Grasses and forage plants of Hawaii

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Material Information

Title:
Grasses and forage plants of Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
43 p., 9 leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McClelland, C. K ( Chalmer Kirk ), 1877-1956
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Grasses -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by C.K. McClelland.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613191
oclc - 16324135
Classification:
lcc - S52 .E1 no. 32-50
System ID:
AA00014554:00001


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VsDRl THE RUPl VISIOW et

OmIOE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,

U. & DEPAjBTENT OF AGICIMrm WS.


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[Under the supervision of A. C. TRU, Director of the Office of Experiment Atationbs, TWh
apartment of Agriculture.]

WALTER H. EVANS, Chief of Division of Insular Stations, Offie of Experimats


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E. V. WrLcox, Special Agent in Charge.
J. EDGAR HIGGINS, Horticultuist.
W. P. KELLEY, Chemist.
C. K. MCCLELLAND, Agronomist.
D. T. FULLAWAY, Eitomologist.
W. T. McGEORGE, Assistant Chemist.
ALICE R. THOMPSON, Assistant Chemist.
C. J. HUNN, Assistant Horticulturist.
V. S. HOLT, Assistant in Horticulture.
C. A. SAHR, Assistant in Agronomy.
F. A. CLOWES, Superintendent Hawaii Substations.

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u. S. Veparvmen oj agrncuL ure, wasnsngwon, -. c.

Publication recommended.
A. C. TauE, Director.

Publication authorized.
D. HOUSTON, BeSeetary of Agricultre.
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ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE I. Cynodon dactylon (manienie), Chstochloa verticillata (bristly foxtail),
and Chrysopogon aciculatus (pilipiliula) -'1...... !..... ......
II. Paspalum dilatatum (Australian water grass), P. conjugatum ((ilo Q'
grass), and P. orbiculare (mau-laik)........................ .-
III. Panicummaximum (Guinea grass), P. colonum, and P. cru-gali ba( -
yard grass) -....--------------:
yard grass).............................................. ..i..^ ^
IV. Panicum pruriens (kukaipuaa), Eleusine zgyptiaca, and E. indica (yar4
grass..)..... .... ...........) -..... ................ .. ... --... ,3i:
V. Andropogon contortus pilii), Cenchrus echinatus (umealu), ErgrostiS :
unioloides, and E. plumosa........ ............................. ::,
VI. Fig. 1.-Panicum barbinode (Para grass or panicum). Fig. 2.-Pani- :.: .
cum maximum (Guinea grass)................................... .
VII. Fig. 1.-Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass). Fig. 2.-Andropogon ;,. "
sorghum varieties (a, Sudan grass; b, Tunis grass) ...............
VIII. Chloris radiata, C. gayana (Rhodes grass), and C. elegant. :-....... ..
IX. Fig. 1.-A prickly pear pasture, Haleakala ranch. Fig. 2.-A rocky
pasture where only annual weeds and grasses are found............


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SAN ORAGE PLAN ,O.F'..HAW 'A-l,""l",,,,



idstr o 6 of the' imort4and pj ia r
for nth suhnnehro ha e imin ated~ h :n c$1y
for ~ ~ us Iwne lhugh in _e etyear~h a
problem of suppljying feed durin xiqds of; liong-7continuted

Ind thatform~s the basis" of, all of te -ranches of Hiwaiii
k 62 steep, rocky, forested, or is unitted for geerd.al gi
purpses. Formerly Iag .ra .f .b .. le land wer" iclude
Mancesbut mauch of this has beenwl an vetal l
eland, will be. put to more economicus.
fhe early days, because of the large ares of excellent Pasture
we"b1 entirely unused, many domwstl animali escaped:4 r~a
a the. mountain-s, and there greatly. mncreased in numbers.
-ild aissboca-me so dsrcv .h oests as-seriously
ee other industries which had .' dIoped, and. laws were
reserving certain: areas for forest: puros ..es; and Iall wild ani-
......... ... ...e ordered Jo. b e killed. But -een now many wild cattle
go*s wj, o~sfu
,evelopment of the sugar industry ha created a great demand
Aoums Ao anas for drat pupses. and fo ood for' the emp oy-ees.
ani early d&to, then, the butsiness of ranching was undertaken by
orporations.' and by private: interests,.
Beyond the esta sment of lbaes and fene and the slaughtering
Ithe cattle for use, little Ma dninte of Iimroving the meth-
adso managemet on thnat e rnhes in more recent timeq
steps to do this have, been taken,, inclug
0) The-importation of pure bred stock,
(2) The introduction of tame grasses an. Lothr forage plants.
(3) Ile Am-ruction of uadesirable grawes and weeds.
-(4) The growing of crops and storage of 'fe for live stock during,
periods of drought and shortage of fed
ZAnchinv'i now &A dfinite enterprise andi no a haphazard venture.
estbbi d:o the. forest.. r Wer; whdaloftillbl
-for the growing of sugar, pineapples, an other crops; and the
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ofrncig izpon better, b -As

STe question *hat feeds are cousume, 44
'is 'of -little importance., It is known, the a
lea-ves' and twigs 6f the trees and more"' 81-,pas
undergro th,,_ ipeluding woods,- grassba, a ote pl lt
of the f orest is now reserved f r6oM such uswe, are6 moreo
in what cattle find to eat upon strictly gr"zig'Jaid -n
Will form the bulk 'of the -feed there iM the futut-e, iand
-been made of the native and introduced forag plant,
importance, and thei value under differing cnditin
ment.
As having an important: bearing on the rdcipof
rainf all. in various localities is. given in'the Jollowingtbi

Average annual and monthly precipitation',a -some HA. a nrace and,'d

Years
station. oi- 'f, 'Ton. Felb. Mar., kpr,
record.

Island of Hawaii: Fedt. Inches. lftchee. Inches. Inhe8 fath
Hilo ................... -....... 103 25 9.39 11-77 16.6 13Oi94
Huehue 2............ 4......... ',0 .2 2490 .9 1.9 R
Humuula 2 .......-......... ... 6,685 5S 2,24 3.43 2.60 1.58 1
Kapapala ranch ---__--_---.. 2 150, 26 5.63 6.68 7.(A 3.62 4
Kohala mill..-----.....,....... 270 16 3.82 S.0i2 -6.70 5. 62 4
Kukaiau mill ----------- I ---- 250 19 7.42 7.91 13.78: ID. 4 8
Napoopoo ----------_-------_. 25 10 2.33 2.21 2.53 2.40 1.3
Puakearanch2 ............- 600 6 4 '85 5.4 9A .32: 5.14 4.11
Puuwaawaaranch2 .. .. ... .. .. 2,73(; 6 3.62 '2.86 9.27 1.71 2.0
volcano house..------_-------- 4,000 13 6.30 8.55 9.72 7.45 "5.,G*
Waimea .......................... 2,720- 21 4.72- 4.83 5,16 &.50 2,711'-
Islad of Maui:
Haleakalaranch................. 2,000 20 6.32 6.84 Ti.45 3.29 1.40
Kula (Erehwon)................ 4,200 22 7.29 60 4.85 1.73 Z"7
Nahiku ............-........... 700 11 14 46 13.28 19.54 18,41 10-M91
Waiopaeranch., ............... 1,740 14 _2.81- 5. 10 4.12 1,42 6
Island of Oahu: l
Ahuimanu...................... 350 21 6.45 9.42 8.76 4.44 6wt'
Kaneohe ....................... 100 16 3.76 5.85 6.70 3.84 A.'
Tantalus..------_------_--_.. 1,360 10 0.60 10-59 9.85 9.10 7, 70'
Waianae..-------_------------- 6 18 2. QS 5.30 2.23 .65 68S
Waimanalo ..................... 25 18 4.21 7.11 6.39 2,19 3.021
1aland of Kauai:
Kilauea ........................ 342 27. 5.76 6.55: 7.79 4.81 5.27-
Kealia ......................... 15 12 4.12 4.89 .7.04 1.$9 2L 34
Grove farm ..................... 200, 27 4.62 5-2Z 6.16 :3.14 3312
McBryde residence ............. 900 41 8.09 6.74 10.19 4.80 '3. A
Kekaha ........................ 40 20 3.'30 3.63 4. 14 .92 2, 06
Island of Molokai:
Molokai ranch .................. 800 12 4..80 6.65 4.39 2.43 1. 27

