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HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
BULLETIN No. 49
Under the supervision of the
S- UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
THE ACID LIME FRUIT IN HAWAII
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
W. T. POPE, Horticulturist
VI J 1
Insed July 9, 1923
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HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, H(
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[Under the supervision of the States Relations Service, United States
A. C. TBUE, Director.
E. W. ALLEN, Chief, Office of Eeperiment Stations.
WALTER H. EVANS, Chief, Division of Insular Stations, Ofice of
J. M. WESTGATE, Agronomist in Charge.
W. T. POPE, Horticulturist.
H. L. CHUNG, Specialist in Tropical Agronomy.
J. C. RIPPEETON, Chemei8t.
R. A. Gorr, In Charge of GlesWoood Wbstation and Eatension
Island of Hawaii.
NEyLIE A. RussEr, Collaborator in Home Economics.
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Introduction ____-__--_-_--- 1 Spraying appliances -------- 13
T.: Varletiea -------------- 1 Composition of the lime ll------ 14
lture ------------ Commercial products ,..-----.- 15
Inaet pestsa--------------- 10 Recipes ------------------------ 16
I. gus diseases ----- -- 12 Summary -_----__-_-__-- __ 19
BIThe acid lime (Citrus awrantifolia) is commonly found growing
a. both the semiwild and the cultivated state in most tropical and
id tropical countries. Some authorities are of the opinion that it is
Indigenous to India because of its presence in the native vegetation.
fL e Mala.y Archipelago, or Malaysia, and other islands of the
ific Ocean it is grown for home consumption, and in the West
Iclies, tropical Mexico, and to a lesser extent in southern Florida, it
C" cultivated for commercial use. The lime was introduced into
7 tidily adapted of any of the citrus fruits to island conditions.
* T..e tree has many points in its favor for profitable culture in
Srawiab. It can be propagated in several ways, will thrive in a great
-gpi rety of soils, and produce large crops of fruit during the greater
Ipaet of the year. Moreover, it withstands drought remarkably well
i t s,susceptible to insect attack and disease as are most of
jfie. tothr citrus fruits on the island. The fruit is not imported1
i i tawaia aind thereforeameets with less local competition than
;serve. The demand for b lime f uice to improve the palatability of
Di iie Malay Archipelago, or Malaysa, awl other islands of the
S.ay kinds. of tropical fruits as well as for seasoning fish and meat
is n aturalrly arger in coHwai than it is. in countries where there is
Sister lvaition in temperature. The rapidly increasing popular
to aWaind thea widespread demand. for the fruit seem to assure local
Adveloyapent a of the. imfruitr inustr and to ca forth selection
Ti hrieties of high quality for home consumption as well as for the
'mr"et. At least one lime tree should:be grown in every home gar-
-en in tohe Territory.
',I* *. VARIETIES.
The lime is closely related to the lemon, orange, mandarin, pomelo,
and shaddock. Botanically, it belongs to the genus Citrus. It is
S ewn by several specific names, being described by various writers
:vohe lime of too tener o be grown commercially in o calorni for texportation to
Christman calls it Limonia aurantifoli", a tecjnic
includes both the .swet and 9th ,g id,
Varietal name f linWs ar ly p
for they are based on group characters rather than on v.
acters. Many so-called varieties have been described
tural writers, but only four, naPely, Kusaie, West Indian,
and Tahiti, with possibly their closely related species,
mented with by the experiment statitin (P. I),.
The Kusaie lime (Pl. I) is saidlto have -been devel
island of Kusaie, or Strongs Island, Micronesia, by early
settlers. In 1885 it was introduced into Hawaii, where it h
ily gained in favor and is considered tlhifnest of the four
of limes tested by the experiment, station. Tle variety
from seed with chariaters that ti sajiior tb b.at
is not as thorny as the latter, ind 'obes not produhi I
The Kusaie lime trele varies in fi frbini' mI 'a
a well-formed tree attaining a height ofit fTtrt (W
When allowed to groa: naturally the tr"Edtel e
bushy tendency at the top with 0loer brFnche0 tonu .I
and when reproduced frin sOed it usually serid
which eventually develop intI thickets. This letter 1 r
ever, can be overcome :by budding the tree updifi. s,
species which does not send up root sprouts. Thd Kit
green and bears leaves that are rather shall in'sie ze
rounded at the apex. It is generally prolific aid'
during the second or third year, continuini o rbpr
throughout the year. :
Fruit: Form, oval spherical, r ooblate; aex flttnxiiil
pressed, with a small sharp-pointed nipple; size, mir i
the diameter ranging from 2 to 21 inches ; 'rind ieddifti'
light lemon-yellow, and colors irregularly; oil cels ni~
ments vary from 6to 10; dividing tissues thin; pilp ve. c
shaped; flesh usually of a clear hloney -yellr codt. Cj;.ic;ci,
colorless or transpiaent, with a chradt~irit5tic fttWr6r
usually open; seeds plump aid 'few in iuiber.
All of the Iusaie trees t thp-, rimeht station i'
and prolific, some oftb em ligkrig gstte to ieat'l i
age. In their fourth yar these trees each produced b
which averaged 40 joi ds ti e tiie fee. The, it. f t49
later, amounted to 2,000 frtiiits per tree, odr on r h "v
200 pounds per tree. The trees have borne almost' 'dtti ut
coming into bearing. On Mdy 16, 1922, they were 8 to 10 f
heavily laden with fruit, and had spreading tops.
*,..DU K 1 I.. 7, F J:t..
The West Indiani variety, asos calle the MeaicSan: .a
Hawaiian lime, is probably the .gt tuvxtn .v y 1 id J ,
SStandard Cyclopedia of Hort, v. II, p. 782.
.. L .I 4-I- L. -L... ~ -i ---1 L- --- .-... -
FOLIAGE AND FLOWERS OF FOUR VARIETIES OF LIMES: (T) TAHITI; (R) RANGPUR; (K) KUSAIE; AND
(W) WEST INDIAN.
Bul. 49, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.
KUSAIE LIMES GROWN AT THE HAWAII STATION.
Bul. 49, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.
FIG. I.-KUSA1E LIME TREE. EXPERIMENTAL ORCHARD, HAWAII STATION.
FIG. 2.-LEFT. SHIELD-BUD, LIME ON SOUR ORANGE STOCK. RIGHT, BARK-
GRAFT, LIME ON SOUR ORANGE STOCK. BOTH 74 DAYS AFTER GRAFTING.
Bul. 49 Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.
THE WEST INDIAN LIME WAS THE FIRST
MANY IT IS CALLED THE
VARIETY TO REACH HAWAII.
* ".*"* :"
Bul. 49, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.
RANGPUR LIME. GROWN AT THE HAWAII STATION.
Bul. 49, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.
