The Hawaiian tree fern as a commercial source of starch

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The Hawaiian tree fern as a commercial source of starch
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
16 p., 7 p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Ripperton, J. C ( John Carson ), 1891-1960
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Starch   ( lcsh )
Ferns -- Utilization -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
J.C. Ripperton.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612329
oclc - 16324426
Classification:
lcc - SB429 .R57 1924
System ID:
AA00014562:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text











IC













IlkI




l41


I'1


Zw
!/L







I 7A

i44








II AWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
:.. HONOLULU, HAWAII

S..Under the supervision of the
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BULLETIN No. 53

Washington, D. C. July 11. 1924


-HE HAWAIIAN TREE FERN AS A COMMERCIAL
.... SOURCE OF STARCH

J. C. RIPPERTON, Chemist


INTRODUCTION

Many generations ago the natives of Hawaii discovered the value
of the tree fern as a source of food. They found that they could
use the tree fern in place of the taro and the sweet potato, which
constituted their favorite and staple food crops; and, likewise, that
they could live indefinitely upon a diet of tree fern and wild game
I' when they were defeated in battle and driven from the seashore to
the mountains. Usually, they stripped the trunk of the bark1 and
baked the starchy core in an underground oven. It is not un-
likely that the natives obtained starch from the tree fern, since they
were familiar with the art of extracting it from the arrowroot.
Many attempts have been made within recent years to produce
tree-fern starch on a commercial scale. None of these proved suc-
cessful, however, due to insufficient capital for the proper develop-
ment of the product, until 1920 when tree-fern starch was success-
fully 'manufactured and appeared on the local markets in a form
suitable for use as food and for laundry purposes.
Although some feared that the new industry would soon destroy
the beautiful tree-fern forests, the Hawaii Experiment Station re-
cmved many requests to aid in developing it. To satisfy those who
l 10eked unfavorably upon the industry, the station made a pre-
ififn ary investigation to determine the effect on the forests and on
water conservation of cutting over tree-fern areas. As a result of

a In this publication the word bark is used to describe all that portion of the tree-
fern trunk except the central starch-containing core.
&4678-24--1


CONTENTS


Page
1 Chemical composition of the core_-_
2 Physical properties of tree-fern
3 starches .-....--------- _
Starch making from the tree fern--
3 Summary -.---...-.-------------


Page
9
10
13
15


Introduction -- -----------
Bot atih al description ______- __- __
Occurrence in Hawaii_----__---
Studies of methods of propagation
and growth----------------










reaching maturity, and since only the mature trees are '..
starch making, relatively few trees per acre would be. t
purpose.
A rather extended program of work was therefore ouV
to determine the feasibility of planting tree ferns on cut-ove
for the establishment of permanent-producing areas, and 2)i":
a study of the properties and uses of tree-fern starch.
T
found that the rate of growth of the tree fern is too slow'.to...
it commercially practicable to replant the fern and the
of building roads and fences to get the necessary raw ma
came apparent, hopes were abandoned of establishing the
on a large and permanent basis in Hawaii. It is not ul
ever, that the industry might be made a permanent one
economic conditions existing in other tropical countries in w
tain species of the tree fern are indigenous. .
This bulletin, reporting the results of certain observatioot4l
gether with data on the Hawaiian tree fern as they apply. to. i
as a source of starch, has been prepared because of the
interest which the industry has aroused and because. of the.:nl
importance of the tree as an emergency crop for the island.
tion in case of interruption of shipping.
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

Rock2 lists eight species of Cibotium, two occurring in Guatuni
one in southern Mexico, one in the monsoon districts of east....
one in the Philippines, and three that are peculiar to the .I
Islands. The following botanical description of the two. m* ~
portant species in Hawaii may be of interest.3 vn
Cibotium menziesii.-* Stipes green, stout, with a ventral- '
lateral furrows, tuberculate and shaggy at the base with a straightish A".
brownish-yellow glossy pulu which changes higher up into stiff, log b.
hair, and as such often covers the entire stipes; frond with stipes 18.W
dem. or more long and 9 to 15 dcm. or more broad, pyramidal-oblong, coril
naked underneath or sometimes with minute furfuraceous dots; the 0"
asperous with scattering tubercles; pinnhe with a stipe of 25 to 50 mm.,o
4.5 to 7.5 dcm. long, bearing 18 to 24 pairs of free pinnules besides the......
tifid apex; most pinnules shortly stipitate, linear lanceolate, acute,
way or more, often to the rhachis at the base, into oblong rounded orw
segments, which are separated by broad sinuses; veinlets very pro0
simple or forked; sort 8 to 14 on a lobe, also fringing the sinus. Invto
corneous, large, a little more than 1 mm. to nearly 3 mm. in width, tie m
valve fornicate and large, the inner flat and narrower. ...
C. chamissoi.-* Stipes 12 to 24 dem., brownish, smooth, cl...!
the base with a pale fawn-colored lustreless, matted or cobwebby pain?
furaceous or naked above; frond 12 to 24 dem. long, chartaceous, the.
face green or dull glaucous and generally covered with a pale cobwebby |
cence; lowest pinnle 4.5 to 7.5 dcm. long, with 24 to 28 pairs of pinnulfl
shortly stipitate, linear lanceolate 12.5 to 15 cm. by 16 to 20 mm. .a.W
lower ones cut to near the rhachis into oblong, straightish, rather obtuse u
ments with narrow sinuses, the basal segments entire and not d.' t
veinlets little prominent; sori 8 to 14 to a segment, the involucre small aM
1 mm. wide, chartaceous. : v^.
RBodk, T. F. The Indigenous trees of the Hawaiian Iulandsa 1p. ft4
Rock, J. F. The indigenous trees of. the Hawaiian Ilands, pp. 91-93.
I, :, :i~ie:: ;
.4:





