m..
7 p.m. to 1 a.m..
1 a.m.to7 a.m..'


Liters.
24,8.57
26,329
27,749
27, 61S-

106,553

27,110
26,569
28,339
28,209


Total........ 110,227

a.m. to 1 p. m. 26,108
p. m.to7 p. m.. 26,608
p. m. to 1 a.m.. 27,694
a.m. to7a. n..: 27,572


Total........

Total, 3 days.

Experiment
No. 24.

7 a. m. to 1 p.m..
1 p.m. to 7 p.m..
7 p.m. to 1 a.m..
1 a. m. to 7 a.m..


107,982

324,762


27,538
27,829
27,889
27,385


Mg.
0.830
.787
.719
.730


.730
.718
.712
.718


.758
.778
.776
.771


.802
.785
.759
.744


Total........ 110,641 ......

7a. m.tol p.m.. 26,295 .749
1 p. m. to 7 p. m.. 26,624 .706
7p.m. to I a. m.. 27,671 .689
1 a.m. to 7 a. m.. 27,938 .702

Total......... 108,528..

7a.m. tolp. m.. 26,162 .702
1 p.m.to7 p.m..: 26,049 .693
7p.m. tol a.m.. 27,718 .717
1 a.m. to 7a.m.. 27,370 .733

Total........ 107,299 .....

Total, 3rlays. 326.468.....


Grams.
20.6
20. 7


Grams. Grams.
180.1 35.5
193.5 35.5


Grams.
215.6
229.0


Grams.
195.0
208.3


20.0 232.4 ] 42.3 274.7 254.7
20.2 208.4 35.6 244.0 223.8

81.5 814.4 148.9 963.3 881.8

19.8 190.1 38.8 228.9 209.1
19.1 193.3 33.9 227.2 208.1
20.2 201.1 42.6 243.7 223.5
20.2 177.6 1 36.6 214.2 194.0

79.3 762.1 151.9 914.0 834.7

19.8 169.6 36.7 206.3 186.5
20.7 184.7 33.9 i 218.6 197.9
21.5 197.0 42.6 1 239.6 218.1
21.3 189.2 35.6 224.8 203.5

83.3 740.5 148.8 889.3 806.0


244.1


22.1
-21.8
21.2
20.4

85.5

19.7
18.8
19. 1
19.6

77.2

18.4
18.1
19.9
20.1

76.5


2,317.0 449.6 12,766.6 2,522.5


183.3
195.3
220.0
209.6


40.0
36. 7
41.9
33. 7


223.3
232.0
261.9
243.3


201.2
210.2
240.7
222.9


Grams.
+ 5.3
+ 2.7
+ 2.4
- 7.9

+ 2.5

+ 2.4
+ 1.7
- 4.4
- 3.9

- 4.2

+ 5.7
+ .5
- 1.3
- 3.9


+ 1.0

- 0.7


Grams.
200.
211.0
257.1
215.9

884.8

211.5
209.8
219.1
190.1

830.5

192.2
198.4
216.8
199.6


807.0

2,521.8


204.6
207.4
244.6
222.8


808.2 152.3 960.5 875.0 + 4.4 879.4

191. 6 35.5 227.1 207.4 + 1.3 208.7
204.9 32.0 236.9 218.1 + 1.3 219.4
214.0 1 40.7 254.7 235.6 .4 235.7
204.4 35.3 239.7 220.1 4.4 215. 2

814.9 143.5 958.4 881.2 2.2 879. 0`

186.8 I34.3 221.1 202.7 + 2.9 205.6
200.1 31.0 231.1 213.0 + 5.0 28.0
253.0 41.0 294.0 274.1 .3 273.81
246.6 35.9 282.5 262.4 + 2.5 264..

886.5 142.2 1,028.7 952.2 +10.1 962.


2Y9. 2,50ou9.o


438. u


II. I.


2z, 7Ua.4


-+- t.


2, 7i .


I --*--- I


1 -


-I --* .


I ----I


i







67


Table 76 shows the amount of heat carried away in the water cur-

rent and in the water vapor in successive 6-hour periods of experiments
Nos. 23 and 24.

TABLE 76.-Summary of calorimetric measurements-Metabolism e.rperiment.s Nos. 23
and 24.


1899.
Mar. 16-17






17-18






18-19










Mar. 19-20






20-21






21-22


Period.


I r~,....,.,..,, ~.. a,


(a)



Heat
measured
in terms
of C.,.


(b) (C) (4)


Change Capacity Corruec
of tern- correc- tio due
perature tion of to tem-
of calo- calo- perature
rimeter. rimeter, of food
and
Sbx60. dishes.


(C)
Water va-
porized
equals
total
amount
exhaled
less
amount
con -
densed in
chamber.


(f


Heat
used in
vaporiza-
tion of
water,
ex 0.592.
k '


t9)


Total
heat de-
ter-
mined,
a+c+d
+f.


fljJt cra, olu. o. Calories. Degree. Calories. Calories. Grams. Calories. Calories.
Ta.m.to 1 p.m.... 485.4 +0.21 +12.6 17.5 200.3 118.6 599.1
1 p.m.to7 p.m.... 521.4 .07 4.2 23.9 211.0 124.9 618.2
7p.m.tol a.m .... 452.2 .05 3.0 .......... 257.1 152.2 601.4
1 a.m.to 7a.m .... 252.0 + .05 3.0 .......... 215.9 127.8 382.8

Total........ 1,711.0 + .14 4 8.4 11.4 884.3 523.5 2,201.5
I i
7a.m. tolp. m....; 477.4 ......... .......... 18.6 211.5 125.2 584.0
lp.m. to 7p.m.... 502.4 + .01 .6 28.7 209.8 124.2 598.5
7p.m .tol a.m .... 418.1 ......... .......... .......... 219.1 129.7 547.8
1 a.rm.to7 a.mr.... 302.4 ........................... 190.1 112.5 414.9

Total........ 1,700.3 + .01 + .6 -- 7.3 830.5 491.6 2,145.2

7a.m. tol p. n.... 513.8 ................... 16.0 192.2 113.8 611.6
1 p.m.to7 p. m.... 510.0 .02 1.2 28.1 198.4 117.5 598.2
7p.rm.tol a.m....' 448.9 + .02 + 1.2 .......... 216.8 128.3 578.4
1 a.m.to 7 a.mr.... 277.7 .06 3.6 .......... 199.6 118.2 392.3

Total........I 1,750.4 .06 3.6 -- 44.1 807.0 477.8 2,180.5

Total,3days.j 5,161.7 .09 + 5.4 -132.8 2,521.8 1,492.9 6,527.2

Experiment No. 24.

7a.m.to 1 p. m.... 497.6 + .01 + .6 18.5 204.6 121.1 600.8
1 p.m.to7 p. m.... 510.9 + .05 + 3.0 29.9 207.4 122.8 606.8
7 p. m.tol a. m .... 450.5 ............................. 244.6 144.8 595.3
la.m.to 7 a. m.... 278.8 + .03 + 1.8 ........... 222.8 131.9 412.5

Total........ 1,737.8 + .09 + 5.4 48.4 879.4 520.6 2,215.4

7a.m.tol p. m.... 520.9 + .01 + .6 14.3 208.7 123.5 630.7
1 p.m. to7 p.m.... 515.8 .04 2.4 31.8 219.4 129.9 611.5


7 p.m.tol a. m....
1 a.m. to 7 a. ....
--i
Total.........

7a.m. to p.m ....
1 p.m. to7 p.m....


7 p.n
1 a.n


436.8
279.2

1,752.7


590. 0
443. 1


.tol a.m.... 569.5
i.to7 a.m.... 248.9

Total........ 1,851.5

Total, 3 days. 5,342.0


+ .02 + 1.2
- .06 3.6

- .07 4.2


-I


+ .04 + 2.4

- 01 .6
+ .01 + .6

+ .04 + 2.4

+ 06 +3.6


235.2
.......... 215.7

46.1 879.0


14.7I 205.6
29.9 218.0
......... 273.8
.......... 264.9

44.6 962.3

-139..1 2,720.7


139.2 577.2
127.7 403.3

520.3 2,222.7

121.7 699.4
129.1 512.3
162 1 731.0
156.8 406.3

569.7 2,379.0

1,610.6 6,817.1


I


I


__







68 '


Balance of income and outgo of matter and energy.-The inome
and outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and energy in experimei Il
Nos. 23 and 24 are shown in Tables 77-80.

TABLE 77.-Income and outgo of nitrogen and carbon-Metabolism experiments. Nov. :iS
and 24..


Nitrogen.


(a)

In
food.


(b)

In
feces.


Time.


1899.

Experiment No. 23.


16-17,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.. 19.8 1.1
17-18,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.. 19.9 1.2
18-19,7 a. m. to 7 a.m.. 19.8 1.1

Total, 3 days ........ 59.5 3.4
Average, I day....... 19.8 1.1

Experiment No. 24.

19-20,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.. 19.8 1.3
20-21,7 a. m. to 7 a.m.. 19.9 1.3
21-22,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.. 19.8 1.3

Total, 3 days ........ 59.5 3.9
Average, 1 day...... 19.8 1.3


(c)

In
urine.


(d)
Gain
(+) or
loss
(-),a-
(b+c).


Grams.
-0.1
- .9
+ .2


- .8
- .3


18.8
19.6
18.5


56.9
19.0


19.4 .9
18.1 + .5
17.3 +1.2

54. 8 + .8
18.2 + .3


(e)

In
food.


Grams.
244.9
245.0
244.9


734.8
244.9


(f)

In
feces.


Grams.
10.2
10.3
10.2


30.7
10.2


I* I :1-- -- _______________________


299.7 10.5
299.6 10.5
299.7 10.5

899.0 31.5
299.7 10.5


TABLE 78.-Income and .outgo of water and hydrogen-Metabolism experiments Nos. S;
and 24.

Water.


Time.


(a)

In food.


(b)

In drink.


1899.

Experiment No. 23. Gram. Grans.

Mar. 16-17,7 a.m. to 7 a. m..... 1,269.8 1,362.8
17-18,7 a. m.to 7 a.m..... 1,269.8 1,379.2
18-19,7 a. m. to 7 a. ..... 1,269.8 1,378.0

Total, 3 days............. 3,809.4 4,120.0
Average, 1 day.......... 1,269.8 1,373.3

Experiment No. 24.

Mar. 19-20,7a. m.to 7 a.m..... 1,269.8 1,376.0
20-21,7 a. m. to 7 a. m..... 1,269.8 1,382.4
21-22,7 a. m. to 7 a. m...... 1,269.8 1,373.4

Total, 3days............. 3,809.4 4,131.8
Average, 1 day .......... 1,269.8 1,377.3


(c)

In feces.


(d) (e)
In respira-
In urine. tory prod-
nets.


Grams. Grams.
49.2 2,234.3
49.2 2,212.4
49.2 1,932.5

147.6 6,379.2
49.2 2,126.4


68.1 2,158.5
68.1 1,808.6
68.1 1,802.0


204.3
68.1


5,769. 1
1,923.0


Grams.
884.3
830.5
807.0

2,521.8
840.6


879.4
879.9
962.3


2,720.7
906.9


(f)
Apparent
alb-
(c+d+fl.



Grams.
- 2.]
- 44S.1
- 140.9

-1,119.2
- 373.1


- 460.2
- 1a9.s
-a


- 752.1
- 250.1


Carbon.


I i I I


Grams. Grams. Grams.


Mar.








Mar.


(g)

In
urine.


Grams.
12.1
12. 6
11.9


36.6
12.2


e(+)l

g+A).



Grain.
+ 5.1
+ 8.6
+ 4.5


(A)
In re-
spira-
tory
prod-
ucts.



Grams.
217.5
213.6
218.2


649.3
216.4


12.5
11.7
11.1

35.3
11.8


224.0
228.8
239.8

692.6
230.9


+ 52.7
+ 48.6
+ 38.3
+139.6
+ 46.5


j


~


A


.A


- .......... :,.. ...-; ,;;,: ..







69


TABLE 78.-Ir come and outgo of water and hydrogen-Metabolism experiments Nos. 23
and 24-Continued.


Hydrogen.


Time.


1899.

Experiment No. 23.

Mar. 16-17,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.....
17-18,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.....
18-19,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.....

Total, 3 days.............
Average, 1 day ..........

Experiment No. 2O.

Mar. 19-20, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m.....
20-21,7 a.m. to 7 a. m.....
21-22,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.....

Total, 3 days.............
Average, 1 day ..........


(g)

In food.





Grains.
35.4
35.4
35.4


(h)

In feces.


'Gram s.
1.5
1.4
1.5


(i)

In urine.


Gram s.
3.5
3.7
3.5


(1)
Apparent
gain, g--
(h+i).




Gramns.
+ 30.4
+ 30.3
+ 30.4


Loss from
water,
f-9.




Grams.
-- 59.5
49.2
15.7


106.2 4.4 10.7 + 91.1 -124.4
35.4 1.5 3.6 + 30.4 41.5


43.8 1.5 3.7 + 33.6 51.1
43.8 1.5 3.4 + 38.9 11.5
43.8 1.5 3.3 + 39.0 21.0


131.4
43. 8


10.4
3.5


+116.5
+ 38.8


83.6
27.9


TABLE 79.-Gain or loss of


protein (NX6..5), fat, and water--Metabolism experiments
Nos. 23 and 24.


Time.


1889.

Experiment No. 23.

Mar. 16-17,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..............
17-18,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ................
18-19,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..............

Total, 3 days .....................
Average, 1 day..................

Experiment No. 24.

Mar. 19-20,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ...............
20-21,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..............
21-22,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..............

Total, 3 days .....................
Average, 1 day...................
I


(a)

Nitrogen
gained
(+) or
lost (-).


Grams.
-0.1
.9
+ .2
-.8
.3


-.9
+ .5
+1.2

+ .8 i
+ .3


(b)
Protein
gained
(+) or
lost (-),
ax 6.25.


GramIs.
-0.6
-5.6
+1.3

-4.9
-1.6


(c)
Total car-
bon
gained
(+) or
lost (-).


Gramos.
+ 5.1
+ 8.5
+ 4.6

+ 18.2
+ 6.1


(d) (c)
Carbon in Carbon in
protein fat, etc.,
gained gained
(+)or (+)or
lost (-), lost (-),
b,0.53. c-d.


(f)
Fat
gained
(+) or
lost (-),
e-0.761.


Grams. Grams. Grams.
0.0 + 5.1 + 6.7
-3.0 + 11.5 + 15.0
+ .7 + 3.9 + 5.1

-2.3 + 20.5 + 26.8
.8 + 6.9 + 9.0


-5.6 + 52.7 -3.0 + 55.7 + 72.8
+3.1 + 48.6 +1.6 + 47.0 + 61.5
+7.5 + 38.3 +4.0 + 34.3 + 44.8

+5.0 +139.6 +2.6 +137.0 +179.1
+1.7 + 46.5 + .9 + 45.7 + 59.7


(u)
Total
gain (+)
or loss
( ),l+.



Gra is.
-29.1
-18.9
414. 7

-33.3
-11.1


-12.5
+27.4
+18.0

+32.9
+10.9






70

TABLE 79.-Gain or loss of protein (NX6.25), fat, and water--Metabolism experimesa
Nos. 23 and 24-Continued.


