Manganese chlorosis of pineapples

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Material Information

Title:
Manganese chlorosis of pineapples its cause and control
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
38 p., 4 p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Johnson, Maxwell Oscar, 1892-1951
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chlorosis   ( lcsh )
Manganese   ( lcsh )
Pineapple -- Diseases and pests   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of manganese on -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Pineapple -- Wounds and injuries -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 36-38).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Maxwell O. Johnson.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612498
oclc - 10547798
Classification:
lcc - S399 .E2 no.52
System ID:
AA00014547:00001


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Bul. 52, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


PLATE I.


MAIN FIELD EXPERIMENT SHOWING BENEFITS PRODUCED WITH IRON SULPHATE
SOLUTION. PLANTS ON LEFT NOT SPRAYED, THOSE ON RIGHT SPRAYED.








i*WAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
I HONOLULU, HAWAII
J. :i: Under the spervilen of the
..Ni .. D STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BULLETIN No. 52

n, DOeDCa. V July, 1924


I ANESE CHLOROSIS OF PINEAPPLES: ITS
CAUSE AND CONTROL.

By M: 0. JOHNSON,' Chemist.


S:. CONTENTS.
I : :Page. Page.
of 9iaepleas on manganese soils.... An explanation of the physiological effects of
Mvstigtionsa n mangapese-------- 2 manganese on plants...----.--------___ ----_ 24
ins mlme-4ndued chlorosis------- 5 A successful treatment...--.......----...----. 27
t mnnee problem when the present Practical tests of the method of spraying---.--. 30
A! re undertaken-.....-. ----- 6 Practical advice regarding the treatment ----. 34
;1 ] Gi femou soils and their effect on General summary and conclusions--..--------- 35
. r i~i aiitd' other plants. ..._- 7 Literature cited__----.--- -------..-- --. -- 36


i.; :", ltLOOWING OF PINEAPPLES ON MANGANESE SOILS.
n *? M.r... .. ... ..
e ', yellowing of pineapples grown on the manganese soils of the
4:4^yan Islands was a serious problem to pineapple growers for
i y ;years. Large areas of these black or dark manganese soils
EIi ud iin the chief pineapple-growing district lying on the sloping
'jlatau, between the Koolau and Waianae Mountain ranges on the
eofn Oahu. Such soils also occur in the very large potential
mei ple areas on the islands of Molokai and Lanai, and to some
ten (on the islands of Kauai and Maui. None of these areas could
otirfi*tbly utilized until a solution of the manganese problem was

hen pineapple plantings were first being extensively made in
3WO." ospective growers eagerly sought the dark soils, being influ-
| the color which was thought to be indicative of great fer-
S B t was ioon discovered that the pineapples on these soils
eredserious injury, a trouble which locally became known as
:"RI apple yellows," or "manganese yellows."
iTh(i most pronounced characteristic by which these pineapple
is were differentiated from normal plants was a gradual fading
i ze leaves until the whole plant assumed a yellowish-white appear-
Blanching of the leaves occurred at any period of growth,
\ imtvally started in three to six months after the time of planting.
Wrt? wabes to thank J. Westgate, agronomist In charge of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment
l.hisortilwnb support and encouragement in this investigation, and J. T. Whitmore, S. T. Hoyt,
SHBlaneld Brown, of the Hawaiian Pineapple Co., for their generous cooperation and help.

.. .1


2 i .l .








tiUe DiPS Ul tl le viUS. UJrUa.gaig -tau=Wariurtm awage a B usp
fruit was reddish-pink in color instead .: deep green,
ripened stage the flesh was not only hard and white ins
colored, but it also lacked flavor -an contained esousid
Many of the fruits cracked open and decayed before ripenin
Preliminary reports (24, 2, 26) 2 of, thp writer's invest
the manganese problem were published in order to make a
quickly as possible information concerning the simnpl I;
covered for the "manganese yellows." This remedy,
expensive sprayings with solutions of iron ulphate,
immediate success and is now being used on thousands '
Hawaiian pineapples. Considerably over half of l~i
of canned pineapples :is: borne by sprayed plants. This b
a rather detailed account of the results obtained and a.
manner in which manganese induces chlorosis.
REVIEW OF PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS ON MANGfl
Manganese is found in small quantities in most soils sPd
plants. Certain forest trees, notably the conifers, co
large amounts of manganese. Schroeder (40, 41) reported
the occurrence of 35.53 per cent MnO, in the- ash- of pi e
and of 41.23 per cent in the ash of pine bark. Many
have been made with manganese in different forms as
Kelley (S2) and Skinner and Sullivan (48) give extensive r
these experiments. It is not necessary to refer to these in.:;
as they were carried on in connection with crop productio
the results obtained do.not show that manganteset-iri'S al i
fertilizer. Some investigators have found a stimulation ,of
from the application of small quantities of various mag .ite'. '!
pounds, while others have found no effects and even a retif
of growth. It appears generally that the application of large ni.
of manganese produces a toxic effect. "'"
The chemical similarity of manganese and iron has.i t
number of interesting experiments dealing with the ph- 16j
effects of manganese. Unsuccessful attempts were made bt
(38), Birner and Lucanus (7), arid Wagner (45) to substiti te
nese for iron in the production of chlorophyll, and an injuribij J
was noted when manganous and manganic phosphates werd'
ended in culture solutions. W
Since the discovery by Bertrand (5, 6) that mraniesd 6&I
the ash of oxidizing enzyms, the physiological effects of mng
on plants have been. generally attributed to some infiifenik o f
manganese on these enzyms.
Loew and Sawa (33) in 1902 observed a,yellowing of peiia '
barley, and soy beans in water-culture expernmehts with sbbTti
Which small amounts of manganese sulphate had beeitai da ft.
addition of manganese sulphate to the usual iron-cont< iiilt
solution caused an. increased growth in whiih yello6wi ltfer te "
place. This yellowing is'thought to have been' d ue to th bfiii
activity of the oxidizing enzyms. .They conclude. that ".mag
exerts in moderate quantity an injurious action -on plants, 'ol
* Reference is made by number (italic) to "Literature cited," p. 36.





... MANGANESENAl GHLOBOSIS OF PINEAPPLE. 3

...ieahuing out of the chlorophyll. The juices of such plants
:mre intense reactions for oxidase and peroxidase than the
control plants."
(1) in similar water cultures with young radish, barley, and
plants observed a yellowing with solutions containing (a) 0.02
i' cent MnSO,+trace of FeSO,, (b) 0.02 per cent MnSO,+0.02
e!r ent FeSO4 in comparison with (c) 0.02 per cent FeSO, and in
i .these three solutions diluted with 10 times their volume of water.
"iAI Iwtordinary mineral constituents were supplied. When the solu-
i: e^tatining manganese sulphate and only a trace of ferrous sul-
g.llte was diluted 10 times the yellowing suggested a lack of iron.
I| ; shoots grown during the first stage of development in solutions
; g' taining no mineral salts and only 0.002 per cent ferrous sulphate
Sad manganous sulphate singly and in combination found the great-
at stimulation with the manganous sulphate. No yellowing was
observed during this first stage of development. Aso concludes that:
(1) Manganese salts exert on the one hand an injurious action and on the
other a stimulant influence on plants; with increased dilution the former dimin-
ishes while the latter increases. Thus a dilution can be reached in which only
the favorable action of manganese becomes obvious.
i(2) Manganous sulphate added in a dilution of 0.002 per cent to culture solu-
tidns exerted a stimulant action upon radish, barley, wheat, and pea. Iron
seems to counteract to a certain degree the action of the manganese.
(3) The intensity of the color reactions of the oxidizing enzyms of the man-
ganese plants exceeds that of the control plants.
That the injurious effects of manganese may be due to a depressed
assimilation of iron does not appear to be suspected in the later work
of Aso (3, 3) and other investigators.
Katayama (27) found an increase in yield of barley when small
amounts of manganous sulphate were used. Large amounts of man-
ganese retarded growth.
n 1907 Salomone (39) published the results of an extensive inves-
tigation with various salts and oxids of manganese. A slight yellow-
in was observed in wheat in field experiments when small quantities
A: i.e oxids were used, but the final yield was increased. Serious
; injury was observed when manganese as manganous sulphate was
applied at a rate greater than 50 kilograms per hectare, and the
ants died when still larger quantities were used. The toxic effects,
dsi to ianganese, seem to be similar to those which the pineapple
Plant suffers on manganiferous soil, i. e., a yellowing disorganization
I of the chlorophyll bodies, and other physiological derangements.
'4Tr cop was injured also when these plats were planted to wheat
i: fq e eoond time. It is significant that lime and basic slag appli-
caop s did not diminish ti toxic effect as was also the case in the
liiang experiment on the nagoniferous soils of Oahu.
S Salomo$neoalsob found that Beavy applications of various manganese
Scom~pounds Qi ased the death of bean plants Which were grown in
bgx and that the toxicty ofmangapese was greater where manga-
3 esei2unctioned as ,an eletronagative element.
$i: (Si) tbinrk Iat iin fiel expert nts the stimulating action of
m anee i, due to some iret effect on the dormant bases of the
il'. rather than to a direct effect of the manganese. He does not,
However, consider'this poiit established.
,'. .. .. .... I i *' i *=. : K /
7 W .







Bernardini (4) in 1910 concluded from a rers oWe
manganese has a catalytic effect on- soild ifi nasittaB
absorbing power and possibly influencing the sol bsetterlM
from the results of various experiments m which bsohtioil
nous chlorid effected replacement of large amouitsf f i o'&
nesia in certain silicates, he thinks that the sbimul
applied manganese may be due to some indirect effect of a
rather than to any physiological action. : .
Brenchley (8) in water cultures of barley found a stim
with very small amounts of manganous sulphate but not
plants turned brown and died with large quantities. i
Kelley (28, 29, 80, 31) was the first to publish'results sh
there is a close correlation between the yellowing of
Hawaii and an abnormal amount of manganese in the
Wilcox and Kelley (46) found, in their study of the effe m,
ganese on pineapple plants and the ripening of the fruits, thai.
tions showed under the microscope a fading of the chlorophi~y
destruction of the organized structure of the chloroplasts. :i ,.T
In 1912 Kelley (32) published the results of an extensive t
tion of the effects of these manganiferous soils of Oaju on I
apple and other plants. Notes were made comparing the.
ance and growth of field -plants in manganiferous soil with p
normal soil, and likewise of plants in pots of manganese soj
those in pots of normal soil. .....
From this investigation Kelley concluded that-- '
Various plants when grown on manganiferous soil are affected'
Some species are stunted in growth and die back from the tips of the
which turn yellow or -brown and frequently fall off, and a general .:u
appearance results. Other species appear to be unaffected and so, far, as
judged vegetate normally in the presence of manganese. Microscopic..
gations have shown that in certain instances the protoplasm undergoes 6
Occasionally it draws away from the cell walls, the nuclei become br.ow,
plasmolysis takes place. *
From the ash analysis it was found that manganese was absorbed in
able quantities, and in nearly every instance was greater in the plant
manganiferous soil. The ash analysis also shows that a disturbance of
mineral balance takes place. The percentage of lime is increased, whibe
absorption of magnesia and phosphoric acid is decreased. 1a
From these evidences we may believe that the effects of manJganese ar
indirect and are to be explained on the basis of its bringing about a mo
in the osmotic absorption of lime and magnesia, and that the toxic ekeoff
chiefly brought about through this modification, rather than as a direct
of the manganese itself. .
In 1914 Skinner and Sullivan et al. (43) published results f,"
and field experiments in which compounds of manganese I
applied as fertilizers. Changes were observed in the oxid
power of the soils as a result of the manganese. Manganese in
quantities had a stimulating effect in pot experiments with an
ductive soil, but resulted in no increase in growth with a pro
soil. A five-year field test with an acid soil to which imawig S
sulphate was added at the rate of 50 pounds per acre show2edi
harmful effect on each of the crops grown. In regard to the
effects of large amounts of manganese, Skinner and Sullivai
the following statement:
Where manganese has been of little value or has given decreased yields, ii
editions were such that stimulating actions on plant and microorganisms did not
come into play, or, on account of the acid reaction of the soil, the effect of tM





*. F~ ,MAYGAKESB CHLOOSIS OF PINEAPPLE. 5

led to reduction processes being predominant. Large applications
ganese have been found injurious, undoubtedly because of excessive
ton and excessive oxidaon n in microorganisms and in the plant, with a
ng change in the biochemical activities of plant and microorganisms and
*I the conditions of inorganic and organic soil constituents, the ultimate result
i which change is injurious to the growing crop.
Later in 1916, Skinner and Reid (42) found that the productivity
of tie soil was increased by manganese when the plats on which the
p:periments were conducted were limed. They state that-
i;The action of manganese in the acid soil was probably to stimulate the life
tresses in the soil, acting on the organic matter in such away as to produce
,.j iFes which resulted in a lessened crop-producing power, while its action in
the neutralized soil was such as to stimulate oxidation and other biological
processes, acting on the organic soil constituents and producing changes favor-
able to the growing plants.
SPugliese (37) from water-culture experiments similar to those of
Loew and Sawa suspected an antagonism between iron and man-
ganese and stated that there was an optimum ratio which he gave
S aa 1: 2.5.
SMcCool (36) found that-
Puare solutions of manganese salts are extremely poisonous to pea and wheat
seedlings. The degree of toxicity is greatly reduced by full nutrient solutions
and by soil cultures. The injurious action of the manganese ion is manifested
mainly toward the tops of plants. Chlorosis of the leaves is the first indication
bf an overdose of manganese. Manganese is less injurious to plants grown in
the dark than to those grown in the light. Calcium, potassium, sodium, and
magnesium ions are each effective in counteracting the poisonous action of
manganese. Mutual antagonism exists between the manganese ion and each of
the following: Potassium, sodium, and magnesium.
Tottingham and Beck (4.4) suspected an antagonism toward iron
S similar to those stated above for potassium, sodium, and magnesium.
Brown and Minges (9) in 1916 believed that the effects of manga-
nese applications to the soil may be ascribed to their effect on ammo-
nifcation and nitrification.
Funchess (13) found that the nitrification of dried blood on certain
Alabama soils produced soluble manganese salts which were toxic in
effect.
Deatrick (12) found in high concentrations that manganese salts
exerted a toxic effect, and in lower concentrations marked stimulation.
"'The toxic influence results in the browning of the roots and the
bleaching of the leaves."

