Nutrition investigations among fruitarians and Chinese at the California Agricultural experiment station, 1899-1901

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Title:
Nutrition investigations among fruitarians and Chinese at the California Agricultural experiment station, 1899-1901
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of agriculture. Office of experiment stations. Bulletin
Physical Description:
43 p. : pl. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jaffa, Myer E ( Myer Edward ), 1857-1931
Publisher:
Govt. Print Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Dietaries   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Statement of Responsibility:
By M.E. Jaffa ...

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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oclc - 10419935
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AA00014545:00001


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U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE.


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AT THE


CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,



1899-1901.

BY


M. E. JAFFA,


M. S.,


Assistant Professor of Agriculdtre, Unirersity of California.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1901.


OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS-BULLETIN NO. 107.
A. C. TRUE, Director.






NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS


AMONG




FRUITARIANS AND CHINESE
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OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS




A. C. TRUE, Ph. D., Diector.
E. W. ALLEN, Ph. D., Assistant Director.
C. F. LANGWORTHY, Ph. D., Editor, and Expert un foods and Animal Productihc'".


NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS, MIDDLETOWN, CONN.


W. 0. ATWATER, Ph. D., Special Agent in Charge.
C. D. WOODS, B. S., Special Agent at Orono, Me., ..i
F. G. BENEDICT, Ph. D., Physiological Chemist.
A. P. BRYANT, M. S., Editorial Assistant.
R. D. MILNER, Ph. B., Assistant.





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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,
Washington, D. C., October 25, 1901.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of investi-
gations on the nutrition of man, conducted at the agricultural experi-
ment station of the University of California in 1899-1901, by M. E.
Jaffa, M. S., assistant professor of agriculture of the University of
California. Six dietary studies of fruitarians, a digestion experiment
and a metabolism experiment with a fruitarian, and three dietary
studies of Chinese are included in the investigations. In connection
with the work a number of analyses of food materials and excretory
products were made. These studies form a part of the nutrition
investigations conducted by this Office, and were carried on in accord-
ance with instructions given by its Director. As was the case with
earlier investigations, they were under the general direction of Prof.
W. O. Atwater, special agent in charge of nutrition investigations.
In carrying on this investigation Professor Jaffa was aided in the
analytical work by Mr. G. E. Colby, and in collecting data, calculating
results, and in other ways by Messrs. F. J. Snow, R. R. Bishop, and
C. L. Biedenbach. Acknowledgment is also due to Mr. W. N. Fong,
instructor in the department of Oriental languages of the University
S of California, for assistance in interpreting and for other courtesies.
Fruit is one of the very important agricultural products of this
country, yet little is known of its true food value. The studies here
reported of persons living largely upon fruit are, therefore, of special
interest in this connection, and, so far as known, are the first of their
kind.
In order that data may be secured for the satisfactory determination
of dietary standards, it is desirable to conduct dietary studies with
persons living under widely different circumstances and of different
dietary habits. Most of the studies already reported have been made
with persons consuming a mixed animal and vegetable diet. It seemed
desirable to secure results with persons living on a diet in which vege-
table foods formed the principal or sole source of nutrients. These







studies were accordingly made with members of a fruitaris "
who claimed to live almost exclusively on a diet of raw fnd
nuts, and with the Chinese, who are commonly said to l
largely upon rice. The results obtained are of interest in
and valuable for purposes of comparison. The report is tie
with the recommendation that it be published as Bulletin No. I..
this Office.
Respectfully, A. C. TRUE,

Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
















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CONTENTS.


Page.
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FRUITS ............................................... 7
Introduction -...........-. ... .............- .....................-.... 7
Analysis of food materials ........................................... 9
Description of samples_ --------------- --.------------------------ 9
The dietary studies ..---.--..--....- ........---......---.. ....------. 11
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 328) .......... ---.. .......... 11
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 329) -----.------------.--------- 12
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 330) --..---------... ------..---- 13
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 331)---....--------------.------ 14
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 332) ---------------------------. 14
Dietary study of a fruitarian (No. 333) ----------------.----------- 16
Discussion of fruitarian dietaries-.....----------------.--------- 17
Digestion experiment with a girl......-- ......------------------------- 21
Metabolic nitrogen ---------------------...---.--------.------...- 22
Balance of income and outgo of nitrogen...--..----------.-.......- 23
DITrARY STUDIES OF CHINESE -..-................--------- .. ----.....----- .. 25
Introduction ----.-------------------.......--------------------. 25
Composition of food materials---...............--------------.............----- 26
Dietary study of a dentist's family (No. 325) ----.--------------------- 29
Discussion of results..--.. --------------..----...------........---.....-----. 31
Dietary study of a Chinese laundry association (No. 326).....------.-.. 32
Discussion of results ...................---------------------.....--------------- 34
Dietary study of employees on a-Chinese truck farm (No. 327) ---------. 35
Discussion of results....---.....---....................------------------ 36
Summary --.--------....---........------.............--..--- ---- ... 38
Conclusions----- -----. ----.-..--..--- ---. -------------.------------ 43





ILLUSTRATION.


Page.
PLATE I. Dinner at Chinese truck farm, California ---..------...--..-------- 34
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P. .

NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS AMONG FRUITARIANS AND
CHINESE IN CALIFORNIA, 189990oi.



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FRUITS.
INTRODUCTION.

Fruit is considered by the majority of persons as an accessory or sup-
plementary food, eaten for its agreeable flavor or supposed hygienic or
medicinal virtues, rather than as a staple article of diet. Perhaps for
this reason very little scientific study has been given to fruit as compared
with the investigations which have been carried on in connection with
other more common food materials. Chemical analysis has shown
the comparative composition of fruits, but our knowledge of their
dietetic value, digestibility, and comparative cost as sources of nutri-
ents is far from being complete. In view of these facts it has been
thought best that California should undertake, as her share of the
nutrition investigations made under the auspices of the United States
Department of Agriculture, studies of the nutritive value and digesti-
bility of fruit. Perhaps no State in the Union is in better condition
to exploit such problems. No month in the year finds the California
market without fresh fruit of local production, and many people are
to be found in the State who make this article an important part of
their dietary.
It is not an infrequent occurrence to see popular articles in the daily
papers and magazines which assert the superiority of the vegetarian
diet over the ordinary diet, or the fruitarian over the vegetarian. The
fruitarians claim, and with some degree of justice, that the so-called
vegetarians are not true vegetarians, but are simply non-meat eaters.
This is certainly true of many of them, as a large proportion include
animal products in their dietaries, since they consume considerable
quantities of milk, butter, cheese, eggs, etc., and some even go so far
as to eat fish.
There seems to be an infinite variety in the views and habits of those
who depart from the conventional methods of eating, and any conclu-
sions drawn from the investigations of the dietaries of some of these
apply to only comparatively small subdivisions of a class. It would
appear, however, that mankind may be divided in the main into two
classes-meat eaters and non-meat eaters. In the first-named class the
7




. .a .


variations are principally in the relative quantities of meat
food consumed, and are comparatively simple. But of the ...
we have many subdivisions, including, among others-
(1) Those who for one reason or another abstain from the
meat entirely, but eat other animal products, such as milk, egg'g
(2) Vegetarians, who rule out all animal foods and animal
as such, but who partake of made dishes (puddings, pastry, cae,
which contain milk, eggs, etc.
(3) Vegetarians who object to "made dishes," and who eat
as possible uncooked food; living practically the same as the next *$d
division, though naming themselves differently.
(4) Fruitarians, who live principally on fruits and nuts, but w
allow in their dietary some vegetables or grain products.
(5) The strict fruitarians, who live exclusively on fruits and nata i
The last subdivision is perhaps of the greatest interest, as pas ~-
ing the most restricted dietary, and one that differs most widely free
the ordinary diet. ...
In inaugurating these investigations it was deemed desirable :ii
select such subjects as were not only accustomed to the large use .
fruit, but whose dietaries did not contain many other foods. Fort-
nately subjects were found whose ordinary mode of living placed thes
in the last two subdivisions (4 and 5); that is, they lived almost exclu'ii-;
sively on raw fruit and nuts.
A number of dietary studies with persons living on a more or. ~La
strictly vegetarian diet have been reported by Cremer,' Constatinidl.iiirii
Rutgers,s Voit,' Avsitidiski,5 Tanaguti,6 Kellner and Mori,' a. .d::...ii: .
others. Of these the study made by Voit is most directly comparabIle
with those reported herewith. It was made with a young man, an
upholsterer, living in Munich. For three years he had lived on a 4i.:-
of coarse bread (pumpernickel and graham), fresh and dry fruits, a"vi:r:..i
oil. The diet differed from those studied in California in that breadi-':.::i, :'
i. e., cooked food, was eaten. However, no warm cooked food was used;
and the amount of fresh and dried fruits and oil eaten daily was com-...:
paratively large. The results of these studies are discussed elsewhere.
(p. 19) in connection with those of the present investigation. .
'Ztschr. Physiol. Chem., 1882, p. 357.
2Ztschr. Biol., 23 (1887), p. 447.
3Ztschr. Biol., 25 (1888), p. 371.
SZtschr. Biol., 25 (1889), p. 232.
5The Metabolism of Nitrogen and Losses through Skin and Lungs on a Vegetshle
diet. (Russian.) Inaug. Diss., St. Petersburg, 1889.
6Jahresbr. Thier Chem., 1892, p. 468.
'Ztschr. Biol., 25 (1889), p. 102; see also U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experime.t I
Stations Bul. 21.


.* ... ..:..






The investigation of fruitarians living in California includes (1) the
study of six dietaries which, with two exceptions, were made up of
fruit and nuts exclusively (in the first case the subject ate a small
Quantity of a cereal preparation, and in the second some green vege-
tables); (2) one digestion experiment with a girl, in which fruit and
nuts constituted the entire diet; (3) a study of the income and outgo
of nitrogen in the digestion experiment; and (4) estimation of meta-
bolic nitrogen in the feces. In connection with the experiments, the
composition of various food materials and excretory products was
determined.

ANALYSIS OF FOOD MATERIALS.

In connection with the present investigations a number of analyses
of food materials were made. The methods of analysis followed were
practically those adopted by the Association of Official Agricultural
Chemists.1
The following is a brief description of the samples analyzed:
DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES.

No. 2. Apple, "Newtown pippin; No. 4, apple, "' Early Astrachan;"
and No. 6, apricots, "'Hemeskirk," sampled and analyzed in connec-
tion with dietary studies.
No. 19. Dates, sampled and analyzed in connection with dietaries
Nos. 328-331 and 333.
No. 7. Figs, sampled and analyzed in connection with dietaries Nos.
328-331 and 333.
No. 9. Peach, "Early Crawford;" No. 11, pears;- No. 13, Japanese
plum; and No. 15, early red plum, sampled and analyzed in connection
with the dietary studies.
No. 30. Bananas, quoted from a previous publication.' with the
Exception of the fiber, which was determined.
No. 21. Almonds; No. 22, pignolias; and No. 24, pine nuts, sampled
and analyzed in connection with the dietary studies.
The figures in the column "reference number" refer to correspond-
ing numbers in parentheses after the different food materials recorded
in Tables 3-7.
The results of the analyses are given in Table 1.
'U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Chemistry Bul. 46, revised.
SU. S. Dept Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 28.








10


TABLE 1.-Composition of food materials analysed in connsction with di tcry
328 to S33-composition determined.


Food materials.


Fresh fruits:
Apples-
Pippin, edible portion......
Pippin, as purchased.......
Astrachan, edible portion..
Astrachan, as purchased...
Apricots-
Edible portion .............
As purchased...............
Figs ..........................
Peaches. Early Crawford-
Edible portion .............
As purchased...............
Pears-
Edible portion .............
As purchased ..............
Plums, Japanese-
Edible portion ...........
As purchased..-...........
Plums, red-
Edible portion .............
As purchased...............
Oranges-
Edible portion .............
As purchased. ................
Dried fruits:
Dates-
Edible portion ....-.......
As purchased...............
Nuts:
Almonds-
Edible portion .............
As purchased ..............
Pignolias, pine kernels.........
Pine nuts, piflons-
Edible portion .............
As purchased................


Ref-
er-
ence
No.


Ref-
use.


Per d.
1 .......
2 25.0
3 .......
4 28.4

5 ........
6 S30.0
7 .......

8 -..--.-
9 22.0

10 .......
11 10. 0

12 .......
13 7.5

14 --......
15 15.0


16
17


18
19

20
.21
22

23
24


10.0


6.5


43.8


42.'9"


The composition of a number of

age values previously reported, as


Water.



Per d.
85.3
63.9
90.5
64.8

86.2
60.3
78.2

89.6
69.8

84.71
76.2

89.7
83.0

88.9
75.6

87.5
52.5


38.2
35.7

3.9
2.2
6.3

28
1.6


Pro-
tein.


ftr d.
0.6
.5
.4
.3

1.4
1.0
1.5

.4
.3

.6
.5

.7
.6

.9
.7

.8
.0

2.9
2.7


21.3
12.0
34.0

14.9
8.5


Fat.