1899.
Experiment No. 23.
Mar. 16-17,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ..............
17-18,7 a.m.to 7 a. m ..............
18-19,7 a.m. to 7 a. m ..............
Total,3 days .....................
Average, 1 day ...................
Experiment No. R4.
Mar. 19-20,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ...............
20-21,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ...............
21-22,7 a.m.to 7 a. m ...............
Total,3 days .....................
Average, 1 day...................


Time.


(g)
Total hy-
drogen
gained (+)
or lost (-).


Gramts.
-29. 1
-18.9
+14.7
-33.3
-11.1


(a) (i)
Hydrogen Hydrogen
in protein in fat
gained (+) gained (+)
or lost (-), or lost (--,)
bxO.07. fxO.118.


Grains.
+ 0.8
+ 1.8
+ .6


+ 3.2
+ 1.1


Grain.
0.0
-.4
+ .1


-.3
- .1


S k)
Hydrogen
in water,
,etc., gained
(+) orlost

g-(k+).



Grams.
-29.9
-20.3
+14.0


-36.2
-12.1


(w)
Water
gained (+)
or lost (-);
kx9.


Grams.
-269.1
-18. 7
+126.0


-82.6.
-108.6.


-12.5 .4 + 8.7 -20.8 -187.2
+27.4 + .2 + 7.4 +19.8 +178.2
+18.0 + .5 + 5.4 +12.1 +108.9
. --- ------- I ----- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ _- ^ _^'


+32.9
+10.9


+21.5
+ 7.1


+11.1
+ 3.7


+.99.9
+ 33.8


TABLE 80.-Income and outgo of energy-Metabolism experiments Nos. 23 and 24.


(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i)
Esti- Esti- Esti- Heat Heat
mated I mated mated deter- deter-
Heat heatof heatof energy mined mined
HHeat oof f f corn- of ma-
Hco- Hoeat of of burton com- trial Heat greater greater
Time. bustion m- of pro- oxi- deter- (+) or (+)or
of food bustion bus- ten of fat dized mined. ess(-) e(-
eaten of feces. tion of gained gained inthan than
te urine. (g)or (+) or bod esti- eS
lost lost -(b+c mated, mated,
ls (t (-). hA/.
(,)I +d+e). g-f.

1899. I
ExCalo- Calo- C'lo- Calo- Cb' l.- Calo Calo- Cdo- Per
experiment j. ries. rs. ris. ri ries. ries. ries. ritea. cent.
Mar. 16-17,7 a.m. to 7a. m... 2,546 114 140 4 + 63 2,233 2,202 31 -1.4
17-18,7 a. m. to 7a. m... 2,546 114 146 -32 i+ 141 2,177 2,145 32 -1.5
18.-19,7 a. m. to 7 a. m ... 2,546 114 137 + 8 + 48 2.239 2,181 68 -2.6
Total, 3 days.......... 7,638 342 423 -28 1+ 252 6,649 6,528 -121 ........
Average, day........ 2,546 114 141 9 + 84 2,216 2,176 40 -1.8
Experiment No. I
Mar. 19-20,7a.m. to 7a. m ... 3,061 116 145 -32 + 684 2,148 2,215 + 67 +3.1
20-21,7a.m. to 7 a. m... 3,061 116 134 +18 + 579 2,214 2,223 + 9 + .4
21-22,7a. m. to 7a. m...i 3,061 1 116 128 +43 + 421 2,353 2,379 + 26 +1.1
Total.3 days.......... 9,183 I 348 407 -t-29 +1,684 6,715 6,817 +102 .......
Average, Ilday ........ 3,061 116 136 +10 [+ 561 2,238 2,272 + 34 +1.6


i I









S71

METABOLISM EXPERIMENT NO. 25.

Subject.-J. F. S., a chemist, 29 years of age, weighing with under-
clothing about 64 kilograms (141 pounds).
Occupation during experiment.-Reading, writing, and miscellaneous
observations with the apparatus, with as little muscular activity as was
practicable.
lDuration.-Three days, beginning at 7 a. m. January 23, 1900. The
usual preliminary period of 4 days duration preceded the metabolism
experiment. The subject entered the calorimeter on the evening of
January 22, thus spending four nights and three days in the respira-
tion chamber.
Diet.-Inasmuch as experiment No. 25 was the first with this sub-
ject, the experiment was somewhat of a preliminary nature. The
average food consumption of the subject had been determined by pre-
liminary tests, and the diet was so arranged as to furnish approxi-
mately the nitrogen and the energy it was believed the subject required.
It was intended to make this the first of a series of three experiments,
in which about one-fifth of the energy of the diet should be furnished
by isodynamic amounts of different materials. Unfortunately an acci-
dent to some of the machinery necessitated the stopping of the experi-
ment shortly after the close of the first of the series of experiments.
The diet consisted of a so-called basal ration furnishing about 110 grams
of protein and 2,391 calories of energy, to which was added 63 grams
of butter daily, furnishing 1 gram of protein and 505 calories of energy.
The kinds and quantities of food served for each meal and the quan-
tity of drink consumed at different periods of the day are as follows:

TABLE 81.--Dief in metabolism '.ite'rimciif Ao. 45.
FOOD.

Food materials. Breakfast. Dinner. Supper. Total.

Gra in. Grauw!. Grams. Granit.
Beef ................................................. ......... 30 55 ............ 85
S Butter ................................................ 35 35 28 98
M ilk .......................................................... 300 300 400 i 1,00
SBread ......................................................... 90 120 90 300
Parched cereal ............................................... .....5 ... .... 25 50
Ginger snaps............. .................................. 1. .......... 35 35 70
S Sugar ............................................. 10. ........... 10 20

DRINK.

Time. Water. Time. Water.

Grains. Grams.
Breakfast .............................. 100 10.30 p. m ............................... 100
10.00 a. m.................... ........... 200 Total for day ...................... 900
3.00 p.m .......... ....................... 200 I
9.00 p. m ................................ 300





72
.." .i ... ... ui-1i ,
Daily routine.-The daily routine was essentially the same am tt..iOAt
in previous experiments with other -subjects, with the exception that 'I
the subject observed his pulse and body temperature at more frequent i
intervals. The general routine was as follows:

TABLE 82.-Daily programme--Metabolism experiment No. 25.

6.50 a. m..... Take pulse and temperature. 3.00 p. m..... Drink 200 grams water.
7.00a. m..... Pass urine, weigh self, weigh 6.00 p. m..... Supper.
absorbers. 6.50 p. m..... Take pulse and temperature.
7.45 a. m..... Breakfast, drink 100 grams 7.00 p. m..... Pass urine, weigh self, weigh ab-
water. sorbers.
10.00 a. m..... Drink 200 grams water. 9.00 p. m..... Drink 300 grams water.
12.50 p. m..... Take pulse and temperature. 10.20 p. m..... Take pulse and temperature.
1.00 p. m..... Pass urine. 10.30 p. m..... Drink 100 grams water, retire.
1.15 p. m..... Dinner. 1.00 a. m..... Pass urine.

Table 83 summarizes the most important statistics in the diary kept
by the subject. He weighed himself in underclothing twice each day.
The reasons for not removing all the clothing in weighing, as was done
in previous experiments, were two. It was desired to avoid the mus-
cular work involved in dressing and undressing. It has also been
found that the sudden increase of radiation of heat from the skin when
the clothing was removed caused a decided rise of the temperature
inside the chamber and thus disturbed the accuracy of the heat meas-
urements to some extent. There was extremely little muscular exer-
cise and no sensible perspiration. Hence the differences in weight
from time to time may be considered to represent very nearly the
actual changes in body weight.
The determinations of pulse rate were made, of course, by the sub-
ject himself, when either sitting or reclining, after several minutes'
rest. The measurement at 6.50 to 7 a. m., however, was made just
before rising.
The body temperature was determined by means of a mercury ther-
mometer. The temperature was, as a rule, taken in the axilla, although
numerous sublingual observations were made. The thermometer was,
as a rule, left in place ten minutes before reading. While the records -
of body temperature thus taken are probably not as accurate as might
be desired, later observations with an electrical rectal thermometer
since devised for continuous and accurate observations of internal
body temperature a lead us to believe that the daily curves for the two
are nearly parallel.
In previous experiments a hygrometer had been placed in the
chamber, and readings with dry and wet bulb were taken at frequent
intervals. Inasmuch. however, as these readings were not used in the
computations of results, and as it is desirable in rest experiments to

aArch. Physiol. [Pfluger], 88 (1901), No. 9-10, p. 492.


..;.... ~






73


avoid all unnecessary exercise, even that of rising and reading the

Shygrometer, these observations were not made in the experiments of

1900.
TABLE 83.-Summary of the diary-Metabolism c.periment No. 25.


Time.



1900.

January 2S.

7 a.m..........
9a.m...........
9.05 a. m ........
10.15 a. m .......
11.30 a.m .......
11.50 a.m .......
12 m...........
12.10 p. m .......
12.25 p. m.......
12.50 p. m .......
1 p.m...........
2.35 p.m........
2.40 p. m........
3.45 p. m........
3.50 p.m ........
4.25 p. m ........


5p.m........... ..


5.05 p.m.


Weight
of sub-
ject in
under-
clothes.




AKqs.
63.79
..... .
.... ....





.........
-I... .

..I.. .


5.35 p.m ...............
6.45 p.m .................
7 p.m.......... 64.63
8p. m ........... ........
8.30 p. m ................
8.40 p.m................
9.35 p.m.............
10p.m...................
10.10p. m ..............
10.15 p.m....... ........
10.25 p. m....... i.........

January 24.

6.55a. m ........ 64.21
8.30 a. m ........ .........
8.40 a.m .....:.. .........
9 a.m....................


9.25 a. m ........
9.30 a.m ........
9.35 a.m........
9.55 a. m ........
10.30 a. m.......
10.40 a. m.......
11 a. m...........
11.25 a.m .......
11.35 a. m.......
11.55 a. m .......
12.17 p.m .......


Pulse
rate
per
min-
ute.





73
89


77
73


72





69


78
86
82


73

75




75


68





69



67
83



78


......... ........
......... I 8-- -- -


......... 68
......... 80
......... 74
......... 84
......... 81
......... 69
......... .. .


Temperature.


Axil-
lary.




OF.
97.2
98.3
98. 5
97. S
97.5
97.9
97.6


97.7
98.3
........
98 0A


Sublin-
gual.




OF.










98.3



97.9
. .


70.U ..... ....
........ 98.3
98.8 ........
......... 98.7
98.7 ........
98.1 .......
97.9 .......
98.3 ........
........ 97.8
........ ........
98.4 .......
98.3 .......
........ 98.2
97.7 ........
97.7 ........
97.6 .......
97.7 .......
........ 97.4


98.6
98.6



98.2
97. 9


97. 2
98.3



98.2


98.1
98.3
98.6


........
98.2
98.4



97.6




97.7


Time.



1900.

Jan. 24-Cont'd.

12.30 p. m.......
1.52 p.m........
1.55 p. n ........
2.25 p. m........
2.45 p. m ........
3.23 p. m ........
3.45 p. m ........
3.46 p. m ........
4.10 p.m ........
4.30 p. m........
4.55 p. m.......
5.15 p.m........
5.30 p.m ........
5.45 p. m ........
5.48 p.m........
5.57 p. m ........
6.49 p. m........
6.53 p.m ........
6.57 p.m........
S7.30 p. m ........
7.38 p.m........
8p.m...........
8.25 p. m ........
8.30 p. m........
9.21 p. m........
9.47 p. m........
10.10 p. m.......
10.20 p.m.......
10.20 p.m.......
10.25 p. m.......

January 25.

6.55 a.m ........
7.03 a. m ........
7.38 a. m ........
7.50 a. m ........
8.37 a. m ........
8.50 a. m ........
8.53 a.m........
8.55 a. m ........
9.37 a. m........
9.47 a. m ........
10.29 a. m .......
10.40 a. m .......
10.45 a. m .......
10.54 a.m .......


Weight
of sub-
ject in
under-
clothes.




Kgs.













.... ....


Pulse
rate
per
min-
ute.





63
78





84


82


75


75

.


......... .......
......... 71


......... 77
65.13 .......

......... .......

......... .......


......... 70
......... 72


... ......
.........

........

.........


64


64



71


78


86


82


80


76


71
74


Temperature.


Sublin-
gual.




OF.
97.7


98.5






98.6






i -.. .


Axil-
lary.




oF.





98.3
98.4
98.6



98.8
98.5
98.3
98.3
98.2


98.3


98.5



98.2


98.2
98.1



97.5
97.5


i........



. .......






98.5








98.0


98.2



97.7





97.0
97.0
97.2













98.5


98.3


:::::::::


..mm.I......




7 4 ....... ::.



.'" i: '
TABLE 83.-S ry f74he diary- e lis eperi No. 5- n e

TABLE 83.-Summary of the diary--Metabolism experiment No. 25--Continped.


Weight Pulse
of sub- rate
Time. ject in per
under- min-
clothes. ute.

1900.

Jan. 25-Cont'd. Kgs.

11.10 a. m ................ ......
11.13 a. m ....... ........ 72
11.25a. m ................. 74
11.35 a.m ................ .....
11.39a.m -...-...- .........- 72
11.53 a. m 269
11.53 a.m ................. 69
12.09 p. m ........................
12.15 p. m ................ 72
12.27 p.m ....... ......... 68
12.45 p. m ............... 68
12.47 p. m ....... ......... .......
2.11 p.m ........ ......... 81
2.37 p. m ........ ........
2.55 p. m ................. .......
3 p.m ........... ......... 81
3.19 p.m ........ ......... .......
3.26 p. m ................. 82
3.28 p.m ........ ......... .......
3.31 p.m ........................
3.33 p. m ...... ... ..... .......
3.35 p. m ....................
4 p.m ........... ................
4.10 p.m................ .......
4.3 p. m--------------- -------7
4.35 p. m........ ......... 75
4.48 p. m ............... ....
5.06 p. m ........-... .... ...-
5.23 p. m ........ ......... 73
6.04 p.m ........................
6.43 p. m ............... 76
6.46 p. m ........ ...............
6.59 p.m ....... 65.19 .......
7.48 p.m ................. .......
7.51 p. m ........ ...... ... 69
7.51 p. m .
7.55 p.n ........ ............ .......
8.22 p. m ......
8.46 p.m ........ ..... ....

8.49 p.m .......... ........ 70
8.51 p.m ......... ... ......
9.16 p. m ........ ... .......
9.31 p. m ........ ...... .........
9.46 p.m ............. .......
9.1 .p.m.. I"
9.49 p.m ........ ....... 70
10.10 p.m ....... ..... ..
10.17 p.m ............... 70
10.20 p. m ....... ........ .......


Temperature.

Axil- Sublin-
lary. gual.


F.
98.0


98.1



98.0






98.7
98.7
98.1


98.8


98.1





98.8



98.0
98.3
98.4
98.5


98.4 .......
98.5 .......
98.3 ........
98.3 .......
98.3 .......
98.2 ........
98........ ........


98.4 ........
........ ........
98.4 ........
........ ........
........ 97.9
97.7 .......
97.8 ........


........ 97.7
97.8......
97.8 .......
97.8 .......


97.4 ........


97.2 ........


Time.


1900.

Jan uary 26.