HAWAIIAN TREE FERN AS A SOURCE OF STARCH


vi. i.!brand4 lists another species, C. gltaucum, but states that it
1::/ ::i rare.
!m chAamissoi, or" Hapu "as it is popularly known, is easily
^ onied by its yellow pulu or hair and its comparatively short,
*W growth. In many forests it constitutes more than 50 per
S* of. the entire tree-fern growth. The trunk sometimes attains a
B b. eight of 16 feet, but usually does not exceed 10 feet. The diameter
Iof the trunk is usually 8 to 12 inches. (P1. I, fig. 1.) C. menziesii,
I Rfapu Iii," is distinguished by the brownish or blackish pulu which
: Covers the stipes and fills the crown. Occasionally it attains a height
4f .::40 feet and frequently a diameter of 3 feet. (P1. I, fig. 2.)
Aih: inither species, commonly known as the "Meu," is easily recognized
*u itlthe Hilo district by its very slender trunk, smaller fronds, dull,
Siusterless, rather scant, yellowish-brown pulu, and nearly naked
I, stipes. (P1. I, fig. 3.) The "Amau" (Sadleria cyatheoides),
Although a different genus of tree fern, is also of interest since it is
exceedingly common in occurrence and has a starchy core.
OCCURRENCE IN HAWAII
The tree fern is found in all parts of Hawaii where there is an
annual rainfall of 100 inches or more. It grows on nearly all the
mountains, but occurs in dense forests only on the islands of Kauai
and Hawaii. On Kauai the forests are too inaccessible to be of
importance for starch production, but on Hawaii they occur in al-
most unbroken stretches from sea level to an elevation of 6,000 feet
or more. These long stretches are reached both by rail and auto-
mobile roads running from Hilo to the Kilauea Volcano. The wind-
ward slopes of the Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa Mountains are one
continuous tree-fern forest, the belt extending from the Puna dis-
trict to the Hamakua district being about 10 miles wide and 40 miles
long. In general it is estimated that there are 400,000 acres of tree-
frn forests on the island of Hawaii alone. A very large part of
his area is within the forest reserve or on Government-owned lands,
from which it is illegal to cut the tree fern. There are, however,
7 many thousands of acres of privately owned land on the island of
SHawaii, which in its present state is of little value because the
dnse growth of tree ferns unfits it for pasture and the heavy cover-
ing of leaf mold keeps the soil too wet for general agricultural pur-
poses. The owners of these lands regard the tree fern as a pest and
would welcome any means of removing it.
STUDIES OF METHODS OF PROPAGATION AND GROWTH
It was felt that before the tree-fern starch industry could be
established on a large scale in Hawaii some feasible method must
be found for providing a permanent source of the raw material.
SMany of the tree-fern areas are hard to reach, and it is almost im-
b' possible to secure the raw material at any great distance from the
established roads because of the rough topography and the heavy
': leaf mold. Moreover, the cost of getting the raw material from the
i depths of the forest, when the supply adjacent to the highway became
exhausted, would reach a prohibitive figure.
SHllebrand, Win.L Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, p. 547.





R-a



ft I 11Fec..t .6 tq
carred ut. he urcase f seh~ iT~ WMA,_
mildbeshwn tat te tre'f -,*
tane b atra mtod o p ig *r y
1 u T i
*01ndigeentpart ofthe erm a& i a
ereaingsuppy o reailyA~esibl tl
deidd o ean hehepatsof&6 m

Platedon ut-ve arai&andwhthdlth4*Wt
sufiintyrai t u~f tecotOtilef
niinaimgsuh n~rf. |0
The irststepin te soutio of ho po ~ ri "
M 1 io f dtild~alege f ho
treetfrn;Sic~teliet'ire is-oijd6
ural~~~~ ~ ~~ mehd fpoiato li rm
NATO" X9T4D4 O
AO
.1hetre er epodce isefii t6 ~nra
gerinaio (P. 1, ig. 1)an (2 bylaera. sbo
(P. 1 fg 2.Th poes re oreonh ud
Ol re-er ruk admosfu'is x~~'lent|
gemntinn ladta s"dstrp yct
ifrquety lieal ovrd ihfoff
4F
is hoeer ey lw
Prpgto byltrlsho ee otpte
ttr re eJuhibr ai h el










































