The soils of the Hawaiian Islands

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Material Information

Title:
The soils of the Hawaiian Islands
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
35 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Kelley, W. P ( Walter Pearson ), b. 1878
McGeorge, W. T ( William Thomas ), 1886-
Merrill, Alice Ranney Thompson, 1883-
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Soils -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Composition -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by W.P. Kelley and Wm. McGeorge and Alice R. Thompson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613077
oclc - 16324218
Classification:
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 32-50
System ID:
AA00014557:00001


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B~ullotirx No. 40.




OF TME HAWAIIAN ISLANDS*,










WM- McGIEORGE

ALICE R. THOMPSON,
Assistat Chemists.






UNDME TZE BUPBRVISON OF
STATES RELATIONS ISERVIC316
V. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUBE.








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HAWAII AltRIUULTUJRAL MAEJL.'JI JI T BTATLUOi .......

[Under the supervision of A. C. TRUE, Director of the States Relations Servoie, UlBf3wi:::
Department of Agriculture.]

WALTER H. EVANS, Chief of Division of Insular Stations, States Relations

STATION STAFF.

J. M. WESTGATE, Agronomist in Charge.
J. EDGAR HIGGINS, Horticulturist.
W. P. KELLEY,1 Chemist.
D. T. FULLAWAY, Efntomologist.
WM. MCGEORGE,- Chemist.
F. G. KnAuss, Superintendent of Extension Work.
ALICE R. THOMPSON, Assistant Chemist.
V. S. HOLT, Assistant Horticulturist.
C. A. SAHR, Assistant in Agronomy.
F. A. CLOWES, Superintendent Hawaii Substations.
S41 Resigned October 27, 1914.
(2)


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Ihve the honor to submit herewith and recommend for
as Bulletin No. 40 of the Hawaii Experimeint Station a
onn Soils of the Hawaiian Islands, by W. P. Kelley,' chemist,
aMcGeorge and Alice R. Thompson, assistant chemists.
spi ivestigations-- of the -station for the past six years have
1 1hled in elucidating Hawaiian soil problems. In the pres,-
.bukti the practical bearings of these scientific investigations


E. V. Wmcox,
Tas,81plecial Agent in Gharge.,
Diedor, Ojee of Ezperiment Statiows
U7. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Fu~caton recommended.
A. Tamum Director.

action authorized
D. F. HotisTob, Secretaty -of Agriculure.
(3)



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n roa uc on.. ...... .... -........... ....... ... ........... ... *,
Origin and formation ......................... .... .......... .. .
Physical properties ................-................ ........... i
Mechanical classification....................... ...... ....
Drainage conditions .................................-.. .. .,
Chemical characteristics....... ...................... ..... :.
Potash ....................... .... ..... ............ ....... -. .
Phosphoric acid.... ......................... ........
Nitrogen............ .................. ... .........-......, .-:-
Peculiar soils.....................................................
Coral sand soils..... ............. .. ...................... ......'.. .:'ii.. i.
Coral sand soils---------------------------------------
Lime-magnesia ratio.................................-.... ...
Acidity of Hawaiian soils.........................................
Ferrous iron.....................................................-... -...
Biological conditions....................................................
Nitrification...................................................
Ammonification........ .........................- .. .............. ...... :.
Soil management............................................. :
Tillage...........................................................
Injurious effect of puddling.. ........................................ .
Rotation of crops...................................... ................ ..
Erosion and drainage .................................................
Use of fertilizers ....................................................
Chemical and mechanical composition of some Hawaiian soils.............. :
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-1L FTE, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.


t of butetin is to discuss briefly the general prop-
similii of the Rawaiian Islamd and to point out the prac-
of the investigtions I that have been made on them.
*ix years the writers have been investigating these soils.
of this work has been Mi the nature of a. soil survey. In
tina large number of 'samples have been collected and
of unusual Peculiarities and soil types have been observed.
beginning this work .-it became apparent that the ami
"'d Rawaiian soils had- not: been scientifically investigated.
10



study had been previously: -devoted to the soils of
but always with reference to special localities or industries.
s2= discusson is based on analyses of samples drawn from
Devoted to sugar cane and his use of the terms "uplands "
d"refers to A6h humid and arid, or- upper and lower
,respectively, of the sugar belt. However, only about
acres lying along the shore line, -out of a total area of over
ac sres, axe cultivated Mi this crop The investigations
which this bulletin is based were made principally on the upland
,tbove the sugar belt.
tthe autire surface of Hawaii is characterized by a rolling
"hyo The elevation increases everywhere in passing inland
the sea, the -grade varying in different localities. Each island
tnsone or more mountains or- mountain ranges and usually
thnumerous'spurs and sharp ridges projecting toward the sea*
almost every section the arable land is broken up by gulches or
Rdpravines., which now form natural waecourses, 6he beds of
"tome Of which have been worn to great depths. This has brought
otthe loss. of a -great amount of tilltable land and adds greatly
atecost of farma operations. The tillable lands generally occur in
comparatively narrow strips of irregular size and shape' between
and extend from the sea toward the mountains.
.It is cliflicult to estimate the area of armble land, only a small
termentage of which has yet been brought under cultivation. The
main portion is now being used for pasture mi much the same way
-to in thegreat range sections of the mainland. 'The rainfall varies
I See Nowa miestan X&O AM 30, 31,33s, aSk 37, nd Us.
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erties of Hawaiian soils are such as to render the use of ter
played in the description of soil types elsewhere of doubtful|
tion. In some instances the common systems of classificatir'i
been used, however, but the reader is cautioned against tood
interpretation of these terms.
The term "clay" especially requires definition. In the '
where the soils have been formed from the disintegration of b
lava, the so-called clay is usually not composed of alunnum in,
and its properties sometimes differ greatly from true clay. Thl
of Hawaii, although usually very heavy in character and f t
containing as much as 50 per cent by weight of particles as
clay, are not clay soils in the true sense. They are char i
a high content of iron and aluminum hydrates and low silica
Such soils are designated as laterites, and recently the process .:
to their formation has been designated as lateritization, in cbn
tinction to the term "kaolinization," used in reference to clayJ
tion. The clay seems to be composed mainly of iron and au
hydrates and a double silicate of iron and alumina,


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dronte s pr snt nea feo sai ad ths
*emt itanu dixi (i). I*6 such soils
a n vay oth0 outry of the, world.


Ad, the Hswaiian Islands, with the exception of small'
: have been formed from the dsnerto rd
Slava. The lava is composed mainly of pyroxenes,
4nd soda,-lime fblds-pars, with small amounts of mag-
bt iron, Theyare', therefore, highly forrugmious, and basic.
eof. flow, andf possibly to some extent afterwards, the
at urnngsulphur act *on the lava with the consequent forma,-
Odphates. The frequent occurrencle of -gypsum is traceable
ganaeThe most important disintegrating agent is weather-
4f the first changes which takes place in the lava is that of
.The iron in -the original lava occurs mainly in the ferrous
uttpon exposure 'to the air the nor-mal gray color quickly
Tored or yellow, due: to the Oxidation and subsequent hydra-
vhpion., Coincident with oxidation leaching takes place.
Smagnesia, and sods to. a large' extent, and potashi to. lesser
wek leached out by rain waters as silicates and carbonates,
behind a residue rich in iron and alumina, but much reduced
content.
normal Invas from the, main craters seem to be qite uniform
_'ition, while the flows from the secondary craters vary in
ond `perhaps to miigwith weathered and partially
poedmaterial ear the surface. As oxidaion proceeds, the
f"of the lava crumbles away, thus allowing raim waters free
two the interior, and consequently greatly increasing the rate
atin. Another potent agent in the formation of soils is the
And subsequent decay of- plant roots. Within an Micredibly
time after A lava flow plant life gains a foothold, which, aided
Ahe 19ol-ent and oxidative effects naturally going on, soon pushes
'okinto cracks, and crevices. The carbonio acid given off by_
tootaU aids in the decomposition, and the excessive heat of the-
pialsn considerably hastens the solutions and oxidations going
in general, soil formation is extremely rapid in the islands.
of the soil at the lower elevations has been formed by sedi-
ataionand erosion from, higher elevations. In faot there is much
-acethat theme processes account many for the location and .
matonof the sporadic types of manganiferous and titaniferous
,diagtash In many plaom, howevr, the, sol&..8. residual, with:
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.LU1 ptatl LU WLa LA UiU l LUJuuLLL iV IU VUIVU.. 11t.0 4U111 PIWeBl:..:
in the maintenance of suitable tilth, the rapidity with wli
becomes closely compacted following rains, the lack of d
aeration, and the striking effects of green manuring and si
are all probably explainable in large part on physical gr
MECHANICAL CLASSIFICATION.
No attempt will be made to classify completely fthe soili- o
section; in general, however, they may be divided into 4OE
sandy, and humus soils. The clay type is the most abuiq
in some instances contains unusually large amounts of clay,-
as high as 50 per cent. The upland soils of Oahu, with the ;.g
of the manganiferous and titaniferous areas, belong to the
clay type. The subsoils usually contain still more clay. dI
sections practically no sand or gravel occurs, and the hums ~:e
is comparatively low. The soils of windward Oahu contain
what less clay than the above and more silt and gravel, and pid
sequently less difficult to till, but the subsoils contain high
centages of clay and much less organic matter than the surfl'si
The manganiferous and titaniferous soils, above referred .i
silty in character, while small areas of arable land in some .1.Q
around the coast on the leeward side of Oahu resemble adobeoJC
The Haiku district of Maui is composed largely of .clay j
loam soils with somewhat more humus than on Oahu. T7
district is characterized by a light silty soil of high humus i:q
"which is several feet deep in some places. The Nahiku
high in humus and contain much stone and gravel. The,:
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tat"", gr"at d"Msity f isoil types occur., 404
Statekit .0Mn be made, tt the present tim4;
whee theprcipitation is very heavy; the Soils
jaont, dt DartiByv decomposed organic matter aidd
a grvely i tetut. Aongthe Hamakua-coast above
hal 4 ompwaratvely high percetage of dlay ccurM Min
;in others the soil has a hihhumus content.: The soils
&tx istre are dlay loams, shading off to the west, into
STheme is a large body of a deep, loose, silty soil, high in
,.W'" district that Js now occupied by the Parker Rtanch Co..
econ t~i soil6 var-y enormously. ..In -places the vri
pdaainunusually hihpercentages of humus. and, generally
abreor less stones, and gravel...
14 of uaui, that have been most thoroughly Mivestigated,
raaKapaa and the McBryde homesteads. The Kapaa lands
,hgh p percentage of clay and arn liberally supplied with,
anwotiotnes they resemble adobe. The Mc-Bryde homestead
igcomposd pincipally of clay loams. An insufficient number
pl 4hav bee exmind from the other sections ofthilad
aygeneralination. The table of mechanical analyses at.
a 4btthe brilletin .will give some idea of the physical composition
ttive samples from different districts.
DRAINAGE CONDITONS.
per U 8riaei one Of the greatest necessities 'in Hawaiian soil
ment.Thera~infll 'in some sections is heavy throughout the
P -and in- almost all sections heavy rains sometimes occur. It is
thegretest "mportance that the excessive rains be able to drain
without eroding the sur-face into gullies or, flowing over it, for
helatter event great injury- will result from puddling the clay
shutting the air away from the roots of plants. Unless proper
naebe provided, suitable conditions of. aeration in times of wet
*ther will be impossible. One of the most perplexing questions
p" the pineapple growers have had to contend with is that of drain-
and as yet no thoroughly satisfactory method has been devised.
the ope=-dJitch system prevails. Drainage is naturally
t difficult in heavy clay soils such as predominate in the pine-
apple sections.
The application of lime for the purpose of ameliorating the heavy
days seems to be of -doubtful. effect. In some instances lime fails to
granuslatoV such as takes place in normal clays. The clay i
-4wtn As- state of such fine division as to be colloidal and has the
06wer qr isabibing ..g monsOf -water. When wet the iron and






