BEARSS, A SEEDLESS LIME, AN IMPROVED TYPE OF TAHITIAN.
i ieiS grown mainly in the. West Indies, Florida, and
.tIsi is a shrubby bush that attains a height of
S to 10 iiMU -is well provided with small, sharp thorns, and
er small, t-green foliage.
: Ripens practically the year around. Form, oblong to oval;
: about 2 or 2N inches long (large size range from 1I to 2 inches
i. .eter); surface light lemon-yellow; apex usually smooth with
Spoint when rippled; base usually smooth and occasionally
edto neck form; rind smooth and very thin; oil cells numer-
se gments 10 or less in number and distinctly marked; divid-
sjse thin; flesh fine-grained and of light green color; pulp
small and spindle-shaped; juice plentiful and of translucent
ic"" *pul soft to melting; acid very strong, the flavor being dis-
inctly of the lime; central pith open and small; seeds few to many,
and in shape flat, like a wedge, to rather pointed.
Several closely related forms grow in Florida.3 Palmetto, which
e result of a cross between West Indian and the common lemon,
Everglade, the progeny of West Indian with pollen of the
are said to be excellent fruits. Thornless, another lime of
an type from British Dominica, developed as a sport about
ce of thorns is a desirable feature in lime culture.
Rangpur, also known as Rungpur or Rungpor,' originated in
4iP4i V). Although an acid fruit it is not considered a true
-:t is hardier than the true lime and is said to belong to the
B... ars orange group of India. The color of the fruit, the ease
'l ch the peel separates from the pulp and the segments from
ias well as its peculiar flavor, are characters indicating
;ship to the well-known mandarin group of citrus fruits.
S.Owi.. to the character of the fruit and certain habits of the tree,
Ithe an gpur is grouped with the lime only provisionally. Its
introduction into Florida by means of seeds has doubtless been
,the mean of its reaching Hawaii. Several trees of this variety,
i:~toteued into Hawaii from Australia by Judge S. B. Dole, have
male gded growth and are prolific.
-~mh Riangpur lime tree is. small and, of spreading habit. Its
hnbkces are thorny, the foliage is rather sparse, and the small,
leaves have rounded apexes but no stipules.
SIn season in fall and winter. Form, round, oblate, tending
..oM b .vate, occasionally necked; apical nipple sharp-pointed;
-*~illy flat; .base depressed at stem, or ridged when necked;
d medium with diameter of 2 or 2 inches; rind inclined to be
rod -, medium in thickness, easily separated from the pulp, and
qpg icqlor that becomes orange red on ripening; segments
it&i. ni.injm ber, and easy to separate; pulp vesicles large,
abated; flesh orange-colored; juice plentiful and of an
JQW .tha.t is peculiar to the variety; central pith small
p. up, 7 to :18 in number, with little or no point,
... gAn...n u on the inside.
: ::t:: E learbook 19, pp. 79-281.
HN:i H H. Citrus fuitas and therr culture 1915, p. 142.
In 1917 the experiment station -: ieieitv*W..e. "
Rangpur buds which were grafted upon souro.ange
trees are making such thrifty growth that it isldeeiU i
propagating considerable new stock from themin for-
The Tahiti (P1. VI) is supposed to be a sport of th
variety of lime. The tree attains a height of 15 feet and orn
top a dense mass of foliage which presents a rounded ap
The branches are set with small spines and are inclined
and the dark-green leaves are large and have a tendon
The fruiting season of the Tahiti lime is during the fall
Fruit: Produced in abundance and is borne either
clusters; frequently well hidden by the foliage; seedless
dium to large, 3 by 2j inches; apex often nippled with p
or with both stigma and pjstil adhering; iind green to lem
in color, smooth, thin, and scattered with pit depsio
necked to rounded; calyx adheres firmly to fruit; fleA -
and of greenish color; segments irregular in num fr ut
average 10; pulp vesicles cylindrical, narrow, and somewtpo
juice plentiful, almost colorless, and of agreeable flavor;
strong; central pith open and small.
Two improved types of the Tahiti are the Bearss and the
proved. Bearss is under cultivation in Hawaii and is high.
teemed on account of the prolificacy of the tree' a~id the laltea
less fruit. -
CALAMONDIN. .A ..i
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(- ) Ut y 006d: 'th6
The calamondin (Citrus mitis) erroneously called t l
orange, is frequently associated with the lime, for whichh itr
times used as a substitute. : rn!
CULTURE. M ;* -
CL,::.4E 4 4i:
Lime trees thrive in a warm, moist climate where the rainrl.dt
evenly distributed in frequent showers and varies from 80 :to
inches annually. In localities where moisture is lacking,
should be practiced to enable the trees to make thrifty grwbIt
is important that the orchard be relatively free from exposurt.O
force of high wind, otherwise growth will be retarded, 4he
and flowers seriously injured, and the fruit bruised and scar T
some places windbreaks are provided to protect a grove that i1.
The lime grows best in rich sandy or gravelly soil which is
drained. Porous lava soils of recent formation, geologically .
excellent results when they occur in locations of abundant
Stiff clay soils are not suitable because they give rise to root
Impervious substrata can be shattered by the use of dynamite.:
'Bailey, L. H. Standard Cyclopedia of Hort, v. II, p. 784.
.s : 1 S .
S .THE ACOID LIME, FRUIT IN HAWAII. 5
SThe lime tree makes the same demand upon the soil as do other
t0w of similar size and the fertility of the soil should therefore be
maintained. The soil should be thoroughly tilled to keep it in a
..suitable condition of aeration and free from weed growth. Such
t illage will result in conservation of soil moisture, improvement in'
texture, and an increase in the productivity of the soil.
To produce the most profitable crop lime trees must be properly
nourished. In Hawaii many lime trees do fairly well without till-
age, irrigation, or fertilizers of any kind; nevertheless, the fruiting
capacity of trees reaching a high degree of productivity becomes ab-
'normal through intensive cultivation, and heavy bearing can be
maintained only by furnishing the trees with an abundance of plant
food. This may be given in the form of a fertilizing material, either
as farm manure or commercial fertilizer, or better still, the two may
be used in combination.
SLocations naturally differ in soil and climatic conditions and each
should be studied separately so that its needs may be determined. As
S a rule the soil is deficient in humus wherever citrus fruits are grown
commercially. Farm manure should be applied to such land or a
leguminous cover crop should be grown to furnish green manure.
Many growers utilize both.
S-Farm manure is one of the best general fertilizers. It supplies the
S 'soil with a large quantity of organic matter, which, upon decaying,
i improves the texture of the soil and makes readily available for crop
use the mineral fertilizer constituents in the soil. Farm manure
should be well distributed over the soil and then immediately turned
SGreen manure is furnished by growing and plowing under some
leguminous crop, such as velvet beans, cowpeas, pigeon peas, mungo
beans, and the like, which enrich the soil in nitrogenous matter.
