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i~ZATION AND COMPOSITION OF ORIENTAL
VEGETABLES IN HAWAII
H. L. CHUNm, Agronomist, and J. C. RIPPERTON, Chemis1
:.* C cation of vegetables-....---
G,:rop 1. Leafy and stem vege-
: Group 2. Fruit and pod vegeta-
b:les: : ---------------------
Group 3. Aquatic and root vege-
Experimental methods ---
Leafy and'stem vegetables-.--
Fruit and pod vegetables ----
Aquatic and root vegetables ---
Classified list of vegetables ----
Emigrants from the Orient to the Hawaiian Islands in 1852 and
; later brought with them many of the plants characteristic of their
s tive lands. As a result, a collection of vegetables which are
largely indigenous to the' Orient has been gradually accumulated in
SHawaii, where. they are considered unique botanically and valuable
dietetically. These vegetables are now grown extensively in Hawaii,
but they are not as.well.known to the local cosmopolitan population
Sas they should be. The purpose of this bulletin is to make the vege-
tables better known in order that they may be more generally
Sutilized to aid in varying the dietary.
S Most of the vegetables discussed in this bulletin are of Asiatic
origin, coming chiefly from China, India, Japan, Chosen, and Persia.
Some have long been established in China and Japan, where they
were introduced centuries ago.
CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES
S For the sake of convenience the vegetables have been arranged
Alphabetically in three groups: (1) Varieties the leaves and stems
Sof which are the principal parts used; (2) varieties that are raised
Sfor their fruits and pods; and (3) varieties that are raised primarily
Sfor their roots or underground portions.
1 The writers gratefully acknowledge their indebtedness to Shao Chang Lee, professor
of the Chinese language, University of Hawaii, for helpful suggestions and for verification
-of the Chinese names and characters; to T. Shimizu agriculturist, for identification of
the vegetables, and to G. Kawahara, seedsman, for furnishing the Japanese names and
characters; to F. H. B. Brown, botanist of the Bishop Museum, for confirming the botani-
cal names; to Mrs. Shao Chang Lee and Miss Lillian Moo for the Chinese recipes; and to
the Japanese Committee of the International Institute of Honolulu for the Japanese
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GROUP 1. LEAFY AND STEM VEGETABLES .
BAMBOO SHOOTS (Banmbus8 spp.). (Fig. 1")
Chinese name: Choke-sun"
Japanese name: Take-noko A
Shape: Young, undeveloped stout or slender cone-shaped shoot, with clai
scales; base, enlarged; top, pointed.
Size: Two to five inches in diameter at base; 8 to 16 inches long.
Color: Exterior, straw yellow to buff near base, and light green with ti
of purple from middle to tip; interior, white.
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The bamboo shoot is the "immature stalk of any of the sevemi
severed from the iaclump or mother plant when 8 to 16 inches tal
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SThe Chinese names throhot ave been Rmanized in the Cantonese dinlect.
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ingredients in the well-known Japanese dish, sukiyaki. After the
scaly leaves are removed, the fender core of the shoot is cut in small
slices for use in flavoring soups and for frying with bean sprouts,
or with Chinese preserving melon or edible-podded peas.
FIGURE 2.-Bean sprouts: A, Small variety; B, large variety
LARGE OR SOYBEAN SPROUTS (Glyoine hiapida). (Fig. 2B)
Chinese name: Dai-tau-nga
Shape: Succulent shoots which grow from freshly germinated seeds having
two large yellow cotyledons and a long, narrow taproot.
Size: Stem and root 3 to 3% inches long, one-eighth inch thick; cotyledons
five-eighths inch long and five-sixteenths inch in diameter.
Color: Stem and root, white; cotyledons, yellow.
The soybean plant is a hairy, bushy annual, and its native home is
China and Japan (3, p. 403).
The large bean sprouts are prepared daily for the vegetable market
in Honolulu. The sprouts are obtained by germinating the soybean.
The period of germination is from four to six days. The beans
are washed, submerged in. water in a container for 24 hours, and then
drained. A damp cloth, sack or grass-woven mat is placed over the
container. A fresh supply of water is added to the container at
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S.BULLE'TJIJN tiU, tAWAII EXJ.PEIIMIENT' .:.STATI T '"
6-hour intervals during the 24-hour period to prevent the beans
heating. In the market the sprouts are kept submerged in wa
so that they may retain their crispness and.succulency..
To serve the sprouts with meat.-Wash about 6 ounces of ar
bean sprouts well; drain. Slice thinly 6 ounces of pork or i1
beef and mix with 1 teaspoon cornstarch, 1 tablespoon soy sac
and season with black pepper and with salt to taste. Put in heat
pot 1 tablespoon peanut oil and one-fifth teaspoon chopped gar.
Place meat in pot and stir until brown. Then add bean sprout
and about six 1-inch lengths of green onions. Stir again, addinig
meantime one-fourth cup water to make gravy. Cook 12 minutes
SMALL OR MTUNGo BEAN SPROUTS (Phcaseolus aureus). (Fig. 2A) i:
Chinese name: Nga-choi "n
Japanese name: Moyashi-mame
Shape: Shoots grown from freshly germinated small mungo bean. Stern of :
shoot slender; root, short and narrow; cotyledons, narrow and long with ori:i
Size: One and one-half inches long; one-twelfth inch thick.
Color: Root and stem, white; cotyledons, light yellow. l
The bean is a native of India.-:
Small bean sprouts are to be found regularly on the market. They:,.
are prepared for the table like the large bean sprouts but should be".I:
boiled only three minutes. Chinese vermicelli or zen-se, is sometimnesgina
'used with small bean sprouts. Preparatory to being used, the -
vermicelli should be soaked in cold water for about an hour. IBt
will then be soft enough to cut in 3-inch lengths with-i pair ofi
scissors. Boil the vermicelli in salted water for 15 or 20 minutes :
to make tender and then mix it with the bean sprouts. i
BUTTERBUR (Petasites japon-ica). (Fig. 3)
Chinese name: Foon-dung
Japanese name: Fuki
Leaf: Round or cordate; lower surface, white and woolly; upper surface,
green and smooth: breadth, 8 to 12 inches.
Petiole: Very succulent, green to light pink; 12 to 36 inches long.
The plant is a coarse perennial herb with creeping rootstocks and
very broad leaves (1, p. 14; 3, p. 783; 5, p. 850; 9, p. 363). The
edible part of the butterbur is the petiole. The local supply is mostly
from the island of Hawaii where conditions near the fern forest are ..:
ideal for the crop. The leaves are partly trimmed for market, anhd
the plant is sold in bunches of 6 to 10 stalks or petioles.
To prepare for the table.-Boil the butterbur for five minutes.: ;
Peel, cut in 2-inch lengths, and add to 11/c cups of soup stock. Add
one-third cup soy sauce and 1 tablespoon sugar. Cook for 15 min-:
utes over a slow fire. Serve hot.
A M .... ..
s small and appears on the markets in individual green leaf-
hich are tied in small bunches. The locally grown celery is
ensively by people from the Far East because of the attrac-
n color and distinctive flavor.
FIGURE 4.-Chinese cabbage: A, Heading variety; B, nonheading variety
S~ax~lu y V oornea; mlrno Droaa, nat, ana smoom.
Colo r: Outer part, light to yellowish green; inner part, yellowish to white,
depending upon solidity of head.
Chinese cabbage is a native of Asia (4, p. 27). Chinese cabbage is
probably the best known of the oriental vegetables in Europe and
North America. During the past 30 years it has attracted the atten-
tion of American seedsmen by its commercial possibilities. Now
practically all the larger seed houses of Europe and the United
States list the cabbage as "pe-tsai," wong bok," celery lettuce,"
or white mustard." Twelve or more varieties of Chinese cabbage
are grown locally. These may be divided into two types. One type
S is characterized by its' conspicuous compact, blanched head, whereas
the other type makes loose or nonheading-growth. Both types, how-
ever, produce short and tall forms. Heading varieties invariably
become nonheading when they are grown under unfavorable condi-
tions. In Hawaii the Chinese cabbage is an all-season vegetable.
It makes its best growth, however, in the cool, moist regions and
during the cool months. Fine specimens are produced in the vicinity
of Hilo from January to May.
To prepare Chinese cabbage soup.-Slice thinly 1 pound lean pork
and mix with 1 teaspoon cornstarch.and 1 teaspoon soy sauce. Season
with pepper. Wash 1 tablespoon of dried small shelled shrimp and
the cabbage well. Cut the cabbage in 1-inch or 2-inch lengths. Put
in heated pot 1 teaspoons of peanut oil, 1 small slice ginger, 1
Teaspoon salt. Addthe pork mixture and the shrimp and fry for a
minute. Add 1% quarts'of water and boil for 15 minutes. Add the
cabbage and cook until it is tender.
CHINESE SPINACH (Amaranthus gasgeticus). (Fig. 5)
Chinese name: Yin-choi
Japanese name: Hiu (Hiyu)
Leaf: Oval, or ovate, abruptly tapering at the tip, depending upon the variety;
green; 1% to 2 inches long; 1 to 1/ inches broad.
Petiole: Green, 1 to 2% inches long; not thick.
Stem: Four and one-half to six inches long; one-fourth to three-sixteenths
inches in diameter; smooth.
The plant is indigenous to Asia. Its original home is probably in
India. Chinese spinach is not related to the true spinach (Spinacia
oleracea). The name is local and was suggested by its resemblance to
the true spinach when cooked. Another variety of Chinese spinach
conforming to that described above has a white stem and petiole in-
SThe term "cabbage" as used in this bulletin is a misnomer so far as its relation to
S true cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is concerned. Orlent-grown leafy and stem vegetables
are so-called cabbages probably because of the early interpretation of the Chinese word
chol," which means cabbage or greens.
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FIGURE 5.-Chinese spinach
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Chinese name: Kui-choi
Japanese name: Nira
Lmaf: Slender, cylindrical, hollow, and flattened at the tip; 6 to 8 inches
f long; one-fourth inch wide.
Color: Green to dark green, with or without white bulbous base.
Odor: Onionlike, mild.
Chives is a hardy herbaceous perenniarwhich grows in a thick mass
resembling a tuft of grass (5, p 287). It is, indigenous to Europe
and Asia. Chives is packed for the local market in bunches about
6 to 12 inches long and 4 inches wide. It is used in flavoring the
numerous mixed vegetable dishes so common among the people of
COrEANDER (Coriandrum sativum). (Fig. 7)
Chinese name: Yuen-sai
Japanese name: Koyendoro
Leaf: Pinnately or ternately decompound, broadly ovate with margins deeply
incised; 1 inch long; three-fourths inch wide; upper surface dull dark green;
lower surface, light-green, very glossy, and smooth.
Petiole: Short, 2 to 2% inches long, with upper surface grooved.
Stem: Round, smooth.
The plant is a glabrous annual, and its home is in southern Europe.
The tender seedlings 3 to 6 inches long are used for the table.
They are packed in bunches of 24 or more. Coriander is an all-
season crop and is used for seasoning and for garnishing.
DANDELION (TaraTeacum officinale). (Fig. 8)
Chinese name: Pu-kung-ying
Japanese name: Tampopo (Tanpopo)
Leaf: Basal, 3 to 9 inches long; lance shaped; deeply and irregularly lobed
and toothed with divisions pointed toward the base; young leaves partly hairy;
light to dark green.