6.55 a.m ........
7a.m...........
7.04 a.m ........
8.33 a.m ........
8.39 a. m ........
8.41 a.m ........
8.42 a. m ........
9.26 a. m ........
9.30 a. m .......
9.72 a. m ........
10 a. m..........
10.27 a. m .......
10.32 a. m .......
10.44 a. m .......
11.01 a.m .......
11.12 a.m .....
11.30 a. m .......
11.33 a.m .......
11.55 a.rm .......
12.05 p. m .......
12.28 p. m .......
12.34 p.m.......
12.51 p.m .......
12.56 p. m .......
1.56 p.m ........
2.04 p.m ........
2.16 p. m ........
2.27 p. m........
2.28 p.m ........
2.45 p.m ........
3.07 p.m ........
3.08 p.m ........
3.12 p.m ........
3.21 p.m ........
3.33 p.m ........
3.45 p.m ........
4 p.m ............
4.39 p. m .......
5 p.m...........
5.23 p. m ........
5.28 p. m ........
5.50 p.m ........
6.37 p. m ........
6.49 p. m ........


I


7 p.m........... 65.18


Weight
of sub-
ject in
under-
clothes.




Kgs.



64.43









.........


72
76


......... 82
......... .......


88



92


93


98


Pulse
rate
per
min-
ute.





70



90
88
90



91



87







82


-... 98.7
....... 98.6
95 .......
....... 98.3
94 ........
....... 98.3

I -


'"""'
"~-""


.--....,


Tempeixmf:.

Axil- Subin-
lary. g .,




oF. oP.





97........ ........
98.......... 98.1
........ -98.5





98........ ........

........ ........

97.. .2
98.5 ........

........ .......
98.3 .......
98.2 .


........ 97.

97.2 .......
97.9 .......
97.9 ........




....... ....

97.7 .......
98.9 .......







98.5,.......
97.9 .......

98... ......


98.9 .......
98........ ........







98. ........
98.4 .......------
........i........
98.5 ........


98.5 .......
9-.6.... -.......





98.7 ........
98.7 ........
98.6 ........


:::::::::






75


Detailed data of income and outgo.-The quantities of nutrients
and energy in the daily diet in this experiment are shown in Table 84,
and the total and daily elimination of matter and energy in the feces in
Table 85.


TABLE 84.- -Weight, composition, and heat of combustion of foods-Metabolism experiment
No. 25.


Food materials.




Beef ............
Butter ...........
Milk, skimmed...
Bread............
Parched cereal ..
Ginger snaps....
Sugar ...........
Total.......


Weight
per day.


Grams.
85
98
1,000
300
50
70


Water.


Gra ns.
53.4
8.6
894.0
115.8
2.8
3.4


Pro-
tein.


Grams.
28.5
1.6
43.0
27.3
5.9
4.5


20 .......


Fat.


Gra ins.
2.8
84.4
4.0
6.3
.9
6.0


Car- Nitro- Car- Hydro t o
boh- dro- combus-
drates. gen. bon. gen. tion.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Gra. Gms. ms. Calori.s.
....... 4.56 16.68 2.35 185
........ .25 62.10 9.81 I 786
51.0 6. 0 47.60 6.70 488
146.7 4. &S 4.12 12.09 841
39. .94 21.10 ,2.97 207
54.9 .72 30.91 4.49 310


........ 20.0 ........


$.42 1.30


1,623 1,078.0 | 110.8 104.4 312.2 17.65 270.93 39.71 2,896
I I


TABLE 85.- Weight, composition, and heat of combustion of feces-Metabolism experiment
No. 25.


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


3171 Total, 3 days.....
Average, 1 day...


Weight
of feces.


Grams.n
211.4
70.5


Water.


Grains.
145.8
48.6


Pro- Fat.
tein.


Grams. Grams.
18.2 8.0
6.1 2.7


bCa- Nitro-
bohy-
drates. gen.

Granis. Grams.
23. 4 2.92
7.8 .9<


Car-
bon.


Grams.
29.02
9.67


Hydro- Heat of
gen. combus-
gen. :tion.


Grams. Calories.,
4.27 332
1.42 111


The urine was collected and the nitrogen determined in the usual 6-
hour periods each day. The usual aliquot portions of the urine during
each period of the day were taken for the preparation of a composite
sample for the day. The nitrogen and heat of combustion of this
composite sample were determined. Aliquot portions of the urine for
each day were taken for the preparation of a composite sample for
the whole period of the experiment. Inasmuch as it was intended that
this experiment should form a part of a series continuing for 9 days,
a composite sample of the urine for the 3 days of experiment No. 25
was not made, but a corresponding sample for 5 days was prepared
and analyzed in the usual manner. The statistics are shown in Tables
86 and 87. The quantities of carbon dioxid and water found in the
ventilating air current during the different days of this experiment
are shown in Tables 88-90. Table 90 summarizes the calorimetric
measurements during the experiment.


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


2165
3166
3169
3164
3168
3167







7 6 .... ... .:::
:E:

TABLE 86.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine by 6-hour period- aia' i-
olism experiment No. 25.


Date. PeroAmounto. S f Nitrogen content
ate. Period. of urine, gravity.


1900.
Jan. 23-24








24-25








25-26








26-27








27-28


7 a. m. to 1 p. m .............................
1 p.m to 7 p.m ................................
7 p. m. to 1 a. m ................................
1 a. m to 7 a. m .................................
Tntal


Total

7 a. m. to 1
1 p. m. to 7
7 p. m. to 1
1 a. m. to 7

Total
Total


by composite.......................

p. m .................................
p.m ..............................
a. m ................................
a. m ............................


by composite.......................


7 a. m to 1 p. nm .................................
1 p. m to7 p. m ................................
7 p. m. to 1 a. m ...............................
1 a. m to 7 a. m .................................

Total ....................................
Total by composite.......................


7a. m. to 1 p.
1 p. m. to 7 p.
7 p. m. to 1 a.
1 a. m. to 7 a.


Total .....................................
Total by composite.......................


to 1 p.
to 7 p.
to 1 a.
to 7 a.


.m .................................
m .................................
m .................................
m .................................


Total .....................................
Total by composite........................

Total, 5 days. by composite ..............


Grams.
281.1
314.6
201.5
178.0


1.027
1.029
1.032
1.028


Per cent.
1.40
1.60
2.03
'1.90


Grams.
aM4
6.08
4.09
3.8


975.2 ............ 16.44
975.2 1.0285 1.69 1.48-

256.6 1.026 1.51 3.8 -
380.3 1.032 1.27 4.83
225.8 1.027 1.79 1 4.04
349.3 1.016 1.06 3.70

1,212.0 ................ 16.4
1,212.0 1.022 1.35 16.48

355.2 1.022 1.09 3.87
430.7 1.019 1.08 4.65
303.8 1.021 1.34 4.07
461.1 1.014 .82 3.78

1,550.8 .......... .......... 16.37
1,550.8 1.019 1.07 16.59

402.6 1.019 .92 3.70
441.3 1.018 1.00 4.41
375.6 1.017 1 1.08 4.06
305.6 1.019 | 1.12 3.42

1,525.1 .................... 15.59
1,525.1 1.0185 1.03 15.71

331.8 1.021 1.16 3.85
448.3 1.019 1.07 4.80
405.0 1.017 1.15 4,66
280.3 1.020 1.24 3.47

1,465.4 .................... 16.78
1,465.4 1.019 1.15 16.85

6,728.5 .......... 1.21 i 81.41
I !


TABLE 87.-Daily elimination of carbon, hydrogen, water, and energy in urine-Metab-
olism experiment No. 25.


Date.


1900.
Jan. 23-24.....................
24-25......................
25-26......................
26-27-----------------..................----


27-28..


Amount
of urine.


Grams.
975.2
1,212.0
1,550.8
1,525. 1


Carbon.



P. ct. Grams.
12.88
......1 12.87
...... 12.82
...... 12.21


...... 1,465.4 ...... 13.14


Hydrogen.


P. ci.


Water.


Grams. P. ct.
3.12 .......
3.12 .......
3.10 .......
2.96 .......
3.18 i.......


Grams.
913.1
1,150.0
1,489.'0
1,466.2
1,402.0


Heat of com-
bustion.

Per Total.
gram.

Cal. Clorie
0.142 138.5
.121 146.6
.100 155.1
.096 146.4


Total,5 days............. 6,728.5 0.95 63.92 0.23


a. m.
p. m.
p. m.
a. m.


.................................
.......... ......................
..................... ...........
.................................


15.48 95.42 6,420.3 ......


"""

"""






77


TABLE 88.-Comparison of residual amounts of carbon dioxide and water in the chamber
at the beginning and end of each period, and the corresponding gain or loss-Metabolism
experiment No. 25.


End of period


7 a. m .......................
1 p. m ......................
7 p. m ......................
1 a. m ......................
7 a. m ......................

Total ..................

1 p. m ......................
7 p. m ............. .........
1 a. m ......................
7 a. m .....................


1900.
.Jan. 23
23
23
24
24


24
24
25
25


25
25
26
26


Carbon dioxid.


W after.


ta Gain (+) Total Gain (
Total orloss-) mount rlor ss-
amount olossr-) of vapor
in over pre- remain- over pre-
in ceding remain- din
chamber. ri ing in ceding
period. be period.


Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
27.4 .......... 36.5 .........
36.7 + 9.3 42.9 +6.4
45.6 + 8.9 44.1 +1.2
27.6 -18.0 43.9 .2
26.6 1.0 37.4 -6.5

......... .......... I .9

38.6 +12.0 41.8 +4.4
44.6 + 6.0 39.3 -2.5
26.0 -18.6 41.2 +1.9
24.9 1.1 35.0 -6.2


Change Total
in weight amount
of ab- gained (+)
sorbers, or lost(-)
gain (+) i during the
orloss(-). period.

Grams. Grains.

+11 +17.4
+10 -11.2
--11 -11.2
-10 -16.5

0 + .9

+ 1 + 5.
+1 -.5
-2 .1
2 8.2


Total .................. ......... 1.7 .......... -2.4 2 4.4

m ...................... 35.5 +10.6 40..3.3 1 4.3
m ....................... 46.7 +11.2 43.5 +3.2 0 + 3.2
m ...................... 26.8 -19.9 40.3 -3.2 0 3.2
m ...................... 26.4 .4 36.5 -3. 0 3.8

Total ............................ + 1.5 .......... +1.5 1 + .5

Total, 3 days.................... 1.0 .......... 0O 3 3.0


TABLE 89.-Record of carbon dioxid in ventilating air current-Metabolism experiment
No. 25.


Period.


7 a.m. to 1 p.m ...
1 p.m. to 7 p. m
7 p.m.to 1 a.m i..
1 a.m. to 7 a.m ...i

Total ........

7 a. m. to 1 p. m ...
1 p.m. to 7 p.m ...I
7 p. m. to 1 a. m ...
1 a.m. to 7 a. m ...

Total ......

7 a.m. to 1 p.m ..
1 p.m. to7 p.m ..
7 p. m. to 1 a. m ..
1 a.m. to 7 a. m ...

Total ........

Total, 3 days.


(a)

Ventila-
tion
(number
of liters
of air).



Liters.
25,652
26,430
27,208
26,430

105,720

26,430
27,208
27,985
27,985

109,608

27,207
26,430
27,985
27,208

108,830

324,158


Carbon dioxid. (h)

In incoming (d) (e) (f) (g) Total
a inrTotal Correc- Corrected weight
Excess tion for amount of car-
Inout- in out- amount exhaled bonex-
(b) (c) going going remain- by sub- haled,
Per Total, air, air, ing in ject, g x y.
liter, a x b. d c. chamber. e +f.

iMg. Grams. Grams. Gras. Grams. ra Grams. G. rams.
0.624 16.0 24-4.9 228.9 + 9.3 238.2 65.0
.593 15.7 247.3 231.6 + 8.9 240.5 65.6
.561 15.3 226.6 211.3 -18.0 193.3 52.7
.539 14.2 144.0 129.8 1.0 128.8 35.1

...... 61.2 862.8 801.6 .8 800.8 218.4

.611 16.1 238.8 222.7 +12.0 234.7 64.0
.598 16.3 233.4 217.1 + 6.0 223.1 60.8
..560 15.7 235.0 219.3 18.6 200.7 54.7
.549 15.4 150.7 135.3 1.1 134.2 36.6

...... 63.5 857.9 794.4 1.7 792.7 216.1

.2 15.6 224.8 209.2 +10.6 219.8 59.9
.588 15.5 233.4 217.9 +11.2 229.1 62.5
.584 16.3 235.6 219.3 -19.9 199.4 54.5
.548 14.9 156.6 141.7 .4 141.3 38.4

...... 62.3 850.4 788.1 + 1.5 789.6 215.3

...... 187.0 2,571.1 2,384.1 1.0O 2,383.1 649.8
I __ _


1 p.
7 p.
1 a.
7 a.


Date.





1900.
Jan. 23-24






24-25






25-26




................. .. .. .


78 :,


TABLE 90.--Record of water in ventilating air current--Metabolism experiment %,iPS:;


Period.


7 a.m. to 1 p. m.
1 p.m. to 7 p. m.
7 p.m. to 1 a. m.
1 a.m. to 7 a. m.

Total ........

7 a.m. to 1 p. m.
1 p.m. to7 p. m.


(a)

0





>;
so
S- c






Liters.
25,652
26,430
27,208
26,430

105,720

26,430
27,208


7 p.m. to 1 a. m. 27,985
1 a.m. to 7 a. m 27,985

Total ........ 109,608

7a.m. to p.m. 27,207
lp.m. to 7p. m. 26,430
7 p.nm.to 1 a. m. 27,98.5
1 a. m. to 7 a. m. 27,208

Total ........ 108,830

Total,3 days. 321,158


Water in in-
coming air.


(b)


L*





Mg.
0.877
.870
.862
.819


(c)


X
x
e




Grams.
22.5
23.0
23.5
21.6


Water in outgoing air.


(d)

r.,
4.20 4)
oa




Grams.
191.9
210.1
212.9
190.9


(e)


msa

o00
V.-


Grams.
46.6
37.8
42.3
36.2


(f)


+


0


Gra ms.
238.5
247.9
255.2
227.1


I *i I --- I I--- -- -- l


.887
.864
.834
. 859


.853
.873
.841
.812


90. 6

23.4
23. 5
23.3
24.0

94.2

23.2
23.1
23.6
22.1

92.0


...... 276.8


805.8 162.9 968.7

193.7 40.2 233.9
209.1 39.3 248.4
218.5 43.7 262.2
189.7 39.5 229.2

811.0 162.7 973.7

188.7 43.9 232.6
197.7 37.0 234.7
199.7 43.3 243.0
181.8 36.3 218.1

767.9 160.5 928.4

2,384.7 486.1 2,870.8


TABLE 91.-Sunmmary of calorimetric measuremnents-.Velabolism experiment No. 25.


Period.


7 a. m. to 1 p.m...
1 p.m. to 7p.m...
7p.m. to 1 a.m...'
1 a. m. to 7 a. m...l

Total.......

7 a. m. to 1 p. in...
1 p.m.to 7p. m...
7 p.m. to a. m-...
1 a.m. to 7 a.m...

Total.......


7 a.m. to 1
1 p.m.to 7


p. m...
p.m...


7 p. m. to 1 a.m...


1 a.m.to 7 a.m...

Total.......


(a)



Heat
meas-
ured in
terms of
Ceon.




Calories.
588.0
490.6
447.1
248.5

1,774.2

542.2
467.2
443.7


(b)



Change
of tem-
perature
of calo-
rimeter.


-0.01


.01

..........


239.0 + .04

1,692.1 + .04

520.2 ..........
495.7 ..........
430.2 ..........
270.9 + .03


1,717.0


+ .03


(c) (d)


Capacity
correc-
tion of
calorim-
eter,
b x 60.