'Computed mainly from U. S. Dept. Agr., Weather Bur.,Hswaiian Bect.Climat'. Serv., Ann.8
loll.
12 Calculated from records, 1906-1911, inclusive. No record at THumuula in 1907. Ave efor P
high because of an exceptionally heavy ranfllM in IM0. Nomlsoldb5bu 0







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T

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70F f
r
main.
4h
A'01ir

1.41, 2.38 3.55 Z04 1.29 3.95
L94 3.25 1.481 1*07, %25 as 28.
3.55 3.74' 4.33 6.81 4.77 83.*
k- 16, L,87 C 58 3.79 3.67 5.0510 6.16 6&
S-71 7.12 4. 534, & 52 9.09 87.
1 9.77 4.13 4.62 2.2C 1.47 2.75 14,30
A 44 5.06 441 3.50 4. IQ 9.08 30
6 3,49 1. 6D 3.49 119 L 50 2.2o 29.02
4 (M 13 4.60 7.86 4.70 &17 ..8.42 6.48 1& 71
21 242 3.35 2.12 2.67. .3.17 5.13 .0-40
fm 2D 1.27 2.76 2.23 2.24: 4.82 1.18 .47.01
iiO' 22 1.69 3.50 2.90 1.95 2.46 3.36 '37. OD
70 11, 1,& 18 18.33 13. 39' 12.31 16.93 17.38 178-31
14 .33 .86 .45 1. 12' 2.43, 105 22.93
350 21 -4,38 5.94 A. 74 6. 41- 8.87 9.44 83.97
JN 4.44 90, 4.30: 4.96
.16 2.57 6-.80 _53.97
it-W ---------- 1, 3W 10 k64 9.2D 9.56 7.17 10.08 11.51 125. 9D
6 18 04 W 2.83 .:20
...... ..". : : 165 .77
.......... ,M 2..50 44.34
25 ig L 40 1. 5.21 6.97
------- 342' 27 4.76 5.01 4. 5. 6. 95.: 6.38 69.28
------------ 15 12 1.91 L 99 2 .3.76 3.65 4.44 W97
------------ 200 27 2.21 2.73 '2.76 3.62 5.50 4.86 45-86
reddo"M 11, 4.94 5.88 5. 16' 4470 5.97 6.36 70-.31
--------- 40 2D .46 1.14 L 12 1,2D 2.64 2.76 22.64
12 L 18 .99 1.16 1.63 3.82 5.27 34.45

1, indudva. No rwDrd at Humnulain 1907. Aveme for Puakei
heavy rainfWl in 19M. Norwal shoWd be about 50 inhwannu&UY.

of rainfall statistics on'the Hawan"an Islands reveals the
Vki& -the average afinual rainfaJ1 at any point seldom falls much
In the mainland States. the line of 20 inches rain
followalhe line Of 100 0 wtst- longitude and marks the line
'and unoemUk crop regions. West of that. meridian
l4nd #19 nowltalpen up M'.."dry farmin In
g and the balance is'
mountain; or desert land
goraver, the fact, that Ahe: groster.part of thejand in Hawau"rer-
-over 20 inches of n does Apt .. toll, the complete story. Some

4low percolation: so fiWy that most of the water passm beyond
of plants ;... some. lands are so steep that..hearly aj1 is. lost -by
precipitation is so hftvy at times, that no,
for peroolation. in given or it =a;yFbe: so light that allilis
lost by: evaporation. Because of heat -and.. wind, evaporation
placos: and f. (Wer : the season and the
&Vmt m he
RMAi
higbwo the rate of evaporation Some
ova the need formoistum, the is
the effooive annual. and montWY'rafiffaU-
giving would be of
value ion M111TWthe of A given region..
natiom the veptation determines the: Dood -for: moistww.
annual weedq and grasm a heavy rainfall for a short sesson is
bot in OVA 've&tsfion saa push: it:
W, to StRA to M&tU#tY.




















live over me penoa or scarcity; pnc ay pear, too, oemD w
portant factor. It is very fortunate that the algarba f
season and thus helps out in critical periods. Some r
preparing to store feed against this time of need. On the
ranch there is now storage room for 1,500 tons of silage,
furnish 1,000 head of cattle 25 pounds per day for 120 dis'i
erection of more silos is contemplated. The Cornwell ranch,
and Mokuleia dairies, Raymond ranch, and others have now.
similar storage. On Molokai there is a considerable acreage
each year in corn, and the stover is shredded and baled
this form it is possible to haul it several miles to the cattle
are feeding upon algaroba beans and require roughage to
their diet. *:* -
Crops which could be grown to supplement pastures incluidjSi
ghum, Kafir corn, milo maize, mangel-wurzel, sugar beet, anud oas
one or more of which should prove satisfactory in the diFf.erenti
of the Territory. Alfalfa would prove a great benefit, since l
readily, but it is not always easily cured for baling. :
The possible shortage of summer feed is something which aj
stockmen of the drier districts now plan, but there is another sh
which at times has caused great loss. When the precipitation
the rainy season falls far below normal the annual weeds and i4
make no growth. Under this condition, the growing of suppi
ary crops is hazardous or impossible and there is little else to s t
to reduce the size of the herds.
COMPOSITION OF SOME HAWAIIAN FEEDS, :
In 1906 the Hawaii Experiment Station published a bulletin
the Composition of Some Hawaiian Feeding Stuffs, by E. :ShOWB
In later publications analyses of various grasses have bee~ltm
in addition." The following table gives some analyses ti~dbtil
SHawaii Sta. Bul. 13. Hawaii Sta. Rpts. 1907, p. 63; 1908, p. 53

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Afewedtoth*e abd'vitiworeesfr A*comOIBU Aitt., -







JE ofbed. ProWei. Pat. freAs. Lie


Per cent.. per ca.Par aw't VOWs Per cent.. Per OWn,
--------- 5. 52 0. 87. M4. 59 28. 17. 10& 89: 0. 64
.L......... 9-10 L 11', 42.92 35.96 11.06 2
--------------- U. 2a 1.44' 42.21 3K.48 .5.42
------ ------...... 7.47 log8 4& 86 33.30 &.29 8
... ........ ..... 4.69 1.99 42.09 41.90 IL 24 ...........
.. .............. .6.31 20 192 32 7,27 .........
............... 801 2 33 51.1 3L7 .6. 8 ....
------- ----------- 8.44 1.89 4&.0 S& 99 IL.62 .....
--------------- ... 627 1.53 4L,92 40. 2p 10.01 ..........
------........... I ------ 11. 76 A.6 0.5 M74M 0W8&47 .....
-----------.. %.. 982 1.31 42.4.4 35.09 11.64 ..........
......... &.. 496 1.07 53.49 31.84 & 63 -.32
W4.-. ........... ..... 47 2.20-6-8 29.93 &.25 .26
.......... .. 12.32 2.19. X6.6 B& 58 10.24 .12
............. ...... 6.86 .58 59.94 Z22.03 -9.83 .26
................... ..... t.12 LOW 62.83 2A.23 6.46 .17
........................ ..... 6.02 .61, 61.15 27.56 5.47 .03
---------------------- ... 10.96 1.28 48.95 26.55 10.03 .14
------.. ............. 4. 84 1. 38 $1 7 3.53 11. 57 .147
......................... fL 41 C.58 41. 25 35. 51' 12, 23 .I
--------.---.-- ..... :. 7. 82 1. 45 43: 92 31.00 11. 94 22
.. ................... &. .82 .761 57.57 24.89 3.93 2:.76
-gfm .... -------------. 7- 42 4. 07 39. OD 33. 40 7. 92 2.00
............ ........... 25. 26 1. 76 .32. 25 A8 85 11. 23 1. 30
.. .. ............... --- 21. 66 1. 87 45. 41 11. 04 2D. OD 62
.. ..................... 13.82 5. 82- 45. 54 19. 96 15. OD 77
.. ...........:... 1M 27 277 47. 62 22. 24 1333.5
................... & 70 1.40 61.06 2i 28 85 2.1W
e as.............. .......... &.19 1.30 ft.33 9.68 20.85 316
S fqd ,.......... ........... 7.25 1.1-1 K873:. 11.33 21.0OD 4.83
.,.................. 1&. 85 & 04 43.-07 30M 87 9.06 53
tots......... ....... 3.79 &,21 72.02 10.93 4.07 .27
bgs.................... 10-36 .69 54.76 2&'S8 3.83 '38
gossed rmoed...... .50 .18 M3 10 27. 29 3. 81 36
------ ......... 9.9 4.9 47.9 29.2 & 0 ..........
r" PM ............ ......... 11.7 2.44 47.1 21L.5 9; 2 ..........
grss ............... k82 1.9 49.2 33.3& 7.5 ..........
grgs.................:. 9.01 2.9: 45.5 36.0 6.65 ..........