Excess of nitrogen in the soil is indicated by vigorous growth of
the trees, dark-green foliage, and a small amount of fruit having
S a 'thick rind and very fibrous pulp. Liberal applications of potash
with the nitrogen tend to produce greater fruitfulness, thinness of
find, and less fiber.
I -Trees which it is desired to have grow rapidly but which have
not attained bearing age require relatively large amounts of nitrogen
and much less potash than do those producing heavy crops. Trees
n heavy.crops require a fertilizer having high percentages of
r "l .potash and phosphoric acid.
n I.general fruit culture young trees are thought to require phos-
phoric agid, potash, and nitrogen in the proportions of 6, 8, and 4
S per cent, respectively, and fruiting trees in the proportions of 8, 12,
a d per cent, respectively.
S,. Tablr 1 shows'the kinds and amounts of constituents that might be
S wsed to niake a on of fertilizer.
"KI". [i K.
TAB" I'" oi:r" b
TAnzlE i.--FertiuzvW tnI ee for M... t : ,,+:
c ~:.~ H,
., ": :" tr
High-grade sulphate of potash..... ............................ ..... ,....
Nitrate of soda ........................................................ ........
Sulphate of ammonia .................. ............................................
Makeweight (filler)........................................ .........................
Total ................................................... .... .......
1Hawaii Sta. Bul. 9, p. 16. .i .
During 1913-1917 the Department of Agriculture of the ik
of Dominica, West Indies, conducted fertilizer experimente oft
trees in an orchard that had been abandoned, so far as e
were concerned, for 18 years previous to 1918. The effect o
fertilizers, including cultivation, pruning, and 'the like, ea r..A
fruit, is shown in Table 2. :
TABLE 2.-Effeots of, different fertilizers on yiel Wof 4.il..ne t in ..<
No fertilizer...... .......................... ........ .........
5 tons of grass mulch.......................................
Dried blood, 400 poends...................................
Sulphate of potash, 050 pounds................................
Sulphate of ammonia, 250 pounds ...............,...... ..
Basic slag, 400 pounds.........................................
Dried blood, 400 pounds, with basic slag, 400 pounds............
Dried blood, 400 pounds; sulphate of potash, 150 pounds, basic
slag, 400 pounds...........................................
Yields per saore in -b
*- + .. .
12* 4 ,, i
IA barrel of 44 eubiefeet holds about 1,500 limes, which weigh about 150 pounds.
The soils of Hawaii are not necessarily of the same type .. b
of Dominica, but the results obtained TroP the above-me .
experiment show that it is possible to increase the yield of lin
although unfertilized for some time, by the application of fe
and that certain fertilizers are more effective than others in i3a
about greater yields. ;.
Lime trees may be propagated by seeds, root sprouts, cA
layering, and by grafting and budding. e'in most general rner
of propagation is by seed, but, results obtained 'from Qxperit
show that the most practical method for good production is tn|
grafting and budding. .
Seed.-The seed should be well matu'ed, fresh, aid Aeli f-l.t
should be selected from the most vigorous trees and be 1t1oa
cleaned to reduce the possibility of its being dertioyed byijr
or by fermentation. After the juice and pulp have been wash.
from it and superfluous moisture has been removed from the out
coatings, the seed should be planted in shallow seed-sprouting bt6i
-* It '.. ,:.c
- ------ --
3M. :. j .HB TAOEpD IMB. FRUIT N HAWAII. 7
Soil anid covered to a depth of about one-half inch, or
about 2 inches apart in shallow drills laid off 6 inches apart.
Sihn should then be well packed down. Rich soil should not be
IIi i because it is likely to harbor fungus spores, which may attack
tIjw edlings and cause them to die.
Propagating boxes should be kept in a somewhat sheltered place
where there is good light and a reasonable amount of moisture. The
.Sa1e germinates in a few weeks when it is kept at the right tempera-
S tae xand-sufficiently moist.
~ As soon as they are about 2 inches high the seedlings should be
separated and transplanted, each to a 3-inch pot of rich sandy loam.
S imaepensive pot can be made from quart cans having holes perfo-
rated in the bottom to allow for drainage. The holes should be
evered on the inside with pieces of pottery or t:le to prevent the
Soil from washing out. As soon as the roots fill the soil the plantlets
i seuld. be transferred to larger containers. Pot-bound plants are
ikey to make stunted growth. When they are 10 or 15 inches high,
, whieh is usually 10 or 12 months after the seed is planted, the plants
should be set in their permanent place in the ground. From 30 to
S 50 per cent more seeds than are needed should be planted to make
al*wauce for less or foe; weak and inferior seedlings.
S rep. pro~ a -- aun many countries, particularly where the West
Iji:i4an or Mexican lime is :grown, young trees are obtained by plant-
iFg.root sprouts that are taken from older trees. The Kusaie lime
occasionally produces such sprouts in Hawaii. The grower may
: induce lime trees to send up root sprouts by digging out the surface
Srots, severing them either wholly or in part from the parent, and
pham ting~ them with one end left protruding above ground.
: 4tf~ aps..-Cuttings of sound, matured wood may be rooted in
rPgular cutting benches. The cuttings should be 6 or 8 inches long,
bear several matured buds, and be set firmly in the ground with about
2 inches of the upper ends protruding above ground. Rooted cut-
S tingsusually doi not have very desirable 'root systems
SiiiyeriG rJG--This method of propagation consists in removing a
n g itof bark. froma abanch just below where it is desired to have the
mo- root* tart and: covering the branch with soil until such time as it
hs developed new root The branch is then removed to its perma-
neat Jeootion and established as a. new tree.
SO. tgi.Pa .;nd budd*inq.--Methods of grafting and budding have
gi n, great satisfaction at the experiment station for rapidly propa-
ng good standard lime trees (PL Il, Fig. 2.) Ten and twelve-
Skh-oldseedings attaining height of 3 to 4 feet and the diameter
of a small pencil were used as rooted stocks for grafting purposes.
. beilre re pottedI several times in the course of a year to promote
:r i d$ ri dTigoronmWs growth, and about two weeks before budding time
wE sgive -~imn abundance of :water in which a small quantity of
nitrate of soda had been placed to improve grafting conditions.
S-The rooteditc ahiald bevigorous and resistant to adverse condi-
E tite i.f AJneWidetr&ee having health, vigor, and quality is to be
establih d The*daieties ot citrus"that have given great satisfaction
a the ex pet ei n tdaibmfob for grafting are the rongh lemon, sour
orange, pomelo, and shaddock. The station has bearing trees of these
varieties which furnish seeds for the production of seedlings for ex-
Rough lemon seedlings have been employVed hoibj;i
some years to meet the need for ~stron rottoos ih .
poses. The main. development of this Vr+etmt haoet6 l
production of vigorous *nd resistaint1robtstoecki. .'Ih
rough lemon is rated of poor quality on a~ecunt' of i'i
rough skin. :
The sour-orange stock is produced from seeds:of th.e '1 -
orange which now grows in abundance in -parts' e"Otlotd
greatest value lies in its resistant rootstock. Results obtitti
experiments indicate that it has about the same value as th'
lemon for propagating purposes.
