Papaya culture in Hawaii

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Material Information

Title:
Papaya culture in Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
40 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Pope, Willis T ( Willis Thomas ), b. 1873
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Papaya -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 39-40).
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.T. Pope.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Supplements and brings up to date Bulletin 32, The papaya in Hawaii, by J.E. Higgins and Valentine S. Holt. 1914.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029611834
oclc - 16324497
Classification:
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 51-63
System ID:
AA00014568:00001


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tne Island or nawan in Jmy aiana ugdeiit-.4
also observed that the papaw apple was.....
and vegetables by the ..Bawaiians.' v 'o
including Thomas G. Thrm, of Ho4i~o l; who:i
from Tahiti in 1853, state that tbh e payf w
in these islands in the early fifties. Thrum
which he had also seen growing itt'ahiti, a~:
tion in Honolulu, and calls attention to iit M:I
the papaya, he-i,2 which from its nature indicate
in use before the discovery of Hawaii by Eng~~lisme
papaya was also' known as milikane, anotrC He~ r
papaya evidently was introduced into ii at a
the original inhabitants did not ordiiarily gi
to newly introduced fruits but adopted the EngliA:K
with some modification as to sound. -.. .".Q
NOMENCLATURE AND BOTANICAL~ R~1lAT1
In Hawaii and other parts of the United States,i. hei( ji
is now generally applied to Carica papaya. Main o
speaking countries use the term papaw, which ihiW fAiB
has long been applied to Asimina triloba, a wholly ubwei
DeCandolle (2, p. 293) concluded that the common, nai
a corruption of the Carib word ababai -of the origi
Indians. Popenoe (16, p. 228) says that ppapaa api q
are some of the corruptions in use. The papaya 'also i
different common names in the various countries in~. wi
introduced. It also has several different botanical na:
papaya Linn. is now generally accepted. In bota~niFl
the genus Carica belongs to the small family Cari-ai:,p
neric characters are such that botanists have at difflert 3
'The papaya has very similar names in other Polynesian faleeti,
known as efi; in Tahitian, as ilta; in Fijian, as esi; and in Marquesas
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FIGURE 4.-Solo papaya of the round-fruited forl; 'his
strain has a delicious flavor :...

ops one or more flowers. which produce fruit: (l.:
changes are discussed in some detail under Variatio4ls1i
The flowers on the pistillate plants of the dioedrn
sessile, are borne along the trunk in the axils f t: e
usually solitary or in few-flowered corymbs. The fif
erably larger than the staminate kinds. They have 6f
sepals and five fleshy petals that are united toward tM
ovary is large, globose or slightly cylindrical, with the-.
ing in five sessile fan-shaped stigmas. .::
The fruit in general characters strongly. resEsmbles
(Fig. 9.) It ranges in weight from 10 ounces to 15 poiu4

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FIGURE 6.-Part of an old grove, probably .15 years old, still fridting0;!'
branches are tapering, and fruit and foliage are .ma'il ...
of medium thickness, rich golden yellow, smooth,: teA.nd .:.
sweet and cresslike flavor. .
The monoecious or long-fruited type is sometimes .c.all.4i
gata." In general appearance the plant is similar tfo' th
plant of the dioecious type, but the inflorescence is usa~ll
roditic, possessing both staminate and pistillate organs.....
larities of inflorescence are discussed under Variations, p-7%
inflorescence consists of short flower clusters about'3 to 5 inb
Each cluster is from a separate leaf axil and contains .:i
almost sessile flowers. The 'individual flower is 1V2 to 1i:i
long, and has a tubular base which widens into goblet" s'1'
then spreads into five thick, recurved petals of a cream: or:
color. (Fig. 13.) The 10 sessile anthers are attached to te tibs
the corolla near the base of the petals. Usually only 1~ ,
the flowers of a cluster have stigmas sufficiently perfected to i
pollen for fertilizing the ovules and thereby developing tiln

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T--goeaofOod sPpaa ,Cutr fsaiae lwr;b isilt
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gated ofariek into ",fr t S
released from, thh il i
Such f ruit has a ,peculi~ar -
portion which ,PC.rsfists trnba
maturity. (Fig. 14.) Thermaai
inches, have, a weight of 6 t6 II
and have better- shipping qua-Stdy





