Correc-
tion due
to tem-
perature
of food
and
dishes.



Calories.
0.5
2.2
+ 5.9


-0.6


.......... ..........
-0.6 + 3.2

.......... + 0.3
.......... 3.0
.......... + 6.1
+2.4 ..........

+2.4 + 3.4

.......... +0.2
-99


+1.8.....
+1.8


+ 6.6
..........


(e)
Water va-
porized
equals
total
amount
exhaled
less
amount
con-
densed in
chamber.

Grams.
222.4
226. 1
231.5
199.0

879.0

214.9
222. 4
240.8
199.0

877.1

214.7
214.8
216.2
192.2


(f)


Heat
used in
vaporiza-
tion of
water,
ex0.592.




Calories.
131.7
133.8
137.1
117.8

520.4

127.2
131.7
142.6
117.8

519.3

127.1
127.2
128.0
113.8


I .1 I I -


+1.8


+ 4.6


_ I 1=


837.9


(g)



Total
heat de-
termined,
a+c+d
+/.




Oalories.
719.2
621.6
590.1
366.

2,297.2

669.7
595.9
592.4
359.2

2,217.2

647.5
620.7
564.8
386.5


496.1 2,219.5


2,594.0 1,535.8 6,733.9-


Date.


1900.
Jan. 23-24







24-25







25-26


(g)
'V



ho
Na
60

o .


Grams.
216.0
224.9
231.7
205.5


(A)


qbc
0a4
4)







Grams.
+17.4
+11.2
-11.2
--16.5


---- --- j -- -- ----


836.9

2,591.0


878.1

210.5
224.9
238.9
205.2

879.5

209.4
211.6
219.4
196.0


+ .9

+ 5.4
- 1.5
- .1
- 8.2

- 4.4

+ 4.3
+ 3.2
- 3.2
- 3.8


II1


+ .5

- 3.0


836.4

2,594.0


Date.


1900.
Jan. 23-24






24-25







25-26


Degree. Calories.


236. I
220.5
238.4.
236.1

189.0

879.0

215.9
223.4
238.8
197.0

875.1

213.7
214. 8
216.2
192.2


I


+3.6


Total, 3 days.


+11.2


5,183.3 ..........






79


Balance of income and outgo of matter and energy.--Tables 92-95
summarize the income and outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and

energy.

TABLE 92.-Income and outgo of nitrogen and carbon-Metabolism experiment No. 25.


Date.


1900.
Jan. 23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..
24-25, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m..
25-26, 7 a. to 7 a. m..

Total, 3 days..........
Average, 1 day .......


Nitrogen.


(a)

In
food.


Grams.
17.7
17.6
17.7

53.0
17.7


(b)

In
feces.



Grams.
1.0
.9
1.0


2.9
1.0


(c)

In
urine.



Grams.
16.4
16.4
16.4


49.2
16.4


Carbon.


(d')
Gain
(+)or
loss(- k
a-
(b+c'. I

Grams.
+0.3
+ .3
+ .3


(e)

In
food.



Gramts.
270.9
270. 9
270.9

812.7
270.9


I f)

In
feces.


(g)

In
urine.


--I -
Granls. Grams.
9.7 12.9
9.6 12.9
9.7 12.8

29.0 38.6
9.7 12.9


(h) I k)
In Gain
respira- i+ i or
tory loss -)
prod- c-i/'+
ucts. g+hi.

Grams. Grams.
218.4 +29.9
216.1 +32.3
215.3 +33.1

649. S +95.3
216.6 +31.7


TABLE 93.-Income and outgo of water and hydrogen-3Metabolism experiment No. 25.


Water.

(a) (b) (c) Fd) I i (f)
Date. In Apparent
In 11 In 11 loss,
In lIi In In respiratory Appren
food. drink, feces. urine. products a+b-


1900. Grams. Grs. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
Jan. 23-24,7 a. m. to 7 a. m.... 1,078 900 48.6 913.1 879.0 +137.3
24-25,7 a. m. to 7 a.m.... 1,078 900 48.6 1,150.0 875.1 95.7
25-26,7 a. m. to 7 a.m.... 1,078 900 48.6 1,489.0 836.9 -396.5

Total, 3 days ........... 3,234 2,706 145. 3,552.1 2,591.0 -354.9
Average,1 day......... 1,078 900 48.6 1,184.0 863.7 -118.3

Hydrogen.

(g) (h) (i) ( ) ( l ) (n)
Date. Total
In In. In Apprent Loss-from gain(+)
food. feces. urine. gain water, 9. or loss I -),
S fg-h+i). +m.


1900. Grams. Grams. GramGs. Gr Grams. Grams.
Jan.23-24,7 a.m. to 7 a.m.... 39.7 1.4 3.1 + 35.2 +15.3 +50.5
24-25,7 a.m.to 7 a.m.... 39.7 1.4 3.1 + 35.2 -10.6 +24.6
25-26,7 a. m. to 7 a.m .... 39.7 1.5 3.1 + 35.1 -44.1 9.0

Total, days ........... 119.1 4.3 9.3 +105.5 +39 4 +66.1
Average,1 day ......... 39.7 1.4 3.1 + 35.2 +13.2 +22.0






80


TABLE 94. -Gain or loss of protein ( NX 6.25), fat, and water-Metabolism ezperifmt.


Date.


1900.
Jan. 23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ........
24-25, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ........
25-26, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m ........
Total, 3 days................
Average, 1 day ..............


Date.


1900.
Jan. 23-24, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m...............
24-25, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m...............
25-26, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m...............
Total, 3 days......................
Average, 1 day ...................


(g)
Total
hydrogen
gained(+)
or lost (-).


Grams.
+50.5
+24.6
9.0

+66.1
+22.0


(h) (i)
Hydrogen i Hydrogen
in protein : in fat
gained (+) gained (+)
or lost(-), or lost(-),
bx0.07. fx0.118.


Gram. Grams.
+0.1 + 4.5
+ .1 + 4.8
+ .2 + 5.0


+ .4
+ .1


+14.3
+ 4.8


(a) (b) (e) (d)
Protein Total Carbon in
Nitrogen gained(+) carbon protein
gained(+) or gained(+) gaind(+)
ost lost (-), orst
losa-). X 6.25 l (-
ax6.25. los (lost b x0.53.


Gram. Grams. Grams. \ Grams.
+0.3 +1.9 +29.9 +1.0
+ .3 +1.8 +32.3 +1.0
+ .3 +1.9 i +33.1 +1.0

+ .9 +5.6 -95.3 i +3.0
+ .3 1 +1.9 +31.8 +1.0
I _


yk)
Hydrogen
in water,
etc.,
gained (+)
or lost(-),
g-(h+i).

Grams.
+45.9
+19.7
-14.2


+51.4
+17.1


I


Water
gained (+)
or lost (-).
kx9.


Grams.
+413.1
+177.8
-127.8


+482.6
+15. 2


TABLE 95.-Income and outgo of energy-Metabolism experiment No. 25.


Date.


(a)


Heatof
com-
bustion
of food
eaten.


Calo-
1900. rics.
23-24,7 a.m.4o 7 a. m.. 2,896
24-25, 7 a. m. to 7 a. m .. 2,896
25-26, 7a. m. to 7 a. m .. 2,896
Total, 3 days ......... 8,688
Average, 1 day ....... 2,896


(b)


Heat of
com-
bustion
of
feces.


(C)


Heat of
com-
bustion
of
urine.


Calo- Olo-
ries. rics.
111 13S9
110 147
111 155

332 440
111 147


(d) (e)
Esti- ti
mated I Esti-
mae mte
heated mated
eaco- heat of
com-
bustion cou-i
of bustion
of of fat
protein o fadt
gained gained
(+) or lost(+)
or lost
(-). (-).

Oalo- COlo-
ries. ries.
+11 + 362
+10 + 392
+11 + 403

+32 +1,157
+11 + 385


METABOLISM EXPERIMENTS NOS. 26 AND 28.

Subject.-J. F. S., as in the previous experiment, weighing with
underclothing about 64 kilograms (141 pounds).
Occupation during experiment.-Reading, writing, and miscellaneous -
observations within the apparatus, with as little muscular activity as
practicable.







i


S .


Jan.


(f)
Esti-
mated
energy
of ma-
terial
oxi-
dized
in the
body,
a-(b+e
+d+e).

Calo-
ries.
2,274
2,237
2,216
6,727
2,242


(g)



Heat
deter-
mined.





Clo-
ries.
2,297
2,217
2,220

6,734
2,244


(h)
Heat
deter-
mined
greater
(+) or
less(-)
than
esti-
mated,
g-f.

Calo-
ries.
+23
-20
+4

+ 7
+ 2


()
Heat
deter-
mined
greater
(+)or
lee (-)
than
esti-
mated,
A-/'.



Petr r.
+1.0
.9
-t- .2
+ .2

+ .1


"... .. ..":.: ....__ _


(e)
Carbon in
fat, etc.,
gained(+)
or
loat (-),
c-d.

Grams.
+28.9
+31.3
+32.1

+92.3
+30.8


I I


~ ~~1-----------


4 4.. ;;:: ..



+ 48.0
+fl.:




(1) g.a
l+u2(-, r
e+oM.4

Os





81

Duration. -Experiments Nos. 26 and 28 form the first and last of a
series of 3 experiments which were made for the purpose of studying
the relative replacing power of isodynamic amounts of different mate-
rials; the intermediate experiment is not reported here. The usual
preliminary period of 4 days duration began with breakfast February
10, 1900, and ended with supper February 13. The subject entered
the calorimeter on the evening of February 13 and experiment No. 26
began at 7 a. m. February 14, continuing 3 days. Experiment No. 28
began at 7 a. m. February 20, and continued until 7 a. m. February 23.
Diet.-The diet consisted of a basal ration furnishing about 99
grams of protein and 1,982 calories of energy per day. To this, in
experiment No. 26, was added 63.5 grams of butter, furnishing 1 gram
of protein and 508 calories of energy. In experiment No. 28 the
material added consisted of 128 grams of cane sugar, furnishing 507
calories of energy per day. The protein and energy were thus prac-
tically the same in both of the experiments. The kinds and quantities
of food in the basal ration as served for each meal, the character and
amount of the supplemental ration in the different experiments, and
the quantity of drink consumed at different periods of the day in each
experiment were as follows:

TABLE 96.-Diet in metabolism -.xperiments Nos. 26 and 28.
FOOD-BASAL RATION.

Food materials. Breakfast. Dinner. Supper. i Total.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
Beef.... .. ............................ ............. 35 50 .......... 85
Butter.......................................................... 10 12 8 30
M ilk .... ...................................... ................. 300 400 300 1,000
Bread .......................................................... 50 100 50 200
Ginger snaps................................................ ........... 30 30 60
Parched cereal............................................. 25 ..........2 25 50
Sugar .......................... ........... .. ............. .... 15 .................... 15

FOOD-SUPPLEMENTAL RATION.
Experiment No. 26 ......................................................... 63.5 grams butter per day.
Experiment No. 28 .......................................................... 128 grams sugar per day.
DRINK.

Time. Water. Time. Water.

Grams. Grams.
Breakfast ............................... 100 9 p. m .................................. 300
10 a. m.................................. 200 Total for day.....................
Sf d ........................................................ 8200
3 p. m ................................... 200
L


13007-No. 109-02- 6







82


Daily routine.-The general routine of the experimentwasas follow :

TABLE 97.-Daily programme-Metabolism experiments Nos. 26 and 28.


6.50 a. m ....... Take pulse and temperature. 6.00 p. m...... Supper.
7.00 a.m ....... Rise, pass urine, weigh self, weigh 6.50 p.m ...... Take pulse and temperature.
absorbers. 7.00 p. m ...... Pass urine, weigh self, weigh ab.
7.45 a. m ....... Breakfast, drink 100 grams water, sorbers.
10.00 a. m ...... Drink 200 grams water. 9.00 p. m...... Drink 300 grams water.
12.50 p.m ...... Take pulse and temperature. 10.20 p. m ..... Take pulse and temperature.
1.00 p. m ....... Pass urine. 10.30 p. m ..... Retire.
1.15 p. m ....... Dinner. 1.00 a.m ...... Pass urine.
3.00 p. m ....... Drink 200 grams water.


The more important statistics in the diary kept by the subject dur-

ing experiments Nos. 26 and 28 are summarized in Table 98.

TABLE 98.-Summnary of the diary-Metabolism experiments Nos. 26 and 28.


Time.



1900.
Experiment No. 26.
Feb 14, 7.00a. m...
8.36 a. m....
10.27 a. m....
12.27 p. m....
12.33 p. m....
12.53 p. m....
1.00 p. m....


Weight
of subject
in under-
clothes.



Kgs.
64








..........


2.27 p. mi..............
3.47 p. m .... ..........
4.30 p. m .... ..........
5.30 p. m .... ..........
5.45 p. m ..............
6.17 p. m.... 64.88
8.13 p. m .... ..........
8.30 p. m .... ..........


9.29 p. m....
10.15 p. m....
Feb. 15, 6.50 a. m....
7.00 a. m....
7.34 a. m....
7.39 a. m....
8.33 a. m....
9.28 a. m....
9.30 a. m....
10.33 a. m....
10.46 a. m....
11.30 a. m....
12.31 p. m....
12.37 p. m....
12.54 p. m....
1.00 p. m....
1.59 p. m....
2.28 p. m....
3.35 p. m....
4.28 p. m....


..........
..........
..........
64.18
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........


4.30 p. m.... .........


Pulse I
rate per Temper-
min- ature.
ute.



OF.
68 97.8
78 98.3
67 98.1
64 i.........
........i 97.8
61 .........
........ 97.9
77 98.5


72 I


67



I
64 1
64
64
69
........
78


82
80


71


70
68


68


75
81
77
76


98.5
98. 5


98.7


97.6
97.5
97.7


98. 1



98. 3
98.5


98.3


98.5
98. 1


98.4


98.2
98.2
98.5
98.2


98. 1


Time.


1890.
E.rpt. No. e6-Cont'd.
Feb. 15, 5.30 p. m....
5.49 p. m....
6.30 p. m....
6.55 p. m....
7.30 p. m....
8.30 p. m....
8.54 p.m....


Weight
of subject
in under-
clothes.



A98.
..........
..........
..........
64.87


..........
..........


9.00 p. m .... ..........
9.30 p. m.... .......


Feb. 16,


9.35 p. m....
9.51 p. m....
10.15 p. m....
10.20 p. m....
6.55 a. m....
7.00 a. m....
8.32 a. m....
8.40 a. m....
9.30 a. m....
9.37 a. m....
10.31 a. m....
11.26 a. m....
11.30 a. m....
12.27 p. m....
12.30 p. m....
12.58 p. m....
1.00 p. m....
2.01 p. m....
2.30 p. m....
3.35 p. m....
4.05 p. m....
4.27 p. m....
4.30 p. m....
5.30 p. m....
5.43 p. m....
6.32 p. m....
6.42 p. m....


..........
..........
..........
..........
64.01
..........
..........
..........


Pulse
rate per
min-
ute.






69
69
68
75
67
70


67



70


71


82


79


76
72


70


71


80
79
81


79


75


80


Temper-
ature.


oF.
98.0


98.2
98.2
98.1
97.6


97.5


97.4
97.6


97.6


98.1'


98.8


98.2




98.82
.?




