Carbohydrate metabolism and its relation to growth in the edible canna


Material Information

Carbohydrate metabolism and its relation to growth in the edible canna
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
35 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Ripperton, J. C ( John Carson ), 1891-1960
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Canna -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 34-35).
Statement of Responsibility:
by J.C. Ripperton.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612129
oclc - 16324464
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 51-63
System ID:

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Full Text


m V4


-7L .r" ,P g
-- -- 3
/ /w------------ 3
0 0 0 ............. as a El
"n,/ /b t a h
j*athha ao meiedt

The po and t otte
te tfacot that
ture top is
Sproes aeresxto1fi
rootstocks.P .
The afirste genan~e
stock s are lwag

w below the rSUeislt atfdriS
ound, stoarire g wa

Attachment to tm
cylind increase in t;i

b the ape. The -

ordinary cultural i
grow ator near the
*attachment to .(;, 93
o the. gro n, tainDA

the apex. They are o

FIG. 1.--A hill of canna, 6 moutba old, at its maxmum ical and largely developsa'
owin stage.The stems o the first thre generations the surath generati of e

boomed and are functioning their maximum ed3.)Subsequent gw
ordproducing sugars finorary cultural the age of starch and for the
reproduction of new growth. Note the large, vigorous aowns at .or near th
o th onew roottondsst "
The characteristic shapes (largg. 9) me attachmn t olar t
number of anlargtecedent stems upon wich the devely de o
growing stage.. Thestems o the first three generations none. The seond gn tes
whn producing sugarsely follows the stge of st, receives little plant food fr
production of new growth. Note the large, vigorous afti o un s r m Of m"
melNNarge atotm

The characteristic shapes (fig. 9) may. be attributed large o.
numbier of antecedmnth stemispon whmch the developingrooti
has to draw. The first generation has none. The secofId'g.ers
which closely follows the first, receives little plant food from thehe



of, the vootito&
n P"WftsiOlt on OUndrieal t They



UMV the


not i'develtpt
"me of, tham
when, ttw
-is used f or,,

6f the de.,
ud seem to
Od UpcM the *e of
*lk'pWWt reotaWck kl
it Stwu to grow
the, parmt is
_MCSW rapidlY'de-
M the region
'bu mAtachment.

mid theam FVM 2.,-14motadbW wwon d on
A fig thO *4 node of the rootstook.
14*0 myWack ulti- Stua; B is UN ap" rael rbotda*.
'Tba Ma"M c(,RW
It frOM the rooWwk vS9BalWbUAdWftttW8WM
rud-,tdkyeve, opl"nt is retwded tmtfl the parent isold (fig. 8);,
the adible c=na requirm nni &
orm growivgconditions to make

tO send out much new growth under adverm
nOw 'StOms Profusion with the retwn of

r .~ a t,! l~ ': .............:......
etop of te ..gro d .a

making.. .. .

These stages of growth are not so apparent at Waiteh % ill
where the planet seems to be perfectly adapted to both si'

climatic conditions. One or more "lines" in the bill may. cogr
to produce large primary growth for an indefinite number of dw4
tions notwithstanding the gradual decrease thend average wei

mthen i ::.

]le% ,M. n i omy

... e .. .... .... .....
tenew prootstocksinher la~ters~tages oe gonw size. th
Systems .o .. i

.. ... :, .
PGe. .-A close- pview of the base of a hil 4 months old. As is AW
characteristic ofpthe c plant, the newest growth is motly on the. primary

gins, producing, smaller -ootstocks. The new growth-
continues to produce. stems of diminishing vigor a

the new rootstocks in the later stagesofgrowth.

11 n
IF_ -

WSW6 k4
Asiidfr otno Ad i h
_9wt*w ip f te "ttc ei
wt dteWfo io
4. p l
wa a4udgadteidvda
pir I-mpd-uodig oscesv eea
"Ot thml*tdvlpn rmteoinlst
gowrte md f h

%In uigisotmmgown tg 4mnh l)

44Te ee
tefat nrtowr upoteb ievgru tm.Nt

vo p tl 'dvlpn ntecne ftehl


io n :r.t o. ... .i :.....
dow byhe thsultlFlg

of thet:
A: J

ing and 7

neutral T.
To elution was ir,
plant substaancos

ably some oaf ..
if which .

change in shape and tendency o f the rootstocks to grow out of acetate scluti hOj

the ground. ro Secondary growth is appearing on the firsrtgenera- edowny thelF
ution, during the determination of reducing sugars as at fI
': ~S ,., ":E:" :E. ... .
Sprecip tate.
To eliminate this difficulty the following procedure wasf
Fifty cubic centimeters of 95 per cent ethyl alcohol was pcutb*
25 cubic cehtimeters of the freshly expressed sap stiwed conttbh
This produced a flocculent precipitate which was easily filtkr
Fifty cubic centimeters of the filtrate was pipettedamto a
:; .' : I..; ...... .... : :
... .. .. .: :....

This method is subject to criticism when the leaves are used because they ovAtitta IuW
may cause rapid inversion of the sucrose. This trouble is reduced to a ntinnin evet
stems and roots are used because of their very low invertase content. Evhiuts lt
Shrinkage of volume, of course, occurs upon the addition acoho to sap, h
account when the percentage of sugars is computed.
h f ail: .

S ".y" -1 ".::
utio, duing he dtermnatin ofreduing tigai 's
Toeimnteti dficlyth o:wngpoedr-:kX
Fift cubc cetimtersf 95per entethy alchol !aq
25 cbic efitmetes ofthe reshy exressd saatitedd i....
n-i;:';;X ":;i XJ
Ths rdue afoculn peipttewhc w'; 19kf
I~t~~e ~::rV
Fift cuic entmetrs f 1e" fittte waspi'W&3 A
yi .

r'17 AQ~":

m [bk

d: th
-dm t~ taw -
OticUUdAA A6
itvoXOm tes ~
,I_ t we ane
dacei h,"O h is r 5cbccni
ofsfmrmoksdin a rae ihfrai
%w he p n nlzd
to 00 i h sgz o h spo

(4-a uwo apao
R""Toa mgr
7*7 te r&Sod
//sape "
1 4 f W P u &A A W AfM
&I 6 a 9 A2 14 10
lu t .0 2 0 .2

.. .. ... .. .....

V... ji : -....P .A ..

,,, 'i ',,,,

7, 8t-1

rof atherot s

termeied cobynn
phal bal"es

snon medostm,,..
rtcb rof water wasl o
one in its d
Stthhiat sof these"
it o e mlstocka ierso too

water. Kef
Sdensipyh, of, ,io
in density, and
N.madditional um.

single stem. A, the second generation, is developing its stem. t 16 Cas
part of the parentstem wasremovedtur
a small screw driven into the rootstock. All roots, ded
rootstock before determination was made. The remo :
.. ..te. : .... .