together. There are also considerable areas of yellow o*..q j
colors seem to be referable to the state of hydration of thef.....
dark red color which predominates in the more arid secdibns f
ably due to amorphous hematite and the yellow -color to
In the humid sections, where the humus content is not high, t
of the soil is generally lighter, due to the iron being in the ferrous
The iron is generally so abundant and completely disseminarited
soil as to obscure the humus unless present in large amounts.. .

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS. :

Soils naturally partake to a considerable extent of the natu.f "
minerals from which they have been derived, and, since Hfl
soils have been formed from basaltic lava, they are potentially *
This does not mean, however, that in all cases the soils are fi4
acidity, as will be pointed out later. In general Hawaiian s ii
tain unusually high percentages of iron and alumina, the
sometimes exceeding 50 per cent by weight. The silica c'n .
low as compared with mainland soils. Lime and magnesiYe
present in quite variable amounts, but usually more abundan'l'
in nonlimestone countries.
POTASH.

The potash content on the whole is rather below the average, ".
frequently it is relatively more soluble than usual and "conseq u
more available. It is also more constant in different' sections tft
islands than any other of the so-called plant-food constitueht.s'
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In peirage proent. The up!=n
himiys contaid less phosphoric cdta
bdof arable land in the islands'. The sfao
Vi~uwiththeexception of the lowlands devoted torie
i ia Percentages of phosphoric acid.Th
-i& iih phophorie acid, the 11aiku soils intermedat
N'ahik se-on of Mani 'the content'is variable.Th
d~f Haanl are unusually rich in phosphoric. acid. It
undrstodthat the above statements apply univonll
_*ect fo tAre is often Mrat variation in comparatvl

andig thigh percentages of phosphoric acid Mi.mny.
-th a -vaiability is, on the whole, rather low,'and hs
aion is necessary in. most instances except where the
'41ent is hgi-The low availlONRfiy of..the phosphoric aid
dutoct' being ch ,emicdaly combined wi~th iror
j dicully-soluble combivations. Hawaiian Boils hav
of enormous amounts of, soluble phosphates., Exper-
c 6-dmoptaed ,that the -red clay type of soil can fix mor
-cen of its eight of phosphoric acid,. There is,thr.
6angerof los of phosphoric acid by leaching. On the othe
1 z necesary to thoroughly mix phosphate ferti er
I&sil in order that the, distribution of roots may not be to
th urfae, Eprhiments seem to indicate that various po-
coninue-rol av ailable for a' considerable time after havn
)hd, notwithtanding the fact that the phosphoric acdi
in water. .Dcaying organic matter exercises a very marke
onte Aailablity of phosphates, and even insoluble forms a
availale by plowing under green manure.
SN1TROGEIN.
A4 stte abve, te humus content is high as compared wit
lndoils and. cnsequently the nitrogen is also high, buit
iiy is, lw, du to poor aeration. The soils of Kula, Nahiku
part of Kohla and Kona on. Hawaii 'are generally vr
-ag Tabl II shows the percentages of humus and ntp
m rpresenttive smples from thes e districts.
acon ofm thre being a hihpercentage of nitrogen preset,.
is dsirble tinrase its availability whenever possible. Ti
best10don byinceasing the aeration,. thereby improving h
fg n. era action which deconrmpose the organic nitroe
ayll om.I a~enfun,4wvr'hthan o





















most abundantly toward the lower -levels be$giwee : i.iE
ranges, in pockets or level stretches that receive the dr
from higher levels. This type of soil occurs most abr r
Waipio, Wahiawa, and Halemanu districts, but may .u
in portions of Waialua, Waimea, and in the upper partJ
Sugar Co.'s land. There are also small areasof ighly
soil near Haiku on Maui, Homestead on Kauai, and in th.
Basin of Lanai.. ...
Sometimes the manganese areas are small, while in other
much as 20 or more acres may occur in one body. Thepec...
manganese varies greatly. A few tenths of 1 per cent oc r i
all Hawaiian soils. The manganiferous soils, however, often f:;:
more than 5 per cent, expressed as manganese oxid (MiOJ.::
soils are characterized by a dark color, sometimes almost bl4
to the presence of manganese dioxid, and have a silty texture in..1
trast to the heavy clay character of the surrounding soils.,
concretions composed of manganese dioxid can be found mixei
the soil and more abundantly in the subsoil. The manganw
nearly always more abundant in the soil than in the subsoil.i,
some places where the surface soil contains more than 4 per ceni
subsoil contains less than 1 per cent.. A high manganese conite
quite injurious to pineapples, causing the leaves to become y.|
and lowering the quality of the fruit. Some other crops aiI
injuriously affected, but sugar cane, sisal, cabbage, turnips, ai
other crops seem to be unaffected. -
-As in the case of the manganiferous soils, it is not possible t lq
definitely all of the highly titaniferous areas. All Hawaiian:::
contain comparatively high percentages of titanium. The I
the Kunia section, however, are unusually high in titanium, cpnta
in some instances as much as 35 per cent titanium dioxide (Ti 2j
the titanium is relatively insoluble, and consequently the usual .
cultural analysis fails to show the total aniount present. J

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t abrtPlaut growth. it, is 'ex-
sid MP assmall fragments of
pha canime thy hive *a very 'fine texture. In a
iil ther pper, -oto.of -the Wshiiwa district, Opaeula,
chi~eh,:and near Poguie's station on Mfaui it occur in the
a blne p y Jer copsdof vrry -fne, p articles: which 'soil
oy'ima% Shke charcoal. -Sometimes a hihpercentage of
.qan imiscited ith the titanium. 'If phosphoric acid should
ilkeisaly combined with the titaniuml the insoluble nature
pound would render it unavailable to plants.
CORALSAND: SOILS.,
.,oils ar of reativoly small importance and are located near
Ayleel.r Such soils,. as the name indicates, have been formed
to= grain f oa sn, hc aire composed chiefly of
.cabonte Afer hesand banks have been built up above
organic matterx and small amounts of soil gradually become
atdwith Vhem, and. certain plants soon gain a foothold, re-
in the formaition of. humus and later in a fairly fertile..soil.,
paitan rse :to which the coral beds and sand banks axe being
aLsOM 91sorc o1ime, which is recommended for use where 1imingI