A Calculaed frm UM"y' Feeds and Feedlng- Hadiso, Wis., 191%, 10th e&., pp. WS8, Mg9.

-esmust be c pre byrsl. The scessful production

4 befand mutton in Hawaii is proof of the nutritiousness of the
If'weer, teeis a great difference in the value of feeds

8:lye do not reveal, due to palatability and digestibilitys.
Iqo per~cmntages of digestibility have been worked out by feeding
"aperiments conducted'in Hawaii.
S-Itwill be noticed fromt the table that the anayses of grasses of
$1swdiompare very favorably with the few analyses here given of















































improved. At low and medium elevations, Spanish clqrer 3'I:
distributed. Desmodium triflorum grows thickly .at the ..
nations, particularly with pilipiliula. Black medic and h
are two other legumes which, though widely distribute,:
abundant. Bur clover is spreading more rapidly on the hig
on the lower lands.
As long as grass-fattened animals satisfy the demands.
markets the present feeds, although open to improve atni
tinue to be satisfactory, the greatest problem being,.
where, to get sufficient quantity, regardless of qualit- duiiii
of drought.




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4JO
dikusswn 61 VUMUS ODeol" a SUMI
ih OVwg, A U) vhich sdentille and
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As mm onpwant rrmisa.,
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Hawaiian name. Rwaark&

'Y
T**Md brd gral&.. ........... On low dry 19jids.
30MM, ;rass'. ...... ........ .............. On albZa and 9aw
lands.
For low dry lands,
S*,"t v4nal gram. ... ......... ........ Found in wet dbtricts of
Molokai.
-t qqakmg grass.. Tn wet regions.
Pfairiew rescue gr&%,. ...,,,-f-At eloystiond of 2,=Jeek
Toothed HeuPUUW Atid, above.
beat
8andbur or J On dry sandy lands.
Pest on Kaust
]arjstl foXtail ---------- ---- ................. A weedy annuaL
------- Rhodes grass---. For meadows.
---- ----------- -------------- Worthless as feed.
Bem-udagrass..-,.-_ manian e ......... At elevations up to 4,0""
feet.
Orchard graw Owks- ....... At elevations qf 4 .1
foot. and atove.
Yard Uankilo aM (on -MO1O-
gram ----------
-------------------------- j ....... Emoloa or Kalantalo
RA"Pa fescue ............ .............................
Yorkshirolog vetvetor At elovatiow, of, 4YOOD to
meadovr soFt gram. 7,OOD feet.
------- Wall barley ........
mou-iitain pift ----------- Pitiruka. ....... In dry regions.
Periumial rye grass-,-. ....... At elevations of-4,000 fe*
and above.
...........
dotbm- lokaj).
aftm4alli or -Baxayard grwL.-, .............. Along water ditches or
submerged lands.
Pam gr$m (commonly ....... Plant in wet places.
called "Iyanicoma").
1"Wiftum ------ Guinea gram... .......
........ Crilb gram .............. 1 ....... .... Valuable annual, low eh
ovation.
-------- ---------- -in dry seag=.
........... akona-.. ........ Eaton
BUo graw.
AjvAiahan water gram,, ---------
dihadftift Good at all elevations.
orbL-Qwt. Rice gram ----------- Worthless.
--------------- Amnual m4ndw ......... Atelevatim of 41000 to
9RW grasL
------------- Kentucky blue grm -------------------- ....... Do.
nawwasum BuffAo gra0s. o .......... ivni i&ekl&kL Frqm sea level to via#*
tions of 4,ODD feet.
xrolm
4
d6 ...................
ram., ........ Natal redtDp ......... I ..........................


S Pnoftphrm anwis6anum mAnienie,-A buffislo grasel'.0r.
k c0ed iakil
1% 4he South, St, Augustim grms, is found in all warin countries andils:

4,,valuable gram under &11 wnditions of moisture and at all elevatai ons,
potionkily be]OW 4 000 feet. It is aWessive inits gwwth when.
omditions. are 'good, and wilL when n6t grand, everrun:
antanal. and other huabeo*.hut not, destroy' them.: It is M.
W3=t, ol w to plant m* field a b6caum of Japanese nut






















possible to do this better grasses may be substituted for it. t:
compressum crowds it out under the Hanalei conditions. ::.
dilatatum also would be able to crowd it more or less under
conditions of moisture. This grass is the principal gras,:
Wahiawa plain of Oahu, but the small clover, D esmodi'un
occurring with it furnishes the major part of the grazing.
Paspalum conjugatum, Hilo grass (P1. II, 2), is a native of
America.. It appeared near Hilo about 1840 and spread :r .
crowding out many better grasses. The fact that it is less
than other grasses enables it to crowd them out. In rainy rimegs
seasons it makes a heavy growth. It is liked by stock oiny when Si
closely cropped. The larger growth during-wet seasons is girazed,
disturbs the digestion of cattle if eaten in quantity. During thi, A
season more of the coarser growth is consumed, because of the sht
of other food. On the Parker ranch there are over 50,000 aspcLi
Hilo grass. It is valuable in helping to tide over the periodi...
other feed is wanting. Better feed is obtained by burning off .
growth whenever it is possible to do so.
Under fair conditions Paspalum dilatatum and P. compares
slowly crowd out the Hilo grass. While Iilo grass is of val -
diltataum is to be preferred and should be substituted for it who :
the conditions will permit. Paspalum orbiculare (PL II, 8),yi
grass, mau-laiki, occupies large areas on windward slopes and al,
higher elevations on the lee side of the islands. It is not litke
stock. The tender growth of young seedlings, of closely qt.ij
pastures, or after burning, is better relished. The grass ocas~t.e
rally throughout the guava belt. It is gathered frequentlyfo.. b4
ding or packing purposes. It is known as cow grass in Qua.
and as ditch millet in other places.. Cases of poisoning hatub
known in India from eating the seed of this grass. The.milkn f



