Composition of Hawaiian soil particles

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Title:
Composition of Hawaiian soil particles
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
12 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McGeorge, W. T ( William Thomas ), 1886-
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Soils -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Composition -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Wm. T. McGeorge.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613032
oclc - 16324263
Classification:
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 32-50
System ID:
AA00014558:00001


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TION OF HAWAIIAN 8

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.J IlL. .VV WSITUATEi, .17I UInWUIVa6 IV Li yflurl 7.
SJ. EDGAR HIGGINS, Horticulturist. .. :.
M. 0. JoHNSON,1 Chemist. '
F. G. KRAuss, Superintendent of Extension Work.
J. B. THOMPsoN, Assistant Agronomist, in Charge of Olenwood S4if
ALICE R. THOMPSON, Assistant Chemist.
V. S. HOLT, Assistant Horticulturist.
C. A. SAHR, Assistant Agronomist.
A. T. LONGLEY, In Charge of Cooperative Marketing Investigations.



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATItON::
Honolulu, Hawaii, December 14, I:
SiR: I have the honor to submit herewith, and recommend for public
Bulletin No. 42 of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, a man
entitled "The Composition of Hawaiian Soil Particles," by Wm. T. Mc0e
Formerly chemist of this station. The variations in Hawaiian soils as c
with the soils of the mainland of the United States are so great and un.
as to make it of economic importance to determine as many as possible of
fundamental causes of the variations. As pointed out in the accomps
manuscript, the size of the particles of different Hawaiian soils bears a
relation to their composition. :
Respectfully, J. M. WESTGATE,:
Agronomist in Chargp
Dr. A. C. TRUE,
Director States Relations Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Publication recommended.
A. C. TRUE, Director.
Publication authorized.
D. F. HOUSTON, Secretary of Agriculture.

SAppointed July 25, 1915, to succeed Wm. T. McGeorge, transferred to U. S. Deia
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry.
(2)

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CONTEONUTSO.
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4, Oetrmnaio of hms theprmy characterisig"Flwia oflsi the wd

Sam copsiin, as wellars cetin, of its properties, was found

berdical di ~ret from that in mainland soils. Chief among
anorma proeties is -the incomplete coagulation when coag-
are aded. This is especially true in case of addition of
oujn ten which has been successfully used on mainland
for the coagulton of clay in humus extracts.
Thsnecui arity- othe clay has led to a study of the composition
tecoagulable an noncoagulable grains and a further invdstiga-
--ton pon th compostion of the clay, -fine silt, silt, fine sand, and
emrsesand sparats in the imigortant Hawaiian types of soil differ-
ni color, chemia composition, and physical properties.
OIIN OF HAWAIIAN SOILS.
Order toundersand clearly the composition of the so1Il separates,
-it snecessary to kno something of the origin of Hawaiian soils,
atlestthe three posble sources from which they may be derived,
pamlvolcanic lvvolcanic ash, and coral sand. As, with the
excptinof sall ara near the sea, coral. snd need not be con-
4deedas a akri soil formation in the islands, and as there is
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uagnesit (Xgu) ................
Potash (K2O)...............
Soda (NaO)..................
Sulphur trioxid (803)........
Phosphorus pentoxid (PsOs)....
Titanic oxid (Ti 0s)............
Moisture.....................


O. JL
.89
2.44
.20
.38
4.07
1.02


.84
2.64
.61
.28
4.07
.94


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. O9
2.70
.51
.22
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Lava. Volanic ash. "i


Constituents. From hawaii. From Maul. A. i


Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample SamlT 1
No. 504. No. 505. No. 519. No. 506. No. 507. T.

Per cent. Per Per ce. eent. Per cen.. Per P cenmt. Per silut
Silica (SiO) .................. 51.25 49.94 50.69 45.54 48.98 8 .8
Alumina (A12O)............... 14.36 14.42 15.62 17.42 16.0 18.08
Ferric oxid (Fe203)............. 3.30 1.04 .49 8.60 7.08 10.40
Ferrous oxid (FeO)............. 6.43 8.01 4.65 ..........: ...........,
Manganese oxid (Mn04) ....... .44 .20 .28 1.17 .18 .4
Lime(CaO)).................. 10.65 11.59 11.14 8.90 7.16 9., .-
Magnesia (MgO)............... 9.12 9.08 6.55 6.14 6.58 .84
Potash (KW O).................. .64 .80 .90 1.82 1.32 :
Soca (Na2sO ................... 1.96 1.79 .2.56 2.92 2.62 10.20
Sulphur trioxid (SO).......... .33 .33 .78 .36 .48 .18 s
Phosphorus pentoxid (PWO).... 17 .26 .34 .63 .59 .70
Titanic oxid (TiO) ........... 2.36 2.86 5.53 6.00 6.60 S.
Moisture ...................... 0 0 .10 .74 .1.55 .09