LIMEM-MAGNE81A RATIO.
awaianlava contains considerably more lime than magnesia, but
wetly a oh opost i* the case -with the -soil. Generally speaking,
oisfor dro black sand contain much hger percentages of
essthan lime. Therefore, the lime-magnesia ratio is abnormal.
fix as is iow, lnow", however, no Mijurious effects axe produced on
Experientas carried out with the object of modifying the
i of lime to"magnesi .a have not indicated any practical advantage
t-be derived in this way. The lime is much more soluble than the
,even where the magnesia content greatly exceeds that of
ACIDIT OF ]EHAWAIIAN SOILS.
NIotwithfstanding the highly basic character of Hawaniian soils, they
give an acid reaction toward litmus. The acidity, as deter.
by' the: Vietch method, sometimes indicates the need of large
75'~ o lime-:. Inu harmony with this is the very low content of
except. where coral snd is present. The soils aroud
enoula fo exmple, containno mr than. 0. 1 per cent carbon
Anid (0(Q2), althiobgh the imeo and magne"i are hgh It has been
*qkwond that-the sod lInds: arm generally acdd, but it seem that the
diked Ioeth of ewmns 1#01 duea tn the Idle of aeration than the
















reduced. The solubility of the mineral constitu t:l s "t
siderably increased by soil heating, which probably: is fI
more vigorous growth of crops noticed where refuse h"atd bee
FEBROUS IRON.
Soluble ferrous iron is considered to be toxic to plants,
amount of water soluble ferrous iron in Hawaiian soils is e
small, except where there is insufficient aeration. Poor dra
an excess of water in soils prevents the circulation of air, a A
editions are favorable for the formation of soluble ferrous:iron.fl
injurious effects on crops attending heavy rains may be due': t
extent to the formation of ferrous compounds. The high iro
of Hawaiian soils is composed-in part of insoluble ferrous oilM
the imperfections in analytical methods do not permit of its,
determination. Consequently the percentages of ferrous iron"
given in the tables of analysis. ..,ri
BIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS .
The availability of nitrogen in soils depends on the activity ofjS
teria and fungi. There are many factors that influence their cti4
one of the most important of which is the state of aeration. In gen
the aeration of Hawaiian soils is not sufficient for the best deveelpa
of beneficial bacteria. Consequently the nitrogen does not beoop
available fast enough for maximum growth of crops. :
NITRIFICATION.
Nitrification in soils requires the free movement of air, and ti
more restricted the circulation of air the less actively are nitra
formed. This is strikingly illustrated by contrasting nitrifio.
in the silty soils of Kula and the Parker ranch, where active -
cation takes place, with that of the heavy clay types common a
other parts of the islands. In the rice soils nitrification is suspea3
and the clay soils frequently contain almost no nitrate. The iIe
ness often observed in newly plowed sod lands is due in part itoi,
lack of nitrification. It follows, then, that any treatment whicfk.
creases soil aeration also stimulates nitrification. As pointed q.
above, aeration may be increased by increasing the humus cont~4
and probably one of the mostimportant reasons for the benefi








Sis that- it stimulotes bacterial acth'0.- It
that' the presence of, wabonate, of lime, is
ajti'estiaon through the maintenance of neutral coan,
seemsthat when other conditions are suitable, active
pke pac inHaaian ,sol which contain unusual
ts, -of lime. The results. of. our. experiments indicate
ad aluain present may, partially take the place of
-P11in the necessary neutral condition. On the other
tsshw ,that magnesium carbonate seems to be
dqtimetal to 31itrification, while the magnesia naturally
&h oils does.. not. seem. to interfere. While nitrate is
the most. available form of nitrogen, monia; is als
for certain crops..
AMMONIFCATION.
00nication is more -active. in Hawaiian soils than nitrification,
estgaions show that aeration: is not as essential to, this pro-
it -is to nitrification.' Aeration, howe-vefi, also stimulates
cation. During .the several months, 'in which new lands
ipelly cultivated, previous, to planting, a oiication and
tinaxe each stimulatedd, to a considerable extent, but 'in
localities only very small amounts of nitrate a~re found. In.
finst~ances plants seem to absorb the nitrogen most largely in the
-pf ammonia.' In the case of aquatic plants ammonia is prefer-
*a riitrates. Soil heating -stimulates the formation of ammonia,
as-a dreet result of the heat on the organic nitrogen and proba-
lndiectly, _Uy increase the activity of bacteria. It has also
found' that the application of lime stimulates the formation of
niand magnesium carbonate produces stil greater stimula-
The effects 'of magnesium carbonate on ammonification axe
aethe opposite of those on nitrification.
30Al Hawaniian soils seem to be abundantly supplied wi bacteria,
the wide distribution and vigorous growth of a great variety of
T u lants indicate that the tubercle-forming organisms are
Aantly distributed. In fact, nodules occur on the roots of
my lgumious plants in the islands. Up to the present time
little, use has been made of artificial inoculation, and it is of
lkflimportance.
SOIL 3ANAGN3MENT.
TILLAGE.
Apurt of the:hg cost of village in Hawaii is traceable to the un-
"sqdl properties of. the. sil. The clay when wet is extremely sticky
evAam whou the moixtum omtent- is low, it, adheres teaciously
















for drier seasons. Most of the soils that atre cultiated i
become hard and closely compacted within feWa i Mn
planting. Consequently it is necessary to plow as dveep Ti
between crops.
Subsoiling has not been extensively practiced, but d&i$
should be the rule in all sections. The subsoils are not v 'ry
from the soils, except in some of the rainy sections like 01
after being acted upon for a short time by weathering i
seem to be equally as fertile as the surface soil. In the dri'"er .:
deep plowing encourages deeper root development, thus
enable the crop to withstand drought. Successful soil m
in Hawaii, therefore, requires deep plowing, followed by
shallow cultivation. 1 0-9
INJURIOUS EFFECT OF PUDDLING. .: "lj
Great care and intelligence must always be exercised in
and tilling day soils. The clay particles are extremely sma....
tend to settle down between the coarser grains, thus cloi
pores. However, the fine particles can be made to unite into g
by the judicious handling of the soil. In the natural state caib
acid formed from the decomposition of vegetation and aided by:i
ration causes the smaller particles to coalesce into granules,
then act a~ if the particles themselves were coarse. In this cq.
a heavy clay soil may be well aerated and fertile. On ithe
hand, tillage, in times of too great moisture, breaks up the
producing a puddled condition which is very difficult to bring i
into a state of granulation.
During the early stages of the cultivation of sod lands the baet'i
processes bring about a rapid decomposition of the vegetable m4
which causes the clay to become granulated. After a few ypi
however, the organic matter has been so completely decompo
that the clay is easily puddled under the ordinary operations tclbi
tivation. A single cultivation of such soils when they are wet cM
serious puddling. The pineapple growers in the Wahiawa dis
have greatly injured their lands by cultivating too soon after -ti
Much of the so-called exhaustion of Hawaiian pineapple soils is-t
able to wet cultivation.





















ratin wiil apply this need, if green manuring crop be plowed
i t. B a is the key to successful soil management in Hawaii
:the case elsewhere. At the present time this fact is being rec-
by the sugar planters as never before. Instead of burning
t :ash and crop residue, they should be plowed under, thereby
th4 1humnis content. Organic matter undergoes rapid
St.. in the T'opics, and the necessary condition of aera-
the decomposition. It is necessary, therefore, to plow
::* iTsanumre frequently. The details of crop rotation will
d sed in this bulletin. With the pineapple lands a green
crop can be grown between crops. The choice of the
iman~iing crop will depend on the locality. It should be a
'if posible. The single-crop system can not be permanent,
t is bl doubtful economy at any time. Sooner or later it must
iiit i tl- give way to diversification.
S|retention of moisture during dry weather can be greatly
iiii. ased by increasing the humus content of the soil, so that suffi-
ci .nt moisture will be retained for the growth of crops during con-
S:tifuent dry weather. The success of crops in the semiarid sections
rit l~ h and the Parker ranch is due very largely to the high humus
ifcfIeat of the soils. On one of the fields at the experiment sta-
t oio, where a legume has been plowed under each year for the past
i e!l ral years, the structure of the soil has been materially modified
SI:iidl the moisture-retaining power greatly increased. Similar effects
S n be had with any of the clay soils throughout the islands.
: waiian clay soils require a higher percentage of moisture than is
, tWal, due to their high hygroscopic capacity and the slow move-
i ient of moisture through the soil. Hygroscopic moisture will not
iiii: iH9ish plant life.
S:1 !I 36. 1 W8S-Bull. 40-1h--3














are provided tney snouia -e a ,aR e. Ace Si ,sepgerWi !.
of the greatest fall, so as toq carry way-t purp zswater .ia6.
overflow. In some places much damage, has been.doiqgo~
the overflow from inadequate ditches. The use of .dyM.
the purpose of shattering the subsoil ,.an-d llowi ,tig
has been practiced with good results in some localitie
ing under of coral sand has also been effectively s..ed in s:.
as a means of improving aerationq And drainage a ool:i4itf
around Honolulu gardeners frequently mix. black sand, wi.| t
for the same purpose, .
'USE OF PE TILlaUER S... ". ". *i. "
The table of chemical analyses at the end of the bul0 4
that, on the whole, Hawaiian soils are well supplied with pe:,
acid and nitrogen with a medium content of potash. In mn1:
ties the soil contains unusually high percentages of phosphri.. :1
and nitrogen. Nevertheless, heavy fertilization is general,,p
ticed, due to the low availability of plant food. It is more r..r
however, to make available the plant food already coata i
soil, if this can be done economically. The methods by .w~
may be accomplished have already .been suggested. These W
briefly in increasing the aeration by deep plowing, thorough d'.~p
and the frequent plowing under of .green manures, which, if .e
out systematically, will materially lessen the need for comn
fertilizers..
The exact fertilizer for each crop varies in different districts. J.
general both nitrogen and phosphoric acid give good results, NSit
of soda, ammonium sulphate, and organic forms of nitrogen s
produce good effects, but, generally speaking, organic forms A
ammonium sulphate are recommended in preference to nitra.
soda, especially during seasons of heavy rainfall. The soils hav",a
power of absorbing large amounts of ammonium sulphate, thus....1
venting its being leached out, but nitrate of soda is not fixed by s.
When the organic matter is deficient the phosphoric acid is geneu
of low availability and phosphate fertilizers are needed. Sol.:
phosphates will give best immediate returns, but if applied in .
junction with decaying organic matter, insoluble forms may be u.e
Pot experiments at the station, carried through several crops, i



"i


































j m Eainy aun97amv nT a- waganug 5aEU v Ti unt' UaAJ to- Bi AU VaAL IL V^lr /f rAtI A ont Jn saa/AzL" r
i sesfalarge number of soils and subsoils taken from differ-
of all of the principal islands. In Table I the results of the
analyses of soils and subsoils' are given; in Table II the
.hflUiS ash, and total nitrogen are stated; and in Table III
cal position is shown. In general the soil represents
t foot and the subsoil the second foot taken. In most instances
anal yzed -represents a composite of from two to five
i : ftakEen .in4he same locality. The methods employed for the
I, analysis were those of the official agricultural chemists.
cation of soils adopted in the table of mechanical composi-
. .......... ... ...... ...
S6 is that of HalL2

1 iThe subsoil n all cases was taken in connection with the preceding soil sample.
1SThe 8.a. 'laD&.n, 190, 2. ed., p. 51.