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the maintenaoee ofp eattleonly.
asditataues (PL ]a P 1), also known as'Australia, or lapg
gras% t is & native, of Seoth America but wa~s iutroduCeod in lM&
Autrliwhere it hes been grown for about 30 years., IAt is one
A hemost valuable grasses yet introduced- into Hawaii, it is, trPA
Bi(mudu gWass, Keutucky blue grsadafw. otherk, cowu#
&reas, but -probably the: areP6 in water ras Wilutmey
the avew, in these other graOsOe
Onky blue gienes, is. auid to6 high elevations, while; the WOWe
4ws well either high or low,. The same objection holds,&gAinot,,
Stase, soft mefdow grass,: and others,, Bermuda is somnewh4t
4,rought, resstant, but the Paispaluma crowds -it out when. MOW,
'i morwe available. While it- Pnakes little or no growth in. very
seasnsit does not. die out' but starts: up with the first good rais
At sea level on the leeward coast, this grass makes fir -growth onl
aund~ following the, rainy season,_. Tha same may: be said of it i
S situations u' to an,.elevati'on of 2000.feet or more- Topog
Y, and rainfall determine: its economic value rather than elev.9--
then, while: wit many introduced grasses elevation is the important
Uactor. "'On the windward slope%. its 'value is likewise determined
gyhe mountof rainfMl, being greater where the rainfall. is from 60
to 4M, inaches annually.: It is not recommended- for swampy regions,.
1ut4 rather .,for semihumid ,conditions above elevations of 11000 or
&,,50 fet, lthughit i* valuable in the dry sections following rainy
teasons ofe'being more valuable than the annual grasses or weed''
which supply feed. at guch, times.
SIn the table of composition the high nutritive properties of water
Owas as shown. by the hig& content of protein and tat are apparent.
14rom. the analyses Ione would expect that this would be a most exc'el-
lent gras for growing animals and keeping them in good condition
at. all times. Results show this to be true. At Princeville plantation
cattle. fatten on this at all seasons. Its palatability is noteworthy.
In mixed growths, the water grass is kept: closely cropped, while
Bermuda and other: grasses are allowed. to grow several inches high,
Finer grasses, like the: gramas, are grazed even more closely: than
Water grams when growing side by side and, not having the persistence
of the water grams, gradually give way to it.
Under good conditions it is possible to make hay from this grams
6 asel as to use it for soiling. However, because of its habit. of
growth, it is very difficult to mow with machine or scythe,: but My
be OUt with Japanese grass blades. It is difficult, to cure. because: of
I_-_-_- SM f ~ nwofNwSuhWOSdw, ~ p t
lie --ul.3 -- -



















































2 feet apart each way or in siie'tMaise~~oass e~ i &tmeA .
2, 4, 6, 10, or 20 feet apart, or. Itf plant in haishaldt
here and there. Old plants may be tafke up theteoots diWdi
I planted out in the same manner as seedlings Do not'tlr'
upon newly planted fields. ::. .
The carrying capacity of water grasIvaries munch.::
s,:iy be said that there is a different capacity for eac. .
ij 1pa ,ure. At the Princeville plantation, at' ~
'iq. f with 60 to 100 inches of rain, the carry
'.e steerr per acre for three years in one jaddock. of .0

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ACIULAUS PiIPLIUA)
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Bul. 36, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


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4 44:


1, PASPALUM DILATATUM (AUSTRALIAN WATER GRASS); 2, PASPALUM CONJUGATUM
(HILO GRASS); 3, PASPALUM ORBICULARE (MAU-LAIKI).


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tigr..sp. ia, e" po.or land. ,hisg
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nta.d drough...h.is .he.ys..kinds cc and










g.a.. t pi gw.el ItS spbr by rn and b
uor mos ndin will row out many oher grmqs
is it to hive rvolutio ~i the sok induy.





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Sty weternbut strte up. with the first rains. It wvms
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commonly called mesquite m Hawaii, is, according to M. J. B... .i.
"one of the most persistent and troublesome of the worthl.ess
possessing structural endowments which insure its contipa d`
ence under extremely varied conditions." These ^endTo
however, make the grass of value in Hawaii. At elevations .i 4 t
4,000 to 7,000 feet this becomes one of the main pasture
It is able to withstand drought and frost. It thrives .ealso.-:
better moisture conditions. .,
In Australia the grass is little liked, and in Oregon and W
ton it occurs as a weed. among better meadow grasses. Whila
doubt of less value than Kentucky blue grass or orchard gr.,as.
certain seasons in Hawaiian pastures it is of great value in uti e ,
and at the higher elevations particularly..
Poa pratensis, Kentucky blue grass, was introduced into Hawitb r,: :
Captain Makee at Ulupalakua about 1879 or 1880. This gr: s'.,,
one of the principal pasture grasses of the humid portion of 1:* &
United States, Canada, and other countries, and its value :is.4oo ,t:o
well known to require comment. It is persistent against drou;n ii
or overstocking, becomes green and grows with the first raiL n.~'
becomes dry and brown during the hot, dry months. Sto
blue-grass pasture require other feed at such times to obtain.
results. This grass occupies considerable areas in Hawaii, b
4,000 and 6,000 feet in elevation on Ulupalakua, Haleakala,riu t
ranch, Humuula, Puuwaawaa, and in the Konas. It f ii..H
grazing for about.four or five months and carries one head for evy
3 or 4 acres for that length of time. Wherever found it is a; l
fattening grass.
Dactylis glomerata, orchard or cocksfoot grass, occupies large
in Hawaii at elevations of 4,000 to 6,000 feet. It is a large, coa
grass, occurs in clumps rather than in an even sod, does not spa
and is of slightly less value than Kentucky blue grass for fa
although it is a palatable, nutritious grass. It also becomes .
and brown during times of drought, but there is some feed avaii
1 Permanent and Temporary Pastures. London, 1902, 6th ed., p. 150.




S....... .... .. .....










































OU o tlee, and tnat at is about the last species observed m ascending
S I. mountains.1
S. amafgroeis forsteri, heupuueo, is an annual, appearing at ele-
yamis, above 2,000 feet following the rainy season. During the
S season, or after the seed has fallen, the dry, naked, open panicle
S Iile conspicuous. These empty panicles, driven by the wind,
ftoa collect in strawlike masses at the base of guava or other
I.. ..:t s. .The feeding value is fairly high; the grass is palatable and
... rtious. It remains green for but a few months. This grass is
ii;, ite idely distributed.
Fetuca myurms, rat-tail fescue, occurs at elevations of 2,000 feet
Hjil, above. The seed heads are conspicuous when standing out
.,, the manienie or pilipiliula sod. The leaf is narrow and
'R*k. J. F. The Snn Trees of te Hawaffan Isands. Honolulu, 1913, p. 47.

,.. .. *. .

..:...... .,. .. .. ,..... .. ; ..." .." .






























































Composition and digestibility of Bermuda grass.

Bermuda Bermuda hay first
I grass.' yearafterplanting.s
Constituents.
Compo- Compo- Digesti- CompO-
sition. sition. biTy. sition. y

Percent. Percent. Per cet. Percen.'.
Protein .......................................... 6.86 18.72 64.19 6.4 .
Fat........ ............... .......................... .58 2.49 39.69 ..
PFber..---.......................... ................. 22.93 21.57 58.93 2
Nitrogen-free extract.....................--------------------------59.84 40.71 5274:T
Ash................................................. 9.83 9.13 41.68
W ater............................................--. .......... 7.38 .....

Hawaii Sta. Bul. 13. The analysis is given for the water-free material. The fsh
about 45 per cent of water. : A.. *
a Oklahoma Sta. Bul. 90. Analyses in the second and third years showed a ~edutio
Content to 11.9 and an increase in the fiber and nitrogen-free extract. .
'Texas Sta. Bul. 147.

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Bul. 36, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


PLATE IV.
r


Ri
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1, PANICUM PRURIENS (KUKAIPUAA); 2, ELEUSINE EQGYPTIACA; 3, ELEUSINE INDICA
(YARD GRASS).


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7
4":'0",
AL

*Alii
ice
form Of stlawkl,-
P**wed QjR dry Bft)mudA; 'h&wi
A
W+8 40raotimm guffer from+ this
nochlo* ffW-9qW (Pi 1-UH *A
zftm Wx"And t a+re+ fields
wnovata-**"ut and
q( t4a rice-cropi it affoirds,
]vm 400, a t4or draft Of the
'Awaomm or*
.+ t4er sowus occurmg with ihe above ap4v#ot
flmaT
M A+ wt byWtanista. There we several v4pe-

,Ar4 graps itseff, tho vwiatiow tqi4g, in b"akkal
maWy, Jt is a widely dist4buted althotW4 it t
a weed iu t ti1W fieW it is easily kvt 'Mi controla It"some- -0441'
a hay crop after thq. removal of a cultivated mp h
In and fat.
,ious-grws, b riqhi... protein
nutn't e4n
coknum or EUvoddoa colona (Pl. 111, 2) is all.o AW&r,
41,
d graw+ and is. often 1ound with it.. This SPOCAeS 3 +
owev: d iDrefers leso moist: situations.. it1sPrMv::VP
r&ina finla for a short time..on]F, as it soon, m)e&
down. It urs x6n&antly in wide rocky gulches orval-
on Molokai at low eldvations&-
but in other countries. it is caUed ungte rice.
vaticUlata (PI. 1,1 2), or" bristly foxtail grass, occurs ++
uOy about Honolulu. It grGws very rapid'11y af'110E 16:1`113W r +- #
a BOHM* It
is out by many of the dairymen and used as g
equ&4 or superior, to Piwa, gram for Mil production. lue
ftwu" gram. is. Of less value.... 111ones do not seem to::U6.. W Ris &
troublesome wood in cultiv&W fields where the seed.is 4ways preer,
ready to spring up whew is 111he bwdshwm
thook oj+r bwb,, and when the heads we mature th" to
of anim or to the d1othes of any one P and we thus
""9