98.2



96.2
98.2








si
98.2
S8.





98.2
96.
98,7


I
1


I


..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
.......a...
II lI iI
IIII iII
II "i III


i 'iII II
III il II
""li 'i

I "lII ll
"'lII i







'83


TABCE 98.-Summary of the diary-M3etabolism experiments Nos. 26 and 28-Continued.


Time.



1900.
Experiment No. 26.
Feb. 16, 7.00 p. m....
7.34 p. m....
7.40 p. m....
7.50 p.m....
8.26 p.m....
8.30 p. m....
9.31 p. m....


Weight Pulse
of subject rate per
in under-' min-
clothes. ute.



Kgs.
64.73 77
..... ..... 75
.......... ........


..........


...... ....


71'


l'i. ,


Experiment No. 2S. i
Feb. 20, 6.55 a. m............
7.00 a. m.... 63.71
7.32 a. m .... I.........
7.35 n. m .... ..........
8.30 a. m..............


Feb. 21,


8.31 a. m....
9.30 a. m....
10.30 a. m....
11.30 a. m....
11.36 a. m....
12.27 p. m....
12.33 p. m...
12.57 p. m....
12.59 p. m....
1.52 p.m....
1.57 p. m....
3.34 p. m.n...
4.30 p. m....
5.32 p. m....
5.41 p. m....
6.35 p. m....
6.40 p. m....
6.57 p. m....
7.00 p.m....
7.30 p. m....
8.28 p. m....
8.30 p. m....
9.30 p. m....
9.32 p. m....
10.18 p. m....
10.20 p. m....
6.55 a. m....
7.00 a. m....
7.29 a. m....
7.30 a. m....
8.29 a.m....
8.30 a. m....
9.30 a. m....
10.30 a. m....
10.33 a. m....
11.27 a. m....
11.31 a. m....
12.31 p. m....
1.00 p. m ....


Temper-
ature.




OF.
98.5
.........
9S7
98. 3


97.8
97.8


72 ... .....



.98 4
91 ........
.s J


9 98.7
... 84 9S. 4
... ;51 98.2


... 70 .........
... ........ 98.1

... ...... 9 1

... ........ ......
... S .........
... ........ : 98.3
... 1 98.2
... 79 9. .1
.. 71 .........
... ........ 9";


.......... 77 ........
.......... ..... 98. 1
......... 78 .........
64.32 ......... 98.1
.......... 8 97.8
.......... 1 72 .........
........ ........ 97. 7
.......... 67 .........


..........
..........
..........
..........
63.83
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........


........ 97.3
67 .........
........ 97.2
73 .........
98.1
........ 98. 1
87 .........
........ 98.1


........ 98.3
101 98.3
87 .........
........ 98.4
78.........
........ 97.9
77 98.1
73 .........


Time.


SWeight
of subject
in under-
clothes.


1900.
E.rpt. No. ,8S-Cont'd. A.7,.
Feb. 21. 1.54 p. m..... .........
2.01 p. m ..... ..........
2.27 p. m ...............
2.34 p. i ..... ..........
3.52 p. in..... ..........
3.54 p. m ...............
4.35 p. m .... ...........
4.52 p. m ..... ..........
5.2S p. in...............
6.32 p. n ...............
1.59 p. m ...............
7. 10 p. m .... 64.63,
7.31 p. mi ................
7.41 p. in...............
8.27 pl. m ...............
8.30 p. m ...............
9.27 p. m ..... ..........
9..52 p. in...............
Feb. 22. 6.55 a. mi ..... ..........
7.00 a. m .... 63. 5
7.36 a. mn ..... ..........
7.40 a. nm ..... ..........
S.2S in..... .........
S.33 a. in..... ..........
9.27 a. m ...............
9.30 a. in..... ..........
10.29 n. m .... ..........
10.30 a. min.... ..........
11.36 a. mi .... ..........
12.27 p. m .... ..........
12.30 p. m...............
12.55 p. m..............
12.58 p. m .... ..........


2.07 p. m.... ..........
2.15 p. m..... ..........
2.30 p. m ..... ..........
2.50 p. m.....'..........
3.30 p. m..... ..........
4.29 p. m..... ..........
5.30 p. m..... ..........
5.37 p. m...............
6.30 p. m.............
6.57 p. m..... 64.77
7.27 p. m..... ..........
7.31 p. m..... ..........
8.32 p. m..... .........
8.42 p. m..... ..........
9.27 p. m..... ..........
9.30 p. m..... ........
10.20 p. m.... ..........
Feb. 23, 6.55 a. m..... .........
7.00 a.m..... 64.05


Pulse
rate per Temper-
min- ature.
ute.



ZF.
SO .........
........ 9S8.2
93 .........
........ 98.5
$q .........
........ 9 .2
76 .........
79 9. 2
75 98.5
77 .........
79 98.2


S1 97.7
........ 97.9
79 .........
........ 97.7
73 .........
... ... 97.6
69 .........
........ 9 .1
A .........
........ 97.9
93 .........
........ 95.3
95 .........

........ 9S.2
87 .........
........ 95. 4
82 9. 0
74 ........


70
I.....


83


84


84
78
73


73
76
74


72


66


70
76


98.2



98.6 2
98.



98. 4
98. 4
98.2


98. 2
98.4
98.1


97.7


97.5


97.3
97.1


98.1
98. 1


'


=




..... .. .............. : :


84


Detailed data of income and outgo.-The quantities of nutrients iBr
the basal ration which were used for the experiments and the quantities
in the supplemental ration in the two experiments are shown in Table
99. The elimination of matter and energy in the feces was determined.

in each experiment and the results are recorded in Table 100.

TABLE 99.- Weight, composition, and heal of combustion of foods--Metabolism experiment
Nos. 26 and 28.


Food materials.


Beef ................
Butter ..............
Milk, skimmed ......
Bread ..............
Ginger snaps.........
Parched cereal.......
Sugar ...............
Total basal ration.. I

EXPERIMENT NO. 26.
Butter (supplemen-
..1


Mt ratio) .........
Total ration, 1 day.
EXPERIMENT NO. 28.
Total basal ration....
Sugar (supplemen-
tal ration) .........
Total ration, 1 day.


Weight Water.
per day.

i


Grams.
85.0
30.0
1,000.0
200.0
60.0
50.0
15.0


SGramis.
53.1
3.0
900.0
S78.6
S 2.5
S 2.8


1,440.0 1,040.0




63.5 6.3

1,503.5 1,046.3


Pro-
tein.


Grams.
28.7
.5
42.0
17.8
3.7
5.9


98. 6




1.0


99.6


Fat.


Carbo-
hy-
drates.


Nitro-
gen.


Car-
bon.


Hydro-
gen.


Heat
of
conm-
bus-
tion.


I I I I -


Grams.
2.4
25.8
3.0
3.2
5.0
.9
........


40.3


94.8


Grams.



47.0
97.8
47.9
39.5
15.0

247.2


54.5 ........


247.2


Grams.
4.60
.08
6.70
2.84
.60
.94


15.76


Grams.
16.62
19.51
46.30
55.52
26.59
21.10
6.31

191.95




41.29


15.92 238.24


Grams.
2.30
3.01
6.30
7.98
3.97
2.97
.97
27.50




6.36


33.86


Crio-

187
240
462
561
266
207
59

1,982



508


2,490


1,440.0 1,040.0 98.6 40.3 247.2 15.76 191.95 27.50 1,982

128.0 ........ ............... 128.0 ........ 53.88 8.29 507
i


1,568.0


40.3


375.2


15.76 245.83


35.79


2,489


TABLE 100.- Weight, composition, and heat of combustion of feces-Metabolism experiments
Nos. 26 and 28.


Lab- ; Carbo-
ora- Weight Water. Pro- Fat. hyarbo-
tory offices. tein. Fate
No. drates.
Eo. 6

Experiment No. 26. rams. Gra ms. Grams. Grams. Grams. Gas
3183 Total, 3 days..... 236. 5 171.0 20.6 8.5 20.1
Average, 1 day... 78.8 57.0 6.9 2.8 6.7
Experiment No. 28. .
3185 Total, 3 days..... 219.9 155.2 23.3 12.1 16.1
SAverage, 1 day... 73.3 51.7 7.8 4.0 5.3


Nitro-
gen.


Grams.
3.26
1,09


3.74
1.25


Car-
bon.


Grams.
28.33
9.44


29.93
9.98


Hydro-
gen.


Grams.
3.41
1.14


4.02
1.34


Heat of
combus-
tion.



317
106


135
112


The usual statistics of outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, water,
and energy in the urine are given in Tables 101 and 102. The urine
was collected in the usual periods for twenty-four hours following the
close of experiment No. 28. The elimination of nitrogen in these
periods was 3.48, 5.25, 4.74, and 2.96 grams, respectively, or a total of
16.43 grams.


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


3176
3177
3179
3180
3181
3168





3177


1,040.0i 98.6


I I


1







85


TABLE 101.-Amount, specific gravity, and nitrogen of urine-1Metabolism experiments Aos.
26 and 28.


Period.


Date.


1900.
Feb. 14-15








15-16








16-17













Feb. 20-21








21-22








22-23


Experiment No. 26.

7 a.m.to 1 p.m ....................................
1 p.m .to 7 p.m .................................
7 p.m .to 1 a.m .................................
1 a. m to 7 a. m ...................................

Total .....................................
Total by composite........................

7 a.m. to1 p.m ................................
1 p.m .to 7 p.m .................................
7 p.m. to 1 a.m .................................
1 a.m.to 7 a.m ......... ..... .................. ..

Total ............ .... ...... ................
Total by composite.......................

7 a.m. to 1 p.m .................................
1 p.m to7 p.m ..................................
7 p.m to 1 a. m ..................................
1 a. m. to 7 a.m n..................................

Total..................................
Total by composite........................

Total, 3 days, by periods...................
Total by composite............. ..........

Experiment No. 2S.

7 a.m to 1 p.m .................................
1 p.m.to7 p. m ..............................
7 p.m .to 1 a.m ..................................
1 a.m. to 7 a. m ......... ................. ... .....

Total ............................ ......
Total by composite......................

7a.m.to 1 p.m ....................................
1 p.m.to 7 p. m........ ......................
7 p.m.to 1 a. m ......... .................... .....
1 a.m. to 7 a.m ......... .................... .....

Total ...................................... ..
Total by composite........................

7 a.m. to 1 p.m ......... .................... .....
1 p.m.to 7 p.m ................................
7 p.m. to 1 a.m .................................
1 a.m to 7 a.m ..................................

Total .....................................
Total by composite........................

Total, 3 days, by periods...................
Total by composite ....................


327.3
207.1
256.2

1,169.8
1,169.8

340. 7
267.7
276.8
407.0

1,292.2
1,292.2

302.8
258.5
234. 7
406. 5


1.021 1.39
1.0255 1.82
1.018 1.30


1.020 1.37

1.018 1.09
1.024 1.60
1.020 1.41
1.011 .82


1.017 1.19

1.0185 1.11
1.023 1.58
1.022 1.62
1.012 .84


4. 55
-3.77
3.33

15.90
16.03

3.71
4.28
3.90
3.34

15.23
15.38

3.36
4.06
3.80
3.41


1,202.5 ................... 14.65
1,202.5 1.018 1.23 14.79


3,664.5
3,664.5


Total, 9 days,b by composite ................ 11,998.8


....01.. .. .........19.
.......... ..........

1.019 1.19


45.78
46.20


138.84


*Including 3 days of an experiment not here reported.


Amount Specific Nitrogen content.
of urine, gravity.


Grains. Per cent. Grams.
326.7 1.0225 1.31 4.28
297.6 1.0245 1.57 4.67
264.8 1.0225 1.54 4.0
327.4 1.017 1.10 3.60

1,216.5 .......... .......... 16.63
1,216.5 1.021 1.38 16.7

451.4 1.017 1 .83 3.75
356.7 1.021 1.23 4.39
274.3 1.021 1.35 3.70
443.7 I1.0115 .73 1 3.24

1,526.1 ................ ... 15.0
1,526.1 1.0175 .99 1.11

381.6 1.0185 i .91 3.47
400.2 1.0185 1.04 4.16
266.2 1.020 1.35 3.59
292.4 1.017 1.10 3.22

1,340.4 .......... .......... 14.44
1,340.4 1.0185 1.09 14.61

4,083.0 .................... 46.15
4,083.0 .................... 46.00


379.2 1.0185 1.12 4.25
1 .0185i 4.55







86






Heat of am-
Amount bstion.
Date. Period. of urine. Carbon. Hydrogen. Water.
Per Tot.
gram. "

1900. Experiment No.26. Grams. P.ct. Grams. P. cl. Grams. P.et. Gram. Calorie. Calories
Feb.14-15 7a.m.to7a.m... 1,216.5 ...... 11.93 ...... 2.87 ....... 1,157.3 0.108 1t5
15-16 7a.rm.to7a.mn... 1,526.1 ...... 10.82 ..... 2.61 ....... 1,472.4 .082 15
fi-17 7 n m t 7 a m 1 e34 4 10 36fi 2 50 n1 9 101 1 9


Feb. 20-21
21-22
22-23


Total, 3 days.. I
Experiment No. 28.
7 a.m. to 7 a. m...
7 a.m. to 7 a. m...
7 a.m. to 7 a.m...
Total, 3days..


4,083.0 ...... 33.11 ...... 7.98 ...--. 3,918.7 ........ 385


1,169.8 ...... 11.40 ...... 2.75 ....... 1,113.2 .102 119
1,292.2 ...... 10.92 ...... 2.63 ....... 1,238.0 .108 13
1,202.5 ...... 10.51 ...... 2.53 ....... 1,150.3 .110 1e 2
3,664.5...... 32.83 ...... 7.91....... 3,501.5 ........ 84


Total,9daysa. 11,998.8 0.83 99.59 0.20 24.00 95.88 11,504.5 .095 1,141

a This period includes the 6 days of experiments Nos. 26 and 28 and 3 days of an intervening experi-
ment not reported here.





































A







87


Tables 103-105 show the quantities of carbon dioxid and water

found in the ventilating air current in these two experiments.


TABLE 103.-Comparison of residual amounts of carbon dio.id and water in the chamber
at the beginning and end qf each period, and the corresponding gain or loss-Metabolism
experinmeins Nos. 26 and 28.


End of period.


S Carbon


Total
amount in
chamber.


dioxid.


Gain I -r
or loss ( -
over
preceding
period.


Total
amount 01
vapo r
remaining
in cham-
ber.


Water.

Total
Gain (-) ao
or loss (-i gained
gained I-
preceding or Io..t --
periedi. during the
period. a


1 I -


Experiment No. ?6.

7a. m ............... ...........
1 p.m ........................
7 p. ..........................
la.m ........................
7a.m ..........................


Total....................

1 p.m .................. ........
7 p.m ...........................
Sa.m ..........................
7 a.m... ..................

Total......................

1 p.m ..........................
7 p.m .........................
1a.m ..........................
7 a.m ..........................

Total....................

Experiinct No. 2S.


