Swine raising in Hawaii

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Title:
Swine raising in Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
ii, 43 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Krauss, F. G ( Frederick George ), 1870-1962
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Swine -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by F.G. Krauss.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612858
oclc - 10055968
Classification:
lcc - S399 .E2 no.48
System ID:
AA00014543:00001


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SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII






BY


F. G. KRAUSS,
Superintendent of Extension Work



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Issued May 31, 1923


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1923


HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
HONOLULU, HAWAII

BULLETIN No. 48

Under the supervision of the
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE




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HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,


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HONOLJ


[Under the supervision of the States Relations Service, United States De]
Agriculture.]

A. C. TRUE, Directbr.
E. W. ALEN, Chief, Office of Experiment Stations.
WALTER H. EVANS, Chief, Division of Insular Stations,
Office of Experiment Stations.


STATION STAFF.


J. M. WESTGATE, Agronomist in Charge.
WiTus T. POPE, Horticulturi8t..
F. G. KBAUSS, Superintendent of Extension Work.1
H. L. CHUNG, Agronomist.
J. C. RIPPERTON, Chemist.
R. A. GOFF, Extension Agent, Island of Hawaii.
NELLIE A. RUSSELL, Collaborator in Home Economics.


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SResigned Nov. 1, 1921.

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SWINE RA]






Introduction-., -- --
The hog's claim for favor in Ha-
.wail --... -- -- -- ---
Establishing the swine plant
The foundation stock-__-____-_-
General management of the herd -
Some principles of feeding
Diseases and ailments---
Vermin and intestinal worms ---_


RISING IN HAWAII.


CONTENTS.


Page.
1
2
4
17
17
19
22
25


Feeding experiments and practices
at the Haiku substation... ---
Methods of management practiced
by some of the leading ranchers-
Some factors governing successful
swine production______________
Killing and curing -----
Territorial regulations governing the
importation of swine_--------


INTRODUCTION.

Probably no other industry in Hawaii is so deserving of thought-
ful consideration or'has assumed such large proportions in the last
decade as the swine industry. Large quantities of fresh pork have
always been consumed by the Chinese population of the Territory,
but only a very small quantity was produced at home until the early
part of 1910. The importations of that year numbered 411 head of
swine, which was 1,249 less than had been imported the year pre-
vious. That swine do not necessarily have to be imported, but can
Sbe produced equally as well in Hawaii as elsewhere, is borne out by
a comparison of the imports .for the 10-year period ending 1909,
when 19,183 head, valued at $154,948, were brought in, with the im-
ports of 1910-1920, when only 597 head, valued at $21,260, were
introduced into the islands. Only 86 head, valued at $2,089, were
imported between 1911 and 1913, and no importations, except a
small number of breeding animals, were made from 1914 to 1919,
due to the World War. The following table, taken from the Census
Report for 1920, gives statistics of interest concerning the number
and value of swine in Hawaii in 1910 and also in 1920:

Number and value of swine in Hawaii in 1910 and in 1920.


Year.


1910.................
1920..................


Farms reporting animals.


Number
of
farms.


1,396
1,567


Propor-
tion of
farmers.

Per cent.
32.3
29.7


-Number
of
animals.


20,489
24,248


Value
of
animals.


$136,116
397,463


Animals not on
farms.'


Lmber.


10,360
14,692


Value.


375,053
293,840


I
Page.
26
35
40
41
42


Total
number
of
animals.


30,849
38,940


Total
value
of
animals.


$211,169
691,303


1 Laborers and others not operating farms independently often keep animals in the cities, towns, and on
plantations. Fully half the swine not reported on farms are maintained as a side line by householders, or
y oriental small farmers living outside the city limits.
1





S2 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPlE~IMZi

The period of 1900-1909 was characterized by low prices:.
on the mainland and by low transportation charges, conditi.
served to induce the local importer to introduce swine a
make competition impossible for the local producer.
period a few venturesome ranchers improved their herds
production of good breeding stock and new feeds, and then gr
grew up a fair-sized local swine industry. (Fig. 1.) The
change which resulted in the rapid development and stab
of the industry, however, was doubtless brought about (1)
stimulus given local production when importers, sustaining::
losses from hog cholera on board ship, became discoura .i
ceased to introduce swine; and (2) by the advance -in the t
prices and transportation charges to such an extent that loc a
raisers found it profitable to compete with the imported prd i%:
... ..." ..


















FIG. 1.--Old type of Hawaiian pig at right; first cross with good sire at leff"t
In recent years, heavy importations have been made of the cho~i
obtainable registered breeding stock of swine to grade up the iWlai
pigs. (Fig. 2.) The standard breeds represented include Ei
shires, Duroc-Jerseys, Hampshires, Tamworths, Poland-Chinaes, a
Chester Whites, the first four of which predominate. Comparatiie
few Poland-Chinas or white breeds have been imported within receo
years, although many of the mixed breeds show unmistakable PolanI
China blood lines, and occasional hogs are found showing Chees
White characteristics, espWially the white color.
THE HOG'S CLAIM FOR FAVOR IN HAWAII.
Swine multiply more rapidly, mature more quickly, and m
greater gains on a given quantity of feed than do any other class
farm animals, with the possible exception of fowls. They consult
not only all the. by-products from the field, but from the kitchen |
well. Probably no other class of animals can be so profitably handle
:.. i






.i.*:-** SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 3

I : a small scale in Hawaii, or is so especially adapted to the farmer
"' ifiLig small capital.
Alth iough local ranchmen and large farmers can not raise swine on
ranges as profitably as they can cattle, they are, nevertheless, endeav-
oing to develop the swine industry on a large scale, and are follow-
iag, though in a modified way, the system pursued by the Corn Belt
farmers of the Middle West. This system is well exemplified on the
Parker ranch, where corn is cheaply and extensively grown as a
hog feed and it is more profitable to transport the hogs than the corn.
S Experiments conducted at the Haiku substation on Maui showed
that a variety of crops, including cassava, sweet potatoes, peanuts,
velvet beans, cowpeas, and soy beans may be profitably hogged off,
and that in the manufacture of starch from cassava the residue,
either raw or cooked, can be made to form a large proportion of
nutritious feed for swine. Cull beans and seeds of various kinds,



















FIG. 2.-A good type of herd boar (Berkshire, Successor's Longfellow 180594).
sugar cane and molasses, and the like, as well as slaughterhouse
refuse when well cooked, were also found to form valuable by-
Sproducts which can be utilized to better advantage with swine than
with any other class of animals. When fed to swine, this otherwise
waste product is converted into the highest-priced meat, pork bring-
ing in the open market almost double the price of beef and mutton
and closely approximating that of poultry.
It is interesting to note that although land values are high on
Oahu and comparatively little feed is grown there, fully half the
i total number of swine produced-in the Territ6ry.is raised in and
S around Honolulu. Not only does Honolulu consume more pork .
than all the rest of the Territory, but the military posts and hotels
thereabout daily furnish 20 tons of nutritious feed in the form of
i garbage, which is sufficient to maintain and fatten approximately
4,000 swine throughout the year. Sech a herd is equivalent to




--"-:...--:..-. : ij".

4 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPRIMX.11Rf

600,000 pounds of fresh pork that can be marketed whojlema
$200,000. It is understood, of course, that all garbage e~
feeding to hogs should consist only of refuse animal and..'
matter which has been left over from the table, being free i f
such injurious foreign articles as soap, sawdust, coffee
broken glass, and oyster shells, and kept in rust-resisting mei"i
that are water-tight and fly proof.
ESTABLISHING THE SWINE PLANT.
THE PERSON IN CHARGE.
As is true of any other industry, the financial success of
raising depends upon the person in charge. Unless he isf
interested in his work, knows something of the animal and ho"i
care for it, he is likely to waste a great deal of money and energy :
unproductive experiments and ultimately fail in the venture.
The swine raiser who either has land which he is ready t....
to the industry, or who has yet to select a location, should
whether he will carry on the business as an independent and
specialized project on a large or small scale, or whether:: h
make it secondary to other lines of farming, and formulate his.
accordingly. In the latter case, swine raising can be carried: in
in connection with a dairy farm as a means of profitably d
of skim milk, as is exemplified on a small scale by several dairyt
producing butter in the outlying districts of the Territory; i:i
connection with a highly diversified farm, such as the writ:i
Haiku, Maui, in 'which the otherwise unsalable residues froa :...
and seed crops, starch manufacture, dairy, and other sources ar~me
verted into marketable products by feeding them to swine; an i
as in the case of the Kemoo farm, where swine raising constitute
main and a highly specialized line of farining, with dairying: H11
poultry raising ranking next in importance.
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LOCATION. ."..:
.... ....... ...
The location is of paramount importance and should be care fu.iy
selected. A business like that conducted at the Kemoo farm, where.:
the main feed is garbage, should be located near a large city, even"
though land values are high. An enterprise such as that of ilth!
writer at Haiku might be profitably established on any of tL||
islands, provided transportation facilities to the other islands. aw
reasonably convenient. Transportation is a primary factor wh
the enterprise is concerned principally with the production of hig
class breeding stock that is to be marketed throughout the island:
rather than at some single point. Distance from market is a..a
ondary factor when animals are raised on an* extensive scale on-Q
cheaply grown field crops and good native pastures.
CLIMATE, SOIL, AND CONFORMATION OF LAND.
Climatic conditions, lay of the land, and type of soil are ald
matters of much importance. Excessively rainy districts hav
poor drainage, as well as districts which are either exposed to i
winds that prevail during tht greater part of the year, or have s