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS ON LIME-INDUCED CHLOROSIS.
S It has been known for many years that some plants become affected
Wirth chlorosis or bleaching when they are grown on soils containing
very large amounts of carbonate of lime. Some species of grape-
vines which grow on certain highly calcareous soils of France are
probably the best-known examples of chlorosis. This bleaching has
S ben attributed by some investigators to lack of potash in the soil
"i. to the physical condition of the soil, but the general conclusion
s6beis to be that the condition is brought about by lack of iron in
the plants, due to excessive amounts of carbonate of lime in the soil.
sanganese has not been associated with this condition.
G!' e and Ageton (16) have probably made the latest and most
i~ iough i nvtigation of such highly calcareous soils. In 1911 Gile
f-" ....* :v,9*.* ,o T, ..








and attributed it to an excessive amount of ca&rinat4 '
soil. In this connection Gile notes that--
Chlorosis (sometimes called icterus, bleaching, or Oeibsuci ht) il.'
applied to that condition assumed by the leaves of plants whetil
develop the normal amount of chlorophyll, or green coloring matter i
they are yellowish or white instead of a normal green. Chlorosis, th
denote a specific disease, but merely a general condition. This
chlorosis, however, is the result or outward sign of a disease or
the physiology of the plant. To say that a plant is chlorotic or
chlorosis means merely that its leaves are lacking in chlorophyll; but .
sis may have resulted from a bacterial disease, poor drainage, lack.of a
or some other cause.
Bleaching was found to occur on soils very high in
bonate while healthy plants were found on a soil cont|
per cent calcium carbonate and a total lime content of 1.92I
anganese is not associated by Gile with this chlorosis as::i.- 'l9
ganese is reported as present in the soils or in the plants.I
ing in this case appeared to be somewhat different from the ye
of pineapples which occurs on manganiferous soils. Although :
cases of yellowing are noted, the typical appearance d
that of "waxy white" or ivory white." No mention is
the very characteristic red fruit which appears on man
soils. The application of stable manure was found to be me
on these calcareous soils.
In this, as in previous cases of chlorosis which were induoeat
lack of iron in plants growing on highly calcareous soils, G~il
that the plants were benefited when the leaves were brushed
iron salts in solution, but that the treatment was impracticaiA bJ;
Porto Rican conditions. Gile (15, p. 34) states that- .
It is very doubtful if treatment with iron salts would render pineappleJ .i
on calcareous soils commercially successful, as the repeated treatment
iron would be expensive and the crop would not be equal to that secured Sti:li
soils naturally adapted to pineapples. ....
STATUS OF THE MANGANESE PROBLEM WHEN THE PRESENT 14 '
INVESTIGATIONS WERE UNDERTAKEN.
From a review of the literature on manganese, it appears that 1
results and conclusions concerning the effect of this element on p
are very contradictory. Manganese is commonly thought to
a stimulating action, but there seems to be no positive proof t
such stimulation is due primarily to manganese. The expriBii kt
in soil culture are so contradictory that the stimulative effects fopa4 ,
may be considered due to the effect of the anion, usually tbe
phate, which is known to cause decided stimulation, particularly
alkaline soils. The possibility of manganese being a necessary I
ment is sometimes discussed because of its occurrence in the 4:
plants. Aluminum also is found in the ash of plants but al
is not considered a Aecessary .component; in fact, unAer some cB
tions there is ground for suspicion that aluminum salts ate tq
Results obtained from most of the experiments in nutrient soluto
intended to illustrate the stimulating effect of mananne. se,. ar
very doubtful value since increase in height of a plant a~ i
period of growth is usually the only measurement used to. doi6i
stimulation. The conclusion seems to be fairly general amog







... tor, however, that manganese i higher concentrations
a bleaching or yellowing of the leaves and a depression in

P I connection directly with the manganese problem in Hawaii,
S ey(8, 29, 0, 31, 32), as already mentioned, had made a very
Oroulgh investigation of the manganese problem. He had estab-
lished the correlation between yellowing of pineapples and an abnor-
mii amount of manganese in the soil. The very valuable data
'AP' ed by him in his extensive series of soil and plant analyses
a be consulted in conjunction with this publication as his
i, resf gatigations are complementary to the writer's. The toxic effects
..f Imanganese were attributed by Kelley to modification in the
AEmotic absorption of lime and magnesia.
SAt the time the writer attacked the manganese problem, the
i, curious effects of manganese on plants were attributed by practi-
y! y all scientific investigators to an indefinite "toxic effect" and to
| "manganese poisoning." A large amount of literature on lime-
Sinduced chlorosis has been available for many years, and it has been
S known that plants on highly calcareous soils become chlorotic, and
that spraying with solutions of iron sulphate overcame this chlorosis.
|\ No proof, however, had been presented to show that the indefinite
I "toxio effects" of manganese are in any way similar to lime-induced
S chorosis, nor that manganese causes a deficiency of iron in the plant
nor that spraying with solution of iron sulphate will cure "manganese
poisoning." In Hawaii, pineapple plants were dying on hundreds
of acres of manganese soil. No remedy having been found for this
i, condition, except, possibly, heavy applications of stable manure,
Which was expensive, only temporarily beneficial, and limited in supply,
many thousands of acres have been abandoned or left uncultivated.
So little understood was the real nature of the manganese problem
that experiments were being carried on with coral sand on the
i angabese soils. Had the "toxic effect" of manganese been
S known to be due to a depressed assimilation of iron by the plant,
[: calcium carbonate, in the form of coral sand, would not have been
added to depress the assimilation of iron still further.
THE MANGANIFEROUS SOILS AND THEIR EFFECT ON PINEAPPLE
AND OTHER PLANTS.
COMPOSITION OF THE MANGANIFEROUS SOILS.
;: The chief difference in chemical composition noticed by Kelley
etteen the black soils where "pineapple yellows" occurred, and
: ie normal soils where the plants were healthy, was in the high
If ~dit'f manganese of the former. Kelley (32) gives the composi-
Stion of these soils in the accompanying analyses.



IHr.: A
w p: .


I .











_____1c i r r" P_ i.i.I ....


Constituents.


Insoluble matter--------
Potash (K0O)-------------.
Soda (Na2O)_-------------
Lime (CaO)---------- ------
Magnesia (MgO)---..........
Manganese oxid (Mn(04)...--
Ferric oxid (FesOs).--------
Alumina (A12O).....---------.
Phosphorus pentoxid (P05s) -
Sulphur trioxid (03s)---------
Titanic dioxid (TiOs)--------
Loss on ignition_----------

Total -------------
Nitrogen (N).--....-..---------


Constituents. '


Insoluble matter..-----------
Potash (KsO).------------
Soda (NasO).------------
Lime (CaO) -.....--.........
Magnesia (MgO)----------.-
Manganese oxid (MnsO0)----
Ferric oxid (FesOs)--------
Alumina (AlsOs).-----------
Phosphorus pentoxid (P.Os)-
Sulphur trioxid (SOa).......
Titanic dioxid (TiOs).------
Loss on ignition-............
Total.---...- ..----
Nitrogen (N)-....- ......


Manganiferous soils.


Soil.
No.
9.


I- -I


P. ct.
33.46
.83
.40
1. 39
.65
9.74
19.65
15.50
.21
.16
.73
17. 73


100. 35
.39


Sub-
soil.
No.
10.


P. ct.
36. 06

.86
.43
8.76
21.51
15.74
.16
.09
1.09
14. 45


100.31
.23


Soil.
No.
,11.


P. ct.
39. 02
.78
.36
.64
.41
4.80
18.24
15.40
.36
.23
.40
10.71


100. 35
.45


tSub-
Soil.
No.
12.


P. ct.
42.60
.81
.44
60
.39
3.50
20. 52
16.89
.13
..05
.58
13.72


100.23
.19


Soil.
No;
15.


SP, et.
33.73
.99
.21
.49
.52
4.01
26.03
15.82
.35
.17
.85
16.68


99. 85
.35


- -----4 K- *K-'.----4---A.-;


soil.:
No.
16. K


P. ct.
34.53
1.07
.38
.37
.41
2.43
26.85
18.98.
.21
.05
1.58
12. 83


99. 69
.20


Soil.




P. ct.
42.08
.65
.32
19
..35
4.14
22.05
16.01
.13
S.37

'14.02


100. 31
. 27


Normal soils.


Boil.
No.
7.


P. ct.
40.89
.51
.21
.51
.37
.22
35. 72
3.58
.07
.09
3.83
14.22

100. 22
.34


Sub-
soil.
No.
8.


P. ct.
39.25
.60
.32
.66
.38
.06
33.28
8. 66
.08
.07
2.74
13. 99

100.09
.25


Soil.
No.
13.


P. ct.
46.52
.50
.31
.32
.40
.33
24. 37
9.15
.09
.11
2.20
15.98

100.28
.38


Sub-
soil.
No.
14.


P. ct.
46.37
.57
.13
.31
.42
.35
24.49
12.02
.13
.12
2.05
13. 17

100. 13
.25


Soil.
No.
31.


P. ct.
41. 73
.53
.20
.22
.36
.22
'23. 29
16. 02
.08
46
(1)
17. 22

100.33
.29


Sub-
soil.
No.
32.


P. ci.
37.16
.57
.37
.15
.30
.39
24. 13
20.87
.12
.33
(1)
16.38

100.77
.20


Soil.
No.
.49.


P. t.
42.36
.65
.46
.23
,,47
1. V7
20.306
20.37
.10
.23
(1)
13. 22

99.62
.27


rig




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:-ILf s a'' 8
.1



11 I

IL 81


--ai-.: K


1 Titanium was not separated from alumina.


* ;U


These analyses show that the manganiferous soils are well sup
with nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash, usually considered ,
three most important plant foods, and that they even surpass
normal soils in their supply of these constituents. -Kelley M.'
that the black soils are superior to the average soils in pihy
properties, and that nitrification, one of the principal bacterinol
factors affecting soil fertility, takes place more rapidly in the
ganiferous soils than in the nonmanganiferous soils. ComparasttWe
solubilities in water and dilute organic acids showed little differe he
except in the much greater quantities of the manganese which weor:i
dissolved from the black soils.
Table 2 gives some analyses of soils on which yellowing of pin"1l
apples occurred. : .





.. 1
.. L


-K:I





.i4


,



100 i 6 i

14 i:
:4 ,, ff


i


I
-
f 1
------
I


--i --i----i--[--


f


4 -


T--


i :! .:'I,.


-*fel
iV-
HSI


cr,






1. MANGANESE CHLOROSIS OF PINEAPPLE. 9

I TABLE 2.-Analyses of manganiferous soils.'

ol,. Soil laboratory numbers.
S. ** Constituents.
635 636 637 638 639 640 641

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per-cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Manganese oxid (MnasO) --.--- 31 4.80 5.19 5.12 2.51 5.58 2.85
IStlolqble matter..--------- ..29.43 39.99 38.28 39.28 39.79 38.08 39.63
( as O).....-..-----..---- .21 .21 .34 .33 .38 .40 .34
N t )-----.----..------ .83 .87 .56 .62 .92 .65 .60
(CaO) ---..-----------.-. 39 .39 .42 .44 .35 .43 .36
i gta esa: (MgO)............. .43 .61 .57 .47 .43 .40 .51
e tried oxid (FesOs)-----------. 15.50 13. 23 12.26 12.27 10.42 10.95 13.44
Almint (AlsOs)-------------- 30. 79 22. 78 2 505 24.62 25.70 25.33 23.37
hi: sphorus pentoxid (P2sO5).._ .51 .55 .51 .50 .56 .61 .53
SUlphur trioxid (SO)..----------- .36 .42 .34 .32 .48 .31 .36
i atfie matter ----------------. 19.76 15.63 15.71 15.50 18.06 16.89 17.23
T itanic dioxid (Ti --------- 1. 74 .62 .72 .73 .73 .53 .83

1 These soils will be referred to later in the text.

f These analyses are similar to those of Kelley in that they show
a high content of manganese where the yellowing occurred, with the
exception of soil No. 635, which was obtained from Kunia, Oahu.
The plants on this soil were yellow and produced characteristic red
fruit. This soil, according to the analysis, contained only 0.31 per
cent of manganese calculated as the mangano-manganic oxid. That
this manganese is actually present as the dioxid will be shown, while
the manganese in normal soils is probably in the silicate form.

FORM IN WHICH MANGANESE OCCURS IN THE SOIL.
Kelley, in his analyses, reported the manganese calculated as the
mangano-manganic oxid (Mn,04), but concluded from his investiga-
tions that at least part of the manganese is present as higher oxids,
since there is a liberation of chlorin gas with acids and a change in
appearance during ignition.
To :determine the form in which manganese was present in the
soil, the writer distilled the samples according to the Bunsen method
for available oxygen in pyrolusite. Table 3 compares the manganese
dioxid, calculated from these results, with the total manganese pres-
ent, calculated to the same form.

TABLE 3.-Comparison of total manganese with manganese dioxid in the manganif-
erous soils.

Total Manganese Total Manganese
dioxid a dioxide
mannose accordingto manganese according to
Laboratory soil number. dio by the Bunsen Laboratory soil number. dioxide by the Bunsen
official distillation official distillation
method method.method.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
S 635-----. .-------------- 0.35 0.35 639...--------------...... 2.86 2.66
S -- --- 5.48 4.85 640 ---------------........ 6.36 5.67
----._.- ....- ...5.92 5.20 641-..----.. --............. 3.25 1.92
---- ---- ----------.---- 5.86 5.15


Since the distillation method probably gives low results owing to
the presence of organic matter, it is safe to conclude that nearly all
the manganese present is in the form of dioxid. This assumption is
|: 86067-24t- 2

i~i, .