41



















It is quite palatable and is grazed more or less closely until the:ftq
appear, when it is objectionable to the stock on account of tA
beards. It is a low-growing grass, closely resembling bearded
in appearance. It grows best where it receives the benefit of
drainage or subirrigation.
Panicum pruriens (P1. IV, 1), kukaipuaa, crab grass, ard'
therisma sanguinalis, kukaipuaa, or crab grass, and' 8. he
considered identical by all of the ranchmen. Kukaipuaa is the
applied to annual species, which are weeds in cultivated fields,:
which furnish a very valuable feed in the paddocks. If aWlloiW
grow undisturbed the reclining stems root at several joints frofM'li
central crown, then become vertical, and bloom. The seed l '
"crowfoot" in shape, like that of manienie and yard grass. Kukl p
is very nutritious. With various annual weeds it becomes an ihnptt :::
tant fattening feed in paddocks where perennial grasses do not t i
It occurs at all elevations and under all degrees of rainfall. It
formerly abundant in Puna, but has been crowded out by Hilo
Eleusine indica (P1. IV, 3), manienie alii, and E. ~agyptiaca, y
grasses, crowfoot, .or goose grasses are drought-resistant
occurring widely over the Territory. E. indica is a pest in the lawih:,i:i| i
and along the roadsides of Honolulu. On Molokai. it is a weed.in'thi :'
alfalfa fields. It is a tough grass well liked by horses and .a :t,:
It is valuable on extremely dry ranges or along and above the algar l A
belts. The toughness of the stems is overbalanced by its go&I
seeding, persistence, palatability, nutritiousness, and drought- resisting.
qualities. It is rather coarse and has a typical "crowfoot" seed head. ;
Panicum torridum, kakonakona, is a valuable annual grass occurring I
at low elevations during and following the rainy season. It is very :
fattening, and well liked by live stock. It is the main fattening gra o:: I
on the lower elevations of dry ranches. It is reported as an excellent i:'
grass on Molokai, Ulupalakua, Cornwell, and Haleakala ranches, a nd :
is of value in other locations. It occurs mixed with other annual :
grasses and weeds. The only objection to it is its short season .f:


: .i










































gi 'I s i a're reported from low, wet lands, and failures from high, dry
. hi" d s .
a.ieum grass i primarily a wet-land grass and requires an abun-
; dwe of water. Even an excess of water will not injure it, and it can
-be .planted in marshy places where other grasses would not thrive.
m' Seimarshy lands are often dried out by planting Para grass upon
S a thus making them less dangerous as places for the miring of
S ttdck. The grass is not killed by overflows.
The yields obtained vary with, the.fertility and moisture. At the
.. -lenwood substation, with heavy rainfall, and where the manure was
; turned to the plat, a yield at the rate of 31 tons per acre of green
i rage in four cuttings was obtained within nine months of planting.
At Hanalei four or five crops per year ate obtained, the grass being
Hawaii. Forester and Agr., 4 (1907), p. 277.




Li K H. 49:.%- :
:: ''; :...: "::ji:ri i:





















































r meadows. elsewhere. At the L,


grass failed to ratoon when cut. ;
As a pasture grass Rhodes grass has not been a : ..p le. .
This failure is due principally to poor quality of seed, t' j
sity for a perfect seed bed, to its shallow root system, andI
to' the fact that the cattle are too fond of it and grz~s it:.
or pull it up. On the Molokai:ranch the sweepingsfrom:
and seed otherwise collected ave .been sown, tlwRti
tically no Rhodes grass to be seen upon the r age:)P oMi
On Haleakala ranch, where Rhodes grass, iad nt i t'a
planted on old cornlands which were later opened to graz

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Bul. 36, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


a


PLATE V.


4


1, ANDROPOGON CONTORTUS (PILl); 2, CENCHRUS ECHINATUS (UMEALU); 3, ERAGROSTIS
UNIOLOIDES; 4, ERAGROSTIS PLUMOSA.












Bul. 36, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


FIG. 1.-PANICUM BARBINODE (PARA GRASS OR PANICUM).


FIG. 2.-PANICUM MAXIMUM (GUINEA GRASS).


I :


4iii


PLATE Vl.; I


.r 'l"l''ii















', IhE" p~


Jul. 36, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


PLATE VII.


FIG. 1.-MELINIS MINUTIFLORA (MOLASSES GRASS).

[Planted Feb. 18, photographed Dec. 18, 1913.]


FaG. 2,-ANDROPOGON SORGHUM VARIETIES (a, SUDAN GRASS; b, TUNIS GRASS).

[Photographed 67 days from planting.]


I.
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3, 1
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4
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Bul. 36, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


PLATE VIII.


'.4 .. .I .P. .:.






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turnm to furnish early feed until the latter became establishod&e.i
a pasture grass Natal redtop is recommended. for dry, or
locations (or for a nurse crop for water grass in humid sectiS ,ii~ i
medium to low elevation. It should never. be overstolca d. .k .!i
should be allowed a period of rest for recuperation and seedi% g'i
is recommended for Rhodes grass and pili. ;:
Andropogon sericeus, Australian blue grass, is perhaps the b'.bi( i
the Australian blue grasses. It closely resembles Natal redtop ii ::" :S.S:,
headed out. It is a soft-bearded grass, with good seeding habil'-ts4S::,ti
easily established. It is slightly superior to Natal redtop in' :6i :'|ii
position and will apparently outyield it. Like the latter, it is a .i ;.li:
grass, "valuable alike for pasture and for hay, very fatteminga, a4.,l,
much liked by stock of all kinds."' It has not been tried out i; ::
pasture grass in Hawaii, but from its similarity to Natal redtopfi
should probably succeed under the same treatment as recommenild .
.,.i \ ::"T. iP
for that grass. :. ii
Andropogon saccharoides, feather blue stem, feather sedge, or fl* '4
top grass, is found on Molokai and Niihau ranches, and on the le
side of Kauai. .
Andropogon (Heteropogon) contortus, twisted beard grass1 '":t6 ..
head, pili, is well known, being widely distributed. It occuArii f
1 Maiden, J. H., loe. cit., p. 78. t


4 '
























































































































































































1'


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To eradicate Johnson grass, pasture closely or cut frequent
about two seasons, then plow shallow; put in a cultivated; Qrp
cultivate thoroughly.
In Hawaii Johnson grass has been planted in various p.
is more or less of a pest in alfalfa fields on Oahu, and occurii
of the cane fields along the Kahului Railroad, on Maui. i
The two following grasses are recommended for planting
ence to Johnson grass, since they can be .easily destroyed .h u
land is wanted for other crops. According to some reports giive '"
the meetings of the Hawaiian Live Stock Breeder's Association, J io
son grass thrives up to 2,000 feet, while other reports say that
feet is too high for it. Some reported it as well liked by catt:lei i!:i:,
Mr. Isenberg stated that cattle at Waialae preferred almost anyti4 N .
else to Johnson grass.
Andropogon sorghum var., Sudan grass (P1. VII, fig. 2, a); another 'i1i
African grass, closely resembling Johnson grass, but without its under w
ground rootstock, has recently been introduced and distributed ta a 1ii
few of the ranches. At the experiment station this grass in a a
trial plat, with frequent light showers in the spring of 1913, ia~
growth of 4 feet 9 inches to 5 feet, and began flowering in 55i ll
from planting the seed. Good reports of it have been received : .'.q lI
Haleakala ranch and from Princeville plantation. Tests in variw
parts of the United States have been made and favorable repor04
received as to its value. The table of composition shows it to be above
the average in feeding value. Horses are extremely fond of it green
or dry, and no doubt the same will hold true with other stock. : :
Sudan grass ratoons readily, but judging from a single ratoon i
grown in the dry month of August at Honolulu, the ratoon cropil
not be as valuable as the first crop. The first crop had many ie
stems; the ratoon crop had a few much larger ones, which is objeotiin-
able. Further experiments will determine its value. The seen are,
large and well liked by stock and also by birds. This grass and the ,:
one preceding and following are small sorghums, and may be easily ':i