Pomelo seedlings, or what are commonly known s r
seedlings, make vigorous stock on which to graft the li mei .
The shaddock, a fruit of oriental origin, also makes a stro
rapidly growing stock for citrus in Hawaii.: .
Scions should be- selected only from r6igoros sandprlific
fruit of which is known to have a combinatiioi of the beetU*'s
that can be found. They should'be about three-si t M.n
diameter and of green fruit-wood possessing healthy bfdi
have not begun to swell with growth. '-; i i
Of the several folms of: union such asshield-budding, bautvi
and whip grafting, that of:bark.grafting'is best. To effect this i
the stock should be cut off almost at right angles to the verti j
and made -smooth. A downward slit should be made 1l inchdte
beginning at the top and extending through the bark; tope;vadie i
spreading when the scion is inserted.: As soon: as the scion isi fktIe
lower portion should be beveled: for i1 inches and the flattewd.ll
inserted in the stock between the bark and the; sapwood-s, t ..i
cambium edges will be in proper:contact. The union shoesibMti
be firmly bound with cotton twine or moist tyingraffia, "andattsI.
surface sealed with grafting wax to keep out insects shed 'wat ..: M
prevent the delicate tissues from drying out. '. i~- e.
When shield-budding is'practiced the shield should be put intud
inverted T-shaped incision made in the bark of the stocks
inches above the ground. It should then be pasIhed down, uitil .I
cambiums are in proper contact, fi-mly tied in.place, and wounti S
waxed tape for protection., Care should be exercised to raise twt. u
of the stock without injuring the' cambidm. The foliaged t.4
stock, or a portion of it, should be left standing until theB i
made a growth of Several inches. It should then be revered
stock close- to the bud with 'a blatiting cut. -The faxed t
be removed about: six days after the operation and the binding
several days later. i :
Experiments which were made with bark grafting ,antd ua
budding at the experinient station showed the. former methodi f
the better of the two in giving a strong union and an early iEtigh
growth.. : : i:: i
The growth of grafted trees may be continued in galleon contaiaif
The young trees should be exposed to full sunlight so that thky Si
become hardy preparatory to being set permanently, ii thlhadbWU
or home yard. At the end of 10 or 12 months they shahoumI be iS
15 inches high. i ': T i 0 : ,
': ";! :. : :".7. .... :.i..
." QI; vr: THE ACID TIME. FRUIT IN HAWAII. .9
lime tree, either seedling or grafted stock, should be at least
: year old before it is transplanted to its permanent location. It
,bould be carefully removed from the container with the ball of
*pirth adhering to the roots so that the root system will be injured
as little as possible. This can easily be done by inverting the pot
and' tapping it gently against some solid body. The plant can easily
be slipped from the container if the soil is slightly moistened some
hours before being taken to the field. If the trees are grown in tin
lens tin-cutting shears may be used to open one side of the container
itprelease the roots without injury.
m The tree should have an open area of at least 8 feet across and be
i .y from large trees which might shade it and from such vigorous
plant growth as would contend with it for food. It should be set in
a hole dug fully 2 feet deep with a diameter of 2 feet, be sheltered
from strong winds, and be exposed to direct sunlight. Before the
S tree is planted the hole should be partly filled with loose surface
soil which has been enriched with several shovelfuls of well-rotted
S rm ilmanure. Once the tree is in place the mass of soil adhering to
ti b root ts shoiild ie looosened, a trifle. The roots that have started
S"to gW 'if i irdle should be straightened so that they will grow in
i o&iar&d direction. Soil should then be filled in against that
W fouin diin the roots and pressed down.
SThe soil immediately surrounding the tree should be several inches
S lower than the natural surface to fbrm a slight basin which will
Jiol4 water until the tree has had ample time to settle. After being
jllafted the tree should be given a thorough watering to induce
capillary action of the moisture in the soil. It should then be left
afone &or several days and after that watered once a week or once in
tri ry 'two: week, Daily watering is detrimental to growth.
When it is properly planted the tree should stand straight and
firm or, if it is exposed to the wind, it should lean slightly toward
the direction whence the prevailing wind blows so that it will be
able to make a' perfectly erectgrowth when influenced by the wind.
-The ground immediately surrounding the tree should be kept free
i:from grass, weeds& and shrubbery which would utilize the plant food
-needed by the lime tree, and the soil should occasionally be stirred
-to:facilitate the release of plant food and keep it sweet.
Seedling trees do not need to be -supported with a stake during
, the first year or two as do other kinds of trees. Grafted trees, how-
ever, should be supported and protected with a stake. The only
pruning necessary is the removal of dead wood and stray branches
which might hinder development.
SIn orchard. planting small lime trees should be set in rows about
15e feet apart each way. This will permit of the growing of 193
trees to the acre; If planted so that the trees in one roW come
opposite the center of the spaces in adjoining rows a greater number
can be grown in a given space.
Young trees may be set in hedge formation and developed into a
wide fence. Such a dense row will be invaluable not only as a fence
it't also for the production f a large quantity of fruit from a small
te j- .. .* r -o 'a
INSECT PESTS ANDI'IffI I.DI F.OR
The lime tree is-atta cff ~W-i4tl' t'f'
eases. In Hawaii it is, heetVr fih t fbj t
the varieties of citrus. InseEt enetti e of the bie, "th
of the Mediterranean 'fruit- fly", lmay bke p fit indr
FmOtIDA aSDSCA1I( (Cyauitwhamflw atnMa. l q tu
*. .. ,* i ; -:+, ": .. i U |
The Florida red scale is characterized -by its'per-.ftely-
form, shining very dark brown or nearly black srai "Onyd
lighter dot. Its average diameter is, about orinewlutth2,si
it appears in great numbers on the underside of leave
branches of the lime. tree. When infested with it the ItoIt
yellow and occasionally the tiee- dies. .* .-. ; :
-. : ^ r .* t : ..
m : ... i:!
ORANGE SAL (C. .ura C :.,l
The orange scale is circular au flat fm.
from one-sixteenth to one-eighth iic in diameer,
parent scale through which its red body shiws. B'a
than the female and of a gry or dark brown clor,
is not as serious a pest on lne as it s on other of
S......!A .. laE S;,E 4 p .. b,,
The purple scale injurs young birancdh fqdag. aa
the lime tree. The female is pystr-shaped, oiten s
and from one-tenth to pne-sevedit ich ltong 4 i .
as wide. In color it 'aries from ght bY wn to rich
The male scale is vey narrow a. maler t....n
MEALYBUGS (Psen flatinentu k.t it.. i...
