The macadamia nut in Hawaii


Material Information

The macadamia nut in Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
23 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Pope, Willis T ( Willis Thomas ), b. 1873
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Macadamia nut -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 23).
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.T. Pope.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612009
oclc - 16324481
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 51-63
System ID:

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Full Text



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Apatn m
8,Pe an newspaper
-lson the Macadamia nut,
1;19; 21, p )." fuL$*
subect in a, geae~ral Vay w
goer~s &t this time.: 1
Te Macadamia-mut tree
Sot Wales, Australia. T
grw wild there. Certain
olaare particularly vaffm
hetrob was probabyfix
excellent descr1AiptAo
requirements, was publish" In
190 attention has boen gript- Wt
treand its culture haspra,
adto Hawaii (2, P. 69V81 ,
a.nmber of Mediterranea~n
Hwaii for the first time by the st
192(8, p. 18), the latter of whopm
adthe former of whom gen- om, data *
hone in Wyllie Street, Ilonolulo, 444h
areiAM to befound. (Fig. .
When the slopes of out Tantalds, 16f
arrested in 1892, 1893, and 1894 f .$
othe Board of Agricu.1ture and -Voresry ow 4
et, a small planting of about hlfaH dozkL tre4
eeation of 1,000 feet along with, some wattla: anftd-,
TeMacadamia. trees did not fruit "Wabout .9W$4
o heir crowded condition, Threo of thosetri.0ar
Kwalo-uka, which had been set aside Uea ar
staion site b-y the Hawaiian Goverowtot And pe
frthe use of. the station 'in 1901. Three othrte
plating are to be found growing just WoreAshe liA
toral forest reserve. The boundary between aithe w
inaccurately determined af the time ot planting. Tli
by1910 to produce sufficient nuts to attract attention. TJ
An earlier- introduction of the Macadami, "is rop orto
(,p.;Uj8) to have been made by W. H. Pari~o
ku district', Hawaii, about 1881. From Mr.i% ls
tetree, however, and particularly from his 1
ReeeneIsmd b tai nmes i Prntee t ~trt m



'B~tof Mt o ee'

htl~bQ'-r 60feet
mAHhho, apy O clo
owd )VmAow a. ink


FlQURN 2.-Macadamia floasrh A0 g ope in
C, interior view of peianthB
spines. The flowers are cr~y wht sd .re
Usually only 2, a, r9 lgaeA4.oq Ngt L nrfA
nuts are more nearly spherical the urf ce
and in size they average a little sa 1 tha i
The Macadamia tree has: 'ius to .n* .....
of Australia it is well known s 1 ke
parts it is called the Australiair t:. It is kiw
in different localities in Aitrali ~?a.a
called the Macadamia. IWalter Hill, th.. fi
Botanical Gardens, is credited with wvz' .
studying the flora of the Moretona y itic'~
named Macadami ternifolia in honor a ofD ..r.ti..
dent of the Philosophical Society, Victori, vw
name temifolia has reference to the arrni$ gist:
whorls of three at each node. The genUs aIIee~dli" .
natural order Proteaceae, as do also the 1el-kt1tr..
Waratah, Grevillea, and Hakea. Other specie's 041 4#
*.. :'*.':;:"E::.i.:i: "
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T,f 74
Am bat hik, 4&Kgt,6&

at -jot 4'1

mediately following maturity,
and are kept moist.. They requw"
and produce active leaves. In a
days the resultiAg seedlings.
trainers, or to 8-inch pots f. d
sterilized, soil. They may be %V
date of planting the seed with ~ .
The roots usually develop sufficiently
mit transplanting the seedlings to the or. ard.:
grown to supply rootstock material for t
be utilized at any time that their size an. tl ntW dt
is suitable for making the unions. ... .. ''"'
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for, ve ve ProPa-
Seeme be an un-
5110itu` *cls wbich
in dia", Ater The
the M,
and es in the
WO, i, 0' ex imenters
show that, the Macadanuis
FS00're 0WOM to make
Id thoroughly ub rdrained
II Much, or -game imatter from
(2) a temperature that
& the daytiie; (3) pro
of At ukiddqwy by som method
of Ie mod succeashd
branches I to 2 feet long
ftch i'vdiuffs develop a
The now toptrowth -bursts
fAW a, few and then
'repaxator to Suother
d;oda be
tp, boL tha,