Samples A, B, E, and F are from unaltered lava in the WNab
district of Oahu. Nos. 501 to 505, inclusive, are from the difK
flows of Mauna Loa on the Island of Hawaii. No. 501 was t
from the flow of 1823 and had undergone a slight decompolm
No. 502 was taken from the flow of 1868 and showed slight ch
in appearance, due probably to hydration and leaching; N4.
came from the flow of 1883; No. 504 from that of 1907; 4
505 from the small overflow of 1910 at Kilauea. No. 519 is a s


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Samples A, B, E, and F are the unaltered lava, while '
H are the adjacent weathered products or soil formed
respective lava samples. These samples were taken by W..:
from gulches on Oahu, where large exposed lava bowldii
undergone weathering to such an extent that samples may bi
showing all stages of disintegration from the unaltered lavri
the soil. The alkalis and silica are the most soluble cot
and the former are almost entirely leached away in the pr6
disintegration. The iron is rapidly oxidized to the ferric e
accompanied by a change to red, yellow, or brown soil, depend
the state of hydration.


I. '


SELECTION OF SOIL TYPES.


In selecting soils for this investigation, the policy of ielectinj
the more important soil types, adopted in previous soil studio
this laboratory, was pursued. The impossibility of drawing
clusions from results obtained from one type of Hawaiian soi
been brought out in previous bulletins of this station. The mej
ical and chemical composition of the soils used are given in tl
lowing tables:
Mechanical analyses of the soils.

Soil Soil Soil Soil Soil Soil Soil Soi..l
Soil particles. No.164. No. 291. No.292. No.339. No.392. No.428. No.448. No.474. P,
--------------------------- ------ ---------
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent Percent. Percent. Per cent. Percent.
Clay............... 21.10 59.35 7.23 19.19 7.87 0.69 6.85 5.24
Finesilt............ 51.70 12.13 12.41 22.37 19.36 1.76 20.00 24.30
Silt................ 19.50 7.28 8.69 20.42 13.93 5.38 13.45 18.00i
Fine sand.......... 3.79 7.46 22.04 18.13 35.71 15.83 16.31 30.70:
Coarse sand......... .39 18.75 .22 10.22 32.82 8.60 3.4
Fine gravel......... 0 20.91 .13 ......... 13.81 1.94
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Clay................ 19.21 15.30 11.53 15.85 16.O' 1g8o 31
Fine silt.......... 15.30 18. 98 13.36 15.81 16.4 18.05 30 -l
ilt ................. 45.80 20.60 18.28 20690 18.00 16;(LI 1. M
Fine sand.......... 39.25 32.15 29.05 80.00 18.2 17.98 24.9
Coarsesand........ ........ 28.92 17O 20.95 18.0 16.60 70

... .i: .:i. ...
ALUMINA CONTENT.

Clay...... ......... 32.9 2. 3 30.88 40.89 42.92 47.0 .4
Fine silt........... 28.95 26.52 29.51 87.95 39.05 $6.68 36.44.
Silt................. 13.72 23.93 25.64 34.24 40.GA 24.16 34.7
Fine sand.......... 30.82 22.48 10.94 26.05 38.98 90.72 41.141 .
Coarse sand......... .. 33.37 13.60 34.75 49.1 28.87 2.342


TITANIUM CONTENT. .. .
"__ -. .:..:...::

Clay............... 8.91 3.45 3.16 2.92 2.77 3.62 4.i 2
Finesilt........... 15.29 4.72 3.31 4.52 8.70 3.80 9 5.
Silt................. 26.50 6.40 5.47 7.22 5.79 8, 7,48 .
Fine sand.......... 21.45 4.38 5.68 8.37 5.4 4.80 7?.8 :
Coarse sand........ ......... 2.99 1.79 '2.94 3.34 3.85 .4

PHOSPHORIC ACID CONTE.NT.

Clay................ 0.39 0.47 1.70 0.84 0.91 1.32 1.5 4.4
Finesilt............ 1.76 1.53 2.22 1.02 2.08 1.58 1.74 4
Silt ............... .25 .57 .81 .54 .15 .67 81 LI
Fine sand.......... .68 .66 .53 .54 .41 .65 1
Coarse sand................. .95 .61 .61 .38 .
-"---- ------ --*". ---: ^*..
MNGAGANESE CONTENT. .

Clay............... 0.20 0.54 l.11 0.04 6.84 0 .11
Finesilt............ .29 .55 .39 .45 2.43 1.08
Silt................. .60 1.30 .97 .54 3.18 l.41
Fine sand.......... .40 .68 .061 .41 5.12 .49 .4 :
Coarse sand................ 2.60 1.24 1.88 3.75 1.1 .

LIME CONTENT.