............ 3.1 ............ 2.7 2.7

34.4 9.1 37.4 3. 3..
34. 0.4 36.9 0.5 0.5
24.1 --10.7 34. 2.1 2.1
22.6 1.5 32.3 2.5 --2.5

............ 2.7 ........... 1.3 1.3

30.S 8.2 35.9 3.6 3.6
39.5 ..2.9 2.9
21.5 -18.0 :3.4 4.4 4.4
23.0 1.5 31.4 3.0 3.0

............ + 0.4 ............ 0.9 0.9


Feb. 20
20
20
21


7a.m .......................... 26.4
1 p.m ......................... 35.2
7 p. m .......................... 37.2
1 a. m .......................... 24.1


+ 8.8
+ 2.0
-13.1


32.9
39.9
40.1
34.8


7.0
-r 0.2
- 5.3


+ 7.0
- 0.2
- 5.3


21 7a.m .......................... 24.1 I 0 30.8 4.0 4.0

Total............ ......... ....... .. 2.3 .......... 2.1 2.1

21 1 p.m ............................. 38.0 +13.9 40.3 + 9.5 + 9.5
21 7 p.m ......................... 19.0 -19.0 30.2 -10.1 -10.1
22 la.m ....................... 26.4 + 7.4 36.1 5.9 + 5.9
22 7a.m .......................... 28.9 + 2.5 35.5 0.6 0.6

Total............................... + 4.8 ............ + 4.7 + 4.7

22 1 p.m ............................ 36.7 + 7.8 38.8 + 3.3 + 3.3
22 7p.m .............................. 39.7 + 3.0: 39.3 + 0.5 + 0.5
23 1 a.m ......................... 26.0 -13.7 36.5 2.8 2.8
23 7a.m .......................... 28.7 + 2.7 33.4 3.1 3.1

Total........... ................ ...... 0.2 ............ 2.1 2.1


*The differences in weight of the absorbers were so small as to be within the limit of error of the
weighing apparatus. There was no drip.


Date.


1900.
Feb. 14
14
14
15
15


Grra ins.
-22. "2
32.3
35.7
22. .',


G rant. .


10. 1
3.4
-12.9
2.5


36.3
36.9
3S.4
35.5
33.6
A-1 C
31.3Q


Gra-inu.


0.6
1.5
2.9
1.9


tIranT ..


0.6
1.5
2.9
1.9







88 i.


TABLE 104.-Record of carbon dioxide in ventilating air current-Metabolism re er
Nos. 26 and 28.


Period.


Experiment No. 26.

7 a.m. to 1 p.m ....
1 p.m.to7 p.m ....
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ....
1 a.m. to 7 a.m ....

Total ........

7a.m. to 1 p.m ....
1 p.m. to7 p.m ....
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ....
1 a. m. to 7 a.m ...

Total ........

7 a.m. to 1 p.m ....
1 p.m. to7 p.m ....
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ....
1 a.m. to 7 a.m ....

Total ........

Total, 3 days.

Experiment No. 28.
7 a.m. to 1 p. m ....
1 p.m.to7 p.m ....
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ....
1 a. m. to 7 a. m ....

Total ........


1900.
Feb. 14-15







15-16







16-17










Feb. 20-21






21-22







22-23


7 p.m
1 a.n


7 a. n
1 p.
7 p.
la.


i. to 1 a. m....
. to 7 a.m ....

Total ........

. to 1 p.m ....
i. to7 p.m ....I
. to 1 a. m ....
.to 7a. m ....

Total ........

Total, 3 days.


(a)


Ventila-
tion
(number
of liters
of air).


Liters.
28,762
28,762
30,316
28,762


116,602

27,985
29,5411
30,316
30,316


Carbon dioxide.


In incoming
air.

(b) (c)
Per Total,
liter, axb.


Mnr_ Grams_


.--.
0.529
.568
.568
.555


15.2
16.3
17.2
16.0


(d)

In out-
going
air.


Grams.
212. 1
215.9
204.1
144.2


(e)
Total
excess
in out-
going
air,
d-c.


Grams.
196.9
199.6
186.9
128.2


(f)
Correc-
tion for
amount
remain-
ing in
chamber.


Grams.
+10.1
+ 3.4
-12.9
+2.5


- I I I I I


64.7 776.3
''''-I


.556
.561
.550
.555


15.6
16.6
16.7
16.8


220. 0
226. 7
204.0
145.2


711.6

204.4
210. 1
187.3
128.4


(g)
Cor-
rected
amount
exhaled
by sub-
ject,
e+f.


Grams.
207.0
203.0
174.0
130.7


+ 3.1 714.7

+ 9.1 I 213.5
+ .4 210.5
-10.7 176.6
- 1.5 126.9


(A)

Total
weight
of car-
bon ex-
haled,
gxA.



I Gram .
56.5
55.4
S 47.4
35.6

194.9

58.2
57.4
48.2
34. 6


118,158 ...... 65.7 795.9 730.2 2.7 727.5 198.4
___________ _______ ~~~~~~I ____ ____ ____ ____


29,540 .582 17.2 209.2
30,316 .571 17.3 225.4
29,540 .551 16.3 202.6
30,316 .559 16.9 144.8

119,712 ...... 67.7 i 782.0

354,472 ...... 198.1 2,354.2
-- -- '--
II
27,985 .572 16.0 240.0
27,208 .576 15.7 231.6
28,762 .578 16.6 214.1
28,762 .557 16.0 154.6

112,717 ..... 64.3 840.3

26,430 .640 16.9 229. 6
27,208 .637 17.3 235.5
28,762 .597 17.2 227.6
26,430 .612 16.2 150.6

108,830 ...... 67.6 843.3

26,430 .614 16.2 231.0
27,208 .609 16.6 225.0
28,762 .560 16.1 220.2
28,762 .609 17.5 154.4

111,162 ...... 66.4 830.6

332,709 ...... 198.3 2,514.2


192.0 + 8.2 200.2
208.1 + 8.7 216.8
186.3 -18.0 168.3
127.9 + 1.5 129.4

714.3 + .4 714.7


2,156.1


224.0
215.9
197.5
138.6


+ .8 2,156.9


+ 8.8 232.8
+ 2.0 217.9
-13.1 184.4
0 138.6


776.0 2.3 773.7

212.7 1 +13.9 226.6
218.2 -19. 0 199.2
210.4 + 7.4 217.8
134.4 + 2.5 136.9

775.7 + 4.8 780.5

214.8 + 7.8 222.6
208.4 + 3.0 211.4
204. i -13.7 190.4
136.9 + 2.7 139.6

764.2 .2 764.0

2,315.9 + 2.3 2,318.2


54. 6
59. 1
45.9
35.8

194.9

588.2


63.5
59.4
50.3
37.8


211.0

61.8
54.3
59.4
37.3

212.8

60.7
57.6
51.9
38.1

208.8

632.1


Date.


7a.m. to 1 p. m
1 p.m. to7 p.m


*I t [ ---







89


TABLE 105.-Record of water in ventilating air current-Metabolism experiments Nos. 26
and 28.


Date.


1900.
Feb. 14-15


15-16







16-17










Feb. 20-21




[


21-22







22-23


Period.


Experiment No.26

7 a.m. to 1 p.m
1 p.m. to7 p. m
7 p. m. to 1 a. m
1 a.m. to 7 a.m

Total..........


7 a.m. to 1
1 p.m. to 7
7 p.m. to 1
1 a.m. to 7


p.m
p. m
a. m
a. m


Total .........

7 a. m. to 1 p. m .
1 p. m. to 7 p. m
7 p. m. to 1 a. m.
1 a. m. to 7 a. m .

Total.........

Total, 3 days...

Experiment No.28.


7a.m. to 1
1 p. m. to 7
7 p.m. to 1
1 a.m. to 7


p.m
p. m
a. nm
a.m


Total .........


7 a.m. to 1
1 p. m. to 7
7 p.m. to 1
1 a.m. to 7


p. m
p. m
a. m
a. m


Total..........


7 a.m. to 1
1 p. m. to 7
7 p.m. to 1
1 a.m. to 7


p. m
p. m.
a. m.
a.m .


Total..........

Total, 3 days...


(a)

l'"


o






Lilcrs.
28,762
28,762
30,316
28,762

116,602

27,985
29,541
30,316
30,316


Water in in-
coming air.

(b) (c)


x
I..

-


Mg.
0.816
.852
.828
.833



. 867
.890
.860
.828


Water in outgoing air.


(rd)


rr .
SEv
-c c


Grams. Grams.
23.5 197.3
24.5 196.1
25.1 184.6
24.0 171.3

97.1 749.3

24.3 179.7
26.3 195.0
26.1 185.5
25.1 174.1


(e)









40.8


179.6
47.6
42.2
49.0
40.8

179.6


42.7
43.0
47.6
42.1


(f)

+






Gramis.
244.9
238.3
233.6
212.1

928.9


222.4
238.0
233.1
216.2


(g) (h) (i)










Grams. G~ras. Grams.
208.5 2.9 205.
E-


Grams. Gramis. Gramis.
221.L + 0.6 222.0
213.8 + 1.5 215.3
20. O 2.1 205.6
188.1 2.9 186.2

831.8 2.7 29. 1

198.1 + 3. 20.9
211.7 .5 211.2
207.0 2.1 204.9
191.1 2.5 18.6


118,158 ...... 101.8 734.3 175.4 909.7 807.9 1.3 806.6

29,540 .828 24.5 182.3 44.7 227.0 202.5 + 3.6 206.1
30,316 .820 24.9 188.8 43.0 231.8 206.9 + 2.9 209.8
29,540 .824 24.3 184.9 45.2 230.1 205.8 4.4 201.4
30,316 .795 24.1 168.9 40.4 209.3 185.2 3.0 182.2

119,712 ...... 97.8 724.9 173.3 898.2 800.4 .9 799.5

354,472 ...... 296.7 ,2,208.5 528.3 2,736.8 2,440.1 4.9 2,435.2


27,985 .836 23.4 204.6 43.7 248.3 224.9 + 7.0 231.9
27,208 ..845 23.0 203.6 37.6 241.2 218.2 + .2 218.4
28,762 .850 24.4 191.4 43.1 234.5 210.1 5.3 204.8
28,762 .836 24.0 170.2 39.3 209.5 185.5 4.0 181.5

112,717 ...... 94.8 769.8 163.7 933.5 838.7 2.1 836.6

26,430 .848 22.4 186.4 38.9 225.3 202.9 + 9.5 212.4
27,208 .806 21.9 201.4 38.2 239.6 217.7 -10.1 207.6
28,762 .867 24.9 187.9 43.9 231.8 206.9 + 5.9 212.8
26,430 .796 21.0 166.7 35.9 202.6 181.6 .6 181.0

108,830 ...... 90.2 742.4 156.9 899.3 809.1 + 4.7 813.8

26,430 .899 23.8 185.2 39.2 224.4 200.6 + 3.3 203.9
27,208 .890 24.2 194.8 37.4 232.2 208.0 + .5 208.5
28,762 .917 26.4 183.7 43.9 227.6 201.2 2.8 198.4
28,762 .816 23.5 167.0 39.4 206.4 182.9 3.1 179.8

111,162 ...... 97.9 730.7 159.9 890.6 792.7 2.1 790.6
332709I 82. 2 242 9 80.5 ,72 .4 2,4 0. 2744.0


!-I--_


332,709 ......


282.9 2,242.9


480.5


2,723.4 2,440.5


2,441.0







9 0 ... .....


The heat carried away, by the water current and the latent heat of

vaporization of water in experiments Nos. 26 and 28 are shown in
Table 106.

TABLE 106.-Summary of calorimetric measurements-Metabolism experiments Nos. N6
and 28.


(a) (b6




Heat Change
measured of te
perature
in termsof calo-
of C2- rimeter.


Experiment No. 26. ,-,n,,n


1900.
Feb. 14-15






15-16






16-17










Feb. 20-21






21-22






22-23


525.5
453. 2
350.9
254.5


Degree.
-0.2
-.1
.1
+ .5


(e)



Capacity
correc-
tion of
calo-
rimeter,
b x 60.





Calories.
-1.2
.6
.6
+3.0


(d)


Correc-
tion due
to tem-
perature
of food
and
dishes.


Calories.
2.1
3.9
+7.7
0


(e)
Water
vapo-
rized
equals
total
amount
exhaled
less
amount
con-
densed
in
chamber.


Grams.
222.0
215.3
205.6
186.2


(f)



Heat
used in
vapori-
zation of
water,
ex0.592.


Calories.
131.4
127.5
121.7
110.2


(g)



Total
heat
deter-
mined,
a+c+
d+f.





Calories.
653.6
576.2
479.7
367.7


1,584.1 + .1 + .6 + 1.7 829.1 490.8 2,077.2

S 522. 8 0 0 + .2 201.9 119.5 642.5
S 465.5 .1 .6 3.8 211.2 125.0 586.1
388.2 + .1 + .6 + 6.1 204.9 121.3 516.2
241.8 + .3 +1.8 G 188.6 111.7 355.3

1,618.3 + .3 +1.8 + 2.5 806.6 477.5 2,100.1-

510.7 0 0 + 3.1 206.1 122.0 635.8
468.9 0 0 .7 209.8 124.2 592.4
371.4 + .1 + .6 + 9.6 201.4 119.2 500.8
241.3 0 0 0 182.2 107.9 349.2

1,592.3 + .1 +0.6 +12.C 799.5 473.3 2.078.2

4,794.7 :.......... +3.0 +16.2 2,435.2 1,441.6 6,255.5


526.0 0 0 .3 231.9 137.3 663.0
472.5 0 0 .8 218.4 129.3 601.0
361.9 .3 -1.8 + 3.9 204.8 121.2. 485.2
239.1 + .3 +1.8 .......... 181.5 107.4 348.1

I1,599.5 0 0 + 2.8 836.6 495.2 2,097.5

501.0 0 0 + 2.1 212.4 125.7 628.8
441.5 0 0 3.6 207.6 122.9 560.8
393.6 + .2 +1.2 + 4.1 212.8 126.0 524.9
253.6 0 0 .......... 181.0 107.2 360.8

1,589.7 + .2 +1.2 + 2.6 813.8 481.8 2,075.3

507.7 0 0 + 1.0 203.9 120.7 629.4
456.2 0 0 7.0 208.5 123.4 572.6
378.6 + .1 +0.6 + 8.2 198.4 117.5 504.9
251.7 0 0 .......... 179.8 106.4 358.1


7a.m. to 1 p.m ..
1 p. m. to 7 p.m ..
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ..
1 a.m. to 7 a.m...

Total........

7a.m. to 1 p. m ..
1 p. m. to 7 p.m ..
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ..
1 a.m. to 7 a.m...

Total........

7 a.m. to 1 p.m ..
1 p.m. to 7 p. m..
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ..
1 a.m. to 7 a.m...

Total........

Total, days.

Experiment No. 28.

7 a.m. to 1 p.m ..
1 p.m. to 7 p. m ..
7 p.m. to 1 a. m ..
1 a.m. to 7 a.m...

Total........

7 a.m. to 1 p.m ..
1 p.m. to7 p.m ..
7 p.m. to 1 a. m ..
1 a.m. to 7 a.m...

Total........

7a.m. to 1 p.m ..
1 p.m. to 7 p. m..
7 p.m. to 1 a.m ..
1 a.m. to 7 a. m ..

Total.......


+0.6


+ 2.2


790.6


468.0


Total.3days.- 4,783.4 .......... +1.8 + 7.6 2,441.0 1,445.0


2,065.0

6,237.8


Period.


Date.


1,594.2


. .... .... ... ..
... .... .. ..


I
i

b
i


I










Balance of income and outgo of matter and energy.-Tables 107-110

summarize the income and outgo of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and

energy in this series of experiments.

TABLE 107.-Income and outgo of nitrogen and carbon-Metabolism experiments Nos. 26
and 28.