Fia. 1.-TYPICAL SPECIMEN OF CIBO-
TIUM CHAMISSOI, SHOWING ITS ROUGH
BARK AND COMPARATIVELY SHORT,
STOCKY TRUNK


FIG. 2.-TYPICAL SPECIMEN OF CIBO-
TIUM MENZIESII, SHOWING ITS SMOOTH
TRUNK AND RELATIVELY GREAT
HEIGHT COMPARED WITH ITS DIAM-


FIG. 3.-TYPICAL SPECIMEN OF CIBO-
TIUM SP., KNOWN LOCALLY AS "MEU."
NOTE THE VERY SMALL TRUNK AND
FRONDS












Bul. 53, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station


FIG. 1.-NATURAL PROPAGATION FROM SPORES. AN OLD TREE-FERN
TRUNK LITERALLY COVERED WITH TINY TREE FERNS. THE SPORES
ARE FOUND ON THE UNDERSIDE OF THE MATURE FRONDS


FIG. 2.-CROWNS AND LATERAL SHOOTS USED FOR PROPAGATION
EXPERIMENTS





"4 4
IV
of dewrnUmng
UM porpow -0 the
tree. fern'tor starch prodwAion.,:.. nlim
G4L at the fe1ftowinjjhjpk01R
015100 feet e1eVXtio4):-...:.on 0 nzie ranch at
1k
Roa(L This platls 4dj ac6nt to the forest re
Hawaiii.: It iiused as a pasture and contains a Aft,
-,(if tree ferns. The., expe6noiit wa naade here to de-
the tree fern couldle successfully. planted. on areas
4onuded of their orig-mial gr owth and on which there

I bat (21000 fm.t elevation), located, 2 miles above
ihe, olcano, p s
,V -Road. This lat was selected because it it'
of *U excellent tree-%rn growth and is easy of access.
fig. Ly
Plat (.2,9M feet elevation), located 4, miles north of the
..'A6iA at, 18 Miles..-, This plat is in an area now being cut
ip stamh production. It fePresents ideal conditions as to
-the tree fern would be planted.
'1 and: the like under which
included crowns, and largei small,' And medium
ts of each of the several species. Comparative
'Were made to determine: -the effect on growth of varyIng
6f the ststreh core attsched to the cuttings, drying the
before planfiig, planting at different depths, in different
,sofi And at --various altit des.: Since this work was di
-14fore the effect of these v ious. factors on the growth.
fem Was deter.mined,.. thc eneral conclusions of the
are,,gqVen.
red conditions, such. ats existed at the Mill plat, all
Jutoiml shoots were slccessfully propagated, regardless
silwonetbod of planting., ov length of attached, starch core
2). Fully 70 per cent of the small, undeveloped shoots,
detached fi-om. the starch core of the parent tree,

laiitkigs made in.Ahe open pa.,9ture on the Volcano plat
growth during the cool, moist winter months, but
dry, hot summer months. Other plantings, made in
a ad., lived. aud: gave, results similar to
at themill lat.
ttrkf) it is, cooclu thati Und6r true forest conditions, an
go of thm successful plantings or sets can be made from each
Am f6m ; and t6t the starch: coro- of the parent tree need not
toL the plantings or sets, It sekm evident therefore, that
area could be, succemf0y. replanted without interference
pvodueAioiK, 'and that tho density of growth could'be
incv"oed to a MaXIMUM.
ASTOODS OV GlkOIWTH
AJ
t,16riine how fa-st ilie tree-fern trunk it was f4
Aara tho nature and m0hod.of its growth. For this
W149 maWiof the lateral growth of the trunk, the'
n the t growth, at the base, of the tnniki T
the trumk.
11A








n ..bi ,r
negligibleMsIn
ately surroun
O ]hard, brittle ;c.
uri=g one-fourth to f
inch in thice% wai
0. 1 Wenty is incapable
growth or expansfia .
\ (/ Lout of eight;: twa
G( core wak. fouid Ato
Q M ciably larger at ti. i
0 JI at the bottom of "
I which shows that
fern growr-fromn.
Itl) eral shoot or spore W|l.
size, the core grows ,
spondingly larger .itt
only;and that the ptt
formed does not in
C\ U X ^ diameter. Manytwi
found inm which
core tapers almost tOCa
11 at the base. Trees.,
l7 A from very large latenV "
J0show little tapering I
core, and trees resu' .P.
'0 \the turned-up crown 41
2 \large fallen tree shotO
VI (I^A \ at all. It is true .
V ( gross diameter of th..e'
especially of the species :
HU Iwnwsii, increases m0
the growth of the tree,4|
SI\ j! this increase is due en
cZ M f7t- & tb the increase in nb
of the air-feeding roo"W
C bi ng up the outer bark .
tree.
That there is no .A
growth within the t l
QS except at its apex, is sh
by the fact that the vert
distance between frondn
k W /y~r~l-V J /on the same spiral is:
0SA, same regardless of w
the measurements are
at the bottom or at3
top of the trunk.:
vertical distance would. .
FIG. 1.-Graph showing the spiral arrangement ta isan w u
of tree-fern fronds, a gradual decre i.
'n.
', .*:: E E