Two species of mealybugs ( yiPrfa$biS t andlP4 .oi-) have N l
reported as injuring lime trees t.6 some extent in Ha:wa. '
sects usually attack the tree -in tiatb of! divught, and 'ais
leaves to assume- a malformed appearaim Th~ese pests a.
be recognized through. the- distinctive appearanieB and a ithe i:
character of their white -way exeretio,' : k : .ti: ,
jt '" T '- ;.. "'j ;^ : | '
:' .I 4. '
: : ':' :A. .:
Kerosene emulsion.-This contact poisop iAs vewt~.e4l)y4 ii
trolling scale insect pests, mealybugs, and aphida, pre 44t
sprayed with some force upon the trees infpte4l IwtK # -it
following is the formula used for making, th emuls io
Laundry soap J.-... ,l ot t
Water ------------------------- ----- M
Kerosene -, to .-. ,_-.i.^- ..... -- ,---- "-
The soap :should be thoroughly r is4i1ye. in mter ,y
boiling over a fire. .Wheri the soo p[lM4i"oled.,tbe t Al
be removed to a safe distance from the fire and the kerosene
added to it. The mixture should then be agitated by charlgi
AidF.. .ii:...;.:.. ..... .. ....
... .4.. .... .i....
.- HE 4lACID LIME FRUI. IN HAWAII. 11
arguing for about 10 minutes. When completed the emul-
M'ld be creamy white, thicken on cooling, and show no trace
irl ona the surface. When used the stock solution should be
with 8 to 10 parts of water.
iii de oil emulsion.-This emulsion is made in the same way as is
onee emulsion with the exception that crude oil is substituted
leroane,. Crude. oil does not evaporate as readily as do the
id. lighter oils.
qn-.r oil-rSan-U-Zay oil and water, in parts 1 and 35, re-
i ely, is very effective in controlling aphids and mealybugs.
i mixture should be thoroughly agitated by means of a wooden
O~bfr being applied as a spray. The oil separates when
_H mulsion is allowed to stand for several days, but the emulsified
Sisrestored by stirring a little salsoda into it.
ORANGE APHIS (Myas citricidus).
S The orange aphis or black fly of the orange is one of the most
serious of the pests attacking limes. Iri late winter or spring many
little black-winged flies, or green wingless insects, develop on the
young tender growth of the tree. They are usually identified by
the lmoeydewI which they excrete on the leaves and stems.
n ~ani--b Tobacco water or nicotine sulphate is commonly used
I:t -rrhi sort :Ofpest. A! good spray for black flies, mites, and thrips
iS kede asf follows:
S :Niptne state 1---------- ounce.
lt! aidiy sap ---.-- 3 or 4 ounces.
K Water --__------._---..---_ --. 4 0 gallons.
T6''b efective thie pray mast reach every insect.
'^Th';[i easur* suggested -6r the control of the Florida red scale
41fi*inb'fid e ntit iicditrbLling .orange aphids. The kerosene emul-
Sli'Bfld however, be diluted with from 10 to 15 parts of water
.. sprT d of the foliage infested with lice and aphids.
"." I .... -* VEOCIGOMAClB (lmheneaa dr tisldes).
S Cockroaches are occasionally reported as girdling and killing
young branches of the limetree.:' Thisspecies differs from the com-
mon cockroach in that the adults are smaller, of a darker brown
color, and have smoother wings. 'Thiey are most commonly found
n ibag disers of eaves or firits growing in bunches.
SPiosmmed bait is recommend fotr us as a control measure.
GREEN CATERPILLAR (Plmia chalcites).
iGreen caterpillars are. the larvae of small moths which lay an
ticS 6f -gsp i thei foliage of lime trees. 'The larvse appear in
fi tibers n spri4 aind grow in a few weeks to 11 inches long.
They may be idcreitifid b tfieir method of travel, looping along in
I much the same way .a 4o measuring worms. They are very destruc-
tive to the foliage of many kinds of plants, but especially to that of
S. edlen~g titiry 'stock of the lime.
-zsJiL- As9-6h ai- there is any indication of injury from the
i gree terpillar, an arsenical poison should be sprayed on the plants
and trees. A very efficient spray can be made by mixing 1 ounce
arsenati oElead (paste ft6 m) witit ot
arsenate of lead (powdered dfimf -nwth l lMu"'
of lead is not only hacth le likely to !iijun twe
green but it is also more effective. to r I ,~'
SFIULLER'S ROSE BE;TA (At,*Ie 1 iIr4
Fuller's rosb beetle, di6nifiouilfkn wn iiihn HawiaI,
beetle, has been found on lime trees in some ptfr bIip_ At
The larva lie 1 'bel6 'gtotind' arid fed .pbiMn pi EAt
reaching adilt stage they eat the folikgttfibir th l `d
the margins of the leav s'being 'aWfi~WAt 'tli'i i hiflit
beetles are incapable of flight End their f;h n 8 i fw's
ally they are nocturndl feeders, but f fi codlel t Id
found on foliage during the &day. The pest istoC ai
under control by hand picking and birds, especially by
bird. Arsenate of lead spray 'has been fbunid useful in he
termination. ,Carbop bisulphid,,may, upder, cqjt a h
used to exterminate the larvae attacking he.rootse ., to tt, ,*
'BEDI TEiRANEAN FRUIT FiL (C6iratft V
r .. *. .. ..... '- ..'. t ; :" ..
The Mediterranean fruit fly, was introduce ii t&i Hwn
Australia about 1907. The adult femaele.is. sml Efellow9
lays its eggs in fruit that is, hearing. maturity.. -Smal lW M
soon develop-and after feeding on the interior of: tlie rkg
soil to pupate. After it was introduced into Hawaii th, Ipread.
rapidly and attacked many kinds of fruit. A car f t4' 1 i:
fly has been made by Back and Pemberton. ii
Control.-Territorial entomologists bave done,mui h t,^9q
Mediterranean fruit fly by introducig :ag.4tr4. parqs
into th. island. About five different species f tt;lese.
have, after several years, succeeded in bringing about a
tion in the ravages of the fly. ,Lime andpther citrus.
were formerly severely ravaged are now comparatively ree4 of
by the fly larvae. Screens, nets, and paper bags are occasionally .n~ :
to protect the fruit from this pest. ., .
I, .q ..t.$ii
FUNGUS DISEASES.' : .. I
BLU 'MOLD .(Penitillhm i tsa licu0 A
Blue mold is sometimes found on fruit a few days after
vested. The spores of this fungus lodge on the frait in thfm
and germinate when the fruit skin is injured in any way.
BROWN ROT (Pythiacystis citrophthora).
... '- *'' ,-. .
Brown rot is a decaying of the fruit on the; tree. Te fuI ng j.
ing the rot lives in the soil and during wet weather devMiyps.
