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'Odlqu-eS-os W s
j on rwg-
th ln scliae hel o
t!, tte ln a nrdcdit h
y e r 1 i t 9 1 5 r ik a s m l
ve rmJdeJ -Mateml.Kils
of t lat eeat~ad itiue
FIG. 1.-A field of edible canna ready for harvesting.
countries, and is propagated either by means of young sho t
are detached from the parent stool, or by underground ifl ei:
commonly called tubers or rootstocks, which are very rMi h'
The tubers vary from cylindrical to tapering and sphericaY..
ranging from 2 to 34 inches in diameter and from 4 to .: i.
length (fig. 2). The stems are usually stout, and are
dark lavender which is rather pronounced at the baOe. of:, .
young shoots. They grow in clumps averaging 12a stSt
attain a height of 4 to 8 feet, depending upon climatic andi:.i
editions, and blossom in 4 to 6 months in Hawaii. The flo
bright red with narrow petals. The seed pods are usualr y jii
normally developed, but in most cases produce no vi ae Si
.- ':.... : :::: .:. -
I. .. ... .. .. .. ... *
%it *0i0 Welsime* Iland of Hxwaii
'gn f Aasi 1,004et nd henthe da"ys sad
It"" raifal isWquate, .&ud~proteottio
ofother- root, "rpg ble ca=na mksits best develp
i sgrown in'alose 10Smy wol co1t~taliningan audac
aWhau the crop is grown mna Asy, soil, the yieald,-is aei
r e r s se e s an a m
red meed and the eize of the individu .al tubers considerably di-
ed.Clayey soil, -renders difficult the work of harvestgad
V*Wdly oamme the plant to make a poor stand. -dible cann.- will
*ifhetind an ecere amount of moisture in the form of Tainfall and
irrgaton, but it will not grow in soil that is not well-41rained.
RODSS O7. CULTURE
ONUMLECIO OV PLANTMG NTOCK
Onlytdber which hav6 attained normal size Land development
iand Nea ohe' or Moe" healthy, unbruised buds should be selected
far tiy (g.8). As a precautionary measure. 5agnt rot..
organme, the httn dips all tabets at the tune of dig-4V
gltin a 10 per cet solution of copper sulphate,
FIG. 3.-Stages of maturity in the growth of the edible canna tuber. %iA Oji '.i
type of corm for planting. (B) Mature. A desirable seed corm for Prigpi t W.
buds insure quick growth. (C) Immature.
In the Hawaiian Islands, where the temperature is fairly
throughout the year, edible canna may be planted at at
except during a period of drought, and even. then ifat
available. Maturing sufficiently for harvesting in.: eiht
the crop should occupy the ground during the. eight n tmfs
months for growth, unless, of course, the immediately p
following crop is entitled to primary consideration .t,..
In a loose, loamy type of soil, the tubers should be
inches deep at distances of 3 feet in rows that are 3 feet s:
spacing of 3 by 3 feet will permit of planting 4,840 hillsja
and render cross-cultivation possible while the plants aIre.y
a heavy type of soil, the planting distance should be..
4 feet each way, and the tubers planted not more thsA
deep. The increased distance will permit of cultivfi
.. .: .* .. .
.. .. .
.~" .::. ,.,.:,i ** :. '
Agd e m
A f tV
CRMun we o h
14a ,OVjvf g o
ti sa 6"
t, V r'
'Iii1AOS uo il.O h
-b hs ie ]iof
be pfedT -tr
ti~o l 'Wre.1no&
34P a t W o ,t e g
naVc LLu Uo vuqrtaln.JJu an aUij VU. tuametUUZby 01. U M AM.eU
: .. ..n.D :- *." ...:. .. ..
Yields vary with the rainf all and soi.of the.diffaei I
which the crop is grown Att the Llenwoo4d sibstatibi.
tubers were obtained with a 9-months, ,grwng, :seaae x."
Castner substation, 28 tons of t bers were reobtamed .
from a soil to which manure w. appliedd. tAye,
ranging from 18 to 23 tons weqrobt*imed inte st : a
At Waimea, Hawaii, it is reported th.It 40 to 50, pwi i
have been obtained in single hills of edible canna. The ist
planting at the station (Honolulu) yielded at the rate of 43 t
tubers per acre in 241 months after,planting, SubsAcqqu
gave results varying from 10 tons.of tubers within 4;imntbio
planting to 34 tons within 12 months after planting, witthi,p
yield ranging from 18 to 20 tons per acre for 8-month P9IFfi.