4.:.
i
::; aI






HAWAIlAN TB=f FERN AS A SOURCE OF STARCH


f bottom to top if there were an appreciable growth within the
trunk.
Many- species of monocotyledonous trees show an increase of
growth at the base of the trunk, as is frequently evidenced by the
dead roots which are found covering 2 or 3 feet of the base of the
tree trunk. That this is not the case with the tree fern is shown
by the uniform occurrence of pits from which the fronds once pro-
truded along the entire length of the trunk. It would seem, there-
ftr that such growth in the tree-fern trunk is negligible.
S T method of growth at the top of the trunk, however, is very
1 striking. In the early spring new fronds or leaves develop, a corn-
circle of new fronds averaging five in number emerging from
"te heart of the crown at practically the same stage of development
: (PI. IV, fig. 1). These fronds attain full size within about three
Months after the time of their appearance and remain on the tree
from 18 to 24 months. An occasional immature frond can be found
t:. on the tree after the first five fronds develop.
METHOD OF DETERMINING THE RATE OF GROWTH
: When the outer bark is stripped from the tree fern, or when an old
log in which the starch core has decayed is split open, the fronds are
S observed to be arranged in definite spirals. Figure 1 represents
graphically the surface of a tree-fern log from which the outer bark
has been removed to disclose the location of the frond attachments,
Regarded as a hollow cylinder cut lengthwise and laid out flat. The
ellipses represent frond pits or the openings in the bark from which
Sthe fronds protruded.
A number of different spirals are apparent in the diagram. Among
the more obvious are those parallel to the lines o-d', n-d', and mt-a',
U" respectively.
The arrangement of fronds was found to be the same on a large
S number of stripped tree-fern logs, and the spiral combination of 3, 5,
And 8 fronds could readily be counted. The only difference noted
was in the direction of growth of each spiral, which was clockwise
on some trees and counterclockwise on others.
Since probably a circle averaging five fronds is developed each
spring, each of the five spirals would seem to be annually represented
Pi by one frond. If this were true, or if the average yearly number of
fronds per tree showed little variation in the different trees, it would
be necessary only to measure the vertical distance between two frond
p pits on one of the five spirals to determine the annual growth of the
r (PL IV, fig. 2).
To determine the correctness of this assumption, the fronds of a
number of trees growing at different altitudes were marked with
copper tags at each frond-setting period and the trees were visited
Once a year. Usually, it was not difficult to distinguish the new
fronds. The species Hapu (Cibotium chaumssoi), which is the only
ftw used to any extent for starch production, was selected for this


























































frond pits, eight trees (Uibotinm oani oi), grwi.g tm.
I plat, were stripped of their bark and ntaiurenaets',
their diameter, length, -weight, and. theCiiktO.Th,:3
with the rate of growth as computed b, thte.::
: ,;i, i: .,: ,. ., .: :
given in Table 2: .. .



f-P



........ .. ..... .. ..
.... ".. ..... ... ....,,"...,
.. .... .K ..
,. ', .. : ": .: ** :. *, : -,,i,. .,' ....


y .... .............

r ':K :'



1:::::: ':. .. -** ; *.*; i :***,,*' :
..- .".: :: "EI...E .: ::;;::t^_ ^ ____






:;.:.. '...: .*" .....K:.,2, .::,













Bul. 53. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station


iFiG. I.-TREE FERNS GROWN FROM CROWNS AT GLENWOOD SUBSTATION
(HAWAII)


FIG. 2.-TREE-FERN HEDGE GROWN FROM CROWNS


PLATE III
















Pw ji




4,
IF













<
m













F I








TREE FERN. EAHSRNGA vFOD.TR




1+-1-








of garch 00re: it
agnually

(d) (e)
Diameter of starch Vortical Esti-
CM distance mated
between starch
weight Lengtk Annual lei
succemive .Oh Coto
ofstarch of starch vertical of time
fronds produced
can care growth 2 required
for annually4
Top Bottom 5-spiral growth 8

Pouab Inches Inches Inches Inch ej Inches Years Pounds
.34.5 66 5.4 3.8 4.12 4.44 14.9 2.31
-------- 64 65 7.3 6.7 4.06 4.38 14.8 4.32
--------- 76 80 6.1 4 4-32 J& 5 4.11
-------- .97 128 & 8 '& 4 4.57 493 26 3.35
S& 5 72 6.1 4.1 4.5 4.85 14.8 95
-------- 7i 5 101 5.7 4.5 3.49 3.76 26.9 2.7
15 33 & 1 4.5 4.13 4.45 7.4 2.03
--------- 41 3.8 2.43 3.41 3.68 11.1 .99
------ --------- 4.35 2.97

AMMOM Eft Used in thW6 WmPutatioW bemuse the coefficient of error in measure
In em of the 3,-Spw.
-b 5.30, divided by