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flavor.
natural
FIGURM 8.-Plant with mostly male flowers, some of w -hich P_,,,I
were perfect and produced fruit on long pendent ste)ms aheo

These are -seedless fruits,, probably produced witeh
stimulus of pollination to develop viable seeds, a condii
also in such other fruit plants as the seedless bana4nasis
varieties of oriental persimmons, vinifera grapes, and n oel,
Seedless papayas are usually inferior to papayas that:are
normally, the flesh being thin and insipid. (F ig.L
producingr wlseels poapaya have been observedl to hn
thei flwer proabl beauseof ailre o crss-o l







































































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FIGURE 10.-Papaya with roundish fruit which has longi- species a.S
tudinal sections that give it somewhat the&resemblance of
the muskmelon not oni VL
well-know
forms, dioecious, monoecious, and polygamous, ascribed t"oi
botany, but also a number of other sex combinations with
papaya grower should familiarize himself.
Staminate plants apparently have the greatest number ci
tions. The younger staminate plants are distinguished fe
pistillate forms by the appearance on them of long-stalked
escence. (Fig. 7.) Normally, the flowers are purely stainria
with a rudimentary pistil, but occasionally a flower cluster' i
velop one or more flowers which produce fruit. This may c.


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the staminate plants in number. The stai- natiil
36 per cent of those that began fruiting. i: ":n:






















FIGURE 12.-Pyriform and spherical-shaped. fruit of the Solo ..

per cent of those growing on a very small area and fruixtim
first time in 1927. :
Change of shape of fruit on the plants of an entire field
ally takes place. A fair instance of this occurred in an:
at the station during the season of 1923-24. The plants
duced from the seed of a long fruit of the monoeoioi&:::i.-;
represented in Figure 3. All the fruits were true in for
parent type during 1923. The following summer, ho
same plants bore large spindle-shaped fruit with diameters
about one-half or more of their respective lengths. It was h
that cross-pollination had influenced these variations
results of a cross-pollination experiment in a near-by fided i
station in the fall of 1924 failed to show that change of s.4
fruit is caused by the stimulus of cross-pollination.
Often individual plants may bear fruit only a part of SE
of unusual form. These variations take place in both the pi4
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T. f~ log-tued lowrs wth eem
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OW "roiingseefon f te trnk xtede1
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FIGURE 16.-Crowded and dwarfed fruit and restricted U:
trunk growth resulting from prolonged drought re ti l

place. Investigations were made at the. tatio n to ;i
whether this was true. In one experiment, carrid PU 1
to 1924, 72 plants were grown from seeds o:rf IOTe 'i
paya, 36 of the seeds being from the portions of tbt h:
basal or stem end, and the rest from toward tI
the cavity. The seeds' of each section gave a a
pistillate plants, but no evidence was obtained to show t..lt4
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FIGURE 18.-Small J deotarm pspalugiyAsqt
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single substantiated. instance ofan.
the sex of young seedling: pipayas4 t
the inflorescence. .. ...::
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FIGURE 19.-Flowers and young fruit from the same plant; several Sext ftit "ii
present. Some of the modifications produce deformed fruit as is here sahoWn ;:;.

Investigations show that most of the sex forms are not const"
that one may assume the role of another, and that moat of te
changes take place without apparent cause. (Fig. 14) S8Ui4 ~


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vroducag this fruit of cxftllent wality w" an unusual
frWt of atb6r plants of No. 4610 vere poor in qwffity. (&-e


havM9 been shocked some accident, as when
og, hi led to conclusion that a
,A*y4 bi e topping or root pruning


















































FIGURE 22.-Papaya with thick flesh, a good type for general use if degirab$.
can be maintained. This form is not an unusual variatia.on : U.ll

On several occasions during the past eight years at th4ii
station a number of staminate plants have been topped in d d
to change the sex, but in no instance has it been successfuL i

METHODS OF PROPAGATION

The papaya is propagated from seeds and by cuttings and g
Reproducing the plants from seeds continues to be the best anr
commonly practiced method of propagation. Plants of both
tings and grafts have been grown to full maturity at the! ;
but none of them has been found to be vigorous or proliftki.;