-77I
01" iti *4


var. gams (L V11. fig25
am bvt os lwl
vadily. It has the same good -points as SvU4 n*k

ZXGV31ZNKtMS 90:BAGIC PtANTB.
Agennoustrees furnish some6gaigpr
Tho osand ipawani at higher elevations are th6 il
value. At lower elevations and upon leewardsie
0y bmortanut. It, is more fully described below, h
tp alph kowli as koahaole are eaten by cattle and hor
to cause the falling of haw", from mane and tail of hres.,
Alike the inkoa and the auhuhu, have some-for age vle
smaller plants, the white clover, hop clover, Indian cloer
eokver are -very valuable at highr eleovation~s and am, becm
dsrAd anish clover. thrives_ ak xdu n
6t 9pers Joly as isolated P.la'.ts, The related speds
tr a, occurs moethickly;, it is a sall creepn
ha bing purple flowers and thrives well with mam OM*
Thio blk medic: (having yellow flowers and som-
a meicinllyby the Hawfiians) is also wielydtrh
ote a 14pedema, which has roed.valuable in the Southr
haso so far failed under Hawaiian conditions, although tried
exprimntes.Fenugreek grows well but does not rese
and oon dippears. Crimson clover, Egyptian clovernd
pa t iviiuner pertain conditions but have little value on th
_;'4* 4laW&& thrives, in certain places, but when once establish
too viduable for pasturage, although it is excellent o
luqxkw, pmrticolarly for hops and horses. The following t bl
100 heprindipa native and introduced leguminous forage plat




--------------... -----------------A........ Kom .............. ...... Leaves UrS OB=b

A- .. .. Raft on rMPO
su~~e............~..* .... ..................... rPes.. .. ... o*a e s
... ...
.. .. .
FO |W abntoue u ew o as

























vida sa vf................ uregon ve n... ...... ...... ....................
i Plants which have been introduced butare not naturalized. Some have di
Prosopis juliflora, the algaroba tree, or kiawe, as it is knownja I4Ut
of the most valuable sources of feed in Hawaii. It is one o0`ib'
mesquite trees. It was introduced into Hawaii in 1828, coves...r.
sive areas, and will eventually cover all, the lower elevatioqa'
devoted to cultivated crops. The algaroba is admirably suited. .lto
regions. It is found in large tracts on the leeward sides ,:of Ji;::
islands. Although found at greater elevations, it occurs mostly a ,..;
1,000 feet, probably because of its preference for dry localities,.! i::::
tree is a source of a large part of the honey produced in the iS44
The wood is very valuable for fuel. The ranchers most depe dfl-i:
upon the algaroba find it to their interests to carry on a honey b ,
ness in connection with their other work, but it is here o~nsi4&.r3:
merely as a feed for stock. The pods contain a number of ,
encased in a hard seed coat, and surrounded by a sugary, g.u.il l
substance. The analysis of the entire pod is given by Shorey a
Water, 15.26 per cent; protein, 8.89; fat, 0.58; nitrogen-free extra,
47.27; crude fiber, 24.75; and ash, 3.25 per cent. The beans *oft i '.i
algaroba, being protected by a hard seed coat, escape masticatfioa i.
and digestion and pass through the alimentary tract entire. Thiii
fact accounts largely for the rapid and widespread distributi p :
this species in the islands. Domestic animals have been the
factor in scattering the seed. .(
For several years experiments in milling the pods prov i "*Iofi
avail. The sugary pulp gradually accumulated upon the crishers a'oi:
SHawaii Sta. Bul. 13.


.. ii' :
:i!







iilllla IIidiginth mls iie

illlli ipa fwtri sdt epterlscero h
w4 lw'5j







to t,** aiy amt lieryan contracted, plnlio aage*,O
VVI

who feed thir nwasi by, n C. W.Rnards of, grindli"ngo
'reslof 'wte isvng yetd to keepncma thes svng clea 'oft6pe
ed pr sodct picke '6y the first: an o me thod' finte wpot
of thiden, anid aged o~rse infirmme diffearencus fainltee
thebeas aof 'the -fuloaluie.shoulyad be orin uusd ied
them tan cosm rs and ontat or, pedilsant10atind1ct

I"Wtob insavig yret tol the ranachmen. tis savring his, notPos..
thioe his staok pick uptheans and dronugt there on tome lpos o
cattle ore w antofed, aged orhis irmen of vcarcitouhs enatoniides
by he balgmalobing th satisactor manned, r The unusd faell ro
ithelt Novembe~r, andut the hfeedt fmllls atin Julo and 1Augunst
**wen obs isnegeat elptd ncn.m hi~tc
luive fdiry saoj. Jn laob ens of drougt thnereous some lossuof
hefo wantessofth feed, i~this btimer tofe scarcioughasben bridgted
.b Ateoagrobein in athesalisroctorylt for sohe piods fhatllero
@me raveou or butther fhedavies fall ia evs duringJul and bAugust,


and trees. which axe not touched at other times. Even the marsh
(aklikli)is eaten. On aome of the ranches the watering.
are placed so as to compel the animal to come out of the
`mba for water. In, so doing they feed more or less. on other
.Ranch managers think that they are benefited by so doingL.
mikcow s are fed on algaroba, milk consumers complain of a
Ud'Savor in the milk. In some- cases, bowel troubles in children
SA*Oi been attributed to the:feeding of the- algaroba by dairymen.
son of tile great. problem of the ranches is to provide other foragp
16 supplement the zlgarobs. Corn stover when shredded and bale4-
" lysolves the problem, but the quantity of such feed i's too meager.
[grasses and plants of the poorer kinds, grown just above'thmi-
bebelt, must be relie Wpon to help in the solution of the prob.
lekwhil saltbushea may aid upon salty lands near the coast. Sand




















































UCKimg Jew ......... .


Cordyline terminalis,...........................
Eleocharis obtusa.......... Sedge..................


Erigeron canadensis.......
Brodium cicutarium.......

Erodium moschatum.....
Euphorbia lorifolia........
Eurotia lanata i...........
Freycinetia arnotti......

Gahnia beecheyi...........

Gossypium tomentosum...


Fleabane ...............
Alfilaria, "filaree"..

.....do...............

Winte; fat, sweet sage...

Sedge..................

Wild cotton............


Haplostachys spp...... ...........................
Hypochwris radicata...... "Dandelion"...........


fpomea sp ...............
Jussira villosa...........
Kyllingia monocephala....
Lampsana communis.....

Malva trum tricuspidatum
Opuntia spp.............

Osteomales anthyllidifolia..
Phegopteris spp...........
Plantago lanceolata.......


EUJLIUUVU.U.............
Kior ti...............
Kohekohe, pipiwai......

Ilioha, uwiuwi..........
.........................


Koko or akoko........
.........................
leie....................

Uki ....................

Mao or huluhulu.......


Koali..................
Pukamole..............
Kaluha, pipiwai........
..........................


.Prickly pe ..., ... .. ............. i i r ...........
prickly pear, cactus. rPapipi or panini..


Ulei....................
"Akole"..............


li, akulikulilaulii...;.


Wild morning-glory.....

Sedge..................


Tangle ferns ............
Rib grass, black plantain


Portulaca oleracea......... Purslane................