AwOws: that the average vertical growth of the tree fern is
and, average$-.4.315 inches annually, and that the an-
6f. Starch, subject to wide-variations due to differ.
eter of the starchcore. The, annual increment in starch
2.97 pounds.
of the bar.k of X, large numb& of trees growing at V#ry'
were slabbed off to of measuring the distmuce
Per
ve fmn& for a distance of about 1 foot. Te: data
while only approximate, would seem to show that the rate
of the trft..
fWrn iS Prmfically constant between sea level
of 3 500 feet. Measurements of other sp *es of tree
that tbeY make about the same rate of growthas does

slow rate of growth of the tree fern brings into very
the foisibility of planting Cutt' ..of 'different parts
pr-odue0on.. It,76.uld reqmTe st least 20.. years to grow
6f sUfficient S=*O to cut for star&, smibe it has been found
W clit trees, ha- Ie than 60-ound starch core.
ig a rather prohibitive length of time,. especially for a
r 1 .6 wait f6r replanted aregs to furnish new material.
6f the ib:,estigations it was concluded that while the
bo, sucoessf ully planted on cut-over areas,- its rate of
tm slow 0 make such a procedure advisable under present
4,
POSITION OF THE CORE
ore the outer fibrous
to" J the c sheath aild tha
pW fromA. ne yoll -whit cor6
ing ucing sugars wers
sAd the nonredue' and red
"tal KOS
A'








the rest of the analysis. .
The results are given in Table 3, which includes also, ..f..
of comparison, the chemical composition of the potato'.flU
canna, both of which are grown for commercial starch ...

TAB 3.-Comparison of the chemical composition of the tree-fem"
that of the potato and edible caeas tubers

Tree Trfe
fern ( C. Edble ;.
Constituent Potato Constituent
_a nis- _t C690 .. ..... A:'|-

Water---------------- 73.39 78.30 72.162 Fiber---------------. L-57 4,:14 11,
Protein----------------. .95 2.20 .98 N-free extract 229 *:t
Fat-...--------- ----------.06 .10 .11 Nonreducingsugars... .31 i.;
Ash------------------ 1. 04 1.00 1.40 Reducing sugars--.- 3-

From Table 3 it will be seen that in chemical compositioinLa.,
of the tree fern is very similar to the ordinary tuber a...
might be expected, it contains rather large amounts :l
sugars. In view of the peculiar manner of growth of the tr,..
it is very probable that the sugar content varies considerably i.r-
different sections of the core as well as in different seasons. '
The tree-fern core is apparently equal to other starch Ga.. i
stock feed. It is eaten readily by cattle and hogs, probably....
of its high sugar content. The new, tender fronds form thol
important part of the forage for stock pasturing in a tree-femlI
est; and the heart of the trunk is also eaten when it can be
Were it not for the prohibitive amount of labor required td"I,
open these trunks, the tree fern undoubtedly would have a..i...
tant place among the stock feeds of the tree-fern forest ri t
The core of the tree is not palatable as human food. It
peculiar flavor and is rather fibrous. The tender, undeveloped
are sometimes cooked as a vegetable, but the core as such has "
become of practical importance. ''.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TREE-FERN STARCHES
Samples of starch were prepared from the species Hapu ( .T....h
chamis8oi), Meu (Cibotium sp.), Hapu lii or Heii (. m
and Amau (Sadleria cyatheoides) Microscopic exaansatfr4
photomicrographs were then made of each. The characteristi4
each starch as they appeared when magnified 220 diameters
found to be as follows: *


(1) Hapu (C. chamissoi). (PL V, fig. 1.)
Size, 0.01 to 0.05 millimeter. Varying sizes in about equal prop
shape, irregular oval, occasionally kidney-shaped, in large sizes, but I
disks, with a few truncated forms in the small sizes; hilum, annular, witi
longitudinal rifts, depressed, usually central in small sizes; rings, 0*
very distinct, with a very pronounced ring in most of the larger gr
midway between the hilum and the outter edge; polarizer, very bilia
cross at central axis...
!: i ..


SMethods of analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chen "
p. 71. Revised tI Nov. 1, 1919, Washington, D. C., 1920.
*The Individuals of each species selected for these samples were a nearly tn
mens as could be found. No botanical identification was made of thms, 5i0e
in comparatively pure strains, and no difficulty was had in differentiating bWtW


t: -;
";..: *.jf
.... :;,,ia!