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PFGUuR 4.-Germinated Maeadamina inutts nfdie.a.i' -:.dAo1,
necessarily the e.ause of: efrO "10 ...;...
al ..... .. .. .. .' .1" .

semitropical countries where the.culttwe : thXi

extent being tried, the matter of resistance f t i

particularly of the root system to low soil tea 'p t

a subject for investigation of the use of more. r

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'Mm h ie-oge f h
anIhI~c eeo

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FiGURE 5.-Seedling Macadamia trees which have beem conied, to iet
layering method of rooffer, plants
and the knife was dried with a clean, piwceo" 6f add
the beginning of the. cut to the completion 61 tUhe nono
17g, Tit wasl smote o ff, andth cedgleg we Trem mn a br'i





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inabnine l

W' dcd f't

InaV iysi hchwsfil ihi
amWoSu teicd-ia.aeo h pno
totep fn ftetesi rhr or h
beI0kead ohrie utvtda srcm

10edrie~i del A
these. 1hbLac sn 11-'r in
siderable depth and have' a t
according t he amount
"epd. The a,& soils i
early fomilation, as ,they, -Y
flows, the nsuface -of w-hich,
elmentts. The6 rather opOR,
affords an unusually' favor
such soils -providedL they ar
excess, water in sinking mwa
and carrying an -optimuWm,,
ihe, Macadamis in -its a
in the rich alluvial s'oilS
distalets of the southern Pa
part of Niew South Wales,
lT -

In the Hawaitan Iad
te red .from the p'rervaiug:
but at times they MAY ik
-Temprr protectionfth
young trees regardleaio weh
Temporary protection *n*y bo
to three states on the iar
sions i` the Hawa"Han. Ulan&syag
2 to 5 years minage have blowji ovior., htas
uprooted, but a's the result'of their rek h I
mediately above the spread of the root sh
wood and ba rk break under the hard' twsin esa
continued for several hours in a strong wid; and Alhlq
heartwood may still remain unbroken, te tree evout
and dies. Death is certan to occur when the tre igFI
even when it is'propped in place immediiately -after he
because the growing tissue surrounding the base of '44'
been ruptured beyond recovery..
Large, permanent windbreaks when necessary shou
on the windward side of. the orchard. 'Such r 1pY,
as Eucalyptus (E. robusta), mangoes (Mangifetk0 '
wood (Ua ntinar equisetifola&) might be, use d ibA "'
These may be set alternately in three'rows 10 1eeta
same distance apart in the row. The row nearestt
wind should consist of Eucalyptus trees which mak
growth; the central row should belmade- up of twq R-
Eucalyptus and grafted mango trees arranged ata
row. The mango has a dense and resistant top' and
vanity as te aditinalval" ofprodcin

74 -4

t 4

4*"' Y.
t n Ilk
Irre Ity of

'T" v,6& Placl
not, edn'trdled i1ft the
food and greati
. 6 trops ;tre aw e
dulrilft the tt4usiti0ii
UUM'. A rem tho I Tr9pies do not
"i CFO d44ustreft "6f th Temperate
the latter to trawfer from
WC4 the young Matadainis trees
AM! oa tmds to fall essily from
uly Arums-PIMItm, 'CLSY fail
tvo*w can 'Ibo'xmved fivm the containers
*d trwisplanted without
'Pei &,trw may te set in the
may mpnthj, but, preferably it should be set in the
AwAftiv lure is lower and moisture
when Mat
"A" SeTarA ways Qf arranpW orchard trees in
IWPOIr of Oise are, the square, triawje hexag-
7, !Um' '*iuethods im, descriWd' in ppJar hor-
'I Me A* mom c in archard
for the dam,& The tram are
30 fftt, ac 'Wxy Oiitho squore. (Fig. 8.) This
'tot 'to acm The trees do best
either, Ouring the Utter A Of their
of the seeo d earl. holes for
fe4 aud z7ut dee Sur..,
*no ama and
40WO PO' awidied wifla welr='
shoutd.1be'plaftd Mi the bottom of the ho1w
Ulm' W" set* AA, 'Wh ure should be pressed in
*ebsU of eafth-on rooto w i Oxat the natural ground
howw tbsw, #w Im*ural iw4m
#0 f*WAA"M, ab*%* e" 40* to -hold water