Petiole: Short and margined.
The dandelion, although considered a weed, is an excellent salad
and potherb and is used by the people of both the Occident and the
Orient. Several varieties of dandelion have been perfected for use
in place of the common variety.
For market from 6 to 12 young plants are packed in small bunches
with or without the large, broad, deep-yellow flowered heads,
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
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;:: ol: e: Green, fat.
S. Odor: Characteristic of chrysanthemums.
The plant is a herbaceous annual and is a native of the Mediter-
ranean regions. Two varieties are cultivated in Hawaii-one with
narrow but finely divided leaves and the. other with broader leaves
not so conspicuously divided. The former is known in Japanese
as chu-ba-shun-giku, and the latter as oba shun-giku.
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FIGURE 9.-Garland chrysanthemum
Garland chrysanthemum is the young seedling stage of Chrysan-
themum coronarium and is packed in bunches about 8 inches long,
4 inches wide, and 2 inches thick. Older plants exceeding 12 inches
are as a rule very fibrous and coarse and unfit for table use. The
plants when permitted to grow to maturity may attain a height, of
2 to 3% feet and bear bright yellow flowers resembling miniature
To prepare for the table--Wash well 1 bunch of garland chrys-
anthemum. Remove the roots and cut the tops in 2-inch lengths.
Put in a heated pot 2 teaspoons peanut oil, 1 teaspoon salt, and one-
half cup water. When water begins to boil add-the vegetable and
cook until it is tender. Season and serve hot.
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
GINGER BRACTS (Zingiber mioga).
Chinese name: Keong-fa
Japanese name: Mioga
Shape: Conical, consisting of close-fitting bracts; tip tapering with or witi
Size: Two and one-half to four inches long; 1/4 to 1% inches in diame .l
Color: Lower peduncle, white; upper, reddish purple; bracts, dark g rpi.
flowers, yellow or buff.
Odor: Slightly pungent; gingerlike.
The plant is said to be a native of Japan (9, p. 99).
sparingly cultivated in Hawaii because the demand for it
It is o3r
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FIGURE 10.-Ginger bracts
It appears on the market infrequently and is used chiefly for flavor*
GREEN ONION (Allium fistulosum). (Fig. 11A)
Chinese name: Chang-chung
Japanese name: Negi
Shape: Stout, somewhat tufted.
Leaf: Green, smooth, cylindrical, hollow, pointed at tip; 12 to 14 inches long.
Neck: White, smooth, one-half inch in diameter; 4 to 5 inches in length, or
one-fourth as long as the plant..
Base: Slightly swollen, with many fibrous roots.
The.plant is indigenous to Asia.
Green onions are sold in neat bunches of 10 to 14, and the leaves
are tied in two places. In Hawaii the vegetable vendor usually
two or three green onions free of charge to each purchaser of
Vegetables. The green onion is practically indispensable in
I o 'cookery of the people from the Far East.
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FiGuia 11.-A, Green onion; B, leek
HONEWOBT (CrTptotwnia canadensis). (Fig. 12)
Chinese name: Asp-ye-kan
Japanese name: Mitsuba
Leaf: Trifoliate, ovate; upper surface, dark green; lower surface, glossy
light green; margin of leaf finely dentated, with points turning upward;
2% to 3% inches long; 1% to 2% inches broad.
Petiole: Cylindrical, hollow, light green to yellowish green; 5 to 7 inches
The plant is a smooth, hardy annual and grows readily from seeds.
It makes its best growth in a cool, moist soil. Its cultivation on
the island of Oahu is limited largely to the Pauloa, Manoa, and
Honewort in general appearance somewhat resembles green cele
Honewort is sold on the market in bunches about 12 inches 1 i
10 inches wide, and 4 inches thick. Each bunch contains 8 to"':
Honewort is used primarily as a condiment for soup, but it mn
also be boiled alone for a minute, then cooled, cut in 3-inch lengi
and served with soy sauce.
KALE (Brassica oleracea acephala). (Fig. 13)
Chinese name: Kai-lau-choi
Leaf: Dull or glossy green, thick and fleshy, thinly covered with bloom on ,
both sides; ovate or oblong in shape; 4 to 6 inches long; 2 to 3/2 inches broad.
Petiole: Cylindrical, slender; 2 to 2 inches long; one-eighth to three-six-
teenths inch in diameter; covered with white bloom.
Flower: Yellow or white, depending upon the variety.
The plant is indigenous to Europe. Kale for market is tied in:.:
bunches about 6 inches long, 4 to 5 inches wide, and 2 inches thicki. 4
The flowers or buds may or may not be present.
To serve plain.-Select the very tender parts of 1 bunch of kale!
and wash thoroughly in several waters. Cut the kale in 2-inch
lengths. Put 2 teaspoons peanut oil, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 slice gingetfl
in a heated pot; then add the kale and fry for one-half minute.>4i
,Wash and slice one-half pound fish fnely. Put in heated pot 1%
teaspoons peanut oil, 1 slice ginger and one-half teaspoon salt. Add
Sthe fish; stir the whole vigorously for one-half minute; then add the
Sale and one-half cup of water. Cook 3 minutes over a hot fire.
I tA-MusTABD CABBAGE (Brassica juncea). (Fig. 14)
: Chinese name: Kai-choi
Japanese name: Oh-garashi
Leaf: Crepelike or crumpled surface; oval to broad and oblong to obvate in
shape; margin, notched; 6 to 12 inches long and 4 to 8 inches broad.
Petiole: Swollen, curved or straight, depending upon the strain or variety,
and usually white bloom on surface.
Leaf-mustard cabbage or green mustard," and Chinese mus-
tard," as it is sometimes called, is a hardy annual. It normally
grows 3 to 4 feet high and branches profusely. The flowers are
bright yellow, and the seeds are small, round, and reddish brown to
black (8, v. 1, p. 157). The plant is a native'of China and India.
Leaf-mustard cabbage appears on the market in two forms, one as
very young seedlings, and the other as fairly well-developed but
immature plants. The former are sold in bunches of 10 or more,
and the latter in bunches of 4 to 6. Two distinct varieties of the
vegetable can be had, one with enlarged, curved basal petioles, and
the other with straight petioles.
To prepare soup.-Slice finely 1 pound lean pork and stir into
1 teaspoon cornstarch and 1 teaspoon soy sauce. Pepper to season.
Wash 1 bunch leaf-mustard cabbage and 1 tablespoon dried small
shelled shrimp. .Cut the cabbage in 2-inch lengths. Put in heated
pot 11/ teaspoons peanut oil, 1 slice ginger, and one-half teaspoon
salt. Add the pork mixture and the shrimp and fry for a minute.
Then add 1% quarts of water and boil for about 15 minutes. Add
cabbage and cook for 5 minutes. Serve.
-LmE (AliUun porrum). (Fig. 11B)
Chinese name: Dai-chung
Japanese name: O-negi
Leaf: Green, not hollow, flattened and keeled, smooth; 12 to 24 inches long;
1 inch broad.
Neck: White; 6 to 12 inches long, or half as long as the plant; one-half to
1%3 inches in diameter.
Base: Not swollen.
The plant is a native of Europe and western Asia.
SSeveral varieties of green Alliums appear daily on the market.
The leek is usually the largest of the varieties, and can readily be
identified by its long, white neck and narrow base.
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UTILIZATION AND COMPOSITION OF ORIENTAL VEGETABLES I
LpTTUCE (Lactuca sativa)
Chinese name: Sung-choi
Japanese name: Chisa
iHead: Loose, not compact.
Leaf: Crisp, crumpled; 8 to 10 inches long; 6 to 8 inches wide.
Color: Light yellowish green.
Lettuce is a native of India and southern Europe. People from
the far eastern countries prefer a loosely formed head. The variety
known as Black Seeded Simpson is grown especially for them by
the truck gardeners in Hawaii. Lettuce is marketed in bunches of
two to four plants.
To prepare for the table.-Wash each leaf of 1 bunch of lettuce
separately and thoroughly. Shake them free of water. Put 1 tea-
spoon peanut oil, 1 slice ginger, and 1 teaspoon salt in a pot over
the fire. When the mixture is very hot add 1/2 cup water, and then
the lettuce. Cook for five minutes. Serve hot.
iMALABAR NIGHTSHADE (Basella rubbra). (Fig. 15)
i Chinese name: Pu-tin-choi
SJapanese name: Tsuru-murasaki
Leaf: Green, glossy, smooth, and tender; oval to circular with apex notched
or emarginated; 3 to 5 inches long; 2 to 4 inches wide.
Petiole: Five-eighths to three-quarters inch in diameter; smooth and tender;
green or purple, depending upon the variety.
Malabar nightshade is a native of Asia. The plant is either a
twining annual or a biennial which branches freely (14, p. 303).
The variety in common use is green. Another variety has green
leaves and red or purplish petioles and stems.
Malabar nightshade is tied in bunches about 12 inches long or
longer, depending upon the length of the vine, 6 inches wide, and
2 inches thick.
To prepare for soup.-Wash 1 bunch Malabar nightshade thor-
oughly and cut it in 3-inch lengths. Mix 1 pound sliced lean beef
or pork with 1 teaspoon cornstarch and a little soy sauce. Season
with pepper. Put in heated pot 1/2. teaspoons peanut oil and 1/2
teaspoon salt; add the meat and fry for 2 minute. Add 1/ quarts
of water, boil 15 minutes, and then add the vegetable. Cook for
another 15 minutes. Serve. When pork is used, 1 heaping table-
spoon of dried small shelled shrimps may be added.
To serve with bean curd.-Wash 2 heaping tablespoons dried,
small shelled shrimp thoroughly; boil 15 minutes in 11/2 quarts
of water to which 1/2 tablespoon salt has been added. Add four
2-inch cubes of bean curd, or tau-hu, to the soup.6 Boil five minutes,
add the vegetable, and cook until it is tender.
Bean curd is the fresh coagulated milk that is obtained from pulverized soybeans after
straining and cooking them.
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
MATrIMONY-VINE (Lycwm. chfinenese). (Fig. 16)
Chinese name: Kau-kei
Japanese name: Kuko
Leaf: Smooth, dark or bright green; ovate to lanceolate; 1 to 11 inches long;
one-half to 1 inch wide.
Petiole: One-fourth to one-half inch long.
Stem: Coarse, angled, yellowish gray, with single spine at each node.
Matrimony-vine is a native of eastern Asia. The plant has pros-
trate branches, is spiny, and grows 3 to 6 feet high. The flowers
are crepelike, purplish, and produce small orange-colored berries.
FIGURE 15.-Malabar nightshade
The leaves constitute the edible portion of the vegetable. Matri-
mony-vine is found periodically on the market in bunches about 20
inches long and 6 inches wide.
To prepare for soup.-Wash 1 bunch matrimony vine thoroughly
by dipping it vigorously in running water, then carefully strip each
leaf from the thorny stems. Mix 1/2 pound finely sliced lean pork
with 1 teaspoon cornstarch and a little soy sauce. Season with
pepper. Wash 2 tablespoons dried, small shelled shrimp and boil
10 minutes in 11/2 quarts of water and add the pork mixture to the
shrimp, then add the vegetable and 1 partly beaten egg. Boil until
the leaves are tender. Season with salt and serve.