Juslibtt, auu Lalt SUIULUIs5 uII manganese in e BiD EMl
which form it is probable that the manganese is leaehbe
original lava,3 soon precipitate manganese dioxide beecainie
strong hydrolysis and oxidation by the air. .-,
IRON IN THE MANGANIFEROUS SOILS.
Kelley (32) reported the presence of 18.24 to 26.85
iron as ferric oxid, while the writer found a variation of 10
per cent in the soil samples he analyzed, Hawaiian soils.'.
an abundance of iron, having several ties the quantity?
ordinary soils of the mainland or pineapple soils of otherit
Kelley (28) determined the solubility of the manganes.i
with a 1 per cent solution of citric acid. In this deteralia
gives the average amount of iron soluble as 0.243 per ce. t
oxid, or about 8,500 pounds per acre-foot. It is a striking pe
that, notwithstanding the presence in these manganiferomus
an immense quantity of total iron and of citric acid soluble
pineapple plants seemed unable to assimilate the iron but
pronounced change after they had been sprayed with 30 to 40AQp
of iron sulphate per acre.
The failure of the plants to absorb iron, notwithstanding thji
amount soluble in citric acid, seems to constitute a serious. r
of the general applicability of the citric-acid method for deto. i
the available constituents of the soil.
REACTION OF THE MANGANIFEROUS SOILS.
The manganiferous soils when tested with litmus show a:i
reaction. Kelley (28) examined a large number of these ILa'l
and found most of them slightly acid and few neutral. i a
In order to determine more exactly the acidity of these mae W
soils, the hydrogen-ion concentrations were determined elect
The hydrogen-ion concentrations, expressed in pH values, areij
in Table 4.
TABLE 4.-Hydrogen-ion concentrations (expressed in pH values) of the .
ferous soils.
** '* i... i;
Manganese Manganese
Laboratory soil number. oxid pH value. Laboratory soil number. oxid d.i
(MnaOJ). .(MU51W.

Per cent. Per cent. .
9-----...........------..--........... 9.74 6.5 636......----.......-----........... 80
11---------..-------------- 4.80 6.4 638----------...........-------------- 5.12
15..........-----------.............. 4.01 7.0 639-----------------------2......51
27----------....................... 4.14 7 641....................... ----------------------- 2.85
51 .....----------------------- 4.32 5.9

The table indicates that the manganese soils in nearly every inst
are fairly acid, since soils having a pH value lower than 7, the neu .
point of pure water, are acid. That these soils are lacking in ean
donate of lime is proved by the fact that calcareous soils would jgvq
' Lava is the original material from which nearly all the upland soils of the island d are derive .
* Iron is one of the most abundant elements of HA walian adils.1 I. 1 i i
4 .. .. ..
... ( :' :,1






S: MANGANBSE CHLOROSIS OF PINEAPPLE.


11


e reaction and a pH value approximately 8.2-8.4 (that of
Ai.%Mate of lime in water).
AMOUNT AND FORM OF LIME IN THE MANGANIFEROUS SOILS.'
ii: The amount of lime that is contained in manganiferous soils is of
nl terest in connection with the reaction of these soils. Kelley
IM ported manganiferous soils containing as low as 0.19 and 0.24 per
I cent of lime, and his figures average about 0.05 per cent of lime.
|! .. Table 1.) Soils analyzed by the writer averaged about 0.4
Sper cent of lime. (See Table 2.)
I An attempt was made to determine the presence of carbonates in
the manganiferous soils by the methods of MacIntire and Willis
(3;, 35) of treating the sols with 1-15 HPO,, and by their later
method with 1-15 H C1. Table 5 gives the results.

-TABLB 5.-Carbon dioxid content of the manganiferous soils by the method of
a Maclntire and Willis.


Carbon Carbon Carbon Carbon
laboratory soil number. dioxid (1/15 dioxid (1/15 Laboratory soil number. dioxid (1/15 dioxid (1/15
HbPO). HCi). HaPO0). HCI).

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
63S ------.---------... 0.L0 0.04 639----.------------- ....0.04 0.03
636m---.-..------...--.--- .04 .07 640 ----------------------- .03 .05
67----------------------- .02 .06 641..----------------------- .03 .06
688- ----..-.----....----- .08 .06

The quantity of carbon dioxid found in these soils was negligible
and indicated the practical absence of carbonates, as soils that are
known to be free from carbon dioxid produce considerable amounts
of CO, owing to the action of acids on the soil organic matter. The
values which were found for the hydrogen-ion concentrations of these
soils proved the absence from them of calcium carbonate. The
small quantity of lime in the soils is, therefore, probably present in
the form of silicate and not as carbonate. Some of it may be present
as & manganite, as James (23) suggests. It will be shown later that
the injurious effects of the manganiferous soils are due to deficiencies
of iron in the plant and not to toxic effects of calcium manganite, as
James further suggests.
EFFECTS OF MANGANESE ON RICE.
It has already been explained that the toxic effects of manganif-
sioat soils on pineapple plants are characterized by yellowing of the
leaves, cracking open and decaying of immature fruit, which is
stunted and red or pink instead of normal size and green, and by a
general unhealthy appearance of the plants. The injurious effects
of manganese are very completely described by Wilcox and Kelley
(46) and by Kelley (28, 29, 30, 31, 32).
* Conatitmets other than lime do not appear of significance since they show little variation from the
mrnmal.


1 :I


r,
I'.


:.









'i
li':








In order to investigate the influence of manganese mr fli.
without the complication of sail phenomena,.. variously :
were conducted in nutrient solutions with the addition of4i"
sulphate and manganese dioxide. Ric, which is simildrt8
apple in its susceptibility to chldrosis, was used in these e
because it is more convenient of culture in nutrient sotla
furnishes results more quickly than the .pineapple plant. .
Experiment L.-This experiment was divided into two&"
nine tests each, using the nutrient solutions shown in Table M0

TABLE 6.-Nutrient solutions used.

Series I.-Loew and Sawa's (SS) nutri- ntit Series II.-Oile and Carrero's (
ent solution.uany. acid nutrient solution.. .

Per cent.
Calcium nitrate----------------------- 0.04 Potassium nitrate----.............-.. -
Magnesium sulphate_------------------ .01 Monobasic potassium phosphate-.-- :
Potassium nitrate_ -------------------- .03 Sodium nitrate....--------..- -------.
Monopotassium phosphate ...---------. .02 Sodium sulphate----- ........... ::!
Ammonium sulphate ...--------------- .01 Calcium chlorid.------------------....
Ferrous sulphate_------------.--------- .01 Magnesium chloride .....----------.
Ferric chlorid--- _------------- ----
Sulphuric acid------------.c. N/m-. i:
Distilled water----- ......------.. ...

The manganese dioxid used in all the experiments was prepare
Merck and marked "artificial," and "pure," and contained a
90 per cent MnO,. Ten grams of this manganese dioxide? inmlI'..
cubic centimeters of pure water gave, on 18 and 42 hours' .
a pit value of about 6.6, or a faintly acid reaction. Coral saIn
calcium carbonate under the same conditions gave a pH ~ v!a
about 8.4 or a distinctly alkaline reaction. .....,
Rice seedlings were germinated in distilled water and transferdiSa
to the various nutrient solutions when the plumules were ,,|
2 inches long. Four plants each were grown in large flasks. D #i;t
cate tests of each trial were made. Transpired water was replace
with 'distilled water daily and the solutions were changed: iey
fourth day. The solutions were freshly made 18 hours before
ing and the flasks and roots were rinsed with a little of tmhe-
solution when the changes were made. The plants were growli
40 days.
The plants were harvested on the fortieth day and the green
dry weights of the stalks and leaves and of the roots were detemi
The results are given in Tables 7 and 8.




k iT
r :,. .







. MIANGANESE CHLOROSIS OF PINEAPPLE.


13


- Weight and condition of rice grown in Loew and Sawa's nutrient solution
Smanganous sulphate, manganese dioxid, and calcium carbonate were

;;J'L :


Culture solutions with amount
of added material per liter.


Flask
No.


Green
weight

stalks
and
leaves.


Oven-
dry
weight
of
stalks
and
leaves.


Oven-
dry
weight
of
roots.


Average oven-
dry weight.


Stalks
and
leaves.


Whole
plant.


t' I I-~- 1 I I I I I--- --


Check; sol.+0.037 gm. Fe
from FeSOi.
Sol.+0.B7 gm. Fe from
FeS04+0.072 gm. Mn
from MnSO4.
Sol.+0.072 gm. Mn from
MnSOB; Fe omitted.
Bol.+0I07 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.036 gm. Mn
from MnSO4.
Sol.+0.037 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.018 gm. Mn
from MnSO4.
Sol.+0.037 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.004 gm. Mn
from MnSOI.
Bol.+0.037 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.4 gm. MnOm.
Sol.+0.037 gm. Fe from
FeSO0+0.4 gm. MnOa
+0.4 gm. CaCO:.
Bol.+0.037 gm. Fe from
FeSO8+0.4 gm. CaCOs.


Grams.
2.86
3. 70
2.35
2.29
.10
.15
3.04
3. 59


2.66
2.67
3.44
4.15
4.63
4.60
4.59
4.58
5.42
6.74


Grams.
0.58
.66
.48
.48
.04
.05
.58
.59


.46
.61

.59
.76
.86
.82
.79
.67
.89
1.06


Grams.
0 17
.21
.14
.15
.03
.04
.18
.19


Grams.
0.662

.48

.05

.59

.54

.67

.84

.73

.98


Grams.

0.81

.63

.08

.77

.75

.80

1.08

.96

1.45


Condition of plant


Green; healthy.
Green; older leaves
spotted with
brown.
Dead.
[Green; older leaves
spotted with
brown.

)Green; healthy.


Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.


TABLE 8.-Weight and condition of rice grown in Gile and Carrero's nutrient solu-
tion to which manganous sulphate, manganese dioxid, and calcium carbonate were
added.


Green Oven- Average oven-
weight dry Oven- dry weight.
Se- Culturesolutions with amount Flask of weight dry
riem. of added material per liter. No. stalks st weight Condition of plant
and stalks of Stalks Whole
and roots. and
leaveslvplant.
leaves leaves leaves. plant.
"A i!

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
J Check; sol.+0.0014 gm. Fe 19 3.01 0.52 0.23 ...-..- ..-- .. _r health
from FeC. 20 2. 71 .46 .19 0.49 0.70 reen; healthy.
K Bol.+0.0014 gm. Fe from 1 20 07 04 Leaves shriveled;
S Pe4la+0.072 gm. Mn 2 .7 04 .07 --11 --brown; nearly
from MnSO4. 22 *. *0 *11 dead.
L SoL.+0.0Y72 gm. Mn from 23 ..13 .04 .04 .....-- .....-.- Dead.
S MnSO4; Feomitted. 24 .07 .03 .04 .04 .08 Leadv
M 'ol1.+0.0014 gm. Fe from 2 6 .14 Leaves brown
FeCl3+0.036 gm. Mn 6 .72 .16 .07 .1-- .2 spotted with
from MnSOt. dark brown.
NI S01+0.0014 gin. Fe from
N FeC a+0.01 gm Mn 27 1.11 .21 .07 ...---.....-- ... --Leaves yellow
from MnSOg. 28 .58 .12 .04 .17 .22 J and brownish.
0 Bol.+0.0014 gm. Fe from 9 2 16 40 .13 Lower leaves
Felh+0.004 gm. Mn 30 1.08 21 .08 .31 ..42 spotted with
from Mn0S4. L 1 brown.
P Sol.+0.0014 gm. Fe from 31 .05 .04 ------------ Nearly dead;
FeCla+0.4 gm. MnOs. 1 32 .07 .04 .04 .04 .08 light brownish
white color.
Q Sol.+0.0014 gm. Fe from 33 08 05 04 Bleached;yellow
FeCla+0.4 gm. Mn from 3 .05 .05 .05 .10- s is h-w white;
MnSO0+0.4 gm. CaCO,. 34 .08 .05 .05 .05 stunted.
R Sol.+0.0014 gm. Fe from 35 .09 04 .
SFeC O. gm. 35 .09 05 .05 05 Do.
CaCO. j


r* w..
... "" -" :.
:J' E


tC

D

E.

F

0

H
' *








except in the smallest amount used. Un the other hai.
dioxid and calcium carbonate, singly and in combinalia .
tremendous increase in the growth of the plants. Evide X
this solution contained an excessive amount of iron, anduti
in growth was due to manganese dioxid and calciuA ti.
depressing the assimilation of some of this harmful iron.
ent solution is the one with which Loew and Sawa obtaiinA
which they claimed proved the supposedly stimulating
mangarese. The stimulating effect of manganese it. .thia
solution is doubtless due to its depressing effect on the
of the excessive amounts of iron in the solution.
With Gile and Carrero's acid nutrient solution, an
small as 4 milligrams per liter of manganese from mangano'
(0.001 per cent of manganous sulphate) was sufficient to cea
spotting of the leaves and a decided decrease in rate f
Practically no growth was made in the presence of Mn.
dioxid or calcium carbonate and the plants were strongly.
The greatly different effects of manganese in these two i
solutions seemed to be due either to the form or to the aMo
iron supplied. A second experiment was therefore undert
which different forms of iron were used in the same solution:; ;:
Experiment II.-In order to obtain results comparable with
recorded by Gile and Carrero (18), it was decided to use their el j
nutrient solution in all the later experiments. This solution bi
composition shown in Table 9.

TABLE 9.-Gile and Carrero's neutral nutrient solution.

Composition. Weight. Composition.

Grams. rio
Potassium nitrate-----------------. 10.71 Sodium sulphate..----------. .......
Monobasic potassium phosphate..... 3.57 Calcium chlorid--------------------
Dibasic potassium phosphate--- 3. 57 Magnesium chlorid------------------.
Sodium nitrate ------------- 21.43 Distilled water.------ ------... -

This experiment was similar to Experiment I. Twelve testi...
made. ::
On the fortieth day the plants were harvested and the']
determined. The results are given in Table 10. .!







: :' .. :.

-Iiii :
:7':0 .

3.
M......J+ t









4 10.-Comparative weights of rice plants which were grown in nutrient solu-
e containing manganous sulphate and manganese dioxid solutions, to which
i as ferrous sulphate, ferric chlorid, and ferric citrate was added.