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SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 5

i altitude that the cold becomes a factor, should be avoided.
riimay be successfully raised, however, when one extreme con-
is modified by another that is somewhat favorable, as for
iianuce at Glenwood, on Hawaii, where there is an average annual
a ifall of 194 inches, but fairly good drainage and calm atmos-
Spherc conditions. The Haiku district on Maui is both wet and
windy, but with tree shelters and correct housing conditions is
S entirely satisfactory for the profitable raising of swine. Swine also
Strive at an altitude of from 3,000 to 5,000 feet, where the nights
are cold and the seasons are characterized by low rainfall, such as
in the Kula, Maui, and Waikee districts of Hawaii.
::The swine raiser is advised not to select locations (1) that are cold,
Ilow, and" wet; (2) that are exposed and windy; or (3) where the
S seasons are alternately wet and dry and the clay soils are sticky.
.A Ideal locations are those where the temperature and rainfall are com-
"f ~table for man, where shelter can be provided against strong
winds, and where the soil is not only well drained but fertile for
:: crops as well. Stony land, such aq that where the fruit-bearing cac-
tus (Opuntia sp.) abounds, is not desirable except for pasture pur-
poses. Sandy soil, or even pure sand, such as skirts the salt-water
i beaches, when shaded by algaroba or other trees, is apparently ideal
for swine raising. So long as they are given intelligent care, swine
S will thrive under widely varying conditions of altitude and of soil;
S that is, from sea level to 5,000 feet elevation, on pure sand to heavy
S loam, stony land, and on Manienie (Bermuda) sod.
HOUSES, INCLOSURES, AND FENCES.
The convenience and economy of operation, as well as the health
and comfort of the hogs, depends to a large extent upon the general
plan of the inclosures and houses. The housing problem is for-
S tunately a simple one in the mild climate of Hawaii.
Hogs can be raised to advantage, in an inexpensive house provided
it is well planned and placed, well lighted and ventilated, and can
easily be kept clean. Small pens should not be built oni rocky ground
because they are hard to keep clean and soon become insanitary.
When confined in such pens heavy hogs -often become lame. The
Construction should not be of concrete unless the method of stall
: feeding with garbage is practiced on rather an extensive scale. Con-
Scete structures are not only unnecessarily expensive, but they are
cold in wet weather, and the floors, unless they are overlain by plank,
are hard on the hogs' feet and pasterns. On the other hand, a well-
laid concrete floor is sanitary and can easily be kept clean. (Figs. 3
and .) Large central or community houses of all kinds should
amply provide for the admittance of direct sunlight during the
greater part of the day, and an abundance of fresh air at all times.
Small houses or individual cots are best made on the open front
S lan, admitting both light and air.
S In the central housing system the pens (farrowing pens and the
S like) for individual animals are usually 8 by 8 feet to 12 by 12 feet
square, or of dimensions giving an equivalent area. In the in-
dividual house or colony system, especially when the cots are of the
S portable type, there may be less space. (Figs. 5 and 6.) A good
I dimension is 7 by 7 feet, although the writers New Era" type of






HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPEBIMENW.


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FIG. 3.-Cement pens and iron fenced runs. University of Hawaii f#Kl B
11
portable cot is 6 by 7 feet, and 1, foot of the longer dime
occupied by a self-feeder. (Fig. 7.) These cots have served:'
purpose well for hogs weighing up to 500 pounds. Every farroSt
pen should be provided -with fenders, set along the sides abotrai
inches above the bed, to prevent the dams from lying again .: ti
partition or upon their young. The pigs will creep under .the..
fender when the mother lies down.
Outdoor pens should be of such size as to permit of the /og
getting plenty of exercise. If it is to be attached to a large central i.j
house, the outside run will necessarily have to be of the same widt
as that of the inside pen unless the interior is so arranged that .. .
animals can be let out on either side. If the alternating pens b :iiini


FIG. 4.-Brood sow and pigs in one of the pens shown in Figure 3. Pens are
sanitary and strong, but hard on the animals! feet.


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6 BULLETIN 48,


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SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII.


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FIG. 5.-Movable individual hog house or cot.


outlets on opposite sides, the yards may occupy the width of two
inside pens. Every yard should be provided with some shade trees,
preferably Pride of India trees. (Fig 8.) Hogs do not injure such
trees, while they quickly destroy eucalyptus, algaroba. and kukui,
and other otherwise desirable trees. The placing of palm leaves, or
even of old burlap bags, over a light frame of poles furnishes a good
temporary shelter from the rays of the sun. A clump of widely


M WOO\17


Flo 6.-Type of colony hog houses extensively used on Kaaui.
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8 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT ST.ASll.l

spreading trees affords the greatest comfort to hogs that are. c.
in large inclosures and pastures with either fixed or portabble h-i :
The ground occupied by the swine should slope away fr. i..
house so as to facilitate drainage. Hog houses should. n ,ever .
at the base of a slope.
Hog fences are a serious problem to the average swi
Hogs get through fences with greater ease perhaps than "
other class of animals. A fence should be about 4.feet h
strongly constructed with, preferably, split redwood posts...'.
posts should be set 3 feet deep and 8 feet -apart and ha v
spiked to them 1 by 12 inches by 16 feet planks,. which a&iR





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FIG.l 7.-NewEr somesteav f ar, u ain ote coinshousel_'
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6 inches in the ground along the fence line. A plank, if by 12t A..t
should also be set above the baseboard, and the joints hou t.....
broken to give rigidity to the fence. The heaviest and closest wo.....
wire hog-fencing obtainable, 32 to 36 inches high, should be stretched
tightly across and securely stapled to the plank and posts. The fonce
can be greatly strengthened if the lower part of the wire fencing s:,.;:
placed between the plank and posts rather than on the outside .0o7
the plank. The wire fencing should be lapped at least 3 inches down, '0.||J
the back of the plank and surmounted with a strand or two.of .
barbed wire. (Fig. 9.)" I.
Boar fences should be higher than 4 feet and very strong. A
pedigreed Tamworth boar weighing 600 pounds has been known to :.
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jump a 5-foot fence. Swine are usually more contented in large or
temporary inclosures than in small yards, and when thus confined
need not be fenced so thoroughly.
At the Haiku substation a heavy woven wire hog fence, 36 inches
high on level ground without base or top boards has given entire
satisfaction for inclosing temporary hog pastures. Such fencing
must be very tightly stretched at the anchor posts, which are firmly
set from 12 feet to a rod apart. It may be of advantage to plow a
straight furrow along the proposed fence line to permit of setting
the wire netting several inches in the ground. The height of the
fence above ground is lowered when-this is done and the fencing
should be topped with a strand or two of barbed wire. To be ef-
fective, the wire should be
double barbed and the
barbs should be close .
spaced.
Hog gates can not be too
strongly built. Those in
-use at the Haiku substa-
tion have withstood heavy
strain for five years. Made
of rough Douglas fir
boards of 1 by 6 inch stuff, ih
these gates are of two sizes,
4 and 8 feet wide by 4 feet
high. Five pieces, spaced
4 inches apart, constitute
the horizontal plane giving
a height of 48 inches, al-
lowing a clearance at the
bottom of 2 inches:. The
horizontal pieces are fas-
tened together at the ends
by a piece, 1 by 6 inches, on
either side, with diagonal
pieces additional to give
rigidity. Each lap of thgive FIG. 8.-Pride of India tree. A satisfactory shade
rigidity. Each lap of the tree for hog paddocks. Not injured by hogs.
frame is fastened with one
or two three-eighths inch carriage bolts in addition to nails, and heavy
hook hinges are used in preference to strap hinges. The hook of the
top hinge is placed in an inverted position so.as to make it impossible
for the hogs to lift the gate off its hinges. The best and cheapest latch
in use At the Haiku substation is a 1 by 4 inch strip, 3 feet long,
dressed to fit snugly in the space lying between the second and third
from the top horizontal gate boards. A round peg, 1 inches in diam-
eter, is placed in this latch at the center for convenience in opening
the gate, and a hole, 1 by 4 inches, passes through the fence post to
receive the latch when the gate is closed.
OTHER EQUIPMENT.
Nearly all modern swine plants are equipped with dipping vats,
robbing posts, hog wallows, self-feeders and pig creeps, feeding
racks, breeding and loading crates, and the like.


SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII.




.. .' '" ..".



10 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT MtA


The dipping vat.-The dipping vat is not recomm nded
unless large numbers of hogs are to be maintained and Mare
subject to vermin.


FIG. 9.-Hog fence of woven wire with strand of barbed wire at top. Portable th'?::
cot in background.
.


FIG. 10.-Tamped earth wallow in pasture.


Rubbing posts.-An effective and cheap method of controlling
vermin is that of placing burlap or other heavy cloth sacking, a


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.. SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 11

S rat"d with crude oil, on posts at a height which will permit of the
ni::-::imals rubbing against them. The sacks should be frequently
:. .:. .i t udrated with the oil.
Hog wallows.-A good hog wallow should be accessible to the swine.


















-; ..
FIG. 11.-Concrete wallow. Crude oil on water surface to destroy vermin.
It-not only affords a cool, refreshing bath in hot weather but it also
is-very effective in freeing the animals from flies and scurf. Wallows
of concrete construction are more sanitary than mud wallows. The
addition of sufficient crude oil to form a thin film over the surface
of the water tends to keep
the animals free from
skin parasites. (Figs. 10
and 11.)
S elf-feeders and pig
creeps.-No hog farm is
complete without the self-
feeder. (Figs. 12 and
13.) This device enables
the hogs to satisfy their
craving for feed at any
time, and is perhaps the
most economical method of
fattening the animals, be- FIG. 12.-Large self-feeder for whole algaroba beans.
cause, while a slightly
increased amount of grain may be consumed, it requires the least
labor. The self-feeder should be made of well tongued and grooved
boards having a planed surface. The smoother and straighter the
sides the more readily will the feed flow. The feeder should be pro-
~ vided with a good rain-proof cover to prevent the feed from getting
wet and spoiling when in use out of doors, and the size of the open-





12 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL BEXPEIMENT ST

ing should be regulated and the feeder set on a large p
prevent waste, of feed.
The V-shaped trough, which is an effective and chea
of feeding garbage, should be made of boards of good qu
2 inches thick. (Fig. 14.) In permanent central hog ho.usesi
concrete flooring and concrete or wooden feeding troughs,
should be made for drainage. (Fig. 15.) The bottoms and
of-concrete trough -
"IG ....S ... .. ......... ....... .
be rounded and' the
sons should bie I
wide and 8 inches
Such troughs my
used tor water. as
for feed.
A pig creep
formed by plac : -inglSJ I
self-feeder in the
eSie o of the yard and- i:::.
boarding off hptht
to keep out t i
FIG. 13.-Small, three compartment self-feeder. Sufficient space
left under the
enable the young pigs to creep in and feed without disturb
small openings may be left at each end for this purpose.
Feeding racks.-Racks for the feeding of all kinds of green.!.
are valuable means of reducing waste. The sides should be:: E
either of 1 by 4 inch wood slats, spaced 4 feet apart, or of heav
woven wire hog fencing having approximately 4 by 6 inch mi
Watering devices. -Special attention should be given to w
devices for swine. Where it is not practical to utilize the.
troughs for the double
purpose of watering and
feeding, a patented so-
called hog drinking foun-
tain can be used. This
device consists of a cast-
iron bowl having three
connected compartments
from which three animals
can drink at the same
time. The drinking bowl
has a protected center
containing a float valve
that automatically keeps FIG. 14.-V-shaped -conrete feeding trough
it filled with water. tary and durable..
Since -the water is drawn
under pressure from a pipe line the bowl may be placed anywhr
that water can be piped. It occupies less than 4 feet square .4
floor space, will accommodate from 50 to 100 full-grown h0i'"
and is accessible to the smallest pig. This device is very econon mi
of water. The drinking fountain should be bolted to a cone
or plank platform to prevent its being displaced by rooting hoga
Such a drinking fountain can be had for about $20 and will likaliy
be very durable. .






SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 13

In individual pens where room is limited, cast-iron water bowls,
' such as are used for cattle, have proved very satisfactory. These
bowls are connected with a pressure water system, the water being
admitted through a valve having a winged lever that is paddle
shaped. When the hog presses upon the lever the water runs into
the bowl, and when the pressure is removed the water is automatically
shut off by means of a spring.
Breeding and loading crates.-A breeding crate is a necessary
adjunct to every breeding establishment. By means of it the heaviest
boar can be utilized expeditiously without injuring the smallest sow.
Some sows, although in heat, will not take the boar readily, and the





















FIG. 15.-Molokai ranch piggery. Concrete floor and wooden troughs. Steam boiler
and vat for cooking feed in background.
use of a crate in such instances insures a successful service. Many
breeders use a crate for all of their sows.
Any carpenter can make a breeding crate. The materials needed
include a stout frame, which is made of 2 by 4 inch scantlings, closed
in front and open in back, a bar to slip behind the sow just above
the hocks, and a 2 by 4 inch strip which is attached to both sides
of the forward end of the crate at about the height of the sow's
head, and extends to the rear of the crate where it is fastened to
the bottom. The boar's forefeet rest on these strips.1
Breeders who ship choice hogs long distances should standardize
their shipping crates to insure comfort for the animals and at the
same time to serve as advertisements for themselves. The crate
should be strongly and neatly constructed and neither excessively
large nor small. (Fig. 16.) The floor of those intended for ship-
ment should be made of solid 1-inch boards. The sides, ends, and
top of new 1 by 4 inch lumber should be spaced according to the size
of the hogs to be shipped.
x For details, see U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bulletin 966. A Simple Hog-breeding Crat*.


. ii





14 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL. EXPBM MENT... "A

A chute is of great convenience in loading hogs into-a
should be as wide as the wagon or truck bed, 10 feet or more
and have sides 3 feet high. If it is mounted on a pair of
it can be moved and tilted with ease.
THE FOUNDATION STOCK.
Having determined what system of management he is totJ'0:Z: b
and where he is to be located, the swine raiser should next
attention to the establishment of the herd itself, taking great c..
select, or have selected by. a reliable breeder,2 animals of good .V
conformation, and constitution. (Fig. 17.) Too much stress. s qe.
not be placed upon the judicious selection of a pure-bred her
is to be used for the production of.breeding stock for sale as
.......... ... .....


Sfw c a, r t a b f f b















7 "11.
A few choice animals, rather than a number of inferior ones, shbiMB!|
be purchased at the start. Table sire which is neverchosen to head h
priced swine until one has had considerable experience in b
In some instances it is wise to purchase bred sows and a young b 'ak:j
whose services will become available at the next breeding period th.r
chaser and later bred to a suitable sire which is chosen to heady ous
herd. "
In general, it is recommended that the beginner purchase younH
stock. The investment is low, and the animals usually adapt t.mA:3
selves better to new conditions than do older stock. A boar pio 6fi
the best breeding possible and two or four sow pigs from 4 l-o.'.
months old will be'sufficient as a start, or if grade sows are already 6i -
hand, or the start is to be made with mature animals, the purchi
SPure-bred stock should be purchased from reliable breeders only, preferably from. tbd ..
specializing on a single breed.


P i. .





SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII.


should be confined to one good, vigorous boar of any breed that best
suits the breeder.
- The standard breeds may be roughly classed as the heavy or lard
types, under which are usually placed the Poland-China, Duroc
Jersey, Berkshire, Chester White, Hampshire, Mule Foots, Essex,
Victoria, and Cheshire; and the bacon type. as characterized by the
Tamworth and by the large Yorkshire and Suffolk. Apparently no
one breed is better than another for the show ring or for the market.
The matter of breed is of less importance than is that of strain.
except when it is desired to sell pure-bred stock of a definite breed.
Some consideration should be given to the market demands, but
inasmuch as these are not as yet exacting in Hawaii the beginner is
privileged to select the breed that he fancies most. Each of the
standard breeds as developed by the leading breeders has its special


-_ .. .





iis













FIG. 17.-Some types of Berkshire hogs owned in Hawaii.

merits, but the man who breeds for the market usually pays more
attention to type than he does to breed.
Stock as uniform as possible should be selected when a number of
sows are purchased for the foundation herd. Such animals can
come only from a uniform herd. uniformity being the best criterion
of the worth of the stock. They will not only feed and develop
better than swine lacking in uniformity but also command better
prices, whether they are sold as pure stock or on the market.
Good sows are all important in obtaining satisfactory results.
They may be promiscuously selected from pure breds and grades,
but all should conform to a certain type, be similar in color, marking,
No description of the breeds is attempted in this bulletin because every standard work
on swine describes them in more or less detail.
38250--23-3





16 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATII .

and conformation, and producers of good litters which theylii:
capable of properly mothering. The brood sow should show
ninity, as is characterized by quality and refinement in all pari-:
the body. The body should be rather long, the ribs well sprun
and the sides long and deep. The shoulders should be smoot
covered and the hams well rounded and plump. The legs sh
be well placed and the pasterns strong and straight. Roomy sow.i
are regarded by many judges of swine as being especially high ii
fecundity.
No effort should be spared to select the best boar that can,..-e...
afforded. To be of the greatest usefulness, he must be prepoten~: .
in transmitting his best qualities. He represents half of the breed-..
ing stock and is rated the most important animal in the herd because'.l
he exerts a strong influence upon every pig that he sires. A super *
rior boar will improve the progeny of inferior sows, but an inferior
boar will depreciate the offspring of sows of high quality. The boar
should not only have every appearance of quality but also be of8Z
high breeding as possible. The show ring tells only half the:: stoy;
the record of performance in the herd tells the other half, whidel is.
the more important factor of the two.
The essential qualities in the boar are that he be strongly masculine
and, if mature, have well-developed shoulders and hindquarters, a
slightly arched and deeply fleshed back, and sides of good length and
depth. He should stand up well on his hoofs and show no weakness
in the pasterns. The testicles should be prominent and uniform. .
The successful hog raiser, whether he is a breeder of market hogs
or of pure-bred stock for sale as such, is always a close observer, and.
soon learns the strong and weak points of his herd boars and sows
and what their prepotency is in transmitting these qualities. Brbod
sows that are shy breeders, poor in nursing their young, difficult i
to manage, or inclined to be savage, and, boars that are unable to
transmit their good qualities should be discarded before their in-
fluence has made much headway.
The beginner in swine raising, especially of pure-bred stock, may
as well learn at the start that he will have to do some culling if he
would attain high standing. No breeder ever made a greater mis-,
take than that of expecting a large percentage of the progenies of,
say, a trio of prize winners to become prize winners in turn. This
does happen sometimes, but only under the care of the master
breeder.
Prospective buyers are advised to attend the swine exhibits at agri-
cultural fairs and to follow these observations with visits to the show
herd in their homes. Grade sows for the production of market-pigs
usually can be bought at costs slightly above butcher market prices
When large numbers of sows are to be purchased, the buyer, if he is a. i
judge of hogs, should watch shipments at points of embarkation or
destination, and also search for desirable animals among the herds .
of the numerous small swine raisers who are scattered throughout,
the Territory. It often happens that some of the best looking sow 1i
when purchased on the market, are nonbreeders. This is more or
less likely to be the case unless the animals are guaranteed to be
breeders. No pure-bred swine, either male or female, should be
bought without such a guaranty.

N..""EE"E






SSWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 17
GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF THE HERD.
It is of course assumed that an ample supply of green crops and
rain or by-products is on hand before the swine arrive. Beginners
frequently make the mistake of poorly balancing their stock and
feed and consequently of having to purchase additional feed, often
at high cost, after the stock arrives.
Regardless of how good it is, the herd is made or marred by man-
agement. The breeder may be an excellent judge of swine and able
to mate them for the best results in breeding, but if his system of
every-day care, which is known as management, is irrational, the
animals will not thrive and the most rigorous selection will be ren-
dered ineffective. Much feed and effort are wasted, even when the
herd is carefully fed and managed, when the individuals are either
poorly selected or poorly mated. A thorough knowledge of the work
to be done, together with hard work and untiring efforts, is the price
of successful swine raising. It is wise to build up pure-bred stock
slowly, especially in the beginning.
Neither boar nor sows should be bred under 9 months of age, and
then only moderately. A year-old boar will take care of 10 sows
nicely, and when fully mature can be placed at the head of 20 or
30 sows. Two herd boars should be maintained, if possible, and their
breeding propensities tested on each sow in turn.
Before breeding is begun- the herd should be carefully distributed
and comfortably settled. The boar should be placed in a pen by
himself, and the dry sows of equal age or size, if of good disposition
and from the same herd, grouped in pasture. New animals should
be-quarantined for at least 30 days and freed from vermin before
they are placed with the established herd.
Brood sows should be turned into a separate pasture, kept quiet,
and well cared for. A week or two before farrowing time, which
occurs about 112 days after breeding, each sow should be placed
by herself in a yard where there is a crop and a small pen so that
she will become accustomed to the new surroundings before farrow-
ing. The sow should be made as comfortable as possible as farrow-
ing time approaches. She should be kept in good condition, but not
allowed to get too fat.
Feeds that are laxative, but not too rich, should be given toward
the close of gestation. The bedding should consist of clean, dry
beach sand or short litter. Long straw or weeds are likely to cause
entanglement of the young. Sows should not be allowed to farrow
on a bare cement floor, because both mother and young will take
cold.
Some one should be in attendance at farrowing time to lend assist-
ance if needed. The young should be removed to a clean, dry,
warm box, and returned to the mother every two or three hours.
When the pigs are from .12 to 18 hours old they can generally be
left with the sow with perfect safety. Mortality can be greatly
S reduced among the pigs if they are tenderly cared for during the
first week of life.
For the first 24 hours after farrowing the sow should receive no
feed whatever, but she should be given a liberal supply of lukewarm





18 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATX

water at frequent intervals. After the first 24 hours she can 'be:
a light slop of middlings, the amount being gradually increased '
the pigs closely watched that no white scours appear. Whe. Un'
pigs are 10 days to 2 weeks old the sow should be on full feed, il.
after that time until weaning she should receive all the feed she 'il
consume. Once the sow loses in flesh she can not do justice to he
litter and it will be difficult to bring her back to breeding conditioIn. r
Pigs should not be weaned until they are 10 weeks of age :unles
some special occasion requires earlier weaning. A properly fed swt";|
is in a good flow of milk when the pigs are 8 weeks of age and hlw
milk is by far the best feed possible for them. When the pigs aw
2 or 3 weeks old they develop an appetite for some feed to suppl e .
ment the sow's milk and should then be given skim milk or butt :
milk mixed with a little wheat middlings and other meal to relieve i
the mother. When they are about 6 weeks old they should be p1Q I
vided with a pig creep," where they may receive a special fied i:
mixture including tender alfalfa, and the like. ,
The feed of the sow should be reduced 2 or 3 days before wean-
ing time, and the mother taken from the pigs, which should then be e;V
given access to the self-feeder in the creep. At the Haiku substa-
tion, after the young are weaned the sows are turned into a good
pasture of succulent green feed, preferably a leguminous crop such
as alfalfa, cowpeas, or velvet beans.
The weaned pigs may be left together until they are 10 or 12 weeks I
old. They should then be sorted according to size and turned into :
pastures or pens not exceeding 20 or 30 head. Male pigs, which are
not wanted as breeders or intended for early market, should be cas-:
trated a sufficient time before weaning to permit of their being i
thoroughly healed at that time; otherwise, they should be separated i
from the females before reaching the age of 4 months.
The younger the pigs are the more economical will be their gains. I
Up to weaning age 31 pounds or less feed will produce a pound of i
gain. From weaning time (10 weeks of age) to 4 months, 4 pounds
of feed will make 1 pound of gain. The animal should weigh about I
100 pounds at the end of the 4-month period. Gains at the rate of 2 i
pounds per day are not uncommon when all conditions are favorable.
At 6 months of age a pig should weigh from 150 to 200 pounds.
Gains over 150 pounds are attained at a cost of 41 and 5 pounds .
of grain per pound of gain. A well-bred and well-cared-for pig,
pasturing on good leguminous crops should gain an average of 1
or 2 pounds daily on less than 5 pounds of grain feed per pound-;
of gain. In the two Maui County Boys and Girls' Pig Club con-
tests high-grade Berkshire pigs having an average weight of 40 .
pounds at the beginning of the contests gained over 200 pounds in '
100 days.
Pigs intended for market stock should be brought up to 150
pounds weight on pasture supplemented with a fairly liberal ration 3
They should then be fed from 25 to 30 days on grain and carbohy-
drate material, among the best of which is corn, supplemented with
a little tankage or blood meal. Fed thus, they should gain 2 pounds
a day and command the highest market prices. Pigs gaining 1 pound
or less a day under good feed and care are not profitable in Hawaii:;





SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 19

inder the present price of feeds. The swine raiser should weigh
all his pigs at definite intervals and also keep close check on the
S kinds and amounts of feed being used. This is the only way that. he
can know with any degree of certainty how things are going.
S The following weights are considered very satisfactory at the ages
specified:
S Satisfactory weights of pigs of varying age.1

Age. Weight. Age. Weight.

