Edible canna in the Waimea district of Hawaii

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Material Information

Title:
Edible canna in the Waimea district of Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
41, 1 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Ripperton, J. C ( John Carson ), 1891-1960
Goff, R. A ( Roy Allen ), 1890-1948
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Canna -- Hawaii -- Hawaii Island   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 41).
Statement of Responsibility:
by J.C. Ripperton and R.A. Goff.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612103
oclc - 16324472
Classification:
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 51-63
System ID:
AA00014565:00001


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4, 19

n k 4-


h4d, tawo
mY than to
starch was manu-
............ ik" 4
A W V* in19209 but the in-
4M&VIA 4W beca of the high mat of
Ifia 4omts amAthe 916w rate of
able to replant out-

Wag"
txpo=mt *M the
,.Mpou m 1923 ftoo then
A- on In ooope-
tow=. The homeiteadm
44C devolo
AL-
RX1,51111*wy J A 5 WA*Wto t6ir fint'
in October, 19252 manu-








































Fie. 1.-General view of the Waimea district. Foreground, a section of the '.i..|:"
Mauna Kea
to agriculture at present, lies close to the foothils of
Range, and is overlain to some extent by the wash from theio
The growth of the dense forest which covered the: plains.,
years ago is said to have been destroyed by fires and ca
light, fluffy surface soil to have been carried by the oat3 .
ring strong winds from the plains to the lee of the KohtlsMo
in the Kawaihae district. This fact probably a~tc o,:nts f
growth made in the central part of the plains by ra-gegrW~s .
grow luxuriantly at the base of the mountains. ...-1
CLIMATE,
The climate of the Waimea district is influenced .by .ts I
between two comparatively high mountains. Theeight f
Kea'(13,825 feet) deflects the normal northeast tra i.4.* t
the lower Hamakua district toward the Waimea piass:,'
.. '. .. .. .... :"


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slp' fprmkllal h

th aillrean
llii aoa ho ete dst
10 9,te lvitonicrae
derisst 3mce.A
mie eto ama
V 0 nnalranflth Wima' dstc
ba u swl aee sar h oe lvl

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ILI)i
00LtTL n4 i
lot o, 4 bf he fnt orlog14h
!e thnattePS]
Whl th r
fro 'mnht oth h ho_

unifrm istrbuton hrol.&I41I
the erio 189-198, o4;,=6d|
and~rch.In'tegafou
theyear- Duingtere
Stiois .19 o 366 Wch '_'p-oi
Ma, h~eharechavcterstI
but omewat lss ponou aa!
monhl ranfll or he erodj .
fromthe'noralbut o Mter'MOM"!'
lowr lvel. Mrever sunor, AU|



















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vvneat was next tried ut, like corn, comua not .De. p~
to mature. Alfalfa made slow growth and required L bs:
cultivation to keep down weeds. FinaJly the h
grains and concentrated feeds prohibited 'Ohe pirofi r
and poultry. Although some Japanese truck anetr:. ~
ing cabbage and potatoes for market, and"n p :nisC I
a feed, and small gardens are maintained to supply i:i
i 'L. *.:: ....::: .. "E:: .
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The

40

41 on eA ufcietl logt


I ar
[]*Wo ast ae!osb
Of th eitog
4mstftvsleronts o
t isos ae hwnn
p w.utnou pan-
i ip t e t te u it00

















































rG., .-A two-month wood growth In a fld 0 :4 aa
,~~~~~~~~~~~i .. :*; *.. T "*"' "'


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t
plat where weeds were letpgrow for the ost serp m~
this portion was subsequently weeed and Iyean!
accorded the rest of the plat, it yilded 20 tonIe
months than was obtained from tlheq ltiv d
drawn cultivators equipped with fiver shovels .
used types, although the seven-tooth type is. bi
the latter equipment shallower ciltivatii 'i
matted grasses are more really looseed, and' t
of the canna plant is less y to be dstud. .
The expensive process of hand weedi :i
with in favor of sodium-arsenate spray, .
effectively in the Hamakua and ni i 'iL
effectiveness of the spray might bie 1qsse soin.
mists and strong winds. The spray as uised
Hilo districts is made as follows. (1O,p. pi4) ^. 11
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low
we uca tidie

































ton '... :.l.or,.