The ootsockwas uspndedby eansof fN. A

i Te tiI'R dd tanitlc eIo

e e thi "'0eeitervioty of the roots"oc

wA" arM te ass o WnaMC1 coOrawT OT RoosaWOCKar

odused to daetradw= specifle gravity has been described.
sAho,, yaristions in vpeefoW. gravity of canna rootstocks
#foording to -stage jt mturiy, generation, and age of hill.
&Sa .-pae grmUs J *f t"ad rvootdoc* of differet aq of

Klanet ~ ~ ~ i% Wwa qolO 014phwl 5 ntq4 a Ant 22 monthst old

AAt teraion paity tiop grty tion t ravity
.*- ... L ----- 1.080s
:. -- -- -- -- -- k d 1.088 -- -
in.. IL0 LWs rrt.. L or Third LI --------- i.104i
a~~~m~ ---- --- -----------. ..
77 W L(IOO- Lor AW Funh 1.093 L OW
-- .... Fifb L 073
....Sidti1 ~i
... 1Se-Venth 1. 061
1. Ws2 --- -- --- --

-Aftin the filfl rmahs ph i Mqt stag It, is practicafy limpotsible to separate secoorying to

46t vptios are, evident in Table a. Each hill, consid-
a sikonid agradua rise M, Specific gravity with advanc-
St ~whh tho, 3-mbuthis-old hill haviga vrg
6-r- ihan 1, the specific gravity continued to rise to
thee~eto t&e twenty-second it varidsihl.I
growh b.Abe4Ml the first generation: had the highest specific
@, acktscoeingenration showiga decreasing
and'on-hl mnonh the second or third generation had the
%lfib~~ 'ho th* io# continued f6 decrease. The specific
irm 2 *irChi~tet thronghouLt; that of Groups U( and 3b
ti*t pf Gronp I was variable, but always less than
avoriage speerfi gravity of the canna rootstock is
6f thu potato (10- 1 itiul the range of variation is much
0'geyto thie fact that yonand immauerosok
Uatur ones are161ri in eer IMi of canna, regardless of

W, Mhi the relationships between the specific gravity-, deter-
hfth6 intheod ofttlined by Wiley (16, pp. 36"-71)- and the
b~~ii totet of'the camma rootstock, a series- qof amlse was
bilk of difrn gs sd from different localities. Table 4
the relationship Sf thes feciic rvityr to the starch, dry mat-i
-q fd ti thn xhi h'cnarosok

S----- G 1 .r o. ACAI
S ---- ---2 ............ .....
2 0o1.,41... Old r. -up 2.........., i' .1P
3 ---..---- Old Group Sa .....-... --.- S
4 .......... YoungGroup a.. ..... i:
. .... Group 3b (fpike)..... 84.* I '& P

HILL B (7 MibN "b'ow;lB :Aii4: k:
__ .. ,, .. -,AVR ..+.+....:...
-':-" ': "!. "" ..- ** : .. ; -. ".." .. .
6 First..-. Old Group2-... ---- S. 7.15 -:":!
7 Second Medium Group 2,... ... W.i0 .SO,
8 Third.. _Young Group 3a-..---... .22 3lt ..:. .
9 Fourth Medium Group 3a-........ -ft- WSLI 7 .
10 Fifth Young Group a--- ..... .... .1.0 1.iL47 9. i


11 First.... Medium Group 2_.:...... 80K5 19.48 1C.1 S 0l:.
12 Second Young Group 2......... 85. 14 I.45 775 8.5
13 Third..- Medium Group a ......- 7.42 12 7.20 6.
14 Fourth Young Group a42........ 94 9.5 4. 4
15 .G-d..p.. Grop b spike) ------. 91.92 &06 B BL w
*4' ------------------------------------
.**.. .;. ,,1%43" "
16 FIrst... Group --.....-..------. ..---- 5.-2 3.77 27.4 .6 7 iS
17 Second Old Group 2-....----- .-----...... S 24. -.U *i8: ll :i
18 Third... Medium Group 2......... 70.47 29.53 24.41 83 :&
19 Fourth Young Group 3a (old) ._. 85.71 14.29 Al.42 a. 'a
20 ............- .-.... 5. 14.14 ...... 9 1
21 -..--------- 17 19.883 1 0 6.Ai'4
22 Fifth ... pike, dead........----- 750 24.5280 I O 74 'i
23 ---.---. Young Group 3a (fresh) 90.6 9.12 4 L. 3..
24 --------------do --------_.--.----------. .79 S 7 2.0 ::

A distinct correlation between specific gravity a &
constituents is apparent. .Certain discrepancies ex
with respect to the first generation rootetocks, whiph we aF
by unusually high solidsother than starch. In the oldeiLhls
gravities of such rootstocks were less than of second g
stocks, and bore slight relation to the percentages of stai .i
viously stated (p. 2), this kind of rootstpck is mat "
manner of growth from the other rootstocks in the l. I
only one or two grow in each hill; they may be.lisrer
sidering the hill as a whole. Although .th e.rth
did not vary widely, they showed a distinct tei~jnen t
specific gravity curve. The relationship between th i:. ;
stituents is evident, particularly in case .of bill : S (~
the percentages dropped suddenlyin the fouth gdn in
in the fifth, and dropped again in the sixth generation.

The first generation of each hill is omitted from figs. 13 and 14. : :. i,:
.. .. ...:. .
"""* .: ".:".. l

'd .."i:

EE i":" """ ::


Me 14)11, Ow4ts"Mtouve
of Uitorso opt
rap ty growth.
of biU b6m Waimea rootstocim, covenng a. vido r a
Ugm and abofttmidw of fle eta-rft of h& A
for &n(I:7 ZtroI,, TableS, takenfro,*
of MU W% the a XW6 content of rooto
A"Ortain *the #&ity.
5.-rhe 4arch'a"Uma of gravity
Idied MOOIVIOWNW! by irpecific

Stareb in
AftyftT, '"at,"* OlViRl rootdook
vt, IL PWOW per tow
a A IL M7
Z -LOU a 9
3, L 2L 3
IL L a LJX X 3

Via by'its specific
e :0 ig factors
401 &03 o Y varyu
02 Wzio; differeum in structure or of air
arwoot taken into account. The latter,
Ppro the debrmmation. Ie
OM a M,
Anna, roots*)6k'M* be increwd fr o Mi 1.07 to
!eT tw, plaow the kol:% _M' water and evacua.fing..
MOO-" AwwhnPerfections theL method has much practical
44 44 and Iwto bvi its accuracy depends
T he table is constructed,
F. 446-, an ryses wM 4*e to be made before a thor-
tw can be made*
gu e;anna lant offer special
tw M` the's*q rsof the sap of the
o'hemist in studing its met i of growth as a
p the sug"s and the growth of
t"16 leamedt'as *611 as the vari'ous changes t -place
'doueentration of the sugars- during translocation and ulti,
as starch.
Ihd occurrence of s rr,"S'M the metabolism of the plant
witE the discovery by'Sachs (10) in 1862
the chlorophyll-granule and his conclusion that stanh
the leaf by conversion into sugar. Schimper (13).
Skoh's hypothei5es, by stating thit gluebse faiination preceddems
o ti on in the leaf, and that starch is formed from 91!lCose
iU coneentmtion. exceeds a c ert a M` maximum wU34, vanes in..
t plants.
(10) 'obwrved that the leave's "of ma'ny plants, contsion na
ana that such leaves uswdy have a high sugar concentration
with tbotie, c Iater, Brown and Morrs
more exact a bw&nfizothods, studied....the nature of.tbm
.... ... ...