,8...
; :






S H.WAII&N TRUE FERN AS A SOURCE OF STARCH 11

(00b00m sp.). (PL V, fig. 2.)
0.W01 to 0.05 millimeter (long axis); shape, usually elongated disk
_ielarge sizes, but round to oval in the small sizes, and a few truncated
*1 idney-shaped in all sizes; hilum, usually annular, depressed, eccentric;
B1 K complete, very distinct; polarizer, distinct cross at hilum.
|jt-iBapu III or Heli (0. menziesii). (Pl. VI, fig. 1.)
'BluQe, 001 to 0.04 millimeter; shape, round to oval, occasionally truncated
d angular; hilum, annular, central, depressed; rings, very pronounced, con-
*etrlc, complete; polarizer, very distinct cross at hilum.
*.;I) Amiau (Sadleris cyatheoides). (PI. VI, fig. 2.)
i' 'lwe, mostly colloidal dextrins, with starch grains of extremely minute size.
ji4A'b,i M.:areh can not be separated from the grated mass by sedimentation; size,
Q',i k) to 0.03 millimeter; shape, round to oval; hilum, usually central, annular,
f.pressed; rings, distinct on large granules, and complete; polarizer, well-
iikii i c cross at hilum.
7j; The illustrations and morphological descriptions show that the
oE..ur starches possess many of the same characteristics, the chief
Differences being in size and shape. Considered from the standpoint
Sof the physical characteristics of the starch granules, each of the
i f four species could be used for starch production. As a matter of
Sfact, the starch of Cibotium chamissoi is very much to be preferred
{ to that of the other three species. The starch of both 0. menziesii
S and Men, in addition to being of small diameter, contains such large
quantities of dextrins and other colloidal matter as to make the
W separation of the starch difficult. The starch of Sadleria cyatheoides-
is manifestly unsuitable.
.,. VISCOSITY
Since the viscosity curve of a starch, when transformed by boiling
I water into "soluble starch," is useful in showing its general proper-
S ties, determination was made of the viscosity of tree-fern starch,
S and likewise of corn and arrowroot starches for purposes of compari-
:]. son. The method of procedure was as follows: Varying amounts
...... of starch were weighed into 100 cubic centimeter flasks graduated at
..800 C. with 10 cubic centimeters of cold water. Boiling water was
4 added with vigorous shaking, and the flasks were made up to the
mark at 80 C. with hot water. The flasks were then placed in boil-
i g water for one hour without agitation, after which they were
( quickly cooled to 80 C. with as little agitation as possible, and the
v viscosity was determined with a Saybolt universal viscosimeter at
S that temperature. Duplicate determinations by the above arbitrary
Sprocedure agreed with fair accuracy. Any variation in procedure,
I however, caused very large differences in the result. For example,
. vigorous shaking during cooking decreased the viscosity as much as
S 50 per cent. Variations in temperature and time of cooking also
ii caused appreciable deviations. The results are graphically given in
I! Figure 2.
i ~ The concentration of starch solution necessary to produce a defi-
1 nite hydrogel when cooled was determined by pouring 10 cubic cen-
t timneters of the hot starch solution used for determining the viscosity
i.:nto test tubes one-half inch in diameter. The tubes were placed
I i water at about 18 C. and allowed to remain unagitated for one
hor. They were then inverted. The minimum concentration neces
,' ..sary to keep the mass from flowing down the inverted tube was
I termed its "gelling strength." The gelling strength of cornstarch,.
K. tree-fern starch, and arrowroot starch was found to be 4.25, 5, and
S5.25 per cent, respectively.








impwt, ant,

2, A
per cent of arroyripot rker C 'p-A
oornstsrch. Above' 3 per qj
sbArp 'increase. A 1-gam.. inarment, eausm ali,
11 to 61 *hems, a, Rite inieftinknt of tree
the concentrations of 2 and 3 1 r ("*ent, rosp"04hd.$.,
of 1 to, 3. As the, @onmntradon. ioeroasec),, 4e'`Oe i
4tapch. curves, practically comeick TU,,ar rowmotli




r
won






J..
AO


AW
t, k

C-1.



JK v I
J:











War, 2--.-Comparlam 99 tue VWCONity Ot treop.

show' ater v. scqs4 th t4akof,: *firl" Arl,%
geueral nature.
41
gemIng the three. St4r, Wevo
of their vise tarv so ..Ion
I s. A cor,
4,75 f iff gel, when coo ed 'a t
qe 4 ViSCOAY Of,27 t forn
-equired from tbxee t.o wg hqur Q
i$jW,*r, and yet P4 4.5 per mut
The
411,1 Iqu
istin ornstiMi f 6rins 7 7











































FIG. I.-STARCH GRANULES OF
(HAPU). MAGNIFIED


ClBOTIUM CHAMISSOI
220 TIMES


FIG. 2.-STARCH GRANULES OF ClBOTIUM SP. (MEU'. MAG-
NIFIED 220 TIMES














...... ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ii ~ i ii illli~iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiilll0 iiiiiiiii




::: :::::::::::::: : ::::::::::












i ii ii












iii








Bul. 53, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station


FIG. 1.-THE STARCH CORE OF THE TREE-FERN TRUNK, SHOWING THE
LARGE STARCH CORE AND THIN BARK OF THE CIBOTIUM CHAMISSOI
(LEFT), AND THE SMALL STARCH CORE AND THICK, DENSE BARK OF C.
MENZIESII (RIGHT). THE FORMER SPECIES IS THE ONE USED FOR
STARCH PRODUCTION


FIG. 2.-AN 80-POUND STARCH CORE WHICH
IS READY FOR THE SHREDDER


PLATE VII






. .