Nitrogen.


Date.


In
food.


I I


1900.


Experiment No. 26.

Feb. 14-15,7 a.m. to 7 a. m..
15-16,7 a. m. to 7 a. m..
16-17,7 a. m. to 7 a. m..

Total, 3 days........
Average, 1 day .....

Experiment a o. 28.

Feb. 20-21,7 a. m. to 7 a. m..
21-22,7 a. m. to 7 a. m..
22-23,7 a. m. to 7 a. m..

Total, 3 days........
Average, 1 day.....


Grams.
15.9
15.9
15.9


(b)

In
feces.


( c' ((d)
Gain
(+)
In or loss
urine. (-),
t( -
(b+c).


Grams. Grams.
1.1 16.6
1.1 15.1
1.1 14.4


47.7 3.3 46.1
15.9 1.1 15.4
~I ;,-


15.8 1.2
15.7 1.3
15.8 1.2

47.3 3.7
15.8 1.2


15.9
15.2
14.7

45.8
15.3


Grams.
-1.8
-0.3
+0.4

-1.7
-0.6


-1.3
-0.8
-0.1

-2.2
-0.7


Carbon.


(e)

In
food.


(f) (g)

In In
feces. urine.

I __


(h) I-k)
In Gain
re-pir- (+)
atory or loss
prod- (-),
ucts. e-ff+
g+h).


Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
233.2 9.4 11.9 194.9 +17.0
233.2 9.5 10.8 198.4 +14.5
233.2 9.4 10.4 194.9I +18.5

699.6 28.3 33.1 588.2 +50.0
233.2 9.4 11.0 196.1 +16.7


245.8
245.8
245.8


737.4
245.8


10.0
10.0
10.0


30.0
10.0


11.4
10.9
10.5


32.8
10.9


211.0
212.8
208.3


632.1
210.7


+13.4
+12.1
+17.0


+42.5
+14.2


TABLE 108.-Income and outgo of water and hydrogen-Metabolism experiments Xos. 26
and 28.


Water.

(a) (b) (c) (dc) I () (f).
Date. I nrespi- Apparent
In food. In drink. In feces. In urine. I atory I -(,d+
products. -' *d+


1900.

Experiment No. 26. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.

Feb. 14-15,7 a. m. to 7 a. m............... 1,046.3 800 57.0 1,157.3 829.1 -197.1
15-16,7 a.m. to 7 a................ 1,046.3 800 57.0 1,472.4 806.6 -489.7
16-17,7 a. m.to 7 a.m............... 1,046.3 800 57.0 1,289.0 799.5 -299.2

Total,3 days ................... 3,138.9 2,400 171.0 3,918.7 2,435.2 -986.0
Average, day................... 1,046.3 800 57.0 1,306.2 811.7 -328.6

Experiment No. 28.

Feb.20-21,7 a.m. to 7 a.m............. 1,040.0 800 51.7 1,113.2 836.6 -161.5
21-22,7 a.m. to 7 a.m............... 1,040.0 800 51.8 1,238.0 813.8 -263.6
22-23,7 a. m.to 7 a.m............... 1,040.0 800 51.7 1,150.3 790.6 -152.6

Total,3 days ..................... 3,120.0 2,400 155.2 3,501.5 2,441.0 -577.7
Average, 1 day ................. 1,040.0 800 51.7 1,167.2 813.7 -192.6


' I j


Cabn


i






92

TABLE 108.-Income and outgo of water and hydrogen-Metabolism experiments Wo.s .
and 28-Continued.

Hydrogen.

(g) (h) (i) (1) (W) (s)
Date. Apparent Loss from O
In food. In feces. In urine, gain, (g- water, f gain(+)
(h+i). -9. (-),l

1900.
Experiment No. 26. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
Feb.14-15,7 a.m. to 7 a.m............... 33.9 1.1 2.9 +29.9 21.9 + 8.0-
15-16,7 a.m. to 7 a.m................. 33.8 1.2 2.6 +30.0 54.4 -24.4
16-17,7 a.m.to7 a.m ................ 33.9 1.1 2.5 +30.3 33.2 .9
Total, 3 days .................. .... 101.6 3.4 8.0 +90.2 -109.5 -19.3
Average. day .................. 33.9 1.1 2.7 +30.1 36.5 6.4
Experiment No. 28.
Feb.20-21,7 a.m. to 7 a. m................ 35.8 1.3 2.8 +31.7 17.9 +13.8
21-22,7 a.m.to 7 a.m................ 35.8 1.4 2.6 +31.8 29.3 + 2.5
22-23,7 a.m. to 7 a. m................ 35.8 1.3 2.5 +32.0 17.0 +15.0
Total,3 days ..................... 107.4 4.0 7.9 +95.5 64.2 +31.8
Average, 1 day ................... 35.8 1.3 2.7 +31.8 21.4 +10.4


TABLE 109.-Gain or loss of protein (NX 6.95), fat, and water-Metabolism experiments
Aos. 26 and 28.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
Carbon Carbon
Nitrogni Protein Total in pro- in fat, Fat
Date, gained gained carbon tein etc., gained
(+)or (+)or gained gained gained (+)or
lost (- lost (-), (+) or (+) or (+) or lost (-),
lost(- a x6.25. lost (-). lost (-), lost (-), e-10.761.
b x0.53. c--d.

1900.
Experiment No. 26. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
Feb. 14-15,7 a. m. to 7a. m................ -1.8 -11.2 +17.0 -5.9 +22.9 +30.1
15-16,7 a.m. to 7 a.m............... .3 1.9 +14.5 -1.0 +15.5 +20.4
16-17,7 a.m. to7 a.m............... + .4 + 2.5 +18.5 +1.3 +17.2 +22.6
Total,3days....................... -1.7 -10.6 +50.0 -5.6 +55.6 +73.1
Average, 1 day..................... .6 3.5 +16.7 -1.8 +18.5 +24.4
Experiment No. 28.
Feb. 20-21,7 a.m. to 7 a. m............... -1.3 8.1 +13.4 -4.3 +17.7 +23.3
21-22,7 a.m.to 7a.m................ .8 5.0 +12.1 -2.7 +14.8 +19.4
22-23,7a.m. to7a. m................ .1 .6 +17.0 .3 +17.3 +22.7
Total,3days......................... -2.2 -13.7 +42.5 -7.3 +49.8 +65.4
Average, 1day................... .7 4.5 +14.2 -2.4 +16.6 +21.8









TaBLE 109.-Gain or loss of protein (SX6.25), fat, and water-Metabolism experiment,
Nos. 26 and 28-Continued.


Date.


1900.
Experiment 'o. 36.
Feb. 14-15,7 a.m. to 7 a.m ...............
15-16.7 a.m. to 7 a.m................
16-17,7 a. m. to 7 a. m................
Total. days ........................
Average, 1 day .....................
Experiment No. Z6.
Feb. 20-21,7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............
21-22,7 a.m. to 7 a.m...............
22-23,7 a. m. to 7 a. m..............
Total,3 days......................
Average, 1 day ....................


(9) (h) (i) (k)
Total Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen
doga in protein in fat in water,
hydrogen gained () gained l )etc.. gained
gained ( +) gained (+) gained (+) or lost
orned(+) or lost(-). orlost(-), )r O lst
or lost .. ... I.


S ox U.U. ~J\U. 11.




Graims Gra m. Grams.
8.0 -0. +3.6
-24.4 .1 +2.4
2.9 + .2 +2.7
-19.3 .7 +8.7
6.4 .2 +2.9


+13 .6 +2.7
+ 2.5 .3 +2.3
+15.0 ............ +2.7

+31.3 .9 +7.7
+10.4 .3 +2.5


g-(h+i).


(1)
Water
gained (+)
or lost (-),
kx9.


Grains. Grams.
+ 5.2 + 46.8
-26.7 -240.3
5.8 52.2
-27.3 i -245.7
9..1 81.9


+11.7 +105.3
+ .5 + 4.5
+12.3 +110.7
+24.5 +220.5
+ 8.2 + 73.5


TABLE 110.-Income and outgo of energy-Metabolism experiments Nos. 26 and 28.


(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i)
Esti- Esti- Esti-
mated mated mated Heat Heat
St heat of heat of energy deter- deter-
Heat Heat Heat cm c of ma- mined mined
of om- ea com-f fusion bu- trial Heat greater greater
Date bu ofcom- ofcom bustio Heat (+)r (+) or
tion of bus- bus- of pro- tion of die deter- i less() le)
fod tion of tion of tein fat in te mined. ean
.i the than than
eaten. feces. urine, gained gained body, esti- esti-
l+)or (+)os a-(b+ mated, mated,
c+d g-f. h-f.
-)*" (-)' -el.

1900.
WrimeWt No. 6. Calo- Cilo- Czlo- Calo- Calo- Odo- Calo- Calo-
rries. ries. ries. ries. ries. ries. ris. ries. Per. ct.
Feb.14-15,7 a. m. to 7 a. m... 2,490 106 1 125 -64 +287 2,036 2.077 + 41 +2.0
15-16,7 a. m. to 7 a. m... 2,490 106 125 -11 +195 2,075 2,100 + 25 +1.2
16-17,7 a.m.to7a.m... 2,490 106 135 +14 +216 2,019 2,078 + 59 +2.9
Total,3 days.......... 7,470 318 385 -61 +698 6,130 6,255 +125.......
Average,l day........ 2,490 106 128 -20 +233 2,043 2085 + 42 +2.0
Experiment No. 82.
Feb. 20-21,7 a. m. to 7 a. m... 2,489 112 119 -47 +222 2.083 2,097 + 14 + .7
21-22,7 a.m. to 7a.m... 2,489 112 133 -29 +185 2,088 2,075 13 .6
22-23,7 a. m. to 7 a. m... 2,489 112 132 3 +217 2,031 2,065 + 34 +1.7
Total, 3 days.......... 7,467 336 384 -79 +624 6,202 6,237 + 35 ........
Average, 1 day........ 2,489 112 128 -26 +208 2,067 2,079 + 12 + .6




.iiiii ii h ..: ...... ..
94

METABOLISM EXPERIMENTS NOS. 29 AND 31.

Subject.-J. F. S., the same person as in experiments Nos. 25, 28
and 28. His weight, with underclothing, was about 64.5 kilograms
(142 pourids).
Occupation during experiment.--Worked 8 hours a day upon a sta-
tionary bicycle arranged as an ergometer, as described on page 20.
The voltage of the electric current generated was measured, and the
average number of pedal revolutions per minute observed. The cur-
rent generated was passed through resistance within the chamber and
thus transformed into heat, which was measured with the heat given
off by the subject. The actual amount of work done each day was
found by determining the watts required to drive the bicycle ergometer
at the rate maintained by the subject during the experiment.
Duration.-Experiments Nos. 29 and 31 were the first and third
of a series of 3, each of 3 days' duration. The intervening experiment
is not reported here. The usual preliminary period continued 4 days,
beginning with breakfast March 12, 1900. On the evening of the
fourth day, March 15, the subject entered the calorimeter. Experi-
ment No. 29 began at 7 a. m. March 16, and ended at 7 a. m. March 19.
Experiment No. 31 began at 7 a. m. March 22, and ended at 7 a. m.
March 25.
Diet.-The aim of this series of experiments was to study the rela-
tive replacing power of isodynamic quantities of different materials
when the subject was at active exercise. There was, as usual, a basal
ration supplemented by different materials. This basal ration was the
same in both experiments, with the exception of slight differences due
to variations in the composition of the milk consumed. It furnished
approximately 100 grams of protein and 2,980 calories of energy per
day. To this ration was added 128 grams of cane sugar per day, fur-
nishing 507 calories of energy in experiment No. 29, and 63.5 grams
of butter per day, furnishing 1 gram of protein and 511 calories of
energy, in experiment No. 31. The kinds and quantities of food
served at each meal and the quantities of drink at different periods
of the day were as follows:
TABLE 111.-Diet in metabolism experiments Nos. 99 and 31.
FOOD-BASAL RATION.


Food materials. Breakfast. Dinner. Supper. Total.
______________________________ ____ ___ I ___ __


Grams. Grams. Grms.
Beef ......................................... ........ ......... ....... 58 ..........
Butter .............. .......... ............................... 12 23 12
Milk, whole ................................................... 300 300 300
Bread.......................................................... 75 150 75
Gingersnaps.............................................. 25 25 25
Parched cereal .............................................. 37.5 .......... 37.5
Sugar ........................................................ 12.5 .......... 12.5


Grams.
58
47
900
300
75
75
25


I





95


FOOD-SUPPLEMENTAL RATION.

Experiment No. 29, March 16-18.-One hundred and twenty-eight grams of cane sugar daily in the
form of loaf sugar, taken with and between meals. This amount also supplemented the basal ration
during the preliminary experiment March 12-15.
Erperiment No. 31, March 2?-!,.--The additional energy during this experiment was furnished by
63.5 grams butter.
DRINK.

I' I
Time. WVater. Time. Water.

Grais. Grams.
Breakfast ............................ 150 9.00 p. n ............................... 200
10.15 a. m ............................... 200 10.20 p. m ......... ...................... 150
Dinner.................................. 200 Total for da ................... 1250
4.00 p. m .............................. 200
Supper .................................. 50


Daily routine.-The general plan of the series of experiments is
indicated in the following schedule:

TABLE 112.-Daily programni e-Mlt abolism experiments No.s. '9, and 31.


6.50 a. m ......
7.00 a. m ......

7.30 a. m......
.15 a.m ......'
9.15 a. m ......
10.30 a. m ......'
12.30 p. m......
12.50 p. m......
1.00 p.m ......

1.25 p. m......
2.00 p.m ......


Take pulse and temperature.....
Pass urine, weigh self, collect
drip, and weigh absorbers.
Breakfast,drink 150grams water.
Begin work.
Stop work,drink 200grams water. I
Begin work.
Stop work.
Take pulse and temperature.
Pass urine, collect drip, and
weigh absorbers.
Dinner, drink 200 grams water.
Begin work.


4.00 p.m .....
4.15 p. m .....
6.15 p. n .....
6.20 p. m .....
6.50 p. m .....
7.00 p. m .....

9.00 p.m .....
10.00 p. m .....
10.10 p.m .....
10.20 p.m .....
10.30 p. m....
1.00 a. m .....


Stop %work, drink 200 grams water.
Begin work.
Stop work, change underclothing.
Supper, drink 150 grams water.
Take pulse and temperature.
Pass urine, weigh self, collect
drip, and weigh absorbers.
Drink 200 grams water.
Take pulse and temperature.
Arrange bed.
Drink 150 grams water.
Retire.
Pass urine.


Table 113 gives a condensed summary of the more important statis-
tics in the diary kept by the subject.







96


TABLE 113.-Summary of the diary--Metabolim experiments Nos. 29 and ,31.


Time.




1900.

Preliminary obser-
ration.

Mar. 15,9.40 a. m ....
11 a. m......
12m ........
12.55 p. m...
12.58 p. m...
7 p. m ......
8 p.m ......
9 p. m......

Experiment No 29.

Mar. 16, 7 a. m ......
9 a. m......
10 a. m.....
11 a. m.....
12 m .......
1 p. m......
3 p. m......
4 p. m......
5 p. m......
6 p. m......
7p. m......
9p. m......

Mar. 17, 7 a. m ......
9 a. m ......
10a. m .....
11 a.m .....
12 -n .......
1 p. m......
3p. m......
4 p. m......
5p. m......
6 p. m......
7 p. m......