FG,. ?.-Different stages: in: the development of the" bud.; 'h h.
stem of the large offspring is developing, resulting in a s.a
decrease in cell growth at the apex of the rootstock. Thiis has I 4 1
to vigorous development of its bud. The bud. on tish paet t:i
rootstock has failed to develop, and probably would ev!int! .allyf
result in a small secondary rootstbiek -
with Vivien .(16, p., 178),. cdnade :tt.:
levulose are formed simultaneous i. nAm l.;.
as such.
The variations of sugars at differe $sta :4g
plant have been studied by different inies.tigato -
that, in the early stages of growth, of the aua*ib ,
sugars may form as much as 20 per cent o htthLe I
root matures the proportion of-reduciig sugar 9
but the former are never. entiryey 's'aent a ,,
abundant at the growing tip. Davis (6) and hi~es 'iMt
s I:",: .i :
... .ii; ..

,. .. ... .. -'. *.

I witb parent stem dead; only the
:,wi t go pan stem

Isi e flr0ete kan the. e Ia .A, original seed with first gene-
i nahia tr Smb second generation, mHa, nte mediate type; C third' s-
Stype; I, fourth stlon, sriace type; E, fifth gersuon, surace

eses ways are in excess of sucrose in the midribs and
.S. that the ratio of hexoses to sucrose increases rapidly in
a.down the stem to the root. The hexoses vary greatly dur-
day and nght and throughout the season, whereas the sucrose
, ...... .....


"%A -- -i rS WkJJVL Ski WUJ t'tJ4N1LLE.%JY.A aj 't I A A 4V.~
and the appearance of soluble starch in the
change of sucrose into invert sugar and subequen
starch. he search decreases during the afternoon ad mb
the .
,v : ." .... !

M ler ( ....
with e 'h as
and sorghu .q
the *nloredtcin

and decreA :t
night: whoreasti
nations in the
.sugars are compare
small and very M:a e
The insoluble .ar..
rates, reaching *.: .
mum later in t::
than the sugars,;
rapidly after mid
V .:Analyses. were .
FoIG. 10.--1Method of development of buds. Longitudinal section. to determine the- 01i:
of a portion of a yqung surface rootstock. The bud develops
at the base of the scale. The vascular bundles supporting its Of tthe car bhyF 1I
growth are to be seen extending far into the interior. Under formed by
normal conditions, B and C develop as vigorous primary growth, formed by phot
whereas A either fails to develop or appears as secondary growth thesis in the leaf :
at a later period, when it is known as a "top bud" th
canna plant, andai: l
change taking place during transposition- through the- stem.ti
final deposition as starch in the rootstock. The sap wa e i
from a fresh part of each sample0 and the sugars were dete..
outlined under "Laboratory Methods," p. 6. The remaindert)
of the samples was dried and ground, and the percentage of
and starch was determined. Table 6 gives the results of the ana':,lys

6 These and subsequent samples for sugar determination were dug between 9 and 12 a. m. W~ile,
time of sampling has a decided effect on the sugar content of the leaves of a plant, the stems an d
much less subject to daily variation. The results obtained would hardly be materially affected -byCIS'l :
time of taking the sample in the case of the stem and rootstock.
... .. ....:i : .. .
... ".. ... :..

.... .i....
**** I
*'* ;]vj



Jr rN.P 'Per MWPir cdPer 0Wper a*Par godl
------- .- -.- W, a 45. 0...... .O8 2 L 27
SI M' 2LW 74 L 7% 789 L67 .25 L OR
------ W.. LdT SWO U 8, 7M H 7. 15 L 47. 03 1.650
--~~~--- -.71 ......... -----. L 54 11 L 69
adshats..... at 20 -----..... .. 94. 1. M0 1.448
....... 94 & .*.. ....... 18 .56 & 73
)n' It...... 2M8 F M 20 74. OD 7-09 2Z 53 77 L 30
) ..M=7.. OL S. 2&M S 80.1 &S so 40 87 00: L 96
Mol heaths.4.a+- -, VLS tawl." ... -... ..... 32:: 20 ..61
CAWe) ---,,... -4 ---- "me JA is_ 45 & 22 1 09 4 L 52
(boa8) 4W.. ..386 A t 7. 32 L is : 29 1. 44

.---L W--- &3 .25 1.55
..... ..... .87 1. 18 2.05
-- -------- -----. 1. 68 2149 &. 16
-- --- .1. 49 .19 L 67
-2-----. -------- 63 1. 33 1. 95
.. ... ... 1. 00 04 1. 04
.~- -- -- --- 75 9 1:14


8Z. 29 17.7 0. 248 L 40 17. 46 2Z 61 0a 04 z. 65
ft 00 '&OD .035 ..44 .7.96 .78 .59 1.37
9O.7 529 .03D .56 &.25 .25 .82 1.07
aB 27 M0 73 4.90D 4&. 70 5.83 2113 57 2. 70


ApaB).-- ----,-- -- -- --,----- -- ------ -------- .0 0.1 09
--- --------l ------- --- --- -- -- --------. 60 04 64
U00tst.ok ... --- --- --- --- ---- --- -- --- -- 1. 20 1, 02 2. 22
Ji o wotat k 0840 --- ------------------- 1. 30 76 2. 0W

--- --- -------- "075 1. .55 2 30
detaow kw I-------- -------- 1. 20 1. 22 2. 42

Ape~daote th apcaland "bane" the bwas half of the rootstock.
tisapsSo ndSb ampesof hil No. 4 wer exceptionally vigorous and IMPg.

V: gnpls Nos. 4 to 8, inclusive, Group 2, hill 1, showed the com-
plae-srgs^ f canes takg place in a mature plant from the for-
akio ofsugars in the leaves by photosynthesis to the storage of
amer as starch in' the basal part of the rootstock. Starting with
She leaves (fig. 15), the hexoses increased rapidly in progrsigdw
Abo sheaths, miidribs,-and through the stem proper, then decreased

ine stems o01 young uroup 5a, nmu t.~aupvs o W!.: I .,
had not developed" to any appreciable extent and *were
and the leaves were appearing at the top.' The::,midr..i
showed a very, striking decrease in sugars a compared wit
.. j ...',"... ..