Affected fruit turns brown and the inner part.deays. .! ,
ANTHRACNOSE (Gleospeoium linmtticedlu). I M60
.- 4 : '^' *.1ii qj .^
Anthracnose, recently identified on lime fruits i4 a b.I ili3
Philippine Bureau of Agriculture, is a ifung p disa.i-Wil i
U,. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 536 (1918).. .'. *'' ,: .
," ...,: ; .'*.*-^ 8
S 1BHER AQID LIME FRUIT IN, HAWAII.
proved serious in the Territory. It usually produces spot-
the leaves and causes them to drop prematurely.
i diseases are best controlled by Bordeaux mixture.
'is:absfollw' miiture.-The general formula for Bordeaux mixture
)X|:is as follows:
Copper sulphate (bluestone) ..- 1 pound.
Quicklime. (unslaked)--- ------------------ 1 pound.
-Water ---------------------------------- 10 gallons.
.: ihe copper sulphate should be suspended over night in a sack in
a' wooden receptacle, such as a sake barrel or a soja tub, containing
a gallon of water. Solution can be hastened by placing the sack
Sjust under the surface of the water. If pulverized the copper sul-
phate may be dissolved in half a gallon of hot water to which an
Sequel, quantity .of cold water is then added. Make 5 gallons of the
copper solution by adding water. The lime should be slaked sepa-
rately in a small quantity of water. When slaking is completed,
add Water to make 5 gallons. Equal parts of the lime and the copper
Should be poured together into a third container and thoroughly
stirred when the solution is wanted for use. The solution should-
then be strained into the spray tank and agitated at frequent inter-
Svis to prevent settling-of the precipitate, formed by the chemical
inion of the lime and copper. Bordeaux mixture may be kept with-
S out deterioration for some time by the addition of sugar at the rate
of one-tenth pound to 10 gallons of solution.
A sprayer of any kind may be used, but for the sake of economy
and efficiency it should be such as will produce a fine misty spray.
A small pneumatic hand pump having an atomizer type of nozzle
will distribute the liquid evenly and be perfectly satisfactory for
small nturery seedlings, or for use in yards where there are only
on. or two trees. The only drawback to such a pump lies in the
difficulty of thoroughly spraying the underside of the leaves.
The i ore complicated kind of pump having an ordinary type of
uiii.zle gives the bet results provided the application is liberal and
Sth pressure powerful enough to cause the spray to settle in a fine
mist on the trees. Such a pump is necessary where a number of lime
trees are growi for commercial use.
A pump having a 5 to 25 gallon tank is useful for spraying small
orct~rds, and theaknapsack type of sprayer of this size, when pro-
vided with small compressed air pumps, gives considerable satisfac-
tion, The spray, flows continuously for several minutes after the
air chamber is pumped up and thus the operator is able to give his
u n ividediattention to directing it.
S A knapsack sprayer thich is equipped with a 3-foot brass exten-
sion rod, a stopcock, and a side disgorger of the cyclone type, or an
elbow connection for a nozzle ,of the Vermorel type, has been very
effective at the experiment station for use in spraying both sides of
Sthe leaves of lime trees.
tE r? .. : : ,
When' 25 or more gallos o" f i. tril %* t
the spraying outfit S oaiIld b:'rAi '6
pumps and barrel outfits can be. wJy by mules, aad.,--
may obtain working pressure if they- are operated
nesting the pump. with, tbh ruin9pi' 4g. of the, gas
wagon. When consideraJba e wrk i*tp- die several
be attached and operated at the same time. aJf
COMPOSITION- O THE fl ITR: ir -
Fruits of five varieties of limes growing, at the Hawiit:2l
ment Station were, analyzed in Febrtiry; I 2 : ftbl stff
the results of the analyses. .' T t9-
TABLE 3.-Compositin, of five varieties of irUes prowingff t e ifSa 4
i. .*- *L ..: i :" :d V gQ
Kusalie ...................... ........
West Indian or Mexican............
Tahiti ............. ...... .........
* "( )
I The Tahiti "seedless" lime occasionally possesses some seeds, jpisby 'diet W pb itlitAi
varieties blooming at the same time.
Table 4 compares the composition of several kinds of citrus buita
TABnx 4.---empasition of e ariian ctits," r iits? ,
... ..... .. ...... ........ ..:. ,
S._ ""______________ -________/ -
Edible Total Pro-
Kind af citrus. or. Wiate. :id pso s Aceid.1 AA 4i V,
P. ct. P. ct. P.. P.et P.f .et a
Lmes...................... 49.17. 5a83 W,7 0.3 11 63 ,&7 i .M
LemonsTrough)........... 33.14 66.86 6.44' .30 .753 .232 l4W
Oranges (Kona)......... .. l.1 27.T 12 1215 2.7 LA A
Shaddocks.................. 42.39 67. 1, 6. .216 1 .48 5 .,
:Kind of citrus. i: ''
; g. SGteL A, l:eti Itt.
S Per cent. rredftt: Per cent: V..
Limes..-..... ...,...... ............... 1.50 () ; Ot r
Lemons (rough)......................... 1.53 0.47 200 ++ ,
Oranges (Kona) ........................... 2.09 Ml A 4 0 8. l1
Shaddaks....... .... .......... .,8 7.,26 .12: r. L .9 ;
-^ *>: A ..- ;
I From Hawaii Sta. Rpt. 1914, p. 67. .
s As citric add instead of as lphlurin e ird as giVte In the MbiAa ianlysl;. J :: It*
None. i'; y
In preparing the samples for analyses the lemons anid ties
squeezed to obtain the juice. The oranges and shaddocks were peeb
THE .ACID LIME FRUIT IN HAWAII. 15
S,? the whole pulp was ground: The acid content of the lime is
mitfhrlly high. The rather high fat content in the limes and lemons
Iwea doubtless due to oil from the peel.
: .| COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS.
S'The growing demand for the various commercial products of the
-ime has created. considerable interest in lime culture, particularly
S in the West Indies and Ceylon.7
Green limes.-The remoteness of the place of production from the
S general market makes it profitable to ship only especially selected
fresh green limes. They are usually packed in barrels holding some
1 500 fruits each. At present the island of Dominica, W. I., which
exports about 42,000 barrels annually, supplies most of the world
markets with fresh limes.