: i '














!i :I
fiwn maftrch has been put on the market both as a laundry it
plid as a food. It is claimed that only half the concentration.
ttfor cornstarch is required for tree-fern starch for laundry
-Reference to Figure 2 bears out this claim to some extent,.
lper eent solution of tree-fern starch has a viscosity equal
rt^nt of cornstarch, which is about the usual concentration-
*' laundering.
W the physical properties of tree-fern starch are simhnlr to
t'te? arrowroot, the former is being advocated as a substitute
16ittr for invalids and infants. Although Figure 2 slow&
.iK* 1e strength than arrowroot starch has, its cost is only
jtAaare than cornstarch and only a small fraction of that of
H Kaii, tree-fern starch is largely used as a mixture with poi.P,
se simply cooked with water and added to the poi. The-
00.ri is materially reduced by adding the starch to it, its.
improved, and the rate of fermentation desirebly
fitlte claims are substantiated by the fact that practi-
tan institutions using poi now incorporate tree-fem

S'u.ttbstitute for cornstarch, tree-fern starch is not gener-
Figure 2 shows that at a concentration of 4.25 per
about the concentration necessary to produce a corn-
ug, tree-fern starch has practically the same strength.
notever, it is, like arrowroot Btarch, son'e-
and tenacious in comparison with cornstarch, which is

*0fteriment made to determine the digestibility of various
Lnwdrthy and.Deuel8 found that 93.4 per cent of
fe-ferg starch was 'assimilated by the human system. They
IMdithat tests of Samples of the feces gave no distinct blue
rbi~odin, which would seem to indicate that "the proportion
V staridh was very small." A1
bho &igestion tests have been conducted with the cooked.
t:hvugft4hat -its digestibility is rather high, due to itW
and its exceptionally easy conversion into soluble

RO MAKING *FROM THEE TREE FERN

any of the different species of tree fern is M*cu t
be found to contain a central starch core- of t~te;1& K f
1 IElosing thi core is a very hard, inner&bba. ..k .


*1 1 .01a1
HMHB^^fc ^^ part -of thenative diet, is msd Iroi aj ftra5 l^^^^
I~aiDUU^ ^r-ndW" and. thb allowed. to feirmentf ri"
2^~l ) N1'P 25&D teetibility of raw rm .I..
|Mj||^J||Hj^ andpotato ftarphes. :..,*: -l^^^^^^^

I .4
I I I, I I4
*~~ ... I 4. ......







"l'hese appear as air-teedmng roots attached to the:. '....
which die and form a part of the outer bark of the truili
An examination of the different species shows th4l
charmimsoi contains a relatively large starch core and a
covering, and that even the largest specimens of 07.
tain a small core and a very thick outer bark (PL. V ;II.
Since the removal of the bark is a time-consuming operatio'J:
0. chamissoi is to be preferred, of the two varieties. foz$
making, because it has a larger core and a thinner bark. it
-erable also because it contains no dextrins and, other ..materf.
clog the shredding machine and prevent a complete. .s.
of the starch, as is the case with C. meniesea. The other....
to their small size, contain cores too small to be of impo
-starch production. ...
The first operation in securing the starch core is that of:i:.
off the outer fibrous bark as well as the inner shell. The I
slabbed with a broad-bladed ax while the tree isstanding, th
man beginning as near the top as he can reach and workin..l
As much as possible of the bark is removed while the tremi S
After the tree has been felled, the remainder of the bark.simiiB
-off. The core appears as a yellowish-white log, aver1agiitg
inches in diameter, 3 to 10 feet in length, and 30 to 100 p Mul
-weight (P1. VII, fig. 2). The logs are then carried to th.:..
road by donkeys and thence' to the mill by truck. They si.
milled within 36 hours after cutting to avoid hydrolysis aM
mentation. Deterioration will not be so rapid if the inner bg1
left on the log, but the already heavy cost of hauling will Hi
-creased by the added weight. i
Experiments in preserving the starch log under water w1.i.
successful, due apparently to the partial hydrolysis of the starl
dextrins with a resultant stickiness that interfered materiali
the process of extraction. ma :tilyf
A skilled workman, felling trees averaging 50 pounds to the S
core, should be able to cut about 1,000 pounds a day. Only t:
tons of starch core can be cut from an acre of C. chamissoi, sino i
mature trees alone are used for starch production. ",1-
Upon its arrival at the mill the starch core is cleansed of adh
-soil and bark chips. It is then reduced to pulp by means of &
shredder. The shredder used in this investigation consiat
.cylinder of sheet iron which has been fitted on a wooden corM:
given a roughened surface by having the perforations pu0::1i
through from the inside. Water is used copiously.: t
the shredding process to prevent the cylinder from becoming .c.
The pulp is then run into a revolving screen, where it is spray,
fresh water. The screen has a tendency to agitate and contm
its inner surface wooden cleats which facilitate washing
free from starch. The milky starch water is run into wo
of about 500-gallons capacity, and the starch is purified
mentation. The wet, purified starch is then put into sugar lon
fuges, which remove a considerable part of the water at mU t
-cost than would be involved in drying the starch :by.Be
: 0::i." .
.: ...:.. ... iii. l !..
: '- ::IC ii
I.: ...