FIG. 11.-Secondary growth in a field of stunted plants 12 months old. Severe .~rghtj ,
destroyed stem growth. The developing secondary growth is very stunted with email
rootstocks ..
particularly in the hexoses, which fell below the sucrose; aMi~tii
relationship between the apical and basal parts of the rootsto
different from that of the preceding groups. Sucrose increasif
apex to base, whereas in Groups 1 and 2 it decreased. In the:..a7i
portions of these latter groups the hexoses were extremely oA
in Group 3a they were present in appreciable and only slight ly:J
quantities than in the apical part. '
In hill 2 (samples Nos. 12 to 18, inclusive) the stems showdj
striking similarity to those of hill 1. Sample No. 14, a Gtroup 2:e
showed the same increase in sucrose over midribs and sheaths ..s
noted in sample No. 6, hill 1. Likewise, the midribs and 'heath t
young Group 3a showed a low concentration of hexoses simitnd ar'
that of sample No. 9, hill 1. The proportions of sugars of the leitr
of Group 2, hill 2, old Group 3a, hill 3, and Group 2, hill 1, wenre v

... .. I
.. .. ;, 7 I


lam, Ot A-

whei*" .4
he..'"Otat 'k
'U I Tht stem of,

4A AjIrC4 a0d 1) represent the &st, seamd, third, and fourth genera-
;,,Profosift of small, stunted 11 ondwy" growth on all Sewrations
.. .. .... .. ...

itarch in -appreciable quantities throughout,
;of, the other If&, even in, young Group, 3a, hill 2,
6( starch.
ijfteIu4v6,'hill 4, from Waimea, showed the
00durring within a sb*Ie hill. Samples Nos. 23
aW basal parts of a rootstock the atem of which
d6advere very low in sucrose and hexose content.
greatly, particularly the hexose, in samples
'26, a -vigorous Group 3& Tootstock. This increaw con-
fviceedi4g the sucrose, in sam lea NO& 27 and 28,
2b rootstock' In Groups 2, 3xtha total sugars
ng f: ronr the slu"601 W th4 'MW p* aft, *heidas, bt
gightly The b pwt of the Group 2

M g"
a h. h

S..... .. !

1/6 /7 /8/" ti *"6V .l t1. i O..:..

FIG. 13.-Relation of specific gra Sity to trmftr, sand
.'.--- -d

solids other than slarehfin cuz tocttws:'.

but ever present quantity of. the p s. TI' iQ Ef
remains consistently low .regardless e. .th ..p :-
stage of maturity of th pla. hi,. not i 19i
Ofd oIt... T wf'": *:....

data of Davis and Sawyer (5), who fou4, iivna 4
that although .sucrose predominates |i,, ',
exceed sucrose in later growth when trajuloca 0 t
is the principal function of the leaves; wh5,ere,
(9) and Miller. (11) show very little cor:..e0p ,
and nonreducing sugars of the leaves :... ...... ..:......
.. ....... .. .' .. .
S. ...

*. .... : ; ... ..... :;
*' .
". ':
O L~ ~W~- .:,.::, : :, 4
: ,.! :2;:2. ,!.

an on e ucn g r o_ "h ,.'':kG[: ..,i~ ..:.. Ti' _

L and he deream o. sucoseii
ato o hsecageih

juo o

t- 0

and in some sort .pfequilibrign m i t T
.. The hexoses ar abundantly pree..nt
part of old, r6otstoeks areompar

....g .. -r. .. .. .

9 .. i".

.. ./.. ... .. ..... ... ... .
S^ /, / : i thtI"l. -p":"'i

the observations of Davis, Daish, and Sawyer (6), whof h
starch forms in the leaves of the angel plant only during

*early growth. I explanation of thags phewner~e siedQ2 op
the hypothesis that starch was stored in the

of the angel had not yet developed w but that aS t ..e hl.LW A'..i
to be deposited in it the starch disappeared f o I le l

S........ ....... ... .... ..
not iir ee. Vr areriii l

SA number of hill.l.--Ugars inof different agrtof the planter 'clas i i
in the obusual m manner to correlate the, variatyeonsr ( i A
starch forms in of the plantves ofwith the magrowel plant oy ti

mination of their sugars and some other
the hypresults of the analysis of that stem and the l roosB.I..

r a ... ..2. ."
of the term stem is here used to incluyet de the sheaths and b thte stem pope he l
to being dcarded. To obviate the possibility ofed ing a it of the stem artch disapped

composition of the plants with the growth of t(6)'.ll^

versa, a section of the apical part of the rootstock and the lower part of the. st.B1d-8 r
discarded. !': ::'," uoi":n
of* t,:h .ma,; l" h:;bt.,: .....::xi.. xx
.... ... .. : ..:.I
A-E nu mber of hills of d a e W r ....M !,d ** ***.. ..... .... "i",.:
the ro a

stae f mt'Titse
a"'or tit

Ie te n to te i P er t ti- N O 'P r c n P r c n e e e e t P r e P rP r
t Ais .. Il 111u 11 1-- - 3 8 2 3 .. 1 1 01 2
Lil teon te i 'tou t----.--.. t,6 .... 388t'... 248 ....7 7.6 t .... .#4 ,1 1..
8 Phrd..Ol Gou 2 -------------- 5.7 0.8 4.3 .1 .2784..... 7.7 ..... 73Dry t41 .
4~~~~~~i 7o77.Y ugG op2------- --- 8.2 9.8 321 .2 2.5 .... 8.5 ;.... 70 ..


7 Frst.. OlM diu Group I 2...... --............ 73.8 ------ 1&, 1 8e 8 9 0 S. 5 --.. t. 4 _4.. &, 28 2' 8 L 09 &0&'5
2 Sectw.... M dium Grup 1.... ........--...... 66-69 ------- 3813 ------ 24.93 -------- 77.5 a .... --------- 1.48 1,8 1 J
9 Third YOuld Group 2- --------------------- 865027 80.483 84.73' 1075 211347. ........ 1&7 7.530, 7 .0 0 .4
40 Fourth ..Young Group 2 ..................... 807-82 93.8 32.18. 96.12 26.1 ----- M 13.50 7. 0 8' 1.87,2 4 .4 .
11 .......Grouip 3b (spike) ------ ------- --- $6.80.18 ----. 1&. 10 26... 8. ........ 72,454 ........ 4:980 .948 ... .8 ..