Per d.
0.1
.1
.1
.1

.1
1


.1
.1

.5
.5

.1
.1

.1
.1

.1
.1

.3
.3

54.2
30.5
49.4

59.4
33.9


foods used was

follows:


Carbo-
hy-
dratet.


Per d.
12.7
9.5
4.7
3.4
& 4

6.5
4.5
17.5

5.8
4.6


35.9
33.6


Crude
fiber.


Per c
1.1

41
2.9

5.8
.7
2.0

L3.6
2.8


2L3
19.9


15.0 31 2.65 4 "
8.4 1.7 L 4 ..:..;.iiii
5.6 1.3 L.4 1

18.3 1.8 2.8 :,
10.5 1.0 1.6 1

assumed from aver- :I
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TABLE '2.-Composiiion of food materials used in connection with dietary studio Noa. I i
to 333-conposition assumed.
Carbohy- I
Ref- drates. l
Fod material er- Ref- Pro- '..........
Food materials. ; e Water. t Fat. Sugar C Ash. IaMR
.enee uWe. te in. t Su r.Crude
No.- m c' fiber. a
etc. .
------------- -- -- -- --- -- ----*::J*.l;
5Per d. Per d. Per d. Per d. Per d. P Pe t. Ir. aLoxwterte
Cereals, prepared ............... 25 ....... 5.3 11.7 1.0 79.7 2.3 1, '
Vegetables: I
Celery- I
Edible portion............. 26 ...... 9. 5 1.1 .1 &33 LO .
As purchased............. 27 20.0 75.6 .9 .1 2.6 .8 ,,
Tomatoes......... ........... ... ...... 94.3 .9 .4 3.3 0.6 .5 1 Mi5
Fresh fruits: I: ;
Bananas--
Edibleportion.............. 29 ....... 81.6 1.5 ........ 15.3 1.0 .6
As purchased................ -30 31.0 56.3 1.0 ....... 10.6 .7 .4 U
Grapes--
Edible portion....---........ 31 .......80.0 1.3 ...... 18.2 .5 9S:
As purchased............... 32 25.0 60.0 .9 ....... 13.7 .4 '"i
Olives- I
Edible portion.............. 33 ....... 65.5 1.7 25.1 3.2 4.5 1, i"l
As purchased............. 34 17.0 51.3 1.4 20.9 2.7 &7 ..::...


Dried fruits:
Raisins-
Edible portion........... -..
As purchased ..... .........
Nuts:
Brazil nuts-
Edible portion ..............
As purchased ...............
Walnuts-
Edible portion.......... '
As purchased................
Honey. light.........................
Vegetable oils: Olive oil ...........


oi60.


49. 6


57.2
.......-
.......''..


19.0
17.1

5.3
2.7

2.5
1.1
18.2


4.1
3.6


17.0
8.6

16.6
7.1
.8


66.8
33.6

63.5
27.1

100. 0


7.
3.

13.
5.
80.


I
75.3
67.9

0 .......
5 .......

5 2.5
8 1.1
8 ...----...
... .......


1.6
1.4


3.9
2.0

L4
.6
.2.


1,4S
Z1n80

to84

14'-6


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ii ;;
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13.9 .......
12.5 .......-----


11.1 .......
6.6 .......







THE DIETARY STUDIES.
S The subjects were a family consisting of two women and three chil-
dren. One of the women was the aunt of the children and took care
of them. They had all been fruitarians from five to seven years, and
made no change in the character of their diet during these experiments.
In the six studies here reported the subjects ate only twice a day.
Their first meal was at 10.30 a. m. and always consisted of nuts and
fruit, the nuts being eaten before the fruit. At their second meal,
which was taken about 5 p. m., they usually ate no nuts, substituting
therefore olive oil and honey. Almonds, Brazil nuts, pine nuts, pig-
nolias (a variety of pine nuts), and walnuts were used, as well as fresh
and dried fruit, the former including apples, apricots, bananas, figs,
grapes, olives (pickled), oranges, peaches, pears, plums, the latter dates
and raisins. Some celery and tomatoes were also eaten, and in one
study a small amount of a prepared cereal food.
As tomatoes are really fruit, though ordinarily used as a vegetable,
the only articles used which were not fruit or nuts were celery, olive
oil, honey, and the cereal food.
It was interesting to watch the three children (the subjects of dietary
studies Nos. 330, 331, 332, and 333) at their meals and hear them dis-
cuss the relative virtues of the different nuts as persons ordinarily
discuss the different dishes of an ordinary diet.
In calculating the results to the corresponding value for a man the
usual factors were used (see p. 18).
The crude fiber in the food was recorded in these studies, as this con-
stituent was regarded as of especial interest in a diet made up so largely
of fruit and nuts. Generally speaking, such a distinction is not made
in reporting dietary studies, but instead the sum of the crude tiber and
the sugars, starches, etc., is called carbohydrates.

DIETARY STUDY OF A FRUITARIAN (No. 328).
The study commenced July 18, 1900, and ended August 7, lasting 20
days. The subject was a woman 33 years old, height 5 feet, weighing
90 pounds.
The number of meals taken was 40, equivalent to 1 woman for 20
days or 1 man for 16 days. The results of the study are shown in the
following table.







12

TABLE 3.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients ednsumed in dietary a "ilf

Cost and composition of food per-Pl
Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food
materials.' Cot. ru Fat
Cost. FILL ... ::,idiq
teiete

VEGETABLE FOOD.
Ceits. Grams. Grams. Grams. Qrwans&
Fresh fruits: Apples, 13,381 grams. $1.18 (4); apri-
cots, 5,291 grams, 46 cents (6); bananas, 454
grams, 10 cents (30): figs, 510 grams, 10 cents (7);
grapes, 4,054 grams, 45 cents (32); olives, 80
grams, 3 cents (34); oranges, 2,693 grams, 40
cents (17); peaches, 4,621 grams, 40 cents (9);
pears, 1,418 grams, 12 cents (11); plums, red, 1,080
grams, 9 cents (15)............................... 16.7 9 3 100 3M
Dried fruits: Dates, 28 grams, 2 cents (19) ......... .1 .............. 1 ...
Vegetable oils: Olive oil, 269 grams, 40 cents (42).. 2.0 ........ 13 ..........
Honey, 18 grams, 1 cent (41) -.. ................ ........ l ....... 1.......
Nuts: Almonds, 897 grams, 30 cents (21); pignolias,
1,035 grams, 60 cents (22); pine nuts, 57 grams, 1
cent (24); walnuts, 224 grams, 7 cents (40)....... 4.9 24 43 8 2
Total vegetable food......................... 23.7 33 59 110 40

SThe numbers in parentheses after each food material in this and succeeding tables (M e. 54il; i
refer to corresponding numbers hi the second column of Tables I and 2, p. 10.

The tentative standard for a woman at light work calls for
grams protein and 2,500 calories (see p. 18). From the table"i, ,
appears that the daily diet (33 grams protein and 1,300 calories)is Far'-::':
below the tentative standard. But it must be remembered that tle
subject was a very small woman, taking almost no physical exercise,
She believed, as do fruitarians generally, that people need far less rat
than cooked food.




The subject was a woman 30 years old, weighing 104 pounds. Tin
number of meals taken was equivalent to 1 woman for 25 days or ....
man for 20 days. Table 4 shows in detail the results of this study. .:

TABLE 4.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. SS9,

Cost and composition of food per person per d i::a:,.li:::i
Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food u::igir ii;'i
materials. p Pro- pin tg. Crude .Wi ,
at als Cost. te Fat. starch, s1 ;;;i;:iI

VEGETABLE FOOD. Gras. Gm rams. Grams. Graas. tbirmp .Si
Vegetables: Celery, 113 grams, 2 cents (27); toma-
toes, 3,624 grams, 32 cents (28) .-................. 1.4 2 1 5 1 4
Fresh fruits: Apples, Astrachan, 9,130 grams, 80
cents (4); apricots, 3.360 grams, 30 cents (6); figs,
408 grams. 7 cents (7); olives, 630 grams, 18 cents
(34); oranges, 822 grams, 10 cents (17); peaches,
4,711 grams, 52 cents (9); pears, 1,755 grams, 16
cents (11); plums, Japanese, 900 grams, 10 cents
(13); plums, red, 1,080 grams, 10 cents (15)...... 9.3 5 7 45 24 .. ...
Dried fruits: Dates, 93 grams, 3 cents (19); raisins,
60 grams, 3 cents (36) ............................ .2 ........ ........ 3 -1
Vegetable oils: Olive oil, 255 grams, 40 cents (42).. 1.6 ........ 10 .------------..
Honey, 337 grams, 12 cents (41).................. .5 ................ ........
Nuts: Almands, 1.067 grams, 36 cents (21): Brazil -
nuts, 146 grams, 5 cents (38); pignolias, 765
grams, 42 cents (22): pine nuts, 142 grams, 3
cents (24); walnuts, 672 grams, 20 cents (40)....- 4.2 18 39 8 1
-Total vegetable food....--.. ,----.....- ... .. 17.2 25 57 72 27 1 .
--------------------------------- ---- ----------------^ n i '-"*- -f1






13

The table shows that the food eaten during the test was even less
Than that consumed in the previous dietary. One reason for this was
the fact that the subject was, for part of the time at least, under great
mental strain and did not have her usual appetite. Even this small
amount of food, however, judging by her appearance and manner,
seemed sufficient for her needs, enabling her to do her customary
housework and take care of her two nieces and nephew, the subjects
of dietary studies Nos. 330, 331, 332, and 333.

DIETARY STUDY OF A FRUITARIAN (No. 330).

The study began July 18, 1900, and continued for 28 days. The
subject was a girl 13 years old, weighing 75J pounds.
The number of meals taken, 56, was equivalent to 1 girl for 28 days or
1 man for 20 days. The subject had lived in the conventional way until
she was over 6 years of age, and since being placed upon the fruitarian
diet had often expressed a desire for other foods. She was given
cereals and vegetables when she craved them, but her aunt states
b that she never looks or feels so well when she has much starchy food,
and she always returns to her next meal of uncooked food with an
increased appreciation of its superiority."
In Table 5 is given the results of this study.

TABLE 5.-Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. 330.

Cost and composition of food per person per day.
Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food
materials. Cost. Pro- Fat. ar, Crude Fuel
tein. a stac fiber. value.
: etc.

VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cents. Granms. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
Cereals, prepared: 1,091 grams, 30 cents (25) ....... 1.1 5 ........ 31 ........ 150
Fresh fruits: Apples, Astrachan, 6,640 grams, 45
S cents (4); apripncots, 8,190 grams, 72 cents (6); figs,
340 grams, 6 cents (7); olives, 130 grams, 3 cents
S(34); peaches, 13,137 grams, $1.16 (9); plums, Jap-
i anese, 4,059 grams, 54 cents (13); plums, red, 5,960
grams, 53 cents (15) ............................. 12.5 8 2 62 44 485
Dried fruits: Dates, 47 grams, 2 cents (19); raisins,
278grams,6 cents (36) ..................................... ... 7 ........ 30
Vegetable oils: Olive oil, 305 grams, 34 cents (42) .. 1.2 ........ 11 ........ 100
Honey, 25 grams,1 cent (41) ................................. ..... 1 ..... 5
Nuts: Almonds, 2,239 grams, 75 cents (21); Brazil
nuts, 97 grams, 4 cents (38); pine nuts, 28 grams,
1 cent (24); walnuts, 1,330 grams, 37 cents (40)... 4.2 13 39 10 2 465
Total vegetable food.................... 19.0 26 52 111 46 1,235


The commonly accepted American dietary standard for a child 13
Years old and of average activity calls for about 0.6 or 0.7 as much
protein and energy as for a man at ordinary work (see p. 18), or not
far from 90 grams of protein and 2,450 calories of energy. The food
consumed per day by this child contained 26 grams protein, 52 grams
': fat, and 157 grams carbohydrates, together furnishing 1,235 calories,





.- .,il*1
14 --

the protein used in the dietary being less than one-third, and, t
value only about 60 per cent of that called for. Notwiths
facts brought out by this comparison, the subject had all the
ances of a well-fed child in excellent health and spirits. .

DIETARY STUDY OF A FRUITARIAN (No. 331).

The study began July 18, 1900, and continued for 22 dai ..
subject was a boy (brother of the subject of study No. 33) .9
old, weighing 43 pounds at the beginning and 45 pounds at thoe eW
the experiment-a gain of 2 pounds. It was not practicable to
the subject without clothes, but the same clothes were worn and tl
same scales were used for both weighing. The gain was undoubtedlyh'i
due to the fact that the family had been in straitened circumstai.ne .!
and the subject had a more abundant diet during the study than fr:.i
some time previous to it.
The number of meals eaten was 44, equivalent to 1 boy for 22 days.'
or 1 man for 15 days. The table following gives the details of thq




Cost and composition of food per person per day.:

t t n. F t stac fiber, al......
."e ::i" e:tc.