'I -j
frm, Aako, coo per

f th
coccurringk i1siirng fh
and f it yewrs. A sen-'s
to br-e th tre A#
main branches and ao
the crown of the t AAk
should 'be placed over',
jured, at the point o
each to a strong stake 0
an angle toward thiiros
tree. One brace should",
and the others should b6e s4 .....
portion of a circle atout A
of this kind often malbUd ktain
until the- trunk has attainedP
resistant to unusualysrn

Thorough tlago la assential i n tha
tionl opens up the Coil, admitting more srtrs
tion and under raiage;l henc it makes sI*orql
for the o rchard trees. It U also suppreagas weod
utiizethe moisture and plant food nee~ded
amount of plant food. and moisture is rem edfo

Growing other marketable crops between theirfm
first few years is advisable in 1nost orehardU Ro
must not be planted so close to the tioes, as to,
development. Where the: conditions arm right, o
may be planted in the 30 foot sptce between LUC

If the payas are set at the customary distance of
11 feet~of space remaining on each side will
orchard for several years. Such other crop9 A$
potatoes, string beans, peppers, squash, peanut, An41
be grown between the young tree rows.- At elbys
feet, the roselle, poha,. chayote, and Passifoir4'
be grown.
Orhad oercrp soud egow ~rna
They preent urfce wshin an retin O

loth, t1io
*bidd *66ifti
t Prunethe trees
aft fw;A n rong winds.
ago, $hqWW-'4e, 4one
JrruinLM&, tuoreovers
es hgsvy p1r-UAM9
"'1, 14", gowth :rather,. thaa, fruit
bvuso for tb-roxpvaf of small
V*. V":1 qun4 whtvh
+w;; A
hw9ft" kqwd boosmqoOwd olf with a
I Ao
beet satistaetorily used but, a rather
elm ptag
wwntlft M*cadapia into a pprea *P
br'T W141W of Keal*eku&,.1
'by him a4d by Grant Bailey, manager of the
-1 't th early branches of the trees
to Town4arallv tothe fourth, fifth, or sixth
,axe' fiA, down to a horiziintal position
# tU bwi; and ewh end of wiro listed
stmt,kaaonw'd sUm "A to prevent Of, the
ffilo A;"g the
dswu&aspqA'm '! in, this
64;kbwg vth',snd to,,prodWa.UAers&
res may,
wi I)i *eMOVVd 4*
# V; 4 L

A 1
-1-1 A 't

Are Aso: 1 el
4b1 %thel ri ib
19a~cadeamia trees h yoa b ki'e
fourth yea it isge
tralia, that Ae first a
with some tardy ece
twelfth year,, or e
these long dely g
edition. Th'a hearng11
many other, cultivot,
and bearing sao
bearing age usuMIl6l 4
crp appeaignA
member. The nut$,
mature. Usualyt
and matures in t, e
Ilengt~he nea in the year- aI

Hrvesting the erop is*-t!
fruit the outer covering 8pit
ground. At this time, they aro'
diate use, but they canbeet a ro
The gathered nuts should esrd
the sun., and, the, rain and given -proift i
insects and rats. Marketing shoruld *eo*--
weeks after gathering and shuld be e &
months. . Macadamia nuts, like most other tfopimllia
best flavor for a very, long Period un'lets the i
and, packed in: air-tigrht containers,