7a First Mediuml Group 2a.. ---------- 6. 92 90,50 G8 119 .680 2.9 7%,5 ----- 039,1330.5 6 2. 1b 09 -20.1 4L04$$
13 Scond-- M diumGrou63689.6 93.-7 10. 35 10.93 4. 62 .0 3.1 .5 78 .8 21 L2 L 01 .18 408
14 Third .--- Young Group 2 ...... 9268-60 80-48 .1 1 4 .02 22 0 .6 0 1 4 .28 LO 4S
Fort Young... Group ft .......... ----- $0.4 083.. a. 1986 42 14,38. 6 ........ 70. 260 .. & 71 8 1 .37 .26. 1448 ..e..3

18 F r t Old G roup 3a------------- -- 61-- -- -- -- .. 80 5 08 4
17 Becond. Medium Group 2.---------- --. 81D .. 4 98.7 10.36-- 6.23-- 3.75- 041- 38:1 .68- 6. ---- ... 61.. 1.9 048 1 R 3
14 Third Y. oung Group 3a.. -------------- 92-30.. 93.. 8 7... 4 6..... .. .1 1 .74 :04 :22-80 6 B... !RD... 1.2 :29 1 5.0 '134$ ?

and constant in the stem throughout ttroup whereas .:
were much higher. The reverse was tru-e f the roo&fltd .
content being very low and constant throughout G:":: ui
with the sucrose content much higher and more vartil b
decreased in sample No. 0, Group 3b, whereas the hexos c~a
double that of sample No. 5.' A comparison of the t~~al
the rootstocTk
rora0L sZ1 6A stem that..
S G roup2 a2sage t
had a greater ~o.
*s tion tha lthe roq
whereas. i
h r the reverse., was
r although i mo
t COE the Sdiffernes Ic.
4%2- small. Market

and starch eontfea,
0of green and diVy
Stioand also othe"
e oesugar conte .
ocK val eThrootstock oferr
S-- conso. 3 contained sa
maximum dry'.

/ O nd 3_and statch coA nte / 3rd
NVT/4ON sNEr/ONo Nos. 2, gre and dry
andcrease, except that the maximum value also thample maNo.
/00 -sugar conten-t.
OOsOCfirst g t r s values were renarAI
A consideration of hill 2, 7 months old, constant i sa
GENERATIoN GC/EIVA/rrON Nos. 2, 3, and 4, Gm"jI
1 and 2. Sample N*
FIG. 16.-Sugars in different ntplants within the hill u roosefo i
showed a decrease, and sample No. 6, a Group 3b rootstock, a r
sharp decrease. The solids other than starch showed a similar
crease, except that the maximum value was in sample No. 1, t.h.fI
first generation rootstock.
A consideration of hill 2, 7 months old, shows that it closly!
resembles hill 1, in an adjacent field, except that the sucrose of ..
stems of Group 2 was higher. The decrease, rather than increaYep of
the hexoses in sample No. 11 indicates that the rootstock was,ild
with meristem dead, instead of young and fresh as was supposed j
A number of striking differences, particularly with regard to. t..l:l
hexoses of the rootstocks, were observed between hill 3, 3 monOit
old, and hill 1, grown in an adjacent field. Beginning with sample NO:
12, the hexoses were about one-fifth that of the sucrose. T
hexoses increased rapidly and the sucrose decreased until in samp.
No. 15 the former exceeded the latter. The hexoses of the steiw
were very low. The total sugars of the Groups 3a and 3b rootstOs ...
were unusually high, owing largely to their high hexose conte-I,.
; A:4
." .: IIII

1W Ur r BMW CO A 23

$pl OtwftaOtslesoaree owertw thoseof Othe
nmeay~aesteirlow~emos cntos.-The very,
-Oty M tor anid ofeanerh bi the rootatbok were
sit prviegey mentioed. Tho so"d te ta
"moeae values as hil I sud, 2. 'The wocur-o
inu stems has been previously noted Mn a mimila
mmthe4 hozoaes seem to be an index of the amount
frnished to -the rootstock for starch formation.
a wor:constant value dud shows less: correlation
late bof th-hiil., In the rootstock, however, the sucrose
spo r*it'U*nOmef the hexoses of the stem rather closely and
as "bl~~~e index of the rate of storaeo trh h
ghip, sa#fairly constant. m' the mature rootstock,
immacetrtion in the youngest growth, and may be
(M ak iox, of the rate of cell :growth in the young
8MA 4eot that~the curve for the sucrose content of the
cay losely that of th~e heoes of -the correspond-
a 3aiahand Sawyer (6) suggest that, in case of the
6* lgeravatitY .f hexoses, is found when, the hexoses.
joot (xetl of its "saccharifying power." The accumu.
savscees m thme edible canna -roottock igt be due to its
WO W 4peso its ."amylogenic power," in which case the,
vim 4ho-snoemse of the older groups, 4ight be attributed to a
Ethispowe~r rather than to any increase in the rate of
ioftstarch. Thatstarch formation was still taking place
by the~ioceasei the, percentage of. starch, over that of
grapeEviely change from hexoses to sucrose was
diaAin aiesancedidthe hexose content of a Group 2 root.-:,
abowanyiuclrease, regardless of the percentage of hexoses in
.,Th W ih _oncentration of the hexoses in the stems of
2woold afem. tAY indicate that this is the stage in which the
dsthe Isrgest quantity of sugars to the rootstock. Sample
ld Gojap luhd the highest sugar content notwithstanding
%apt bht~ ad only fe*t green leaves at the top.
Grop 3&, conipiUing Immature stems, the sugars decreased
,*rmtThis" indicates that much of the synthesized plant foods
Sto the growing portions of the stem instead: of to the
,and that the stem -does not function at its maximum In
sugars to the rootstock until all new growth ceases.
herseawithin the rootstock of Groups 1, 2, and 3a were uni-
low. ,The light effect on the hexoses of the large variations
Ath Iem swl as in the sucrose of the rootstocks in Groups 2
Os 0ssurp~risn Using the reducing sugars as a criterion, it is
hain Groups -2 and, 3a, the sugars were carried'down the
the axium rate although active celgrowth of the root-
largely ceased. This =oul meom to indicate that process
formation within the rootstock continues Iong after active
.groth ceases. Reference to the starch content of the different
peopstends to bear out- this' observation.- In sample No. 6 cell
dwhwas still taking place since the stem had not begun to develop