Culture solutions with
amount of added material
per liter.


Check; sol.+0.008 gm. Fe
from FeSO4.
Sol.-0.008 gm.' Fe from
Fe804+0.072 gm. Mn
from Mn80.
So.L+0.00 gm. Fe from
FeIO4-.007 gm. Mn
from Mn804.
So1.+0.008 gm. Fe from
FeS0f+0.4 gm. MnOi.
ol.+-0.008 gm. Fe from
FeCli.
Sol.+0.008 gm, Fe from
FeCl-+0.072 gm. MnSO4.
Sol.+0.008 gm. Fe from
FeChl+0.007 gm. MnSO4.
Sol.+0.008 gm. Fe from
FeCli+0.4 gm. MnO,.
Sol.+0.008 gm. Fe from
Fe,(CsH&Ot),.
So0.+0.008 gm. Fe from
Fei(CIHsOO)i+0.072 gm.
Mn from MnSO4.
Sol,+0.008 gm. Fe from
Fei(COHs07),+0.007 gm.
Mn from MnS04.
Sol.+0.008gm. Fei (CeHsOr),
+0.4 gm. MnOs.


Flask
No.


Green
weight
of
stalks
and
leaves.


Grams.
5.77
6.01
.80
.72
3. 18
2.38

.28
.28
5.04
4.66
.23
.27
1.91
1.42
.15
.20
3.40
4.94
.11
.08
.25
.29
.49
.49


Oven-
dry
weight
of
stalks
and
leaves.


Grams.
1.04
1.03
.20
.20
.65
.56

.07
.06
.87
.85
.05
.10
.46
.38
.04
.06
.56
.79
.04
.03
.06
.06
.10
.12


Oven-
dry
weight
of
roots.


Grams.
0.39
.37
.07
.06


Average oven-
dry weight.


Stalks
and
leaves.


Grams.
1.04


Condition of plants,
Whole
plant.


Grams.
1.42


.201 .27


.22 --...--,- ......
.19 .61 .81

.04 -..-...---
.05 .07 .11
.31 ..--------....
.25 .86 1.14


.08 .12

.42 .57

.05 .09
-------- --------
.68 .93

.04 .08
-------- --------
.06 .10

.11 .'17


Green; healthy.
Stunted; light-col-
ored, spotted
with brown.
Somewhat stunt-
ed; light-colored.
Very stunted; yel-
low and bleached;
spotted with
brown.
Green; healthy.
Extremely stunt-
ed; leaves with-
ered; practically
dead.
Stunted; light-col-
ored.
Very stunted ;
leaves almost
white.
SGreen; healthy.
SWithered and
Dead.
Very pale greenish-
yellow; leaves
withered.
Leaves yellow ,
spotted with
brown.


The form in which iron was supplied did not seem to change the
effects of the manganese. As small an amount as 7 milligrams per
liter of manganese as manganous sulphate (0.002 per cent of man-
ganous sulphate) caused chlorosis and a very striking decrease in
weight of plants. ..Manganese dioxid produced a similar effect. Fer-
rous sulphate appeared to be the best source of iron supply, with
ferric chlorid next, and ferric citrate last.
Experiment III.-It was decided to investigate more thoroughly
the effects of varying amounts of iron, because the effects of man-
ganese seemed to depend largely on the iron content in the nutrient
solution. Tests with nutrient solution which had been used in Ex-
periment II were repeated. Two plants were grown in each flask, two
asks were taken as a unit, and the units were triplicated for each
variable. Eighteen tests were made.
The leaves of the plants in series A,, B,, and C, were dipped in a
0.5 per cent solution of ferrous sulphate several hours before the
nutrient solutions were changed so as to minimize chances of the
dipping solution getting into the nutrient solution.
Representative plants of each trial were photographed on the for-
tieth day just before harvesting. The weights of the harvested plants
are given in Table 11 and graphically in Figure 1.


1 1111- 1 -1 -I-









of iron as ferrous sutpate.


Culture solutions with
amount of added ma-
terial per liter.


SoI.+0.005 gm. Fe from
FeSoi.

Sol.+0.005 gm. Fe from
Fe80+0.4 gm. MnOs.


8ol.+-0.005 gm. Fe from
Fe804+0.018 gm. Mn
from MnSO,.



So1.+0.005 gm. Fe from
Fe04-+0.4 gm. MnOg;
leaves dipped in 0.5 per
cent FeSO4 solution.


8ol.+0.010
FeSOI.


gm. Fe from


Sol.+0.010 gm. Fe from
FeSO+0.400gm. MnO,.

Sol.+0.010 gm. Fe from
FeSOi+0.018 gm. Mn
from MnSO4.
Sol.+0.010 gm. Fe from
FeSOa+0.4 gm. MnOO;
leaves dipped in 0.5 per
cent FeSO4 solution.
Sol.+0.020 gm. Fe from
FeSO4.

Bol.+0.020 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.4 gm. MnOs.


Sol.+0.020 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.018 gm. Mn
from MnSOi.

Sol.+0.020 gm. Fe from
FeSOa+0.4 gm. MnO;
leaves dipped in 0.5 per
cent Fe804 solution.
Sol.+0.040 gm. Fe from
FeSO4.

8ol.+0.040 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.4 gm. MnOz.
Sol.+0.040 gm. Fe from
FeSO+O0.018 gm. Mn
from MnSO4.
So.l.+0080 gin. Fe from
FeSO.0
Bol.+0.080 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.4 gm. MnOi.
Sol.+0.080 gm. Fe from
FeSOa+0.018 m. Mn
from MnS04.


Flask
No.


SOreen
weight
of
stalks
and
leaves.


Oven-
dry
weight
of
stalks
and
leaves.


Oven-
dry
weight
of
roots.


- 9


Average oven-
dry weight.


Stalks Who
au whole
and
leaves. plant.


I I '9 '~-1 ~ ---I I


1-2
354
5-8
7-8
9-10
11-12

13-14
15-16
17-18



19-20
21-22
23-24


25-26
27-28
29-30
31-32
33-34
35-36
37-38
39-40
41-42
43-44
45-46
47-48
49-50
51-52
S53-54
f55-56
57-58


S61-62
63-64
[65-46

67-68
69-70
71-72
73-74
75-76
77-78
79-80
81-82

85-86
87-88
89490
91-92
93-94

97-98
99-190
101-102
103-104
105-106
107-108


Grams.
15.05
15.48
15.71
.29
.29
.32

.67
.62
.64



2.15
2.15
2.17


15.21
15. 17
15.47
.32
.35
.27
5.91
5.95
6 13
1.55
1.50
1. 67
13. 69
13.64
14.87
2.25
2.76
2.51

6.93
7.15
6.61

2.48
2.63
2.66
13 56
12.78
13. 24
1144
19245
12.23
11.70
12.06
12.05
7.89
S7.94
7.28
9.78

9.77
6.909
7.59
7.05


Grams.
2.41
1253
148
.08
.07
.08

.16
.14
.15



.43
.42
.44


2.56
256
2.65
.10
.10
.09
1.28
L33
1.29
.37
.37
.40
2.26
2.21
2.51
.60
.60
.506


.1.43
1.48
1.40

.58
.62
.62
2.41
2.17
2.30
2.33
2.30
S0O
1.95
2.03
2.06
1.51
1.48
1 41
1.73
l.g69
L73
1.88
1.42
1.40


Grams.
L05
1.07
1.00
.06
.06
.06

.06
.06
.06



17
.22
18


1.06
L 07
L01
.06
.07
.05
.39
.41
.40
.13
.12
.16
.90
.81
S.99
.16
.19
.18

.41
.48
.47

.20
.23
.26
.76
.79
.85
.74
.71
.76
.68
.70
71
.64
.58
.61
.85
.86
.84
.59
.62
.62


Graus.

2.4


rams.

'3.'1-


.08 .14



.15 .21


.43


3.6
3.64


- .10i .16


L 70


.38 I .52


.M55 .78


61
__i--._--








131




L 47


1. 72

1.40


.84








2.08


157
2.057


IshtC!P
~Jffr


Se-
ries.


' I ------


IL30


2.33





* pp J


text to Figure 1 and Table 11 show that chlorosis and severe
io jrix growth were caused by manganese dioxide, with 5, 1Q,
jhlligrams eiter of iron supplied from ferrous sulphate; and
Sby18 milligraris 'er litr of manganese from manganous sulphBte
-.005 per cent manganous sulphate). When the leaves were dipped
in iron solution chlorosis was overcome, but full normal growth was


K_ -45, /0sO ivo4
-s F*I Ao a o 0T doeo
7 VA-W/.rIAIzT wr sUT/N oy P Lo r aC w IVUC LPAIG4l F.
I.. 1.-(Results of Experiment I.) Effect of maganous sulphate and manganese dioxid on the
growth of rice in nutrient solutions with various amounts of iron supplied from berrous sulphate.
not induced. The writer found it very difficult to supply iron to the
leaves of the rice plant because they seem adapted for shedding solu-
tions. Where the iron penetrated the leaves, very dark green spots
appeared. When the amount of iron in the solution was increased
excessively, the chlorotic effect of manganese was completely over-
come. In fact, apparently, because of its removal of some of the
excessive iron, manganese dioxid gave slightly better results than
the check.


8s067-24t--3


J .












-. I .




= 'P




o :... "
/W .



......1 :: ':*****:....LE ilel !




ki, -"



-- --- // *Iv //
.., .. .......














F. 2.-(Reets of Experiment IV.) Eect of nganos sulphate and ma:iian ii






in series A, B, and 4 were dipped in a 0.5 per cent solution of f I
chlorid instead of ferrous sulphate.

and graphically in Figure 2.
M ;t ;
.. ...>. UJiJ '. .




.. ... .... =...
chlori instad of.errou sulphte. .
The~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ wegt.ftepat ntefotehdyaegvni aLe-%
snd~" graphically iniF:g!..


.... A ; r": :,







MANGANESE CHLOROSIS OF PINEAPPLE.


*19
a


Ai* SWj 12.-Comparative weights of rice plants which were grown in manganous
ii glMjiAe'r and maananese diozid solutions to which were added various amounts
i4liken as ferric chloride.


Oultre solutions with
amount of added ma-
terial per liter.


Sol.+o.05 gm. Fe from
FeCh ----------------

8ol.+0.005 gm. Fe from
FeCl~f0.4 gm. Mn 0.

Sol.+O.00 gm. Fe from
FeCb+0.018 gm. Mn
from 1MnSO,.


Sol.+o0.0 gm. Fe from
FeCaI0.4 gm. MnO4;
leaves dipped in 0.5 per
cent FoCh solution.

81.+0.010 gm Fe from
FeCh.;
SaL+O.OlO0 im. Fe from
FeCrI-l4 mpn. MnOs.
Sol.+0.om git. Fe from
FeCll+0.018 gm. Mn
from MnO8I. :* *

Bol.+O.01O gm. Pe from
FeCls; leaves dipped in
0.5 per cent FeCh solu-
tion.


sol.+o0.03
FeCls.


Em. Fe. from


Sol.+0.02 gm. Fe from'
0.4 gmi. Mt1Os.
Sol.+0.00 gm. Fe from
FeClt+0.018 gm. Mn
Bol.+.0UU0 gm. Fe from
FeCLE; leave dipped in
0.5 per cent FeCla solu-
tion.


8Bo.+0.040 gm. Fe from
FeCla.


8ol.+0.040 ni. Fe from
FeCl+0.4 gm. MnOI.
Bol.+0.0O0 gm. Fe from
FeCls+a 018 gm. Mn
hfm MnSO4.


ANo4-0.080 gm.
Fseo.+o.m .
FeCd,.


Fe from


Sol.+0OA. gmi. Fe from
FeCl-+0.4 gm. MnOs.
o.+ .Mi 'gm.. Fe from
FeCIrb0.18 gm. Mn
foom Mn804.


Flask
No.


S13- 14
15- -e
17- 18


19-20
21- 22
23-24

25- 26
27- 28
29- 30
31-32
33-34
35- 36
37- 38
39- 40
41-42

43- 44
45-46
47-48


49-
51-
53-
55-
57-
5W-
61-
63-
65-
67-
09-
71-


73-
75-
77-


7 9-80
81-82
83- 84
85-86
87- 88


91- 90
101-02
93-94


97-98
99-100
101-102
106-1S0
107-108


Green
weight
stalks
and
leaves.


Grams.
20150
20.34
19.89
.25
.28
.28


115
1. 14
1. 16


2 52
20.48
19. 97
2.37
1.87
2.16
3.92
3.79
4.13

5.84
5.73
&568

1458.
1&83
15 38
10. 72
10.70
1.17
6.& 56
7.16

9.58
10. 15
10 70


3 17
3.58
3.06


496
4.70
2.98
285
2.96


1.16
1.18
L30
.66
.64
.59


Oven-
dry
weight
of
stalks
and
leaves.


Gramisa.
3.33
3.39
3.33
.09
.09
.09

.30
.30
.31


3.64
3.60
3.46
.50
.43
.48
.92
.91
.95

1.16
1.13
1.11

2.60
289
2.61


2.00
L56
1.53
143
1.83
1.91
L86


.82
.91
.78

1.09
1.18
1.12
L 12
.75
.67
.72


Oven-
dry
weight
of
roots.


Grams.
1.30
1.34
1.30
.06
.06
.06


1.34
1.23
1.16
.16
.14
.18
.20
.17
.21


.08
.10
.07


Average oven-
dry weight.

Stalks Whole
and p t
leaves. plant.


Grawm.

3.35


Grams.

4.66


.09 15


3. 57

.47

.93


4.81

.63

1.12


-------- --------

1. 13 1.58



1 70 & 53


1.90


2.54


L 51 1.88
-------- --------

-------- --------
1.87 2.60




.84 L.17


1. 13

.71


L.55

.99


.15 .23

------ .- --------.
.32 .42

-.- 18' 29-
7 i F .2 9 -


Condition of plants.