VEGETABLE FOOD.
ents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. O es........
Fresh fruits: Apples, Astrachan, 8,9f6s grams, 60
cents (4); apncots, 7,910 grams, 80 cents (6); figs,
227 grams, 4 cents (7); olives, 80 grams, 2 cents
(34); peaches, 14,745 grams, 1.30 (9); pears, 2,265
5 cents (13); plums, red, 1,640 grams, 12 'enta
(15) .......-.............-....-........-- .....- ... 14.2 8 3 80 47 -SO
Dried fruits: Dates, 47 grams, 2 cents (19); raisins,
278 grams, 6 cents (36)......................... .4 1 ........ 9 1 4
Vegetable oils: Olive oil, 131 grams, 13 cents (42).. .6 .... 6........ ........ B
Honey, 39 grams, 1 cent (41)....................... .. ....... .. ... 2 ........
Nuts: Almonds, 1,325 grams, 45 cents (21); Brazil
nuts, 97 grams, 3 cents (38); pignolias. 369 grams,
20 cents (22); pine nuts, 567 grams, 12 cents (24);
walrmts, 798 grams, 23cents (40) ............... 4.7 18 47 11 2 .... 9 1
Total vegetable food........... 1 ........... 19.9 27 56 102 50 1,2

Although this boy was 4 years younger than his sister, the sub :ct
of the preceding dietary study, he consumed about the same amount
of food per day, the diet furnishing 27 grams protein, 56 grams f
152 grams carbohydrates, and 1,255 calories. He therefore appro ached
more closely to the commonly accepted standard for a boy of his agi
65 grams protein and 1,750 calories, than did his sister, although here ...:i
again the difference is large.

DIETARY STUDY OF A FRUITARIAN (No. 332).

The study continued for 25 days in July and August, 1900. The
subject, a sister to the subjects of dietary studies Nos. 330 and 88',
::






15


Swas 6 years old, weighing 30.5 pounds when the study began and 33
pounds at its conclusion. This subject had been very delicate as a
Baby, and her family stated that she did not begin to thrive until a
decoction of dried figs was added to the milk eaten. She was given
other fruit at a very early age, and as soon as she could eat nuts was
confined closely to the nut and fruit diet and has never had anything
Else except olive oil, honey, and occasionally a small quantity of green
vegetables. It was stated that she often craved lettuce. The subject
Swas very small for her age, being about 10 pounds under what is
Usually considered the average weight and 7 inches less than the aver-
age height. This is presumably partly due to heredity, as her father
is a small man and her mother and grandmother were much below the
average height and weight.
It is interesting to note that her only gain in weight during the past
year was made during this dietary study and the one immediately fol-
lowing (No. 333). It seems fair to assume that this can be accounted
for by the fact that since the food was provided by those making the
study and the child was urged to eat all she wanted of what she most
preferred, she ate more than previously. Between these two studies
her weight remained stationary. During this time she was limited to
such fruit as came within the means of the family. For a time they
could not afford the pignolias (pine kernels), of which she was very
fond, and as apples became very expensive the amount purchased for
her was limited.
The total number of meals taken was 50, equivalent to 1 girl for 25
days or 1 man for 13 days. The details of the study are shown in
Table 7.

TABLE 7.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. 332.

Cost and composition of food per person per day.
Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food
Materials Pro- S. ugar, Crude Fuel
ost. tein. Fat. starch, fiber, value.
tein. etc. fiber. value.

VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories.
Fresh fruits: Apples, Astrachan, 8,383 grams, 55
cents (4); apricots, 6,510 grams, 58 cents (6); figs,
2,040 grams, 35 cents (7); oranges, 1,021 grams,
12 cents (17); peaches, 7,520 grams, 66 cents (9);
pears, 1,950 grams, 18 cents (11); plums, Japa-
nese, 630 grams, 8 cents (13); plums, red, 480
grams, 5 cents (15) ............. ............... 10.3 7 2 66 31 445
Dried fruits: Dates, 494 grams, 17 cents (19); rai-
sins, 60 grams, 2 cents (36)-.......... .. ........ .7 1 ........ 8 4 55
Vegetable oils: Olive oil, 202 grams, 23 cents (42).. .9 ........ 8 ........ .... 75
S Honey, 337 grams, 12 cents (41) ................... .5 ............... 11 ........ 45
Nuts: Almonds, 1,735 grams, 56 cents (21); Brazil
nuts, 146 grams, 5 cents (38); pignolias, 107
grams, 6 cents (22); pine nuts, 666 grams, 13
cents (24); walnuts, 1,274 grams, 35 cents (40) ... 4.6 16 48 12 2 570
Total vegetable food......................... 17.0 24 58 97 37 1,190


This child was only a little over 6 years old, and small for her age;
therefore it seems fairer to compare her dietary with the standard for






16 ..

2 to 6 years than with that for 6 to 9 years. The tentative
for a child 2 to 6 years old calls for about 0.4 the protein.-.
a man at moderate work (see p. 18), or 50 grams protein an .
calories of energy. Since the child received on an average :i
grams protein, 58 grams fat, and 134 grams carbohydrates,
furnishing 1,190 calories, it appears that the present dietary is
cient in protein and fuel value. The protein consumed in the p
instance is less than that required according to the tentative
(25 grams) for a child from 1 to 2 years old. At the same tii e
subject appeared to be perfectly well and was exceedingly active.. iH
impressed one as being a healthy child, but looked younger t .
years.

DIETARY STUDY OF A FRUITABIAN (No. 888). .

This study, undertaken in connection with the digestion experimAi
-reported hereafter (p. 21), began March 23, 1901, and continued A:.ii
days. The subject was the same as in dietary study No. 833, tli
interval between the two studies being about eight and one~Rit
months. The subject's seventh birthday occurred during this tiU K
Her weight at the commencement of the study was 34 pounds and at the!
end 35 pounds. This increase in weight has already been referred to
The total number of meals eaten was 20, equivalent to 1 child fortlWlii:
days or 1 man for 5 days. The details of the study are given in Table'

TABLE 8.- Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. S$ .. '-

Cost and composition of food per person per d&y:.i:
Kinds, amounts, and cost of different food __
materials. Cost. Pro- Fat. sr, Crude Fuel'
S tein. tc fiber val ;!!
etc.
VEGETABLE FOOD
Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Ck;off':ei::i
Fresh fruits: Apples, pippin, 4,763 grams, 60 cents. .;i
(2); bananas, 1,106 grams, 15 cents (30); oranges,
8,477 grams, 91 (17)........--------.....-----..--....--- .. 17.5 8 1 113 5 I :
Dried fruits: Dates, 31 grams, 5 cents (19)......... .5 ....... ........ 1 1
Vegetable oils: Olive oil, 92 grams, 15 cents (42).. 1.5 ........ 9 ..............
Honey, grams, cents (41)--------------..................... .5 ........ ........ 1 ........
Nuts: Almonds, 530 grams, 20 cents (21); pigno-
lias, 652 grams, 40cents (22); walnuts, 504 grams,
15 cents (40)...................................... 7.5 32 62 11 2
Total vegetable food........................ 27.5 40 72 126 8


The average daily diet furnished 40 grams protein, 72 grams fat,
134 grams carbohydrates, the fuel value being 1,385 calories. .
results are not far from the accepted standard for a child between 2 an'3
6 years (50 grams protein and 1,400 calories), but much less than th
for a child 6 to 9 years old (65 grams protein and 1,750 calorie04.
More protein was consumed in this dietary than in any of the otWh
five studied, but even this amount is only about three-fourths of .Uh





17

amount commonly supposed to be needed. This child was just 7 years
old, but as she was small for her age it seems fairer to compare her
Dietary with that of a child of 2 to 5 years than that of one 6 to 9
years old.
Ki DISCUSSION OF FRUITARIAN DIETARIES.
I The foods used in these studies were almost exclusively fruits and
nuts, articles which are used in the ordinary household more as lux-
uries or accessories than as staple articles of diet. Honey (a food
gathered from flowers and fruit) and olive oil (expressed from a fruit)
were also included. The daily diet of the fruitarians, however, con-
tained the same kind of chemical constituents as the usual mixed diet.
The bulk of the protein is usually supplied by meat, fish, milk, eggs,
cheese, cereals, and legumes; the-fat by butter and other animal fats,
olive oil, etc., and the carbohydrates by bread and other cereal foods,
starch, and sugar. In the fruitarian dietaries the protein was sup-
plied chiefly by nuts, the fat by nuts and olive oil, and the carbohy-
drates by the fruit and honey. The fruit also supplied a little protein
and fat or ether extract.
The carbohydrates in the ordinary diet consist of starches, grape
and fruit sugar (dextrose and levulose), cane sugar, and crude fiber.
The foods eaten by these "fruitarians" furnished little starch, the
bulk of the carbohydrates being crude fiber and the different sorts of
sugar.
The nuts and dried fruits are concentrated foods; that is, they con-
tain a fairly low percentage of water and a correspondingly high per-
centage of nutritive material in proportion to their bulk. Nuts, like
the cereal grains and many other foods, are naturally concentrated.
The dried fruits are concentrated by evaporating the water originally
present in the fresh fruit. Generally speaking, the concentrated foods
are cheaper sources of nutrients than the succulent foods. It should
be remembered that in the ordinary diets concentrated foods are usu-
ally diluted before they are eaten. Thus, flour, which is comparatively
dry, is wet with milk or water when made into bread; oatmeal, rice,
etc., are cooked in water; dry beans are soaked and then cooked in
various ways, or, like dry peas and other legumes, are made into
soups or different dishes which contain more or less water.
The fruitarians did not cook their food, and did not dilute their con-
centrated foods (nuts and evaporated fruits).
The results of the dietaries are summarized in Table 9 below. For
purposes of comparison they are given as determined, that is, the
amount eaten per woman or per child per day, as the case may be.
They are also recalculated to show the equivalent amounts per man
per day. In making the calculations it was assumed that the woman
10056-No. 107-02---2






18

would consume seven-tenths as much as a man at moderate m u $:
work. The usual factor for women is 0.8. It is believed the foot
used is fairer in this particular case, as the women were small of
stature, weighed less than the average, and had light exercise. The
usual factors have been used in calculating the results for children,"t:.:
namely:
1 meal of child 6 to 9 years old equivalent to 0.5 meal of man.
1 meal of child 13 years old equivalent to 0.7 meal of man.

The table also includes for purposes of comparison the results of
Voit's study with a man living on bread, fruit, and oil; the average
results of a number of American dietary studies, and the commonly '
accepted standards for a man at light and moderate muscular work and
a woman at light work.

TABLE 9.-Comparison of daily dietaries of fruitarians with commonly accepted standards.

Nutri-
Carbo-
C. Pro- Fat ar Fuel tive
tein. Fatd s.. value. ratio,
d rates. is : to-

VALUES AS DETERMINED.
Cknts. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories. :i
Woman, 33 years old, dietary No. 328.............. 23.7 33 59 150 1,300 8.6
Woman, 30 years old, dietary No. 329.............. 17.2 25 57 99 1,040 9.1
Girl, 13 years old, dietary No. 330................... 19.0 26 52 157 1,235 10.6
Boy, 9 years old, dietary No. 331................. 19.9 27 56 152 1,255 10.3
Girl, 6 years old, dietary No. 332 .................. 17.0 24 58 134 1,190 11.1
Girl, 7 years old, dietary No. 333................... 27.5 40 72 134 1,385 7.4
VALUES CALCULATED TO BASIS OF MAN AT MOD-
ERATE MUSCULAR WORK.
Woman, 33 years old, dietary No. 328............. 33.9 47 84 214 1,850 8.6
Woman, 30 years old, dietary No. 329.............. 24.6 36 81 141 1,480 9.0
Girl, 13 years old, dietary No. 330 ................. 27.1 37 74 224 1,760 10.6
Boy, 9 years old, dietary No. 331......-------...... 39.8 54 112 304 2,510 10.4
Girl, 6 years old, dietary No. 332................... 34.0 48 116 268 2,375 11.1
Girl, 7 years old, dietary No. 333................... 55.0 80 144 268 2,765 7.4
OTHER DIETARY STUDIES.
German vegetarian a .............................. ........ 54 22 573 2,775 11.6
Average of 53 studies of well-to-do families in the
United States............................... ............ 103 138 436 3,500 7.3
DIETARY STANDARDS.
Man with light muscular work (Atwater)......... ........ 112 ........ ........ 3,150 58
Man with moderate muscular work (Voit)........ ........ 118 56 500 3,056 5.3
Man with moderate muscular work (Atwater) .. .|........ 125 ........ ........ 3,500 6.8
Woman with light muscular work (Atwater)...... ........ 93 ........ ........ 2,250 6.1

a Voit, Ztschr. Biol., 25 (1889), p. 232.

The studies as a whole show very small amounts of protein and
energy, the largest amounts-40 grams protein and 1,385 calories of
energy-being found in No. 333, the dietary of a child 7 years old.
When the results are expressed per man per day they are seen to be
much below the figures for persons in the United States in comfortable
circumstances and engaged in moderate muscular work. These latter
figures are based on the results of a large number of actual studies,
and it seems fair to assume that they show about what is consumed
on an average. The standard above referred to for a man at light
muscular work calls for 112 grams protein and 3,150 calories of energy.






19


The fruitarians consumed much less than this. There are, however,
a number of dietary studies on record in which persons on an ordinary
mixed diet have consumed as little protein and energy.
The amounts of protein and energy in the dietary of the fruitarians
did not differ very materially from similar values in Voit's study of a
vegetarian, though they consumed more fat and less carbohydrates.
The German vegetarian studied by Voit ate bread and no nuts. Other-
wise his dietary was similar to that of the fruitarians. He ate no
warm cooked food. His average daily diet consisted of 131 grams
pumpernickel, 438 grams graham bread, 777 grams apples. 114 grams
dried figs, 247 grams dates, 66 grams oranges, 8 grams olives, and 21
grams olive oil.
It will be noted that while the nutritive ratioof the standards ranges
between 5 and 6, that of the dietaries here reported varies between
wide limits, with a minimum of 7.4 and a maximum of 11.1.
As may be seen by reference to the dietary tables, nearly three-
fourths of the protein and fat consumed were derived from nuts, which
form, however, less than 10 per cent of the total quantity of food
used, and the outlay for which was only about 25 per cent of the entire
cost of the food. The main bulk of the total food and of the car-
bohydrates was furnished by the fresh fruit, which also caused the
largest item of expense.
The amount of crude fiber in the different dietaries ranged from 8
grams per day in No. 333 to 50 grams in No. 331, and was on an aver-
age 42 grams. Whether these values are higher or lower than the
crude fiber content of the average American diet can not be said with
certainty owing to a lack of data for comparison. In a number of
foreign dietaries summarized in a previous publication of this Office'
the crude fiber ranged from 3.9 to 17.4 grams per person per day, the
larger amount being found in a diet composed of rice, barley, and
vegetables. Judging by these values the amount of crude fiber in the
fruitarian dietaries was large.
It is a difficult matter to draw any general conclusions from the
foregoing dietaries without being unjust to the subjects.
It would appear upon examining the recorded data and comparing
the results with commonly accepted standards that all the subjects
were decidedly undernourished, even making allowances for their
light weight. But when we consider that the two adults have lived
upon this diet for 7 years, and think they are in better health and
capable of more work than they ever were before, we hesitate to pro-
nounce judgment. The three children, though below the average in
height and weight, had the appearance of health and strength. They
ran and jumped and played all day like ordinary healthy children, and
3 U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21, p. 64.




.. 'i .......
20

were said to be unusually free from colds and other complaints |
to childhood. .
The youngest child and the only one who has lived as a fruitde ::
almost from infancy, was certainly undeveloped. Her bones 'wirg..
very small, although she showed no tendency toward rhachitis. S~:jl
looked fully 2 years younger than she was. Still, there are so ma,
children who are below the average in development, whose dietaries:::.:,
conform to the ordinary standards, that it would be unfair to dra* l w!;
any conclusions until many more such investigations are made. It
seems quite possible, however, that her condition may have been duel ''
in part at least to her having been placed upon this diet at so early ':
an age. ::
So far as can be learned the claim for the superiority of raw food .
is a matter of opinion or conjecture, as there are few if any trust-
worthy experiments on the subject. There is one benefit from cook- i
ing which should not be overlooked, namely, the destruction of
harmful bacteria and parasites if they are present. Both animal and
vegetable foods, if not handled and stored under sanitary conditions,
may become contaminated and communicate disease to man.
The cost per day as seen in Table 9 varies from 17 cents in dietary
No. 332 to 27.5 cents in No. 333, the average as determined being 20.7
cents per person per day. The values as given per woman or per
child per day do not seem high; but when the results are recalculated
to the basis per man per day the cost varies from 24.6 to 55 cents,
averaging 35.7 cents. The results of a large number of dietary studies
made in the United States show that the cost was on an average not
far from 25 cents per man per day. In many cases it was lower and .
in many others higher. As compared with this amount the average
cost of the fruitarian dietaries per man per day is seen to be quite
high. Furthermore, it must not be forgotten that most of the inves-
tigations were made in the late summer, when fruit was cheap. i1
the spring prices are higher, and consequently the outlay is corre-
spondingly greater, as shown in dietary No. 333, which was made at:
this season. It is claimed by those who live on a fruit and nut diet
that the average daily outlay throughout the year is about 25 cents,
which corresponds quite closely with the cost per man per day of the
average conventional diet as given abov& It will be remembered
that the fruit, nuts, etc., were eaten raw and that therefore there was
no expense for fuel, etc., for cooking, which is an important item in
the cost of the ordinary diet. Some years ago Rutgers' compared a
vegetarian and a mixed dietary. The vegetarian diet was not limited .....
to fruits and nuts, but was made up of beans, peas, bread, etc.; some
butter was also eaten. The chief difference this author noted was in
1Ztschr. Biol., 25 (1888), p. 379; see also abstract in U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of
Experiment Stations Bul. 45.








the cost of the two diets, the vegetarian being a little cheaper, as less
fuel was required to prepare it.
Waste.-A very interesting point brought to light by these studies
is that there was practically no waste. When first-quality food is
purchased, the refuse only has to be taken into account; although in
the case of poor fruit there is always some paid for which can not be
eaten, and must be regarded as waste.

DIGESTION EXPERIMENT WITH A GIRL.
The objects and value of digestion experiments have been explained
in a previous bulletin' of the Department of Agriculture and need not
be discussed in this report. While there have been some digestion
experiments,2 and determinations of the income and outgo of nitrogen,
conducted with vegetarians or with those consuming vegetable foods
' for experimental purposes, very few data are at hand regarding the
Sdigestibility of fruits. The experiment here reported shows the
digestibility of the fruit and nut diet eaten by the child in dietary
No. 333. The experiment began March 23, 1901, and continued for
10 days. The average daily food consisted, as previously stated, of
476 grams apples, 111 grams bananas, 848 grams oranges, 3 grams
:z dates, 1.5 grams honey, 9 grams olive oil, 53 grams almonds, 65 grams
I. pignolias, and 50 grams walnuts.
Lampblack was taken by the subject in gelatin capsules in order to
facilitate the separation of the feces due to the foods experimented
with. The line of demarcation between the portions of the feces
colored by the lampblack and that not so colored was not as sharp as
could be desired, but sufficiently so to enable the separation to be quite
accurately made. The feces were passed about noon every day.
The total weight of the feces excreted during the period of 10 days
was 1,370 grams, or 260 grams water-free. The feces were collected
and were analyzed separately, the usual methods being followed.
S On an average the fresh feces contained 5.1 per cent protein. 6.9 per
cent fat, 3.6 per cent sugar, starches, etc. (nitrogen-free extract), 1.2
per cent crude fiber, and 2.6 per cent ash, the fuel value being 1.1
calories per gram.
1U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21.
SU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 21, p. 53, and 45, p. 21.



if





.1
... .
:: i
-':..EEI


22


Table 10 shows the total nutrients consumed, the amounts of eJmi .
excreted in the feces, and the amounts and percentages of the diffle~ig :'il:.
nutrients digested:

TABLE 10.-Result of digestion experiment (No, 941) with child on fruit and nut die--:I
quantities for entire period, 10 days.
.:: :: "::%
Nitrogen- Crude Heat of- '
Protein. Fat. free ex- fiber Ash. combm .::
tract. tion.

Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams. Cfte'i .
Food eaten........... ..................... 400 720 1,261 80 67 14,840
Feces ................................ ......... 70 95 50 16 31 al,9 /'
Digested ................................. 330 631 1,211 64 36 12,86.
Coefficient of digestibility (percent) .......... 82.5 86.9 96.0 80.0 53.7 86.7

a Including 1,560 calories from the feces and 413 from the unoxidized organic matter of the srin e.

Generally speaking, the food was quite thoroughly assimilated, the
coefficients of digestibility being about the same as are found in an
ordinary mixed diet. It is interesting to note that according to the "
methods followed 80 per cent of the crude fiber appeared to be digested.) :
In a previous publication of this Office1 the results of a number of for-
eign experiments on the digestibility of crude fiber by man are summar-
ized. The coefficient of digestibility ranged from 30 to 91.4 per cent, the;
former value being found in a diet consisting of bread made from
mixed wheat and rye, and the latter in a diet made. of rice, vegetables,
and meat. The digestibility of the protein was rather less than has
been found in the ordinary mixed diet, owing to the presence in- the
latter of considerable animal food. Many experiments have shown
that on an average the protein of animal food is more readily digesti-
ble than that of vegetable food.

METABOLIC NITROGEN.

In determining the digestibility of protein the usual method was
followed-that is, the amount digested was assumed to be the differ-
ence between the amount taken into the body in the food and the
amount excreted in the feces. In addition, however, the nitrogen was
determined after extracting the so-called metabolic products in the
feces by treatment with ether, alcohol, hot water, and cold limewater,
according to the method described by Woods and Merrill in a previous
publication of this Office.2

U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21, p. 64.
2 U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 85, p. 35.


n







23

The total nitrogen in the untreated feces, in the treated feces, and the
metabolic nitrogen in the foregoing experiment is shown in Table 11:

TABLE 11.--Toail nitrogen ii feces and nitrogen corrected for metabolic products.

Nitrogen Nitrogen Meta-
Day. Feces. treated in treated bolic ni-
feces, feces. trogen.
I __________________ _____________________________ ________________________
SGrtams. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
First day ............. .............. ............... 82 1.0 0.6 0.4
Second day ................................................... 256 .6 .3 .3
Third day ............ ..................................... ... 208 .7 .4 .3
Fourth day ........... ..................................... .. 44 1.9 1.2 .7
Fifth day .................................................... 242 .9 .5 .4
Sixth day .................................................. .... ..129 .6 .4 .2
Seventh day ................................................. 92 1.1 .6 .5
Eighth day .............................................. 118 .8 .4 .4
Ninth day .................................................. 111 .9 .5 .4
Tenth day .................... ........................... 88 .7 .4 .3
Total................................................... 1,370 9.2 5.3 3.9
Average ............................................... 137 .9 .5 .4


It has been pointed out that the feces are not made up entirely of
undigested residue of food, but contain quite large amounts of other
waste materials, usually designated by English writers as metabolic
products. This term as ordinarily used includes not only the metabolic
products, strictly speaking--such as the residues from the bile, mucus,
saliva, gastric juices, pancreatic juices, and other digestive secretions-
'but also worn-out particles from the mucous membrane lining the
intestines, and other debris from the walls of the stomach, etc. The
results of recent investigations indicate that the digestion of food
materials is more complete and the proportion of metabolic products
in the feces is larger than was formerly supposed.
The average amount of metabolic nitrogen-that is, nitrogen removed
by the solvents used-in the daily feces in the above experiment was
42 per cent. The amount of undissolved nitrogen-that is, the nitro-
gen which was derived from undigested residues of the food eaten-
was not far from one-half of the total shown in the untreated feces.
In their experiments with a man on a bread diet Woods and Merrill'
found that on an average 68 per cent of the total nitrogen of the feces
was undissolved by similar treatment, thus suggesting that about one-
third of the nitrogen in the feces was from metabolic products and
two-thirds from undigested food. By use of different methods these
latter investigators got other results indicating much larger propor-
tions of metabolic nitrogen. These determinations, therefore, can
not be used as a basis of any definite conclusions.

BALANCE OF INCOME AND OUTGO OF NITROGEN.

In connection with the digestion experiment reported above the
urine was collected and its nitrogen content determined. The aver-

1U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 85.






24

age amount of nitrogen consumed per day, less that excreted is
urine and feces, showed whether the subject' was gaining or
nitrogen on the fruit and nut diet followed. The total urine amoits
to 6,940 grams, containing 29.62 grams nitrogen. On an average Fitf 8
daily food contained 6.4 grams nitrogen, the urine 3 grams, and tlw
feces 1.2 grams. There was, therefore, an average daily gain of 2...
grams nitrogen, equivalent to 13.7 grams protein.
The subject gained nitrogen, although on a diet containing m:uc
less nitrogen than the tentative standard demands. No extended can~'!
ments can be made on these results, because as before stated there
are few if any similar investigations at hand for comparison. Fur:
their investigations along this line are needed.















DIETARY STUDIES OF CHINESE.


INTRODUCTION.
We often hear those who recommend a vegetarian diet say, "See
how much hard work the Chinamen can do, and they live almost
entirely upon rice," and many believe that the Chinese to a great
extent are vegetarians. We have, all of us, probably, idly wondered
if this were true, but have not had sufficient knowledge to justify us
in assenting to or contradicting the assertion.
So far as can be learned, no dietary studies of Chinese have been
reported. A number of such investigations have been made, however,
with Japanese, Javanese, and Malhys.' Considerable data are also on
record regarding the food consumption of different classes in India.2
It is generally conceded that the dietary habits of the Chinese resemble
those of the Japanese, and the same holds good to a considerable extent
for all the other Oriental races. The available data show that rice is a
very important article of diet in the East, taking the place which bread
and similar cereal foods occupy in the diet of Western races. How-
ever, it appears that many foods besides rice are eaten. Thus, in
Japan meat and especially fish are consumed by those who have the
opportunity and means to procure them, while fresh, dried, and salted
vegetables, etc., bean cheese, and other foods comparatively rich in
protein which are made from soy beans are eaten in large quantities
by all classes.
How far the Chinese dietary actually differs from the Japanese, and
the Chinese dietary in America from that in China, it is not possible to
say. It is generally true that diet is modified by environment, and it
seems probable that although they are conservative in such matters,
the Chinese in the United States have, to some extent at least, adopted
American food habits. But that the bulk of their food is Chinese is
I For summaries of this work see U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations
Bul. 21, p. 180, and Bul. 45, pp. 59-61.
SFood Grains of India. Church. London, 1886.
sThe manufacture of bean cheese and similar foods is described in U. S. Dept.
Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21, p. 193; Bul. 68, p. 35; Farmers' Bul. 58,
p. 20; and in Sanitary Home, 2 (1900), p. 55.






26

shown by a visit to the Chinese markets in any American city wbui:'
there is a considerable colony of them.
Whatever the diet of the Chinese in America, the presumption is
that it must be suited to their needs and must supply the energy .
necessary for a large amount of physical work. No Californian d:it
doubt that the Chinaman is capable of great physical exertion, for it':
has been clearly demonstrated.
While it is generally conceded that a strong white man accustomed
to the same kind of work can do 20 per cent more work than a China- :
man where the conditions are favorable, it has been found that under
adverse circumstances, such as long hours, great heat, or exposure to '.
cold and dampness, a Chinaman can not only do more work, but can
stand the strain better. In California it appears that he can be
depended upon to work through the season, while the white man is
often obliged to rest at the most important time.
As regards their work in the cities, we are all familiar with the
sight of the Chinese fruit and vegetable peddler with his baskets sus-
pended by ropes to the pole that he carries across one shoulder. Few
Americans could walk as he does for hours at a stretch, often up and
down hill, burdened with a load of from 300 to 400 pounds in the
baskets. It must not be supposed that the ability to perform the task is
due entirely to physical strength; much is owing to training, probably
also to inheritance, since for ages the muscles employed have been
developed by this kind of work. But at all events there is a great
amount of energy required, and it must necessarily, like all energy for
the work done by the body, come from the food eaten. And what is
that food? Is it, as so many affirm, almost entirely rice? It was to
answer such questions that the present investigation was undertaken.
In choosing subjects for the dietary studies reported herewith it was
thought best to select men engaged in different kinds of work, so that
comparisons with the commonly accepted dietary standards for Cauca-
sians performing different amounts of work could be made. The studies
were made with (1) the family of a Chinese dentist, (2) employees in a
Chinese laundry, and (3) the laborers on a truck farm, styled in Cali-
fornia a vegetable garden. The first represents a professional man,
with little muscular work; the second, men at moderate indoor work;
and the third, men at severe outdoor work.
COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS.
In connection with the dietary studies a number of analyses of food
materials were made, the analytical methods adopted by the Associa-
tion of Official Agricultural Chemists being followed.' A number of
foods were not analyzed, as it was believed their composition could
be accurately calculated from former analyses.
'U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Chemistry Bul. 46, revised.






27

The Chinese in general buy meat in small quantities and endeavor
to procure a m:aximtun of edible portion and a minimum of refuse.
The beef used in these studies was from the round, and very lean. No
bone was included and there was no refuse. The other cuts of meat
and the poultry were the usual articles, as were also some of the fish and
shellfish. Others (dried shrimp, dried abalone, and dried squid) were
Chinese foods. The dairy products, the eggs. bread, rice, cake, ver-
micelli. oatmeal. bananas, sugar, and many of the vegetables were the
usual foods familiar to all. Vermicelli and similar pastes are ordi-
narily regarded as typical Italian foods, but it is stated on apparently
good authority that a similar product has long been known in the
East.'
The bean cheese. fresh and dried, the bean sprouts, salted radish,
bamboo shoots, algax, dried fungus, dried lily flowers, and many of the
green vegetables were articles which as food materials are known to
few, if any. American families. These peculiar vegetable foods have
been described in a previous publication of this Office.2
In Table 1 is shown the composition of such articles as contained
refuse, and in Table 2 the composition of all the materials analyzed
which contained no refuse, while Table 3 shows the composition of the
articles not analyzed, but whose composition was quoted from previous
publications. The figures in the column headed "reference number"
refer to corresponding numbers in parentheses after the different items
in Tables 4, 5, and 6 and serve to indicate the values used for the per-
centage composition of the various foods in computing the results of
the studies.

TABLE l.-Composition as purchased" of such food imattrit s s onrltinua inedible
nat ler--nomposition determ i ned.

Refer- rb Fuel
Fooui material-. ence Refuse. Water. Pnrotein. Fat. hydnies. Ash. value per
No. hydra pound.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Pork: Per rc.. Per ct. Per cd. P4r el. Cfaluris.
Fresh ................. 1 12.5 39.5 12.2 35.0 .......... 0. 1,705
Pigs' feet.........---- ---.. 2 40.0 33.2 10.5 15.8 .......... 8
Poultr: Chicken......-- .. 3 25.0 55.2 17.1 1.9 .......... S 400
Fish:
Smelt .................. 4 33.0 50.8 13.4 1.9 .......... .9 330
Salt fish... ............ 5 20.0 40.5 25.1 3.1 .......... 11.3 600
Shrimp fresh. cooked., 6 62.5 25.9 9.4 .6 0.1 1.5 -00
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Vegetables:
Potatoes. white ....... 15.0 67.1 1.8 .1 15.2 .8 320
White radish.......... 8 8.0 84.6 1.1 .3 5.6 .4 140

'A considerable number of samples of Japanese macaroni, vermicelli, and similar
products were collected at the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893, and analyzed by
Prof. W. O. Atwater and associates, but the results have not been published in detail.
'U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 68.







28

TABLE 2.-Composition of edible portion of food materiaas--omposition
C .. ......
Refer-
Food materials, ence Water. Protein. Fat. Ash
No. hyra

ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per i.
Round........................... 9 66.6 24.5 7.9 .......... 1.0
Do........................... 10 68.5 25.0 5.5 .......... 1.0
Do........................... 11 69.5 20.5 9.1 .......... .9
Pork: ':.
Fresh pork ...................... 12 42.3 15.4 41.6 .......... .7 I:I
Do........................... 13 45.1 14.0 40.0 .......... .9 '
Pigs' feet ........................ 14 55.4 17.5 26.3 .......... .8
Lard ............................. 15 4.9 1.1 94.0 ......... ........ .......S.
Sausage ........................... 16 13.6 22.4 55.7 4.2 4.1
Poultry: Chicken ................... 17 73.6 22.8 2.5 ......... 11
Fish:
Smelt ........................... 18 76.0 20.0 2.6 .......... 1.4
Squid, dried..................... 19 24.4 63.3 5.4 .......... 6.9 l,"iSN
Salt fish .......................... 20 50.6 31.4 3.9 .......... 14.1
Shrimp, cooked ................. 21 69.0 25.0 1.7 .3 a4.0 $4 .
Shrimp, dried ................... 22 21.7 63.1 4.3 .8 10.1 1,9.0
Abalone, dried ................. 23 10.4 39.9 3.5 40.1 6.1 1,6 i
Dairy products: Milk............... 24 87.5 3.3 3.5 5.0 .7 0
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: ..i
Bread .......................... 25 32.0 7.7 1.6 58.0 .7
Do............................. 26 32.7 7.0 1.5 58.0 .8 12
Vegetables: ..
Bean cheese..................... 27 34.9 35.4 18.8 .4 10.65 1,m
Dried bean cheese ............... 28 3.3 50.8 29.5 13.7 2.7 2,4* :
Potatoes, white ................. 29 78.9 2.1 .1 17.9 1.0 ...
Cabbage, Chinese ............... 30 95.7 1.2 .2 2.4 .5 7
White radish.................... 31 92.0 1.2 .3 6.1 .4 1i .
White radish, dried.............. 32 5.0 14.2 4.3 72.1 4.4 1,78.
Bean sprouts.................... 33 92.0 2.8 .6 4.1 .5 156
Purslane tongg ho) ............. 34 90.4 1.8 1.1 4.7 2.0 16.
Arrowroot........................ 35 85.2 1.4 .1 7.8 5.5 15.
Taro root ........................ 36 75.0 2.1 .3 21.3 1.3 410
Green mustard plant............ 37 90.0 2.7 .9 4.9 1.5 *ii
Dried mustard plant........... 38 20.0 13.0 4.1 53.6 9.3 I410.
Preserved mustard plant........ 39 80.0 3.3 2.2 8.1 6.4 3B.
Bamboo shoots................. 40 90.0 3.2 .2 6.2 .4 1
Vegetable oils: Peanut oil................. 41 100..... ........ 4

a Containing 2.5 per cent salt.

A number of the foods were not analyzed. Their composition was
calculated from analyses previously reported. The data used for the:
computations are shown in the following table:

TABLE 3.-Composition of edible portion of food materials-composition assumed.

Refer- I Carbo- Fuel
Food materials. ence Refuse. Water. tein. Fat. hy- Ash. vale
No. rates. poun.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Fish: Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per Per ct. Per t. Cries
Carp .......................... 42 ........ 76.9 20.5 1.1 ........ 1.5 4 .
Carp, as purchased ............ 43 37.1 48.4 12.9 .7 ........ 9 2T0
Perch ........................ 44 ........ 75.7 19.2 4.0 ........ 1.1 81 :
Perch, as purchased .......... 45 62.5 28.4 7.2 1.5 ........ 4 195
Shad .......................... 46 ........ 70.6 18.4 9.6 ........ 1.4 7 4
Shad, as purchased ........... 47 43.9 39.6 10.3 5.4 ........ .8 4
Crabs ................ ......... 48 ........ 77.1 16.6 2.0 1.2 3.1 415 f
Crabs, as purchased .......... 49 52.0 37.0 7.9 1.0 .6 1.5 '20 ;;i
Eggs............................. 50 ........ 73.5 13.4 12.3 ........ .8 77T
Eggs, as purchased ............... 51 10.8 65.6 11.9 11.0 ........ 7 685 "
Dairy products: Butter........... 52 ........ 11.0 1.2 84.6 ........ 3.2 3,590
VEGETABLE FOOD.


Flour ......................... 54 ........ 13.8 7.9 1.4 76.4 .5 1,6
Oatmeal ...................... 55 ........ 10.4 13.7 6.7 67.6 1. 1,2T70
Vermicelli.................... 56 ........ 11.0 10.9 2.0 72.0 4.1 1, '5
Cake, sponge ................ 57 ........ 15.3 6.3 10.7 65.9 1.8 1,716
Sugars, etc.: Sugar ............... 58 ..... .. .... ........ 100.0 ........ 1,80







29


TABLE 3.-Composition


of edible portion offood materials, etc.-Continued.


Food materials.


VEGETABLE FOOD-continued.

Vegetables:
Cabbage, American...........
Cabbage, American, as pur-
chased......................
Lettuce ......................
Lettuce, as purchased ........
Onions.......................
Onions, as purchased ........
Do ...........--- ... .......
Peas, green, as purchased ....
Spinach.......................
Arrowhead tuber, Sacgittaria
latifolia (t'sz ku)...........
Dried lily flowers, Hemero-
callisfulva (kam cham t'soi).
Dried fungus, Peziza auricula
(moeh) ...................
Water-lily root ................
Yam bean root (fan ko) ......
Algae..........................
Leprosy gourd, Memordica
charantia (fu kwa)..........
Water chestnut ..............
Fruits:
Bananas ......................
Bananas, as purchased .......
i


Refer-
ence
No.


Refuse.


1- 1I


Per ct.

15.0
15.06

10.0
51.0
45.0
.... ....


31.0


Water.


Per ct.
91.4
77.7
94.7
80.5
87.7
78.9
42.6
40.8
92.3
66.9
15.7
10.4
84.3
82.3
10.6
93.6
77.6
81.6
56. 3


Pro- Fat.
tein.


Per ct.
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
1.6
1.4
.5
3.6
2.1
4.4
10.1

4.2
1.6
1.1
20.9
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.0


Per ct.
0.3
.2
.3
.2
.3
.3
.1
.2
.3
.8
3.4
1.4
.2
.3
1.2

.2
.4
.5
.4


DIETARY STUDY OF A DENTIST'S FAMILY (No. 325).


The dentist's family lived


in comfortable circumstances near the


business center of Chinatown, San Francisco, and is believed to be
fairly typical of the families of Chinese professional men of the region.
Besides the dentist and his wife there were a number of boarders,
men and boys, who were students. None of these persons were
engaged in active muscular work. It is believed that the family may
be fairly compared with that of the average American professional
man. The dietary study began February 21, 1899, and continued 14
days. The members of the family included in the study were the
husband, 39 years of age, weighing 116 pounds; the wife, 33 years of
age, weighing 105 pounds; a cook (male), 28 years old, weighing 134
pounds; 2 adult boarders, students, 30 and 20 years old, and weighing
140 and 110 pounds, respectively; 4 boys, boarders, also students, 3 of
them 16 years old and one 15, weighing, respectively, 95, 96, 84, and
84 pounds. All these persons were natives of China. The family was
in good health. There were guests (men) for 5 meals. The nien and
boys of the family were absent from a number of meals.
The number of meals taken was as follows:
Meals.
Five men -------.....--- ........... .. ...........---- .-- ....... 205
One woman (42 meals X 0.8 meal of man).--....-- ........ ------34
Four boys (152 meals X 0.8 meal of man) --..................... 122
Five visitors, men ---...-------------.....................--.... 5

Total number of meals.................................... 366
Equivalent to 1 man for 122 days.


Carbo-
hy-
drates.



Per ct.
5.6
4.8
2.9
2.5
9.9
8.9
5.5
9.8
3.2
25. 9
67. 2

81.9
13.1
14.5
59. 8
4.7
19.4

15.8
10.9


Ash.


Per ct.
1.0
.9
.9
.8
.5
.5
.3
.6
2.1
2.0
3.6
2.1
.8
1.8
7.5
.3
1.2

.6
.4


Fuel


value per
pound.



Calories.
150
125
90
75
225
205
115
255
110
595
1,580
1,660
280
305
1,550
120
405
345
240


i







30

In the following tables are recorded the kinds and amounts it IbiW
different foods purchased, wasted, and eaten, together with theit o~ ~ .
position and cost.

TABLE 4.--Weights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No.5*M&i i

Cost and composition of food per manj. i: a
day.
Kinds, amounts, and cost of foods consumed.1 I.......
Cost. Protein. Fat. hyCarbo- a
hydrates. vavlHs

ANIMAL FOOD.
Oen s. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calrnis.
Beef: Round, 4,045 grams, 89 cents (9) ................. 0.7 8 3 .......... t:
Pork: Fresh pork, 14,264 grams, 83.10 (12); sausage,
454 grams, 30 cents (16); pigs' feet, 2,497 grams, 25
cents (2); lard, 2,860 grams, 40 cents (15)............. 3.3 21 76 .......... 795
Poultry: Chicken, 6,681 grams, 82.10 (3) ............... 1.7 9 1 .......... 4*
Fish: Smelt, 6,363 grams, 81 (4); salt fish, 1,589 grams,
45 cents (5); dried squid, 681 grams, 70 cents (19);
crabs, 2,043 grams, 15 cents (49); shrimp, 499 grams,
10 cents (6); dried shrimp, 499 grams, 20 cents (22) .. 2.1 18 2 .......... 95
Eggs, 2,361 grams, 65 cents (51)......................... .5 2 2 .......... 2
Butter, 681 grams, 35 cents (52)........................ .3 .......... 5 .......... 4
Milk, 17,706 grams, $1.80 (24)............ .......... 1.6 5 5 7 95
Total animal iood .............................. 10.2 63 94 7 1,10
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Oatmeal, 2,724 grams, 20 cents (55); rice,
29,510 grams, 83.25 (53); flour, 1,135 grams, 10 cents
(54); bread, 4,313 grams, 45 cents (25); sponge cake,
1,135 grams, 25 cents (57); vermicelli, 272 grams, 5
cents (56)............................................. 3.5 29 4 239 1,16I
Sugars, etc.: Sugar, 3,519 grams, 45 cents (58) .......... .4 ................... 29 120
Vegetables; Bean cheese, 5,676 grams, 30 cents (27);
dried bean cheese. 817 grams, 20 cents (28); bean
sprouts, 1,634 grams, 15 cents (33); lettuce, 681 grams,
cents (62); onions, 150grams, 2 cents (64); potatoes,
4,313 grams, 12 cents (7); spinach, 1,362 grams, 10
cents (67); white radishes, 4,540 grams, 25 cents (8);
dried radish, 136 grams, 3 cents (32); green mustard
plant, 6,356 grams, 25 cents (37); preserved mustard
plant, 454 grams, 5 cents (39); taro root, 908 grams,
5 cents (36); purslane, 2,406 grams, 15 cents (34);
dried fungus. 408 grams, 15 cents (70); dried lily
flowers, 499 grams, 20 cents (69); algae, 136 grams,
5 cents (73); leprosy gourd, 1,135 grams, 20 cents (74);
bamboo shoots, 1,407 grams, 25 cents (40); arrowroot,
1,679 grams, 20 cents (35) ............................ 2.3 25 12 2410
Vegetable oils: Peanut oil, 408 grams, 10 cents (41) .... .1 .......... 3 .......... 0
Fruits: Bananas, 1,362 grams, 25 cents (77).............. .2 .................. 1 6


Total vegetable food ...........................
Total food purchased...........................
WASTE.
Anim al.................................................
Vegetable ............................................


6.5 54 19 293 1,600
16.7 117 113 300 2,760

.1 1 ........ .......... 6
.2 1 ........ 11 50


Total food wasted ............................. .3 2 .....11 5
Total food eaten............. ............... 16.4 115 113 289 2,705

1 The numbers in parentheses after each food material in this and Tables5 and 6 refer tocorrespond-
ing numbers in the second column of Tables 1-3, pp. 27-29.

It will be seen that while this family consumed a large number of
foods which are familiar and found on the tables of most American .,
families, there were many which are practically unknown to the '
average housekeeper. The familiar foods include, among other things,
meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, rice, flour, bread, cake, j
potatoes, lettuce, spinach, radishes, and bananas. Of the unfamiliar
articles, dried crabs and dried shrimp are noticeable among animal
4'





31


foods, and arrowroot, taro root, dried radishes, bean sprouts, bean
cheese, dried fungus, lily petals, algie, and bamboo shoots among
vegetable foods. Purslane has been long used as a pot herb in this
country, though its use is by no means common. It is much used by
the Chinese. Another vegetable used in this dietary, which, though
eaten by others than the Chinese, is not generally known in the United
States, is the leprosy gourd (iilomordica charantia). This is largely
used throughout the Tropics as a condiment in the preparation of cur-
ries, etc. The Chinese use it as a salad and in other ways.
Both tea and coffee were used as beverages. During the study some
condiments (salt, etc.) were used, but the total expenditure for such
things was small. The foods were cooked and served in ways dif-
ferent from those familiar to American families. The diet as a whole
was reasonably varied, and was relished by the family.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.
When the amounts of different foods are considered it appears that
the main meat supply was pork, which yielded about one-third of the
animal protein. Fish ranks second, furnishing between one-third and
one-fourth of this nutrient, or 15 per cent of the total. Chicken
and beef rate, respectively, third and fourth as regards the animal
protein content of the dietary.
The main vegetable food was rice, although less was consumed per
man in this dietary than in either of the other two studied. Consider-
able bread and other cereal food products besides rice were used, as
well as large quantities of cheap green vegetables. In fact, the latter
amounted to nearly one-half the total vegetable food materials. The
greater part of the vegetables were Chinese varieties.
A total of $7.87 represents the amount spent for vegetable food
materials. With the exception of rice there was no one article of
vegetable food whose cost exceeded 45 cents, the majority ranging
below 25 cents.
The two large items of expense were $3.10 for pork and $3.21 for
rice, the outlay for each being almost identical. More was paid for
poultry ($2.10) than for beef, for which but 89 cents was spenu during
the two weeks. The amount expended for fish was $2.60. The ai er-
age price per pound paid for meat was 10 cents. The cost of the animal
food was $12.44, or over 60 per cent of the total expenditure.
The amounts of nutrients actually consumed per man per day by
this Chinese family agree very closely with the tentative standard for
a man with light muscular work, viz, 112 grams protein and 3,150
calories of energy, while the average of fourteen dietary studies of
families of professional men in the United States shows less protein
(103 grams), but a higher fuel value (3,465 calories). This fact is of
more than passing interest, and would seem to warrant further investi-
gation along this line in order to see whether the Chinese in comfortable





32 .

circumstances (professional men and the like) generally select K
which conforms to the commonly accepted standards or wheth
is merely an exceptional case.
The waste in this dietary was very small, and compares favorably
"' -. .... .::::
with that found in the average American family studied.
It is interesting to note that while the dietary is well balanced n
up to the standard, the cost per man per day, including beverages g::&i
condiments, was 17.3 cents, which is about 50 per cent of the sum
which has been found in the average of the dietary studies of profe ,::
sional men in the United States. There was a daily expenditure of :0..:
cent per man for beverages. The value of the food wasted was abou:':i
0.3 cent. The cost of the food actually eaten was 16.4 cents.
While the expenditure per man per day was small in this Chinese
family, it is possible for an American family in similar circumstani. .
to live comfortably on about the same sum, as is shown by the results
obtained in a dietary study made with a teacher's family in Indian.a :
This family had a reasonably varied and attractive diet at a cost of 8 ::
cents per man per day.

DIETARY STUDY OF A CHINESE LAUNDRY ASSOCIATION (No. 3820)
The laundry employees whose dietary was studied are believed to
represent, as regards food habits, a large class of Chinese laborers.
The laundry selected is typical of its kind in California. The business
is generally conducted in wooden buildings of one story, containing :
only a small number of rooms. The main room serves as ironing :
room, dining room, and, in many cases, more particularly in San
Francisco, also as sleeping apartment for the employees, bunks being
constructed immediately below each ironing table. In inclemeiit-i
weather the clothes are also dried in the room on wires suspended near .
the ceiling. The men employed at these'laundries begin work early .'
in the morning, and, when necessary, continue until late at night.
Previous to the passage of the State law regulating the hours of
labor, etc., it was not at all uncommon for the Chinamen to keep ati
their ironing tables until 1 and 2 a. m., and on Saturday nights, I
many clothes remained unironed, work was continued until daylight
on Sunday. The work performed by the men studied was regarded>4
as moderately severe. ; .
The pay varies according to ability and experience. The highest:
wages, $7 to $8 per week, are paid to those who are expert at ironing.
shirts; also to the chief washer. Other employees receive from $4 to
$6 per week. These figures include board and lodging. Before .i,
man can become a journeyman he must have served an apprenticeship;
of at least three months, during which time he must perform any sor:.
of labor requested of him connected with the business. Usually tihe:


- ... .9-4


'U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 32.







33


cook of the establishment belongs to this class, although quite often
the principal cook is a man who is out cf work and cooks and does odd
jobs for his board and lodging until such time as he secures a perma-
nent position, when his place is taken by an apprentice or some
unfortunate looking for a temporary home.
The dietary study made with the laundry employees commenced
April 3, 1899, and continued 14 days.
The group consisted of 10 men (Chinese), from 25 to 42 years of
age, weighing from 125 to 148 pounds. During the study the men
missed a total of 10 meals.
The number of meals taken was 418, equivalent to 1 man for 139
days.
In the following tables are shown the amount and composition of
the food purchased, wasted, and eaten, together with its cost.

TABLE 5.- IVTeights and cost offood and nutrients consumed in dietary stu ld/ No. 326.

Cost and composition of foo( per man per
day.


Kinds, amounts, and cost of foods consumed.


ANIMAL FOOD.
Beef: Round, 21,338 grams, 84.70 (11).................
Pork: Fresh, 19.749 grams, $4.35 (1) ...................
Poultry: Chickens, 3,632 grams, $1.20 (3)..............
Fish: Perch, 6,810 grams, $1.50 (45); salt fish, 1,135
grams, 25 cents (51; fresh shrimp, 114 grams, 3 cents
(6); dried shrimp, 681 grams, 25 cents (22): dried
squid, 908 grams, 40 cents (19); abalone, 454 grams,
40 cents (23) ..........................................
Eggs, 454 grams, 15 cents (51) .........................
Butter, 454 grams, 25 cents (52)........................
Milk, 4,994 grams, 50 cents (24)........................
Total animal food...............................
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Rice, 73,982 grams, $8.15 (53): bread, 16,344
grams, $1.80 (26); vermicelli, 908 grams, 10 cents (56).
Sugar, etc.: Sugar, 5,448 grams. 60 cents (58) .........
Vegetables: Bean cheese, 1,135 grams, 10 cents (27);
dried bean cheese, 227 grams, 5 cents (28); bean
sprouts, 4,086 grams, 25 cents (33); onions, 681 gram.
7 cents (65); green peas, 1,362 grams, 6 cents (66);
white radish, 1,362 grams, 6 cents (8); dried radish,
908 grams, 10 cents (32); green mustard plant, 7,037
grams, 40 cents (37); dried mustard plant, 908grams.
20 cents (38); preserved mustard plant, 4.540 grams,
25 cents (39); taro root, 10,669 grams, $1.17 (36); dried
fungus 681 grams, 35 cents (70); dried lily flowers,
908 grams, 20 cents (69); algae, 227 grams, 5 cents
(73); arrowhead tuber, 5,675 grams, $1.05 (68); water-
lily root, 908 grams, 20 cents (71); Chinese cabbage,
13,847 grams, 78 cents (30); yam-bean root, 3,178
grams, 40 cents (72); water chestnut, 681 grams, 6
cents (75)...........................................
Total vegetable food ...........................
Total food purchased............................
WASTE.
Animal ............. .........................
Vegetable .........................................
Total food wasted ...............................


Cost.


Cents.
3.4
3.1
.9



2.0
.1
.2
.4


Protein. Fat.


Granms. ;Grams.


31
17
5


14
1
......... .
1


14
50


2
3
1


Carbo
drates


G rami


-- I I I -


10.1


69



57


4.2 15
11.8 72
21.9 141


,-)
.7
.9


Total food eaten.................................. 21.0


10056-No. 107-02-3


4
6
135


5 61
9 588
79 591

3 ,
1 225
3 25


I --


Fuel
value.


. Calories.
255
535
20



1 80
5
30
2 20

3 945


2,270
160












360
2,790
3,735


25
130
155


76 566 3,580


::::::::







DISCUSSION OF ESBULTS.


This dietary is not so varied as that of the dentist's family, .....
five food materials were used, one-third being animall f
thirds vegetable foods. As before, a number of common:.:.. .
Rork, dairy products, rice, bread, sugar, vegetables, etc. -i
and many foods which were typically Chinese. These in
others dried shrimp, dried squid, water-lily root, bean .
preserved green mustard tops, etc. As regards amounts,a
cent of the total food consisted of meat and fish, of whioh
per cent was round'of beef, supplying over 22 per centa i
protein and not far from 50 per cent of the total ani..
Pork, in this instance, though approaching quite close to: I
... ii'.. .." .
amount, furnishes only about one-half as much protei; l,
the large amount of pork eaten, 88 per cent of the total
animal fat. Some 20 per cent of the animal protein. viti:
from fish. The total protein in the dietary is almost eveiyii
between animal and vegetable foods, there being 49.1 per eo-
former and 50.9 per cent of the latter. Of the vegetable pri ..
two-thirds was supplied by rice. In other words, one4- .
entire protein of the dietary was derived from this im
material, which also forms about the same proportion
food. In this dietary bread was served each day at the.
thus decreasing the amount of rice consumed. Between 5 i
cent of the vegetable protein was supplied by soy-bean-i j
article of food quite common among the Chinese. : :
Green vegetables were largely used, and with two oi 6r
tions they were Chinese varieties.
The standard to'which we would naturally refer this study I-
a man at moderate work, namely, 125 grams protein and 3,-s
The food actually eaten per man per day in the study furn
grams protein and 3,585 calories, amounts which agree quiha
with the commonly accepted American standard for a man
erately severe work.
Cost.-The outlay for rice, $8.15, in this dietary was notf
twice that for any other single item. The cost of beef a i
together, $9.05, exceeds that of rice by about 11 per cent.
That the Chinese in this instance appreciated the imp&
animal foods is evinced by the fact that 46 per cent, or
half, of the total sum expended.($30.43) was: paid for this ki
nourishment. The average cost of a pound of meat in this
other dietaries reported was 10 cents.
Referring to the expenditure for food per man per day it fi:
seen that the total cost was, including -beverages, 23.2 cents, and
cost of food actually eaten 21 cents, which is 1.3 cents more than. n












w



aI






































CL
W
'Uj


4-.






13
w






















DINNERkIE~ AT CHiINESE TRUCKUC FARMNI CALIFORNIA.r~
.. ... ..0. ..























I







II










than in dietary No. 327. (See p. 37.)
.;".. ... ....








S(No. 327).
The truck farm, called locally a "vegetable garden," where the
dietary study was made, is situated in Berkeley, Cal., and is similar to
hundreds of others in the State conducted entirely by Chinese. In
some cases only one crop is grown, but generally all kinds of vege-
tables are raised, and sometimes small fruits in addition. The size of
-these farms, which are usually leased, varies from a small patch to
hundreds of acres, and the fields, almost without exception, are main-
tained in a very high state of cultivation.
The farm in question contains 45 acres, for which a yearly rental of
$685 was paid. It was very intelligently managed. The number of
employees depends upon the season, varying from 12 to 18. The men
commenced work about 6 a. m. and continued, with an interval of one
hour for dinner, until 7 p. m. The men studied performed severe
outdoor work. No distinction was made in wages, each man receiving
$1.10 per day. The proprietor of the truck farm boarded the laborers
at the rate of $1.10 per week, which was less than the actual cost of
Sthe food eaten. When asked the reason, he stated that if he charged
more for food the men would demand higher wages. The house, or
more properly shanty, where the men live is typical of those found on
similar farms throughout the State. The barn and dwelling house are
under the same roof, being separated only by a board partition.
Some of the products of the garden were sold to the residents of
Berkeley and the remainder shipped to the San Francisco market.
This dietary study commenced February 24, 1899, and continued
S18 days.
S The group consisted of 12 men, varying In ages from 25 to 50 years
and in weight from 120 to 150 pounds. Some of the men were absent
From a number of meals. The number of meals taken was 568,
equivalent to 1 man for 189 days.







36 ., ..

The results of the study are recorded in the following tables:

TABLE 6.- I'eights and cost of food and nutrients consumed in dietary study No. J:8

Cost and composition of food per man per day.
Kinds, amounts, and cost,of foods consumed. Carbon Fu .'
Cost. Protein. Fat. drates. value .
drates. value.

ANIMAL FOOD.
Cents. Grams. Grams. Grams. Calories .
Beef: Fresh, 6,583 grams, $1.45 (10)..................... 0.8 9 2 .......... 5
Pork: Fresh pork, 38,045 grams, $8.38 (12)............. 4.4 31 84 .......... 910
Poultry: Chicken, 3,632 grams, $1.20 (3)................ .6 3 .................. 10
Fish: Carp, 2,724 grams, 60 cents (43); shad, 8,172
grams, $1.80 (47): salt fish, 4,086 grams, 90 cents (5);
dried shrimp, 772 grams, 22 cents (22); dried squid,
1,362 grams, 31.40 (19); abalone, 1,362 grams, 50 cents
(23)................................................. 2.9 22 4 3 140
Total animal food ............................... 8.7 65 90 3 1,115
VEGETABLE FOOD.
Cereals: Rice, 154,496 grams, $17 (53); vermicelli, 590
grams, 10 cents (56).................................. 9.0 74 3 640 2,955
Vegetables: American cabbage, 2,724 grams, 15 cents
(60); Chinese cabbage, 41,314 grams, $2.28 (30); bean
sprouts, 1,816 grams, 10 cents (33); bean cheese,
2,724 grams, 60 cents (27); potatoes, 17,025 grams, 60
cents (7); taro root, 454 grams, 5 cents (36); radishes,
21,792 grams, 96 cents (8); dried fungus, 908 grams,
40 cents (70); dried lily flowers, 1,317 grams, 50 cents
(69); water-lily root, 545 grams, 10 cents (71); water
chestnut, 227 grams, 2 cents (75)...................... 3.1 12 4 36 235
Total vegetable food ........................... 12.1 86 7 676 3,190
Total food purchased............................. 20.8 151 97 679 4, 05
WASTE.
Animal................................................ .3 2 2 .......... 25
Vegetable ............................................ .8 5 ........ 39 180
Total food wasted .............................. 1.1 7 2 39 205
Total food eaten.................................. 19.7 144 95 640 4,100


DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.

This is perhaps the most interesting study of the three. Here we
have conditions obtaining which we do not find in either dietary studies
Nos. 325 or 326. In the first place, excepting a little vermicelli, rice
is the only cereal consumed and is also the only concentrated carbQhy-
drate food appearing in the list of the 22 foods used. As in the other
dietaries studied, some foods familiar in American households were
found, including beef, pork, chicken, fish, rice, cabbage, radish, ver-
micelli, and potatoes. However, these articles can not be called pecu-
liarly American, but are the same as foods which are used in China or
resemble them closely. The proportion of peculiarly Chinese foods is
larger than in the other dietaries, and, as before, the list includes dried
squid, dried shrimp, bean cheese, taro root, dried day-lily petals, etc....
The results given above show that in this study the diet furnished
144 grams. protein and 4,100 calories per man per day, values which






37


quite closely accord with the commonly accepted standard for a man at
active work, namely, 150 grams protein and 4,500 calories. In this and
the other dietaries reported herewith, the Chinamen seem to have
selected a well-balanced one, suited to their wants. One-half the
total food consumed in this dietary was rice, which is a far larger
proportion than was shown for either of the other two studied.
Chinese cabbage, radishes, and potatoes were the principal vegetable
foods besides rice.
Less animal food was consumed in this dietary than in either of the
others, as evidenced by the following statement:
TABLE 7.-Percentage of animal and vegetable food in Ch'inese dietaries.
Animal Vegetable
food. food.
Per cent. Per cent.
Dietary No. 325................. ................ ............................. 44.4 55.6
Dietary No. 326.............................................................. 28.1 71.9
Dietary No. 327.............................................................. 21.3 7.7

Milk, butter, eggs, and sugar were not used during the study, and
according to the information furnished were very rarely eaten by the
men. Pork formed about 60 per cent and fish not quite 25 per cent
of the animal food eaten. Both fresh and salt fish were used, the
former predominating. Shrimp, fresh and cured. and dried oysters
(abalone), were also used to some extent.
The Chinese are great lovers of fish of all descriptions, and large
quantities of dried fish and dried shrimp are annually exported from
the Pacific coast to China, where, it is said, they furnish no inconsid-
erable part of the nitrogenous foods consumed by the residents of the
cities. When the proprietor of the truck farm was asked how the food
in California compared with that in China, be stated that the same kinds
of food were eaten except that more chicken was used in China, as it is
cheaper there. In the opinion of trustworthy Chinese familiar with
the subject the average workingman in the cities in China lives just
about as the men on this truck farm, while men in the same circum-
stances in the villages eat more taro roots and Chinese sweet potatoes,
yams, etc., and have less meat and less rice, the latter being considered
a luxury.
Cost.-The amount spent for animal foods, $16.45, very nearly equals
the amount expended for rice. The cost per man per day for food
actually eaten was 19.7 cents, as against 21 cents in dietary No. 326. Not
only in this dietary is the cost less, but more nutrients were obtained
per man per day. Here we have 4,100 calories for 19.7 cents as com-
pared with 3,580 calories for 21 cents in dietary No. 326.
The cost of the food wasted, 1.1 cents per man per day, in this study
exceeds that in Nos. 325 and 326.






38 -

Beverages.-Tea is the universal beverage of the Chinaman andi.th
men on this truck farm drank practically no water, flasks of tea beagi::
carried to the fields and there partaken of as desired.

SUMMARY.
It is interesting to compare the results of the dietary studies of the "I'
Chinese professional man's family and laborers with the results of
similar studies made elsewhere. Of the Chinese dietaries as a whole
it may be said that while many of the foods eaten were unknown to
American households, they were wholesome and nutritious and were
combined to form a reasonably varied diet. Kellner and Mori, Eijk-
mann, and others' who have studied the diet of Oriental races, also.
report the use of many different foods, resulting in a varied diet. In
addition to the peculiar Chinese foods a considerable number of articles
which were common American foods-such as bread, cake, cabbage,
etc.-were used. In other words, the Chinese diet had apparently !
been influenced by environment.
A similar change has been observed in other dietary studies made
under the auspices of this Department, and is to be expected. Thus
the Italians, Bohemians, and Jews studied in Chicago' were found to
conform to a greater or less extent to ordinary American food habits,
and in general the influence of former dietary habits was less marked
the longer the residence in this country.
The diet of the Chinese truck-farm laborers contained practically no
foods which were not such as are generally used by the Chinese in
their own country. In other words, these men living in the country
were less affected by American food habits than those living in the city..
Cos.t.-As regards cost, the sum expended (19 cents on an average)
per man per day in the Chinese dietaries was doubtless below the
average in American families, but not below that recorded in some
instances where the diet was regarded as satisfactory. For instance, a
teacher's family in Indiana3 had a reasonably varied and attractive
diet at a cost of 18 cents per man per day.
Waste.-The figures given in the tables reporting the details of -
the studies show that the total waste averaged about 4 per cent of the, !
total food supplied. About 75 per cent of the total waste and two-
thirds of the protein waste occurs in the vegetable foods. However,
the total amount purchased and not eaten was very small and bears
testimony to excellent management.
Table 8 summarizes the results of the three studies made with the
Chinese and also, for purposes of comparison, quotes the results of a

'U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 21 and 45.
2 U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 55.
3U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 32.






39

number of foreign dietary studies, and the average results obtained in
studies carried on with American professional men, mechanics, and
farmers. The commonly accepted dietary standards are also given.

TABLE 8.-Comparison of Chinese and other dietaries.
i Carbo- Fuel
Protein. Fat. hydrates. value. Cost.

Grams. Grams. Graim. Calories. (ents.
Chinese dentist's family ........................... 115 113 289 2,70:5 16.4
Chinese laundry association........................ 135 76 566 3,580 21.0
Chinese truck-farm laborers ........................ 144 95 640 4,100 19.7
Japanese (vegetable diet)Ya) ...................... 1 12 396 2,06 ......
Japanese (medium mixed diet) (a) .................. 109 20 461 2,423 ..........
Japanese (abundant mixed diet) (a).............. 123 21 410 2,405 .........
Employee's in retail store, Tokyo (a) ............. 55 6 394 1,895 ........
Europeans in Java (professional men) (b)......... 100 84 264 2,470 ..........
Malays. professional men (b)...................... 73 30 472 2,512 8
Java village, World's Fair, Chicago (c) ........... 66 19 254 1,490 ..........
Japanese professional man (4 studies) (d).......... 63 3 481 2,258 ..........
SUMMARIZED RESULTS OF AMERICAN DIETARIES.
Professional men (average of 14 studies)........... 104 125 423 3,325 ..........
Mechanics' families (average of 14 studies)........ 103 150 402 3, 465 ..........
Farmers' families (average of 10 studies) .......... 97 130 467 3,515..........
DIETARY STANDARDS.
Man with light work (Atwater)................... 112 ....... ..... 3,150 .........
Manat moderate work (Atwater).................. 125 .......... .......... 3,500 ..........
Man at severe work (Atwater) ............... ......... 1.............. 4500..........

aZtschr. Biol., 25 (1889), p. 102; U. S. Dept. Agr.. Office of Experiment Stations Bul.21.
bVirchow's Arch., 131 (1893). p. 170; U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 45, p. 66.
cTU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 21. p. 180.
dVirchow's Arch., 116 (1889), p. 381; U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 45, p. 59.

The dietaries of the Chinese family and groups studied in California
compare very favorably with those quoted of Japanese, Javanese,
Malays, and European residents of Java. In general they contain
somewhat more protein and energy. Whether the Chinese in Cali-
fornia consumed habitually more food than persons of similar employ-
ment in China it is impossible to say. When compared with the
average results of similar studies in American families it will be seen
that the Chinese dietaries agree quite closely with the corresponding
averages as regards both protein and energy.
As regards total nutrients and energy, the Chinese dietaries also
compare favorably with the tentative American standards. The diet
of the professional man's family corresponded to the standard for a
man at light muscular work as regards protein, but the energy was a
little below this standard. The laundrymen received on an average a
little less protein and energy than the standard for a man at moder-
ately active muscular work, while the farm laborers obtained rather
less protein and energy than the tentative standard for a man at hard
work prescribes. In all cases it may be said that the variations are
not great enough to be of much significance, and it is more than likely
that the diet would vary more from week to week than the recorded
figures vary from the standards. It should be borne in mind that it




40

is not considered necessary for a diet to conform exactly to the stapir '
ard, but rather to approximate it through long periods, as a m~iA~al
deficiency on one day may be made good by an abundance the next.
Moreover, the standards themselves are more or less arbitrary end
do not necessarily represent exact physiological demands, though they *
are, it is believed, the best which can-at present be proposed.
Rice.-As rice is frequently said to be almost the sole food of the
Chindse, it seems entitled to special discussion. As shown by the
tables recording the details of the individual dietaries, rice was used
in large amounts, but was far from being the only food eaten. On
the contrary, the diet was about as varied as that in the ordinary
American households, although many of the foods eaten were differ-
ent. Table 9 shows the proportion of nutrients supplied by rice as
compared with those supplied by the total vegetable food and the
total food in the three dietaries studied.

TABLE 9.-Relation of nutrients supplied by rice to total nutrients in Chinese dietaries.

Total Total Total Total
food. protein, fat. hras
hydrates.

Nutrients in rice compared with those in total food: Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Dietary No. 325 ................................... 20.7 18.3 0.8 62.7
Dietary No. 326 ........................................... 49.4 48.8 3.3 98.9
Dietary No. 327 ................... ............. ....... 34.2 34.1 2.7 70.2
Average ............................................... 34.8 33.7 2.3 75.6
Nutrients in rice compared with those in vegetable food: :
Dietary No. 325 .......................................... 37.3 39.9 .5 64.3 4
Dietary No. 326 .......................................... 62.8 85.5 43.9 94.3
Dietary No. 327 .... ........................ 47.5 66.9 23.1 70.6
Average............................................. 49.2 64.1 22.5 76.4

It will be seen that the maximum proportion of rice was used in
dietary No. 326 and the minimum in No. 325. On an average about
one-third of the total nutrients, one-third of the total protein, and
three-fourths of the total carbohydrates in the daily diet were sup-
plied by rice. Considering only vegetable foods, the percentages of
nutrients supplied by the rice are somewhat larger.
In the account of Japanese dietaries referred to above, Kellner and
Mori quoted figures which show that rice constituted about 50 per cent
of the total vegetable food of the Japanese.'- Next to rice stand bar-
ley and wheat, which together furnish 27 per cent, these being followed
by millet, buckwheat, etc., furnishing 13.9 per cent, while green vege-
tables, roots, tubers, etc., make up the remainder of the vegetable por-
tion of the diet. In three experiments reported by these authors 1,000
to 1,200 grams of cooked rice (or a mixture of rice and barley) was
eaten daily. 4

SZtschr. Biol., 25 (1889), p. 105.

:::m:'-








In the dietary study made at the Java village at the World's Fair in
Chicago in 1893, the food consisted mainly of rice and lean beef. The
former furnished nearly seven-tenths, and the two together nearly
five-sixths of the total nutrients. In addition to these articles, chicken,
fish, eggs, bread, green vegetables, and fruit were eaten. It is believed
that the diet did not differ greatly from that of the same persons in
Java. In the dietaries reported by Eijkmann of Malay and European
residents of Java, rice was a staple article, being eaten with eggs, fruit,
etc.
Of course the data thus available are wholly inadequate to show
what is the actual dietary practice of people of different classes and
regions of either of the Oriental countries named. They may, how-
ever, be taken as general indications.
It seems not improbable, therefore, that the opinion commonly held
regarding the extended use of rice by Oriental peoples is justified. It
must not be forgotten, however, that in all the dietaries referred to
many other foods were eaten and that foods rich in protein were
always found. These included meat, poultry, fish, and eggs, as well as
bean cheese and other products made from soy beans.
It is generally believed, and may be the case, that the diet of the
Chinese in China is much the same in character as that of persons of
similar employment and circumstances in Japan or Java. This is cer-
tainly true of the Chinese in California whose food habits were studied.
While rice was here also the principal cereal, it was combined with
other foods, animal and vegetable, rich in protein.
A question well worthy of consideration is, Did rice actually bear the
same relation to the dietaries of the Chinese studied as bread and other
cereal products do to the food of the average American family ? It will
be seen that in only one of the dietary studies, No. 326, is rice practically
the only cereal or cereal product eaten. In dietary No. 327 bread was
served once each day, and in dietary No. 325 bread, flour, and oatmeal
were used. Table 10, which follows, shows the proportions of total
nutrients and of the several nutrients furnished by rice in the diet of
the Chinese farm laborers, and in the average of the three Chinese
dietaries as compared with the amounts furnished by bread or other
similar cereal foods, and by cereals and sugar in the average of a
number of American dietary studies which were made in Connecticut
and Pennsylvania, and are believed to be fairly representative.
10056-No. 107-02- 4




..


42

TABLE 10.-Proportion of total food and total nutrients furnished by rice and by other
carbohydrate foods in Chinese and American dietaries.

food. Protein. Ft. at

RICE.
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Average of Chinese dietaries ........................... ...... 34.8 33.7 2.3 75.6
Chinese truck-farm laborers.................................. 49.4 48.8 3.4 93.9
CEREALS.
Average of 6 Connecticut families............................ 14.9 26.3 4.4 43.8
Average of 5 Pennsylvania families ......................... 27.0 37.8 5.0 -59.1
Average of 185 families in the United States ................. 21.8 30.5 7.0 54.7
CEREALS AND SUGAR.
Average of 6 Connecticut families............................ 22.2 26.6 4.4 71.3
Average of 5 Pennsylvania families ......................... 32.3 37.9 5.0 76.4
Average of 185 families in the United States.................. 27.4 30.5 7.0 .75.9

The comparison shows that in the American dietaries cereals fur-
nished two-thirds as much of the total food and total carbohydrates as
did rice in the average of the three Chinese dietaries. The figures for
protein in the two cases show only a slight difference. In view of the
fact that in only one study, No. 326, was rice found to be the only
cereal, it is perhaps fair to consider the results there found rather than
the average results of the three studies. Such a comparison shows
that while one-fifth of the total food and one-third of the total protein
in the American dietaries studied is furnished by cereals, one-half is
supplied by rice in the Chinese dietaries. As regards carbohydrates,
rice furnished 94 per cent as compared with 50 per cent furnished by
cereals in the American dietaries.
By reference to the preceding pages it will be seen that aside from
rice and a little macaroni, no sugar or other concentrated carbohy-
drate food was used in the dietary of the truck-farm laborers. It is
therefore interesting to compare the proportion of total food and total
nutrients furnished in these dietaries by rice with similar values for
cereal foods and sugar together in the American dietaries. The
figures in Table 10 show that even the cereals and sugar together
furnish a smaller proportion of total food and total carbohydrates in
the American dietaries than did rice in the Chinese dietaries.
Nonalzbuminoid nitrogen.-In the study of dietaries as ordinarily
conducted no distinction is made between albuminoids and amids, the
total nitrogen being multiplied by the factor 6.25, and called protein.
It is generally conceded that none of the food materials commonly
eaten, except green vegetables and possibly fruits, contain any appre-
ciable proportion of amid nitrogen. The large amount of green
vegetables consumed by the Chinese might, therefore, suggest that
considerable of the total protein reported in the dietaries consists of
amids rather than albuminoids, and that the diet was therefore less
valuable than the results quoted above would indicate.


A

..... Iq






43


In a previous publication of this Office heretofore referred to1 the
proportion of amid nitrogen in the greater number of the vegetable
foods used in these studies was recorded. On the basis of these and
other figures the amids in the green vegetables was calculated. Con-
sidering all such materials used, the amids amounted to 0.S, and
2.3 grams, respectively, per man per day in the three studies, or an
average of 1.7 grams. This amount is not great enough to materially
lower the nutritive value of the diet, which on an average contained
131 grams total protein per day.
Some nonalbuminoid nitrogen is also furnished by the extractives of
meat and fish. This was not taken into account in the above discus-
sion, as the proportion of animal food in the Chinese dietaries did not
differ much from that observed in American families in similar cir-
cumstances, while the proportion of green vegetables was larger. If
corrections are introduced for the nonalbuminoid nitrogen of meat,
similar corrections should also be made in the results of the dietaries
quoted for purposes of comparison.

CONCLUSIONS.
The review of the foregoing tables and discussion leads to the fol-
lowing general conclusions: The Chinese studied, who are believed to
be fairly representative of Chinese residents in California in similar
employment, did not, as is often supposed, live almost entirely upon a
vegetable diet. Indeed, they approached no nearer to such a diet than
does the average American, who has no thought of doing without ani-
mal food. The diet was varied and the dietaries were well balanced,
approaching quite closely to the commonly accepted dietary standards.
Many of the foods eaten were unfamiliar to most American.-. but never-
theless can not be regarded as other than wholesome and nutritious.
The Chinese dietary is commonly believed to bie very inexpensive
and limited in amount. As shown by these studies, it was quite cheap,
but was neither scanty nor inferior.
Rice on an average constituted between one-half and one-third of
the total food consumed and held much the same relation to the total
food of the Chinese as do bread and other cereals, starches, etc.. to
the total food of the ordinary American family. The amount of amid
nitrogen in the dietaries was so small that it can be disregarded.
1 U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bul. 68.




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