One of the important features of the plant is the excelleziti
qualities of its tubers. Original seed tubers have be6n'
remain in excellent condition when left unharvested, iii t
for a year or more. The tubers may' be harvested a.?..i
decay for seed purposes for at least three months prvi.
they are cleansed of adhering soil and are thoroughly dried b.
being put in storage. The storage place should be kept cool3
dark. The tubers may be piled in heaps not over 2 eet':
Higher stacking prevents proper circulation of the 'air a;nd'i .
result in the tubers decaying. The tubers may be stored '.:i
field for a short time if the weather is dry. Results of iexEiEir
conducted at the station would seem to indicate that tuberif9:ite|
* Queensland Agr. Jour., v. X, Pt. I, p. 36, Tropical industries: Arrowroot, its cultivation and .i)
* Hawaii Sta. Rpt. 1919, p. 71.
SHawaii Sta. Rpt. 1919, p. 47.
* Hawaii Sta. Rpt. 1917, p. 51.
wit Vh he r
ti fl 1i 0&!wditt btiPnk&
bu h|idiWI*Wie, *f
isvn" t, f1 ,go
%; Jbo mi*t n-0pl
,=6 mr17a6 cf'
....... I ra
'dt0Wr t/ Uckt4H hc
'awnAi h ifse iqa
-P lfis 4 9'u
'W~ey. pe acre
Wt 'ph wxpRv a rnc.Te a!e
with tubers in group 2 a that m the lat
is stored in the lower two or three inches of the- stbi .:
for starch manufacture be s an integral part 'ott e
(2) Mature tubers 6val to6 r:1ld 9 in 4 e)." ?
reached, the bloom stage. The tubers m3 tunal
their maximum diameter.
(3) Immature tubers (round in shape). The tW
were either just above ground or had ,sot adt mat
were of course smaller than in case of. either .bfti p
Roots, dead scales, and adhering soil' wre all :remo
tubers as soon as they wers dug. Mter begl*4
and dried, the tubers were arilyed by the inethb
by the Association of Official Agicultural Chemists1 ":
Chemical analyses. of the tubers, which were harves ed
are given in the following table:
Effect of stage of maturity of harvesting on the percentage compoaiUe of. .
Six months_..........._................-- _
Average------------------- .., ..
Old... -----.--.----..---- --------- 72.40
Mature ---------------------------- 68.78
Immature. --------------------------- 7 18
Average-...-----.. --------------- 72.48
__________ _________ _________ ___________
.og .0 1t74
.09 0 42
-I :1 II
: 2 .
.12 j 2.37
a The results are given on the oven-dry weight as well as n :the fresh material beisat ita
out more clearly the variations in the composition of the different groups of tubers.
b Sample includes both old and mature tubers.
10 Methods of analysis ofthe Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, see. VI:, p. 719: MU0.
Nov. 1, 1919, Washington, D. C., 1920.
.... .... ..1
...** '" ,..*
; Oz T40 4 j-1 7& Tr4 4 "j
a8 48 s 1;0 25k. 1 "701 2
------- 67 19 129 29.95 1, t. 42
4W+ 77 L 17 13k go a 16 1.48
.. 35 .0 .13 -2%40 .61 1,52
4.87 36 LO .73' .8
---- 92 .1 2& 8 1O 3 1 .210
---------- 41 L in .0 91.5 a: 1.48
------ ..2 .03 AL7 is. do S7 30
70;I.ar Ms s 2D o .00 L35
3.1 34 &&8 1 17 4 $.925
----- .35f Zs 250 e4
t IT& W 7 8.8 2.267. 6403
3,Am 21 3 5 9.41 1 44.2
1. .9 8 ... ...$
1%3a D .3 8&.7 2. 02 0. 45
-7 A_4.tL. 417 .4 118.42 2 7 260
Milisha 2 1 35 ft. 33 3L 4 .2
A~ta1 2 39 86.84 2.1 48.957
Magale felmls boh el andnatue 265r8
'Zae~~~~~~ .35:iio 8rom im7urt 4omtuiyn2hec7o ot
4aitin -Toghe threefonro Imatritpy tof maes miturit n hne tontentt-
alw sy is a ver gradual imonue; iu s impossibel ito seectefrom
omthly tharea tuesththv reached the samue stage offe wncitrmaiturfirly,
Iant Inel hoeverl nthnes there data showhat, withcrees'pi toe
onteat of the old tubers: over. the maature ones.,
-00 specn~tages Of dry. weight, the roein and ash show
p euaerbl dereae n transition oftetu rsfrom immaturit
On snakesya Whiled the CrAe fiber ofth mskur tubers. isL. in : -
made. It is highly probable, however, that with the '
normal weather conditions the average composition.f i.
eventually would have become the same as it had been in
preceding the twelfth month..