S H ii; ........; ...







.IIIIIIIII; .... ..*.
!'*iP










TABLE 1.-Cemical composition of H awainil
Insou- VrricTitaiumMang- Ou Im "tro







reide 1,40-oo (T102) ..d. 13.10 ...... (N810) (1300i0.11)6... (N)6





326 1,500-foot level.. Brown... 1.0172 21.93 35.81 12.75 1908 2 3.40 0.56 0.66 0,73 0.4 0.37 0.22 .3
327 1,400-foot level.. ...do.... 13-10 14-24 32-48 12-52 20-00 2.90 ..................2
Parker ranch, Wa-
imea:
474 Soil ............. Brown.. 13.59 20.01 30.77 7.00 16.79 1.80 .07 3.80 .85 472 .10 2.18
475 Subsoil......... ... do.... 16.08 20.25 30.10 8.68 17.20 2.00 .02 8.58 1.02 .d .22 1.84 .
470 Soil ............. ... do .... 12.66 19.81 38.05 8.36 11.02 1.60 .20 5.41 1.16 .:41 .14' '44 .
471 Subsoil ......... Yellow.. 20.69 14.33 a6.44, 8.76 12. a0 2.20 .18 3.00 1.49 .Q 4 .4
Parker ranch, Maka-
halau:
468 Soil ............. Brown.. 11.52 18.92 44.06 8.80 8.93 2.00 .14 2.32 1.42 ..!a an.
469 Subsoil......... Black... 11.00 29.14 18.44 13-72 17.78 4,03 .19 3.11 1.26 .1% 47
74 Parker ranch,Waikii Brown. 25. 46 13. 08 32. 69 10.13 12.-59 .......... .18 2.63 1.00 .4I 1
75 Do .............. ... do.... 138.45 11-82 27.44 7.52 11.27 .......... .08 1.77 1:07, 8222d
76 Do .............. ... do.... 183385 11.79 32-17 8.86 11.25 .......... .02 1. 54 .87 .11 '28
Hamakua district.
Paauhau:
472 Soil ............. Brown.. 128.88 25.11 13-75 16.04 10-93 4,00 .10 .39 .52 am.
73 Subsoil......... ...do .... 140.6 0184.2 0ed 1.20 .08 -32.8
134 Kukaiau ranch ...... ... do .... 15-01 23-80 24-93 1&.41 ]A,.14 .......... .24 .72 1LU
Hilo district.
448 Hilo Boarding School Yellow.. 16-00 25.58 1& 10 10,20 16. 4,2 .06 .50 1.00 ....4692 ;,.
O1aa distrief. .. .. .
Glenwood:
216 Soil ............. Black ... 9.28 2a. as $L... M 2.38 21 A

220 Subsoft......... ...do .... 14.4 2Q. 1 UI
4W in.0i8.215i, 7iiiiiii









iii i:
iii~W r: ~ ~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i"";
10~~~~~~iiiiii I;;iii;;, iiiiiiiii.il~ j~;;i;; iiiii











4"........ Brown.. 4 88 12-24 47-89 7.28 it. IS $.0 .8 48 ,54
R ...... I&.o.. 1so8188 82.41 7.40 1,2 404 .6.4 28

Black .7.20 W550 48.14 4.5: ID. 6 &.60 MS 45 4-ft 42 14W
.....1rov;n.. 13.68. 10.90 32.07 7; 82 1M.98 8. 8D .16 .66 2.22 .22 .74 .27 d
all....... Yellow.. 0.63 IC 05 39.55 13.92f 16-98 ...... *4 1.84 2.92 1 .86 .06.5
888 ~~~I aln.......d.. 018 11.13 41-61 18.16 17-13 ...... .9 1.84 3.66 .18 .24 .27 d
Sk.'.....Brown.. 7.33 14.00 45.16 13.76 11.889..... .18 2.60 8.90 a24 .58 .20 t*O A .
......do,. 872 8.58 48.90 13-48 12-49, :.....19 5.02 4.70, US .'92 .40.
Y...... Tellow,.. 10.60, 17-67 84.06 14-80 18 68 ......,. Nis 1.4 2.93 .24 M5 .49F :3t0..,
................. .1 2.. 1 3 .M.9 .8 4 1 5 6 1 .0. 1 1 2 3 2


18IoatuftU, Hiwnvatt Browns.. 2.1-85 25-48 18.21 1A.09 16.82 ........ AV, .0.94.1*.0 -.20 .41 $W
1116.30 28.16 212 1M73 1391 ........ .06 .72 .99. IA .11 .41
Bg 0-rt ed. ]leack.... 10.71 36. 10 26.43 7.44 7.76 1.40 .17 5.74 1.'86: .28 W5 96 ArB 1.48
43 aaa........do.... 9.69 22.29 35,92 9. 64 11.83 1 80 i.1 5.80 2.28 .18 ,54' .77 .49 .8
420 IUt 67, 610-foot Browns.. 12-27 19.35. 34-23 11.36 14.85 1:8 so 26 2.781 2.03 .22 .28 .74, .37 .G
421 Subsoll ......... ....do.... 1M.01 14-13 34-28 11.20 17-95 3.00 .21 2.86 1.48 .17 .23 .47 -.27 29M
bSA Lat 77, OWeo bt Blauck... 10.34 18.69, 40-86 9.32 12.85 1.80 '3& 3.14 1.173 27.40 -'56 4-0. .5
level.
426 Subsoll ......... ...do.... 10.50 14-70 43-02 10.08 13-77 2.20 .25 3.08 1.01 .18 .43 .59 .30 .40
418 TwAt 6t 700-iht ..:do.... 9. 87 14-36 45.48 9.00 14.19 1.98 .14 2.1 1.45 -.29' .2.9 -.97 AO 41i
lovel,
41j ua:B.... ...do.... 9.48 12.26 4.7.09. 9.84 13-97 2.00 .15 2.49 1.55 .28 A20 .98, -3D .31
427 2,05(1-foot leve.. ...do.. a. 16. 86 56. 51 18- 17 5. 56 3. 10 1. 00 52 2. 46 .985 .15 .19 AD 47-40 2.UB
488 Saa)........do .... 22-30 31.36 20.38 4.40 13.42 7.20 .08 .36 .58 .11 .15 .19 .3o AV1
480 2,.700-foot level.. ..do .... 25-82 34-55 11.33 11.64 12.20 3.40 *08 .59 ..63 .08 .19 .24 -8 .74
440 Do .......... ... do.... 142.11 29-58 13.14 4.88 .6-26 3.20 .34 .80 .63 .16 .21 :20 :26 .92

irons district

48 k .....Red..... 5.97 14.40 37.84 14.08 19.82 .20 .24 L.60 1.16 .52 .38 .65 .434 .01
WS8 Khbe ..... ...do.... &.}5 IL.80 41.92 14,16 M05 M.0 .20 .62 .2 .50 32.6 .8 (
3fakawplh ':
_M8 B' ...... ... do*..*. C43 1&.69 34.59 16.32 22.71 3.60 .28 .82 .64 .50 .40 .41 .46 .95
4H4 Eh1bsool..... ..do.... 7.89 12.89 A8.92 1&.64 1&.58 3.60 .10 .52 .76 .48 .42 .41 so0 .0
21 o .3 95 3.2 3.8 1.4...... 3 7 51.5.7:1s@1
I o ope~!yardid











TABLEM I.-Chemical composition of Hawaiian 80ils-Coiltinued.