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a.n.tive of.Europe. It.grows to.a.height of 2.o. 3 feet.The seed
tival rice cak s,.o:. moch.....:J To coo with rice, select.young fea
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a ndatender owiEurofpe.Ilat;'rowsoash he well;o b oilinaeeit.lTe wserd
until they are tender. Then steam with rice. When the vegetable-
rice mixture is thoroughly cooked, place it in a mortar and mash.
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
Then form the mass into balls and fill the center of each with an,:
a mixture of sugar and beans.7
PERILLA (Perilla frutescens). (Fig. 18)
Chinese name: Che-so
Japanese name: Shiso
Leaf: Crisp; wrinkled; hairy; ovate; base, wedge shaped; 1% to 1% inches
long; three-fourths to 1 inch wide; margin or edge, wavy, serrated, or incised;
upper surface has bronze-purplish green luster; lower surface, dark purple.
Petiole: Long, slender, slightly hairy; one-half to 1 inch long.
Stem: Long, slender, purple.
Flower: May or may not be present, white to rose colored.
Odor: Balsamic scented.
Perilla, also known as P. frutescens crispa and P. frutescen 4nan-
kinensis, is indigenous to Burma, China, Japan, and India (3, p.
646). It is sold in small bunches of 10 to 15 plants, or branches 3
to 24 inches long, depending upon the age of the plant. The smaller
size, with luxuriant foliage, is usually the seedling stage of growth.
7 To make an, soak 1 pound adzuki beans (Phaseolus chrysanthos) 24 hours. Drain,
add fresh water sufficient to cover, and let come to a boil. Drain again, and add more
fresh water and let come to a boil, repeating this process four times to remove any bitter
taste from the beans. After the final draining, mash the beans. Then add to them suffi-
cient water to permit washing out and removal of the finer particles when strained
through the cheesecloth. Add sugar to the strained mass and cook slowly until it has the
consistency of mashed potatoes.
. ucumDer; cut in nanl lengtnwise, remove tne sees, ana tmen slce
thinly; add salt and let stand for about five minutes. Then wash
Sthe cucumber, squeeze dry, and put in bowl. Shred the perilla. Cut
the contents of one-half can of small fresh shrimps in half length-
S wise; then mix with the cucumber and the perilla, with 3 tablespoons
Japanese vinegar, 1 tablespoon soy sauce, and 1 teaspoon sugar.
Chinese name: Sui-choi
midribs; margin or edge of leaf incised or irregular; 4 to 6 inches long; 1 to
p. "8.. 1. p. 10). Its original home is Asia. Potherb-mustard cab-
FIGURE I r
MCB.B:, .inesi8) (Fig. .19)
.IJ .pa nes enae:.idsun
".2: inhes broad;greenan'.d. smoo t
,'p. 28; 1, p. 10). Its original home is Asia. Potherb-mustard cab-
BULLETIN 60, HAWATI EXPERIMENT STATION
distinguished from others by its deeply-cut leaves and long, slenderl::jl
petioles. The plant also produces many axillary buds at the base
of each petiole when developed. As the plant grows older thesis
buds send out long, white petioled leaves, which make it appear large
Potherb-mustard cabbage is sold on the market and used by the
Japanese exclusively as a seedling. It is packed in bunches about 6
inches wide, 4 to 6 inches long, and about 2 inches thick. The vege-
table has a pleasant flavor and should be more extensively used. The
tender plants should be selected for table use. They should be.
washed thoroughly and prepared as directed for leaf-mustard
RADISH GREENS (Raphanus sativwu longipinnatus)
Chinese name: Loh-bak-choi-chai
Japanese name: Ko-ko-no-ka daikon
Leaf: Compound, with leaflets arranged in pairs on each side of the petiole;
smooth, free from spines; 4 to 6 inches long; 2 to 3 inches broad; margin or
edge, scalloped (8, v. 1, p. 166).
Root: White; 4 to 6 inches long; three-sixteenths to three-eighths inch in
Radish greens, seedlings or thinnings obtained as a by-product
from the culture of the radish, are removed at intervals from the seed
beds to make room for such growing plants as are to be retained for
the production of the edible root. The culture of radish greens 'or
daikon on a large scale calls for heavy initial seedings to assure a good
stand. The seedlings are sold as ko-ko-no-ka daikon. They are
cooked like the Chinese spinach.
Radish greens is conspicuous on the market by reason of the long,
white taproots, and it is tied in small bundles of 20 or more seedlings.
SPINACH (Spi.n0ia oleracea). (Fig. 20)
Chinese name: Boh-choi
Japanese name: Horenso
Leaf: Narrow oblong or ovate oblong, with projecting lobes on either side;.
green, smooth; 3 to 5 inches long; 1 to 1/2 inches wide.
Petiole: Slender; 4 to 4/4 inches long; brittle.
Crown: Large, with many developed axillary buds.
Spinach is a native of Persia. Boh-choi might be freely translated
" an edible greens from the country of Persia." Spinach is a deli-
cious greens for the cool season. It usually appears* on the local
markets from November to February. Spinach is in demand by the
people of both the Orient and the Occident and is a rich source of
iron in the dietary.
Because of its brittle nature spinach is sometimes wrapped for
market in a leaf of lily or canna and tied securely with fiber. This
prevents the breaking of the petioles in handling. Other vegetables
which resemble true spinach are not so wrapped for market. Each
bunch contains 4 to 6 plants and is about 12 inches long and 4 inches
FIGURE 19.-Potherb-mustard cabbage
L i: ,::. ....
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
To prepare for the table.-Cut off at the crown; separate the leaver::
and wash thoroughly. Cut them in 3-inch lengths and cook in water :
to which a little salt has been added. Boil for 10 minutes; then
remove from the fire; drain, arid serve with or without butter.
SWAMP CABBAGE (Ipomoea reptans). (F'g. 21)
Chinese name: Ung-choi
Leaf: Light green, thin, smooth, ovate-cordate, or arrowhead shaped; 2%
to 4 inches long; 1%1 to 2% inches across (14 p. 291).
Petiole: Light yellowish green, smooth with hollow internodes; one-fourth to
one-half inch in diameter. White, tender roots are often present around the
nodes of the lower stem.
FIGURE 21.-Swamp cabbage
Swamp cabbage is a member of the morning-glory family and is
said by Hillebrand (7, p. 314) to have been brought to Hawaii by
early Chinese immigrants. The plant is an aquatic herbaceous creep-
ing or floating vine. It thrives in ponds, and bears a white flower
which is similar in shape to the sweetpotato bloom and the morning-
glory, but is slightly smaller. Swamp cabbage is a native of India.
Swamp cabbage for market is packed in bunches of 16 or more
terminal shoots of vines. Each vine is about 12 to 14 inches long.
The bunches are tied at the lower end and are fan shaped in
S garnc. uu cauurage anLu iry
or soy sauce before serving.
Swiss CHARD (Be
eta vulgaris cicla). (Fig. 22)
Chinese name: Tim-choi
Japanese name: To-jisa
.. ..... .
FIGURE 22.-Swiss chard
Leaf: Ovate to oblong in shape; light to dark green in
thick, and broad; 6 to 8 inches long; 3 to 6 inches broad.
Petiole: Light green to light pink; 4 to 8 inches long.
Midrib: Large and conspicuous.
color; smooth, fleshy,
Swiss chard or leaf beet is a member of the common beet family,
but develops large fleshy leaves instead of the root. The plant is a
herbaceous biennial and grows 1 to 3 feet high. The leaves are
gathered periodically and can be removed without injuring the plant.
It is a native of Europe, northern Africa, and Asia.
Swiss chard is usually marketed in bunches with its leaves placed
alternately in opposite directions, which gives the bunch the appear-
ance of a dumb-bell.
LL WY A
.. .. .
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To prepare for the table.-Wash each leaf and petiole and cut
in 3-inch lengths. Prepare as directed for Chinese spinach.
very little water so as not to spoil the flavor.
TARo SHOOTS (Colocaria esculenta). (Fig. 23)
Chinese name: Woo-sun
Japanese name: Imo-no-me
Size: Eight to eighteen inches long; three-fourths to 1 inch in diameter.
Shape: Semierect or curved.
Color: White or white with purple tinge.
FIGURE 23.-Taro shoots
The taro plant, also known as asparagus taro-top (7, p. 455), is
indigenous to Asia and Polynesia. Within recent years the culture
of taro or dasheen for the production of shoots has been placed on a
commercial basis (15). The demand for this vegetable in Hawaii
will probably increase as it becomes better known.
-L 3 AM-L
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UTILIZATION AND COMPOSITION OF ORIENTAL VEGETABLES '(
S.Taro shoots are the tender, delicious growth from the taro corm
w:'.hich is grown in moist sandy soil, or in sphagnum moss in a dark-
i eted place. The vegetable is sold on the market in cylindrical
Bunches of 8 to 18, depending upon their size.
To prepare for the table.-Wash the vegetable and cut it in 2-inch
lengths; boil in water to which a little salt has been added. Cook
till tender and serve with or without butter.
FIGURE 24.-Taro stalks
TAzo STALKS (Colocasia esculenta).
Chinese name: Woo-harp
Japanese name: Imo-kuki
Shape: Long, slender, wide at base, narrow at tip.
Sizq: Twelve to sixteen inches long; three-fourths to 1 inch in diameter at
Color: Light green to dark purple or purplish green, depending upon the
Taro stalks are the leafstalks of many varieties of both the wet
and the dry land taro. The stalks may be green or purple or a com-
bination of the two colors. The stalks consist of the upper four-
fifths of the entire leafstalk of the taro. The lower fifth is left at-
tached to the corm when the latter is offered for sale as taro. Taro
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
stalks come in cylindrical bundles about 12 to 15 inches long and
inches across. The stalks are practically leafless, but some young
unfurled leaves are to be found within the sheaths. The Japanes":
dry-land varieties, Tru-no-ko, Aka-do, and Miyako, are largely used I
in supplying the local markets. The variety which is known on the:i
market as Tow-imo is 4 to 6 feet long and 2 to 4 inches thick at thea.'
base. It is light green and may or may not be covered with a bloom n
or whitish substance. This variety is cultivated primarily for its
To prepare for the table.-Cook as directed for taro shoots but
FIGU.E 25.-Tender fern fronds
TENDER FERN FRONDS (Pteridium aquilin-um). (Fig. 25)
Chinese name: Kuet
Japanese name: Warabi
Shape: Stafflike petiole or leafstalk with closely coiled lip.
Size: Eighteen to twenty-four inches long; tapering toward tip; three-fourths
to 1/ inches in diameter at thick end.
Color: Light green with fine, close-pressed brown wool over entire stem and
Tender fern fronds are the immature, unfurled leaves and leaf-
stalks of the tree fern. The fronds for market are tied in bunches
of four to six. A smaller species of fern (Osmunda regalis japonica
i'ibader tree fronds. iNeither species is cultivated. Both are gathered
ii the mountains by gardeners whose truck farms are adjacent to
To prepare for the table.-Remove skin from four stalks; cut in
inch lengths and then lengthwise into thirds. Place in water over
" night to remove acid and prevent discoloration. Boil them in water
for seven minutes; drain; fry in one-half tablespoon peanut oil or
lard; add 2 tablespoons soup stock, 1 tablespoon sugar, and a little
soy sauce; cook again for five minutes and serve.