In brief, it may be concluded that after an individual::'
reached maturity, which requires from 30 to 90 days, it v ,
in composition at least for a year, except for an appreciab i
fiber content; and provided that weather conditions remain
the composition of the hill as a whole changes little. Cone...
the crop will have practically the same composition regaur
the age at which it is harvested. The best age at which tq
may therefore be decided largely by the) yields obtainme ;
analyses as given in the preceding table show the following
average composition of edible canna tubers:
Chemical composition of edible canna **;:I
O ven- ** : : 4
Constituent Fresh Oe Constituent
material material : *; *f
Per cent Per cent : 4 Ni
Water-----------............. 72.62 ------ Nitrogen-free extract-,- --..--...: .2
Protein.------------.......... .98 3. 58 Crude'fiber..-...... '. .WI
Fat (ether extract)------------ .11 .40 AsU.Q- ... ..--..-.- l i:f
------------------~ -- ; [, [ ." .* E ....: .. ."
VARIATION IN COMPOSITION OF THE TOPS .
Since canna tops may attain maximum growth in as shoArt;:.
as 30 days under proper climatic conditions, it would seem a:J
rapid changes in composition must take place. -To pe
study of such changes, the tops of a hill 12 months old welre
into three stages of growth: (1) Old stage, in which'the bloo ..
dead and the lower leaves were beginning to wither; (2)o 'boMn..
and (3) immature stage averaging 2 feet in height. 'Thd fl
table shows the effect of the stage of maturity on the compo .
of canna tops.
er nat entPe cnt ercet erc_7
NO? 4-.. L -an, 93R 4 1 77 2115 811 rt. 14
V.. 47.. 14. IM 1 4 2 3. 2 i0 1.. 2fL71 :&14..
Aikh '' with inMemo]ng matur-
pere,.. tpe' ti hitrgnre tractc,
inceasd, eth' ah nd ten dcrased, with i*-'
AM riy T6he4 0-"iiv ra -'g 0likeold ops was 100- per
ihn M as of the immaturegroup.
spmieOf Su.nun anupo~rtant camsa
a < u~hariqt, w Enoth sys~tem of fra
gram k frsof the q sisip Valley, the
pf~aspotLa 4sae Crops 1L. frdhoetaders
;W~b cn e dpenedupon, as a source.Of
a w isela. be especially well adapted
filiti&an high winds of heregion, and could be utilized
asi 44 OAc4W qd, 44cme source of starch. ..It grows
tly btwitatfling ouch advers'econditions as hig wid'
tempratre, and drought, With the return of favorab le condi-
stee Indavdelop and growth proceeds, without the stuntmig
So, mansifet most other cros lie soil at Waimea is ideal
canna culture, being of a porous nature, Mi staring contrast
motof there easily compacted soils. of the isads-
samle-of catsia were obtaind from Waime' for analysis,.
eam COsiin o Very old tubers, -and the other two correspondmgV%
0o the matwo ad immature described on page 8. The old
Abes hd benIn the o ver two years and gave no evi-
phe f deay, excepto a slgt dreigof the tissue. The
grface bore doep 6rack, which however,' had healed without
IUTh to"s of the new growth had been repeatedly out for
larg'We ubrsprl eqxpoed. The following -table shows
effct f sageof ateityon hecompositio of canna tubers
i.~rm in W ar. oi
*. : ... .... .
.. ... .
. .= ... :: ... ... .
.....~ ~ ~ TT 5, "eiiiiiiiii,,,
]FIG. I.-EDIBLE CANNA STARCH. MAGNIFIED 220 DIAMETERS.
Fia. 2.--POTATo STARCH. MAGNIFIED 220 DIAMETERS.
FIG. I.-CORN STARCH.
MAGNIFIED 220 DIAMETERS.
.... ~ r ",, ;
... =,,., ....
.. ', r ::
,-. ; ';
FIG. 2.-CASSAVA STARCH. MAGNIFIED 220 DIAMETERS.
^'f^.;-'^^~." ;.-^**. s^^
^ ; *;." -^ .,y- ;. -^ *,* -y .8
/ ., 3 ,_r a 7- &9 O A/e/d /3 /A- z......... 17. /af/F.P' f
FIG. 4.-Comparison of the viscosities of various solutions of edible .canna starch, potato I*i9 r
starch, and cassava starch.
At .. 'E
The Saybolt universal viscosimeter is essentially a cylindriqa
having a diameter of 3 centimeters, a height of 10 centirte
capacity of 70 cubic centimeters. The bottom of the tku i
stricted to an opening 1.77 millimeters in diameter. The t14iP
rounded by a water or oil bath so that any desired temperate
be-maintained. The viscosity is determined by filling t he ti
the solution to be tested, and noting the tinie necessary to fill j
of exactly 60 cubic centimeters.capacity through the opening
bottom of the tube. This type of viscosimeter is probably '
well adapted for the measurement of the viscosity of starch"ii
the torsion viscosimeter, which would have less destructive ai
the easily affected structure of the starch solution.