of such large quantities of sugres particularly of te
rootstock, is noteworthy. Th* ~Everyow- tarehb..k..t.
stocks and the occurrence of tarch in the staised ~'i
sion that the hill was still in the proc6esd o estblihnn A
the rootstock had not begun to functionn -with .ffiein
convert the. sugars into starch as f-as: t as ty were oi~S~t
Hill 4, .12 months old, from Wainimea, isowedi uia.tia'
very similar to those of hills 1 and 2 from the station..' TU ..
of the stems were appreciably higher than in sm"fisamip-
tion. In view of the important part the :natoU 'ste#i
plays in the process of starch storage, it is digntfian atav
had three generations of stems all of which fuActioned a itt
maximum rate, whereas hill 1, which was 'of pra aotically tot
had only one generation.
The solids other than starch, representing the -resultait; i
other variable constituents, can be interpreted only in "a : r
way. Except for the first generation rootstoiks, which ef~j-m ..|
different in structure from the others in the hil,'the: I pr
the solids other than starch were. relatively :constant a ol
with the corresponding percentages of starch. Sample Nbo!'
example, had only 0.65 per cent of starch, but was. less by i:
per cent in solids other than starch than sample No, 2, wIt .
trained 25.83 per cent of starch. This appears to indicate th- i7'
formation is the principal change taking place in the ~s rh
approaching maturity.
A comparison of the analyses with data previously publshEs
the station (3, p. 7) shows similar variations, depending upb".w !~qi
stage of maturity and age of the hill. The nitrogen-free extr.t%'
shown in the earlier literature, was appreciably higher than wt
proportion of starch in these investigations, because, in the ,f
instance, all other carbohydrates hydrolyzed by 1.25 per ce-d
phuric acid were included, whereas in this paper only thee rue
as determined by the diastase method is given. -
Two adjacent plats at the station were planted with calizt
irrigated until sprouting occurred. Irrigation was then discon,.T1
on one plat, but continued every fifth day on the other. Duriin
hot, dry summer which followed, the unirrigated 'plat priodui
very stunted crop, whereas the plants on the irrigated pla
SAs previously stated (p. 2), the rootstock continues to increase In size, as wasL shbwn by :'J
measurements in the field and the occurrence of fresh cracks on the surface of rootstocks in 9i Qr
and 2. The phenomenon is noticeable particularly at Waimea. .
*... ...... .. ..... : :

Im t
WMlt dgfu
oaio t
'W1l-,V *I a l
th Io*s
S.it44m a"@" o vt n
W wi fto tt 6
Surs uHzmI sp Ttlsg nu
Roo- Rot
#ft SU, S* SeA so& Se

1.--- --


1.23 0 0.1 ..806
Yop,00M,: -5A
1.8 1
ato h ottok fte-rigtdfed a
141Wwlrkt,&*era,*heh'ss Or
ymaet ottoIe
ftfh d wr uhhge
to ia7 ,0eb aeO sooo a

Date of

Period of

.Sucrose in sap
** "'** ''*"


-I I I .." ': ".

July 21 ....
July 28
Aug. 14
Sept. 8
Apr. 8

July 25 ...._
Aug. 26
---do-- ....
Dec. 4


Per cent



Pa cpa


.:.: .. i .; r '
.4' 4. 4t? : :,


. "

. .
.9 :

,. "i, .14 '.
., ..; ". t: ,.' : r ...

-------------------:----------------- --- ------- --- ------ ..-.^. :i* 'ctf?" gj:~ ig~~~n
.. .. ". -... .
HILL NO. 2,STAT-Iro: fLD .. tie"LAWT Itli.iSa .',
...--..----.-M A. ...". ...........'.


m l: ST

1. 16
1. SO




* 4 .7,;

IIrrigation began July 10 1925.
I Unirrigated portion of the field.
I Harvested at optimum-growth.:.

The results show no increase in the sugars in the stn :J:
station field 320 after two months of constant rigtjN i
specific gravity of the rootstocks is used :asan. idiof *
content the starch is seen to have made no mcretas:e
period, and the very low hexose content of the stem
only a very small quantity of sugar was being ~ Itransprt
stem. In the unstunted plants of station field~ 2Ah, o0
only did the sucrose in the rootstocks increase, but th-.ii,
more than double that of the hill during its optimumgMk
notwithstanding the uniformly low hexose content o0 the:.s .
the almost constant specific gravity of the rootstocks: b1l I
the new growth resulted in very small rootstocks and
with even the second generation of renewed growth decidedly
The above apparent contradiction may be explained b i
that the increase in sucrose in field 26A was in reality due 't
ing down of the starch previously stored in the rootstock to&'t
the buds developing on even the oldest rootstocks f th' hi-l;
in a vigorously growing hill the plant food is supplied by1
stem. Failure of the sucrose to increase in case of fild
have.been due to the fact that the hill selecte fdi.or a'ia
younger and the developing buds were:on' the y g ', s V. t:ge Pi
the stems of which retained sufficient vitaitaity to. sip :rt"
new growth.

Many old rootstocks, the stems of which always remain asB
form a part of every hill of canna. Failure to develop :.satemsi:::
be due to the death of the meristem, as evinced by blackening of'2:
apex, or to the increased vigor of the offspring which take practi
....:. 'p .i.

S. ... 4 .A



- .3 .



- I-1-1-


trtion from the parent' stem. -'In* addition to these old
bill contain fhe dormant rootstocks (Group I stage),
-6ic develp normnlly and'Ithen die back. The su ar$
"stemless" rootawoks sr6 of interet because Mhy.
,the residual components of the riootstocks unafteete by
,tanials from the stem.
abWS the sugar, content of a number of rootstocks which,
amnor another, were devoid of stems.
Apa10.u-iror isasp of mature rootstock-* devosid of 81ems .

Descr~ipte of rootstock In ga inu sugar In

Per cend Per cent per cadt
attk--d--------...------------------------------ 1.61 0.19 L so8
k~p *%g Saquw46 otharvosbs-------- O .22 1.20
jl#R P xE thisprevious,... ------- ------ 2108 .22 2Z30
IleA..... -,- ,-----------. ----------.. 2,65 .15 2.80
aiVA 6 --- -- -- -- -----------.... .. .. 51 01 52
prd ron at thestatiJon.

Am8bauhws, that sample No. 1, the stem of which developed'
,iaand subsequently died,:had a comparatively high sucrose
W& pk. No. 2, the stem of which-had been removed while
sample "No. 4., the spike of, which had died, showed
lo A rcoenrtions of sucrose, The increase of sucrose
of ampesNms 3 and. 5. to more~than double that of samples
d ad 4 repooa'vlyfurther substantiates the theory previously
(p;8).tJat increase In sucrose may be due to hydrolysis
stoeh~lredyformed in the rootstock, rather than to trans-
_O~oj fromxj the, stem, since the rootstocks were devoid of stems.
NW-.4-4.wasi expected to.-represent the minimum concentration
amemsetnd he hexoses possible within a rootstock because:
easupporting 'no growth and was attached to sample No. 2
a ws wthot stem development. The hexose content was nif
t" he perentag~e of sucrose was not outstandingly low, sample No.
ih wAs anc 61d rootstock- with dead spike, having less than half

Mkorniau low sucrose, content in a mature rootstock has been
3r served to. accompany a low percentage of starch (deter-
yt6e *pci grvty method) suggesting the sibility of
weaesOf ,h6- rootstock beingin some sort of eq 'brium with
pt~shsince a low sucrose content results from a. cell, structure
ted" with starch, and. a high sucrose: content. from. a cell
plnue having a high starch content. 'This theory seems to be
edlimedby Table 9, which shows that samples from the unirrigated
anotion station field 26A had a higher sucrose content than those
hom station field 32C, on which the crop became stunted before any
,1 the rootstocks reached full maturity.