TuRNIP GmmEs (Brassica rapa)
Chinese name: Mu-ching-choi-chai
'Japanese name: Ko-ko-no-ka kubura
Leaf: Radical, pinnate; 8 to 12 pairs; soft, slightly prickled; narrow; 5 to 6
Root: Flat, or globular; white; 1 to 12 inches in diameter, depending upon
Like the radish greens turnip greens are-the leafy tops which are
obtained by thinning the stand of plants. Like radish greens also,
turnip greens appear on the market in bunches, but may be distin-
guished from the former by their round or flattened white roots.
They are cooked like the Chinese spinach.
WATER CRES (Nasturtium officinale). (Fig. 26)
Chinese name: Sai-yong-choi
Japanese name: Kawara-chisa
Leaf: Odd pinnate; leaflets round or oblong; 2 to 8 pairs; 1 to 1/4 inches
long; three-fourths inch wide; smooth, yellowish, or dark green.
Stem: Long; one-fourth to three-eighths inch in diameter; smooth, light green.
Flowers: Rarely appear at stage when the cress is gathered for market.
Flowers are small and white.
Water cress is a floating perennial and grows best in fresh, running
water. On the island of Oahu it is frequently observed growing in
ponds adjacent to springs or artesian wells. Its native home is
Water cress is sold in bunches about 16 to 20 inches long, tied near
the cut base. This vegetable appears on the market throughout the
To prepare for the table.-Wash 1 bunch water cress well; break
the tender part in 2-inch lengths. Slice finely one-half pound lean
pork. Put in heated pot 1 teaspoon peanut oil, 1 slice ginger, and
one-half teaspoon salt. Add the pork and fry for 2 minutes; then
add 1 quart water and 6 jujubes or hong-cho. Boil over a slow fire
for one hour. Then add the water cress and boil for another 20
minutes before serving.
. ..... ..:..
WATEr DaoPWORT ((Enanthe stolonifera). (Fig. 27)'
Chinese name: Sui-kan
Japanese name: Seri
Leaf: Green, 2 or 3 leaflets; three-fourths to 1 inches long; one-hl
three-fourths inch wide; margin or edge of leaflet scalloped.
Petiole: One to one and three-fourths inches long; slender, hollow.
Stem: Hollow, 6 to 10 inches long; light green.
FIGURE 26.-Water cress
The plant is an aquatic herbaceous perennial with stolons which
are readily propagated (8, v. 2, p. 696).
Water dropwort somewhat resembles the young celery plant but
has a fibrous root system. Water dropwort is tied in bunches about
12 inches long and 5 to 6 inches wide. The entire plant, including
the root system, is marketed.
As a flavoring for soups.-Place the vegetable in boiling water for
one minute. Cool in water, then cut it in 2-inch lengths and add to
chicken or fish soup. Use about seven pieces of water dropwort to
each portion of soup.
.lii :" .....7':.. ...
WmMEB-MusTAD CAnnAM (Brassia chinenam). (Fig. 28)
r Chinese name: Bak-choi
*:i;; Japanese name: Shirona
: Loose, not compact
< .? Smooth and green; broadly obovate and entire, glossy, firm, scallop
6 to 8 inches long; 4 to 6 inches broad.
SPft.le: Fleshy, glossy, white; 4 to 7 inches long; one-half to 1% inches wide.
SOfall the Orient-grown vegetables, white-mustard cabbage is per-
i h ps the best known by people of the Occident. The plant is a gen-
o ral favorite because of the pleasing taste of its petioles and its at-
i .tractive appearance. White-mustard cabbage is a native of Asia.
.......The first, a flowering variety known as bak-choi-sum, is slender and
"N .. .. ..' .. ..:.......
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babu oryl wsprofus. n. hs d form. the
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To make white-mustard cabbage soup, prepare like leaf-mustard
.. : .. : .:. ... .. ... : E .
60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION:.
FIGURE 28.-White-mustard cabbage: A, A slender, early-flowering
variety; B, stout variety
:o serve pamm.-Wash 1 bunch white-mustard cabbage well and
l it in: 1-inch or 2-inch lengths. Put in heated pot 2 teaspoons
ut oil, 1 slice ginger, one-half tablespoon salt; dtd the vegetable
'iifry for one-half minute. Add one-half cup water and cook until
SVegetable is tender.
^T-o cook ith meat.--Mix one-half pound finely sliced lean -beef
r.. pork with 1 teaspoon cornstarch, a little pepper, and 1 teaspoon
l..spy sauce. Put in heated pot 2 teaspoons peanut oil, one-fifth tea-
riipoon garlic, and one-half teaspoon salt. Add the meat, stir, and fry
to. light brown. Then add the vegetable and one-half cup water.
Cooki until the vegetable is tender. Season to taste and serve.
GROUP 2. FRUIT AND POD VEGETABLES
i .. BALSAM-PEAB (Momordica charantia). (Fig. 29)
Chinese name: Fu-qua
Japanese name: Tsuru-reishi
SShape: Long, oblong, oval, many-ribbed, and covered with blunt warts or
i':",'tubercles; tapering at apex; smooth throughout.
'i Size: Six to twelve inches long; 2 to 2% inches in diameter.
SColor: Light to dark green.
i|. Balsam-pear, also known as bitter melon, is an annual plant which
grows eight to twelve feet long. In some of the oriental gardens
in Hawai it appears as a dense matlike covering of green foliage
grown in long, vertical rows with newspaper envelopes attached
here and there. The envelopes are used to protect the young melons
from the attacks of the melon flies.
S The balsam-pear is picked for the market before maturing. The
fruit, however, is at its best when it is beginning to ripen. The
interior of the melon is pithy and has many flat seeds in pulplike
coverings. The-seeds are white to brown, with a peculiar pattern
on the surface, depending on the degree of ripeness. The rind is
Bright yellow to orange, and the pulplike seed covering becomes
bright red at maturity.
To prepare for chop suey.-Slice two medium-sized balsam-pears
lengthwise and remove pulp and seeds. Wash pears and cut in
S n-mch slices; then place them in boiling water for five minutes;
drain. Slice thinly one-half pound lean beef and mix with 1 tea-
spoon flour or cornstarch. Put in heated pot or frying pan 1/2
S teaspoons peanut oil, a little salt, some soy sauce, and 1 slice ginger.
Add the meat and fry for about one minute; then remove from the
container. Fry the boiled vegetable separately for another minute,
then mix with the cooked beef, adding enough water to make gravy.
S Cook one-half minute and serve.
To stuff.-Cut two large balsam-pears crosswise in 2-inch lengths;
remove pulp and seeds with handle of spooq and wash. Run
. .. one-half pound finely chopped lean pork through meat grinder.
S Wash 2 teaspoons small, dried, shelled shrimps and run through
S grinder. Mix shrimps and pork and again run through grinder.
Soak three soda crackers in cold water, then mix them with a little
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
salt, pepper, soy sauce, and finely cut onion or chives. Chop fine"i
and add to meat mixture. Stuff the balsam-pear sections with the :':i
meat mixture. Brown both ends of the stuffed pear in a frying
pan containing 112 teaspoons peanut oil. Remove from pan and
place in a saucepan with enough water to make gravy. Sprinkle a
little salt on the meat and allow it to cook for about 15 minutes
Sweet pepper, eggplant, or bean curd may be used in place of the
FIG URE 29.-Balsam-pear
COWPEAS (Vigia sinensis). (Fig. 30)
Chinese name: Sai dau-kok
Japanese name: Sasage
Shape: Pods, slightly curved.
Size: Six to nine inches long; one-fourth inch in diameter.
Color: Light yellow, green, or green blotched with purple.
The cowpea is a native of Asia. It appears on the local market in
the green-pod stage and is usually used as a vegetable without shell-
ing. The pods are marketed in small bundles of 12 to 18. The
slightly immature cowpea pods are prepared for the table like the
.. ". ... .. ... .. -..
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F UTILIZATION AND COMPOSITION OF ORIENTAL VEGETABLES
CHINESE PRBESVING MELON (Benincasa cerifera). (Fig. 31)
Chinese name: Dung-kwa
Japanese name: Togwa
Bha: pe: Spherical to long-oblong.
1. ise: One to four feet long; 10 to 16 inches in diameter.
Color: Rind, green, thick, may or may not be powdered with white bloom;
fesh, white with white pithy center.
: Seed: Small, light straw or buff color.
The Chinese preserving melon is an oriental cucurbit which grows
very large, varying in weight from 30 to 40 pounds. The outstand-
ing feature of the melon is its wonderful keeping quality when fully
matured. It will remain sound for 6 to 12 months if it is not in-
jured. The melon is retailed by the pound, any quantity desired be-
ing cut off when purchased. Like other cucurbitaceous vegetables,
the Chinese preserving melon is also placed on the market in an im-
mature state, and it is then called Zit-kwa.
To make soup.-Scrape skin from one small, tender melon (1%
to 3 pounds); cut melon in 1/2-inch squares one-half inch thick. Slice
thinly one-half pound lean pork and mix with 1 teaspoon cornstarch,
a little pepper, and some soy sauce. Have at hand a heated pot
containing 13/ teaspoons peanut oil, a little garlic, and one-half
;..;". .P .,"..,. ...
36 BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION .....
.... :* .." *...
teaspoon salt. Add the pork, stir, and fry for a few minutes. Then
add 11/ quarts water. Boil for 15 minutes; add melon and cook
until it is tender.
To serve stuffed melon.-Soak 3 tablespoons lotus seeds or lin-ze,
and six medium-sized dried mushrooms overnight. Wash lotus seeds
and remove the undeveloped green seed leaves cotyledonss) from
within. Wash mushrooms and remove stems. Cut 6 ounces bamboo
shoots in A-inch cubes. Scrape melon skin off and discard part of
*.~ .**: A~
FIGURE 31.-Chinese preserving melon : A, Mature fruit;
B, immature fruit
the stem end so that the fruit can be set upright. Open the top and
remove the pulp and seeds with a spoon. Chop finely 1 pound pork
or duck meat, add 1 teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon cornstarch, a
little pepper, and ginger. Mix with lotus seeds, mushrooms, and
bamboo shoots. Stuff the melon with this mixture and place in a
pot to steam for one hour. Serve.
To serve sliced.-Cut scraped melon in 2-inch lengths 11/2 inches
wide and 1 inch thick. Sandwich in each length, by making a slit,
a thin slice of medium-lean ham. Add salt to taste and allow to
steam in pot for one hour.
*POlUW 5L U aftf ieL L taa ." .a tU UL.I MLE.aju,- T & .L WV V uL.bM
Bice: One to two feet long; 1% to 2% inches
C-oor: Green skin, white flesh.
FIGURE 32.-Dishcloth gourds
The dishcloth gourd, also known as vegetable gourd, sponge gourd,
and rag gourd, somewhat resembles okra (Hibiscus esculentus), and
is often called Chinese okra. The plant is a monoecious annual and
is indigenous to India. The coarse rind of this peculiar gourd bears
10 narrow ridges running lengthwise. Like many other orient-
grown melon-bearing vegetables, the gourd must be picked immature
for table use. It may be used to replace or supplement edible-podded
peas in the chop suey recipe given under the caption, Edible-Podded
Peas," page 39.
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
To nake chop suey.-Use recipe given for edible-podded peas.
To make soup.-Slice thinly one-half pound lean pork. Wash two:.
medium-sized dishcloth gourds, remove ribs and outer skin; slice
vegetable crosswise in 1-inch lengths. Have at hand a heated pot
containing 11/2 teaspoons peanut oil, a little salt, and a small slice
ginger. Add the meat and fry for half a minute. Then add a
little water and boil for 20 minutes; add the vegetable; cook for
5 minutes; serve.