1 Introduced but not naturalized, rare.


Leivesexte-mf
Oflittle value,
horses. .
Eaten byhotee: .!
Dry. p0lapces;
tlons;" lWl-:"
sheep.
Do.
Leaves eatem' '
Dry places: ,.
In forests
by cattle. im
At elevationds :t
3,500 f~e.:'.
horses and
Leaves efati
and shipp.,
Do. *"* :.*p .
VaIuableanm4


Eaten but littB."
Valuable annual ui
akala.
Valuable on dryt.
Valuable feed :in
drought,: oteil
sea level'toat
Berries ati lea I

Occurs from Si
4 000 feet~.,
sbeep. .. +
Widely ditbt,
by bgs...

ij
.I..


I'
Ci"
- ,.~ Ut wh fl2


-- ,r--y ___H_'_I


u& n-vu Tw w m ......












.a.



elre..,.... ................ ..,..... 1u~ $ae
t AWAOWr beh~iW ; .... ..- al...... _..........0- 7' I tel rare. b h a
and catsle
.....R~ag....d.i.. ----------....... VayU t W fx

Flattctitupbane................ .. -... tuiro
------ ... ...,....... .............. ........... O f vale.
.,..------- ...... Akulikull ............... In iiarshylt eateft
be cate when In
..,, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ --- ....... .. Itm .... .......... Leaves eatm b sheep.
.... ---s.........- K ka~o............Leaveg eaten by cattle
and sheep and oEly
seeds eaten by cattle&
........................ ..... .................... Fleshy root emtem by,
hogs.
SaBw thsl...----Poale ............... Very- valuable annual at
all elevatibas.
---- Dandelion............. ...... ............... Valuable im highe lands
------ -- -- -- ............ Ob l. ................ At elevations 6f 4,000 to
8 000 feet, leaves =4.
berries eaten,
r* serism-; Cocklebur-....... Kiai...A.......Laves eaten by Stowp
..... .andalso by cattle when
ha cactus.

,, tIntroduced Nit not naturalized, rame.

saw hitle or pualele is found in every region and at all ele--
it is nutritious and palatable and well liked by all kinds of
ineldingpoultry, rabbits, and water buffalo. It is therefore
the most important plants in this list.
"to the pow thistle come common purslane and Spanish needle&
likewise, aw_ widely distributed, nutritious, and fairly well
V by stock'
televations above 3,000 feet the common dandelion and the two
Composites, Hypocharis radicata and Lampsana communis, are
J~abls flattening feeds.-
Alfilaria' at all e .levat .ions above 4,000 feet becomes valuable,
pially for sheep.. Erodium cictarium is the true alfilaria. B.,
sucatmhowever, is the more common species and is of- greater.
he'It is widely distributed on the Pacific coast and occurs:
sea eve to he nowline." E. cygnorum is nativetoAs
6li and very valuable in the drier. portions of that country. Alfil-
As s found in Hawaii at its best only at the higher elevations of the
wkranch, the Rumula sheep station, and. Puuwaswaa, but it is
ndon Mfolokai, Haekladother ranches ikls budne
a, an r-esauda
-- -- -- -
I .I GLA.pM.AMW DLI





























W-LU LL 1 J ULVL 3 sV.L JLj. U %A VJLL WV uV.1 LA LZ t VI.u 1T y u ..AtALt LUAJ L= C*'l Ti.
most valuable "grass." They rely chiefly on this and Pari g
roughage.
Black or narrow-leaved plantain was introduced as "ribI
from Australia. It has some forage value for sheep. It is
undesirable in most places, and even Australia has now put i-t
list of obnoxious weeds.
The saltbushes. There are many species of saltbushes, n
of which furnish forage. They are tolerant of alkali and
drought, and are held in high favor by ranchmen in a
Arizona, and in. Australia. Several species have been -tried:
Hawaii. The half-berried saltbush fully covers a small fiel
Mokuleia, Oahu. This field, however, has not been grazed for
years. In adjoining paddocks only occasional plants are founi
these were closely grazed by the cattle. On Molokai the"
species and also some of the Arizona species were tried.
protected from stock the plants did well, but the cattle when in lW.i;.i:i!
kiawe became so ravenous for other feed that they eradicated :
saltbushes. .
It may prove feasible in attempting to establish saltbushes to.etSB..
seed enough for a larger area and then protect it until the plail
well rooted. A few isolated plants in early stages of growth:
little chance against the grazing of a large herd.
Batis maritima and Sesuvium portulacastrum, both known as a g
likuli and both grown in salt marshes, are not ordinarily eaten
stock, but during kiawe season they are readily consumed.



.. ..$" ..:...
i ..: .:i: ,
:" :. '. 'i; :,ma w ,,, n : ,i : :i '












osili und roote W ofwich fr ish 4000
we ateang secia, otYete tabl'ow.
pa op.). 7110 kotunowni sa, prickly
pan ~# nij i important foaecop fIAW4i. OSn
tw-w srwa fairly well covered witli "h plaht-
as MR there are 2,000 acme, on the Halsha
on aniardHawaii 10,000 acrms
oldflyduring the dry seaon When: Other Led0 Is
it issaul that cattle on actus range drink -about
iermouths and in summer months two or three
R d there are cattle 3 and 4 y ears.,old that do not khow
f ater. or 10w to Aik it. The cactus is both feed anid
,14ma, .96esdes big used as a pasture for certain cattle 'at,
*C ch actus JR"ds'serve as. insu;AfiCalgaiwt loss o9 cAttle dur--
a ,drought. -At- such,. Oimes. the cattle are brought fromx
paswtur~es, They rnoon learn to feed -on the cactus, and v hen all
1ower- j oints am. consumed the, upper portion is8 out f or them
day to d .InheSouthwes~tern:States the spines are burned
softened by steaming before feedig In Hsw4i the spines are
o e .... ..
asis an emergency feed for the beef 'Producer, but is of value
times to a dairyman, sumc it can.1srgely replace-silage as a suc_-
feed in a 'ration for the. dairy cows. This feed may cause an
"Or bitter fianfor in the milk and may produce blue milk and pale
.Oie, dairyman fed. 100 pounds. of 'cactus, 9 of brewers' grains,
-3 -of cottonseed meal: with good results. Another recommends
chopped cactus., 3. quarts bran, and I quart cottonseed
-twico daily when the cattle have a little outside pasture.' For
n11m ature steers from. Off to 200 pounds of cactus daily 1*5 roeo-
along: withi from I to 6 ]pounds of ginfeed.
following table gesthe composition of Cactusin Hawaii.
Obmapoitmo of Hawmadn pricy pear.

Water. Protein. Fat. tee Ash.
tract. t .
Per ct. Per CL. Per dt. Par d. Per dt. Per c.
eugrnd..,,.................. 94.03 &.44 06.07 3.22 0.52 B
ktrn s................................. 94.02 .30 .09 L 16 .61 t















































or cut.
Cacti require a warm climate with an intermittn ..
SHawaii they thrive on the leeward sides of the Island~in
between 300 and 2,500 feet. They may be propagated Wi
are very easily propagated by cuttings. Any portia on
placed in the soil will take root.and grow.
.l
LESS IMPORTANT GRASSES.

The following table gives a list of the less important i
have been introduced into Hawaii:
U u. a Dept. Ar.; Bur. Plant Indus. Bula 7,.i7..i


.IAa .....





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Pq.


...............
-.-t -------------------
..............
.............
Or bluk

brpm* gtix& Dry# bw
---------------- Dry.
UWO grass
---------- ....... ......
................. ---------- .....
........... A
.11


----------- D4P,
71
.......... ........ low.
Dry.
..... Dry0ow or
Ivry.
]bird
M()Igtl hwL
----------- HW
.................. moist, bigIL
---------- I)iOlst.

------------- DO.
--------- Dry.
bunat gnm -------------------
---------- 8= 60qufte or scathwootern buf- Do.