a Monats Days PeiJWItst Pr em Per a. C
12 1. ....1. i. ... i8 A i :"
12 8 2 : ,33 ..:. 1 : I ..:.
12 21 I
6 30 & O3.06 .18 3. 1 : .
tBeginningto ferment. .
S. .. .
Thd table shows that the sugars of : -s i ti
continuously for about two weeks, 4when:":tiiii B
hexose-sucrose ratio also increased. 'he: rtsi j
stored for 21 days was decidedly spongy and saiowedf sig
station. In both forms of rsgar diiceaseditU.a!
sucrose ratio was nearly the same as in the rootsto-Wrf'
stored for eight days. That this did not hold for. a :
is the different ratio obtained iazp otstcklsersmrw
old whl which had given no appreciable sin of fera
had been:stored for 30 days. : T nfortuenaly; th'or~n
tent- of this sample was.not deterned. i-i/e 'n j : f
The results indicate the rapidity of the change. taking
canna rootstock. after it is dug. Such changesesied'ei
considerable significance in extracting. the staatfh d mio-^.
Although the rootstock can be left in the hill fo .istuAb
after maturity without deteriorating- its value Efor. E.i
ture is greatly impaired by a few days' exposureiaftet
starch granules remain unaffected for some timetu p
sedimentation are rendered difficult by :the large ami..ou.n. i
precipitate which settles out even before the rootstolk hpws
fermentation -or decay. .
At Waimea a field of canna developed neither new stetibWi I
stocks during -a period of about three months: Hitwet!ae,.
already developed were protected from injury by c~:o u.a
and by windbreaks. Toward the end of the dormantIperibd
dug for sugar determination. Twomnoriths later the iel sheotli
orous development of both new seems and rootstock; 6 Anotiw
was then dug from the same section as the first. o Table12 &bipatd
sugar content of the two hills. : / '" ,t

.. ... ..
S : :... :,
*':; :


4T _T01 0I .7 8420

It 0.8%&2 1.25 1.14.1 1.0 of9
.851 ... 01 .---------- 62 .
99 .

Ga------ 1.82 .34 019 3. 41 2.014.7
W0 +1..01 09 2. 48 .909 3. 49
1, L03 .90 4 2.31 -1. 17 &. 21
1.51 .-26 .48 1. 84 1 0
Sh. 1.46 --------- 1 .64. ---------- 2.10 .
#OOi agetwblo witbh: t#8eN ,bl 1 i thefst and
*4~~ the' analysis of hill 2 ...

17)'was co "us by the abnormally low,
noick.ThI exo'SOS of-the. stems were also
oepre-viously noted ifi canna .grow .n 0at Waimea.

sd heisuorose, were greater in old stems of the
--thn in the dormant canna. Although in
tion -of 'tbe actively growing canna,. the
VWsaluples 8 and 9 of the: fourth and fifth genera-
4shoedlittle increase over samples Nos. 4 and
nggeeations of the +dormant-canna, notwith-
inse sugars. in the stems. However, the sugars
tabo aof the sixth and seventh generations of the actively
owsentig -the new growth, were rather normal for
44 stages of development.
observ~atio~ns. previuy mnade (p. 26) that
'itin a rootsto~ck decrease to a low level for a
Poo they do not, again increase unless. hydrolysis of
7te ti indicates- a loss in jyogenic power in
*t ciain. -That thisis, someties tecs ol
by very low starch content 'frequently ob-
in u the dormant stage, Group I. The recovery
from a dormant period with subsequent produc-
ottckinits new grow thy ina striking contrast
stnting of the now growth at the station, may b3e
:t! h nfetd odfoxfteao twh hc oi
oitrWi jet f

4Wmia whrs-ttesainIB

1 1 L 1. ...... .... t....
I ** \ ..... .. .. ** *" .:... ..;r' .
S \ i: i;:. : : : : ,
...: 'i :: :. :!:::



TOTAL S&,,S rTd L $ :f'


..... ,i -
!> .. '.
Foo -A...

l a .. .
Z/ 2nd 3rd 4h th 5 tt ?id 9 rd .4th S i i
s .: *: .'.;'g.:

^^ af------ --. ,(
zoo 9...... i
K 2W 3'w F 4t z t o6Ivfd 4th

.,,,.,., .. ..:.5.... ..... .
^ W --------- -- \-- r
'U' ^S^ ^w
'U *'" K

-- W /--- %

M.\ 1.. i "r

t ~0n 3rd t t -

GsNEn ATr/oN GL6E/E.eTO/.
OO I/ NT P RI/OD .CT/VtV 620W/NCI #c.
FIG. 17.-Sugars in a field of canna during a dormant and an actively growing peo ::::::
and the movement of plant fluids in different parts of the org.
To learn whether results obtained by this method would.sub
the conclusions drawn from the preceding study of the sugars i|
plant sap, determinations were made of the osmotic pressures a
tissue fluids from the rootstocks, stems, and leaves of canna ,
using cryoscopic measurements, as outlined by Harris and ertn

.. .... ........ s'ia

r'A;A ori~8i wrougn groups as ana n6, wmcn also was
Ib:,fi 8,ineee usually the hexoses in the rootstocks were
1ti^:" otaJ sugars showed the same variation. The osmotic
it.i.iUj:reached its maximum in Group 3a, whereas the
e ntest~l p Group 2. However, the rise and subsequent
tt;i bohexoes and total sugars in progressing from Group 1
PU$h. b weare apparent in the osmotic pressure. Moreover, the
i'th e44prossion of -the freezing points of the rootstocks,
.l.i tennis of sucrose, were practically the same as the differ-
.i;;tite total. sugars of the rootstocks given in Table 7. The
W'as t ..u of te he hexoses of the stems. The difference in the
.remsion of the freezing point of the rootstock of Groups
S .::a 4fcr example, was 0.450 C., which is equivalent to 0.83 per
SsrB whereas the difference in the total sugars of Groups 2
N.j~lmples Nos. 3 and 6, Table 7), was 1.01 per cent. Although
mfi~wreai have no significance in this connection, since the freez-
|pin.. and the sugar determinations were made on different samples
ntig the same group of rootstocks, the comparisons are worthy
tosa.s were mude at the station 19 by ChObarles 0. Crane, under the direction of
Sbotany, Universlty of Minnesota. Doctors Harris and A. Gortner, also
a.i aity Min~esta, used the helmeal laboratory faotlities of the station In obtaining cryo-
i Iend Ctutyd data on Hawaiian plants, in exhan i s which curtesy they collected the canna
Mr t1rd overtly~ o athe' the data asate.
h u 'm ;.I. ... "". .. .. .

.. :... ..
;: :! .. .. :. ...' .. :,:*:. ... ",.:o :: ,,, :::,; ..... ... .....".. ..... ., -:

iiiLture selI ll m ring iDwlaf. w..Wm: f.aB u..... O.'Wml9 :
content of the I iwd ': eto w'mI i,
leaves of the mature stem is ndi$flse bylave
The fact that the immature stem. tiil tdi e... Bt i i
to the rootstock and the maturea stem -ifti .te
maximum until- it is well R].h :. i the .. ...i..lE.
importance of prolonging the ife l if-the.Tit t;~rA,
A comparison of .stem growth a:t e M~iia .4 i n~j Wi T
that at the station thestem maintais-it.s:maximum
production for a short time .only,' herea:i~ W1imes1 it
a much longer period. Although.the .loSl4y loi:y oi 4I
probably better adapted to a root 'crop than e: th ......
the station, the climate, which prolongs the life.of.. th
is especially favorable to the crop. The t:e of such artil
windbreaks to protect the stem from dazuage w.ul seeia
r a n t e d : ". .* : .. .* '. ...' :* : .: ... .. ......
The significance of the stern in- m tainai g the i
hill is also brought out. 'Attempts at the& :sttion tS :":o
on fields where the-stems.had beeni severo4 .chMkeE .yr
sulted in a small crop of extremely st ted heiato
Waimea, where the stem growth hlid persisted th*roql
mant period, the new growth produced -fairlyood16iz.d
Usually, -the starch content of a rootstock :of th. eftra
is low and steadily increases until thg roo tst6ck~e is # .w.
mature stage. This fact. would seem to warrantt~taLf ly
the field before harvesting, which is ordinarily :donatel: M
say, 15 months. If a large part of the growthisn .i 7 th I".J
stage, the crop should be allowed to grow for a*i additf":: i
so as to increase the starch content of the young rootsteaksU A
other hand, when a dormant period prevents net rota
forming at, say, 14 months, nearly all. the.rootstb:cse wil bS
mature stage, and the crop may as well be harvesdated-i uei
the new rootstocks will not attain .any appreciable .star .itoaB
several additional months. Inability -f the crop o '*emak'e.i
growth with the production of rootstocks of fairlyg od sOW
top growth has been destroyed would seem to bie sticfient
harvesting, regardless of the age of the: crop. eiait~ies;ide
conditions, a field of canna is irregularly -but c.ontiud..ii .
it can never be definitely stated when the entire hill is ins
a criterion other than age should be used to detera i .t
to harvest. .. ,i.:
Not only should the classification of the growth of a..i
mined before harvesting but the approximate starch content:: oai
: s"" ": -. ."...
.. ... ...

1* senstAins -by it* opdak* grny A mle
law t_. weg IL04 lot syj W, posind, Cof 40 lesad ot.
re- askt, Irs n sA and then immersed ,in, kerosen'6.
eattet ean theA be ascertained by referring-to Tbe5
es o44xerimeuts, made to study continuously, the
ea I s.n (Canna edulis) and the occurrence of Ougars
durag'_n_ translocation and ultimate storage as starch
pud h~at sucrose is the. chief sugar of the- leaves;
tin ouly very small quantities, and the hexose-
Xvery low. This is. true of leaves from an old
48a from a young,,rapidl.y growing plant. The'
a o~~pe~swer in the midribs, and the sheaths thaii in
whp*ga that of the hexoses is much higher.- In the stem
Tapsvesare present greatly in excess of: the sucrose.
nerseinthe apiceal part of the rootstock, as compared with the.
Agg,#e .hexos.......soi'es correspondg, ly .decrease. In the
J 04the rootstock both sugars usually decrease, especially
wlph pacha vry low percentage. The heiss r
a huht *to* be the chief. sugars of translocation and the
'athe rootstocks to be formed fromsucrose rather than from
'tudy` of plants of -different stages of maturity shows that the
W-yof hexoses is much less in the iminature stems than in
stem; owing to the diversion of the flow in the former to
iii 'g'row'th of the, plant. This indicates the value of the
stem in the synthesis of food material. The sucrose content
rboottooks shows tL similar variation to the hexoses of: the stem,
jnmature foot4teks having a much lower percentage' of sucrose
oung and vigorously growing rootstocks are characterized by a
6 perentae of the hexoses which occasionally exceed the sucrose.
ifhe'mode mat' e rootstocks the hexoses. are consistently low in
ty in'ca g thpir association. with the growing parts of the
vomtatkwk The caonntrations of the hexoses in the stem and of
460eoim i the r~ootock would seem to be good indicators of the
ffrnsoitiono ugr n their ultimate storage as starch
rotsock "The ..sucrose of the stem and the hexoses of the
roOtatok are usualy more constant and. do not seem to correlate so
*A, *ith growth, as determined by observations.
Thile sacwrose content of the, rootstock, especially one that is imma-
u'O*, 1*8 lowered when normal growth is halted for a protracted period.
` return of favorable growing conditions often fails to cause any
Ow, efafe in the sucrose content. This fact, together with the low
Content :of the rootstock, indicates a loss of amylogenic
Copious irrigation of a 'field of stunted plants may result in an
apresse of sucrose in the rootstock, but the increase seems to be due
ta'heProcess of germnation," or hydrol sIs of the starch already
atorein the rootstock to support secondary growth development.

young rootstock, the starch W.. pl' nti~ahe onrat,
rootstock, the increase being iaccopanied byi k:
gravity. Graphs of the sta .ihs.iow :that al i;h';^.
curve" of different hills var"es I~sheiha the fr" ktib
specific gravity and the perc ner ge'q osfi-th ie m.
been constructed (Table 5, p. It~U.*h:h~ii beii~t ,.
mine in the field o. the factory the aprri~'ilt p'e
in a rootstock from its specific gravity .
Determinations of osmotic pressures by ey~oscope d"
were made with a limited-number of plants. The result
the general conclusions regarding growth draiw from t
the carbohydrate metabolism of the plant. ".. ....

1919. 417 p., illus. Washington, 'D.C. i
(2) BROWN, H. T., and MORBIS, G. H. '
LEAVES. Jour. Chem. Soc. [London] 63 :604-677. '
(3) CHUNG, H. L., and RIPPERTON, J. C. .':
1924. EDIBLE CANNA IN HAWAII. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 5444l,
(4) COLIN, H.
Sci. [Paris] 159 :687-689.
(5) DAVIs, W. A., and SAWYER, G. C. ::.-
7:352-384, illus.
(6) DAIH, A. J., and SAWYER, G. C.
LEAF. Jour. Agr. Sci. [England] 7:255-326, illus.
(7) HARRIS, J. A., and GORTNER, R. A.
FREEZING POINT Amer. Jour. Bot. 1:75-78. "
PRESSURE. Amer. Jour. Bot. 8:164-170, illus.
(9) LUTMAN, B. F. .
GROWTH. Amer. Jour. Bot. 6:181-202, illus. ..'.

(10) MEYER, A. .
SPERMER PFLANZEN. Bot. Ztg. 43: 417-423, 4338440, :
457, 465-472, 481-491, 497-507, illus.

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