8.08 p. m ..
8.12 p. m ..
9 p. m......
10 p. m.....
10.10 p. m ..

Mar. 18, 7 a. m......
9 a. m......
10 a. m.....
11 a. m.....
12 m .......
1 p. m......
3 p. m......
4 p. m......
5 p. m......
6p. m......
7 p. m......
8.15 p. m...
8.23 p. m ...
9.15 p. m..


Weightof
subject in
under-
clothes.






Kgs.
..........
..........
..........
..........


64.51
..........
..........



63.85
















64.78


64.76
















65.12









64.76
.... ......
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

..........


64.78


64.76







..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
65.12
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........


..........
..........
..........
..........









64.96




..........


Pulse
rate per
minute.









106
112
111
86




92
87



71
90
85
87
90
79
101
108
102
88
83
82
66
92
96
94
94
74
93
98
93
94
77
76


75
69


65
88
93
91
92
69
91
95
95
93
79
74


77


Temper-
ature.


op.

...........
...........
...........
...........
97.8

.-----------
99.0
98.4



97.6

...........
...........
...........


98.5

...........
...........
...........
...........


98.2
97.4

...........




...........
98.4
...........

...........




97.9
...........
97.6
97.4
...........
96.9
97.3
...........
...........
...........


98.0
...........
...........




97.8
...........
97.4
97.2


Time.




1900.

Experiment No. 29-
Continued.

Mar. 18, 10.20 p. m...
10.25 p. m...

Experiment No. 31.

Mar. 22, 6.55 a. m....
7 a. m ......
9 a. m ......
10 a. m .....
11 a. m .....
12 m ........
1 p. m .......
3 p. m ......
4 p. m ......
5 p. m ....
6p. m .....
6.55 p. m....
7p. m ......
8 p. m ......
9 p. m ......

10.12 p. m...

Mar. 23, 6.55 a. m....
7 a. m ......
9 a. m ......
10 a. m ....
11 a. m ....
12m ........
3 p. m ......
4 p. m ......
5 p. m .....
6p. m ......
7 p. m ......
8p. m ......
9 p. m ......
10.10 p. m...

Mar. 24, 6.55 a. m....
9 a. m ......
10 a. m ....
11 a. m .....
12m .......
12.55 p. m...
1 p. m .....
3p.m .....
4 p. m ......
5 p. m ......
6 p. m ......
7 p. m ......
8 p. m ......
9 p. m ......
9.04 p. m....
10.05 p. m...
10.10 p. m...
Mar. 25, 6.55 a. m ....


Weightof Pulse
subject in
under- irate per
clothes. minute.


K s.
..........
..........



64.09
..........
..........
..........

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

64.55
..........
..........
..........
..........
64.24
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
64.68
..........
..........
..........
64.38

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........


64.90
..........
..........
..........
..........
)- --.- ----I




























64.49


66





65


93
87
90
87
67
99
93
97
93
71


76
70
67
68


100
92
89
89
97
94
89
90
74
75
68
66
65
89
95
86

88
68


98
98

91
90
76
73
71


66


68


.......








96.4 1
........






97.6
..........









97.6
..........














97.5
97.0
96.5
97.6






97.4
96.5

















97.,
















96.57
..........










97.



97.4
97.9


.. --






97


Amount of work done.-The total number of miles registered by the
cyclometer on the different days of this series of experiments and the
heat equivalent of the work done each day are shown in Table 114. It
is altogether improbable that the amount of work done could have
been as large as would be required to propel a bicycle, under ordinary
conditions, the distance indicated by the cyclometer.

TABLE 114.-Record of work done-Metaholism eP.terimentfQ N s. 29 and 31.

(r)
( beatt
e ad ie. Cyclometer Number Actual H
Dae and ime. reading. of miles. duration Rate. equivalent,
of work. a\b\
of work0.2378.

1900.
Experiment No. 29. .conIs. aits. Caloris.
M ar. 16. z.15 a. m ........................ 666.0 ............ ......... ............ ............
16. 10.15a. m ........................ 6t17.5 21.5 7.200 42.0 72
16, 12.30 p. m ........................ 70 .4 20.9 7.20A 39.7 t'
16. 4.00 p.m ........................ 729. 21.4 7.200 89.5 68
16. 6.15p.m ........................ 751.1 21.3 6.9 I l 37.7 62
Total ........................................ S5. 1 28. 560 .. ......... 270
Mar. 17. 10.15a.m ....................... 772.: 21.2 6.960 35.5 59
17, 12.30 p.m......................... 95.9 23.6 7.200 37.0 63
17, 4.60 p.m ........................ 13.. 1 17.2 4.980 42.4 50
17, 6.15 p.m............... ....... 37.9 24.S 7.200 39.0 67
Total ........................ .... ............ 6. 26.3 0 ............ 239
Mar. 1, 10.15 a. m ........................ 61. 23.9 7.200 36.5 62
18. 12.30 p.m................. ...... .sS5.0 23.2 7. 0 35.7 61
18, 4.00 p.m............... ....... 906..921. 7.200 37.4 64
18, 6.15p. m ....................... 930.4 2:3.5 7.20. 40.0 69
Total ................. ....................... 92.5 2,. k0) ............ 256
Total, 3 days ................................... 264. 4 700 ............ 765
Experiments i ,. 31.
Mar. 22, 10.15a. m ...................... 1.1,9,4.4 21.2 7.200 37.4 64
22. 12.30 p.m........................ 1,218.0 23.6 7.200 3.7 66
22 4.00 p.m.................. ........ 1.240.9 22.9 7.200 39.0 67
22, 6.1p.m................... ....... 1.262.9 22.0 7.200 37.0 63
Total ............................. ............ .9.7 : 28. K ............; 260
Mar. 23. 10.15 a.m........................ 1.289.7 26.8 7,200 37.2 64
23. 12.30 p.m............................ 1,306.8 17.1 7,200 37.0 63
23. 4.00 p.m ....................... 1,329.9 23.1 7,200 37.4 6-1
23. 6.15 p.m...................... 1.351.4 21.5 7,200 34.4 59
Total ........................................... 88.5 28,800 ......... 50
Mar. 24, 10.15a. m ....................... 1,375.8 24.4 7.200 37.0 63
24. 12.30 p.m ....................... 1,400.7 24.9 7.200 35.7 61
24, 4.00 p.m....................... ... 1,423.7 23.0 6,240 35.7 53
24, 6.15 p.m .......................: 1,447.4 i 23.7 7, 200 34.9 60
Total .......................................... 96.0 27,840 ............ 237
Total, 3 days................. ........7....4.2 85 440 ............ 747


13007-No. 109-02- 7




... ... .::.-. ..i.


98


Detailed data of income and outgo.-The quantities of nutrients

in the basal and supplemental rations during this series of experi-

ments are shown in Table 115. The outgo of matter and energy.

in the feces during the successive experiments is shown in Table 116.

Tables 117 and 118 show the amount and composition of the urine in

experiments Nos. 29 and 31.

TABLE 115.--Weight, composition, and heat of combustion of foods-Metabolism experi-
ments Nos. 29 and 31.


Food materials.






Beef ................
Butter .. ............
Bread...............
Ginger snaps.........
Parched cereal.......
Sugar................

Basal ration, exclu-
sive of milk ........

EXPERIMENT NO. 29.

Milk, whole..........


Grams..
58
47
300
75
75
25


580


900


Weight Water. Pro-
per day. tein.


Grams. Grams.
35.0 20.7
4.3 .6
109.5 28.2
3.1 4.7
8.1 9.0



155.0 63.2


760.5


36.9


Total basal ration.. 1,480 915.5 100.1
I .na f c Oar ( uiilnrl .-


Carbo-
Fat. Ca Nitro-
drates. gen.



Grams. Gras. 'Grams ras.
1.7 .......- 3.32
40.6 ....... .09
6.0 152.4 4.50
6.2 59.9 75
1.1 60.4 1.44
........ 25.0 ........


55.6


50.4

106.0


297.7


45.0

342.7


10.10


5.94

16.04


Car-
bon.


Grams.
12.12
30.60
87.42
33.24
32.04
10.52


205.94


73.80

279.74


m ental ration) .... 128 ........ ........ ........ 128.0 ........ 53.89

Total ration. I day. 1,60S 915.5 100.1 106.0 470.7 16.04 333.63

EXPERIMENT NO. 31.

Basal ration, exclu-
sive of milk........ 580 155.0 63.2 55.6 297.7 10.10 205.94
Milk, whole.......... 900 760.5 36.9 50.4 45.0 5.85 74.25

Total basal ration.. 1,480 915.5 100.1 106.0 342.7 15.95 280.19
Butter (supplement-
al ration) .......... 63.5 5.8 .8 54.8 ........ .13 41.34

Total ration. 1 day. 1,543.5 921.3 100.9 160.8 342.7 16.08 321.53


Hydro-
gen.


Grams.
1.73
S4.91
12.90
4.96
4.72
1.62


30.84


11.34

42.18


Heat
of
com-
bus-
tion.

Calo-
ries.
135
378
879
338
315
99


TABLE 116.-.We'ight, composition, and heal of combustion of feces-Metabolism experi-
mentL Vos. 29 and 31.


Lab-'
ora- I
tory
No.


Weight
of feces.


Water.


Expe.rimnent No. 29. Grains. Grams.

3195 Total, 3 days..... 177.0 123.7
Average, 1 day...' 59.0 41.2

E.rpcrimcnt 'Yo.S1.

3197 Total, 3 days..... 160.1 108.1
Average, 1 day... 53.4 36.0


Pro-
tein.



Grunms.
15.9
5.3


15.2


3. 1


Carbo- Nitro- Car- Hdro- Heat of
Fat. i hy- gen. bon. en. cobus-
drates. gen. bon. gen. tion.


Grams. Grams. Granms. Grams. Grams. Calories.
9.0 18.2 2.55 25.01 3.6 1 279
3.0 6.1 .85 8.34 1.2 93


8.2 18.1 2.43 24.32 3.4 272
2.7 6.0 .81 8.11 1.1 91


Lab-
ora-
tory
No.


3186
3187
3192
3181
3193







3189











3191


3187


8.29 I 507


50.47




30.84
11.34

42.18


2,139
845

2,984


6.63 511

48.81 3,496







99


TABLE 117.-Amount, specific grarity, and nitrogen of urine, by 6-hour periods-Metab-
olism experiments .os. 29 and 31.


Amount 'Specific
Date. Period. Amount e Nitrogen content.
of urine, gravity.

1900. mExperiment No. 9. Gras. Peret. Gram.
Mar. 16-17 7 a.m.to l p.m ................................. 169.5 1.032 2.14 3.63
1 p.m.to7 p.m ................................ 215.7 1.032 1.99 4.2'
7 p.m.to 1 a. m .................................. 171.2 1.035 2.39 4.09
1 a.m.to 7 a.m ................................ 138.5 1.034 2.33 3.23
Total................................... 694.9 .................... 15.24
Total by composite....................... 694.9 1.034 2.21 15.36

17-18 7 a.m.to 1 p.m ................................ 189.2 1.031 2.05 3.88
1 p.m.to7 p. m ................................ 252.6 1.031 1.83 4.62
7 p.m. to la.m ................................ 183.6 1.033 2.26 4.15
1 a.m to 7 a. m .................................. 151.8 1.032 2.28 3.46
Total ..................................... 777.2 .................... 16.11
Total by composite....................... 777.2 1.031 2.06 16.01

18-19 7 a.m to 1 p. i .................................. 227.5 1.029 i 1.75 3.9"
1 p.m. to 7 p.m .................................. 342.0 1.029 1.44 4.92
7 p. m.to 1 a. m ................................. 182.1 1.032 2.15 3.91
1 a.m. to 7 a. m ................................ 139.2 1.032 2.27 3.16
Total ..................................... 890.8 .......... .......... 15.97
Total by composite....................... 890.8 1.030 1.80 16.03
Total 3 days, by periods .................. 2,362.9 i.................. 47.32
Total by composite....................... 2,362.9 ..................... 47.40
Experiment No. 31.

Mar. 22-23 7 a. m.to 1 p.m ................................. 252.3 1.027 1.62 4.09
1 p.m.to 7 p.m ................................. 247.3 1.030 1.83 4.53
S7 p.m. to a.m ................................. 172.3 1.033 2.39 4.12
.1 a.m to7 a.m .................................. 140.4 1.031 2.36 3.31
Total ....................................... 812.3 ......... .... 16.05
Total by composite........................1 812.3 1.030 1.99 16.16

23-24 7 a.m.to 1 p.m ................................. 213.2 1.029 1.84 3.92
1 p.m. to 7 p. m ................................. 267.0 1.028 1.62 4.33
7 p.m.to 1 a.m ................................. 173.3 1.031 2.22 3.85
1 a.m.to 7 a.m .................................' 137.0 1.032 2.29 3.14
Total ............................ ......... 790 5 ........... ..15.24
Total by composite ....................... 790.5 1.030 1.91 15.10
24-25 7 a.m.to 1 p. m ................................ 240.3 1.028 1.55 3.72
1 p.m.to7p.m ................................ 293.5 1.028 1.40 4.11
7 p.m. to a.m ................................. 188.0 1.033 2.04 3.84
i1 a.m.to7 a.m ................................. 158.2 1.032 2.12 3.35
Total ..................................... 880.0 .................. 15.02
Total by composite ....................... 880.0 1.030 1.72 15.14
Total 3 days, by periods ................... 2,482.8 ................... 46.31
Total by composite....................... 2,482.8 ....................' 46.40
Total 9 days by composite ................ 8,006.2 .......... 1.78 142.50

SIncluding 3 days of an experiment not here reported.


i







100

TABLE 118.-Daily elimination of carbon, hydrogen, water, and energy in urineM-isab-
olism experiments Nos. 29 and 81.


Date.


1900.
Mar. 16-17
17-18
18-19




22-23
23-24
24-25


Period.



Experiment No. 29.
7 a.m. to 7 a. m.....
7 a.m. to 7 a. m.....
7 a.m. to 7 a. m.....
Total..........
Experiment No. SI.
7a.m. to7 a.m.....
7a.m. to 7 a. m.....
7a.m. to 7 a. m.....
Total........
Total,9 days


Amount
of urine.


Grams.
694.9
777.2
890.8


Carbon.


P. ct.



o......


Grams.
10.78
11.39
11.29


Hydrogen.


P. e.


Grams. P. ct.
2.86 ......
3.03 ......
3.00 ......


Water.


Grams.
641.0
720.3
834.3


Heat of com-
bustion.

Per Total
gram.


Caorie. Cazores.
0.193 184
.173 184
.150 134


2,362.9 ...... 33.46 ...... 8.89 ...... 2,195'.6 ........ 402


812.3 ...... 11.35 ...... 3.01 ...... 755.6 .162 182
790.5 ...... 10.78 ...... 2.86 ...... 736.6 .163 129
880.0 ...... 10.62 ...... 2.82 ...... 826.9 .145 128
2,482.8 ...... 32.75 ...... 8.69 ...... 2,319.1 ........ 389


8,006.2


1.28


102.49


0.34


27.22 93.6 7,493. 8


1,211


a Including 3 days of an experiment not here reported.

The quantities of carbon dioxid and water in the ventilating air cur-
rent are given in detail for experiments Nos. 29 and 31, in Tables 119-
121, which follow. Table 122 shows the amount of heat given off dur-
ing the successive 6-hour periods of the two experiments.




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