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U the guemssful
qdt'"tion, of the
papaya, a qwck and
tion bf a, large per-
-centage of the seeds
Oantecl- is, impor.
Unt. To accom-
isish this, special
-attention is M-
quired, such as, is
j&n employed in
Ow development of
mWRAgs, of- many
other kiuds of culti-
vated plants. Seeds
of M'a t U -k e fruit
whenwashed, dried,
and stored in well-
capped glass jars
will retain their vi-,
tality for sev
years. For ccAony"
ience in this wor
OCCUS the station, the ger-
a caned the cuc=ber Mina
IAN Cavity ting flat was
% usecL Itconsisted
of a # bw"U either spaces between the bottom boards
or them to rOVI& for drainage. Such a
flat 14 inches wig and 18 inches long and 3 to
.5 in layer of rich, Yght, prefirably ster.-
ilized rum a sieve was then placed
I VMW"Ift
and the seedi were
ii6 the WU leveled
sown OftWf inch &part. y were then c;ov-
io&, UW pf *ashed co Given
ered W rit $and.
suitshk Ava moisture papayt seeds ger-
Minate A=d permits the ai*r to bir
a Te
ir-it M pow 444wr at, the statwu are twut TV V. dwtw 00
-day a" W Wveto AbMt V, lower.


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FIGURE 24.-The red-fleshed papayas developed on a plant normally proQucax
fleshed fruits. These two fruits were also of different shape and Savoilr
rest of the fruit on the same tree
CUTTINGS
Growing papaya plants from cuttings has been sudma
accomplished in several countries. Its possibilities have beenl4
strated at the station on several occasions. Probably 'the ...
cessful experiment at the station in recent years was that:l 'tt-
1923-24, when cuttings varying from one-half to 3 inchesip.
and from 6 to 24 inches in length were used. The cuttings i..s
from side branches which are taken from the trunks of
fruit-bearing plants. Some plants fail to produce thes.,:
branches, but they usually will do so if the terminal growth 4l
off. The basal ends of cuttings should be at the noCde& Zs.
branches root better than sections and give a more natural f
mature plant. Entire branches when used should be reiHovi4

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FIGURE 26.-Seedling papayas ready for potting preparatory to being s6et otA'ii
eight weeks' time "I'
GRAFTING
Successful experiments in grafting the papaya have been:i
from various parts of the world. Fairchild and Simmo:ds :i
ducted some interesting experiments in grafting the papay*'
the several years previous to 1913. Their greatest suess
trained in grafting small seedlings about 8 or 10 inchJes .i
scions 3 or 4 inches long and about the diameter of a as
which were lateral branches of seedling trees known to p'i.au
fruit. The large percentage of successful grafts, their rapid i
and early fruiting habits indicated great possibilities. Late
tigations in Florida, however, showed that when the papa
propagated in this way continuously for three or four gene
the variety degenerated rapidly. The grafted plants failed 6
vigorous growth, and the fruit remained small and infetiriu
No explanation of this behavior seems as yet to hav~ Ibei
The condition is very similar to that which takes place in t.



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vegh Tone tr4 rrti hs
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ing thuldn bereovd i butaw
umn eesTongues arouhl celr the
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ulnited pars togdether.,etepsiblte f



house ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ wr fothreohfu ay n t,
ing ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ shr shudbermvd n butawk
union.~~~~tebe sem1ob hrog5 el
permanent~~~bga plcto-h 6rcir,,




m~ths

these s e e4
which w06o
.thatha
proveda
tion by se@
tion for a,,
of genera~o
Male or 5
plants coftf
36per cWnt
number' of f
were grafted 14"
uary, 19241,A
III IM;time the see
bad an b
FIGURE 28.--A papaya plant grown f rom a cutting some height of 4 fe
itches in diameter which rooted when set in soil of decom-
posing volcanic cinders a trunk di
rangiqngfrn
to 4 inches, measured I foot above the ground. The graft'
were made, at various heights from 2 to 3 feet above the grouhn-
place of each being determined by the -size of the individual, se
provided for the work. ,Scions a foot or more in length werie'
as lateral branches -from good fruiting plant&. These were &
tqo obtain. However, such growth was obtained. by topping 'back-'
parent plant, which resulted' in a forced growth of lateral br -
The methods of grafting used were the saddle, graft and the, w,-
graft. -The former gave the best results, as the stock and. the