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S-.ze* F.t : a etr .:.
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The''FIGURE long.-Long* enotlctyn
h.ape. n.d." ".l ,pa to lrg go..p y.. *uer .ope*.ei to'
th e. .l...erietyul t.e .ong eggplantisaid toi.g 3,uper.
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FIGUR 33.Long eggplants
e LONG EGGPLANT (Solanl o. a elongena .8erpe hwmo) (Fig. 33)
S. Chinese name Ai
Shape: Club-shaped or clavate.
Color: Purple or white, glossy.
shape, and color appeal to a large group of buyers who prefer it to
the large variety. In quality the long eggplant is said to be superior
To prepare for the table.-Bake or fry and serve with soy sauce
to which grated ginger has been added.
Color:~~~r Pupe rwitglsy
The ongegglan issomehatot a crioity.Itsdimnutve ize
shape, and colr:C apel t alag gou uyr wo rfeitt
the~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~; lag aiet.I ult h ogegpati adt espro
; te rinar round variety
To3 prpr /o" tbl.-Bk o fyan erve wit so suc
to~ ~ ~~~* which.' grtdgne a enadd
SiauLrPODDEDu PA rSaB (trwnsm ivunum maorocarpnnf. (rzig. 31)
Chinese name: Hoh-lang-dau
Japanese name: Chabo-endo
SShape: Pods, flattened, tapering at both ends, sides somewhat swollen.
Size: Two and a half to three and a half inches in length; one-half to three-
Sfourths inch in diameter.
Color: Light to dark green.
The plant is an annual which grows 2 to 4 feet high. Its native
home is western Asia. Edible-podded peas appear on the market
as partly developed pods. Both pod and peas are edible. Like
bamboo shoots, edible-podded peas are an important ingredient of
many attractive oriental dishes.
FIGUE 34.-Edible-podded peas
i;* ..... .. .... ;. .. ....6
peas, celery, green onions, and mushrooms. Fry briskly for one-
.Mix the two thoroughly by stirring. Serve hot.
FIGURE 34.-Edible podded peas
Edible podded- peas in chop suey.-Soak six medium-sized dried
mushrooms in water for one hour and then boil them for 10 minutes.
Wash and slice thinly the mushrooms, 6 ounces bamboo shoots,
and one medium-sized carrot. Cut in 2-inch lengths two green
spring onions, tops1and all. Cut one stalk celery into small pieces.
Wash 6 ounces edible-podded peas and remove the ends. Slice
thinly one-half pound lean pork. Put in heated pot 2 teaspoons pea-
nut oil, one-half teaspoon salt, and a little garlic. Add the meat,
bamboo shoots, and carrot. Stir for one-half minute, then add one-
half cup water to make gravy. Cook until the vegetables are tender.
Remove and place in a side dish. Place in the same heated pot, 2
teaspoons peanut oil, 1 teaspoon salt; then add the edible-podded
peas, celery green onions, and mushrooms. Fry briskly for one-
half minute; then add the already cooked mixture from the side dish.
Mix the two thoroughly by stirring. Serve hot.
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
GoA BEANs (Psophocarpus tetragonolobu). (Fig. 35)
Chinese name: See-kok-tau
Shape: Pods, square, slightly curved, with distinct thin,
Size: Seven to nine inches long; three-fourths to 1%4
about one-half inch wide.
Color: Dark green.
green, incised, mem-
inches wide; wings
FIGURE 35.-Goa beans
Although the Goa bean, also known as asparagus pea and winged
bean, has been long known and used in the Orient, it has only re-
cently been introduced into Hawaii, where it is as yet little known.
Its cultivation promises to be more extensive as it becomes better
known. The plant is a native of India (8, v. 2, p. 211).
To cook plain..-Prepare like the yard-long bean (p. 44) except
that the pods should be cut into 1/2-inch lengths. The flavor is easily
destroyed by overcooking.
: JEsuITS' NUT (Traps W ortis, T. nat s ). (Fig. 36)
Chinese name: Ling-kok
Japanese name: Hishi-mo-mi
Shape: Protuberant, triangular; has two strong oppositely placed long de-
Sise: Two and one-half to three inches long from tip to tip of horns; 1 inch
Color: Brown to ebony.
The Jesuits' nut plant, also called water caltrops," is a floating
aquatic annual with spongy, inflated petioles (7, p. 139). It is indig-
enous to the Orient.
FIGURE 36.-JeuitI' nu:i
The Jesuits' nut contains a large, white kernel. The nuts are boiled
while they are still warm.
Japanese name: Shiro-urt
FIGURE 36.-Jesuits' nut
The Jesuits' nut may be found on the markets in late September.
Its use, however, is limited to the Full Moon festival of the Chinese.
The Jesuits' nut contains a large, white kernel. The nuts are boiled
for an hour in hot water. The kernels are then removed and eaten
while they are still warm.
OurMTaL PICKUING MELON (Cuoumis conomon). (Fig. 37)
Chinese name: Yuet-kwa
Japanese name: Shiro-uri
Shape: Oblong, cylindrical, slightly clavate.
Size: Eight to twelve inches long, 2% to 31A inches in diameter.
Color: White to light yeUowish green skin and white flesh.
The oriental pickling melon is closely related to the common green
cucumber and resembles it in size, shape, and weight, but not in the
color of the skin. The melon is a seasonal vegetable and is fou tI
on the market usually in March.
To prepare soup.-Peel melon and cut in halves lengthwise. Re .
move seeds. Cut the halves crosswise in 1/-inch lengths and boal
them for about five minutes. Drain; boil again with 2 cups soup
stock, 2 tablespoons soy sauce, and one-half teaspoon sugar. Thicken
the soup with 1 tablespoon cornstarch before serving. A good soup
stock may be made by putting one-half pound grated, dried tuna
fish, or katsuobushi, in 1 quart water which is brought to the boil-
ing point. Let stock stand for three minutes, then strain.
FIGURE 37.-Oriental pickling melons
SOYBEANS (Glycine hispida). (Fig. 38)
Chinese name: Chang-wong-tau
Japanese name: Daizu
Shape: Pods, narrow, flat, with somewhat convex sides.
Size: Two inches long; one-half inch wide.
Color: Green, very hairy.
The plant is a native of China and Japan. It is a rather unusual
Orient-grown vegetable. Unlike the snap bean, green soybeans are
sold in their pods attached to the plant. The plants with their
pod-laden branches are tied in bunches of 4 to 10. Each plant is
WHITE-FLOWERED GOUB (Lagenaria vulgaris; L. leucantha). (Fig. 39)
Chinese name: Woo-lokwa
Japanese name: Yugaho (Ugao)
Shape: Cylindrical; tapering at stem end; has the appearance of a club.
Size: Twelve to eighteen inches long; 2% to 4 inches in diameter. When
mature the gourd often attains a length of 3 to 4 feet and a diameter of 7
to 12 inches.
Color: White to light yellowish green skin covered with fine hairs.
The white-flowered gourd is indigenous to India. Such varieties
as the dipper gourd, the sugar-trough gourd, and the Hercules club
gourd also belong to this group. The white-flowered gourd is borne
on a musk-scented, hairy vine having ribbed stems and long tendrilhi,
The leaves are large and velvety, 6 to 10 inches long and about a:
wide. The petiole is cylindrical and 3 to 6 inches long. The seeds
are brown, long, and angled.
The white-flowered gourd for market is picked while immature.6i
The fruit becomes coarse and fibrous when it is allowed to remain
too long on the vine.
FIGURE 39.-White-flowered gourds
To prepare soup.-Scrape the young, tender gourd and wash. Cut
it in 2-inch squares about one-half inch thick. Prepare as directed
for making soup from Chinese preserving melon (p. 35).
YARD-LONG BEANS (Vigna sesquipedalis). (Fig. 40)
Chinese name: Cheong dau-kok
Japanese name: Juroku-sasage
Shape: Pods, long, slender.
Size: Twelve to thirty-six inches in length; five-sixteenths inch in diameter.
Color: Light yellowish to dark green.
The plant is an annual and is a native of southern Asia. It is also
known as asparagus bean, and is closely related to the cowpea but
LUwJsL AALIAJ. (tLU. Lfl i AAL- JL. Li t I T ViLt ,LL J1LIi
and cook until the beans are tender. "
GROUP 3. AQUATIC AND ROOT VEGETABLES
ARROWHEAD (Sagittaria sagittifolia).
Chinese name: Chee-koo (T'sz-ku)
Japanese name: Kuwai
Shape: Corms, cylindrical or slightly
tapering at both ends, or flattened and ter-
minated by an elongated sprout. Two to
five lines encircling corm or rootstock.
Size: One to one and one-half inches
long; three-fourths to 1/ inches wide.
Color: Gray, bluish-gray, or yellowish ,.
skin; light yellow or buff flesh, depending
upon the variety.
The arrowhead is a fleshy corm
from a stoloniferous perennial hav-
ing long petioles and leaves of arrow-
head shape; 'hence the name. It
grows in marshy or swampy areas.
On the island of Oahu arrowhead has
escaped cultivation and may be often
seen in swamps associated with the
bulrushes. Arrowhead is a prolific 0. w
aquatic plant. A corm when planted I
will send out eight or more runners
as soon as the root system is estab- FIGUE 40.-Yard-long beans
lished. Each of these runners pro-
duces a new corm at its end. Arrowhead when cut is yellow-buff, and
has the consistency of sweetpotato. Each corm weighs one-half to
To prepare for the table.-Wash and pare one-half pound arrow-
head; cut it in slices about three-sixteenths inch thick. Slice one-
half pound lean pork and mix with 1 teaspoon cornstarch, a little
pepper, and 1 teaspoon soy sauce. Put in heated pot 11/2 teaspoons
peanut oil, one-half teaspoon salt, 1 slice ginger; add the pork and
l U LJltJcEL Ut.,V
fry. Then add the arrowhead and stir vigorously for one minutit r
Add just enough water for gravy and cook over a slow fire until thi-
vegetable is tender. Season and serve.
ARROWRooT (Maranta arundinacea). (Fig. 42)
Chinese name: Chok-woo
Shape: Fleshy, elongated rhizome with enlarged growing end; tapering
toward basal end. Conspicuously crossed by encircling lines.
Size: Four to eight inches long; 1 to 1V4 inches at the thick end.
Color: Ivory skin; white flesh.
Arrowroot is a perennial of South American origin and grows 2 -
to 3 feet high. The rhizome is very smooth, more or less covered
with dry, scaly leaves at the time of harvest. Gardeners usually
grow arrowroot for the production of starch for home consumption.
FIGURE 41.-Arrowhead corms
It is seldom found on the market because the demand for it is
limited. Only young arrowroot which is not suitable for starch
extraction finds its way to the market. The roots or rhizomes are
washed and then boiled in salted water until they are tender. Arrow-
root is prepared for the table like the sweetpotato.
CHINESE TARO (Colocasia esculenta). (Fig. 43)
Chinese name: Bun-long-woo
Shape: Corms, cylindrical, more or less tapering at basal end.
Size: Four to twelve inches in length; 3 to 6 inches in diameter; weight, 1
to 12 pounds.
Color: Skin, brown to gray, coarse, with or without dark, loose fiber. Flesh,
white, with conspicuous coarse fiber distributed through interior of corm.