Days. Pounds. Days. Pounds.
50............ 30 to 50 270............. 275 to 300
S100 ........... 75 to 100 363............. 325 to 400
180............ 150 to 200
1 Average weights under best conditions. The heaviest weights at the Hlaiku substation for two 6-months
old barrows was 422 pounds.
PIG-EATING SOWS.
When a sow develops an abnormal appetite and begins to eat her
young, she is usually in a fevered condition, probably due to im-
proper feeding during the period of gestation, and needs an oil-meal
ration to regulate the bowels. The pig-eating tendency can be
warded off by giving the sow a ration containing generous amounts
of meat scraps and tankage during gestation. After she has far-
rowed the sow should be placed in a pen by herself, and the young
should be brought to her at regular intervals for nursing and per-
sonally guarded until they are returned to their own pen. Should
these.precautions fail to make the sow properly mother her succeed-
ing litter, she should be disposed of to the butcher.
SOME PRINCIPLES OF SWINE FEEDING IN HAWAII.4
Feeding is the most expensive part of swine raising, and it is not
unusual for the cost of feeds to equal or even exceed the value of
production of the animals. As an example, it requires, on the aver-
age, at least 5 pounds of grain or milled feed to produce 1 pound of
gain, live weight, in hogs that are not provided with pasturage or
green feed, or which are given a poorly balanced ration. When it
is selling at $50 a ton (2 cents a pound), which is the lowest average
Price paid for grain in Hawaii, feed needed to produce 1 pound of
pork, live weight, will cost 12 cents, which is the minimum. When,
however, the maximum cost of feed, $100 a ton or 5 cents a pound,
is taken as a basis, 1 pound of pork, live weight, will cost 25 cents.
During the past five years the range of prices of live hogs on the
Honolulu market has very closely approximated the figures repre-
senting the feed cost of production, with the result that the animals
could seldom be supplied with commercial feeds at a profit at any
period, as is frequently the case on the mainland.
From the foregoing it may readily be surmised that it is hazardous
to undertake to raise market hogs entirely or nearly so on purchased
. grain and milled feeds. Investigations made at a number of the
S most profitable swine-raising enterprises in Hawaii showed that
the quantity of feed purchased by them is relatively small, amount-
SSee also Hawaii Sta. Press Bul. 53 (1918).




w


20 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT S

ing to hlss than 10 per cent of the total consumed.. It other w
fully 90 per cent of the feAd consumed at the more profitait .
terprises is home grown. The striking exception to feeding h
grown products at a profit is in the case of the extensive g
feeding enterprises being conducted on Oahu, where practiycalytit
of the feed is purchased outright at a comparatively low fi.gui;s i-
Unless the swine raiser is favorably situated where garbage r
other by-products suitable for feeding can readily be obtained at:
a cost lower than is asked for the grain equivalents, farm crops for 0:
feeding to market hogs should be produced at a cost that is co
mensurate with the returns. When highly bred stock is raised' for
selling for breeding purposes the situation is somewhat changed
but even then the breeder should produce forage crops as extensive il
as possible for feed.
The swine raiser should endeavor to familiarize himself with the,::
underlying principles of nutrition, as well as of feeds and feeding,
if he would feed hogs economically and profitably in these days of
intensive production and keen competition. In the first place he
should know that the digestive organs of swine with their content
comprise only about 7.5 per cent of the total weight of the body, .
while those of cattle are more than 14 per cent. In the second plSace,
he should know that horses, cattle, and sheep are normally herbrivor |
rous, living as they do on grass and herbage, while the hog is.omnivo. |
rous and feeds not only on tender herbage, roots, and seeds but also
on animal matter. The hog also, in its effort to extract feed from
beneath the soil, swallows considerable earthy matter. Having 'a
stomach of rather limited capacity and a peculiar digestive tract .:,
swine require feed that is more concentrated and digestible and lees :
fibrous than is needed for any other class of farm animals.
The changes which food undergoes within the digestive tract pre-
pare it for absorption into the circulatory system, where it is used i
to build new material, repair body waste, and to act as a source of '
energy. The true or digestible nutrients are food constituents that
aid in supporting animal life, such as crude protein, the carbo-
hydrates, and fat. Air, water, and mineral matter also come under M
this heading.
A "ration" may be termed the feed allowance per day per ani-
mal, whether it be fed at one or several meals. A balanced ration" -
is the feed or combination of feeds containing the several nutrients '
protein, carbohydrate, and fats, in proportion and amount that will i
furnish one animal with the optimum amount of nutrition in 24 ii
hours. :
The relative usefulness of different feeds depends largely upon the
digestibility of their several nutrients; that is, upon the percentage of -
total crude protein, fiber, carbohydrate, and fat that is digested by
the animal. After the feed is chemically analyzed, it is given in .
weighed quantities to the animal, and for a reasonable length of time ,
after feeding the urine and feces of the animal are also weighed
and analyzed. The difference between the amount of each nutrient
fed and of that eliminated represents the digested portion.5
SData showing the determination of the digestible nutrients in a great many feeds afi,
to be found in all standard textbooks on feeds and feeding. Feeding standards that have
been worked out experimentally to show the amounts of digestible nutrients which are
supposed to be best adapted to different animals for maximum production do not take
into account the element of cost. They should, therefore, be used as a guide rather than..
adhered to blindly.






SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 21

One of the first essentials of a ration is that it be palatable, so as to
induce heavy consumption and stimulate digestion. Secondly, it is
important, especially for swine, that the nutrients be sufficiently con-
centrated to supply adequate nourishment within the bulk capacity
S of the animals fed. It has become currently accepted in some quar-
ters that either little or no gain can be made by hogs when they are
fed forage crops alone. In experiments carried on at the Haiku
substation, it was found that the feeding of a combination of forage
crops resulted in profitable gains.
Suitability of the feeds entering into the ration is of course very
important. Cotton-seed meal is an excellent illustration of what
should not be used. It makes a highly concentrated and excellent
feed for cattle, sheep, and even for horses, but being sometimes toxic
to pigs it is not suited for swine feeding. On the other hand, the
soy bean is a good protein feed for growing hogs but should be used
with corn or other carbohydrate feeds.
Feeds that have been damaged by mold should never be fed to any
class of animals. The feeding of spoiled tankage or dried blood is
likely to result in ptomaine poisoning, while condemned salt salmon
and brine-preserved feeds may be followed by the death of the ani-
mal. Garbage that has been contaminated with dishwater containing
soap powder or lye has been responsible for the loss of many hogs.
Animals feeding on succulent pasture should be deprived of fur-
ther laxative feeds, such as linseed meal. Since a number of the
feeding standards do not take into consideration the animals' need
for mineral matter and the ordinary ration is deficient in it, it is
suggested that lime, phosphoric acid, and iron, together with some
salt, be made available to the entire swine herd in addition to the
amounts that are naturally supplied in the feed. The vital processes
of the animal seem to be dependent upon an adequate amount of
these mineral salts.
A variety of feeds is greatly to be preferred to a ration that is
made up of one kind only. Mixed feeds are usually better balanced
and more palatable, whether as forage, roughage, or grain concen-
trates, than is a single kind. Variety gives the feeder greater oppor-
tunity to meet the needs of the animal, and frequently permits of
substitutions at a considerable saving of money. A change in ration
is also easily and safely effected when a variety of feeds is available
and fed judiciously.
An abundance of clean, cool water should always be accessible to
swine. Water is as essential as solid food. As a matter of fact, ani-
mals can live longer without the latter than without the former.
When water is lacking the processes of mastication, digestion, ab-
sorption, and assimilation are hindered. Swine ordinarily consume
5 pounds or more of water to every 1 pound of dry matter. Feeds
that are rich in protein create a greater thirst for water than do
starchy foods.
The raising of breeding stock should not be considered unless the
breeder is prepared to raise liberal and constant supplies of green
succulent feed. While they are not absolutely essential to the suc-
cessful feeding of swine, succulent green feeds, either as soilage or
as pasturage, are greatly relished by animals of all ages and form
the cheapest part of the ration when they are produced at home.
Green feeds not only have a beneficial laxative effect and keep the