848 VolMe Edue Feb Aluminl iaim u Lime Potash gods pho SlpurNie
No. Loain.Clr, (2). matter. r leste (PoO).i (Al2sg). dixd oxidd CaO). Onei (XO). (NagO). acid ol en


RAUM-t pointed.
Konea di~tit-C-on.
Per t. Per ct. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent, Per ct.,
120 H~anapepe.......-... Brown.. 5.52 16. 84 27-.19 24. 07 24. 06 0. 25 0. 43 0. 05 0. 32 0.37 0. 22 0. 47 0. 30 0. 26
119 Do ....... ....... ... do.... 5.55 12.96 32. 59 29. 11 17. 32 50 10, .05 73 :'51 A. _2.25 ..21 .2 e4
1Do D.............. .. .do... .1 141 .5 380 22 4017 .05 .45 .39 .32. .26, .23 .23 A
117 Do ............. Red..... 6.24 18.6 17.96it 32. 05 22. 17 20 12, .06 57 31 48 46 .25, .S
116 Do: ..........,.. ... do.... 7.25 17.41 16.50 35.32 21.28 .30 ..17 .10 .34 :20 .45 .30 .22 .28
Hoimestead1, Kuku-
4833 Sl ............. Brown.. 8.8 20.6 28.81 11.96 23.32 .60 A4.14 .73 .866. .46 ..59 .35 .48
.434 SuBbsoil .......... Red..... 5. 24 14.23 35. 29 14.72t 25..54 60 2. 81 45 ..58 '.18 .1 9 '.24 23 .12
Kauai Fruilt & Land
Co.:
209 soil ........ ..... .. do.... 6.86 24.05 25.76 32.46 15. M ......... -.0& .40 .74 .16 .20Y8 .39 a
429 Do .......... Brown. 9.96 17.84 25.196 21.76 20.37 2.80 .08 .28 .65 .23 0.2.8.3
430 Subsoil .......... Red.1.... 8.61 14.901 26. 41 23.92 23. 40 1. 60 10. 24 .:.52 22 -.19 _418 .25'A
cryd homesead
Boil Sl............. ... do.... 10.30 17.30 27.51 19.84 21.06 2.40 .10 .27 .70 .13.1 1.3
.432 Subsoil .......... .7.0. d... 886 13.82 32.71 17-04 24.79 1.40 .,04 .27 -:72 .18 .S'3
207 Homestead .......... ... do.... 5.88 16.50 34.17 20.60 20.03 .......... .18 .43 .49 .44 .20 1O1.4
Koloa:
373 Soill............. Brown.. 8.77 19.58 26.o8 20.04 21.96 1.20 .09 .26- .73 .42 .22 .66 so8
374 Subsioll.......... Red..... 7. 53 15. i9 28. 65 22.64 22. 77 1L 20 04 J 6 .54; 40 37 5W5'


Puna district.
208 Nawilwili coral soft, Gray.... .95 2o.28 2.82 2.2S .11 ...... 0 6l4259if.0
....s .... .V
.200 SBoi............. Brown.. 23.78 80.841 42.43 ...... .14 .32 .68 .30 746
426 Do ......... ... do.... 10.47 18.28 %4.80 22.52 19.10 a. 80 .22 .15 .44, .28 't
427 Subsoil........... Yellow.. 12.80 17.10 16.62 28 92 21. 93 1.60 ill .30 .5. .25z,


212 nals.6. ... R16. 00 14 905 4. t'
211~~ AAszmlnain 4114*Ja 4Sd












............o... 13.8 m 11 8 86.41 14.0 1a.t L 44SLC .


(18* ,,........o...4188 18.6 1326 2.60 7.21 2t40 33 L7 1, 6724 S A
(18 $6 .................do .... IL8B 10.05 47.97 M"2 63 .0.9.8 6 8 1 1
41 Aabe o. Q... a.do... o .0 11. Ila6 88.8 -84 .0.1z L04 2.H 4.5.8 t



44. .1 ? .... B on .8 1 1 349 36 8 125..........0 1512 .2, 418 2 *M X. 2
432 99.. ..... ... do.... 884 1&6.1 29.26 6 20 0 21140:..... .73 L07 .,67 .49 .22 .15248,
4134 .....ot .... d .... & 10 14.29 27.92 27.20 6.123 420 :87 .5 .12 .33 5 11.2.

414 M ....:......... ..do....- & 00 1L.14 29.28 3a.00 16.40 20.0 a0 .5 .44 .15 .22, lie,85.


3319"e........ ..o... log8 0 U-97307 36.88 12.3 6.6 .104. .1 1.825 .25 it3 .20 .123

Rli4 D............ :Lter 423 136:1 34.16 2a.28 21.17 380.6 .9 .4 .2 1 1 1 9
545 Do.. .......BronD. .401.3127 3 47,3 145 .0.6 .11 2.12 .284 .1r .72 .
$46 Io......,,.... la. e..... .62 13 O8 0343 .6712.852 0 1 .0.3.5.6.0.M
176 Subo....... ... do..... 3150 6.54 38-50 44-75 1.12: 3.20 :27 .13 LO1 .17 058 .mu .74 .12
=I0 Md 0.1m. rr. Brow.. C.d.. 470 11.40 .32.90 320-59 131.7 3.00 .3 .38.3.0 .27 .3 5 1 .37'
D .. .. ......do..... 4.58 M 74 25.23 34001 16.98 8.60 88 .3 1.88 .i .22.80104M
D ........... ... Rdo..... 3.27 10.04 33-96 35.05 12-24 3.40 .10. .26 .81 .14 .2211.01 ..Q

M$ Idkd ............... dto..... 5. 58 14.62 329.28 193 23.27 5.20 .20 .20 .97 417 .131 64 .09.$
WK Yelow. 4.38 1332o 28.6 25.2 2ol 1 63 5.0 .16 OR4.09 .22 .18 1R .11 .4







... .. ...T



TABLE I.-Chemical composition of Hawaiian soils-Continued .
Titanium~ii~ Ma @iiSlpu xto





soilHGod Water Volatile oxou Fri Alandnx d nse Lime Potash Soda p~hoi tr8~ gire-
No. (H2:0)- matter. residue (Fe20s). (A1208)- (T!2) o d .(CaO). (MgO). (K20). (Na2O). id (80a). (N.


SAui-- cont inued.


Per ct. Per ct. Per cent. Per cent. Per enst. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per e
559 Likoi k.............. .Brown.. 6. 27 17.901 2. 97 27.902 17- 50 5. 20 0. 39 0.381 1. 14 0. 26 0. 00 0,382 0.1 z 0130
560 Do .............. ...do..... 4.20 12.63 31.44 3.88& 10.15 5.60 .13 .27 .79 .28 .17 .32 .12 .34
561 Do........... .......do.... 4.67 14.00 28.98 29.84 15.46 4.60 .11 .39 188 .23 .26 .34 .31 .31
562 Do .............. ... do..... -4.59 14.65 28-68 33-16 11.65 5.20 .22. .2 9 .95 .23 .30 .49 .21 s
563 Do.............J.... do..... 4.36 15.77 25.90 30.56 14.9 5.66. .17 .20 .74 .28 .28. 44$ .25 .1.
564 Do .............. ... do...;. 5.18 13-26 30.88 31.40 11.25 5.40 .11 .14 .87 .24 .27, 388 .20 'n"
565 Do .............. ... do..... 4.60 12.74 31.28 28.20 15.68 4.80 .13 .09 .84 .30 .23 .327 -
Moolaudistrict.
69 Nahiku ............. Brown.. 12-57 386S 18-48 15.40 10.95 ....,.... OR. .86 1.1.6 -.18 .2.2.p. L
202 oiiiiiii...... .do... 19.96 17.56 1.87 2.16 -.14
203 Do ... .......... ... do..... 19.12 25.10 17.88 18-48 17.29 .......... .10 .32 .7V U.2 so0 .56 aO
204 Doe............ ... do..... 13.44 18.02 21.98 83.48 11.51 .......... :06 .21 .76 .21 .19 M2 :47 .245
~.81









205 Do............... ... do..... 16.44 19.02 17.98 18.56 22.70 .......... .01.1 2.94 .0 .26 .40 *75.
206 Do ............ ... ... do....:. 16.27 22.58 29-78 19.74 9.03 .......... .08 .45 .81 lll.10 .16 .46. 11f 67
370 Koolau foeast ........ Gray.... 5.04 23-58 49.38 8.68 8.87 3.60 .02 29 1.04 .39 .48 .5.8
371 Do .............. ... do..... 3.04 10.34 73.01 6.76 3.20 2.40 .02 .29 .74 .49 AS8 .05' --1 A
iiiiiiiiii

i"














Catholici Chrch:











523 Susoil ..... Br.o.wn.. 9.23 14-99 29.63 25.24 11.78 ...... .17 2.92 3.44 W5 5

437 Soil...... ..do..... 9.68 20-66 2L 47 24.52 15.02 ....... .04 94 .0 .56 .32-.


)0 118 -
8. Subsoil. 10.82 19.16 26L90 24.24 16.132 174
520 Pop0ii........ ...do..... 9#.24 23.00 30.90 16.652,.........d 1.04 2.8 n0


'Alexadfr field:,






I4T II

i r ... #A


................do 0.... 12..4 2&.80 18.88 is.... 28,44 -- i#i .i 00 L In0l..-




*** '1 ,0
*8 ...... .do..... 11-29 2D. 40 26.89- 1424 .19.57: 8.00, 24 1,87' 1,82 .25 .87 .65 0
E ........do ..... 13.73 17.45 3030W =12 18.86 .2.60 .30 2.59 1478 .19 .46 .49 8 p
88 8 .............. Black... 10.26 8L.17 29.42 917 10.844 20$ 2 7 .1.4 114,2
aN ........ ..do*.. 21398 82*:14 244:47 1 11 1309 140 ,47 4167 1 83 .22 051 .70 4
In6 Boil ...... ..do..... 9.86 19,0 27. (D 13,06 21.0 .0 41 $.15.8 .4.34
88M Shbs.....Boe. 071 10.8 26.80 -1388 2.88 3.20: 1-48 2.1 L. .41 4.19, .82
88 ~ s....... Bluac... 2.14 7.11, 43.77 11.08 14.89 .20 .28 9.80 &.78 1.08 2.88 *48 .32 .2