Pickled limes.-Salt-pickled limes are made from selected yellow
friit, which is steeped in several changes of sea water and then
packed in stronger brine at the rate of 2,000 fruits per cask. The
demand for pickled limes has been on the decline within recent
Raw lime juice.-This product is expressed by passing sound,
clean limes between heavy granite rollers. The juice is clarified by
being allowed to stand until the albuminous matter forms a precip-
itate, after which it is filtered and sealed air-tight. It can be kept
S for several months in this condition without serious loss of citric
"acid by fermentation. The presence of essential oil from the rind
is: thought to prevent the possibility of loss of acid, and for this
reason, as well 'as from considerations of color and cost, raw lime
S uice is not distilled. It is used principally in the preparation of
S Concentrated lime juice.--This product is prepared mainly for
i th purpose of reducing bulk and consequently freight charges en-
tafild in the shipment of the raw juice. The latter is concentrated
to a sirup by the simple process of boiling in a steam-heated or other
S eficioet evaporator, a process. which reduces the bulk from one-
seventh to one-twelfth of its original volume, the degrees of concen-
tration varying with the strength of the milled juice. Concentrated
lime juice is exported chiefly for use in dye works and pure chemical
Citrate of lime or calcium, citrate.-For various reasons citrate of
lime or calcium citrate is replacing concentrated lime juice as a com-
Sanercial product. Great: care must be exercised in the preparation
6A1 the;moneamtrated lime juice; otherwise a very dark product will
LPtalt auidthe crystala-of citric acid will be discolored and require
ePBttisive: purification. Again leakage from casks and the difficulty
of obtaining suitable casks in the Tropics are important commercial
considerations. '.T *
Citrate of lime, when properly prepared, is a white powder that
| can be shipped anywhere in paper-lined. barrels and it will keep in-
iAuc hileck, G. G. The cultivation of limea. li Trop. Agr.: [Ceylon], 57 (1921),
Wo. 5, pp.-2. 24-28 -
Information relative to the concentrated lime juice and citrate of lime industry of
,, -West Ilndies is given in West Indian Bul. 2 (1901), No. 4, p. 308; 7 (1906) No. 4.
1.l 81 (1907), No. 2, p. 167; 9 (1908), No. 2, p. 193; 12 (1912), No. 4, p. 445; and
N!|g.;. ,.. (.1 o902)s No. p. W ..: .. ..
H: .. .. .... ......
definitely in storage. At preast the rprparatier 1 F
in the country where the fruit is grwut is tastep a i tb
of citric acid. The citrate is. prepared afom oleare i
juice neutralized by the addition of chalk or lime. The j
be hot and the chalk o litie 'ieo r 'f ,i i~ nd free from
and other impurities. The chalk or lime is, stirred in
consistency of cream, after which ,it is poured into
the whole being constantly stirred. When ihe chalk.or .l .frJt
an active foaming or effervescence takes .place, which
as the neutralization point is reached. The amount of
to be added may be determined by removing a small a
time to time and testing it by adding more chalk. bsi
until no active effervescence takes place. Finally, af
lime juice should be added to a sample of the nixtire..
slight effervescence occurs the proper amount of chabile
added, but if strong foaming takes place more juice shoi14
to the mixture. The mixture should be heated to ner t
point for a few minutes, when the citrate of lime will X..
as a precipitate. The clear yellow liquid is then poured o6tn
precipitate washed with hot water, after which it is dried and
for storage and shipment. Commercial citrate of limeHp1
about 65 per cent of citric acid. ,
Citric acid is obtained from the citrate of lime by addia ,
sulphuric acid, which produces sulphate of lime, leaving1. tl
in solution. The solution is evaporated in leaden boilesin
pure citric acid crystallizes out. Citric acid has many useu, .
Essential oils.-A very volatile essential oil of high flavr os
trained from the rind of the lime. The market recognizes (wq,
of oil, depending upon the method of extraction. The hilgb
of oil, or Ottoo," is extracted from the rind by hand pre~t4
fruits being rolled individually on a spiked funnel known fa
" ecuelle." The method is slow and requires a long time to
oil in any quantity. After the fruits have been so trete4
are milled and the juice and a further yield of oil are extract
pressure. The oil is then separated from the juice by dist
and is considered as second-grade oil.
Lime oil is in demand for flavoring extracts and perf~ump er
RECIPES FOR USING LIMES.'
Lime juice makes an excellent flavoring for various kinds, oi
In addition to being substituted for vinegar in many recipes
used as a seasoning for mayonnaise and the French dressing i
is served with many kinds of tropical fruits and in certeki .
of fresh salads. It is also used to improve the flavor of jams, jeI
and fruit butters. n 3 *-'
FRESH LIMES. ,
Sound limes. .
Mason fruit jars having air-tight caps.
Select clean, sound fruit which has been cut from the tree in such a
to leave the little stem-end disks or "buttons adhering to the 'fruit
prevent the entrance of fungus spores Which cause decay. To:kew Uiu
several weeks, place them in a fruit jarfitted with air-tight cap. :
SThe writer is indebted to Mrs. N. A. RuEsell, ollallrator In bRiue0
station, for recipes 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15, and to H. l Chung, specialist in
agronomy of the station, for recipe 10.
THE ACID LIME FRUIT IN HAWAII.
* Steaspoonfuls of sugar.
f glassful of icewater.
Put sugar in glass, add ice water, and stir until the sugar has dissolved;
ten. add the juice of one lime. Serve immediately. Soda water or boiled
SPater with cracked ice may be substituted for ice water.
GRAPE JUICE LIMEADE.
1" small piece of ice.
Juice of 5 limes.
T '"upful of granulated sugar.
I Sufficient for six people.
Place ice in pitcher, add I
thoroughly. Let stand for sev
11 pints of water.
1 pint of grape juice.
ime juice, sugar, water, and grape juice.
eral minutes, then serve.
LIMES WITH ICED TEA.
Hot tea of the strength desired.
1 Sliced limes.
Serve tea hot with sliced limes and sugar separately to be combined as
LIMES WITH ICED TEA.
2 teaspoonfuls of tea. j 2 limes.
2 cupfuls of boiling water. Crushed ice.
Pour boiling water over tea; let stand for 5 minutes; then strain into glasses
half filled with crushed ice. Serve half a lime to the glass and sugar to taste.
S' AFTERNOON TEA.
3 teaspoonfuls of tea.
2 cupfuls of boiling water.
Make the tea in teapot or with tea ball; let stand for several
serve, placing in each cup a slice of lime pierced with a clove.
and serve sugar separately in such quantities as may be desired.
Add a cherry
4 tablespoonfuls of lime juice. I cupful of ginger ale.
2 tablespoonfuls of orange juice. Crushed ice.
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar sirup.
Place ingredients in cocktail shaker; shake, and pour over crushed ice in
foia cocktail glasses. Serve.
OYSTERS WITH LIME COCKTAIL SAUCE.
: 4 ripe limes. 12 drops of Tobasco sauce.,
8 tablespoons of lime juice. j teaspoonful of grated horseradish.
2 tablespoonfuls ,of tomato catsup. 24 oysters on the half shell.
1 tablespoonful of finely chopped Salt.
Cut off one-third. of each lime, remove pulp and juice, leaving a ba'sketlike
.ontainer. Mix limb, J~ice with the other seasonings, adding salt to taste.
Pit the mixture in the baskets and place in the center of deep plates of
rushed ice. Suropund each basket with six oysters and serve for first course.