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FIGPRE 30.-Dwarfness is believed to be influenced by environment,~
two plants of the same age came from seed of the same fi rt, .
dwartness may be a mutating quality

usually of poor quality. (Fig. 15.). The papaya. will #B
that is regarded as too shallow to be suitable for mid~ :iib
trees. The papaya plant grows equally well in voleait~ i
basaltic or tufa origin, particularly where it is i., all v

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LIL
it 460M 7,
wjiy. Seto
40 to,
feet aerms *iid
to make their early &nd
ly'made--up 6oil. The holes
mi I xed surface soilwhich has
put of well-decomposed barn-,
c mitter, wArogen, and some
vNorus I growth. The small plants
be rentoved f rom the,
xle'u' > sWA: two plants being
Otntilng, the soil is
'urfa(* will be 1. or
a wh after planting is done
I h6v should be watered
4"Wen a liberaI watering
0 for growthi The
51Y., Such short-Periodcrops
1 y 'b grown between the papaya
'';U five to seven months fiom the
"n and the sex can
to blossom
tAaminalbe, plants should be re-
in each hole. The method
W reAuces theprobable production
plants., Some plants should
plants in a hole prove to be
At least one staminate plant
plants M the grove- to assure

*8 grown it is not necessary
plant* should be held in re
or The monoodous type
',tants which either are sterile or
Pollination is necessary to
afid g, ood-flavored fruit. To
men M gToves of the monOOMOM
aWn several staminate-flowered
f
the*gmm "POPILYS Plants When Set

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in tows at angles aY, be,
necessaryarrangement ea o
Durin Ole EM'Wt yearitU:pln
about the base of the tr(inkILTes
firmed down previous to the oceorreas
of the wet season to. prevent the ]plants,
After the first year the cultivation A6il~b
feeding roots which will then. have eiter o t
directions several feet from the trun~k. Water h
plied above the -feeding roots in -a moatliko-basi s
the base of the trunk. Plants -which realloved to,
basins for several years invariably go do"n in wl~
particularly when they are loaded with fruit, The p
plant need not be large. A shallow trench .2.,,r 3 nce
12 or 18 inches wide, circling the base of the trumlk a,
2 or 3 feet from it, depending on the size of the plat
mercial. orchards should be' discontinued i' three or oO
they have begun to, fruit. The best and largest amomit
,obtained from young plants 2 to 4 years of age..
IRRIGATION
The papaya responds to irrigation much as it does Wo
rainfall. -Under the widely. varying co nditions existing M''
it is impossible to give anydenierlgvrigth
irrigation to be used. With a uniform supply, which
from 25 to 50 inches of rainfall evenly distributed weekly
the year, the plants naturally- Truit abundantly and contin
possibly three to five years or more. Irrigating, when
should be done with considerable care in order that fruit
quality miay'be produced. Insect enemies, particularly red
are more likely to attack the foliage during irrigation 01.t
at -other times. It has: been found that in general the, a
water required is not- nearly so great for the papaya as,(
other orchard crops. In many groves on dry, leeward 1
water should be applied liberally about once a week inO
basins or furrows between the rows. -The hillside groves
watered in somewhat. the same manner, but the plant rows
ranged along contour lines to accommodate both irriga
cultivation.
FERTILIZINWG
The addition- of barnyard manure to the soil *in which the
is growing has been found to be beneficial at the station.I
tion to the -light application i incorporated at the time of p
to 10 pounds have been worked into the surface soil. arouj'
plant about twice a year. This form of fertilizer adds p12nt
improves the water-holding capacity of the soil, and, en
beneficial bacterial action. Good results have followed the u
fairly complete chemical fertilizer having the following forra

Superphosphate (acid phosphate) -------------- 81*
Sulphate of potash (high grade) -------------- 15 -
N itrate of soda_ -- -- -- -- -- -