Ro0sft othria.... RiedL... 10.0Oa 12,1 40.05 14.56 .18.34 1,80 .63.4.9.3 3 5
O boL......... ... do ..... 10-19 10. 41.07 12.88 22.32 1.60 .24 .44 .46 .3 2 8.46
W 00foottee.. IBro".. & 35 1& 26 $8.61, 15.30 20.10 2,401 .59 :46 .72 .23 :25 .82 .49 1PA9
WA fboo,.... ..do .... &.20 12.07 $9. 63 15.64 21.81 2.0 .34 .32 .52 .22 .25 .27 .8 SM4
us6 NO-foottev liedL.... & 79 14.02 32.80 27.08 11.76 4:20 .32 .30 .59 .23 .24 .26 $.8
86 hbm....... ... do..... 10.8a2 14-35 26.86 25.96 17.77 3.20 .04.3 .39 .20 .23 a8 AS8 01
Nom


**
91 skollt..% ......,...... Red,,.... 7.68 12.10 .......... 188 222 .....204671.......... 37. 0
0 SO MA E~o .............. ... do... 8.18 11.98 .......... 17-29 2C 64 .......... .18 .25 0$0 ...... .......... .33 .14 .
.99 son........... Bi3viR.. 5.91 13.92 .......... 19.97 26.6(K ........... .21 .20 .09 .,........ :w.....4 1 1
94 Shubmof.W............ ... do..... 6.06 14.33 .......... 20.85 25.01 .......... .04 .16 .70 ...... ......... *4 t2 1
1 :95 Skdl................. Red ..... 11.53 18.38 .......... 20.34 19.46 .......... .27 .24 *76 ........ ........ :32 .20 .22

X12 Nfearranchboum..... Rle&.... 4.18 12.56 X38.5 21.12 20.93 .......... .67 .69 050 .46 via vu 2 ....

1,500foot level:
4.9 99 87 2.6 86 .0 .1 .8i8 2 2 7
.m Sbml. o. 86 1 6 68 3.6 17i28 .2 .2i5











TABLE I.-Chemical composition of Hawaiian soils-Continued.



o octo oo. Water Volatile Inou erc Al Titanium needs Lime nM Poas Soda pah NItro
No. *(H20). matter. riu. Fa A I208)* oxid. (CaO). (KO. (Na,2O). acid


MOLOKAI--continued.
Maiwa district--Con.
1,050-foot level: Per ct. Per ct. Per z:nt. Per cent. Per cent. Pe r cent. Per cent. Per 'cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per ce.Per CL
351 Soil............. Red..... 3. 94 7. 94 30. 65 38.16 11381. 5. 00. 0. 02 0. 41 0. 76 0. 39 0A 0 0. 87 0.8 0.120
352 Subsoil.......... ... do..... 6.63 11.21 28.64 31.90 16.21 3.70 .02 .29 ..56 .39 ..50. .2 0 .18
860-foot level:
353 Soil ............ ... do ..... 6.18 12.84 34.67 15.64 26.15 2.40 .09 .41 .94 .29 .30 .501 .18
354 Subsoil .......... ...do..... 5.67 12.34 36.42 15.20 24.87. 3.20 .38 .58 .710 .1.8.69 .13
600 fot level:A
355 Soil ............ ...do ..... 4.80 12.17 37.75 17.9 23.10 2.20 .90 .54 .56 .30 .26 "388A .12
356 Subsoil .......... ... do..;.. 5.24 11.50 37.27 17.25 23.90 2.40 .74 '.a .58 .34 635 X4 36
3880oot level:
357 Boil ..........J.. .. do..... 4.38 12.12 .38.60 i5.56 24.51 3.00 .14 .28 .42 .0 *26 *40
WS8 Subsoil .......... ... do..... 8.63 7.16 39.76 13.32 28.14 2.40 .05 .21 .52 .20 'is. .30 1U
80-foot level:
3W0 Soil .......... ... do..... 5.74 13.1 38a.87 15.386 21- 46 2. 80 16 59 84 22 J 3 .3
360 Subsoil ....... ... do..... 6.15 13.795 40. 49 18. 76 21. 88 2. OD .20 88 1. 01 29 652 62.,3 A


I'ond dWictrc.

71 Soil............. Brown. 8.75 5.76 37.21 19.60 13.60 .......... .36- 2.19 12 190.64
292 Do.......?... .. id 7.65 8.42 388-4 10-63 12.85 2.00 .24 1.84 8.71 .30, 1.36 59

21Eperiment station, Red..... 9.66 10.08 32.41 26-80 14.01 ...... .6 1.22 t.3 13 .12
&eld B1.
Experiment, station,
fied B 2:
289 Sofl..:........... ... do.... & 29 12.10 36.87 15-90 13.42 2.22 44 1.10 7.94 .01 .76
89 Subsoil .......... ... dos 10.36 11-70 3'4 51 5.0 19 2 80 58 0 8
Experiment station,
Med. D: 4
200. Soflt ....... Black-]. 8.44 15.80 40. 02 16.41 14.11 1.So' .71"
291 ubsil......... ...d ....I 9.-M 12.77 412 158 .3 11. B











ft Do ........ &.a.. 02D 12,50 80,12) U. 94' 2k
Do .......... ...b.. do 10-34 17-73 37. st 10.92 20.5) 1
Ia atwian, 3 .. 11.85 1& 28 22. 72 10. 24 17. St 8 0. .C. 49
Alf e"r *lu(M ak.....'


a Do ...... ....... ... do*,,. 10,36 10.63 30.62 16.32 19.55 2.30 .44 .52 2.24 .34.a
DB2o............ ..d... 10.41 1015t M.42 17.76- 1M7Q0 20.. .62 .50 2.0 P 48 .98 ZT


at$ Rabobwa a........... IdL. 5.51 14.31 36.44 18.10 027 .... 1 69 M5 30 -.43 .01 0;
44 DO ............. o. .dovo... 7.20 19.18 W >75 16.00 22.05 .......... q%05 JS .6 5 .2t .21 .76 w,
Peawl itywarit Co.:
27 kd............. Black... IC.74 11.95 85.88 1M80 '13. 65 .......... 3.i53 .16 AD9 A5 2 .11 3
...... .-do.,. 15.74 9.95 40 18.00 1 .4 ........... 3.02.1 .23 .55 .3.09 0
Wm ......ROIL.... 14.26 13.1 37.76 16-40 Is. 8g,........... 11 '.28 ..22- .55 .28 .10 :39
80 Eiso Xb L,:......... ... doaft.. 15-12 9.0 38-93 17.12 17.09 ---------- .43 .14 .38 .62 .20 .00 .23,$$
............. ... do.... 16-70 14.35 34.75 19.40 13.34 .... .19 .10 .30. : 44 .17 .-07 .38 .24
.h .......... .. %dome.. 21.26 12.88 29.34 19.00 16.42. ....... ... .31 .12 .28 .46 .29 .04) .26 .d
14 I lmgle.do.. 5. 15 15.75 40.66 14.99 19-71 .03. 2.40 .10 .47 .45 .-22 .24 M2. .0
as8 Dao...... ....... ... do..... 6.17 17.73 S(L09 13.20 20-39 1L60 3.84 ?33 .44 .39 .59 .20 .36.3
417 Do .............. .. Ao.... 16.26 17-53 30.921 11.24 19.38 1.40 2.85 It21 .36 .45 .36 2.2 .43 9
4W.. Makusm.............. (Joe.... 4.31, 12.89 39.72 16-08 22 68 .40 .38 ,40 .57 .55 .26 .34 .26E I
W8 Do..... ........ ...do.... 5.39 Ass3 w.40 16.20 25:13 .40 J14 .054 .56 .22 .2t .1 .q




5 m.......Red[..... 3.80 13.20 42.13 25.12 10.41 3.40 .26 .44 .30 .60 .19 .12. .08 N-S$
a SUbsIL ......... ... do... 4.13 13.56 37-26 31.20 10.01 2.57 .18 .44 .34 .70 .28 .1w .02 .2t,
7 Id............... .. do.... Si.98 13.65 39.26 34-30 3.43 3.68 .21 .50 .36 .49 .20 .06 .84
I Buui........do.... 4.44 13-37 37.50 31-80 &.28 .2.62 .06 .63 .36 .57 .30W .07 .24*B
.9 Bl........Ihack. 5.36 16-78 81.67 -18.60 14.67 .68 9.21 1.32 .52 .79 -8 U3 4D .14 J#
10, EhboL... .do... 4.73 13-77 34:85' 20.50 15.00 1.04 8.35 .82 .41 .70 0... .1 .88 Aw'
14 Ekd ............. ... do.... 4,59 1M.81 37.23 17-40 14.69 3.90 4.59 .61 a9 .74 .34 w5 .22.4
1 alnl...... ... do.*.. 3.53 18.24 41.10 19.80 16.27 .50 8.38 .58 '.97 .78 a4 1 .04 $















TALET.Chmi-l omostinofHaaiannue-Cntn.d
Wa iew diiliiili r ict--- ;xr
Soil Water Volatile Insolu- FeTIC Al Tit -I--- Lime Mat Potash Soda phoric Sul Nitro..os






oa~ucndinued.