........ Bk* gMM, pneta or cratkar msg- Do.
......................
Italigit rye grOOL ------------------------ Molsto lagtL
...............
i4orth'R froland rye ------------ XkL
............ Voverty Bay rye imw ......... ......
------------- or Brasgilan geim ......
.......... ...........................
--------------- BulbopwvwAe gross or snWi iscco6u,
------------- ---------------------------------------------
........... --------------------------------------
--------------------- v-..
WvL
-------------------- ------------ : ................
.................. .......... r ............. ........
--------- --------
........... ... ............. I ..................... : ------- LOW, MUM_
------- ----------- --------------- 7 .......... ----- Mout.
-------------- ............ Medtm,
------ ----------- ------------------
Aunzw Mmdow grass ---- -------- M&I'MOLIL
Water grass---.4'.. ... WOL
...... Iftw bitte ...................... moist

--------- Conadfan
............. Wood meadow gram
... .........................................
........ ............................... ........
Dropoood,. ........................
........................ Dzy.
------ ........ DiL.










4
RENEW



Elk
!t A
































raugte cunuuuinu. iue seeuuug ui sumuwnata Larger if:r:g
tecting until better established might aid in overcoming i
ties. The failure of many of these grasses may be attribut.d'i
seed or to bad weather conditions. In Hawaii grasses a ei:iW
hard to start; the seeds are small and if planted deeply : t
plants never come through to- the surface. If planted
seed sprout with good conditions of moisture but the s
of soil dries rapidly on account of wind and sun, and the yo
dies before being able to root well and secure moisture fromaiilM
soil beneath.
Of the Australian grasses mentioned in this list only the. |
is spreading. This is found on all islands, and may be n ti
more common in Kula than elsewhere, according to the'obi0
of the writer. It is very drought-resistant, but tough and "wi
better feed for horses than for cattle. It is so persistent, hg
that it might be of value with other secondary grasses, like s
and yard grass, for planting adjacent to algaroba belts. TheW:S
and Wallaby grasses and Eragrostis brownii should be givef i I
trial.
Of the other grasses, Crysopogon montanus has shown :b
in trials at the experiment station, teff grass is an important
the dry plains of Northern Africa, Panioum bulbosum, P. .M


... i. .l
t. .., ~ .1" 1
....... .. ..... .. .....




































M,,t--grass, erxmua, yara grass, nesmoaztum rtnjtrum, ppamsn
rci^ *bur clovet
P!ier lowevrelevations, dry: Paspalunm dlatatum, Rhodes grass, Natal
iSttop, fuzzy top, yard grass, smut grass, buffalo grass, bur grass, crab
inoa, luaoonsaona,etc.; Desmodium triflorum, Spanish clover, bur
dw!!A er; and salt bushes, ilima, pualele, prickly pear (also the spineless
orms), and algaroba.
.i..Upon the low dry lands the problem of forage craps is more difficult
* solve. The annual grasses and weeds coming with the rains are
qiisn devoured. The tenacious, drought-resisting grasses which sur-
6i% long dry spells are unable to produce much feed during such
t e e. The result is that feed soon becomes scarce, the annuals are
i. closely cropped that no seed is formed, and the pastures therefore
treniorte from year to year.
? The most valuable grasses for low dry regions are those which woil
It long drought and close cropping by live stock. For these
m buffalo grass, Bermuda grass, Paspalum dilautatm, sand bur
i bubar grass, yard grass, and possibly smut grass are especially


.: ".; ;.. :.: .
I. i:, -:::, ::, ..

... i ,.:,i[ ii :i,.: .: :.:'.... .. :.



































no seed is formed. The smaler the percentage of there:
planted the less likelihood there is of the formation of sewiiJi
spread of the plants. One or more of these strips should beB
to protect the grasses until seed is formed. One of these:,i
part of one strip if there is but one) should be left with pj|
as a place from which to obtain seed for further plantings.
ranch.
Another method consists in running furrowed at intervaii.aN
the fields and planting these to grass. Single furrows breaskiA
old turf, pulverize a small portion of soil, and improve o
enough to give other grasses a fighting chance. Unless one ,kg
the comparative vigor of the old and the new species, such pre:
tion may be wasted effort.
Another plan, and one used in experimental planting g i
involves fencing an acre or two, preparing the land th.oroM
dividing it into plates for various grasses, and, after seeding4
them under protection until all have seeded, when the fence na
removed and the struggle for existence under range ~
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economical to plant the seed in beds, giving irrigation as needed,
timsplanting the seedlings to the large fields during a rainy period,
bpiing all stock fenced out until the plants are firmly rooted.
MANAGEMENT OF RANGE LANDS.
ftathis subject no formulas can be given which will apply to all
Nil tmanch land in Hawaii, because of variations in conditions and the
Atite of tfie forage plants. Most paddocks are benefited by resting
S:af given period annually. Kentucky blue grass pastures fail in
Ay weather and have to be rested. Annual grasses and weeds grow
a comparatively short season.? It is important to remember
tiat unless new seeds are formed such pastures may be ruined.
tockig results in the disappearance ef valuable grasses and
4 lw. Forser ad Agr., 4 (17), p. 247.
i9 IIX, X uX fs, as3 a rouy pe-s llf wtbleh nmil wds oad gp wyra o nly e faund. Tim
*&il ofar ah I=ladIn Eawat


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s upatorms sp. ..........
Euphorbti lorfolia s......
Lantmn camar ...------
Leucarna glauca .........
Momordicacharantia 1...
Paspalum orbiculare 1.....
Passiflora fetida a s.........
Paidium guayava .......
Ricinus communism a.......
Robusjamaicen8si 1.......


Lantana................
Koa bush...............
Chinesecucumber .......
Rice grass...............
..........................
Guava...............
Castor bean............
Thimble or Hitchcock
berry.


Koko, akoko............
..... .... ..... ............
Koahaole...............

Mau-laiki................


.. li............. ..........
..........................


CoOt
Coant


Said to oa
hairfrob n


Contains poIioaj
gredents.
Causes abor "t i


Salvia coccinea ........... Redsage................ Liilehu ................ Do.
Tephrosia purpurea 2................. .... ..... Auhola................ Contains
gredints.

1 These plants crowd out and replace the plants which have forage value. ; i
Poisonous. "

CULTIVATED FORAGE CROPS.

Cultivated forage crops include sugar cane, corn, sweet ansrd.
saccharin sorghums, Para grass, Guinea grass, Rhodes grass, o4a
wheat, barley, millet, teosinte, alfalfa, cowpeas, soy beans, |qR*
beans, jack beans, peanuts, pigeon peas, horse beans, Canada p
hairy vetch, winter vetch, cassava, sweet potatoes, sugar be i
mangel-wurzels, turnips, rape, carrots, honohono, spineless ec890o i
kale, cow pumpkins, etc.
Sugar cane furnishes a large amount of excellent feed in thaeIli
of cane tops and molasses. Sorghum is fed green also, as isoii
times corn. In the corn belts proper only little of the stover is sare
the grain being the principal thing desired. Corn as green feed, i
stover, or as silage could be more generally used as a source of i


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a... ....a.ae.. m. ~..a.. w..a a.a. r eaaa.a .Ia AA J 1. U.L J .5. .
iasseCS by G.. Munro to the American Sugar Co., in 1903, 1904,
aid 1905 were available, and these reports are very complete. The
I:poirt of W. F. Sanborn, of Hanalei, deserves special mention also
Sfar its completeness. The writer wishes to acknowledge the receipt
l. 1 reportss (verbal or written) and of courtesies extended by L. von
iL .iTeapsky, G. P. -.ooke, W. F. Sanborn, A. W. Carter, G. C. Munro,
ji:Ebe Low, O. Ludloff, F. A. Clowes, A. McPhee, D. T. Fleming, A. F.
|i Judd, Francis Gay, and H. J. Lyman. Thanks are also extended for
; .botanical identification of plants to Prof. J. F. Rock, of the College
I of Hawaii, and especially to C. N. Forbes, of the Bishop Museum; and
I for a review of the manuscript and suggestions given by Jared G.
iSmith, who was formerly in charge of this station and instrumental
in introducing many of the grasses reported upon herein.
It is to be hoped that the live stock men will be helped in their
W..orts at range improvement by this report; that they will become
lnii ore interested in noting the forage value of different plants; that
they will continue to experiment with various grasses and other
plants; and that they will report any mistakes herein committed as
ll as any additional information worth while to the experiment
I station in order that any later report may be made more valuable.




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