[i~lr ..........q...
HAWAIIAN TREE FERNT AS A SOURCE OF STARCH 15
.i.t.ary Starch drier removes the remainder of the water. The dried
: tarach is then powdered and put into 1-pound packages for market.
:;:, COST OF THE RAW MATERIAL
H Strange as it may seem, the cost per ton of landing the starch
core at the mill is greater than is the cost of production of most
of the common starch crops in Hawaii. The following prices per
ton prevail for landing the raw material at the mill at Hilo, Hawaii,
A from the tract located 4 miles north of the Volcano Road at 18 Miles:
SCutting and stripping logs $6.50, making donkey trails and carrying
I logs to road $1, trucking to Hilo $3.50, total $11.
Pk The first item is a fixed cost and could not be materially changed
Sat the present wage scale in Hawaii. The making of donkey trails
*. would increase in cost as it became necessary to exploit more remote
areas; and shipping by rail to Hilo would not materially cheapen
transportation charges since the main difficulty lies in getting the
Material from the forests to the main road. It is apparent, there-
Sfore, that the above listed items can not well be reduced under pres-
*. ent conditions.
: FUTURE OF THE INDUSTRY
The development of the tree-fern starch industry in Hawaii is
5 seriously handicapped by the high cost of the raw material (starch
l core), and the very slow rate of growth of the tree which makes it
Simpracticable to establish a permanent starch-producing area. The
i industry might become permanently established in Hawaii by mar-
Sketing the starch as a special-purpose starch rather than in direct
c; competition with cornstarch as a food, or with potato starch for in-
H dustrial uses. The amount used for special purposes would, of
H course, be limited, but the market price could be placed sufficiently
high to compensate for the high cost of raw material.
| In considering the possibilities of this industry in other tropical
co: g; cerintage of the total cost of production is fqr labor. Only a small
capitall. is required to start the industry. The tree-fern lands are
usually of very little value for any other purpose, and can be leased
S at a nominal rental; and-the starch extraction machinery is rela-
tively inexpensive. The actual starch extraction process costs less
than a cent a pound of finished product. It is evident, therefore,
.. that in countries where labor costs are only a fraction of what they
| are in Hawaii the cost of producing tree-fern starch could be greatly
Reduced and might well be brought to a sufficiently low figure to per-
anit of commercial production. This is, of course, based on the
: assumption that the species of tree ferns found elsewhere are equally
y-as well adapted to starch production as is Cibotium chamissoi.
SUMMARY
-' The Hawaiian Islands contain many thousands of acres of tree-
~~ern forests from which starch can be extracted.
iThIree species are found in Hawaii, only one of which, Hapu

.. ....-
il;: ,.1 :

Iti, :,i'.
..HH ,P,.-









age of three plantings or sets can be secured from each
fern. ...
The station developed a method for determining the rat6.
of the tree fern. This method showed the vertical gro h:wth 11iiH
4.35 inches a year, which means that it would require 20
tree fern to reach sufficient size for starch production. S
rate of growth makes it commercially impracticable to P
tings from different parts of the tree fern, or to build," '
roads or fences for the purpose of obtaining the raw m
The high costs involved in securing raw material pr" V
possibility of the starch becoming a competitor with tiht
commercial starches, and likewise limit its use to special..
commanding a high market price. With the cheap labot'r.i
in many of the tropical countries, however, the costs co'tlt
duced to a fraction of what they are in Hawaii.
In chemical composition the core of the tree fern is simieida14
of other starch crops, especially of edible canna. .
Morphologically, the starches of the different species of treqi
are very similar, differing chiefly in size, but also somewhat in d.
Tree-fern starch is used both as a food and for laundry 7: ..
It is markedly superior to cornstarch for laundry purposesY',1
waii the starch is used chiefly in the preparation of poi iii
Although the development of the tree-fern starch tniinu
seriously handicapped by the high cost of securing the raw::''.
data have been secured which would make possible, inx
emergency, the production on short notice of sufficient starcI
the need of the local population. i

..:: ,1' : a
"

"i:i


__________________,______,___________._________ *i [.r:
ADDITIQN4L COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FKM ..
THE SUPERINTENDENT Or DOCUMENTS "
GOV3MNT PINFROTING 9 M ,
WASHINGTON, D. C. i
fl* **- T
10 CENTS PER COPY .



..... ........ .i
:- ":irisd
m .

\i |!i


..:..1:
":: U::: E
:. -i:: ,.
:".'' !










X* lk,_

















T



iL
A'
7
A

AA
-`4 1, AiL


V, el 141 4k
_7


C, r



At,

zk
V
'$to






Sw

4*
A4






5,






4'.








p-







Or
V.





r4L









-10



T4




UNIVERSITY OF L
111 11 11OFFOI DAI11
11111 li2?8SB9SB"*iiiilitlli




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E45ATTFBS_66G9OC INGEST_TIME 2014-07-17T21:19:56Z PACKAGE AA00014562_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES