The Guatemalan avocado in Hawaii


Material Information

The Guatemalan avocado in Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
24 p., 10 p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Pope, Willis T ( Willis Thomas ), b. 1873
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Avocado -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Fruit-culture -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by W.T. Pope.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612522
oclc - 10543328
lcc - S399 .E2 no.51
System ID:

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Full Text

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qI i Ji iI h,' 1 0M1 Q1U iA WAJt1
f I f'P* ,Idwle mcrtle of the,

S.BULL I'No. 51

|nD j, : August 16, 1924
e :


Page. Page.
Sue-_tion._w_ 1 The crop -------------- 12
iy in Hawaii-------------- 2 Yields ---------- .--- 13
eI r .. 3 Control of insect enemies-_---- 14
4 Composition of the fruit---- 15
6 Uses --------- ------------------ 17
----- ... --_ 8 Experiments in progress ------_-- 17
tiements------ 9 Description of varieties --_----- 19
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ap4amp Islpds, with their many cool yet frostless localities
geiq ations, uniformity of rainfall, and well-drained soils,
4 ,tho WAculture of the avocado. The higher elevations are
:suited to the growing of the Guatemalan avocado, which
Fi-7U ,1r si.-milar conditions, in the country of its name. This
S ,ohaos a elldefifned advantages over practically all
,in. tha Territory. In cultural requirements it is
t, gp ea9e areas that e not now utilized for any other
ted crops. At an early aga it produces crops that mature in
I'449J .ea..wn when the summer or est Indian avocados are not
r IT e *ru4 has a rind which protects it from attacks of the
ia. fAruit fly ,rafis capiata)., WThe fruit is character-
I pl, 4-fitting seed, and. hard rind. It, has a high
dstrd by some horticulturists one of the great-
9Jpf lpQpq sources of food.
Ain th s bulletin represent the results of 20
Ij w t4% (Laatalan avocado at the Hawaii Experiment
a he frut has unlimited inarleting possibilities onthe main-
..~Aea au a other;7 cwwtries, a well as in Hawaii, and
1n aoa; houl4 etpdd.d as
B 1tj TiIJ 4 ;1 3> 1 *ri -,.. _7 1-
Slt. e Agr. Bul. 586, The Mediterranean fruit fly in Hawaii, p. 44.
I....7.3El- ad-of topical and subtropical fruits, p. 9.
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or as well liked as are the West Indian varieti:
other parts of the Territory. Some of these feads
indicate that Don Marin brought his original
west coast region of Central -Amrica. Their failm
generally distributed is likely due to the poor, quality
improvement by cross-pollination with go~ii' tr ~t
possible in the small valley of Pauiok, and to tefb&A
of better varieties of the West I dian race iinto...
In 1853 the United States.ship of war Port9 io.P
ports of Hilo, Lahaina, and HonoIulu, leaving'
trees from Central America. It is believed theat hi
was the first to halve a wide influence upon the citttit
tribution of the avocado in Hawaii.. -
In 1895 Rear Admiral L. A: B.rdslee, .
naval forces of the United States, with .eadqiarters at
came to Ionolulu on the flagship Phidqdphia. It
that he introduced several Giatemalh -avocado B.b
'having *been brought to him in'San Frcisc6' j
sailing for the Hawaiian Islandis. O his irt
January 80, 1895, he gave three of the eritltig
in moist cottonn, to his friends M F K .' di
'Wiedemihan and Judge J. W.:: alua.' :::
SThe seed given to Mrs. Wilder was i1t8 %d
in Nuuanu Valley, where the ttee frited 9it i
died. It is thought that none of the seed of this ti
An organization which flourished on the islands about the adt l.
century. ..
SThe writer has found no evidence of the :Guatflan avcao oa
influenced the growing or the quality of the a ~oed fruit ot partB Of Wi

... V.L

see i id. given to Judge' Wiedemann was grown on his premises
Sthe Punahou district of Honolulu, 1402 Punahou Street, now occu-
Sby the Macdonald Hotel When the tree began to attract
Stintfion as a prolific bearer, it became known as the Macdonald
tlrado," instead of the Wiedemann, as probably it should have been
SI. (Plate I.) The tree produces very rough, spherical, hard-
fruit in winter, and the flesh is rich and of excellent flavor.
An trees have been propagated from buds taken from the Mac-
ald and it is now recognized as a distinct variety of Guatemalan-
ai n origin. The most interesting and valuable feature asso-
YTith its development is the superiority of a number of the
y to the parent in nature of growth and quality of fruit.
.. seed received by Judge Kalua was taken to Wailuku, Maui,
: here the tree is still growing. It also is a vigorous, prolific speci-
i,:.which matures its fruit during the winter months. Several
:* 9 d,,ings grown from the tree have excellent qualities and are de-
j ji!,d 'elsewhere in this bulletin. The station has propagated trees
. 4I1onm buds taken from the Kalua Guatemalan avocado.
I A rA'number of new varieties of the Guatemalan avocado trees were
received from the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of
:iie United States Department of Agriculture in 1919, and many
ha"ve been received since. They represent a part of the valuable
i &ileoction made by Wilson Popenoe, agricultural explorer, who spent
1i ny months in carefully exploring the highlands of Guatemala in
ea&rch of the most promising types of avocados. These introduc-
Sons are now growing at the Tantalus substation.
i; ,, The avocado was probably first referred to in literature as the
per" or peral by Gonzalo Hernandez de Oviedo in his report to
S.arles V of Spain in 1526. He states, however, that the fruit is a
: rin form but in nothing else.5 Since that time the avocado has
ehe called! by numerous other names. Among English-speaking
Sopesfi the misnomer "alligator pear" is applied to it. Alphonse
::: ~aadolle, in his "Origin of Cultivated Plants," states that the
wH ,. me,$ avocado is a corruption of the Mexican ahuacate, or agua-
i eieq which in turn, Popenoe says, is an adaptation of the Aztec
aiyw.vatl. In Chile, Peru, Ecuador, and in parts of Central America
h; tn ruito is commonly known as the palta.
Yii :::: ,i:: :):_ i j : : ,"
i: -T, : vocpado as first described by Linneus in 1753 under the bo-
_4.- ala1 qf Lrwaus persea. Miller, in 1768, placed it under the
i tus ea and species americana. The genus Persea belongs to
Sekit n fu y uracese) and is related to the cinnamon, cam-
i#*, safra, and California bay. Persea americna is also known
S eg hpc; rtIsturists as P. gratissima. P. americana has be-
come thmost generally accepted name for the avocado, and under
S; ybe isteat all ,of the varieties known horticulturally as
StoitheWest Indian, Guatemalan, and Mexican races. The
*fl~ ~ ~ ~ ~ H ----

x ge a nat str nxuor gae sas Inutas.
aT ~inak aar. 1852.)

(Biblioteca de adores espalioles, histort-

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Ha bits of grorwt a.--ThP.e Guat.ei anix ivocao iS f
able in its habits of growth, rang'ig z iP it .*
mere bushes t tree attaining a height 6 oftw
with trunks 3 to 4 feet 'i diameter. n Hawaini
seedlings have large spreading t"ps 'irtnhing. i ~ :
ii form the trees vary from slender and erect 'o
ing. The branches differ in Teharacter of grSoi
ness,' stiffness, and drooping habits, are onerneCd
varies in color and size of leaves. Some vareties
crop each year and others only in: alterbhate years. 1.
tidns may account fod some of this variati on. t
Roots.-Then taproot is rather pronounced i yp
avocados, but it practically cease to extend after 'the
of growth, and is a comparatively small portigin of (
The 'secondary rbbts gradually become the anichiorge
the main channels through which' tht~ food' matei 4r
frin the soil. They stretch outixi .ai directing is
layer of the soil, even spreading farther horizonitalt t
branches of the top. The bulk of the roots feed between th
and the fortieth-inch levels,, although as the tree grows t".
penetrate much deeper in well-aerated soil.
Die-back, which manifests itself by yellowing of ithew
the dying back of the new twigs for several inches, resl
early death of the trees, usually is attributed to the ta
ing reached rock or penetrated into black volcanic sand 11
not appear to be the reason, .according to experimink ts
at the station. The present indications are that the :*
due to a combination of causes. Die-back may be
giving the trees good culture.and by taking care to plantit
location that is not only well sheltered from hard windS
has a' soil rich in organic matter, and with good uridedr
In experimenting withthe root system of the avocado"
found that a relatively large prqp9otipn of the root mi
from budded trees at planting time without injuring t
or four year old trees maEy be successfully modo eto 't
place in the orchard provided they are properly haffd1
planting must be done at the season of least itp'g ?
roots should be covered with thoroughly dampenedi
protection from the sun and wind. The tops ihust:
correspond with the shorteniiri of the roots thit t
trees are dug. -The trade mut'ibe soo A
Wood.-The wood of the avocado is soft, inl' I
color varying from light browt to'reddish r
is slightly mottled with light, curved spots of diffurimt color. 1
is little evidence of annulalr rings of growth izti...
tilarrings~~ ~ ~ of wh........


p10gowth being general throughout the year. The bark of the
j.rather thick, rough, and of light gray color.
&Wf- -The leaves of the Guatemalan race of avocados are a
rsk green in color, oval, oblong, or lanceolate in form, and
.'. Bto 10 inches in length. The upper surface is of deep green
tlm nd. smooth, with depressed veins. The lower surface is
irb ot bluish-green colored, with raised veins which are slightly
Hnt Leaves of some varieties are thin and papery while those
re thick and leathery. The crushed foliage of the Guate-
lTace has no ianise-like odor characteristic of the Mexican race
6thondados and the new growth is usually of a deep bronze red, an
kpAsimonal character of the new growth of the West Indian race.
Flwer s.-The flowers are perfect and are borne in clusters of
:paniele arrangement, varying from open and spreading to closed and
|compact. The different forms of clusters vary with the different
:vareties of the race. They are small, of pale-green color, and finely
prbetscent. Each flower is perfect, having both staminate and pis-
tillate organs. The organs corresponding to calyx and carolla are
i! combined into a perianth. Near their base the stamens bear orange-
I colored glands which secrete nectar. The ovary is one-celled and
'otarntais.asa single ovule. The flowers: of this race are very similar
li tolthose of the West Indian, and usually appear about the same time
ola la ittle later. The time of blooming of the Guatemalan varieties
!:des not extend over such a long period as does the maturing of the
Sif'rt.--The fruit of the Guatemalan avocado is exceedingly
Variable in many of its characters. In weight it ranges from 4 to 48
ounaesb with a general average of 16 ounces. In form it is com-
Sanly oval, but ranges from spherical to pyriform and even to
eunred -nack pyriform. The rind varies from a light green to dark
Sitrple and may be smooth, irregular, bumpy, rough, or even warty.
:' B ghness is often more pronounced toward the stem end of the
: fruit .LTh rind of different varieties varies from one-sixteenth to
ioi' w r fourth inch in thickness, and is usually hard and granular. The
mipt is golden yellow. In some varieties.maturity can not be deter-
minmdt by color of rind or by pressure with the thumb and fingers
i on he firm surface. The stem will readily separate from ripe fruit
u'paa being gently pulled.
icd d.--The seed is usually spherical in shape and is firmly lodged
... inithe eat. Were it not fitted tightly in the cavity, its movement
Sdu.ring shipment of the fruit would damage the pulp. It soon loses
I;l, viability, but when stored under proper conditions may remain
vi~b Je for three or four months. The seed coats are thin and adhere.
i~~~ to the cotyledons, even after their removal from the fruit.
Th TIiatemalan avocado may be propagated by seeds, by budding,
V. b l'graffting.* Seed propagation is nsthre's gl-eatest method of
S...t... tg variation, but it can not be relied upon to reproduce the
iN.:Standard varieties of avocados are maintained only by
a4 metihbas o propagation, such as budding, inarching, and
-g ftr.t 1 Nehrly all of the early introductions into Hawaii
i %leded -seeds or, seedlings and he've produced fairly good
19 bufthe seedling method of propagation has given few estab-W

tie production or rootstocs ono a wn1Ica k no : nfl
grafted. Seedlings may also be grown imi an effotid$j'
varieties but can not, be relied upon to: perpetuate
growers use this method bf propagation because it itr
and they are satisfied to accept the results. .Seedingae&k
garden are usually propagated in pots or boxes andui
suitable size and vigor are transplanted to. their.. .
This period may vary from six months to a. year.
be selected from good fruit if vigorous seedling
produced. ::
The seeds should be washed clean and planted a:~s
sible after their removal from the fruit,, being set ii .
seed boxes, or in seed beds in the open ground. One
trainers, such as are frequently discarded by pineapple
be utilized to good advantage instead of earthen ipas.
ing the cans the tops should be trimmed and fiveeor si|
holes punched in the bottom for drainage. They sh-
with a potting soil consisting of four parts garden loa-wi
black volcanic sand, and one part thoroughly decomposed
manure. At the station the potting soil is mixed and ti4
thorough steam sterilization to destroy insect life, weedi
fungus growth that may be present. One seed should "b
in each container, being placed with the pointed br
projecting above the surface. The plantings should, s.1
open with the full sun upon them. Germination will"i
within three or four weeks if the soil is kept sufficiently Ydi1i
and the seedlings will attain budding and grafting size, an
days. At this time the plants should stand 1 to 2 feet in
have a stem diameter varying from one-half to
inch at the customary point for budding, 2 inches abovbi go
Care of seedlngs9.-The seedlings should be protected .M
winds and kept far enough apart in good sunlight to IaLVo*"l
spindling growth. Newly budded-trees may continue
same containers until they are 12 months from the pe i
seed without becoming seriously pot-bound. It is be st t
them to larger containers if they begin to show injuryfi
confinement. Trees propagated in the above-mentioned w.
be set in the orchard in the cooler months of the year. :,PT
Stock p~cnts.-Seedlings of the avocado itself form the.l
upon which to grow desirable varieties. It is thoughtthAt1.
avocados do best when stock and cion are of the same .
being then a more natural union because of the similarity
cell structures. Vigorous Guatemalan seedlings, for exam i
be used as stocks for cions of desirable varieties of the s
Budding.-Shield budding, which is in reality a form'4
is now the most commonly used method of ,propagi~ f
of avocados. Budding has long been practiced in t iPag
of peaches, plums, etc., but its use in connection, with.
comparatively new, and the, process has been found l.. it
difficult with the avocado than with the. other frh i. 4-&i,
budders often succeed in developing only. lQto 2 jpar ea3tiF

| ..W.t.. lc ysvarieties as the Taft and Fuerte, however,,
Ai can, be made to develop into trees6 Success
a number of factors, including vigor of growth of
a~ sharp-edged, thin-bladed, clean, budding-knife,
.yofthe.budder to perform the operation skillfully.
l-The buds differ widely in character among varieties
j 8 c, and the selection of the proper sort of bud wood,
,pop Icrtain varieties, requires keen judgment. For this familiarize himself with the nature of the
with which he is working. (P1. II, fig. 1.) Only plump,
i,. buds which are ready to break into growth should be
M6. Good bud wood is usually obtained from new branches
th have become fairly mature. This stage of growth is reached
to ,l1 weeks, Very little success is had with bud wood from
:' As.soon as it is removed from the tree the bud wood
be wrapped in moisted d sphagnum moss and oiled paper.
Properly packed it has been known to remain in good condi-
for"40I days Dampened cloth may be used successfully as a
pper for puch short periods as two or three days.
ess of buddsng.-In shield budding, a T-shaped or an
.X-shaped incision is made in the bark of the stock, prefer-
Sti. about 2 inches of the soil. Unless the stock is too dry
udded, the bark will readily separate from the wood when
is gently pushed in. The knife blade should be turned
forward in making the horizontal cut so that the surface
'to bak is sloping downward. This forces the bark away
a thestock and ,leaves a sufficient opening to receive the bud.
pttag the bu, the thin, sharp blade should be drawn with a
lei soady, sliding stroke, keeping the blade as nearly parallel
, tb, :stick as possible, making the cut surface flat and as
szu nded as possible at the ends. Bud shields of large bud
t ~e sometimes 2 inches long. The inside of the shield should
i so 9 to possess a small portion of the sapwood. Part of the
should be left attached below the bud to' hold the 'shield
Ii being. shed into place. As soon as the bud shield is
Ithe while should be firmly bound with strips of moist
a cot twi, or cotton tape to prevent the delicate tissues from
ig out. "At the station raffia is' used almost entirely for this
th ra4iia has been wound several times above and below
toa.coer the horizontal and the vertical cuts of the T, the.
d.i firmly tied in a drawing knot and clipped. The
'b"4d dte, be ,bund with waxed tape, the wrapping being
Srlp the bottom upward, so as to prevent the entrance o
SpiM. bu4. The waxed tape should be removed after 6 or."
s .hrfii, 1a2 or 14 days later. The raffia, however, should .
on long pough to bind, the native. growth. As soon, as
Ufpp,. s removed the trees should be topped back a few
e le~ bud into growth. Along the stem axillary
lt ih break into growth, some of which should be allowed
Manual of tropical and subtropical fruits. New York. 1920.
-.^ txakg parafln wax, 118-120* F., put on with a brush to cover the: bud and
.l..lh. beppn fto, pdaJally as good as and of easier application than wax tape,
v i atametnction, remaining on until forced off by natural growth. The
inflwfteia thae g is bYvideqe of its, beginning to bind. ,,

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Brought to Honolulu as a germinating seed in 1895. Parent of a number of good varieties, the
leading characters of which have remained true to the race of the mother parent tree.


Bul. 51, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.

4a.*s iq,,;n;

Bul. 51, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.

p ;. f%;

Varietal characters are evident in budwood, and the close observer who makes a study of the
avocado soon learns to identify varieties by it.

ld pp44


Seedlings are grown in gallon cans; if kept growing vigorously they will be ready to bud in
about two months, after which it requires about six months to develop them into budded
trees suitable for setting in permanent place.

* ..

.. .,**'
.* rF

n icaite afford greater opportunity for uniformity thn. is
when the seedlings are grown and grafted ii: their
kees is the orchard. Moreover, they 'can"' brehidl 4'
bMpoats or tin cans with less disturbance to their" t';
lil'is 'psibl' wheni trees are dug from the nursery roW .'
: ot ibitable time for planting the trees inimost parts of th
lai ,r stlinds is from October to December, when the wairin'
r'ad.l ised and the fall rains are due. If planted i'.lati
oir siimer they have the most trying months ahead bff iie's
tig growth. Avocados, however, may be planted dur
it'witlh a fairly reasonable degree of success.
"mlAs for planting should be at least 3 feet across and 3'feeti
ikface soil and sand which have been enriched wctl'h 'Wl-
bk inyard manure should be placed in the bottom of the hole&'-
mlg trees are set. Considerable sand should be incorpofritai'
soil if the soil has a, tendency to be heavy, coral sand froti
re, being preferable foi this purpose on account of itf
tho.: The young trees should be' lined slightly toward the
it set firmly at the sane depth 'at which they' stood befdiei
transplanted, with the roots spread in their natural position.
t oil immediately around the fees should be several inches
Saa the natural surface to form a basin which will hold water
~b't b:acovn e fibay' established. After platitig, 'the
'.lbei liberal supplied with'water.
itra ld 1ibe driven 'bout 1 foot from ekch tree o6' tiih
i i to act as a support during the first two yts' of
th and each tree should be firmly tied to the stake ith a
O 'i .*s*W* '. : '. ; .'. .- .
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a cult ure one of the SseAti0a. actors is th so, .Jt
ve in either eay ligt soil provide 4 .e
s that are suitable ior citrus growing are gene y
o the voade. .Th culture of the avocado fr
ppss shld not be attempt' in Jocalities wE n
A t uer on or wherp there. is ,Littl n
&... eqi ibe cities uof water dtng t< r 9ni
Al'nl igorous growth. The sil shi ? p-
n ne, 0 i moisture at the tune the fruit s, sentt ,g :.
pe. irs frui t gpwovir. The avca0 tre s
3,, ou, q-rest p
"PenmIa prepaton t14o, S
i aju eesy ; for other AJln
SMrop nd should be cleared of all growth, Sa ...
tnd debris, and then thoroughly plowed and harrowed,

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Water for: irrigation imay be Japplid idif, .rg, lx4
quantity necesay varies con ade64y wit, t4
Wherexonly feiw tries are tod be, watep4t, the. ba y
used. A separate basin is required for etpb tre. i
left at its natural level for a space of several feet a tutt
the tree. Outside of this area the basin shotfii be dug t
6 to, 8 inpqies, extending entirely, around, the t Wit i
several feet, varying according tb t'r. sy e
sequently: it will be placed directly above pp
feeding roots needing the moisture. The ,l-
from. the basin should be formed into a s.u ir
in holding the mulch and the water when, th
mulch should consist of a coarse, strawy bjri ij
large orchards avocado trees may be wiatere .tobt
by the furprw system, such .as is common:ly: .. iri
miercial citrus orchards. The soi ude hu d.1e
irrigation. Avocado trees that ate surroimded eby" r.
volunteer growth and are watered with a gadien) re
enough water to make satisfactory growth apd ub
regular blooming, dropping of fruit, and ocao t
failure. [i. .tj^fi:
T ., ILLA0G .. ,., i1 .;. .r5
From experiments made at ti s~tion aind n riva".p te.. i
the Hawaiian Islands,as well ase, m F9lorida an % a r
evident that frequent and thorough tillageg is es se!4 Ap
friit production. Associated with tillage is int.erpc i '
growag.of cover rops., ..
,. .""..... .... .
Orchard cover crops should be grown duirig the wet .~e
practically all parts of Hawaii. They prevent surface Wai
retail much of the water of torrential rains until it has tl
so4k into tMi t6arth imnderlyig "tlie tree. andthi 'C
thb. povier hrop is tiE green manure witich it irnishi"e'f
ingf hiumnus t thd eoil. Among the dleue~ that ca
puiose are the pigeon pea (Oqjruy it)
cdtI ), mungo beans (PIt s oluW mtMa o), soy $I
pa) Crotalaria (OrotdlacrE jnea) 44ije eloi kll re?
and common vetch (Viia saatvda). Pigon e .pdha f Itt
nmonly used 'in Hawaii. Of the two varitieMr tfInIjU
yellow and the green, thd, former vaity i. #Itr.A !o
its height and herbage. Although Ctalk I as yt'fitr-l'
a cover orop in Haiwaii it is'dee~ e *Worty dt irhdi .
tests of common 'vetch it higher hiitud 'iid Tidte tihatffit'
use as a cover crop in' tih highlands. I wA as h ve *I .tf
results of the legtanes as a 'ov dtiA thM 14 tatibi'6i~
1 ..: .: p :- W a i t ; :

iiJ: : I

6rWMg of other marketable crops between the rows is ad-
,but they must not be planted close enough to the avocado
to interfere with their development. When the rows are 24, 26,
ifki~s apart. papaya trees may be used as the intercrop at
OI below. 500 feet and a considerable income derived from
bedokee they become large enough to injure the avocados. The
;.ji al.excellent crop for interplanting, and the fruit usually
ia good-price in the local markets. Such other crops as the
etipt oito,, string bean, pepper, squash, peanut, and alfalfa may
iiuibigrown successfully. At elevations of 1,000 feet or more,
Aei~les (Nibiscus sabdariffa), poha berries (Physalis peruviana),
cha4aJ~ ote eehium edule), and water lemon ( Passiflora laurifolia)
ca b..e satisfactorily used as intercrops. Sweet corn offers a possi-
bi asn intercrop and would find an almost unlimited market
SWhen it is. desired to grow two kinds of permanent crops, the
jiNesdo tree -rows may be interspaced with rows of coffee trees.
,uGatemalan avocados and coffee can be grown in combination very
wll,:since the requirements of the two crops are very similar and
each bears at a different season.
Well-grown Guatemalan avocado trees require little or no pruning
*thrr;thawn the pinching out of tender buds which would become
siisrable. branches. The kind and amount of pruning varies with
ith d M rent varieties. In most cases it is desirable to keep the tops
low, wi$h the lower branches shading the ground as much as possible.
Such trees are less subject to the force of the wind than are high-
hedaed trees and can easily be propped when necessary, while their
orwer branches help to conserve moisture and bring the. fruit within
pagy reach of the gatherer. When these trees grow older, the lower
fbr4phes, should be gradually trimmed back and finally removed
to.4ke.r-oom for the upper larger ones which bend down. The aim
RbSld' be to secure a strong symmetrical tree having well-spaced
branches which will readily sustain heavy crops of fruit. A con-
iderable portion of the top should be removed from trees that have
`become one-sided from exposure to continuous wind. Dead twigs in
the fruit-producing area and dead branches in the interior of the
trdshetild be cut out as also deadwood or branches which have
wen. uaected by wood-boring insects of the genus Xyleborus.
SAvocado trees may be- pruned to some extent at almost any time
o.f ioe year if it is necessary to restrain the growth of the branches
IJiMubtdly the. best and safest time to prune. is when there
eemito ~be least activity of growth. Heavy pruning is likely to
fo.bmivegbtative growth rather than fruit wood.
hrp prunng shears should be used for the removal of small
banchess ndtle pruning saw for -large limbs. All wounds that are
therighths of an inch or larger- in diameter should be smoothed
ivitha prunng nin ife and painted to prevent die-back or
i ntmance ,of insects& Asphaltum paint has been satisfactorily
..Where considerable pruning has been done. Preparatory to
d,.the- asphaltumn- should be thoroughly melted and then

e ic~u AWul Lc a alv t IB-.11UAL Ua. LUE-l UI bilU f bi L SiiS- ti UX :'.1
under commercial cultivation, from expeaimentam I
stationit bhas bee~ found. that the avocado tneires rmaW
fertilizer I ivi vegetative growth as. welt as i; -tits e
frnit. Avocado trees of. bearing age which k.e.e. 0-nmAi
have been restored to igor and fruitf4lnesm whbi giwvew
of barnyard% manure either as a muloht ii. irrigatibn b s
trees or when worked into the loQsened surface soil bo
roots. In most of the experiments, howeverr, water in
doubtless been an important restoring factor. It is ad.3i
caution in fertilizing avocado. trees, particularly withini'
genous fertilizers or such as will leave too much- orgai
the soil:. Like heavy pruning, heavy -fertilizing s 4, 1ik
vegetative growth at the expense of fruit 'wood' anuitig
greatly diminished production of fruit for severslytyue if...
j: !. t. '
.,, :* O .F MATU. T.,Y. ,:: i., .),. i.riftW n i *
The age at which budded Guatemalah a+road6it ie:s co
ing'depends upon the variety. Some evaritibs beaY'hiei
third year, and practically all those wo-ithy of eultiptiti
produce at least a few fruits in their *urtth year.' .TlM
maturity of the fruit of a variety may vary with clilmtftis
conditions under which it is grown, steh is latitude, t aIti
ity,l ind the like. For examflel :the Tuninr vatiety "t .
collection matures its crop in February '~hen& gtEbwln al
of about 1,000 feet at the Tantalus asbst~atii; Oahu, aid'th a
to June when 'grown 5,100 feet above 'sea leveling; itn its~ ltW
of Antigua, Guatemala. With the ;o0nibinatioi .'f 'vr*i..
different envirdnments, mature fruits may be' bbtahin6d i
practically throughout the year. ':' i
S". '. : HARVE SING.
Avdcados picked. when immature iand allowed; to. ripiedl.
become edible, bit are likely to be watery and iiisipidv M 'i.
of such fruit should not be encouraged, as it will sKoma ijtie
ing trade. Fruits, which are purple when ripwdoniot:;aiilii
their 'color until they reach thel last stagb of maturity. 71I
may sdrve as'a guide in determining the tine 'o picking., UItidk
difficult to determine the time of maturitfrof arieieies whirj
their green eolor. Close observationi kually shows that UI
undergoes a; slight change in shadeibB skin t'4 stem whibhli
the proper degree of maturity.-l The graoer will soon beca
iar with thel peculiarities of es cbi rd arety and learn tol ..
proper selection iat harvest rtimea,. iif :nuq /picked iwhet.i
fruit of some varieties Iwill remain ona the, tre4b fei r ieekei i
for ,moriths after, the normal season for 'harvestridg hasw.aai::::,
"* :* ""i



qs qthe sedrpypots in the, cavity of fruits whicl are left too
ir Avocados should be cut from the tree and not pulled or broken off.
pp. lippers are excellent for this purpose. The stem should be
bt. above the point of attachment where it is enlarged. A step-
d.Oin be .used in picking fruit from the higher branches. and
r.y ,onstracted long-handled pickers, for plucking the fruit
thl top -of the. trees. In Florida, where the avocado is grown
or ient to 4stant. markets, regular fruit pickers, having a bag
".attachment at the end of the pole, are used in harvesting avocados.
SSome growers colleCt the fruits in baskets.'
The present method of picking, packing, and marketing avocados
in Hawaii is unsatisfactory even for local trade. Too often the fruit
IIro bs the results of rough handling. Fungus spores soon get a
ift oothold if the stem is pulled out, and there is likely to be great an-
h'd yance in handling fruit which has been broken off with the stem
adhering. The fruit should be carefully handled if the industry is to
developp to desirable proportions.
T ,il:Florida the standard package for shipment of avocados is a
':' iri-mnade crate, the dimensions of which are 12 by 12 by 24 inches.
I:'E"laicrate holds from 18 to 36 fruits, depending upon their size. The
crates are similar in shape to the standard California orange box
a| and have a partition in the center. Fine excelsior is placed above
Sand below each layer of fruit and between it and the box to prevent
Sany possibility of shaking and to permit a. slight circulation of air
J. inthe box.: The Guatemalan varieties should be packed firmly in
Sisthe rate, but not as tight as oranges are packed. Fruit so packed
:- can be shipped short distances without refrigeration and long dis-
Stances with refrigeration.
1?^ Most local bearing trees of the Guatemalan avocado are seedlings.
hi "Iudded trees have not as yet been in cultivation long enough to per-
it odf their maximum production being known. In 1900 the original
:iM~acdOdiald avocado tree began to attract attention as a prolific
.iel:aider of' gd fruit in the winter months. Although the tree has
eiJ uriider rather close observation since that time, few definite
Srrds re ar available showing the number of fruits produced in a
"'Seaifson. It is estimated that, from 300 to 400 fruits have been pro-
j'tidi id'in some seasons and occasionally few fruits in other seasons.
| A light cyop is usually followed by a heavy one. The habit in fruit
trees of proucing heavy and light crops alternately has been over-
r me, to ',cosiderable extent by good cultural methods. The original
1f, '"{o6nild tree produced a laige crop in 1921, followed by a light
Kat'in 19. -IIn January, 1923, it matured a crop of 300 fruits,
4Mi'isti fatIy large yield in view of the size of the tree and the
little attention it has received.
SThe KaluaP, avocado. tree, located in Wailuku, Maui, at an eleva-
ion of about 280 feet above sea level is reported by its owner, Judge
i as beig'lproBific. A study made of this tree during the past
d:. r ":r'"a4 sh!ws ith it is very productive under adverse conditions.
S'r~ometimes misspelled "*)Kailua."

1 13

a: riety Wilder for th past f ywtedis his ielb:
fruits. "Seoven to ten year old, ti'esi t the Beda l
'hide some very favorable, Treoi 'of senl .I. d# 'I
per season. Both Wilder and i'ed- sleep 'ii
heavy anid light crops alternately, unless cAe~nlti
Insect enemies of the, Gaatemalan avocado are not''
Hawaii. '
S A t. le fi I
The avocado mealybug (Pseudococcus. iP) ..nis a."
of the insect pests. Fullaway,9 in writing of their..
symbiotic relationship between ants and mealf
sponsible for their dissemination and presenRts.~ap a
attempting to cope with them. Treesinfestedowit
most of their foliage and show a.loss of vigor; youpg
Control.-Kerosene oil-remulsion sprays; arei th
means of control for avocado mealybugs. .The low
ula for making the emulsion :
Common laulidry soap._, .-. -------- -.
Kerosene (coal oil) .--- .---------
Water------------------------ __
The soap should be dissolved in water while ii bhi
fire. The solution should then be removed Uto:aiafes dis
the fire and the kerosene added to, it. The mittu"tbe
lently agitated until it has a creamy consistency, thickerisik.
and shows no trace of free oil on the surface. A perfect: : ':
best procured by charging and discharging the .spry
mixture for 10 minutes, the direct-discharge nozzle eh
ing which will throw a strong stream. This is a sto'kg
when properly made and protected from air will ~ 'ke )
weeks. When used, the stock solution should be' di.iui
(1 part of the solution to 15 parts of water), The
be applied to the infested part of the tree with th& .pJl y
Another oil-emulsion spray which is oftep. ued
in much the same way as the kerosene-emulsion spr' ,
oil, which has the following formula; ., .... ,i
S,San-U-Zay oil -------_ ------- -----
Water_-_ ----... ------ -. ---- ....... -----
The mixture should be thoroughly agitated by mIa- ",i
paddle before being applied as a4 spray, The oil sep F
emulsion is allowed to, stand for several A.dy, ipi.,,
form is restored when a little salsbda. is an.,ir .;" ?"
wooD.-BOlING 'BEtuSt' XitM, a*' IW.iMk). 4'l nf
Wood-boring beetles often enter the"txi i or
where.the wood is exposed fol1owng inAjury and in, manjo
into the live wood beneath' the bark. Unless prevte,
SHawaii Sta. Bul. 25, The avocado in Hawaii, p. 22. i...:'.' ..,

lthw tr 'JCi ThIir pr~,ene is easily detected by the white,
like deposit which the exuding sap leaves on the outer bark
tha aoisture has evaporated from it.
HOl trol.-C-arbolic-acid emulsion has recently been used with
asv a control measure at the station and also in private
eards. The emulsion is made as follows:
:A:..4 :..., (knde 'carbohlic acid---------- -------------gallon- 1
i M 6on..n laundry soap -----------------------do 8
Skater: (hot) -------------------- ---------- -----do-- 8
A:3. esp should be cut into thin shavings and dissolved in boiling
After which the carbolic acid should be added to it. The
S.e should then be allowed to boil for a considerable time. Diluted
| ater -(1 part solution to 20 parts water), this solution is used
a a a. wash and as a spray for the trees attacked.
4 : Aocad4s branches showing the. #ork of borers should be removed
id burned. If the beetles have not progressed too far in their work
S t~ tion, they may be dug from the trunk before the solution is
:l applied. All scars should be covered with asphaltum paint.
.i" .' *: '* GREEN' CATERPILLAR.
1T 'l g c aterpilar, of the tortricid moth (Amorbia emigratella)
ijutres t foliage of avocado trees, particularly young
S iThe cerpillar is a form of leaf folder which draws the
Ji Wof the le f together and then retreats temporarily into the
itSr thus afforded. At feeding time it emerges and eats the
iAafis of the leaf. The adult moth has a wing expanse of about an
is of brown color.
ijmt-.Tl The green caterpillar may be controlled by the use of
uca: spray.
,:. :y A.enate of lead (paste form) -------ounce 1
f Water ---------- ---------------gallon- 1
*.h'rJ I. Artnate of lead powderedd form) _---------------ounce-.
Sate -------------------------------------- gallon- 1
qwp'pi-ay should be applied as soon as there is evidence of injury
ifrt' ttpi'een caterpillar and should be repeated as often as neces-
~bi adiAateo' f lead'is tiich less likely to injure the foliage than
i: Pari teen iiid i isr i effective.
i" B .i.h k ila s do tibt iidicate just what varieties of avocados
liVi tt Ywt" thtrey dotssw in a general way the nutritive value
i Wa1tSfrait and thUs ielp td detee ine 'its place in the dietary. A
b tieg a high pebceutage of- ne or more essential constitu-
;fi a di tiltdesirable becaisd of peculiar flavor caused by some
tii titAuent. In the Gnltemalan avocado the proportions of
.dttthrint change in eacd vaat-iett according to the degree of
S!3 .t..tle fruits arid vary in different years and in different
W infottihfy 4'ry little data' are available regarding analyses
tifurf &ft f tAocado. Arialyss of a few locally gtown
d W'ghC6trbiking' differences in composition between them
46Bt tMk tedi ifelt' drnia. The following table affords a com-
arison of the composition of the edible pdttion of Haivaii-grown that of California-grown Guatemalan avocados.

14 -t li
tme=--------------M 8 22:!7
ty of-lN;' r

6 as
h T .. . .
peretgo a n,4
posi otp
I% 1-X iik at'O
Me. awlaI T
WWi t& iNsfleV lit
-OfO dt6 2' ercn 1 di

em t ftG

----Fv varitiesof ocaly grwnGwatikf
vv:, anlve yteHwiisainsoe:a
o1.9 oretThsimuhhgw i.IUL
fruis is smewht~hghe-tha thash conentof
np aiteI

Mber, ., I'.0 'eveal~acesof voc~qqy*
if o vda 44 as de~n~cafmd

Although nt an riev ition of less thnn 100 feet, the crop
ripens during I Ie winter nionths and normally con-
sists of 200 to 400 fruits. Since the tree has become
mature the fruit stems ire shorter than formerly.

(Acc. No. 4076).
Originated from a seed of the Macdonuld avocado at
the llawnii Stulion in 1107. In size it averages double
that of the mother parent, and its quality is quite as


. .. ". "

Bul. 51, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


I -., jj.,.'.~

FIG. 1.-WILDER (Acc. No. 4540).

Has gained considerable reputation for its fine quality. Original tree was grown by Gerrit P.
Wilder. The tree is large, vigorous, and prolific. The fruit is unlike that of the mother
parent, the Macdonald, in size, smoothness of surface, and color which remains green at full


t ^


One of the leading varieties propagated by budding in Hawaii. It is of excellent quality.
This variety should be interplanted among several other varieties blossoming at the same
time to give a more perfect pollination and eventually a more regular fruit production than
is the case otherwise.



.;..;.. i





I i 1 I H .aI' iS

FIG. 1.-THE KALUA (Acc. No. 3413).
A favorite on account of its long fruiting period, November to March. The original tree was
one of the three brought to Hawaii by Admiral Beardslee in 1895.

FIG. 2.-THE HALEY (Acc. No. 4821).
Comes into bearing at an early age, and the fruit has very desirable qualities.

Bul. 51, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.

us.' ..f '


I ~ ~~is~i; nl;M

FIG I-TE AS (cc No 405. IG 2-TE BN Ac. o.480)
Tre s neofth mstpolfi i H'wii adth fui i o Teei vryprdutie.Sedavraeslage bt h
splenid qality It aturs durng te winer mnthsfruitis afavorte o accunt o itsexceInt favor
evenwhengrowng t loer eevatons

...... .. ....

RIab a e. Thp studies of the avocado made by Prinaen-
he total sug&as; s ,72 per cent in the proportion ii. .
0.46 pegi~gt if tctose, and 0.86 per cent sae ( :r in Hawaii in many ways. It is served on the
r which purpose it is well adapted, the flesh being.
*poont' .The fibit is also cutin halves or quarters, .i
j ij. etts Aiid served with seasoning or dressing, aild
ith -or immediately following the soup course. The
I4Ib con 6nily eaten as a salad, being sliced or cut ilt
rti ved witih salt and 'lire juice or with salt and vinegar
6 6te flaor. M4ayonfise, which contains about 95 per
SI(d nbtf h used with avocados, because the latter has! ah
tot f about 20 per cent. The delicate flavor of the fruit.
"rilsnnai is-usedand especiall'if it is served With
,flce 'y, nut, 6r onions, regardless of the fact that .
i pe-i ;ibommend: their use with the avocado.
ive land the .avoado is greatly liked by the Indians, who "I
:'".tf ii,9Xtdo th. julp i with salt, and scoop it out

an erlprodietion of'nthe West Indi. ".l.
M^MEN sIf to hogs and laying beis it'.

th6 Giatemalan avocado investigation begun by the
a' to l ti.oduce niew varieties o the hard-shelled type,
tof conditions oftlieir cultA t iii Hawaii, test a num-
Of being 'ablb to select a group maturing hig i
S^tthe yearz; and encourage the culture of budded
b Will 4tablished a standard fruit for c&i -
ll ist ftheIoni 'brcihard-
ti Vh itbeuii n' a wooded valley on the slopes
eith i 41 anc rich, being a well-drained
Seodk volcanic nfa 2ther elevation at this place ip
N t he alihate o i ol o and' the rainfall suitable
L.J P, .- .. I ; : ., .
be g aa d th conditions are intermediate
iout tl Territory .where the Gu1ate..n ,i
T 'Th 'E tteesnwere.set out M' d 19.
b reil. TUnited StatesZ pattix
ii qJ41 o urney a) are
-P AL= under tal ahd thir i
I yiiU. rv Jf;- j : i 9 It C' J .: J a .S
I *' s.'.. ." ':i :-',. '. """ '"I .

i .. .. N' ,

.. .,.".. : ;.. .. ..... : .

Chisoy..... ................... 43935 Mayapan ......... ,
Coban................................... 43032 Panchoy ...............-- .... .
Ka .. anan-
................................ 45563 TUn in ....................... ..:...
''''------'''''''-------- i a .a .

Pankay, Nabal, Ishkal, Panhoy, and Tumin blos$'
March, 1922. Tumin was the only variety to set ..
which reached maturity in February and Miachx 192A
was the first of the Popenoe collection to. fruit at4
station and appears to have qualifies of considerable&
orchard has been kept well cultivated,. and. the
sprayed on several occasions to control the. avocadqo
the leaf folder. ..
In connection with the above-mentigned experh i3 g
technique for the pollination of locally grown yt
determined in the hope of uniting desirable chara
varieties. '
In another section of the Tantalus substation 9r%3arj~W
of the Macdonald avocado are being grown- to permit!
the natural variation that may occur. The remarkable vai
has already taken place with the original Macdonald av a
the production of the varieties Wilder, Beardslee, Nutine
sibly others, indicates that this variety is particiiularly
variation in desirable directions. In this connection it ma
that the Macdonald avocado tree is located in a larga
where no othet trees of Guatemalan type grow, and it .ws
one of. its kind on the island of Oahu during the yeaxr w.
grew producing the above-mentioned varieties. There 'i
yard, during that time, from 1 to 7 avocado, trees of
type, but these were located from 50 to 300 feet awayli
three sides of the Macdonald tree. There were also West
cados in other parts of the locality, some of which wqi
at the same time the Macdonald tree was in, bloom.u"'
Macdonald was pollinated by these trees, which fat ,V4
for the variations of form, color, and other characters in
The characters of the mother parent, the Macdonall
greatly predominate, however. If-the Guate lanl
self-pollinated, then its seedling offspring hatI6 Vrbd
in desirable directions. This problem is beingg inves
The Wilder hybrids, consisting of the vaeti L
Ilialu Lehua, and Kinau,11 are a very interesig4gf a
group. All the crosses were made by Gferrit Wilder ;iA .
of 1914. The Guatemalan variety Wilder was crossed
Itdian pollen and the seedling ~trees resulting, wer t;i
11 These Hawaiian names have'the 'folowtn mteahngs: Labt tli 1; ;edll
like a calabash; Ilialu, rough rind; Lehna, red; and Kinau, name of a ......S
.. ... .. :. "... S

SI year at"'Esbeank," the old Wilder home, 60 Judd Street,
hI. The five trees fruited in their fifth and sixth years, pro-
fruit of desirable quality, indicating their worth for propa- -
asexually. as varieties. The trees vary somewhat in appear-
ainly in shape of tops. The foliage of all has the apparent
is of the Guatemalan. The fruit of each tree differs from
:fthe- others, mainly in shape and character of rind, some being
.6 ad others smooth. All the varieties mature their fruit either
fall or early winter. The group is particularly interesting
breeders and shows the great possibilities for creating new
iraluble varieties of avocados.
Following brief outline shows the relation of varieties as to
t trees and their progeny:
SLahi (No. 4926).
Calabash (No. 4674).
Wilder (No. 4540; hybrids) ... Ilialu (No. 4696).
rl *1 /Lehua (No. 4695).
SKinau (No. 4675).
SNutmeg (No. 4076).
:( Beardslee (No. 4075).
ld (Ace. No. Haley (No. 4821).
MIgi --------- (No. 4922).
i: Holt (No. 4819).
Towse (No. 4818).
"-- (No. 4924).
r '4"- Bon (No. 4820).
McInerny, and several others.
(Acc. No. 3413) Case (No 4705)-------- ockett (No. 4817).
-(No. 4815).
ti'he Macdonald avocado (No. 4191). (P1. III, fig. 1) began to
t40ract attention probably as early as 1900. At first it was slow to
et with favor probably because of its warty rind and its size,
h vas small when compared with that of the West Indian
oado. When interested persons began growing its seedlings,
ywever, they were soon attracted by the wide variation in the pro-
..y. and by the exceptionally fine fruit. Macdonald is an excellent
p per and has fine keeping qualities, the fruit remaining in a per-
t state of preservation when kept at ordinary room temperatures
r two or three weeks after harvesting.
PDescription of tree.-Upright and spreading, reaching a height
40 feet and a spread of top of 30 feet in 30 years. The foliage is
rally scant, dark green in color, and the leaves average small
SC(uatemalan. Each fruit hangs separately on a long stem, often
clhes in length. The tree often carries fruit over through the
som period of the following season.
F~ruit.-Form, spherical; color, rich, dark purple on ripening;
e, warty, very rough; rind, thick and granular, forming a
6* sMell-like covering. (PI. Xfig. 1.) Total weight, 12 ounces to
i d; flesh, yellow, varying to green toward the rind; texture,
and without fiber; flavor, rich and nutty. The seed is small
anm, tight in the cavity, nearly spherical in form, covered
: wo tight-fitting coats; weight, about 2 ounces. Season of
iecesion numbers under which most of the varieties have been propagated -at
ni a are also given in the outline and descriptions.

liow, smooth, free -rom fber, rich, 01 f .fnutt
a e. Averages abouito 3 one tight r thd cavitj; l
reied with two tight cdOat vhich adhere to eed ~
The Calabash avocado (N '4674) is.glowin
lder,- wheie it was planted in 1914. ( .
r Vigorous tree of medium 'size ad began tor
T.? ees of' the variety have been .propagted By
, able flavor indicates that this srt if rth' of
.Fruit.-Fodrm; a uimost 'oval, but sI ghty a
givig the fruit calabaish shape. iTh d
T bout a pound' cof r,.' dui gree, dt "
he stemnen d upoi a i M" 7.. to ot

re neA
Kl f t r. Vn otf y
,, .' ,.i',.! *..; *.. s j ..- .. .... S .....R f ...... .
.. .. .i ...... .. ... .
k-W ...... ':; i i
: ir.i "": ".. '{: : : .' ":! i:. "r i "...; : : m !t. :i i: ::.'..i ::ie

Bul. 51, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station. PLATE V I.

FIG. 1.-ILIALU (ACC. No. 4696).
A splendid keeper. Will remain on the tree for a considerable time after maturing enough to

t t*

,.: ," 1'Kt,." .. ..j ,',

FIG. 2.-THE COCKETT (ACC. No. 4817).
This large purple avocado is a cross between the Case and the West Indian. The fruit indicates
characters of size, reduced thickness of rind, and a seed slightly loosened in the cavity, all of
the latter race.
the latter race.

Bul. 51, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.



I -I .. 1 I .... :";' :' "

FIG. I.-LEHUA (AcC. No. 4695).
Fruit is large and has many points in its favor. The percentage of edible pulp particularly is

...* .. S .. .: -,--..-t ,
,, a ,. ,. .,.,.
," : ,

FIG 2.-THE HOLT (ACC. NO. 4819).
This fruit is the favorite variety of Valentine Holt, horticulturist, Honolulu. It is a second
generation from the variety Macdonald.





FIG. 2.-THE TOWSE (Acc. No. 4818).

A large, purple, pyriforn fruit having a very thick rind.
Note the chiarncteristic rnliating scars which are pecul-
iar to several varieties of avocados.

iar to several varieties of avocadlos.

---- --- --- --r- --- ---

Bul. 51, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.

.. u. r k..

PLA .... ..:.=

:, .:, ..


The thick, shell-like rind of this fruit is a strong protective feature against insect pests; it also
greatly prolongs the period of time that the fruit may be held on the market.

FIG. 2.-KINAU (ACC. No. 4675).

A new variety of which the Macdonald is a grandparent. The high quality of the fruit
indicates that it is one of promise.

i iti sha pe; weht, 13 ounces to 1 pound; surfLde
ee1 whe the fruit'is '-ipe; rind, thick, rough, granuli t .
t er free, firm, and fine grained; flavor, good; seed of :, .:
is: tght in cavity;:..eeping and shipping
*. .. .i .

pa vcado. (No. 49) (PI. VIII, fig. 1) grows on t I
property of S. G Wilder at "Esbank." The tree pr1o-
Sfirst fruit in 1921, at 5 years of age,% is vigorous and ''*.:
and gives considerable promise as a new variety.
F-Forfm oval; size, medium; weight, I to 1 pounds; Qclor,
oS n ~4rfacq, irregular, undulated to bumpy, each fruit
ssg. a. characteristic radiating scar. The rind, l
h :ll-ike' varying from one-eighth to tte$,
w~trmi4i.kess an, is very coarse and granular. '
r fi yilw, but;tery, and of a. plpasing nutty favo .
.-. 4 ..CNwith. two tight-fitting coats and is tight i n "t.'

favocado *No, 467t ..(PL Xi fig. 2) grows in the yrd
i de~i~~Ad iidproduced its first crop in1.921, is healthy, a ".i .:'
I; a h 'prPoie as a: new variety.
lWuiForaim, owel; colorsj bright green; surface, very irregula. .
tick and shell-like; weight, 14 ounces to 1 pound; flesh, fiber 'f!
eight greenish yellow, and of fairly rich flavor; weight of "
*.2 ouwoes; "tw9;qOoats tight in cavity; keeping quality, vry :
S... E'"" ,.:llG.
i Mttineg'vtcado (No '40T6) (PI. II, fig. 2) was grown a:
perimeint station in 1907 under accession-No. 1035. .-
bW Forxearly spherical, slightly oval to pyriform; :colo
; rf ae very ro~g~ particularly near the stem hd
IEufAio i1nthickness, tiugh- and hard';; total weight, 26 ouni
srdi 43hight liyellow, thgfWd to green near rind; textu
..s:.n vfin tihd I with Wry little fiber;- flavor, excellefyt;:
4r, tight in cavity, an&,.yeighs about 61 ounces. (Fo
.e tale. p. 16.)
r" ..r .3r D *D L." 23
I'iitfarlee avocado (16. 4075) (P. IV fio 9~ m)
l" 'J .' ..i. ..iU f J J'" 4 J
il ti Atges, ~*M.c r own o from a sed A t l
I nthdlate Dat 'ihbb 18, 1i11, ;by L. C:.0 b A
riiewalo u t ret, H6on.litiu. It is
.of fruit wittidn four years after
h eunt vriies -b'lat i
S *;. .... : ....4j i iT 1 1 & Q- -

race in Hawaii. The variety was named Beard lees i IZ.i
of the man who introduced the seed of the parent tree
but it seems to be generally known locally as the Able&
Fruit.-Form, oval to pyriform; weight, 11 fo 2,~.
purple on the surface when ripe; rind, thick and she
woody, and with a pebbled outer surface. The, flesh ise
with green next to the rind; texture, fine grained withi:
fiber at the base; flavor, rich and nutty; seed, small
nearly so, in the cavity; weight of seed, 2 to 2 ounces
portion averages abdut 71 per cent.'
*. : .. .
The Haley avocado (No. 4821) (PL..V, fig. 2)i,.
the Guatemalan race which was planted in Hawai in
is grown on the ranch of Haley Bros., Pupupea, OalX
trees 'are prolific, coming into bearing about' fb third i
year, and, producing fruits in clusters. The fruit ripens, $
elevations m November and December. Many trees havi
propagated from this variety by W. H. Haley, 2621 East
Road, Honolulu.
Fruit.-Size, 6 inches in length, 44 inches in diameter; we
to 40 ounces. Form, oval to obovate; rind, thick, tough, '1ar
lar; surface, rough, green in color, with a slight purplish tiiigs
fully ripening; flesh, fiber free, creamy yellow; flavor, richby
seed, small to medium in size, and fits tightly in the cavityI '
The Holt avocado (No. 4819) (P1. VIII, fig. 2 is kg w lT
the rear of the residence at the northwest corner of the intet
tion of Makiki and Lunalilo Streets, Honolulu. It was abo
years old in 1921, in healthy condition, and gives promise t Wf
a good winter-bearing variety.
SFruit.-Form, varying from oval; color, shiny green whq4i,
surface, undulated but smooth; rind, thick, firm, and se i
total weight, about 1 pound 3 ounces; flesh, fiber free, yell.U-
buttery, and of a very good, nutty flavor; seed, father largei1p
ing about 5 ounces. This variety is well worthy of bud pppaga.
The Towse avocado (No. 4818) (P1. IX, fig. 2) is growing .:
south side of the residence of E. Towse, 1105 Eleventh 4 A
Kaimuki, Honolulu. In 1922 the tree was large and, spr$
and reached a height of about 45 feet, It is a proliieo be4~ij
produces large attractive fruit which, matures. in Noveai|:
December. .." T
Fruit.-Form, pyriform; size, large, weighing abo, 64 Q
.color, purple; rind, three-sixteenths inch in thickness, bu
bearing the typical radiating scar-like marking; esh, fi,

- .

U p :,:I ON.

-on avocado (No. 4820) (PL VI, fig. 2) is supposedly a
g of the Macdonald. It grows in the yard of E. Towse. The
was given' to and planted in 1908 by S. D. Koki, former owner
he UfwSe property. At present the tree is about 45 feet high
4 other upright form. It is very proNfic, often producing
iQ*Iits in a season. The fruit ripens in November and in early
SJudging from the appearance of the foliage and fruit,
Night that the tree is a hybrid between the Guatemalan and
4West Indian type of avocada.
n -ti-Form, oval; size, medium; weight, about 23 ounces;
'ishny green; rind, medium in thickness, rather smooth on sur-
tlsh, fiber free, rich, light yellow, rather dry but appetizing;
i;lfrge, weighing about'54 ounces. (For analyses, see table,

Ialua avocado (No. 3413) (P1. V, fig. 1) is reported to be in
lNmost every month of the year. A number of seedlings pro-
ifrutt of fine quality have been grown from the seed of this
'oth original and progeny are winter bearing.
,---Pyriform in shape, shiny green in color, turning lighter
:on: ripening; averages about 12 ounces in weight The rind
tfidk .smooth outside and granular within. The flesh is light yel-
, averages ab-out three-fourths inch in thickness, is buttery, and
Sfairly good flavor. This fruit is a splendid keeper. The seed
A~edium size, weighing, about 2 ounces, and is tight in the cavity.

tCase avocado (No. 4705) (P1. VI, fig. 1) was planted in the
ith of.D. H. Case, at Wailuku, Maui. The. tree has always been
rifi and prolific, flowering in February and March and fruiting
rC Octoberr to March. The fruit varies considerably from the
.qiVocead, having characters that are superior to the latter
some fruits that curve too much. The Case avocado in its third
r produced 25 fruits; in its fourth year, 35 fruits; and in its fifth
welfth years, heavy crops. No record has been kept of its yield
e 1filfth toh e twelfth year. Seedlings from the Case have
fruit of failygood qualify and showed very little of the
S yriform shape.
.--Long, curved neck, pyriform; size, 7 inches in length;
hin .dark green; surface, varying from smooth, undulated,
I f at the neck near the stem; rind, one-sixteenth inch or
Sthckie f ring a granular shell; average weight, between
8 ounEes. Illesh, light yellow, .shading to pale yellow near
Texitt without fiber; flavor, nutty, approaching
Sof tli ideal; sd, small considering the size of the fruit,
bout : 6nvP fits tightly in the cavity and is a free-

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T. Ie Cockett avocado (No. 4U87) (RPiJei V fitA i
,ria Cockett, Wailiku, Maui, fruited jn fjt I
yeas. The fruit matures in iNovem1ber ,4441 g rwi
SFruit.-Form, oval to pyrifoqan; siz/larN -iweging
color, purple with greenishl cast; surfc a.cewadibted but .r
,pne-eighth inch in thickness, tough, aj 4lea wy; fle
smooth;- color, yellow tinged with green; v flav ;o;
weighing 44 ounces, almost filling cavity.; -.
FW X 7i. 1., .L
SThe Fuerte avocado (-Nb. n59),; originated 'at:;Atli]ixi
Mexico. Although it -is genially classed with t;he
varieties, it is now .believed to be a natural hybrid Wn i
Guatemalan and Mexican races. The variety produces
during the winter months. Bud wood of the variety has oii.
occasions been introduced int, Hawaii by the. station thr
United States'Department of oAgricultudi arid pr ba bIJ
W. D. Baldwini of Haiku, Maui. Trees of th&'ev a'1:ihr
are now to be found in various'parts of the Teri tory. '
orchard of C. Miller; cooperator df Kaneohe, Oahu,- pr~o
fruit in Decemiber, 1922. Judging'from its hardiness i C
it is thought ia the tree will make its best growthifi t h
tural areas at'higher altitudes in the islands. t' is a f ir
many growers in California on accourit of its hardein~si
grade fruit. ..
Fruit.-Form,' "pyriform to oblong,' not necked'; size.i .i.
weight, 10 to. 16 ounces; length, 4 to 41 inches, greatest breadth
to 2j inches; stem, inserted obliquely in a small shallow eayv
surface pebbled, .somewhat wrinkled around the stem end ;w..oB
green with numerous small yellow dots; rind, about qiest4i
inch, in thickness, pliable and leathery in. texture; flesh, richr
yellow in color, greenish near the rind; very rich. flav.r:; qq
excellent; seed, small, tight in cavity, seed coats closely. surou
the cotyledons. :

The Taft' avocado (No. 4565) originated as a seedlingit
Calif., and, was first propagated in 1912. "SeverlJ iiitrobd t6'
been made into Hawaii, but it is ot knion ar y'it i
b a i '.; !:. :in'c''; di 't 'L 4 "' ..
productiveness will be. -I ,
Fruit.-Fori, broad, pyriform, slightly neck~ siie i
large; weight, 14 to 24 ounces; length, 5; t'% ', iach
breadth, 3? inches; surface, 'undulat t rotghnie
stem end; color, 'dep green with. numw.rru yw UW'dot
.granular, and rather 'ipabl, .fle.h, oth I
color; flavor, rici .and pleasant, 4g*i ,rey giod |
sze. tight n c7vit' with seed .cdat aedherng 'lo
ripenuig varies hromr summer i af lpn dg& s .
V01 L .; iAI i..t i I Ai,, .
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