Clay................ 0.72 1.09 1.56 1.11. 1.25 2.46 1.23 t.Si
Fine silt............ .96 1.73 3.29 .97 1.63 1 6.48 1.R U.I
Silt.................. .30 1.47 .83 .92 1.66 5.00 1.1$ 6.S4
Fine sand.......... 1.04 8.50 1.10 .98 .90 $.28 2. :
Coarse sand.............. 1.33 4.37 1.79 1.24 7.68 f .L


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in largest amount in the coarse grains. Lime is an extremely::
constituent in Hawaiian soils, and its presence or a~bq :E '
fluenced to a marked degree by weathering agents.
Magnesia.-Magnesia, being similar to lime in most 0f it
erties, is found distributed in the soil grains with irlatisiiI
very much in the same way as lime. Hawaiian soils areii|
uniformly higher in magnesia than in lime. Lime is app|
present in larger amounts than magnesia in the clay part
PROPERTIES OF THE SOIL PARTICLES.
Coarse sand.-Under this head are classed all particlesfroui
to 1 millimeter in diameter. It might be expected that these par
would more closely resemble lava in composition, since disi
tion has not progressed far, but in most cases leaching has b
complete that there is little difference in composition whether
soil is derived from volcanic ash or lava. Soil No. 291 is a t
ported type derived from volcanic ash, and the sand grains
be composed primarily of a complex magnesium silicate. No.
is a soil derived from the same ash but through the action of dif
ent weathering agents.
Fine sand.-This division includes all grains ranging in size fr'
0.04 to 0.2 millimeter in-diameter. In passing from coarse to l:
sand, the soil particles show a tendency toward an increase in s
titanium, and iron, and a decrease in alumina. In certain
which titanium is abundant, silica is present in very small
in the coarse particles.
Silt.-The next division consists of particles ranging in size
0.01 to 0.04 millimeter in diameter. In passing from fine sand
there is a further increase in silica content, while the iron and al=
present no uniform change, some samples showing an increase,
these constituents, others a decrease.
Fine silt.-These particles vary in size from 0.002 to 0.01 mill
in diameter. The silica content varies from 20.70 to 44.75 per
Hawaii Sta. Bus. 35 (1914), 38 (1915), 40 (1915).
1Hawaii Sta. Buls. 35 (1914), 38 (1915), 40 (1915). .,:g








0.61 t MIdthe alumina from 26.59 t''8&05 411e7
wit sd m& coarser partiles, fine silt is higher
d I inron.
smales grins 0002 illimeter or less in diameter, in
soil ar refrretoas clay only in so far as this term ap-
theSM*of he oilparicles. Grains taken from a red clay,
diR~elerSfrom 0.00165 to 0.00065 millimeter.
iHaiwaiian clay, silica varies from, 12.4
per ent ferric oxdfrom 10.01 to 25.16 per cent, and alumn
to48-42 percn With the exception of itimthe
'i~onsitu s do no vr y greatly.
]CO of the cla smples were red, yellow, -and brown, the
bf eac color varin considerably. The yellow clays 'were
in ion nd contane the least combined water. This latter
,ijw otnecessaril hold for yellow sofils The clay separated
sol o.448, a yel~ ty pe, had a red color before ignition. All
hadth -ame deptho redness after ignition.
proprtie of thes clys vary as widely as their composition.
Wo. 91,the highes-i silica, was as hard and- brittle as cement
dryng.The othe lays all, remained in the form of a fine
on igtion. The most noticeable of the peculiar properties
casis the actio toward coagulants. Analyses of the co-
adnoncoagulabl grains are submitted herewith.' Four
ofsil were threat according to the official method for de-
ghmus. Treatent with ammonium carbonate of the
extac, which.cna ined large amounts of clay, resulted in a,
caution. Th results are given in the following table;
.f6.oaguted and not coagulated from the humus extract by
# ammonium carbonate.

Scoagulated. Not coaglated.

No 9 No. IM(. No. 105 No. 108. No. 99. No. 101. No. 106.
P Pf ceWt Per ceW er.W Pff cen. Per cen. Pff cet. Per cog
20.... 0 22.24 25.33 23.S0 38.21 38.29 46.01
... 37.38 34.90 34.91 37.84 23.40 1& 14 21.42
..... ............. 3.1 37.33 30.42 31.16 37.39 43.57 32.57

Som Haaiian clay re almost completely coagulated by am-
caronte but itapars that the -action of this salt is greatly
inhbitd i cay hin iron and silica, but low in alumina. The
tuyin oilNo.108 wa entirly coagulated, hence only analysis of

As~~~~~ read h rvnbteen the composition of the dlay and
OTV ie n UMavr ewe idrlmt hni
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The Biochemical Decomposition of Nitrogenous Substa nces
The Soils of the Hawaiian Islands.
Phosphate Fertilizers for Hawaiian Soils, and Their Aval


PRESS BULLETINS.


The Influence of Manganese on the Growth of Pineapples.
The Management of Pineapple Soils.
A Study of Humus in Hawaiian Soils.
The Use of Dynamite in Farming.
The Effect of Arsenite of Soda on the Soil.


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