A comparison of the viscosities of various solutions of edible
starch, potato starch, corn starch, and cassava starch are g
the following table, and also graphically in Figure 4. :
Tbomfgit (Saybolt) at S0a tf
L( s, A0%. sm. s3v
10 1 in a 42 ., 8 48
is5 2 19 r6 1 .
& 0 7 15 21.. 1 35 1 46
44. o40 A 4 57
soneukaeresire to~d ift 00 q ntigaG*Uerof distM~lw*ter at 80C. i~hroug tho
*Awbove tabb ikis" a ppatthat potato starch pcossesses a
soqty tan do either of the other tw 'o starches... Cann&
stqermor to either corn starch or cassava
M. It, was observed that the viscosity of potato
-by- f agtiation more easily than is that of canna
wuis, is trae, especialy in concentrations -of about -2 per
haire th vcoiy begins to ris-e-iatr-uptly, with small ikro
eahSolutions, which were prpred like: those -used :in the
fnts, were Poured into test. tubes one-half inch- in diameter
edto cool for one hour. -The tubes were -then inverted.
Ium Concentration necessary .y to keep thie mass from run-
downthe slide of the :inverted: tube was termed its "gelling
geligstrength, of edible canna starch, potato starch, corn
,adca&sava starch was found to be 3.75, 3.25, 4, and 6.25 per
resodvey_ Examinations -of the four starches at the concen-
noted av'e showed, however, that while the corn, starch
'the cassava starch formed a definite gel structure, which re-
"Uihmed its shape when hAke- out of the tube, the other two starches
abbAne as hdrosols orpossbly as lasie gels havm' sfiinl
Ymhvicei-ty to prevent their running: down the flside of the tube.
Both the foliae and the tubers of the edible canna, make excellent
fedfor cwMI, adthe tubers when cooked are fairly good for
TA mmtr tubers when cooked resemble white pota,-
in taste and consistency. but soon become too fibrous to be
34. Th tobens are h'stle used for human ..consumption in,
Shestachwould seem to have considerable value as a food and
=ralues. A very pure product can be peae ysml
the tubrm g the pulp with water and passing '14
thro a perforsted screen, and finally, by oeparatingf the
or s smAtter from the fibrous substac by sedimienta-
to its axb-soi starch settles
y- lazge granul theiiiiiiiiiiii
i~ow u asnd lttle ixneand xpene is equied t fre
season of the year. It produces its mnaii. .i. i.'l l
grown for a definite period at an altitude-t Is thna
The crop is adapted to either longer ~j' ori
requires a loose, loamy, and well-drained soil for best
Cultivation is essential when the crop is gro f r-in
Edible canna is free from attacks of injVaious a .'ins a
diseases, and produces an average of 18 to 20 te"o 'ao
acre. The tubers have excellent keeping :.qulitie.
ous tubers which bear unbruised budi shojt d bes dI:
The average composition of a hill of edible canna t
little regardless of the period of growthS .Weather changes a
ing new growth may cause temporary variEtion, however..
In an examination of immature, mature,. and: old tube
single hill, the immature tubers were found to differ cOp
from the mature and old tubers, which were similairm im .
Decided changes in the composition of the.tops were oi
occur in the transition from immaturity to maturity, andi
the older stages of growth. The nutritive ratio was,
cent wider for the old than for the iima~pure tops.
Canna grown at Waimea, Hawaii,: h.aub sutnttani '.:
composition as did that grown at the central station. '
remained in the ground for two years showed .a. jss in pro
tent but otherwise were unchanged.
The feeding value if both the tubers and the tops compare
ably with that of other starch and forage crops.
Canna starch is'characterized by its exceptionally lar
Morphologically, it is similar to potato starch. Its vi
greater than that of corn starch but less than. that of.potato
It is thought that edible canna starch has potential, q
both as an edible starch and for commercial uses. It an'
growth, produces heavy yields, and can be harveited:at'i
and during any season, and should therefore lend' itself
to continuous production at minimum cost. When the cro
on a large scale, the tubers should be produced at a comp
low cost per ton. The starch should be manufacturedE
tionally small cost since it is separated with ease. At~ii
from edible canna was not produced in Hawaii for industrMY
until 1922, there is no reason why it should not become'
as potato starch, with which it is closely comparable. 'ia.
0 .. ...
... ... .
UNIVERSITY OF FL
3 1262 08929
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