tion, and like the bana... W
more permanent windbreaks at the e&
best windbreak for the Waime di

















IG. 5.-A castor-bean windbteak. Notae tWha lo, bf. s wth i iw..
*9 ai d ... .: ..:': :.:; .. .











Monterey cypress planted close to the fence ton t win
the field, to the lee of which are two or three row of
cypress should be planted 10 feet apart and ~ EC
apart. If further protection is necessary the wind
middle of the field should consist of castor-bean trees oVb.p':a.
h '''ia a 1*












b e ..: ::..:
.. ... '. .:...... .
FIG. S.- o torbe.."" wl:db ....".. : t...... .iij''




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"43'umyeynLTecp i deety
Agvistd oweMach2
Viis ee ae
Wmtte o enr
VAA I!,,4K W tuyth pore v
Oulltin(0) a fthezisure rowh o
a bref utlno o mehod
01)o teW
int~ p eet u e#
T7!
"M" heeni |0
WO '1 roe*i













se lafying, the"rbtt
div ind uU (a) resaocksw
roo~toks Wt
frommbaturity 411 nwt
grdal, ;it is deeriedV
The ormant group
deawd the stem, hayper
Inthe' Matur 0r the"
th px, bit theloer14 h
n:gto shrivel at th-tede
ofnw leaves -,a't -he ap i
bu o bloom,, stage is 041ice
i leveg are still gr,
ks of ihe

on lefs* beguighy
Tholdest member %7
to dejop' stalks, where j
In the bud Aa
spks.' They W6, fres6,"
litesign of shrivelling a'
tepidiermis of thereitki
Sme'spike rootstocksis "M 1
inevry hill. Usually ehwrtebet
adthe "spike is placed is h6 Ort
orte next older, group than4 theofprg
sie" which is a~ttachled to 'a matreet
spig is. classed as a part of the parent'irootsto
Te. divisiofi between the youngest niembers, of
gru (3b, stage):, and developing buds, i's 'ncM44ri
reaive. This division can, *ot "be based on sizolIe
th ield and the stage of mIaturitk. Usually, h6,
ta'y is small when the genoril rule 'I's followed, "to Go
al hose which have not become "'sideaible" n
ronding in" at the attachment with the paorein
APPIUCATION OP METMODS I
Application, of the above-outlned methods t
vrosh ages and gonunder widely dil eren m t
ha demonstrated that they have certain, definitely
algiation, while comparatively simple iu the ,is
ofgowth, is -rendered practically impossible wit a'
monts old, by the death of the original stalk nth
oeline of rootstocks over =Witer, and ita, as
reticted to'determinmig the early tendecies of
hills
'44

























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4
weight miqkber



7
0

0 2
17

----------
A
-----------
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p
3ma LOO 18] 2


to stool rapid1y and
hill No. 1 had
Only 5 As a
140. 1 had stunted rootstockss
larr rootstocks 'which wen
desirable for starch

*uiabw of m0kes in hM No. I a
41TIO-1 2sk gip&a-r uumbw of day4oped a
t sh6w thatthe mpose of thi spika is
merilstem of, mmy of
the -8 -0 of their Wure to de-
SM74"U, ANY W 6,6, rMat pf their,
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FIG. 7.7-Sabsurface types of canna seed: -:.a.ii.I
buds; B, first generation with o~ ly a ~is bsd
:" ...." :, i .
for nearly a year and others wNeh ~re i ',
types varying in weight from a.f4 w. i;w okwm l0


PFI. 8.-Immature surface types of canna seed: A Wellndev ope a.sttplh.,d .:
attached spikes; C, buds;D, no visibWi baat

Although the transition from one type 'of roetoI k W
gradual, the entire hill can be divided into' a n'.i
of which has distinct characteristics.


.... : ..
A,, .

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At,4









I i~h l
10 mrol erto pxo h ot
an so, utocainalyathrdaper
AvdP O om oosocsoftis
rw dth oosoc taean asbe
Ol Y-U09stmmeno~ qo udha I~
10.)Thi iU o ths grup ae im an

Wn yidvoe'0g
Th u sfrhrsb
qpiwo~k otttn hlms ~ru n
i M;=4(2 s& rottokscnsittig h
Il~ndB)Th h pa



























































































FIL. 11.-Becondary types of anna ased: AS-a" iywtht


Mature rootatocks with drmadnt vd .- IwPuay ,a
this type have developed into rootstocks, ad it.E
buds exist in a dormant condition for many mxnai ..l&S
: ... .....
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W
VOW
it's
V., t Alm

M.

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.r a


------- ------ -- ---------- ---- ------


17. 0,,
23.0 16.

.50,
2&0 0
0
mo

MO 74.
Jump "41) 0 a 8
1& 0



9"effe6t Of two types of
vam in4in AM* not,,6
Alfter "fing.01 that than

th. J. 110,diffeiam in the results
ao prm6umeed mvhtesWy be

to Jew was vne of skm
itqwa*&Aj Ion* I &"rap Wwght.,
reA8*SI. of I
avaber of rootstocks t
*Jm # a 4kLO *
IV %Fj, VUANAAWO montim period
one of MmPmtivdY mUow gmwth.












































the buds than on the type of seed. Buds on the t
rootstock usually are in good condition at the timet rJ.. ..|
rootstock of this type being at least two bqdati ai.
to a seed with one bud, because the buds at best s
and easily damaged, and the pettae eof geminationn t4 7
low when only one bud is used. The buds of the imi wat u i
not project from the parent seed sufficiently to be eaiy,
and, due to their freshness, they are seldom wonrm-eati
mant buds on older rootstocks have bee more .x
worm and other injury and are not theefore as rti
as are those of the types previously diseased.:
Have many possibilities of germination. Thq
grow; frequently the two "top:" buds, one o. eah
develop. In addition, a bud on the parent Q4 ia" y
development. Usually this type of seed. is
germination to the two primary buds.. The de H&4
has no visible buds and germination proceeds frm
.;;.. : ....i .
.. .. .... '*. : '; "". r '... .. ... ..::. .:
hP Ps ''
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.. : .. ... .
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4WL
!'-- _z'P A
1114 M W O
16e eY cnd o
A-al
UM1 an


4 i
4* n"qto ftiuO
gmo ei o* f nohmms edtr
eenm -04m rimas a-i ouin
66 [a"--hnohesQoghrpae
P M |o'
M ik o ocransesn fteya
'o afte
an *_irlre m
WihbA a e on dr9 i
Tw ots ae
*f w V6 moaiks ihsacl


e o u rsn
Upnoepriua'tp fse
i|d$efm*'~ t h lmnto
e M etce
a Aiugry id h eiifto
lo yfmba hms ft o
to4* l eial ye eann
tm ih n'rtw us-imh



































































































































































have begun and to have partly destityed the


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no OftNA
the,
t6 4 1[0

uPper rtions of the, 9:2.
*y ddaTed




















.. .. .. ........ .. ...
the d Wm dw, cut in haK and
The seed
-,&d developed a nm of stem; -B,
Woughout t* puftat med, but had not entered the developiug
tue Progren of rot npward from the base of the rootstock-

owl t
'W th ',iuse a stufit6d hill: regiiI ffim'g'
f*" of, moisture.,or
jo-d 4 ght
to the surface of the und
"'W"S gro
is susceptible to rot. Fully 90 per cent
yt"Oted and untre0ted lots of seed rotted to
was ke't, ek6easively molsi t in tho
Its
"ve;mOn conducted at the station would seem to
sow foir anting should b Weeted'from freshly dug
ITtrotoxad b6i Aseed M" rlbvft or four days
ofi"94i of Ak, vffi heal t eutztrfidm., : The seid
tu, .0 Sdecti6h an&ba sho
U uld
telider buds aro v6ry likely to be braise&


























































FIG. 13.-Base of a canhi 22 months old. Ote h tedn il
T, -,t.
S "... !';"ii .: : ; :.::"..." ; ; ..: : :^
t intervals of 4 by 4 feet, and the resulting top Ws
) months. Table 9 gives the result of the eiper t ent,

TABLE 9.-Efect of depth of planting on getrinatin and


Manner of planting


20 Hilled in gradually in 12-inch frrows_............-.
21 Planted in 12-inch furrows (not hblled in) .....
22 Planted in an upraised bed......-.................__...
25 Level culture; seed 8 inches deep.;" -.. ----..L--. ----S
24 Level culture; seed 1 inch deep --------.......,...... .


ti*ono! : : '. ; 1$;"* 3

falNog to I
...: : ,. ....
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.. :. ,
. : .
'1.2.


. *:: ti "~7"'(*i "S~ '"

aes

p.. .*
-*'i
T-:,.:i^

itt lt1


;.. :? n:
: S h :"


1::,!

*;i;i


Little difference in yield or average weigt' t
served in the plats, except in the upraised bie wa
inferior in both respects. Plat No. 20, in whichihe


" ../ m. : -": :
-1k
cm:.


at
2(


Plat
No.


.. r-It: ""









to saetermdmi y h
7-;sm
oftemott
-*r8Bt ltNo 3wsO7~
topaN.2.IteIte I
th 'ra o h olan r)o
m* otbliyt ottwws h a
in"eW1.gca ottk,
fonh am&dsrc.Ntol
lkiti ntek msol ftedsret
P"#e hs-rvsaseiu jd
-0 te v.I fma hrfrta
(6!O4h ed tlat4ichs eo h
ROMfrtl. ama b c.

16it w rm e m icsM
th!eest




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!k fNt ~I=
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many vigorous stalks and a profi i h of .bxmmls: iLStPA
develop. For these reasons fertilizer was thought t.o be
cacious if applied to the crop a few months after ti
at the time of planting. It was thiaght .,also th a
applications would produce better results than one. lar
At the central station in- onolhul rtiier tN
able amounts of nitrogen greatly incr. ea top i ht
really increase yield.; In the Waimjoa c T ct
at distances of 4 by 4 feet on 6,1-aorep 0"
a total of 100 pounds .of fertilizer. i a.
(N) 5 per cent (as ammonium sulplvite),. p .
cent (as superphosphate), and potash, (K I..
sium sulphate). The field was :ha.ve.t..
gives the result of the experiment .. .
*m -"j*: .... : -:- v-

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S.. ..
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-M
'AM M ,A!
U,-7"=

--- -- --- -- 4M


-3. 1-

-D ,w iso11
JLn ery, hra h
g6"daa E rgenay
thta h ihadams !9 ol f
"44ue04*1itoni o e''sr.
1-ulein so
ofth- ,a
t u 12
hee vln f'- 0pud
811 TheIav rwn ftit
Offr ntepoe ad
nimdaerso/s ofriie
*.t A M O SM
AL+
___rvs tecan ro s ue-isue
afenagoS nimWd huhU~g.
M #+ -!e he h rp smtr
by otwahe n ims
iretda 0Poth fae rwo
//*^ hi a~rt y h raglrsi h
Aoo/ap rl/ol r o e e ,i
ov Arngtewitr
ma e hl r
" 6d"h hsosraiosd ,o em 1,
40 A bn10& Seteuiom
monhl mcrmns-f-rwh vo1,ce ,
































Month of harvestiBg
."


II.
i;..
; ;: i ;
I
:~:~-I


-,";
V~:E

Pr I


----- i I -.------ I Pwt-~


1935:
ApriL.--.. .-
Oiay...............
Junly----------
September....-
Ootobeb..._4._
November -.
Peeember-,.. -
1926:
January,.-------
February_------


1.7

'' 11.4
15. $
S9'

9.,9
9.8


L.. ..
Ot


as

4 -47..93
t^


r 4.;iMr aJ
M.T

,it W .



4M
a-.t- &
'44%


M. "in.
A .4
.t Io


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.. .......
i'


'Tare was a0sertained monthly by de tmini the pporion of g, a
.excess stems on about 200 poundis.ef ro "o'td"O.: alT"sFe ai i T*
I The very high tare values, togeth q withatual e~ fltan~
the accuracy of the tare vales. There re 1 per int the aauw t,. the.
-ber, was used to compute the tare weghts. ; ...!" .
SIncrement based on June harvest sine the yields in July we~reless taI i..

Table 12 shows a nearly continuous tbtI i ~....
-canna from 9 to 19 months, incli sir& Ive. T. ~~.t h
both in number and in weight. From April to JLt a daS :
-rate of growth constantly decreased. Begi.nigu^ il.
-growth was resumed, reaching its max8i un in No agn!k
.again decreased.
For the first 12 months of growth (until AugutL 19~25) the
planting was decidedly superior to the onaii ~id
July harvest of the former yielded 24A. toaso per aii
that of the latter yielded only .a16,37: tons. Bi i
thirteenth month the one-seed planting grew more p
two-seed planting and at 19 months it acked ont~y a t ot
the latter. These results are somewhat differlent"foti *
'Table 10, where the two-seed plantings are shown~8 top
-the one-seed plantings by 6.1 and 5.6 tons, res tpe ivel.i
monthly increments of the one-seed plantngin the :lastsetw, M
.of growth may have been due partly to.diffrencai Mfi t iti t
.of soil.
Sixteen hills were selected at regular interval,- Mei
plats and classified according to the method outliiled
-cation," page 12, Table 13 gives the results. "
S." .. .

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o : .,.
.. ...::? ~ ~ ER. : ::i '"i i'.


Age of
crop in
Iaonths.


q q






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Two*Wd pa


*U"w of Wathtor
roototocks rootvkNokx


At Pau"a PVUU*
-- ------- ------------ ------------ -- ------------
AW 44 0.00 aq
M4
.56
27.8 T

(MAY)


------------ -- --------- ------------
1v .00 M 9,:
it 4 A4 X 5 MA .65




V. 5,
33 M 20
#7 12,8'
OD As is .63
# #
Al'i Ma .63 WS M 9 .65


V*OT-Wft MONTH QVLY)

4 0.1 0 25. .0.9 (L4 0.44
2 7.3 .72 110, .69
9 5.7 A6
.53
6 13.1 .59


TkIMTH MONT11 (AUGUST)

24 1.5 0,60 &2 1.4 0.44
A&O Ws 9. .67
&4 .49 17. 7 &8 so:
17, M 7 19.5 .56

77 '7,
j0"'VJlXMTU MONTH'(SICIPT19MBIER)


4L 0 115 7.3 & 59
its IL2 .07. 44, 6 ill .83
9.9 do, '19.5 .4t
U 7 25.1, .74 4& 8


*rj7TMMI*u MONT11, (OCTODFR)

4.6 4L 2 tfs
--- --- WS Ae As 0 A 7 71k
17
------------ .60 its
'.n
























'____ .... .. .... .. .. .... .. ..... .. ... ) J ,
1*... ... :: .::: ".... ... .. ..: ." .i i
......... ........... ... m i:,. .t4 .I
.a...... .............. ........ .. : ... .. .. : .



............. .. ....... .... .. .. ...

.------------------------------ .--------- '
-------- .4 97-


".. ..NKE... NTX .... M. (X .." .



Groups .s and .are placed to gthr s.li i t .h disa bt a )msmm.. ii p.I~ ;jla.

nmber of. time s. Th.i doe not a....tthe .:t..ota
SEach "hill" is the averau of 1 alafi d .hil ...
-------------.------,------*---- ----B----:'~^~~'----a--*' ^''"'''fiJJB











A consideration of Table 13 showS t~hamt tbQm first :II
Group 1, dormant stage, first appear in the eleventh m.
After that time the number increases rapidly. (Figs. 4Iii
Group 1 shows a very close correlation min both the On
seed plantings with the bill as a whole, and th0inreabssli'a th 4
harvests beginning with August. mm'":
Group 2 shows little correlation either with Sothe mt
stocks or weight of the hill as a while. In the two-
number gradually increases from 10.9 at 9 months t m m':1:
months, whereas, in the one-seed planting it mrea :s m
months to 13.2 in the thirteenth month,-~ ll then -,
one exception to a fairly constant level of between 98 a .:sg
In Group 3 the number remains roughly constant hi tb. .
planting until the seventeenth month, ran froin 18 6i: to l:i
a sharp increase to 25 at 18 months. h the orie-seed Aa
number decreases from 13.1 in the tensth mn th~ t 9.9 in th I
month and increases steadily to 21.3 in tile nin4t-eenth tij
S. .; : .. .i ...ii l:



.... i".."' :l 3l
*k r" .is l ::a

















T s o
i#16


'A

to 0. hem
Iat

qJ r
We-bao 1ba 1 mIp tpu
um 0 AL
'ga 0W1 u
|"p1






































.. ...





0I
//4 /4 "'~ ~ "' 7
0- ... .r... '.' ..r ...' ... :"


F. 15.-Tenth-a haest and clacatl o .
.. .......' -









cycle of growth.. .
Climatic factors undoubtedly have their eff ..t ..gr.iii













for young fields planted six to eight months or *,o- .
loyalty. Among lthe cl ratic fa .ctors, d structi",e winds


maturing period. Th.e. sudden., newgrawt. c IM.

eycle of grow th : ............... .: :





bearing on the crop. During December, 1925, for example, isei

S. .. .. ...-
... .. .. .
: *. ; ; ..:. ". : ,! ..,.: ; : i .: .. *,.: "













"" .. !
':i. ..









IWWTIF4T APPw I pO

















a-la M O"nA 1 wf M oeO istiasa.odmt o
an U 8-Mwyd@ofyuniiiU a
ofwote te R
ucjm endekey i inhrent riclmaticiori
of both.J at on &Mar rtheriol
Ju~stof is da~ hS nly ls~esgreeniith
44













































," .. : .." ... ....
FIGo. 17.-Cyclic growth of .ans pl; :int,
sprung up as the result of a uaidstrm .
nearly al undersis e;.:.... .
to show a tendency tow
increased. This we. exemplified A .
The resi Group show litt
lar and the cyjii attr the new'
a definite diii~l io:wsot es
and 35 during the progress of the experiment
comprising all the stage o oth from that
up to the maturW e stage wot, bty
Moreover, after a long doormatt pIIod a
and thus remain in Group muh
did the stalk develop n "mi
gether- maintain -a relatively cci *
of rootstocks in the hill, the inmsaser in th. total na. i:
being largely accounted for in Group t1.
* since the completion of this investigation the- l B ... et
further subdivided into Group 3c which indcdes those :..tmto ufl W
stage. In addition the number of spikBes and. stalks e oted a
visions will furnish data concerning the top growth and mo the mueIPIcDi
in the hill. .
r .... ...i..
r. "': :"


.... ,


J-f







av V.,


'lei

a V CWW"I 1WVUFU* IF CUMMU IMMUs
AhAt Of a*
'groups-
tkkipropdr

too 19 Mon" *Ad # #
71 1Z.".11
T rot, at *hick
Fmm tbi standpoint of
uutil ''the daUmt rooi-
tskts Wsa6 betwom IS and
th7e firO 6 or 7 mmths and the
after, this po&d is, for rental
# T
#1
becomes, increase'
stAge. Even, though,
tk r, Ot the bewmo watery
40lux =M"es dry and
14ve beeti broken h
VWP which mixes
'ffiarch granules ap-
the discolored
kh the refining of the

niuch, of the youn"r
tikis not pereeptible from a
vWrous topgrowth and
considerably to the weight
Aarch manufacture. 14ot
t to washing. but they.

content of a canna rootstock
per cent, Group 3 containing the
a CoMparati-vely large part of it-A
less istarch per ton of rootaUvks
allowed to reach the Groyp 2
is hard to deterinine because of the
now growth at all times. However, the
3 Vx tho total weight of the hill decreases
Wr Cwt at 9 mon to about 25 per cemt- at
00jiduded, therefore, that the longer the hill
Le er will be the proportionate yield of

age at which to harvest the crop can be
smular to the one undartaken will have to
to'take kto somu'nt different seasons, times
.6U' ne avi&bja data aftift to show that the
0&1 *vd, t6 g" Untwa taw- thbacotaes'of,,
or unifl thi d6imant Gyquis Igivu of deW-
10 ant would be between 17
flis exp"M


Tj

ir LU IPIAT
5


































































Fla. 18.-Jnneturo of stem and rootstole of oa-aM. a a41ima
apex of the rootstool the saem beaig ib~.t..tar.tl .:: .
vas lar bundles ia

manufacture. Table 12 (p. 26) shows tat th.e tae
ably from month to month. During the ear
the percentages ranged from 11 to 15.5, whereas at
from 8 to 9.9. The variations are du partly to te.
.. y .., .. :.'. .:..


.. '.



..
... ... ... ....i ...
E ."E: :" E'ii
ff14.








"insue that She lops we revered with thl
Mos c oed to the rootadokwi, l4l -la".i
,scales, and soil *dhr9n to this cWan
or eentweather Wonditions.
eq& off the top at, the exact, agex of the
sat to estimate, the tare. Ii the sub-'
4" rootstock and stalk can be dato.-
nof a longitudinally out sectifety Of
latr arvests great care wa~stae
aS ringY soil and to cut th'o tops, as
ideksso that the tare values would be
VI **ai ca ot be'asue to be constant
alaces txwso easily affected by the factors mentonea
44444 16 be estimated Mi actual operation,
ON'r4" purchased by the ton from growers.
abaefeasible for the purpose. One is
4o" tudy. -If accurate 'results -Are expected
be exercised in the selection of representative
muest be madia-.on lots of good size. In
pe ton is -based on- the percentage. of
6,d epadpu bonus. for each
~IbiM. The ectual percentage
be determined by attaching a con-
.The second method seems prefer-
s' i -oaccount thetead also difer-
of starch in the rootstock. :However,
.used until milling operations are com-
uin he til









Sirst method can be g il

vww~o VALUE O0CAN TOPSAND PULP
nlle fertilizer elements in the different parts
ablan" gnt nd'the value of them. parts as feed and as, Tren
1 m6 -nwere dug from an 18-month-old fiel, at
SThebvwwere classified and the separate groups weighed.
gisatey 60 peri'd sl of rootstocks we're shredded and the starch
alib rpatedly washing the pulp in a cloth bag. Samples
p lP; the6 rootstocks, .and- the three groups of tops ere &hen'
sadanayzed, for their nutritive:an fertilizer .constituents,
4 10namd -an even distribution of shriveled tops and ops,
B oeucculent. Group 2 also contained Ln
RetrbutOn f the, older and younger members. Group .3a
medium to old and contained pra!ti0ly none of the
etlso h-ru.Tbe1. cmae h c mpoito

part oftecna ln n:oteIabhdaefes

















































During the process of manufacture water is ue ....
remove the starch from the shredded rootstock. Ti I
done on screens of 60 to 80 meshes to the inch, so' th:.,"ill
the starch, certain quantities of cellular tissue., coll iMlA
and water-soluble constituents pass through the scora L
sequently separated from the pure starch by fuming ad