Very fine; green;
healthy.
leached white;
withered; very
stunted; practi-
cally dead.
ery stunted; yel-
lowish; lower
leaves withered
and spotted with
brown.
Decided improve-
ment over As;
yellowish-green,
showing dark
green spots
where iron pene-
trated.
lGreen; healthy.


Stunted; yellow-
ish-green spotted
with brown.
Light green; lower
leaves withered.
Decided improve-
ment over Bs;
light-green spot-
ted with dark
green where iron
penetrated.

jGreen; healthy.
Leaves rather light
green, showing
only few brown
spots.
Few brown spots
on lower leaves.

About same as Ca.

Much smaller than
Ai; dark green;
roots formed fuz-
zy ball but ap-
parently were
unable to enter
the solution.
Slightly larger than
Di; dark green.

Dark green.
Vbry stunted;
leaves withered;
only a few strug-
gling roots with
brown iron de-
posit.
Larger than BE
with better roots.

About same as Ba.


I :.


I;i L

33;


.__ ~_ I I I I I


I r I I I


_









manganous sulphate (0.005 per cent, manganous supha
chlorosis and a severe depression in growth. When tnen
dipped in iron solution the chlorosis was largely overdoioe.Q h
growth was not fully induced. Very, dark green spots fo.mc
dipped leaves where the iron penetrated. The chlorotic e


3 /. 6



t/.
$I-

0a6
U ,6


Pco


..:. ...i
$... 4:4.
.j'. .I


'Ii~




11.


`.A 1


i
.'-'" '


4



I'
.-, .. l IE
. *.. f "
'i i :


:: .:
"I4
:; *' .f "


f /0 20 40 o80 ll
M/LL A// Ls0M O/AWN P'M L/TE S A /P IAW / 770 Th .
/ 7,'/E VY r t ZM./77 /eOM W FR /C C/7TR 'TE. -
FIG. 3.-(Results of Experiment V.) Effect of manganous sulphate and maganese dioxid on the bEW
of rice in nutrient solutions supplied with various amounts of iron from ferric eitrate.
manganese were completely overcome when the amount of iroa jt
the solution was increased to 40 and 80 milligrams per liter, but iW
checks were injured by this amount of iron from ferric chloride.
Manganese dioxid, by its removal of some of this excessive iron, kaWE.
slightly better results than the check.. :
Experiment V.-This was a. repetition of Experiment XIIXI Wi
different variables were the same as in Experiment III except that


4Fltrn-..


* i








MANGANESE CHLOROSIS OF PINEAPPLE.


I ".iF cltrate was substituted for ferrous sulphate as the source of
i: wand the plants in series A4, B,, and C, were dipped in a 0.5 per
oeit solution of ferric citrate instead-of ferrous sulphate.
,,The weights.of the plants on the fortieth day are given in Table 13
S tand graphically in Figure 3.

TAiLE 13.--Comparative weights of rice plants which were grown in manganous
nsdphate and manganese dioxid solutions to which were added various amounts
of iron as ferric citrate.


SGreen Oven- Average oven-
Sdy Oven- dry weight.
SCulture solution with wlh weight dry W
amount of bdded ma- k of weight Condition of plants.
trial per liter. No. s stalks of Stalks Whole
eril per liter and and roots. and,
leaves. and roots. lea plant.
leaves. leaves.


8ol.--0.005 gm. Fe
Fe. (COBHO07).


Sol.+0.005 gm. Fe from
Fes(CsHsOt)s+0.4 gmn.
MnOs.
Sol.+0.005 gm. Fe from
Fer(CHsOr)t+-O018 gm.
Mn from MnSOa.
Sol.+0.005 gm. Fe from
Fer (CtHaO?)e+0.4 gin.
MnOs; leaves dipped
in a 0.5 per cent Fes
(CsHsOh) solution.
8ol.+0.010 gm. Fe from
Feu(Cs~rsO7).
Sol.-0.010 gm. Fe from
Feg(CeHsOv)s+0.4 gm.
MnO.
Sol.+0.010 gm. Fe from
Fes(CsHsO7) -+0.018
gm. Mn from MnSO.
Sol.+0.010 gn. Fe from
Feu(C&H.Or)S+0.4 gm.
MnOs; leaves dipped
in a 0.5 per cent Fes
(CtHsOa)Q solution.
oL.+0.020 gm. Fe from
Fe,(CHsaQ7)i.
Sol.+0.020 gm. Fe from
Fe,(CgHO07)s+0.4 gm.
MnO.
Sol.+0.020 gma. re from
Fes (CHiOr) 4-0.018
gm. Mn from MnSOI.
iSol.+0.020 gm. Fe fmm
Fes(CsHOt) +0.4 gim.
MnOt; leawsvs ipped
in a 0.5 per cent Fer
(CetHOT)s solution.
Sol.+-I.0te gnm. Fe from
Feu(CHaOi)s.
Bol.+0.040 gm. Fe from
Eer(CsHOr)s+0.4 gim.
MnOs.
BoL.+O.0-I 0 41. re front
Fes (CiHaO)) i+0.018
gm. Mn from Mn804.
Sot L0.00 t Fe from
?eu(CIOa .)s .
Sol.-LO.BO gin. Fe from
Fei(CEHarT)s+0.4 gm.
M 200i 0 y -. -
SoI.+0.00 gin. Fe from
Fes(CiHuO7)s+0 018
gm. Mn from MnSO4.


Grams.
1* 11
14.0
15. 98
.50
.85
.61
.16
.15
.16

1.60
1. 62
L20

16 85
17.44
17.14
.63
.53
.55
.12
.13
.17

.97
1.05
.91

1& 33
1& 47
18. 39
.76
.95
L09
1.68
'1.59
1.44
3.40

I *
17.90
1& 96
19.40
6.27
5. 67
9. S
9.44
8.78
1& 27
16606
1&57
647
6.58
&.68
9.84
9.80
9.78


Greas.
141
129
56

.13
1
.13
.07
.07
.07

.32
.25
.30

2.99
3.06
3.19
.14
.13
.13
.05
.06
.06

.23
.24


&42
.21


3.34
3.52
.20
.23
.20
.42
.41
.35
.73
.74
.74
4 '

& 40
3.66
1.04
1. 1
1.08
L81
1.95
1.82
196
2.86
3.03
L34
1.36
S1.41
2.21
2.08
2.18


Grams
1. 00
.85
L 06
.08
.11
.07
.04
.04
.04

.19
.14
.17

LOO
L 04
1L10
.08
.07
.01
.04
.04
.05

.10
.09
.13

1.17
.95
1.08
.11
.11
.12
.18
.17
.14
.37
.37
.37
1. 22
1.31
L 10
.56
.64
.50
.59
.61
.66
1.45
1.53
1.0
.65
.67
1.01
O
.98


Grams. Grams.

2.42 3.39
------ ....-.-- -
.14 .23

-------- ------
.07 .11



.29 .46


,3.08


4.13


13 .20
--'.'6-- -.-i6--
0 .10

-- .---- .. ..-- --
.'23- .34



3.i43 &50


.74
.....-..


.34

.""55



1. 1i


3.38 4.59
-------- -------
L 12 1.72
--------. ---.---
1.86 2.48

2.' -95- -----5--


19- 20
21- 22
23-24

S25- 26
27- 28
29-30
31- 32.
S33-34
35-36
37- 38
39--40
41-42

48- 44
*45-46
47- 48

49- 50
51- 52
S53-54
55-56
57-58
59-60
61-62
63- 64
65-66
67- 68

71- 72
S3-74
75- 76
77- 78
79- 80
81- 82
83-84
85-86
S87-88

WI94
95-e 96
97-98
* 99-100
101-1l
103-104
105-106
107-108


2.01

" 13


Fine, green plants.
Very stunted; yel-
lowish-White
spotted with
brown.
Withered; brown;
practically dead.
Decided improve-
ment over At;
light green spot-
ted with dark
green where iron
penetrated.
Fine, dark green
plants.
SaIne as As; leaves
bleached.

Same as As.
Decided improve-
ment over BI;
light green spot-
ted with dark
green where iron
penetrated.

Fine, green plants.
Yellowish white;
stunted; spotted
with brown.
About same as Cs.

Good, dark green,
spotted with
very little
brown.

Fine, green plants.
Light green; good
plants spotted
with little brown
Same as Di.

Fine, green plants.
Light green; very
few brown spotW
fairly good plants.
Light green; no
brown spots;
fairly good plants.


21


from


1.37

1 216


Di




XE



I.


E: :'!!
i; !: V














solutions of ferric citrate. The chlorotic effect irF 6
overcome and the weights approached those of the
the supply of iron in the solution was increased to 40 dt.

I- --.... *.r:<
I 1B II ,*4
t ,, ; |\I'S


* .. zl: r :::i* : .
i ii a 3



.* .' i





... a,. .
,' ^ '"*-gi
iIJ*:
: I.r;


S/0 20 440
: Af o^/^ew^se _,d !3 ir!.
me- vr/cwr auiow rear "rz s ac#Fnm
FI. 4.--(Results of Experiment VI.) Effect of calcium carbonate and ganeeo dioxid on the
rie in nutrient solutions supplied with various amounts of ian from ferrous sulpham, I

grams. Here, where there were no harmful effects due to tbp
ence of excessive iron in the solutions, increased growth was ..O
made, because of the presence of manganese dioxid.
Experiment VI.-Since the action of 7inganese in cusi4.
rosis is similar to that of calcium carbonate, this experiment Was M
to determine the effects of the latter: :T
The weights of the plats on the fortieth day are gin i
14 and graphically m Figure 4. t
..


Iin


;I'
I'
ki


.. :::.
X: : ..
X!:







MAiTGANESE CHLOROSIS OF PINEAPPLE.


S'f lt i l 14.-Comparative weights of rice plants which were grown in manganese
: d zSid and calcium carbonate and in calcium carbonate solutions alone, to which
i .Jper added various amounts of iron as ferrous sulphate.


Oven- Average oven-
Gren dry Oven- dry weight.
Culture solutions with Flask we" weight dry
SFlask of
tes amount o! added mate- No stalks of weight Condition of plants.
l. rial per hter. a" nd stalks of Stalks Whole
rIIp and roots. and
leaves. leaves. leaves. plant


"Al


p As



As


3Bi
is


Bt,
B'


"C



% Da
.


Is

i!4 ... i


' 'f '
? : ,.i: .


Sol1.+0.005 gm. Fe from
FeSO,.
Sol.+0.005 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.4 gm. MnOU+
0.4 gm. CaCOa.

Sol.+0.005 gm. Fe from
FeSOB +0.4 gm. CaCOi.


Sol.+0.005 gm. Fe from
FeSO,+0.4 gm. Mn02+
0.4 gm. CaCOs; leaves
dipped in 0.5 per cent
FeSO, solution.
Sol.+0.010 gm. Fe from
FeSO|.
8o1.+0.010 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.4gm. MnOr+
04 gm. CaCOa.
Sol.-O.010 gin. Fe from
FeSO,+0.4 gm. CaCOi.
SBi+0.010 gm. Fe from
FeSOI+0.4 gm. MnOs+
0.4 gm. CaCOs; leaves
dipped in 0.5 per cent
FeSO, solution.
So.+0.020 gm. Fe from

S1ol+0.020 gm. Fe from
FeS04+0.4 gm. MnOs+
0.4 gm. CaCOa.
Sol.-0.020 gm. Fe from
pFSO,+0. gn.OaCO a.
Sol.+0.020 gim. Fe from
FeS0- 0.4 gm. Mn0u+
.%4 igm. CaCOa; leaves
dipped in 0.5 per cent
Pe0BeSO solhttin. '
So.+0.040 gm. Fe from
FeBO4.
Sol.+0.040 gm. Fe from
!eS04r+.4 :g MnOa+
0.4 gn. CaCOQ.
Sol.+0.040 gm. Fe from
FeBOi+0.4 g. CaCOa.
0ol.+-0.80 gm. Fe rom

SL,+O .0.8 gm. Fe from
FeSO4+0.4 gm.MnOs+
0.4 CaCOa.
SoI.+.O80 gim. Fe from
PeiSOI.+04Ag. CaiC.


Grams.
13.07
13.48
12.98
.27
.26
.28
.85
.82
.74


1-2
3-4
5-6
7- 8
9-10
M-12
13-14
15-16
17-18

19-20
21-22
23-24


Grams.
269
2.73
2.66
.10
.10
.10


.80
.88
.89
2.62
2.76
2.75
.08
.06
.09
18
.20
.21
.66
.71
.71
2.71
2.64
2.73
.07
.07
.09
1. 8
.97
.97
.27
.34
.30
2.60
2.97
12.74
.15
.15
.19.
2.14
2.31
2.29
1.52
1.64
1.45
1.05
J.12
I. 2iS
120
& 31
2.2;-


Grams.
0.75
.77
.77
.07
.07
.07


.31
.32



.90
.05
.05
.06
.08
.09
.10
.32
.30
.32
.88
.82
.88
.05
.05
.06
.36
.34
.35
.13
.13
.16
.87
1.02
.86
.08
.11
.12
.67
.67 1
.79
.51
.66
.50
.35
.34
.42
.73


Grams.

2.'69

.10


Grams.

3.45

.17


.- .-----I---.30
.191I .30


.8 "i. 20


2.71 3.55
....-.--- ..... .-
------- ---..----
.08 .13

.19. .28


.69 1.00


2.69" 3..55
-------- --------


.08

1. 01


* .30


2.77

.16

125


-----


1.36
--:i3"

""L36"


4.29
4.30
4.43
12.38
14.86
12.97
.22
.18
.23
.62
.81
.83
3.14
3.66
3.51
14.11
13.37
15. 15
.20
.21
.24
5.00
4.58
5.10
1.22
1.47
1.24
11.82
12.17
12.74
.47
.64
10. 68
11.55
11.59
5.97
L24
& 13
4.50
5. 32
11.61
11.26,


Fine,greenhealthy.
Bleached white;
spotted with
brown; stunted.
Yellowish-w h i t e;
faint, green,
brown spots; lit-
tle better than
As.
Green and healthy;
dark green spots
where iron pene-
trated.

Green; healthy.

Same as As; with-
ered.

Same as As.


}Same as At.


Green; healthy.