The Chinese taro is like the common Hawaiian varieties in shape,
color, and texture. It is, however, much larger and possesses a dis-
" r\H .1.
FIGURm 43.-Chinese taro
o* sBULLErTIN DOU, HiAW All JA.YERIMEIN T STATION
tinct aroma when cooked. The individual corm from which the lea
stalk has been closely severed is marketed.
To serve with meat.-Peel one medium-sized taro root; wash and
cut it in 2-inch squares. Slice 1 pound corned pork or ham. Pt
in heated pot 2 teaspoons peanut oil, a little onion, and the meat.
Stir mixture and fry for one-half minute; then add 1 teaspoon soy
sauce. Add taro and enough water to cover. Cook until taro:: is
To use in steamed pudding.-Prepare taro as directed above.
Cook until tender in water to which a little salt has been added.
When cool slice it thinly. Chop finely 1 pound of lean pork and mix
with 1 teaspoon cornstarch, a little pepper, and soy sauce. Chop -
finely a little ham or bacon. Wash and chop finely a handful of
dried shrimp meat. Put in heated pot 2 teaspoons peanut oil, 1 tea-
spoon salt, and a little onion. Add the pork, shrimp, and ham, and
fry until brown. Make a batter of flour, a little salt, and some water.
Mix the taro and the cooked ingredients into the batter. Pour
mixture in greased pans and steam until done.
GARIC (Alli;num sativum) .
Chinese name: Shin-tau
Japanese name: Nin-niku
Shape: Bulbs, circular with flattened end and raised tip; ridged or ribbed
and covered with thin silky skin.
Size: One and one-half to two inches in diameter; one-half to 21/ inches
Odor: Strong; penetrating.
Garlic is a segmented bulb resembling in some respects an onion,
but is smaller and longitudinally ribbed. The bulblet when removed
from the mass is angular and inclosed in a thin, silky pink or white
skin. The fleshy portion is white and about 1 to 11/2 inches long.
Garlic is not grown commercially in Hawaii, but is imported from
the mainland and the Orient. Two distinct sizes are frequently
seen. The larger size comes from California, and the smaller from
China. This condiment, like ginger, is largely used in oriental
cookery. The addition of a little chopped garlic and hot peanut
oil to vegetables imparts to them a pleasant flavor when cooked.
Garlic is probably a native of southern China.
GINGER (Zingiber officinale). (Fig; 44)
Chinese name: Keong
Japanese name: Shoga
Shape: Rootstock, irregular, enlarged, flattened out, clustered.
Size: Four to twelve inches long; 1% to 2 inches thick.
Color: Yellow to light-gray skin; cream to yellow flesh.
Odor: Aromatic; characteristic of ginger.
Ginger is a condiment which is marketed in two forms, one with
the leafstalks attached and the other with the leafstalks removed.
The former is harvested at five months while immature and is in
great demand by the Japanese. It is sold in small bunches contain-
ing two to four hands and is bright canary yellow. The latter
form is the rootstock which has been permitted to grow to maturity,
Uwhi'ch time the top growth withers. The matured ginger, both
grown and imported, is generally marketed in large, woven
boo baskets. Ginger is a favorite ingredient in many oriental
mes. When frying is done, place a slice or two of ginger about.
bone-eighth inch thick in the pan. Add garlic also if desired.
ii n the Hawaiian Islands considerable ginger is grown for local
insumption. The islands of Maui, Hawaii, and Oahu occasionally
Produce it in sufficient quantities for export to the mainland.
SLocally and on the mainland the fresh roots are used in the manu-
facture of ginger ale. The crop matures at seven months. It is
S usually harvested in May.
Gn AT BURDOCK (Aretium lappa, Lappa major, L. edulis). (Fig. 45)
i Chinese name: Ngau-pong
Japanese name: Gobo
Shape: Root, long, cylindrical, tapering at end.
Size: One to four feet long; one-fourth to 1% inches thick.
Color: Skin, brown to gray; flesh, white.
Testure: Coarse and fibrous.
Great burdock is normally a biennial with large, broad, cordate
leaves, and long petioles, but it is grown as an annual. It is a native
74128 9 -
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
of Europe and Asia. Great burdock is found on the market in two"
forms. In one form the young roots are sold with the entire foliage
attached and in the other form the large roots are sold with the.
foliage detached. The former is usually the result of thinning the
cultivated stand and the latter is the fully grown root. Both forms
for market are tied in bundles and have moistened soil adhering to
the roots. The burdock-growing section on Oahu is largely confined
to the head of the Manoa, Pauoa, and Palolo Valleys. The growing
period for the matured root is 10 months, although immature plants
FIGURE 45.-Great burdock
are harvested about 50 days after planting when it is desired to
thin the stand.
To serve as flavored gobo (burdock).-Scrape roots of four me-
dium-sized burdocks well; cut them in 2-inch lengths. Soak them in
water for two hours; then boil until they are soft; drain. Place
on meat block or chopping board and pound each piece lightly sev-
eral times (avoid smashing); then place them on plates. Wash 1
tablespoon of sesame and toast it slightly in frying pan; then place
while warm in mortar and grind fine. Add 1 tablespoon soy sauce,
2 tablespoons sugar, mix, and pour over the plate of boiled gobo
(burdock roots); serve.
JAPANESE TAao (Colocasia esc8lenta). (Fig. 46)
Chinese name: Woo-chal
Japanese name: Ko-imo
iiBtpe: Corms, vary from round to. oblong.
BSie:.Two to three inches long; 1% to 2 inches in diameter.
Color: Skin, coarse, dark gray or gray with traces of purple with loose dark
or gray fiber; flesh, white or pink (7, p. 455.)
is the general name
taro belonging to
applied to three or more varieties of
the dasheen group. Ko-imo means
FIGURE 46.-Japanese taro
"small tuber," and refers especially to the young cormels of the
Miyako, Aka-do, and Tru-no-ko varieties, which are extensively
grown in Hawaii. The varieties are either white or pink-fleshed.
Usually the corms, or oya-imo, and the cormels of the pink variety
are edible, the corms of the white variety are edible but not palatable,
and only the cormels of the white variety are preferred.
The Japanese vegetable vendors usually keep a supply of pared
or scraped taros for the convenience of regular purchasers. These
taros may be found submerged in water in a container and should
not be mistaken for some other vegetable.
i !i :
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
To cook plain.-Peel and wash 1 pound Japanese taro, cut in co
venient sizes, and boil for seven minutes. Drain; and boil ag
with 3 tablespoons soy sauce and 1 tablespoon sugar until thoroughly!!:
KuDzu (Pueraria thunbergiana, P. hirsuta, Dolichos japanica). (Fig. 47)
Chinese name: Fan-kot
Japanese name: Kudzu
Shape: Root, large; tapering, or irregular.
Size: Five to twenty-four inches in length; 3 to 18 inches in diameter.
Color: Straw-colored to light-brown skin; white flesh.
The kudzu root resembles somewhat the sweetpotato in general
conformation, but has very coarse, tough skin, and fibrous flesh.
Some of the roots grow to great size, but only the smaller roots are
used for the table. Choice starch can be extracted from the kudzu
root. The plant is a hairy, twining perennial which grows 30 to 60
feet long. It is sold by seedsmen as an arbor plant. It is a native
of China and Japan.
I aspe: Koot ioviaeo into segments resemolng irnks or sausage: individual
fle: Two to four feet in length, 2% to 3% inches in diameter; individual
Segment or link 3 to 6 inches long.
iCoi: or: White to buff orange throughout.
Interior: Cross section of segment
tIiha perforated with 10 canals of two
ialves, the smaller alternating with
Lotus root is one of the
: -unique vegetables of the Orient
. and is not closely related to
'i. any other vegetable. It is a
productive aquatic crop and is
iin great demand. Large quan-
Stitles of the roots are shipped
A< to the United States to supply
the demand of the oriental
population, from San Fran-
cisco to New York City. In
H awaii the lotus root is har-
vested from July to November.
Parts of the root are allowed
to remain, ungathered at the
last harvest to send forth new
plants about the following Feb-
ruary. The lotus root is also
known as "the sacred lotus"
and is indigenous to China, :i
India, and Persia. .
To prepare for soup.--Cut
off and discard the ends of
each joint of two medium-sized
lotus roots; wash and scrape.
Cut the roots lengthwise into FIGURE 48.-Lotus root
halves; then slice crosswise in
/2/-inch lengths and wash again. Slice thinly 1 pound lean pork and
mix with 1 teaspoon cornstarch, 2 teaspoons soy sauce, and a little
pepper. Boil 1 quart water and add 1 teaspoon salt, the pork mix-
ture, and the lotus, and cook over a slow fire until tender.
To serve with beef or pork.-Prepare in the same way as directed
for yard-long bean (p. 44), but quarter the lotus lengthwise and
BULLETIN 60, HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION
ORIENTAL RADISH (Raphanus 8sat4ue: liongipinnatius). (Fig. 49A)
Chinese name: Loh-bak choi
Japanese name: Daikon
Shape: Roots, spherical, oblong, cylindrical.
Size: Three to twenty-four inches in length; 2 to 6 inches in diameter, i
The radish, commonly known as oriental radish, is a native of China
and Japan, and is the most conspicuous root vegetable 8 on -the :'',
FIGURE 49.-Oriental radishes: A, Japanese radishes or
daikon; B, turnips
market. It is in season throughout the year. Three distinct types
or varieties-spherical, oblong, and cylindrical-are grown locally.
The oblong variety, which does not exceed 4 inches in length and
about 2 inches in width, is preferred by the Chinese; whereas the
large, long, and round roots are preferred by the Japanese. The
s Botanically, the portion of the radish designated by common usage as root" is the
lower part of the stem with the taproot.
all variety is marketed in bunches of 4 to 6 roots, and the larger
Triety in bunches of 1 to 4, depending upon size of each root.
mo cook with miso sauce (Japanese style).-Peel and slice root
:Ioesswise in 1-inch lengths; wash roots and boil until they are tender.
dd miso sauce while they are still hot. The miso sauce is prepared
B ignnding miso in a bowl and adding grated ginger, soup stock,
and sugar gradually, mixing thoroughly. The Chinese prepare the
oriental radish by peeling, washing, and slicing thinly as directed
TunSIP (Bratsica rapa.). (Fig. 49B)
Chinese name: Mu-ching
i Japanese name: Kabura
Shape: Root, flattened to globular.
Size: One and three-fourths to two and one-fourth inches high; 2 to 3 inches
Color: White or traced with purple.
The turnip is somewhat like the Japanese radish in appearance,
and bears only a few thin rootlets on the slender taproot. Very often
i turnips for market are sold in bunches from which the taproots have
been trimmed off. The leaves are narrow, 8 to 12 inches long, soft,
and somewhat pubescent. The young turnips with tops attached
are marketed also as greens. The turnip is prepared for the table
like Japanese radish and arrowhead.
WATEr CHESTNUT (Soirpus tuberosus). (Fig. 50)
Chinese name: Ma-tai
Japanese name: Kuro-Kuwai
Shape: Corms, spherical or globular with flattened base and rounded top;
firm and turgid.
Biee: Seven-eighths to one inch by 1% to 11 inches in diameter.
Color: Dull to glossy brown or ebony skin; white flesh.
Taste: Flat, starchy.