S. LIME WITH FISH.
SqnavJtl&de of two limes over fish when ready to bake. Add more lime
.; juice while fish are baking, if desired. Garnish with parsley and slices of lime.
SServe fish with sauce.
18 BULLETIN 49, HAWAII -AQttF~JULf. .f
PICKLED LIMES :.(C;INESE IEWT OD).
Limes. Large glass jars fittedd
Coarse salt. caps.
Granulated sugar. i '
Wash limes thoroughly; expose them to sun for two or three houa
surplus water; rub salt into ljmes while they are warm from the. w
again once or twice each day for the next four or five days, after
been exposed to the sun. At the end of that time place salted limea I'
glass jars having air-tight caps. Sprinkle surface with coarse sAlt
placing the cap. Expose the jars of pickling limes to the suplightr
more months to cure limes thoroughly before opening jars. Wbn
cured, pickled limes vary in color from l!ght brown to dark mahog
serving, remove the number of limes desired, sprinkle with granula
(one-half teaspoonful of sugar to each pickled lime), and then'p t
They may be served with meat, rice, and the like.
(For cold drinks, ice cream, sauce, etc.)
2 dozen ripe limes. I cupful of water. *,
1 pound of cube sugar. I 4J.
Wash the limes thoroughly in cold water and dry. Rub the sugar vi
all over the lime until it loses its color. Squeeze the juice on the slugr,.
water; then boil and strain. For cold drinks, place 2 tablespoonfuls
sirup in a tumbler with crushed ice and fill with plain water.
LIMES IN PAPAYA BUTTER. ."
... 41 ..1
To every 4 cupfuls of ripe mashed papaya add one-half cupful of lime biil&
and 2 cupfuls of sugar. Stir constantly over a brisk fire, cooking E.or.;::
LIME CAKE FILLER.
4 tablespoonfuls of flour. 1 cupful of water. '..
4 tablespoonfuls of white sugar. 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. i I
1 pinch of salt. 2 eggs. 'C
4 small limes. '::
Sift together the flour, sugar, and salt. Squeeze the juice from the limes dli
water, and heat. When boiling, add butter and pour into the mixture of
sugar, and salt, stirring well. Add the well-beaten eggs and return to t
until the mixture is smooth. Place between layers of cake and frost ..i
LIME CREAM-PUFF FILLER.
Make the same as for cake filler (preceding recipe), adding, ;Wi ii
one-half cupful of whipped and sweetened cream. Fill the puff just
LIME PIE FILLING. .. 'h
6 limes. 2- tablespo ptih f of butter,". .
1 cupful of water. 4 tablespoqnfils of flour.
4 tablespoonfuls of sugar. 2 eggs. .
Wash the limes well, remove a few thin slices of the skin, and. cho
(There should be a level half teaspoonful of chopped skin.) qui..
strain the juice. Boil the water and add sugar, juice, and chopped slki
the butter in a pan, stir in the flour, and add the liuid, starring 'until
Place the whites of eggs on ice, beat the yolks, and pour the hot mirture
them, stirring briskly. Pour into a pie plate lined with pastry and bakea
set and the pastry is cooked. Whip the whites to a stiff froth and add a 1i
sugar. Pipe on to the lime mixture and set again the, oven ne l -l4 J
becomes a delicate brown. Serve either hot or very co, .....
: THE ACID LIME PRUIT IN HAWAII. 1
I ME CANDY.
ip:tul, of granulated sugar. i cupful of water.
l espoonfuls of lime juice. 2 tablespoonfuls of butter.
Mi x ingredients together and cook until a soft ball is formed when tested in
e6Id water. Remove from the fire and beat. Turn into buttered dishes and
Siitrk into squares while warm, or knead until creamy and shape as desired.
S3l BOTTLED LIME JUICE.
SLimes. Bottles, 1 or 2 pint capacity.
S lixttrat the juice from the limes, clarify by settling and straining; then fill
Into bottles and keep tightly corked. The juice can be kept in this way for
several months without serious deterioration.
The acid lime fruit, which is closely related to the lemon, orange,
mandarin, pomelo, and shaddock, was introduced into Hawaii early
in the nineteenth century and seems to be the best adapted of any of
the citrus fruits to island conditions.
The tree can be propagated in several ways, produces a large crop
Sof fruit during the greater part of the year, withstands drought re-
markably well, and is not as susceptible to insect attack as are most
Sof the other citrus fruits.
: It thrives best in a warm, moist climate where the rainfall is evenly
distributed in frequent showers, and is not particular as to soil type,
Although it needs rich, well-drained, and thoroughly tilled sandy or
Sgiravelly soil for best development.
The lime tree should be furnished with an abundance of plant food
in the form of fertilizing material, either as barnyard manure or
commercial fertilizers, singly or in combination, to maintain heavy
bearing. Vigorous tree growth, dark green foliage, and a small
amount of fruit having thick rind and very fibrous pulp indicate the
presence in the soil of excessive nitrogen. Liberal applications of
potash with the nitrogen tend to produce greater fruitfulness, thin-
S ness of rind, and less fiber. In general fruit culture it is thought that
young trees require phosphoric acid, potash, and nitrogen in the pro-
portions of 6, 8, and 4 per cent, respectively, and that fruiting trees
require them in the proportions of 8, 12, and 34 per cent, respectfully.
Both seedlings and grafted stock should be at least a year old be-
L fore they are transplanted to their permanent location. Young trees
may be set in hedge formation and developed into a wide fence for
the production of a large quantity of fruit from a small area.
Four varieties of limes, with possibly their closely related species,
re experimented upon by the station. Of these, Kusaie is consid-
.... d the finest, having abundant colorless or transparent juice and
few seeds. Each tree of this variety produced in its fourth year
Sat this station about 400 fruits averaging 40 pounds per tree.
'IThe growing demand for the various commercial products of the
e has created considerable interest in lime culture. Salt-pickled
Ji:es are made from the selected yellow fruit, and raw lime juice is
z dressed from clean, sound limes and after being clarified is used
:yi pally in the preparation of beverages. Green limes are shipped
I market, usually packed in barrels holding about 1,500 fruits
each. Concentrated lime juice, whick~ prepared mainly oq
pose of reducing bulk and consequently the freight
in the shipment of the raw juice, is exporfted 0or ii
and pure chemical preparations. Citrate of lime or 'i
is replacing concentrated lime juice as a commercial p
properly prepared it can be shipped anywhere in papgi;?
and will keep indefinitely in storage. Citric acid is obta
the citrate of lime by adding dilute sulphuric acid, which Irei
the lime and leaves the citric acid in solution. Citric aci
many uses. A very volatile essential oil of high flavor is bbti
from the rind of the lime. Lime oil is in demand for flao
tracts and for perfumery.
The rapidly increasing population and widespread demaAl!-
lime fruit seem to assure local development of the lime-fruit indw
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