Same as Bi.
Light yelowish.
green; somewhat
stunted.


.Green; healthy.
Yellowish green
spotted with
brown; stunted.
Somewhat light in
Scoilor.
Green; healthy;
roots injured by
excessive iron.
Light green; rather
: stunted.
Fine, dark-green
IP111W .


rnl Oc imn carbeoate with' 5 and 10 illigrams 'per liter of iron
apied from ferrous tlphate caused a strongly chlbrotic condition
iriir dbdd in in grwth. Chlorosis anost disappeared with
indigr ms anddid not occur at all with 40 arid S80 ilig s.
li:fast, *ith 80 illigrams calcium carbonate caused a decided


23


2.96

k--..-..

i. 50
~... ...


25-26
27-28
29-30
31-32
33-34
35-36
37-38
39-40
41-42
43-44
45-46
47-48
49-50
51-52
53-54
56-56
57-58
59-60
61-62
63-64
65-66
67-68
69-70;
.71-72
73-74
75-76
77-78
79-80
81-82

87-88
89-90
91-42
93-94
15-96
97-GB8
99-100
101-102
103-104


.44









leaves were dipped m iron or when the iron supply was in
80 milligrams. .
Experiments III and VI may be considered together.-i
plants were grown in each for the same length of time with t
solutions and each had approximately the same check.
been done in Figure 4. A study of Tables 3 and 6 and
indicates that calcium carbonate and manganese dioxit
same effects: Although the above-mentioned results wera.e:
when calcium carbonate and manganese dioxid were uiP's
excessive amounts, the chlorosis was very greatly increi
the two were used in combination. Manganese dioxide and .l.
carbonate each appears to possess its own- peculiar chledttb
and to exert an additive chlorotic effect in the presence oit4o
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.
The results obtained show that manganous sulphate and
nese dioxide cause a strong chlorosis and' a severe depressi~a i
gowth of the plant. This chlorosis is overcome when thl 'i~2~ 1I
lipped in iron solutions or when the amount of iron in ihen
solution is excessively increased. Manganese thus. a
causes a depression in the assimilation of iron by tlle plE
deficiency of iron in the plant. This confirms the results W
apples previously obtained by the writer. Many investigatnlU1
found that manganese, especially in large amounts, causes cr
but none has offered proof to show that maanganese-indiubed al
is due to a depression in the assimilation of iron or to a deci y
iron in the plant. '
Manganese-induced chlorosis occurs in acid solution and is A6JosI
gether distinct from lime-induced chlorosis which is caused .byj
calcium carbonate. In the latter instance the availability of qibeirba
is reduced by the alkalinity of the solution. Manganese and ealiuI
carbonate can each exert an additive chlorotic effect int the' redence
of the other .H .1::.
Since chlorosis is produced by manganese in acid solutions Wit*ipI.
excess of lime, it is proved conclusively that chlorosis 'in 4eW 16ilt
not due to the alkalinity of the solutions or to excess of lie but
simply to deficiency in iron.', i
Manganese is commonly referred to as a plant stimulate.
these experiments manganese has been found to cause ic
growth only when the solution contained a large excess of iroi a
of which the manganese dioxid removed. ,
AN N EXNAN OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL E ECTS OF MANLWGAS
ON PLANTS. I
Pugliese. (W7) and Tottingham and ;Beck :.0 .have suspePt.,
antagonism between manganese- and iron;. In the writer's r0
however, the physiological effect of manganese, at leautthee
the oangauiferQgu soils, can be explained n purely chemical
Ijildebrand :fl) gives a t4ration curve foaqrtfs allhae W!Aw
":4. .:Jig i
""'iiIn~~m
:I




*~*.' !*~ *


MAW9rAWRBE CHLOBOSIS OF PINEA E


9.5


:l iltdrogenvion concentration of the solution is determined at
I' I l"t m stages of titration with sodium hydroxid. Ferrous hydroxid
i,-i not precipitated until the solution was made quite alkaline.
S rric salts could not be investigated with the hydrogen electrode, but
Wilidebrand predicts "that they would behave very much like
aluminum salts," which are precipitated while the solution is still


'" ":.


/.0





.0


8.


z 0C
ii C



i ...
r.., i.


9o




.w


I







h


4
I^


U U U0


4.


I P


AVIV
AW76%


f /oNVr


I. --I S


L KA9L/NE


-0W.?R1/C /AW



~/e7 O9/Y/97-W/ VL- /W r.
de9MCt 7i V noN 7Z5 R
S cer/l rO TO C -


o", ,--t---Vr-. I ,'' c ,y, -eea
TO/9I oWIZ sk oaLoCwrlSO
70 A "/ V A


t- & A -


ATr 7/oS A/oT Twr r'
PRESWN OF SLUB E
FPA'fl,/ flN 1DM? CC-
T CM/NCO SY'iA9L YS/&s
I I


6*


P I 4 4 .1


6?


20 C O
C. C. or 0 a 0 0 /H -90 9.


O


'o7


Fio. fi.-Titration curves of ferric and ferrous salts with alkali.


ptropnly acid. This work of Hildebrand seems to furnish a clue to
:the manner in which chlorosis is induced.
t order to investigate this more fully the titration curve of ferric
wrid was determined. Various amounts of 0.2N sodium hydroxid
,re added to 50 cubic centimeter portions of a roughly 0.2N solu-
Mi ~fo of ferric chloride. The solutions were filtered and the hydrogen-
pin ,c pentration of the filtrate was determined by the colorimetric
method of Clark and Lubs (11). This titration curve for ferric
$ chlorid is given in Figure 5. By careful titration, it was easy to

i


so


IF


~IY


i











acia anu becomes avanause o .my wQW1 enU .s.. rea.u q.a jq .
form. This would emphasize a hitherto neglected function-:
and organic matter in the soil. In Figure 5 is also given the
curve for ferrous sulphate. This is not very accurate. b
tion took place during titration, but is chiefly of interest
that a strong test for soluble ferrous iron could be 6bta
solution was decidedly alkaline. Although possibly
presence of other ions, this fundamental differs e e
solubilities of ferric and ferrous iron throws much iht on
in which chlorosis is induced. ..
Figure 5 explains very clearly why ehlorosis is induce
manganiferous Hawaiian soils. In soils containing an
manganese dioxjd the iron is kept oxidized to the ferriei
consequently, is not sufficiently available to the plant, t
those susceptible to chlorosis. Any iron which is added to !i
is immediately rendered unavailable and the effect of siei ON
depression in the assimilation of iron by plants grWing on th
This explanation also applies to the effect of manganese
nutrient solution. The explanation is not so simple in caseil
ganous sulphate. Deatrick (1h) has shown that the brw
deposit which forms on the roots of plants that are growing ii
tions containing manganous salts is a deposit--of
A like deposit very probably occurs also m the tisues'::f s
and, if so, naturally hinders the assimilation of irdn, as prii
described. .
In addition to explaining the -manner in which chlorosis is iian
on manganese soils, Figure 5 throws much light on Gile's wdri
lime-induced chlorosis.. Chlorosis will not occur on calcare^
in the presence of plenty of organic matter or of other ma.
which is capable of furnish a supply of ferrous iron notwi
ing the fact that oxidation of errous iron occurs readily and
of the ferric iron to the available ferrous form is difficult in
alkaline solutions. This explains why Gile (15) did not find.
in pineapples when large amounts of calcium carbonate were
to a soil which was very rich in humus. Moreover, it :plan_:
Gile and Carrero (20) found that rice becomes chlorotic m calcr
soils with ordinary percentages of water, but grows normally w.
the soil is submerged. Reducing conditions of course prevail in
merged soil and ferrous iron is then available to the plant.
The chief problem remaining unsolved in connection with c
is why on the same soil, either manganiferoUs or calcareous
plants become chlorotic while others do not. The manner
susceptible plants become chlorotic has been explained. 1' ,
are immune apparently obtain sufficient iron for their rieqiif
either because such requirements are vbry small or thr6
special relation of their roots to the soil. .It is s ugge d thti
who are interested in this problem grow both faucepblE a tla
J 04 V -
"Dt







.under comparative conditions and in nutrient solutions con-
liin varying amounts of iron and having the availability of the
iminihed by the addition of manganese dioxide or calcium carbon-
The results of such tests should indicate whether plants differ
in their iron requirements or whether the resistance to chlorosis
,? due to some special relation of the plants' roots to the soil.
iA SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT FOR THE YELLOWING OF PINEAPPLES
ON MANGANIFEROUS SOILS.
|| RESULTS OF SUPPLYING IRON TO THE PLANTS.
S.. since the injurious effects of manganese seem to be due simply to a
deficiency of iron in the plant, attempts were made to overcome
"manganese poisoning" occurring on manganiferous Hawaiian soils
by suplying the plants with iron. Experiments were made with thle
S pin.eapple crop because of its susceptibility to injury and the fact
; that it is the principal crop of economic importance in the region
where the manganese soils occur.
Experiment .-An effort was made to overcome the toxic effects
Of the manganese by supplying sulphate of iron and sulphuric acid
to the soil in pot experiments. Young pineapple plants which were
S trpsferred from a normal soil to a manganese soil to which iron
S slphate had been applied gave better results than did plants which
were transferred to manganese soil alone.
i In a series of pot experiments 25 pounds of manganese soil was
Used for each pot in which a pineapple plant was grown. Six pots
S were used as checks. Ferrous sulphate copperass) was applied to
S. 4 oqt at the rate of 500 pounds per acre and to 4 others at the rate
of 1,000 pounds per acre. Stable manure at the rate of 12 tons per
S acre was applied to 4 pots and sulphuric acid (strength 66) was
S added at the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre to 2 other pots. Twenty
pieapple plants of equal size and appearance were selected from a
laFrg number of plants and set in these pots for observation.
i The plants in pots to which ferrous sulphate had been added made
S a slightly better growth at first than did the others. With sulphuric
Fi acid a slight stunting was evident in the earlier stages, but in a short
Stime no difference was observed between these and the check plants.
SPlints in pots to which stable manure was applied were apparently
Sthe same as the checks.
SAt the expiration of five months all of the pineapple plants wlre
fairy uniformly yellow and none of the treatments applied to the
.!; L h.ad any beneficial effect. A solution of iron sulphate was then
i. pl id to the leaves of these yellow plants with the result that the
K auaal green color and healthy appearance was restored.
S Experiment II.-Experiments on plants in the field were under-
taken mi cooperation with the Hawaiian Pineapple Co. The leaves
of yellow pineapple plants in a field suffering from a severe case of
"i "manganese yeows were brushed four times at intervals of a week
Sa 2 per cent solution of iron sulphate. Two weeks after the
Qabings were completed a striking change was noticeable, and in a
i on thi's time the plants had resumed there green color and were
taking vigorous growth. The condition of the untreated plants
tjol1ung11 was unchanged. Since then this field has been sprayed



I..i,








lExperzment ill.-rTo show that iis the iroh lt'l*
restoring the normal green' color 'and health to' th&-e
ascertain the effects of some fertilizing elements i" 'comb
iron, the leaves of very yellow plants were brushed 'f':iF|l
intervals of a week each with various solutions and the qdi
the plants was observed one, two, and three .months later."
It was observed that the plants which werp brushed with ti
cent solution of iron sulphate.gave results similar to those o
in Experiment II, and that other plants were not benefited .
application of a pint of the solution to the soil near the ro6
application to the roots of several ounces of iron sulphateo
was of some benefit, but not nearly so much so as was th
ton to the leaves of the solution containing a small amouii
sulphate. No change was noted in plants which were brils
a 4. per cent solution of sulphuric acid, and very slight cl
curred when dilute acid was applied to the soil in quantities
half pint and 1 pint per plant. Plants which were brushedl
2 per cent solution of ferric chlorid (iron chlorid) appeared
than did those which were brushed with iron sulphate, ih
fine, -dark green color. The chlorid, however, has a tden !
burn the plants. The application of ferric chlorid to the soil
very little benefit to the plants. The application of a solat
soluble ferric phosphate to the leaves of the pineapple plant
some benefit, but the application of solutions and crystals tdo
soil near the roots was of little value. Ferric amrhonium
when applied to the leaves in solution and as crystals to the
was beneficial, but solutions applied to the roots had no effet. :
In order to secure, if possible, beneficial action similar to t4 !
cured from the use of stable manure, due to solvent action of o'r
acids, 2 per cent solutions of citric, oxalic, and acetic acids w.r.tii
plied to the soil near the roots of the plants but without notdicl
results. It would seem that the temporary beneficial action of: tli
manure is to be ascribed to the growing of the plant in the mani'r
rather than in the manganese soil, as it was necessary to apply 'la
amounts of the manure to the rows. An. injection of iron sulpW
near the base of yellow plants was of little value. ..I:.
Sulphuric acid added in quantities of 1 per cent to the irob
phate solution gave results slightly more beneficial than when ,'
sulphate alone was used but showed an increased tendency to
burning. A solution containing 4 per cent of ammonium siil,
in addition to the iron sulphate gave beneficial results. Spria
with solutions containing ammonium sulphate in addition to the
sulphate seems to be of value in that it supplies ammoniumli=
which are known to be of benefit to pineapples.
From these trials it is evident that the restoration of the ig'
green color and healthy appearance of the plants is due tto tihe
which is contained in the iron sulphate solution applied to the 1et
That it is not due to acidity of the sgltS or the sulphate. ra~iid
shown by the unsuccessful results when solutions of su~lhuric ,.f |
were applied to the leaves.
Experiment I V.-Previous experiments having indicated itht id:ie
application to the leaves of solutions of iron sulphate alone, of iilr











441ivua te with acids, and of ferric chlorid (chlorid of iron) is the

i i practical field treatment for pineapple plants growing on
'g^anese soils, these treatments were compared in a more extensive
investigation and the effects of 1, 2, 3, and 4 applications, and of 5
different strengths of the three solutions were observed.
A search in 1918 by C. W. Carpenter (10), then station pathologist,

having shown the presence of stomata on the underside of the pine-

Sapple leaves at the bottom of the grooves of the slightly ridged sur-
face, it was thought that spraying the under surface of the leaves
with iron solutions might be more effective than spraying the upper
. surface of the leaves. Accordingly, an experiment was made in a

large field of uniformly yellow plants which were sprayed once a
Week with iron solutions. The general results of this experiment
were judged two months after the first application had been made
and were confirmed by observations at other times.