Htawaiian Pineapple
Co.: Per et. Per ct. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. e et e et s et e et e et e et e
96 Soil ............. Red._.. 12.25 15.33 .......... .18-21 22-58 ........... 0.47 024.5.....011 04 i8
07 Do .......... ... do ..... 7.53 13-22 41.99 19.27 16-86 .......... .15 3 3 .98 1 1 2
98 D)o........ !. ...do..... 6.72 12.19 484 10-80 16-35 .......... .11.5.2.4.1.1.1.9
99 Do ...... ... ... do--.... 11.39 13.32 30-75 27-50 16.75 .. ..... :14 '4 1 2
101 Do .......... ... do.-.... 9.04 11.85 368.94 25-4 15-43 .......... 15.20.6 1
102 Do .......... ... do... 7.33 13.62 37.01 27-10 13.71 .......... .20.1.4.2.518S
103 Do .......... ....do ..... 10.21 13.70 32.51 23-53 18.27 .......... .1104.135.7092
104 Do .......... ... do ..... 7.87 11-13 39030 21.74 20-03 .......... .14 .5.1.2.5.41
100 Subsoil...._.... ...do ..... 13.58 13.38 2.02 23.10 23.76 .......... .12.1. 13.2.42, .7 .1
19 Thomas Pineapple
Co ......... ...... ... do---.. 8.03 12-82 446. 25-70 10.95 0.26 .14.2n5427*0, .-0.2
21 Do ............... ... do ..... 10.43 16-00 35.03 22-40 13.21 .21 .82 .2 3 6 3 8 1 8
awaiian Preserving
Co.:
15 Soil.._ .19, 3.70 .46' .48 .91 10 .312 15I~i









ol........... tllack... 7.82 15-38 31-15 24.00 14-58 .i .0
16 ubsoil .......... ... do..... 9.16 11-7 3 1-37 24.40 17-24 1.44 2.21 .4.8.7.5 1 0
W x I :,.'










17 Soil ............. ... do...... 8.33 14-97 31-96 24-20 13.61 1.42 3.8 .3 3
517 Do .......... Red.... 3.54 13.71 41-99 21.76 17.23 ----... ,12 .6:2.4J -
518 Subsoil .......... ... do ..... 3.97 13.56 41.53 21.48 18.21 "": ....... .04.2.4.064616 '2
130 IRunia .............. ...do....-. 7.95 16-22 30.76 20.50 21-02 ........ 1.18- .9553467.7
133 Mount~ain gap, Lei- Gray.... 1.49, 4.09 43-39 42.96 2.95 4.03.0
lehua.
72 Do.............. ... do..-.. .82 1.34 65.90 26.75. 2.24 2116 '.0.11.03 .05 5
$88 Glovernment land, Red..... 5.53 18.07 27-04 21.24 22.63 2-.60 1.9.5: -.2.8 354
1eilehua.
Do9 I.............. ... do ..... 2.86 18-43 -29-51 22.76 20.71, 2.80 1.24 4 o.9A 2
890 D~o.............. ... do ..... .6.39 14-18 31-09 23-20 19-40 3.60 .73 4'M.3.1.8,2
891 Io........ ..d.... 7.10 18-12 30-52 13-28 26.25 1.40 .48.11448' 2
302 I............. :%..do._.. 5.51 19.00 29-64 15.72 24-18 1.80. 2.26.5.0.0.2
393 D~o............... ... do...... 9.01 18.35 28-57 IL 60 26.01 1.20 4.04 .0.3.6a
39 3........... ... do:.... 3; 17 7.72 26.82 39' 00 13.29 90 O
.15 D~o,.........o.. 3.01 B. 42 37.80 a5. 80 063080,t
39 ater tank, Leila- Baodk-.. 5.08 8.47 315.39 43.64 10/0 5%,4
hts,
-V-
iiiil!iiiiR~!Ill ;"";"&A ,"I
















06 1...o... .5 .2-4 0,88 8.9 A.7 103 11. k1$ L$ U
go...... Re...., do. 14.0..u 83-62 261475 1731 ........ 80 .26.6, 8 4
.. *o.... 14.'0 15.28 2. 7a.... A 849 10783 .......... 2.94 7,8,0is,
....... 1 .d.... to5 11*A.s.. 8 1 1.6 .. .4 01'

............ ... Ona Jvv 'I.e~ y s.o ..... .- ev a wn.o.v*s
alve.. qd.... 1.30 14,50 .681 14.58 217.35 812.100 .60 .6 lip-8 01.
W 0. .... ... do fsO :32 ........ 5.2 10 3.9 807 17.10 2,9.4 .78 .68 140 it 87.M

... ... ]Bdo ,8 12... 9.8118 4.66.4 1315 2..0.... 4M9 208 .42 ,11#7B.1
0.... ...dcy.... 15.616 140.6 35, 10D6 17.0' :1-2 1....... .909. .689 Jo .288.1

60 ........ ..do.... 8. 1 04 11.1 83461 21.72 16.681 ..0.. 13010 .87 *t .017S.) A
a fbeo ......... ... do..... It 00 10.59 33.82 214.60 13973 .. .48... 1 1.4.611 .22 .420.66 .80
no O ... ......*... ..odo...o. 5.42 14.10 34967 18,70 22.15 2. 20.....2 34.1787 .27 .16 .97 .3

............ ...o.... 11.027 $L48 8.40 423 5 13.10 3.10g 029 2.W .72 111 108 1,
... ..9 .d~o... 13. A4 01.85 24.10 25.60 10.80 2.60 .80 2.40 .68 AS .28 .11.3


80 sn............. ...doo .00 80.3 .213.8 32. u 1.769 Ila0 2.0 .38 li 0 .99 .08 22 .0 5
L........do,,.. 10.78 13.39 44.04 147.8 213.0 %12.40 A4 1.07 LAI .07 :26 .21 i
..... ... edo..... 11.59 18.34 29. m 20.40 22s4 ....7 .... .02. .89 .1 .14 .29 .12.0
no ~ K "-W...,..... ...ro.... 19.49 1385 230.82 22.267 15.3 2.80 .08 .58 .40 .29 .12ad
Mard _k 1f0 ARM R O 1&M s14A 8AtR tm












TnA3L I.--Ched ical composition of Hqaiinol-Cniu





Ferric A, M,-g uphrNto
19l Loato.erlr Water roatl e b.er east. 'luin nene Lime Potas Sods phor. J
Go..:....doxi need trixi Eon1 2 2.8 08 805.....
N.1 (Hs...... matter.. (A1203) 1o.4 81.24. 23g) (K20) (Na.10 acid...
196 Do.........Blakresidue1.8 2.0 (Fe528) (Ti.81 (M..'... Wh

197 De-co..iu.. e...9 1.9 888 148 18 .....


Pineapple. Co ........ Redn... 15.03 16,52 20.39 29.59 15.065 ............ 0 0018080.40.402620
195 Doll............. ...ro..a.. 11.42 15.44 312 4 22.12 16.0.9 -------.4.3 6750.07 .4
981 Dabo ..............dBlc... 12.2 1 14.9 27.17 26.62 163 5......2 .2822.6..4.63028 )2

Kneohe, Koelings:
306 soil~. w. .....;... Black... 8.12 15.40 32.67 16.47 23.28 3 .10 0 7 6 3 1 2.0A
307 Suibsoil .......... Redi._.. 10.93 17.05 16.63 26.01 j22.099 4.00 .2.4.1.3.8.8.42
Kaeohe, Ma uk a
38 Soil1............. ... do.... 9.62 18-32 20.3 20 04 26.09 2.%70 .4.410 .64:8
3109 asi..... ...do....- 13.08 16.12 21.06 20. 22.35 2.80 .611 .0.0 1 9
310 soill... .... ...do..-. 14.65 16.44 20.59 2390 20.36 3.00.0413716.5.2
311 -usi........do... 18.64 15.46 20.72 21-20 19.43 3.50.0,22431.1.2
32 soil ............. Bo n 1 49 18.35 25.01 17-87 2334 2'90
313 Do .......... Red.._. 8&69 11.17 21.28 38.25 11.98 4.80.8.4 .4. A 6 16
314 Subsoil .......... ... do.. 8.74 10-55 2C 66 35.94 12.04 5.00.0AS1.12.4
315 Soil ............. ....do.... 8.76 17.34 25.38 19.02 23.17 5.00 .3.3 4 6 ,;2
316 Subsoil .......... ... do.... 6.69 16.79 30-75 19.57 21.86 3.40.0.3 ,47.1.0 5 `
317 soil ............. Black... 11-95 16.42 28.90 20.54 17-30 3.50 :63 5..3.62
318 Subsoil .......... ... do.... 13.02 15.49 27.77 18.84 18.22 4.00 .5 4 .1 2 4
Kaneohe:
343 soil ............. ...do.... 9A38 12.58 45.47 10,21, 18.30f 2.04 .6 1.9.9 2
344 Subsoil .......... ... do.... 11. 3,5 10.87 45.21 0.2 M878 Z.10A614.3
Kailua coconut
plantation:
33.5. Sofl..... .. White.. .38 18r 6.7 ..65 025 1.26T
336.: Subsoill.......... ...dot... 40.45 3.86 .060.306'00
Kafluas
337 sont,............ Brown.. Av8 -17"00 $7,02 17t 4,64







11 4
*40 41.
I&K swo.
7x,
6.74 11.89 26.04 28.0 A. 10 2.AA
10 36.04 15.12 12.70 836
.......... ... .11 7.26 74
2a SOU ............. Gmy.... lJ6 41-85 3.20 .93 -00 .96 0.40 1,.PO
2k 4i f ............. IL 01 26.89. 23.38 -16.80 9.98 ........ M la." 1.50 AD
Do ......... Brown 7.72 8.37 W. 89: n. 98 11.06 .......... .06 1.27 1,88 .34 As
Do .......... Red.,.,. 0." 11.22 45.90 1419.84 14.06 .......... 11 1.06 1.16 .42 Ifi
Do. w ........ Vndte... .36 40.66 2 60' .21 *00 .00 51-74
2. go .31 .45 Ivol
Rubmg .......... Bko.... .0 40.90 S.::08 ..29 AD .......... 40 50-78 2.91
.82 45
............. BfMM.. 9.66 16.43 17-69 ff. w 25.80 2.21 .04 ..40 027
'66,
w ftbwfi ......... m. ..CIO. M59 17.37 16.54 Is, io ::22.16 ZW .14 .28 1.06 .33


..... .... .. .... .


