Ilk






'Ii 'l 9


Li
Of/
1 0 NO l
'Avg-
"plo d~ta

'77 7
Am
41Ca a
*t7_ d
4.02 2
.1" li
w M1

2LI
WO, o































































Tmen carriea to tne m ior siarcn-maKmIg. E wm Aig
machine consists of a horizontal, cylindrical iron dua i
with iron slats for sides. The slats ae 2 inches wide anuase
by intervals of an inch. The drum has attached ter i
worm running the entire length. Wooden~ 0lt ru tg ,
...:: ::: :, ....

S".. ....




a, 4,
ELM *WW |ua
ThrIU efd it'*tedu
wae;tonstear okd!ymm
'viap_ th |'dP*T~eod-Jki
rottwm wftt h
rui h opro h Ttt
MU whc a en6vnawoe

A&Ied 01f AimSi





4"9 imtr ofzn h
80 ie ii Wtri oiul
tofcltt he m o e h
uf hea
rapri hn e no -v
is cvere wih brss
Th yidri et.og. n eti

















































































































but nearly continuous growth and unusually high $i 3i




.:. .

Ls ;;ir&U











mak r., or ntl older rootstookm
Forseach anufacture the mrop should

Ta wth of 8h lat showed it to be of a
orm.Perodsof comparative dorbmaoy
-of, ra-pid growh Probably this is partly
V, Vd duie Wo' climate.
Parts of the q --a plant show that the
fwed, and as fertilizer. The stalks from an
--hoe talent of over a ton of high-grade
removes from'the soil the equiva-
.IDur the process of manufacture.
of the total fertilizer elements con-
The pulp lis thought to have excellent
feed.
of edible-canna starch is described.
*,,TMRAMPJE CITED
Ai, a R0*1row J. C.,
dAx* ita I xwAm. Hawaii Agr, Urpt. Sta. Bul. 54, 16
Wilk



MMW244 .U. B.Mo. Weather Rev. 53: 10--14, Mus.
'VX00"AIM '2V0*re Ed.,11, rev. and rewritten,613 p. Madi-

40ttQA~g AMDDIGASTIBILITY OV YZEDING STUPP8 GROWN
-ar math. ewafi Agr. Expt. Sta. Press Bul. 53, 26 p.
toMagntesW. [T.], wnd Twonrsox, A. R.
"MTH HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 11sWail A. Expt.
40, 36 p.
945.O gae AP l" ZEBB ON THE PH3YSICAL PROPBETIES OF
sawha~gsons. Hawafi Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 38, 31 p., ilus.
St'SMO asvOxF 31AWAIIAN SOIL pAnTicLEs. Hawaii Agr.
Sts. Bul. 42, 12 p.
V"E U4WAXIAN THEN FERN AS A COMMERCIAL SOURCE OF
wAnnx. Hawaii Agr. REpt. Sta. Bul. 53, 16 p., Mlus.
MT, OUROTDR&TZ METABOLISM AND ITS RELATION TO GROWTH IN
T"s 3mbss cAxxA. Hawa&i AVr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 56, 35 p.9
- I

8 e








-muwasour or THE comurrrmE ON CULIMVATION AND WERD CON-
oT.a. Hawaii. Planters Ree. 28: 48-55.
BTAiixi DarA NTns or AGRIC~UTUR, Waiurna BUM'Av.
'0-WO26. CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA. NAWAI szeCToN. v. 15-22.
i- 141Honolulu.
evnia. oUMAR =a T cLIMATOLOGIAL DATA "it Txx uNITsD
MAM ysciI.xw~ xT .Dp g~
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