22 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPEREISENT'/A

digestive tract in good condition, but they also have a nutriti:
and doubtless supply in 'great part the vitamins forming .s s.
every efficient ration.
The feeding value of the nutritive constituents of the di
kinds of feeds may vary considerably. Carefully conducted
ments have shown that the vegetable proteins are greatly fit
to the animal proteins as a hog feed, and that the protein in. 0dtt i:;:
seed meal is inferior to that in linseed meal, although both feeds ti&
very rich in the constituent. '
Whole wheat and its by-products, bran and middlings, are valuable
as hog feeds, but chemical analyses have shown them to differ w *idl
in composition. Roughages are even more variable than the cerl al i
since their composition is influenced by climate, state of maturity,
quality of curing, and by moisture content. Alfalfa, both in t :b'e
fresh green state and when cured, is among the most variable i a.
feeding value, its composition being influenced by state of maturity
and by the methods of curing employed. Prime alfalfa meal may i-
almost equal wheat bran in feeding value, but alfalfa that has lost
most of its leafage as a result of being overmature or overcured may -
become so low in value as to be practically worthless. Cured alfalfa,:
while averaging about 15 per cent protein, may contain as highK as .I
30 per cent or as low as 10 per cent crude protein, in the latter ease C i
of which there is an excessive amount of crude fiber; and conversely, .
the coefficient of digestibility is likely to be higher in the high protein.:::
sample than in the low-grade sample.
Although American authorities do not generally recommend as2w.-
profitable the grinding and cooking of feeds, the Haiku substation, in :
experiments conducted for more than five years, found that both
grinding and cooking certain feeds are profitable practices, especially |
when the feeds and feed products are both of high value. In fact,
much of the feed used during the experiments could not have been''
fed to advantage had they not been ground and cooked. Cooking
certainly insures the feed against the .possibility of transmitting
tuberculosis and hog cholera when offal is used and against detri-..
mental fermentation. The practical swine raiser in Hawaii might :
do well to try out various feeding methods to determine which are :
suited to his needs and conditions. ."
DISEASES AND AILMENTS.
The average conditions obtaining in Hawaii foster the spread- f i
swine diseases. Every precaution should therefore be taken to avoid
crowding the animals or exposing them to sources of contagion,
Whenever the animals are returned from places of exhibit or new
animals are received they should be segregated from the main herd |
for several weeks or until it is certain that they carry no disease..'
The hog yards should be thoroughly treated with some good disin-
fectant every three or six months and the entire quarters changed
every three to five years to lessen the danger of infection. Other pre- ;.
cautionary measures include keeping the pens and runways clean at
all time and providing the pens with proper drainage and ventilati 'iig
as well as with clean drinking places. '
A veterinarian should be consulted as soon as .disease appears i
the herd so that measures can be taken to save the animals that ,rA





i.
"'F`


;


not beyond help. The matter should also be reported to the Terri-
torial Veterinarian, Board of Agriculture and Forestry, Honolulu.
ABORTION.
*


In abortion the sow loses her pigs before they are fully developed.
Abortion not infrequently accompanies other diseases, but it also
occurs when the sow is in otherwise perfect health. In the latter
case abortion may be due to bacterial infection. After the first
abortion is noted all pregnant sows should immediately be removed
to new ground where hogs and cattle have not recently been kept.
They should be divided into as small groups as possible. If it is
thought that the abortion germs have been contracted from cows,
the milk should be pasteurized before it is fed to the swine. Abortion
has never officially been reported as occurring among the swine of
Hawaii.
BRONCHITIS.
When affected with bronchitis, the hog presents a general un-
thrifty appearance and has a persistent cough. Predisposing causes
to bronchitis are dust, worms, germs, poor ventilation, and damp-
ness. Insanitary conditions should be remedied and the animal
given good feed. The feeding of skim milk to young pigs and shots
will strengthen them sufficiently to overcome the disease.
HOG CHOLERA.
Hog cholera is a very serious disease and probably causes greater
loss in the swine industry throughout the States than does any other
Disease. The presence in Hawaii of true hog cholera has not as yet
been indisputably established. The microorganism carrying the in-
fection is so small that it can not be seen even with the most power-
ful microscope. The disease is characterized by fever, loss of appe-
tite, cough, weakness of the hind parts, general prostration, and a
purplish discoloration of the skin. In some instances the animal
suffers from constipation and later from diarrhea.
As soon as there are symptoms of cholera a veterinarian should be
called to administer treatment. Strict quarantine should be main-
tained between the sick and healthy hogs, the unaffected animals
being transferred to clean, new quarters. Antihog-cholera serum is
effective in protecting healthy swine from cholera.
LUMPY JAW.
Lumpy jaw, which in swine most commonly affects the mammary
glands, is probably due to the same fungus that causes lumpy jaw
in cattle. Large, hard, tumorous masses containing many pus cavi-
ties form on the mammary glands when the animal is affected. A
veterinarian should be called to remove the masses and prescribe
the use of potassium iodid.
PNEUMONIA.
Pneumonia is caused by an organism and develops in pigs which
are exposed to inclement weather or dust, or which are forced to live.
either in filth or insanitary yards, or in close, damp, poorly venti-
lated hog houses. In pneumonia the breathing is rather labored and


SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII.


S


23





24 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STA

there is weakness, fever, and a cough.. The animals should '-e
vided with clean, warm, airy, dry quarters and given a well-bUi.
ration containing plenty of protein constituents. Annoying O,|
animals by giving them medicine in this disease usually doeds a
harm than the medicine does good.
RHEUMATISM.
Rheumatism is characterized by lameness and swollen joints. T.
disorder is prevalent where stable and yard conditions are poor- %
the animals do not get proper exercise. They should be changed .t.::
sanitary quarters and fed on sour milk. Fifteen grains of sodium 0 :
salicylate. to every 100 pounds of hog should be administered in the.
ration once a day.
RICKETS.
Rickets is characterized by large joints and bones, crooked limb
and a general unthrifty appearance. The disease is directly trace--:
able to lack of bone-forming ingredients in the ration of the pregnant
sow and young pigs. Bone meal and phosphate of lime should be i
added to the ration and sanitary quarters should be provided-far f
the animals. If possible, provision should be made so that the pigs:
can get plenty of exercise and have facilities for pasturing. .
INFECTIOUS DIARRHEA.
Infectious diarrhea occurs largely among young pigs and is
accompanied by intestinal ulcerations. Pigs so affected are inclined
to develop pneumonia. The disease is caused by an organism of the
colon-typhoid group which is introduced into the system with food
or drinking water. Foul yards and pens are responsible for its
occurrence among swine. When it does occur, all pigs and pregnant
sows should be removed to new ground and segregated into small
groups. The use of concrete feeding troughs, which permit of
thorough cleansing, is very effective in preventing infections
diarrhea.
TUBERCULOSIS.
Tuberculosis in swine is usually contracted from tuberculous
cattle. There are no easily diagnosed symptoms of the presence of
the disease. In the advanced stage, intestinal tuberculous swine
suffer from disturbance of the digestive tract and sometimes from
constipation or diarrhea. When affected with tuberculosis of the 1:
lungs, the animal has a persistent, harsh, dry cough and experiences '
some difficulty in breathing, especially after exercising. Thei
lymphatic glands are considerably enlarged and the animal presei
a general unthrifty appearance. A qualified veterinarian shouto' !i
test the animals with tuberculin to determine which are free front *t:,
the disease. Reactors should be disposed of and tuberculosis 1
eradicated from the herd with which the animals associated. The
premises should immediately be cleaned and disinfected.
CONSTIPATION.
Constipation in hogs may be due, among other things, to lack
of exercise and to the eating of too much dry feed or roughage.
It can be corrected by making the animals take plenty of exercise
*. *:::
"sE...






SSWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 25

S and by giving them feeds having a laxative effect, such as slops to
which flaxseed meal is added. Increasing the quantity of green
feed in the ration also helps to restore normal functioning. Young
succulent alfalfa is especially good. In severe cases a dose of
Glauber's or Epsom salts should be administered at the rate of
1 ounce to every 100 pounds of hog.
HEAT PROSTRATION.
Heat prostration results when the hogs have been driven or
hauled a considerable distance during the heat of the day. Danger
of prostration can be lessened by keeping the animals from becoming
unduly excited. When prostrated by heat, the hog becomes very
short winded, shows weakness of heart action and often consider-
able distress, and in many instances develops convulsions resulting
in death. This condition may be lessened or prevented ordinarily
by pouring water on the face and feet of the animal. The best
method probably is by use of a sprinkler, keeping the water contin-
uously running over the head and face and on the feet, and later on
along the belly.
NODULAR SKIN DISEASE.
Nodular skin disease, called by the native Hawaiians puu puu, can
not really be characterized as a disease. It is an affection of young
piis and is brought about principally by feeding an unbalanced ra-
tion, that is, one excessively rich in protein and therefore of a heat-
ing nature. Contributory causes include insanitary conditions, in-
adequate ventilation, and insufficient exercise. Animals affected
with nodular skin disease should be given an occasional bath in
some good disinfectant solution, such as creolin, or a 2 per cent so-
lution of cresol compound, U. S. P., and the eruptions which have be-
come covered with scab should be touched with tincture of iodine.
A cooling diet which is laxative in effect is also recommended as
a relief measure.
VERMIN AND INTESTINAL WORMS.
LICE.
Hogs infested with the common hog louse (Hcematopinus suis)
present an unthrifty appearance and suffer from irritation and itch-
ing. Lousy animals, filthy infected bedding, and insanitary quar-
ters transmit the pest from one hog to another. Lice can be eradi-
cated only by persistent and vigorous treatment. An efficacious
treatment can be prepared as follows: To one-quarter pound of
common laundry soap which has been dissolved by boiling in a little
water, add 1 gallon of rain water. Remove the mixture to consider-
able distance from the fire to avoid explosion and while it is still hot
pour into it 2 gallons of kerosene (coal oil) and then stir vigorously.
The completed creamy emulsion should be diluted for use with 8 or
10 parts of warm rain water. A stiff brush or a swab of cotton
should be used to cover every part of the animal's body with the
solution.6 Large numbers of affected animals can effectively be
treated if they are immersed in a medicated liquid in a dipping vat.
When hogs are treated with crude petroleum, they should be provided with plenty of
shade and water to prevent skin scalding.






26 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATaION

Small numbers need only a rubbing post. Occasional spraying:
a solution composed of equal parts of kerosene and crude oil is
tive for lice control. Another remedy is to float a. thin fm of:
over the hog wallows.
MANGE.

Scabies, or mange, in hogs is caused by small parasitic mites which: 'ii
live in the skin. It is characterized by wounds or lesions in the skin..
and by small cone-shaped swellings. The animal scratches or rubs
the affected parts until the surface becomes raw. Scabs then form :
and the affected areas become leather-like and fall into wrinkles or-:
folds. When the swine are mangy the yards and runways should 'i
be thoroughly disinfected and provided with rubbing posts whieM
are covered with heavy cloth sacking saturated with crude oil. .. A :
rather expensive method of eradicating mange is by the use of t
sulphur ointment.
WORMS.


The intestines of young pigs are frequently infested with worma.: :i
Pigs thus affected act in much the same way as they do when suffering
from cholera, the only difference being that in the former case there is
no fever and the ailment is confined to young animals only. Worm
eggs and embryos are taken into the system in contaminated drinking
water or food that is picked up in foul yards. All insanitary cgn-
ditions should be removed, including the excreta of infected hogs,
and the yards should be disinfected or else not used again by hogs
for a year. The feeding of santonin and calomel (5 grains of each
for every shote weighing from 50 to 75 pounds) with the ration is
often effective in eradicating worms. In stubborn cases at the Haiki
substation santonin and calomel were used or standard worm cap2
sules were administered by means of a balling gun.
While the use of proprietary conditioners is not.recommended, they
occasionally give good results when added to a mixture of wood
ashes, hydrated lime, finally ground phosphate rock, fine common
salt, and finely ground copperas (iron sulphate). These ingredients
should be thoroughly mixed and kept in a compartment of the self-
feeder. An animal in good condition will be better able to resist
attacks of worms than will one in poor condition. Worms impair
the general health of swine, especially of young animals.


FEEDING EXPERIMENTS AND PRACTICES AT THE HAIKU SUB-
STATION.

Two distinct series of feeding experiments and systems of swine
management were conducted at the New Era homestead farm in con-
junction with the Haiku substation during the period 1916-1920, in-
clusive.
The first series had for its object (1) the determination of the prac-
ticability of raising and fattening swine on pasturage ranging from
one-tenth to one acre in maximum area; and (2) the determination
of the palatability and relative feeding value of the various Hawaiian
grown forage crops when they were pastured by, or fed as soiling
crops to, swine, both with and without supplementary grains and
other concentrates. From the data obtained it has been learned what
amounts of pork may reasonably be produced per animal per acre

..'


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.SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 27

under good management. Further tests were made to compare the
value of feeding concentrates from self-feeders with feeding by hand
when swine were pastured, soiled, or kept in the dry lot, and also to
. ascertain the relative yields of the various crops when they were
grown singly and in combination as intercropping. It was learned
What systems of rotation gave the best results, the influence these
systems had upon the fertility of the soil when the crops were
pastured, and the relative costs of each.
The second series of feeding experiments was based on an intensive
system of management, the swine being confined in small inclosures
and fed mostly concentrated feeds with a minimum of pasturage and
green soiling crops. A great deal of the feed was ground and cooked
and the by-products fed included condemned carcasses, cassava starch
refuse, cull beans, sugar cane molasses, and ground hay. The object
of these series of experiments was to determine the difference between
the two systems of management'in economy of labor and feed, health
of the animals, and average cost of swine production.
Only pure-bred Berkshires were used in these experiments. The
herd included 10 brood sows and 2 herd boars ranging from yearlings
to 5-year olds, together with about 40 young pigs not over 1 year old.
The smallest number of hogs under test at any one time was 20
and the largest was 80. All animals were bred and reared on the
farm excepting 5 of the 12 mature animals forming the breeding
herd. 4
No contagious disease attacked the herd during the five years of
its existence and only three mature animals were lost during the
period, two as a result of faulty farrowing and one as a result of
a dipping experiment. The average loss of small suckling pigs was
slightly less than 20 per cent of the 500 pigs farrowed. Sows usually
farrowed two litters a year, such farrowings totaling about 85 per
cent of all the sows kept. The smallest litter farrowed was 5 pigs
and the largest was 13. The highest number of pigs in a litter which
were brought to maturity was 11, and the lowest was 3. No abor-
tion occurred in the herd during the period of test, and the average
number of pigs raised per sow per annum for the entire herd was a
fraction over 10. In 1919, 7 sows brought to weaning age about 14
pigs each.
It is concluded from the experiment that with good management
10 pigs per sow per annum is a reasonably possible accomplishment
in herds not exceeding 10 brood sows, which was the average number
maintained at the Haiku substation and upon which these data are
based. However, it is estimated that less than half of this number
is the average production per sow in Hawaii as a rule. Such a high
and profitable standard can be maintained only with good foundation
stock which are carefully mated, well fed, and well cared for.
PLAN AND MANAGEMENT OF PASTURES AND RATIONS.
Figure '18 shows the general layout of the swine breeding and
feeding plant at the Haiku substation at the beginning of the series
of experiments in 1916.
The one-tenth-acre paddocks were found to be rather small at the
end of the first year's trial for the support of sows having big litters.
Two lots were therefore thrown together to form one-fifth-acre pad-




..;.


28 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STA.MO

docks, and 10 such lots, comprising an area of 2 acres, were,
trained throughout the rest of the experimental period. In ad


H///SCUS HEDGE /


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rog soslr lrogr 9r' or
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FIG. 18.-General plan of the swine plant, New Era Homestead farm.
5 acres; capacity, 50 hogs.


to the one-fifth-acre lots for dry sows, two paddocks, each 1j acres
in area, were provided for weaned and fattening pigs.


~U ~P.