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vodbusn.Tefut hudb rnpre
oi vm'iuaIaeilinasrn ovyne
P -gtaeilsol eusde lIprf h











varies zmtevdms'ip d
Many conditions of
Records of sever al plasip g t
Months afe th palants~came into 1






4617-------------- Round----- 7-------- 3
4616 - --do.-,.. --- -- -- -- 28t
4618 - -- L ong. -- I. --- 8
4619 -------------------------33
1 The plants weest 8 by 8 feet, permitting 680 tq, the scem
ENEMIES
Insects, bids, and' plant diseases give very little tr
papaya growr in Hawaii. Occasionally -the red spiderW"'
as attacking the plants. Its presence visually indies11
lowing of h foliage.- The pests themselves may, be, f :
scattered clnies on'the under sides of the leaveff. Red,
mites, ar. als occasionally found in masses on the sur'
maturing fut. -The skin of the fruit then becomes re
of a very natural brownish color, The mite and its
of the plan tissues can be accurately detected Onlt by
magifyi lass. OrdinarilyI
by several kids of -predacious insect enemies. Attacks
.spider ma be conitrolled by dusting dry, powderedsl
under surfac of the leaves with -a sulphur blowgU&n_.
ranean frutfly maggots. have been reported by entom,
occasional found in papayas which ripen on the pOtt
been observe, however, that eggs which. are laid min the gr
are rendere inactive by the strong outward pressure o,
milky juic which gushes from the wound.' Ordinarily
is harvested when it is firm in texture, and begin'in~ to
ripening clr. There, is then little. or -no chance of its.I
fested. Neter of the above-mentioned enemies is- c
be injuriou in the sense of seriously affecting the crop..,
bird occasinaly eats parts of the ripening fruit., part
it has dificuly in getting other food. One or more
rot have be-reported in Hawaii, but they apparently d'
at times ofuusual climatic conditions. One form afet
or stigmati point, of the fruit. The disease may infu*4e*st
of the fruis but the' period of attack is usually of 4or146A-
Am appliatio of dlilute Brdaux mixture hl~askoko beeralrWm9a
for is cotrol














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IIT1,
iM general 0SU





The ripe papaya is most extensiv"ly
fruit. For this purpose it is cut lengthwide*
and the seed is removed. *The fruit i's
being flavored to suit the taste by the'd q
pepper, or sugar. It is sometimes served-'W i6
either luncheon or dinner, atid as'a de~s eft'it"I$
with sugar and whipped ream. ,Combined with, lri
_naise, the papaya makes an excellent salad. 4ti go
lized fruit and is, sometimes made into pickles, au
piand sherbet. The green fruit may- be boWled,
served as a vegetable much as is summer squash.Ita
the use of the papaya are given in Hawaiiann cooko
the. more simple recipes are here, giveini for the Use
(217, PP. 49-43).
PAPAYA COCKTAIL
Cut papaya In dice and serve in glasses with- cocktail sauce,-
Or serve with orange, lemon, or. lime juicie, and little sugar ixnt,
PAPAYA SALAD NO. I
on a strip of peeled papaya lay small bits of pomelo an a
with maonnaise on separate. plates, ai ans ahW(f
nasturtiums 'and leaves.
PAXAYA SALAD NO. 2
Cut papaya in cubes and add eight small onions and fiv'epieceg
chopped flue. Serve with boiled dressing.
PAPAYA WHIP
To 1:Y cups papaya pulp. add juice Of I lemon; 1/ cup sugar, 4;4:
stiffly whipped whites of eggs.
PAPAYA PICKLE
Make sirup'of I measure sugar and 3/ measure vinegr. A
.cloves and. peppercorns and 2 measures of half-ripe--papaya tu,
pieces. Boil until tender.
ORANGE AND.,PAPAYA MARMALADE
To I measure papaya allow 1/ measure oranges. Wasw to
Squeeze out seeds and juice. Put skins through a meat chopper and
Juice, strained free from seeds. Add papaya pulp cut in mlped
or20miuts