Water chestnuts are seasonal roots which are found on the local
markets from about July until late September. They usually are
kept in mat-woven bags or bamboo baskets alongside vegetable
stands. Water chestnuts are also imported into Hawaii from China.
These are like the locally grown product except that they are sweet,
and partly wrinkled from the loss of moisture. The water chestnut
is a favorite ingredient in numerous Chinese dishes (4, p. 15). The
chestnuts are pared, and sliced thinly and mixed with sliced bamboo
shoots or with edible-podded peas, and the like.
YAM (Dioacorea betatas). (Fig. 51)
Chinese name: Tai-sue
Japanese name: Naga-imo
S Shape: Roots, cylindrical, oblong, straight, or irregular.
: ize: Six to eighteen inches in length; 2 to 6 inches in diameter.
Color: Skin gray to dark without and purple within; flesh white.
The yam, also known as Chinese yam," Chinese potato," and
"cinnamon-vine," is commonly grown by the oriental farmers. It is
J* : ,4 ; ** ** *l '-* ^!. ft -
-. *.; .-^ -'."- ^ *; ; -.4 *f *:
*..*r ^ .:'I-^f *.^.^ *^" ^ *
i... .. .^ ; : K ^
a ^ -s *;**:.'
? 5.:' Jt b.* **
tf .:.. "..i'
. r" .* ,. .t*
',': *-i-^.t ^Ai
- .. .
FIGURE 50.-Water chestnuts
F 1 2 '.r r* -*,4
' Il ... i,, ~ i";.i : il : J: :-;.'<'" .
...... .. 5: :- !:'::.... 4' Fr4Q .....
K..o. ,.: ., 4- .. .,.
k:r ,..r Z ,X: ,. ........
4 Y ...0 :o..., .. o..h ..' ../.. ,. ..
,..- ,4 .: .. o ,,.
"N" /"., .
Y ._;. .'"i:" ":... "i~; ...,."~ :" ... ,
.. ~ ;: ..,
"".' :." -.t... .. :
,.' : .. .: ,..-" .
.' .: .: .. .. :.
bz ... ...: .. .. ; #. ..
:% .:c. ,.; ..' .. ; ,..".. .. :
:' A' .''.:. ... .: .\ ": .. :
FIGURE 52.-Yam bean roots
Shape: Root turnip shaped, flattened, or elongated.
i ce: Four to six inches long; 3 to 41/ inches across.
Color: Skin, straw yellow; flesh, white.
The yam bean root is like the turnip in shape, has a rather tough
skin with the texture and the color of the kudzu, and in consistency
resembles the white potato. The flesh is sweet and of pleasant flavor.
STo cook plai.--Cut and discard the ends and rip off the skin.
1.Wash and quarter; then slice thinly crosswise. Prepare as directed
SAlthough the composition of a few of the more common vege-
tables of oriental origin has been determined, the food value of many
is still unknown. In view of the fact that these vegetables form
..iiiii .. .. ........
the basis of the dietary of a large part of the inhabitants of H w
it is desirable that their chemical composition be known. A
vious publication of the station (11) pointed out the desirability
using more locally grown vegetables in the diet. Chemical anay
at the station of 56 different fresh vegetables of oriental origi
show that they are as rich in all the necessary food and min ~"i
constituents as are vegetables grown on the mainland of the United:'
States. Although such factors as vitamin content, digestibility, and
quality of protein- have not as yet been determined, it is probably:
safe to assume that, in a general way, the various groups of vege-
tables of oriental origin are equivalent in these respects to similar
groups of the better-known vegetables for which these factors have.:
The nutritive constituents were determined by methods outlined
by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (2). Of the ':
ash constituents, calcium was determined volumetrically by the :
method outlined by Patten (10). Phosphorus was estimated volu-
metrically by the usual method. In the determination of iron, a
comparatively large sample, at least 10 grams, was ashed and the
ash digested in the water bath with dilute sulphuric acid for several
hours, or until solution occurred. Reduction was effected by means
of a Jones reductor, and the iron was titrated with 0.02 N potassium
permanganate. Alkalinity of ash was determined by dissolving the
ash in, a measured excess of 0!1 N hydrochloric acid, warming the
solution sufficiently to expel the carbonic acid, and titrating the
Analyses were made of vegetables grown in the vicinity of Hono-
lulu, and procured fresh either from markets or from nea-by truck
farms. The sample used in each instance varied from 1 to 3 pounds.
Analysis was made of the edible portion only. In most instances,
however, the entire vegetable as purchased was edible.
LEAFY AND STEM VEGETABLES
This group of vegetables varies from those with thin, green
leaves and small stems or petioles, to those with thick, succulent,
and often white leaves and a relatively large proportion of thick
fleshy stems, or sometimes no leaves at all. It is generally true
that the thin, green-leaf types are much richer in the different con-
stituents than are the white-leaf or fleshy-stem types. The former,
however, are often characterized by a more pronounced, somewhat
astringent taste, for which reason they are usually discarded in
favor of the milder-flavored, fleshy-stem, and blanched-leaf sorts.
In general, the leafy and stem vegetables are characterized by high
water content, correspondingly low energy value, and high content
of all the minerals, particularly of calcium and iron. They are
the best source of the antiscorbutic vitamin C, and in many instances
a good source of vitamins A and B. Because of their succulence,
the vegetables of this group add materially to the bulk of the meal.
By reason of their low energy value, they may be used in small or
large quantities without materially altering the desired intake of
carbohydrates and proteins. This group is valuable in the formna-
A r.-P-frcac* unpoassurswn n rfantsp cownwiwuius o (a" mowervs ULWIWem s)
ad aslth alkaliity of O0 leafy and stem vegetables grown in the vicinity of
Nutritive constituents Mineral elements
Kind of material C
Emusprout (large) --------- 8%.40 7.62 1.07 6.71 .86 1.34 .029 .023 .0026 16.4
o i. .. U ,
I t I 4 o. o. .
S Bambooshoots ------- 93.08 84 0.13 3.17 01 0.77 000 0.0440.0007 7.7
3 Bean sprout (small)-------9377 2.52 .08 2.98 .34 .31 007 .038 .0007 4.0
4 Btterbur-------------- 92.70 .39 .04 11 1.30 1.46 .103 .012 .0038 14.3
Chinese, heading------ 96.04 1.58 .05 1.61 .50 .6 037 .057 .0008 .0
Chinese, nonheading 94.63 1.20 .09 2.14 .73 121 102 .051 .0047 7.9
7 Chinese, leaf-mustard- 94.22 L99 .07 1. .65 1.17 .084 .046 .0035 12.2
i Potherb mustard ----- 95.24 L 53 .06 L51 .65 L01 .070 .088 .0031 11.2
9 White mustard, flower-
Ii : ng--------------93.68 2.07 .1 94 .85 1.31 .109 .062.0031 10.7
ii: Japanese white mus-
tard------- ------- 95.62 1.55 1.21 .46 1.10 .121 .037 .0018 13.9
I 1 White mustard, stout-- 95.12 1.37 .08 1.72 .47 1.24 .096 .025 .9.9
ii12 Swamp,------------ 92.26 1.94 .14 3.31 1.13 1.22 .077 .064 .0032 14.3
. Chies-------------------- 9.22 2.60 .33 3.0 1.48 L28 048 .057 .0084 12.6
1: Dandelion greens -----------2.40 L 10.60-------.... 105 .072 .0027
g Garland chrysanthemum- 94.01 1.78 .12 2.02 1.31 040 .045 .0036 13.2
S Radish-----.-------93.54 1.77 .09 2.2 .90 45 .116.038.0036 14.9
17 Turnip-------------- 9162 1.81 .11 3.22 1.35 1.89 227 .069 .0028 17.1
SHonewort--------------89.53 2.33 .23 4. 1.45 2.09 .114 .061 .014 23.9
19 Kale------------------9 924 2.82 .21 2.94 1.05 1.74 .195 .060.0035 17.7
a Lettuc'- ---------------- 95.94 .97 .11 1.56 .56 .84 .028.022 .0030 6.8
21 Malabar nightbhade------- 94.92 1.37 .14 1.75 .58 1.24 030 .057 .0040 18.7
f2 Matrimony-vine 4------. 84.60 4. 55 .46 5.89 1.31 3.19 .315 .048 .0299 48.2
S3 Chinese----... .------. 92.30 1.68 .12 3.22 .99 1.69 .102 .035 .0066 27.0
S Common-------........ 93.40 2.12 .08 2.27 .63 1.50 .055 .043 .0212 22.7
25 Swiss chard---.....-----. 92.17 1.45 .18 3.09 .87 2.24 .100 .024 .0043 24.6
26 Taroshoots......---------. 95.39 .92 .09 2.17 .58 .85 0131 .0017 10. 5
27 Tarostalks--..------. 93.20 .79 .13 3.52 1.44 .92 066 .032 .0101 13.6
28 Tender fern fronds.----- -928 L02 .08 5.59 L45 .58 00R .017 .0015 5.5
2 Water eress__------ 94.86 2.00 .11 1.28 .64 11 .085 053 .0022 11.7
30 Water dropwort...--------.. 92.76 1.59 .11 3.14 1.07 L33 .060 .067 .0058 1.0
1 Expressed as cubio centimeters of normal acid solution required to neutralize excess of base per 100
Wrams of fresh vegetable.
2 Outer sheaths removed.
s 1, pp. 44 4.
Although the group as a whole is comparatively rich in calcium,
the bamboo shoots, small bean sprouts, taro shoots, and tender fern
Sfronds, all of which may be termed "immature stems," are decidedly
|low in this element. Large bean sprouts show a decidedly different
composition from that of other members of the group, being ex-
ceptionally high in protein, fat, and carbohydrates. The cotyledons
are relatively large as compared with the sprout, which fact ac-
icounts for the high protein and energy value. The cabbage samples,
SNos. 5 to 12, inclusive, are characterized by high water content and
Comparatively low protein and energy value. With the exception
of heading Chinese cabbage, the cabbages are rich sources of
cium. The superiority of the green-leaf, nonheading Chinese e
bage over the blanched, heading variety is marked. Both radiM
and turnip greens stand out as rich sources of calcium. This is also
true of kale. Of the spinaches, the Chinese variety is superior in
calcium but inferior in iron. Both have a decided excess of basic.
elements. Two vegetables of the group, honewort and matrimony-
vine, would seem to deserve a more important rank among the orien4- :
tal vegetables than they now have. These vegetables contain appre-
ciable amounts of protein and energy. They. are also rich in the
different mineral constituents. Matrimony-vine particularly is out-
standing. It contains nearly twice as much of the mineral con-
stituents, except phosphorus, as does any other vegetable in the group.
FRUIT AND POD VEGETABLES
This group is divided into two types, the fleshy vegetables and the "
pod vegetables. The fleshy vegetables are generally characterized
by high water content and low protein and energy value. They are
among the poorest in mineral value and are chiefly valued for their
succulence. The fresh-pod vegetables are important sources of pro-
tein and to a less extent of energy. Table 2 gives the nutritive con-
stituents and mineral elements of the more important oriental fleshy
and pod vegetables in Hawaii.