TABLE 15.-Results of various sprayings of pineapple plants on highly manganifer-
ous soils with solutions of various strengths of iron sulphate, iron sulphate with
acids, and ferric chlorid.


... Improvement made by plants treated with-


Strength
of
solution.




Per gent.
0.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
1.0
1.0
S1.0
5... 0

1.0
i 1.0

20
:; 2.0
2.0
10
2.0
20
20

4.0
,!!*i*:i 4. 0
4.0
4.0
S.4. 0
S4.0
i.. ,,. 4. 0
4.0:
4. 0
8.0

&80
& 0
: 8.0







lei 0i
? '* T : "

.I 'N10.o


Method of appli-
tion.


Upper_....--. ...-
___...do--------
---..do---..........
--do--------
Under.. -------
___.do---.----
--....do.--------
--...do.---...-..
Upper_--------..
--... do ....---.. .
.....do....----
-..--do... ---
Under_-----...---
_._ do----... .....
.....-----do.......-------------
---.. do.--------
Upper--....... ....
---.. do -----_ .---
____. do ----........
_---. do--........
Under--........- _.
---..do---....-.....
-----do-------------
..... do.............
Upper___-----...-
---..do___------
---.. do ---..........
-----do-- ...- -
Under----...-
.....do_-. -
---.. do-............
..--.do-...........
Upper -----.... .
.---. do ----. ..-....
---... d ....- d.....
-_-.do----------
Under. _------.
---....do...... --
..---do..---------
-----db---- ------d
Upper............
.....-do--......-.--
--...do------.......
Under.---------
------do---------
do..---------
_dos. .... .. -- -


Number
of appli-
cations.


Ferric chlorid.


Slight_.............
--...do. ------
-....do----------.
....-do.--------
--...do_-........
--...do---.........
.....do----------............
Fair__-- ........__
Slight..............
-----do---------.-.-.
-_do_-o -
.....do..-- ... ...
Fair. ------ -..
Slight .--. .. .- -
.-...do_----.---
F air- -. .- ---. ---
-----do-----------.--
Slight---------
Fair.................
----.....do_-------.-...
Green-------------
Slight ---_..--..-
Fair................
.....do.............


Fair...---...........
---.....do_ ---_.-....




Green--- .... ----
Slight_.------------
Fair._.-----------...
Green-------------
Dark green.........
Slight_...- --------
Green--------------
-..-.do-.............
Dark green...-......
--...do----------
---.....do ----.----
...---do.--..-.........---
.....do------........--.....
-..-.do--.... ..- -
-.-_-do -------..
-.---do.-...-----
-----do-----.-.-----


Iron sulphate.


Slight---_ .------
--...do... ---- ..
.....do_-------_ -
-.....do_ ------.--.-
--.....do........-------
.---.do--__---.._ --_


.---.do_ _----------
__---do---------
..... do. __.

Fair-....____......_
Slight. __.___ _-
-----do----------..
..... do_ ___ .
_---do------------
Fair __---------_....
SSlight-----..-.. --
. .----do --
---..do ..------. ..
Fair_.-..- .....- ...
Slight_---...--..-.
Fair_---..---__ -_.-
.-..-do ---.-------
-.....do--__--.-. ---
Slight__--__--.-_ _-
Fair.. _-----------
-....do---.-. .-.- ...
Green.. ------. -
Fair-----------
---.. do -----------.
.....do _----......
Green..............
Fair.......--.......--
---..do_------- ---d
-.-..do-_-----------
Green.------------
Fair....------------
Green......- ....---
-...-do .------. ...
-----do._-- ........
Fair---......---
Green ...---....
.----do.---- ---------
..-..-do.--..---
Fair...-...........-
Green...........---
Dark green.
-----do.........------


Iron sulphate + 1
per cent sulphu-
ric acid.


Slight.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Fair.
Slight.
Do.
Do.
Fair.
Slight.
Do.
Fair.
Green.
Slight.
Do.
Fair.
Green.
Fair.
Do.
Green.
Do.
Fair.
Green.
Do.
Do.
Fair.
Green.
Dark green.
Do.
Fair.
Green.
Dark green.
Do.
Fair.
Green.
Dark green.
Do.
Fair.
Green.
Dark green.
Do.


14!. .
:;
^.=-










the results of these treatments. :' E
Table 15 shows that ferric chlorid is not to be re.o
field use. In most cases it was only slightlymor effective'
sulphate, but even a 4 per cent solution burned the plants s8
The high cost of ferric chlorid is also'a drawback to its use.?
The application of iron solutions to- the under Aurface. f 1.t
gave slightly better results in most instances than did saP
upper surface, but there was a greater tendency towsr4 u
The results obtained were not such as would justify, for pr1
scale practice, the spraying of plants from below. The a
acids slightly increased the effectiveness of the iron sulhatW'i
not prevent burning in some cases.
The most practical, convenient, and economical treat
peared to be the application to the plants of three or four spa
of an 8 per cent solution of iron sulphate. A 16 per cents
was more effective than the latter but burned the plants consdj


RESULTS OF SOIL TREATMENT.


., a .


An experiment wap made in cooperation with F. R. Benedi.t!
Libby, McNeill & Libby, Honolulu, in which flowers of sulphn
applied to a manganese soil in field plats at the rate of 500 to iJ
pounds per acre. Additions of a red, very acid, upland soi':
training apparently considerable quantities of available iron were
made to the manganese soil at the rates of 1 to 6 tons per a:crwi.M
third treatment tried was the application to the soil of bagasse ~ak
in very strong solutions of iron sulphate. None of the treasM
was effective, the treated plats yellowing as did the check' .
Even when the solution carried by the bagasse contained i
pounds per acre of iron sulphate no effect was apparent. The .
plants in this experiment became green rapidly and made v~igtoa
growth when they were sprayed with only a few pounds per amre
Iron sulphate in solution. The plants on the sulphur plat shaiw
some stimulation caused by the sulphur.
PRACTICAL TESTS OF THE METHOD OF SPRAYING. :i
THE SPRAYER USED. <2: 'i;
The benefits resulting from spraying yellow pineapple p'lasit
manganese soils with iron solutions were so evident that the coG
eating plantation applied this treatment as soon as possible to a41'
fields where manganese yellows" appeared. Check rows onlt~
left unsprayed. As a spraying machine could not easily be so
a hand sprinkler was used at first with fairly good results;:i
ingenious modification of the old carbon dioxide orchard, p~ra
devised for the first large-scale treatments of extensive areas.
sprayer was designed by S. T. Hoyt, of the Hawaiian Pineapplei
and was built at a low cost by the plantation blacksmith, i
sprayer is mounted on a single iron wagon wheel, so that tiurng
easy at the end of the rows. It holds 30 gallons of iron sulphat.aS
tion. An ordinary carbonic-acid tank in the rear furnishes pr.b~ a







mt for spraying. Pipes lead from the rear to the front tank
om the front tank to the spray nozzles, which are placed on the
art extending crosswise from the sprayer. A gauge on the front
ksh we the pressure, which is kept at about 30 to 40 pounds when
saying. (Pl. II, figs. 1 and 2.) As the machine moves forward it
W ypras four rows at a time. Many complicated sprayers have been
.t! e by the various plantation managers, but the single-wheel type
0 prayer, similar to that described above, is satisfactorily used by
i"os-t of them. The principal modification has been in the use of an
t| compressor which is driven from the large supporting wheel to
iitrish the pressure and to take the place of the more expensive
eiibaon-dioxid tank, or the use of a pump similarly driven which
i.delvers the solution from the tanks to the spraying nozzles under
'. pressure.
SPRAYING COSTS.
.The cost of spraying is considered negligible in comparison with the
i eenditures necessary in the raising of pineapples. With the
; primental sprayer described above the cost amounted to apprqxi-
: sltely 60 cents per acre for each spraying. The yearly cost per acre
:::ri, r spraying is not large, since the fields are sprayed on the average
'A dy about once a month.
SMALL FIELD TESTS.
Al of the fields of the cooperating plantation where "manganese
Slow" was evident were sprayed with excellent results. The man-
i;i ; ferous soil had been particularly injurious in one large field of
yoj g plants. A sample of the soil from this field, given in Table
4S No. 636, showed 4.8 per cent of manganese as Mn,04. The
ts throughout the field were very yellow and showed no trace of
n,while many of the plants which were about six months old had
ed. brown from the tips of the leaves. and were dying. The
iyin treatment was applied with immediate benefit, and in six
i9 oths time the whole field presented a very vigorous green and
o: ipealthy appearance.
130-acre field was given three sprayings about the time of
6ip ng or later in May and June. This field was not wholly
ifc the plants in some sections appearing slightly affected and
S^qthers showing very decided effects from the manganiferous soils.
iite.tte results were evident when the spraying treatment was
Sto the whole field, the plants becoming green and vigorous
i. stunted fruit rapidly developing green color and making
V growth. -The results of analysis of a sample of this soil,
under the green sprayed plants, show 5.58 per cent of man-
present as Mn,O,. (See Table 2, No. 640.) An adjoining
d check row was very yellow and bore small red fruit. The
tiou records of this field show an average yield of about 13 tons
Otper acre.
MAIN FIELD TEST.
'the field in which this test was made lies in the Halemanu district: ;
iiGahau where the most highly manganiferous soils occur. The
t n were made on virgin soil to which commercial fertilizer had
applied at the rate of 600 pounds per acre. As: the formula for
ifetdiker is the property of the cooperating plantation, it can not

i" i ,. "!'.. .,.,. ."I
..4. ..















W~Iir times with -a hand sprinkler containingg a sohit
rte (10 pounds to 50 gallons). :Two 300-fbtlroa
prayedayd as checks, and two others received only a
with the experimental sprayer. The.two rows adj
rayed rows were held for comparison with them, ais :
the effect of any possible variations in' tiV l
ples of the soil were taken at various polaces'ti
i, yed rows and likewise betwn the -tw' sp
Ii,..ayses of these soils, given in iTable 2 as'Nbs: 6-
*. and 5.12 per cent, respectively, of mangantk i
comparison of these analyses of the soils undir tfhf iJhb
sprayed rows, respectively, shows that any different
them is to be ascribed to the spraying treatment.
Th&e ieffect of spraying on the stunted red fruit ij: I
x kifara ble than'that on the yellow plant. '"'Tfi6s
It t of manganiferous soils became normal dark
i ticed a most vigorous growth Within two o three we
sprayed. A decided change in them could be iot
,ek. If some of the iron solution struck one side
ji this side became green first and made such gro tli
pe resented a "lopsided" appearance. Later the iMA'
".":be evenly distributed, because the fruit was fayiirly
li,: i *en ripe.
ll Plate III, Figure 1, shows the appearance of thd itl
lE:r, ayed rows on May 19, 1916, about a month mater the, pj
4ihe. The view is taken looking north along the r'owd.1
. sI tiLayed row on the left was closest to the camera, but thi
S fement in size and appearance of the fruit on thd ti
Stbws to the right is evident. It is impossible to sheo it i.
; ky photograph the great difference in color which m'l e
4iek rows in the green sprayed field visible: at Aic'6
iTe rows which received one spraying were quiie $y1e4..o
; einish tinge compared with the unsprayed ro "
M. hte HI, Figure 2, shows a view taken halfway along t ,
-south. The unsprayed' rows on the right-i.itrtit Ith
destructive effects of the m ganese sMils on the pfiiep3
The two plants in the right foreground set small td' d
c racked open around the eyes an decayed. Some of
maches maturity without deeay, bat jit is of Veygit a
Tie third plant visible in theuasprayed row didia4foo
and was slowly. dying when pcbtog iahii T W he'."i Mat" i
beyond this suffered tuhsau'st aenoousoiw I mslf a j
leaves which were deft turning: brown and ...eit W


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Bul. 52, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station. PLATE II.


FIG. I.-FRONT VIEW OF SPRAYER USED.


FIG. 2.-REAR VIEW OF SPRAYER USED.













Bul. 52, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


.1


FIG. I.-MAIN FIELD EXPERIMENT (MAY 19, 1916). SPRAYED ROWS ON RIGHT;
UNSPRAYED ROWS ON LEFT.


FIG. 2.-MAIN FIELD EXPERIMENT (JUNE 30, 1916). SPRAYED ROWS ON LEFT:
UNSPRAYED ROWS ON RIGHT.


PLATE H '.
















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TYPIAL RUITFRO SPRYEDROW ANDSOM DECYEDFRUT FRM USPRAED OWS





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:'the crown as the result of the spraying from above%
b oted. This cylindrical development of the fruit is very
red by the pineapple canneries because it caused the least
s-izing for the cans. As a result of this broadening and
Nearly all of the fruit from the sprayed rows was classed as
o or No. 1,6 while most of the elongated fruit from the un-
rows, even in the heavier weights, had to be classed as
or No. 2, the value of which 'per ton is reckoned as about
-ffths that of No. 1 fruit.


DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.


9ring June, July, August, and September trips were made once
or oftener to harvest the fruit as it ripened. After the crown
V.atom were removed the ripe pineapple fruit was weighed accu-
.. bounces, and its diameter was carefully measured. The
Wof each fruit and its diameter were entered on a large chart
in to the position of the bearing plant in the row. Where no
was produced the condition of the plant was noted in the chart.
fruit was classified according to its diameter as No. 1 or No. 2.
few fruits had been removed from the sprayed rows before
tng, the plants were credited with the average of the nearest
A short summary of the yields on the sprayed and unsprayed
a:i given in Table 16.

J rflr-esnlts of spraying pineapple plants on highly manganiferous soils with
iron sulphate solutions.a


.O which fruit was harvested___ ___-- .... -------_-..-
beaiing fruit too young to harvest ..-.....--------.---------
Mllo~ in .-- ------------------------------------------------ _
starting to bloshqa=nm ----------------.. ---------------.-
.p gto ,i ..............................................
4 ripit cracked open and decayed ----..------.. -------.--
plants giving no evidence of blossoms..........-....-..