Few definite- records as to yields I, the MRcdudd
available. However, results of in-Vestigatiet nU* g
Hawaii, indicate that yields vary. greatyadhdte'
are due to both. seedling -variation and-envir~o)rets:
other nut and fruit crops,, theMab adamia mu4t tko06*itqi
to, make large yields.. Rumsey (16, p- 1 51&Erff
orchard at -Rous Mill, AustralTi a M'"nwich tha trees e
varying from 1 to. 3 tons, but fa-1ls to give theodaOtt
during or the area occupied -by the crap. 10is
40 years o~ld in 1927 and was the only eomnriih
ofAsrlautlrte eety h rew

t, IEIA I t 'tl



CURO to A#t4xack-
rail Czztq of

to av, W*W 4most any
;A Rat, sent to St. Louis
0AIR4 the 19 said to
The, Ulds passed through the
totaU uOroken from the shells. It
ire grading tor this ma'chine. It

4V"W"I I

an mOveA4&%tion, of the Maesda-
visited a large portion of the
b4h in the forest fund in cultivation.
vtr"on in boththe character of the trees
He Ow' Mewo(I the growers, some of whom were
v* owl We4v h fd of devel a market-
W At, nut
'4 6 tsb1A, tm md d offer ad
scale. The
Wood blut
jot b

FGous 9.- Seedling Maeadamia unts showia i ia
'. .... : . . .

In composition the Macadsmnia rut is simima to mbli
nuts. Table 1 affords comparison of the composition of Util
tion of the Macadamia nut with thith ttf e some other nuts

TAaBL 1.--Comprston of omPmpositaio of Munr4sea.4e st. ae4 "p
rpa~o ~w~fU-oh


Macadamia nut---......--...........- -
Do ................'..... -..... .....
Coconut I-------
Cashew nutd .............................
Almond '--.----..- -------------
California English walnut ........-----
P ecan -' -- -...-.- ..--- .- __ ...- --_ ._ ...- -
Olive (ripe) .......-.....-.....-.-......-I
Avocado (Fuerte) -,--------------...--.

S(18, p. 68.)


Per cent


14. 43


2 (17, p. 15-17.)

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464 flavor of the nuts.

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"01w 41 po f 7*1 P& L"S"40 p"'LOOSW2 P* TW40
0 'r. V U70 W20 1. S, 942 4.
V 7x to 1& 30 L 93 2.27 191
t-909t aso 1& 75 1. mg 125 &Q2
V. 10 9.46 L L L 32
is 7.9 77. M A 20 L 37 L ft L at
4.A w Los L as


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the~seastileds AIF

thesamles were,
supeior flavor.;
&pe NOM ,atog
srble as an edibe p
othr amples.#C

Onaccount- of hegr
Haai, ana eorhs
nent ata on the sub ject ibi
gatos that have been 3
TeMacadamia, nut (Ate
ladand Xew South' aide
Haaii about 1892. ihen*f
tesbegan to beax, in 190k
arued -in the possibility
description is given
oferd for the propagation of,0,1P*
_rwn from seed, methods 6t
"erby strains of supeOrIOr i
ailyerings, and graiftling' Wfe Ia
cutigs and side-tongu rating 0
tiale, methods of vegeatve propa;gtioA,
The Macadamia is strictly a tro6pie'al 0,O it
frmsea level to an altitude of about !,200 foet. i
sieed t6 be a drought-resistant tree in,, Asrul it''e
iHawaii- where there is a rainfall of 30 'ineh 04bit d
iriation is practiced during the drier Oait' vf teyM
dosnot appear to be limited to certain types' of soil, at
naual habitat the Macadamia 'is found in rather rc
alongcreeks and rivers.. Strong -Winds, injure, U i i
qurs protection, especially while youpg. WMi
ideed necessary in estahhn rhrho

Directions are given for the planting of rhr
epuig nd train"In of the trees.
Macadamia nuts runk. wifh almonds,pecans, iAnd,
poiion, although.-there. was found to be considerebI
pecntage of protein, fat, and total, carbohydufwies ,
frmindividual trees and from, different localities
Maadamia-nut oil is said to :compare favorgg ai
gae of edible olive Oil and to have some wehnnEv

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