TAnBL 2.-Percentage composition (nutritive constituents and mineral elements)
and ash alkalinity of seven fleshy and five pod vegetables grown in the vicinity
Nutritive constituents Mineral elements
Kind of material a 2 '- I
X ,.. .. 0-E* *
P- P Z LQ
31 Balsam-pear --------- 89.20 1.49 0.12 5.71 1.68 1.80 0.022 0.1070.0024 22.90
32 Dishcloth--------- 95.91 .77 .05 2.22 .63 .42 .005 .020- .... 3.80
33 White flowered---. 94.96 .63 .04 3.38 .56 .43 .007 .020 .0008 5.20
34 Eggplant, dwarf----- -- 93.37 1.14 .05 4.05 .85 .54 .010 .034 .0017 6.30
35 Chinese preserving,
immature-_____. 95.80 .47 .02 2.69 .56 .45 .011 .025 .0006 5.30
36 Chinese preserving,
mature_-------- 96.20 .40 .03 2.24 .68 .45 .015 .021 .0024 5.30
37 Oriental, pickling... 96.82 .47 .02 1.81 .57 .31 .006 .006 .0006 3.80
38 Goa --------- -- 91.56 2.26 .02 4.07 1.39 .70 .063 .048------8.40
39 Soy 3---------- 70.86 12.71 2.16 11.36 1.33 1.58 .047 .189 .0047 16.70
40 Yard-long 2---.....- 90.64 2.94 .15 4.11 1.42 .74 .057 .051 ----- 10.701
41 Cowpeas ------------- 89.18 2.97 .08 5.86 1.22 .69 .037 .052 .0049 10.40
42 Peas, edible-podded.... 88.66 3.33 .10 6.10 1.06 .75 .043 .062 .0032 8. 20
1 Expressed as cubic centimeters of normal acid solution required to neutralize excess of base per 100
grams of fresh vegetable.
I Pods included in sample.
2 Pods removed.
knownn vegetable adds to its importance as a source of this constituent
S the oriental dietary. The other members of the group are similar
i their composition. Though not outstanding in any particular
-these vegetables are well balanced in all food constituents.
i AQUATIC AND ROOT VEGETABLES
tl The aquatic and starchy root vegetables serve primarily as sources
of carbohydrates. Since a large proportion of the constituents re-
ii: quired to maintain the body consists of carbohydrates, some of the
: vegetables of this group usually form the basis of the average dietary.
The nonstarchy roots differ radically from the starchy group, and are
Unimportant as sources of energy. Their carbohydrate content is as
Slow as that of the most succulent leafy vegetables. They function
Chiefly in providing bulk to aid digestion.
The aquatic vegetables are not as high in carbohydrates as are
I, most of the starchy roots, but they are comparatively high in protein.
Very poor in calcium, they are generally rich sources of phosphorus.
Table 3 gives the nutritive constituents and mineral elements of the
Aquatic and root vegetables of oriental origin.
TABLa 3.-Percentage composition (nutritive constituents and mineral elements)
and ask alkalinity of 4 aquatic and 10 root vegetables grown in the vicinity
Nutritive constituents Mineral elements
Kind of material
91 a01 n Q
*S .. .
z L ) U P.
43 Arrowhead ----..-- -- 76.46 4.71 0.37 16.12 0.67 1.67 0.016 0. 2070.0049 16.20
44 Jesuits' nut ---- 80.00 3.49 .02 15.33 .36 80 .016 .128 .0020--
45 Lotus root ------------- 83.20 2.35 .08 12.35 .69 1.33 .025 .086 .0027 9.00
46 Water chestnut 2.----- 79.54 5.89 .04 13.07 .55 .91 .002 .065 .0018 6.40
47 Arrowroot 3 ..... --- 63.40 1.60 .20 30.00 3.90 .90 ..--------- ..----
48 Great burdock---------- 60.62 1.09 .07 33.37 3.78 1.07 .064 .039 .0039 17.60
49 Kudzu .------..----.. 68.56 2.13 .05 27.08 .73 1 45 069 .00119.60
50 Chinese ....-- 7237 1.48 .11 24.23 .61 1.20 023 069 0017 14.50
S51 Japanese ----... 81.40 L44 .07 15.34 .63 1.12 .013 .032 .0015 15.40
i Yam--------........ 723 1.11 .12 1&60 .96 .98 .008 .041 .0074 10.70
S63 Yam bean root-----.. 87.34 .94 .03 10.87 .47.35 .009 020 0019 4. 40
54 Chinese----....---. 95.04 1.08 .03 2.39 .65 .81 .021 .026 .0006 9.60
55 Japanese--------- 94. 8 .87 .03 3.03 .64 .58 .023 .019' .0005 4.50
58 Turnip --. ------ 93.74 1.40 05 3.20 .95 .039 .048 .0010 10.20
i Expressed as cubic centimeters of normal acid solution required to neutralize excess of base per 100
I grams of fresh vegetable.
,ii -L...; ... .:
oa. uIne jiuoel 11 i DLa' u.uinil, Vu.v LIne altre3 u... 5UI 1A t[ite r
Of those more commonly used, the kudzu and the Chinese taro.
pear to be the most desirable as sources of carbohydrates. While
vegetables of this group are not high in mineral constituents, tMl
fact that they appear on the table nearly every day in the .a..
makes them of importance, particularly with respect to alkalinitt.
of ash. The three nonstarchy root vegetables appear to be some-
what alike in dietary value.
CLASSIFIED LIST OF VEGETABLES
LEAFY AND STEM VEGETABLES
Bean sprouts (soy), large.
Bean sprouts (mungo),
Chinese spinach__.. -----
Taro shoots -------------
Tender fern fronds -------
Glycine hispida_. ___ ....
Phaseolus aureust --....
Petasites japonica ......
Apium graveolens ---....
Brassica pe-tsai, B. pe-
Allium schwo noprasum. __
Coriandrum satiium ....
7ingiber mioga --__---
A Uium fistulosum ....._ .
Cryptotznia canadenis_- _
Brassica oleracea ace-
Brassica juncea --------
Lactuca sativa.... ------
Lycium chinense... --....
Artemisia vulgaris ___....
Perilla frutesces ----.....
Sinapis chinensis ---.....
Raphanus sativus longi-
Spinacia oleracea -......
Ipomea reptans ........
Beta vulgaris cicla --.....-
Brassica chinensis .....
Ung-choi -.. ------
Fuki...... -- ....
Shanto-na- .......- .
Bhiso ....- ---.
FRUIT AND POD VEGETABLES
Chinese preserving melon
Dishcloth gourd--.... --..
Goa beans.. --...........
Oriental pickling melon._
Momordica charantia -
Benincasa cerifera --.....
Solanum melongena ser-
Pisum sativum macro-
Trapa bicornis, T. natansa
Glycine hispida ..-......
Lagenaria vulgaris, L.
Vigna sesquipedalis ..._..
Cheong dau-kok ....
I I I- -
--------------- S-ittia-sagitifolia, Chee-koo (T'ss-ku).._ Kuwal -...-.-.....- 45
oot------------ Maran am rundia.... Chok-woo- .---- ----.. ------ ------.......... 4
M taro-- ....-- Cd.... @. c ....... cua-- Bun-long-woo ...-------- --------..... 46
IB-.---.--------- AUium atium r......... Shin-taun.--------- Nin-niku......_.._ 48
.------------- Zingiber oficnae........ Keong_ ------------- Shogp.-------------. 48
tburdock---------. Arctium lapps, Lappa Ngau-pong .....--... Gobo-------......... 49
H!; major, L. edulis.
kpi aemse taro............ blocuias ewulewla....... Woo-chai--- -------- Ko-imo_-----. ...-.-- 51
iilEdu-..------------ Pueraria thunbergiana, Fan-kot.... ..------ K-udzu. ----.----.--- 52
." P. hirauta, Doiechos
iLotus root-..h --.... Ndeumbium nelumbo..... Lin-ngau....------ Hsu-no-ne.......... 53
IOi i.'ental radish -...__ Raphaua satius lo ni- Loh-bak bcoi.-..--... Daikon-_--------- 54
Turnp!---------- BrT M assic rapa_------.... Mu-ching-----------. Kabura-.----------- 55
Water chestnut-------- Sirpw u tuberosus..... Ma-tai--------------- Kuro-kuwaL ---------. 55
: Yam. _-------- Dioscorea bata...---..-. Tai-sue.------------ Naga-imo..----------- 55
Y"am bean root.---------- Pachyrhizs rosu..--..-. Sar-gott-....----_------ ------_ ---------- 57
(1) AGRICUTITuRAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN.
1895-96. USEFUL PLANTS OF JAPAN. 5 v., illus. Tokyo.
(2) AsSOCIATIONOF OFFICIAL AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTS.
1925. OFFICIAL AND TENTATIVE METHODS OF ANALYSIS. COMPILED BY THE
COMMITTEE ON EDITING METHODS OF ANALYSIS. REVISED TO JULY
1, 1924. Ed. 2, 535 p., illus. Washington, D. C.
(3) BAIEY, L. H.
1924. MANUAL OF CULTIVATED PLANTS... 851 p. New York and London.
(4) BLASDALE, W. C.
1899. A DESCRIPTION OF SOME CHINESE VEGETABLE FOOD MATERIALS AND
THEIR NUTRITIVE AND ECONOMIC VALUE. U. S. Dept. Agr., Off.
Expt. Stas. Bul. 68, 48 p., illus.
(5) GRAY, A.
. GRAY'S NEW MANUAL OF BOTANY. A HANDBOOK OF THE FLOWER-
ING PLANTS AND FERNS OF THE CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN UNITED
STATES AND ADJACENT CANADA. Rearranged and extensively
rev. by B. L. Robinson and M. L. Fernald. Ed. 7, 926 p., illus.
SNew York, Cincinnati, [etc.].
i (6) HARRTSON J. B., and BANCROFT, C. K.
1917. FOOD PLANTS OF BRITISH GUIANA. Jour. Bd. Agr. Brit. Guiana
(7) HLL.EBRAND, W.
1888. FLORA OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A DESCRIPTION OF THEIR PHAN-
EROGAMS AND VASCULAR CRYPTOGAMS. Annotated and published
after author's death by W. F. Hillebrand. 673 p., illus. London
and New York.
(8) HOOKER, J. D.
1875-79. THE FLORA OF BRITISH INDIA. 2 v. London.
(9) MORI, T.
1922. AN ENUMERATION OF PLANTS HITHERTO KNOWN FROM COREA. 174 p.,
Sius. Seoul, Corea. [In English, Korean, and Japanese.]
(10) PATTEN, A. J.
1923. REPORT ON THE DETERMINATION OF IRON AND ALUMINUM, CALCIUM
SAND MAGNESIUM IN THE ASH OF SEEDS. Jour. Assoc. Off. Agr.
Chem. 6: 418-422, illus.
S(11) RIPPERTON, J. C., and RUSSELL, N. A.
1926. HAWAIIAN VEGETABLES AND THEIR FUNCTION IN THE DIET. Hawaii
Agr. Expt. Sta. Ext. Bul. 9, 24 p., ills.
(12) SHaEMAN, H. C.
1926. CHEMISTRY OF FOOD AND NUTRITION. Ed. 3, 636 p., llus. New
(13) WATT, Sir K
1908. THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF INDIA, BEING AN ABRf
DICTIONARY OF THE- ECONOMIC PRODUCTS OF Ilimp.4 <
(14) WESTER, P. J.
1921. THE FOOD PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES. Philippine Agr. R~i1v.
(15) YOUNG, R. A.
1920. FORCING AND BLANCHING DASHEEN SHOOTS.
125, 6 p., illus.
U. S. Dept. Agr.
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1829
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