Z--------------------------------------------------------------------
a l. barves.ted ruit ....--... ........ -- pounds.
COM MUS-it ___*t ---------------------------- -- -- -- --- _do ----
ofrts.....--------------..............---------------...........---------do... -
= ...... ......... ..... .. .............
> t ffrndits or--No. I --------------------------- -
S h st" or 2No. 1............. ......................
i N c "geeond" or No. 2..-.--..----.......-----.-----.----
S. Ni 1.. ---.. -----------------per cent._


Siti............--------------pounds..
flitit- ,.......-----------.-..-- ---. do ..


t q-f-.--.. rit -do...--


"


Unsprayed
rows.


Number.
108
-_--_------_-
3
------ -----
101
57


Rows re-
ceiving
single
spraying.


Number.
151
5
1


Rows re-
ceiving full
iron spra
treatment
in April
!. .

Number.
234
p l


..... ---.... ..... ---------
681 ....:: .....
62 _--______.&..


300 30 300;
M0ot 431f 174
108 151 44
39 75 20i
69 76
:36.1 49.6
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lo by diameter, fruits having a diWameter ave 4f inches being classes
meter of to 41 inches as Nd. 2.
Ir a4Iuining double SJ04ot rows, in epjb 1f ioch there wge 150 plans.


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classed under "Plants With fruits cracked open ait.d
Fruit which showed only a few spots of decay was. ored
weight, although only a part of it could be used. Nokdeq
on the rows of fruit which received the full number of a
Although the increase in the average weight of the
as large as would be estimated from its appearance :i th
increase in diameter and size of the fruit on sprayed w.
tioned above, caused nearly all of them to class as No.
of which is considered nearly twice that of the No. 2.
PRACTICAL ADVICE REGARDING THE TREATMiVIl
Although beneficial results from an iron-spray treat
described above, were obtained with pineapple plants .
suffered during the greater part of their growth from lack
such late spraying is not advised. '
Sprayings at intervals of one to four months, depending
condition of the plants, are recommended for young I
color and general appearance of the plants should be used.
indication of their need of spraying. The plants should 1*
whenever there is any indication of yellowing or of fading
being the idea to give them sufficient iron to keep them or.
healthy. The exact number and times of sprayings can
specified exactly for varying local conditions, but the most
treatment for particular fields can easily be ascertained if th.
and general vigor of the plant are used as indicators.
The most economical and effective method of supplying thi
sulphate copperass) appears to be that of spraying the plants *
fairly strong solution m the form of a fine mist.. An approl
6 per cent solution (25 pounds of copperas to 50 gallons of wat4
been found very effective in restoring the green color without en
burning the plants. No injurious effects were noticed ev...
an application of about 14 gallons of an 8 per cent solution
was used in the fine spray on young plants. This solution
to be weakened when a heavier spray is applied to young
Any form of sprayer or even a hand sprinkler may be used P
it applies about 10 pounds per acre of the copperas in solution: l
From 3 to 4 per cent (12 to 16 pounds per 50 gallons) of auMM#
sulphate in the iron sulphate seems to give good results. 1M
be remembered that only one of the elements necessary f~ao
is supplied when the plant is sprayed with iron. Soluble phao
and nitrogen as sulphate of ammonia or in organic form re -
mended for use when commercial fertilizers are to be app liNe
soils. Potash is not as necessary in fertilizer formulas for th
for other soils because manganese soils are fairly rich in pota
well as in phosphoric acid and nitrogen and should, thi aoe
fertile when iron is applied to the plants.: C Mier isas

::,::ii ::'-i....::: :IIi::l








esae soi. Nitrate of soda should not be applied to manga-
ls bean ~Be of its injurious effects. The addition of humus-
mat;eias to the soils is emphasized in every system of
tral p twice. Such materials are of especial value to the
ls lavBa which are of heavy clay character and have a tendency
e.. It is recommended that stable manure or other humus-
aterial be used if it can be applied at a a reasonable cost.
us green manuring crops are very valuable.'
ple plants should be sprayed with iron sulphate solution
ess of the kind of preparation given the manganese soils.
method of preparation of the highly manganiferous soils so far
Bsted allows the plant to absorb sufficient iron and the iron spray
o.l. d be applied as soon as any signs of yellowing appear.
GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.
Review is given of previous investigations on manganese. No
conclusive proof is furnished in these of any stimulating action due
primarily to manganese. The chlorotic effect found with higher
concentrations of manganese has generally been attributed to an
indefinite "toxic effect' of the manganese or to "manganese poison-
Sing." It was not proved in these previous investigations that
Imanganese causes a deficiency of iron in the plant or that supplying
Siron will cure manganese poisoning."
I The writer shows that the manganese of the highly manganiferous
SHawaiian soils is present mainly m the dioxid form; that hydrogen-
ion determinations indicate these soils to be acid; and that calcium
carbonate is absent.
S A series of experiments were conducted with rice grown in nutrient
solutions to determine the effect of manganous sulphate and manga-
Snese dioxid on growth where various amounts of iron were supplied
Sto the nutrient solution from various sources. Preliminary experi-
ments indicated that the effect of manganese depends largely on the
Amount of iron supplied by the solution.
When the nutnent solution contained a normal amount of iron,
naanganous sulphate and manganese dioxid caused a strong chlorosis
and a severe depression in growth. This chlorosis was overcome
when the leaves were dipped in solutions of iron salts or the amount
. mof iron in the nutrient solution was excessively increased.
i This manganese-induced chlorosis was thus shown to be due to a
depression in the assimilation of iron or to a deficiency of iron in the
i plant., The previous results and conclusions of the writer concerning
ithe manganiferous Hawaiian soils are thus confirmed.
I! ,Manganese-induced chlorosis is altogether distinct from lime-
induced chlorosis, due to calcium carbonate, since manganese-induced
chorosis can and usually does occur under acid conditions. Manga-
i, anl'iid, calcium carbonate can, each produce' an additive chlorotic
dect in the presence of the other.
i No evidence was found to show that manganese exerts any stimu-
tmog effect on plant growth. With nutrient solutions containing
'The value of the different legumes is discussed in Hawaii Sta. Press Bul. 52, Comparative value of
d* as, green manure.
J"









podium hydroxid titration curves are given for
ferrous sulphate. Determination of the solubilities 4f
hydrogen-ion concentrations show that ferric iron fi,
,precipitated while the solution is still strongly acid,: ani
iron is soluble under fairly alkaline conditions.
This difference in solubility of ferric and ferrous irOEi
explanation of the manner m which manganese induce i
Manganese dioxid, either present as such or formed from.,
salts, would keep the iron present oxidized to the muck
cultly available ferric form.
A description is given of field experiments in, which
iron salts were applied to the leaves of pineapple plants on.
niferous Hawaiian soils. This treatment effected imm.d.
of the "toxic effects" of manganese and induced a normal:
The treatment was quickly adopted by all the pineapple
having manganiferous soils and is now being regularly -
considerably over half of the Hawaiian pineapple fields.

LITERATURE CITED. .
(1) Aso, K. .
1902. On the physiological influence of manganese compr9
plants. Bul. Col. Agr. Tokyo Imp. Univ., Japan, v. a
177-185.
(2) 1904. On the practical application of manganous chloride in fi4d6
Bul. Col. Agr. Tokyo Imp. Univ., Japan, v. 6, no. -A ppe2dM
(3) 1907. On the continuous application of manganous chlorie g
culture, II. Bul. Col. Agr. Tokyo Imp. Univ., Japa~ni,
3, pp. 449-453.
(4) BERNARDINI, L. '-' .
1910. Funzione del manganese nella concimazione. Staz. ip
Ital., v. 43, no. 3, pp. 217-240.
(5) BERTRAND, G.
1897. Sur l'intervention du manganese dans les oxydations p bitV
par la laccase. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], t. 124;.i'
pp. 1032-1355.
(6) 1905. Sur l'emploi favorable du manganese comme engrais. Uqaj
Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris], t. 141, no. 26, pp. 1255-125.7. J
(7) BIRNER, H., and B. LUCANUS.
1866. Wasserculturversuche mit Kafer. Landw. Vers. Stat., rV IVf
128-177.
(8) BRENCHLEY, W. E. (Miss).
1910. The influence of copper sulphate and manganese sulphai
the growth of barley. Ann. Bot. [London], v. 24, mo.x
571-583.
(9) BRowN, P. E., and G. A. MINGES.
1916. Effects of some manganese salts on ammonification and nitt
tion. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Research Bul. 35, pp. 1-22
(10) .CARPENTER, C. W. .
1918. Report of the Division of Plant Pathology. Hawail.r:
Sta. Rpt pp. 44-45. .
(11) CLARK, W. M., and H. A. LUBs ....
1917. The colorimetric determination of hydrogen-ion conperg
and its applications in bacteriology. Jour.' Bact., v. :
pp. 109-136.
(12) DEATEICK, E. P.- 1 :
1919. The effect of manganese compounds on soils and plants '
Agr. Expt. Sta. Memoir 19, pp. 371-402.
(13) FUNCHESS, M. J.
1918. The development of soluble manganese in acid soils ails
by certain nitrogenous fertilizers. Ala. Agr. Expt. Sift
201, pp. 37-78. .

: ....,






MANGANESE CHLOROBIS OF 3 PINEAPPLE. 37

Iov-0m, P. L.
Hi ;:i' 1916. Chlorosis of pineapples induced by manganese and carbonate of
.:i..- lime. Science, n. ser., v. 44, no. 1146, pp. 855-857.
1911. Relation of calcareous soils to pineapple chlorosis. Porto Rico
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 11.
i(6) and C. N. AGETON.
S1914. The effect of strongly calcareous soils on the growth and ash com-
position of certain plants. Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 16.
17X) and J. O. CARRERO.
*i!. .; 1914. Assimilation of colloidal iron by rice. Jour. Agr. Research, v. 3,
*i.t I no. 3, pp. 20.5-210.
S 1916. Assimilation of iron by rice from certain nutrient solutions.
SJour. Agr. Research, v. 7, no. 12, pp. 503-529.
)-- and J. O. CARRERO.
1917. Relative efficiencies of sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda
Sfor rice. Porto Rico Agr. Expt. Sta. Rpt., pp. 10-20.
(20)
1920. Cause of lime-induced chlorosis and availability of iron in the soil.
Jour. Agr. Research, v. 20, no. 1, pp. 33-61.
S(21) HALL, A. D.
1907. Chemistry of the growing plant. Ann Rpts. Prog. Chem.
[London], v. 4, pp. 271-272.
(22) HILDEBRAND, J. H.
1913. Some applications of the hydrogen electrode in analyses, re-
search and teaching. Jour. Am.Chem. Soc., v. 35, no. 7, pp.
847-871.
(23) JAMES, C. C.
1911. A theory regarding the manganese soils and pineapples. Hawaiian
Forester and Agr., v. 8, no. 6, pp. 176-178.
(24) JOHNSON, M. O.
1916. Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Honolulu, T. H., July 21.
(25) 1916. The spraying of yellow pineapple plants on manganese soils with
iron sulphate solutions. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Press Bul.
51, p. 11.
(26) 1917. Manganese as a cause of the depression of the assimilation of iron
by pineapple plants. Jour. Indus. and Engin. Chem., v. 9,
no. 1, pp. 47-49.
(27) KATAYAMA, T.
1906. On the degree of stimulating action of manganese and iron salts
on barley. Bul. Col. Agr. Tokyo Imp. Univ., Japan, v. 7, no. 1,
pp. 91-93.
(28) KELLEY, W. P.
1909. The influence of manganese on the growth of pineapples. Hawaii
Agr. Expt. Sta. Press Bul. 23, p. 14.
(29) 1909. Manganese in some of its relations to the growth of pineapples.
Jour. Indus. and Engin. Chem., v. 1, no. 8, pp. 533-538.
(30) 1909. Pineapple soils. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Rpt., pp. 58-63.
(31) 1910. Report of the chemist. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Rpt., pp. 41-
43, 45-50.
(32) 1912. The function and distribution of manganese in plants and soils.
Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 26, pp. 56.
(33) LOEW, 0., and S. SAWA.
1903. On the action of manganese compounds on plants. Bul. Col.
Agr. Tokyo Imp. Univ., Japan, v. 5, no. 2, pp. 161-172.
(34) MACINTIRE, W. H., and L. G. WILLIS.
1913. Soil carbonates: A method of determination. Tenn. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 100, pp 84-96.
(35) 1915. The determination of soil carbonates, a modification. Jour.
Indus. and Engin. Chem., v. 7, no. 3, pp. 227-228.
(36) McCooL, M. M.
1913. The action of certain nutrient and nonnutrient bases on plant
grdwth-I. Cornell Agr. Expt. Sta. Memoir 2, pp. 113-216.
S(37) PUGLIESE, A.
1913. Sulla biochimica del manganese. Atti R. Ist. Incoragg, Napoli,
6 ser., v. 65, pp. 289-328.













v. tu, no. z, pp. V-i-s. 1 I
(40) SCHROEDER, J.
1878. Zur Kenntniss des Mineralstoffgealtes der Tin"te
Agr. Chem., v. 21, p. 110.
(41) 1878. [Meteorological observations in Bodenbach in Bor
the period 1828 to 1873.] Th'arand. Forstl. Jahrb. ,W.
(42) SKINNER, J. J., and F. R. REI .
1916. The action of manganese under acid and neutral 9oil :`
U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 441, pp. 1-12 .i
(43) and M. X. SULLIVAN.
1914. The action of manganese in soils. U. S. ADet. Agr:
1-32.
(44) TOTTINGHAM, W. E., and A. J. BECK.
1916. Antagonism between manganese and iron in the growth
Plant World, v. 19, no. 12, pp. 359-370.
(45) WAGNEB, P... .
1871. Wasserculturversuche mit Mais. Landw.Vere-Stat., .1f
75, 218-222. ~, .
(46) WILCOX, E. V., and W. P. KELLEY. '4
1912. The effect of manganese on pineapple plants and the ripea
the pineapple fruit. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 2B8




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