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lem
:%oibte
crs m bk.Cembte n ua.Adbae
paok ou nt pecrs ad ae.Mkea einu
2 aepofl ua.Pae npeadbonI vn
#,
PAAARIUm
2 uf ua b]jk f2lmn n ree
$TWWPPY o
V4 cuiwte
Jucf2 ein
|*Oot*e ihsgr aeadlmnjie 'or
a rtcus o uceo radset a s
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IW
wih14cpsgran nyeog ae
Oev svgtbe
DAE PPY
I'vsl~tws.Adaltlesgradoaglmo
orA*tte inamn n lae f hejuce Bke20miutsin
caiiiiiiiiiiiiiiien. Thiiiiiive eta le
IINA ANDiiiiiiiiiiii
ofteppy.pataesadt aesm eii














































be placed in bottles and tightly closed.
In the powdered form or as dried flakes it is exportld tloAM
Europe, where it is further refined and sold as a powder or intai
form under various trade names as "papoid," caroidI
"papayotin." .... ...
Little information is available as to yields. Some collectors :l::.
yearly production of 1 pound of dried latex per tree. Thi is prOi1A
a high estimate. The coagulated latex will produce about, 25 ..r
weight in dried powder which still contains from 6 to 10 per e gii
[(11, p. 338)]. About one-sixth of the dried powder is papain. ;:
SUMMARY

The papaya, which is believed to be a hybrid of tw~oi
Carica indigenous to tropical America, is widely distributed
most tropical countries. It is known to have been rather wi
persed in Pacific countries in the sixteenth century. It iw
to the Polynesians and probably reached Hawaii inm te lt
of the eighteenth century.
i : ... ... .:!i
... ." .. ": .... ". iii
.......ii.:..
.. "..",. :in ....

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i-Ar
ieiee |' vn
ooaudd cos
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isueest rcic ees
viomnaindhrdtr
evu[]=Ahv go nedaae
ppudo "Xusvr id. ttrvsbs

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(1)KbmxAmo, L, B* ,

7 (2) :1004112' in48 V's

11.PAPAW AND-PAPrUm: 7sern
Agr. Ceylon 44:-179-4,841 ilifMs

1925. TMOPIGAL GARDENING AND PwAcgING VT'f
LoN. Ed. 3, 617 p., illus. eolo A= '0111
(1)MEILo, J. C. D4, and Sraom, R.(omh ted,,h 11 "ZqWW
-1869. NOES, Om -PAPAYACm3. Jour. Linn. Sm0 D

(16) POPENOE, W.
1924. MAxUAL op TOPICAL AND BURTE*:PiAJL MaITP
BAAA, COCONUJT,PlgP.E klT BIM
p., illus. 'New York.
(17) PPArr, D. S.
1915. PAPATN: ITS OOMMEBCO[AL PRaPAFAXTON AND H SV
Philippine Jour. Sci. 10 (A) : 1-43, illus'.
(18) SoLMS-LAUBACH, H.
1889. DIE IHMmATH -UND DEM URSPILUNG DMB CULTIVIETE
cARICA PAPAYA T. Bot. .Ztg. 47: 709-720, [ 7251,-M,:
[7571-767, [772],481, [7891-798, illus. A*
(19) STUEEVANT, EX L.
199aTUETEVANTI s NOTm O-N EDIBIz PLAAXTB N. Y. State Dqvt!
Rpt. 27, V. 2A -pt. 2, 686 p illus.
(2D) TaompsoN, A.
11.THEM COMPOSITION Or HIAWAIIAN TRUITS AND NUTSf.
Expt. Sta. Rpt. 1914 -.,62-75, illus.
(21) TuaNmR J., and ALEXANDEz, A. B.
1910. HOW TO USE HAWAIIAN FRUIT&. 58 P. Honolulu.
(22) WELLs, H-. M.
1906 PAPAYA GULTITRE IN HAWUl. Hawaiian Ann. 32d YeaV4
(23) WEST=R, P. J
1916. PLANT PROPAGATION IN THE TROPICS. Philippine Bur. A
87 p., illus.
(2A) Wmwcx, E. V.
11.TROPICIAL AGRICU-LTURE, THE. OLMATEI, SOHS, CULTURAL
CROPS LIVE STOCK, COMMEBUIAL IMPORTANCE AND OP
THE; TaOPics, 373,p., illus. New York and London.'



















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