Do.............
Pahala, 3,000-foot
level:
Soi...........
Subsoil........
Honaunau:
460-foot level...
Subsoil ........
760-foot level...
Subsoil ........
Kiilae:
2050-foot level.
0ubsoil........
2,700-foot level.


KAUAI.


Makaweli:
Sofl ...........
Subsoil........
Kekaha:
Softl...........
Subsoil .......
Hanaepe .........
Kauai Fruit &
Land Co.:
Soft...........
Subsoil........
Homestead........
Kapaa:
Soil............
Subsoil.......
Kilauea............
Hanalei ...........
Do............


MAUI.


Haiku.............
Do...........
Do...........
Do...........
Do.............
Do...........
Do.............
Nahiku. ...........
Kaupo, Omsted
place:
Soil ..........
Subsoil........
Kula, Dowdle field
Ulupaakua ranch:

Kamaole Church:
BSoil........
Subsoil.....


11.


6.96
5.74
16.36
10. 32
3.98
3.22
25.52
14.76
14.56


3.35
2.38
2.80
1.65
4.60

4.28
2.54
2.89
4.41
3.71
4.71
2.55
2.56


3.61
4.27
3.92
4.16
4.25
4.56
5.21
19.13

6.70
4.29
6.72
2.34
2.76
2.92
1.25


2.35

3.90
4.15
2.40
2.82
4.20
6.52
2.58


.90
1.96
1.90
1.10
2.44

1.29
1.06
.71
1.36
1.36
1.04
1.39
1.42


.98
1.10
1.31
1.00
1.06
2.11
6.33


1.92
1.81
1.03
1.04
1.10
1.02
.65


1.68
.81
.41
.31
2.13
.61
.74


.27
.26
.32
.28
.27
.34
.30
1.32


.52

.31
.27
.49
.38


71-
292
293


38-foat level:
Soil..........
Subsol.....
30-foot level:
Son i.,........
Subsofl ......


OANU.


Waikiki:
Sofl............
Do........
Sabsofl ........
E triment sta-

Soft..........
Subsoil......
Soft...........
Subsol........
Hawaiian Pineap.
ple Co., Wahiaws:
Sofl...........
Do........
Do........
Do........
Do........
Do.......
Do........
Do........
Do........
Subsoil........
Thomas Pineapple
Co., Wahiawa.
Leilehu...........
Do............
Do...........
Do............
Do...........
Do............
Kaneohe:
Soil..........
Subsoil........
Heels:
Soil..........
Subsoil........
Soil........
Subsoil ......
Kaneohe:
Soil...
Subsoil........
Soil..........
Subsoil........
Soil ..........
Subsoil .......
Maunawili:
Sofil.........
Subsoil.........


497
498
422
423
418
419


..... .. i


.98





2.00
1.49
1.76

3.06
271
1.66
1.55


3.18
2.64
2.81

3.61
3.w7
4.74
3.22
3.48
2.98
2:77
1.78
2.72
2.03
3.15
3.64
5.93
3.49
9.65
3.10
2.74
2.88
3.86
4.99
4.06
3.14
4.99
4.18
3.4"
4.13


y.


AT
i : .
,. P-.




", ,I






1.3


.,






21.4
.^'1 AfS


O



ai:
64




318,



1.36
1.03
.88
1.26

1,0 ;


i
": '-F
; 1
t










|-ME








P"r pow. Per en. perceWa. Prwwen. per cent Pgm Aven FrCOWt.
...... i.15 &. 22 0., U823 48 M9 29 Ulm.6 18 6
Mu. A8N1.2 .65 30.46 17.58 XL 73 1809
Ige...- 17.41 .34, .73 22186 14.91 X6.15 lied'
*A&--.. 15.83 L 64 8.03 16. 22 14L OO 205
.. ....... &75 .031 .48 20.5D 1&8665 SL75 4.49
............ W-. .IL46 .021 L14 2&.70 2L.90 2L464 &.55
........ 2LWA L71 A6.2D 21.82 13.00 L.75

............ L09594 SLOD a1a m1 a84 w00 6.86


........... =I 6 1.1 82. 82S 15.8 38 L 76 .00


bu,...-...- 22165 .00 14.42 32.15 12k65 14.17 as8
S....,... ........ 8274 .07 &.22 17.0 OD 5I&0 24.50 &.58
Vw ...L............- 83.0 .12 2.49 M523 M362 25.80 7.10
4MM 6 level ........ .4L. 50 1. 66 1.197 2L. 20 1M.03 10. 33 1. 07
9 hoB...... ..... 26.97 1.97 Z 98 3M.75 2Z.63 9.19 .90
5iW4M lve.. ... SLI 2.17 2.26 1& 62 17.46 31.88 7.16
60dbWDM ------------- 1L12 .49 1L29 1&.31 14.07 3n.48 14.03
I096apaleval ........ M .30 &IS &.99 22.15 21.63 23L6 U3.98
....... 687 .3.95 & .15 22L 02 19.58 2L 76. 6.20,
Aet.... 795 &.10 &04_ 21L.72 21.04 27.65 6.7
WO...... &84 525 &.10 19.43 19.19 2&.52 L090




it I..A....... 1 75 .02 L.57 548 6.49 a&.40 P&.so
......... 10,90 .10 3.11 7.58 7.22 M650 27.40
De........M.. 1OD 1.23 IL.78 IL.65 24.20 3L So
A)......-.. 1374 .84 & 72 4.65 3& 2D 43.70
------------------.. 17.86 L.45 C.17 t 43 34.20 39.10
Gd............ 2L 41 .10 .40 9.66 12.78 20.01 27.2t
AdeG...:. .. 42 .06 .12 IL.88 9.04 22.28 41.09
ht............ A5 28 .24 .42 1& 35 10.31 32.45 M504
GkbeL.......... 1&.21 .12 .45 2&8 so 3M37 20.09 2D. 92



,6 I~is................ 25L16 .12 7.20 40.90 0.85 1501 2.98


8 ~btl............ 44.50 L91 2722 SL65 &.07 LOD &.78



OjI........ 1IL5 S.0.98 2(0.40 %.53 35.80 2L655
In OhWOA ............. w4.g0 0.5 sa &71 &626 11L55 6L 18
AL.............. 12.00 L.12 U040 L.26 M630 21.86
De d hi:... ......... WS.6 0m0s ASS6 L. 1M.35 61L25
Or~~IL L2R......... 05 1 2L.21 1Imes 39.88 1& 87
go0 IubmdL ............. X4.90 0.92 &I1S 7.77 17.20 54.a0



I~f bdvl....... W=.2 .66 .94 30.5 1WO LIS 17-36
......... D30 .08 .12 IL 47 30.81 26.48 85.7
lee.... 411 .48 .08 IL79 17.50 AR.5 10-3
ass.m .06 .2 M LWt 11-0 U i S
lo .49 0 ,8 I" ap W1 i
=.3 AI A to 7.u IL.L








*.." ":': .". "*:* :" ,. :? ":.. ";. : ": i.. ".. Ii:. .
u... ... .' W'.. .. ... i. "

.. .


: .
. .. .. .. ... -


.. ........


lma.


MOLOKAI. I


Naiwa ditrict.


1,500-foot level:
sont................
Bubsoil.............
1,050-foot level:
sBoi................
Bubsoil.............
860-foot level:
Soil...............
Subsoil .............
600-foot level:
Soni................
Subsoil............
880-foot level:
Soil...............
Subsoil .............
30-foot level:
Soil................
Subsoil............


OAHU.


Kone district.


Waikiki:
Soil.................
Subsoil.............
Experiment station:
Soil...............
Subsoil...............
Soil.................
Subsoil.............
Kalihi:
Soil................
Subsoil..........
Soil..............
Waipio district.
Hawaiian Pineapple Co.
Wahiawa district.
Hawaiian Pineapple Co:
Soil.................
Do.............
Do.............
Do .............
Do.............
Do.............
Do..............
Do............
Do............
'Subsoil................
Soil...................
Thomas Pineapple Co...
Hawaiian Preserving Co.
Do..............
Do.................
uni ...................
Leilehua..............
Do ................
Do ...............
Do..................
Do .................
Do..................
WiWaiua district.
Helemano..............
Opaeula..............
Do..................
Pupuukea:
Soil...............
Subsoil............
Soil................
Subsoil ..............


ol.'
No.


114


-ii



8l


mar.


Per cent.
10.71
16.38
9.06
13.18
15.24
13.54
13.05
12.48
12.95
12.98
15.39
17.82


8.71
10.77
14.42
13.82
16.22
14.37
14.37
14.05
15.23


16.60


13.14
16.77
14.32
13.65
15.80
13.06
14.67
17.58
16.17
15.55
14.41
13.35
16.66
19.70
15.13
19.35
20.34
18.88
21.20
19.91
21.11
20.48


20.43
3.61
12.88
14.54
14.15
16.39
13.54


1 ite


Per cet.
0.46
.03
.08
.OS
.01

.08
.05
.01
.00
.03
.00
.25
.00


20.91
18.61
.85
.56
.14
.00
1.15
1.02
.62


.00
.87
.09
.12
.73
.14
.29
.05
.09
.41
0.50
0.60
2.54
3.79
1.24'
0.88
.69
.80
.69
.95
.34
.91


.01
0. 7
0.47
.02
.04
1.98
2.16


.PM -a. '






.54
.73
.86
.28
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