Total area,





SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 29

Each of the one-fifth-acre lots was planted in some desirable
forage crop, and a definite system of crop rotation was planned and
adhered to. Legumes, root crops, and nonleguminous crops were
alternated except in instances where crops ratooned or sent up vol-
unteers. In such instances the same crop was allowed to repeat itself.
Two or three weeks before farrowing time each sow was placed in
one of the fresh lots in crop. Just before the animal was placed
in her new quarters, a square rod of the crop was harvested and
weighed to determine the approximate amount of green forage it
contained. A portable hog cot having a built-in self-feeder was
then placed in the lot and the sow was weighed. Excessively fat
sows were not given grain or milled feed in addition to pasturage
but they had access to mineral matter consisting of 10 parts of wood
ashes,, 5 parts of hydrated lime, 5 parts of finely ground phosphate
rock, 3 parts of fine common salt, and 2 parts of finely ground cop-
peras (iron sulphate). These ingredients after being thoroughly
mixed were placed in a compartment of the self-feeder. Charcoal
made an excellent supplement to this mixture. It may be added to
form up to half of the total volume.
Sows which were in good flesh and about to farrow were placed
in a fresh paddock containing good succulent crops and given a
light grain-meal mixture amounting to about 1 pound per day for
each 150 pounds of hog. When the animals were placed in good
cowpea pasture that was heavily seeded, they were not given any
concentrated feed. Brood sows which were in medium flesh were
fed a medium grain-meal ration amounting to 2 and 2% pounds
pen day for each 100 pounds of hog, and thin sows were given
free access to the self-feeder to consume 3 to 4 pounds of grain
meal daily per 100 pounds of hog in addition to the pasturage.
Under the latter conditions sows gained over 14 pounds per day and
were able to maintain their increased weight for a reasonable period
after farrowing. When the litters were 6 to 8 weeks old, these
sows lost in flesh, but only in very few instances did they become
excessively thin. At weaning time either the sow or her young
were removed to another one-fifth acre paddock, or to one of the
14-acre fields, depending upon the condition of the animals and
of the pasture.
The feeding capacity of any field or paddock is dependent upon
its yield and upon the skill with which it is fed to the animals. Al-
though many of the forage crops will barely maintain an animal
in fair condition, hogs at the Haiku substation gained from one-
fourth to one-half pound daily when they were pastured or soiled
on the best forage crops without the use of supplementary feeds.
Swine that were allowed to run on good pasturage and fed in
addition light, medium, or full rations of grain daily gained from
1 to 1a pounds. In most of the feeding trials animals pasturing
on green feeds made better gains than did those on soilage. Pastur-
ing was also more economical than soiling because it involved a
smaller amount of labor. Rapid, if not very economical, gains were
usually obtained through feeding full grain meal rations from a self-
feeder, but the cheapest gains were often made on a light to medium
supplementary grain ration. In the latter instance the hogs ate a
large proportion of the relatively cheaper forage.





30 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT .SW ...

In the earlier experiments "free-choice" feeding mcthokd
practiced; that is, the various kinds of feed were placed in js
compartments of the self-feeders so that the animals could m.hit
at will the kinds and quantities they desired. When they Wtli
pastured on alfalfa,. cowpeas, peanuts, velvet beans, soy beans, a !!!
other leguminous crops, the hogs consumed comparatively litthey
tankage or other animal protein feed, such as dried blood, '.drie.,l
milk, and the like. On the other hand, when they were pastau e :'i":
on nonleguminous crops, such as sweet potatoes, cassava, corn, a
grasses, having a high carbohydrate content, over 10 per cent of th
animal protein feeds was consumed. In all later feeding expe ..ri- .
ments mixtures were compounded in accordance with these finding W-.
Hogs pasturing on leguminous forage crops were fed from seLf.i.
feeders mixtures of dry mashes composed of corn meal, cassa .i:
meal, wheat, or rice bran and shorts, with tankage or blood meal iot-.
exceeding 2.5 per cent and cane molasses up to and including &I
per cent. These rations had a nutritive ratio of 1:20. When tihia-""
animals were pastured on such crops as sweet potatoes, cassavat,
Indian corn, Uba cane, and the like, the self-feeder rations wei::::
made up of alfalfa or pigeon pea meal, soy bean and peanut meal,
oil-cake meal, mill run (bran and middlings), together with tankage: 2'
dried blood or dried skim milk to the amount of about 10 per .
cent. This mixture produced a nutritive ratio of approximately-
1:3. The records of the Haiku substation show that the average-:..
consumption of these feeds per 100 pounds of hog was an average
of 2- to 3_ pounds daily, and that 300 to 400 pounds of such feed.
produced 100 pounds of gain in swine when the animals were pas-.:J
tured in accordance with the above outlined cropping schemes.--
The average daily gains ranged from 0.75 to 1.5 pounds per animal,
depending mainly upon the age and condition of the animals fed. :.
Enough data have been accumulated to show clearly that it pays
to balance the feeding rations of swine, at least to the extent shown
above, and that both forage crops and concentrated feeds must be
carefully selected for palatability as well as for composition .
The table on page 31 shows the forage crops that have been grown
most successfully at the Haiku substation both from the standpoint
of yield and from the standpoint of value to the hogs.












: ; i| :
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"I







Suggested cropping systems for swine in Hawaii..


Crops.


LEGUMES.
Alfalfa..................
Cowpeas.................
Peanuts.................

Velvet beans............


Soy beans..............

Pigeon peas..............

ROOTS AND TUBERS.

Sweet potatoes..........
Cassava.................
Edible canna............

Jerusalem artichoke....

NONLEGUMINOUS AND
NONROOT CROPS.

Indian corn.............

Grain sorghums........


When to pasture.


At 8 to 12 inches high a...........
When pods first ripen.............

When half the nuts are ripe.......

When pods are maturing. (If
pods are ripe and dry, plow
under to soften and let hogs
root.)
When half of pods are ripe........

.....do............................


When most of tubers are mature..

When roots are fully mature......
When bulbs are fqlly mature.
(Cook before feeding.)
When tubers are fully mature.....



When ears are mature.............

When grain is mature.............


When to harvest for soiling or
curing.


- ~~~~~I -----


When half of crop is in bloom.....
When three-fourths pods are ripe..

When seven-eighths pods are ripe.

When all pods are ripe...........


When all are ripe. (Seed usually
shatters freely.)
When all are ripe............


When most tubers are fully mature.

When roots are fully mature......
When bulbs are fully mature......

When tubers are fully mature.....



When ears are fully mature.......

When grain is fully mature........


Number of crops a year and aver-
age yields per acre. I


6 to 8 crops; 15 to 30 tons..........
2 crops, each producing 1 ratoon;
20 to 30 tons.
2 crops (sometimes producing a
volunteer crop); 10 to 20 tons.
2 crops; 20 to 30 tons..............


2 crops; 8 to 15 tons.............

2 crops; 10 to 15 tons.............


2 crops, each producing a volunteer
crop; 10 to 40 tons.
1 crop; 10 tons..................
1 crop; 10 tons....................

1 crop; 5 to 10 tons...............



2 crops; 4 to 10 tons (grain and
stover).
2 crops; 4 to 10 tons.............


Carrying capacity, allowing
100 pounds to the bog, and
length of time required to
pasture an acre.


10 to 15 hogs;
15 to 20 hogs;

10 to 20 bogs;

10 to 20 hogs;


10 to 15 hogs;

10 to 20 hogs;


10 to 20 daysI...
10 to 20 days '...

10 to 20 days 8...

10 to 20 days ...


10 to 20 days B.,.

10 to 20 days'...


10 to 20 hogs; 10 to 20 days '...

10 to20 hogs; 20 to 40 days....
10 to 20 hogs; 20 to 40 days....

5 to 10 hogs; 20 to 40 days.....


10 to 20 hogs;

10 to 20 hogs;


10 to 30 days....

10 to 30 days1...


Total
yearly gains
per acre of
hogs given
grainm feed
from self-
feeders to.
Supplement
pasture
crops.


Pounds.
1,250
1,400

1,375

750


1,000

875


1,500

1,000
1,000

750


1,125

900


1 Two weights indicate average yields when grazed and soiled, respectively. The yields given represent yearly averages based on from 3 to 6 years. Cultural experiments
during which from 1 to 3 crops were grown annually, depending upon the crop and the season. All these crops should be given a trial to determine which are best suited to the
needs of the swine raiser.
Ring hog noses and do not pasture too severely.
For each crop.


~~____~_


C,
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Suggested cropping systemsfor swine in Hawaii-Continued.



yearlygis c

Crops. When to pasture. When to harvest for soiling or Number of cos a year and aver- 100 pond to t e hogwing ranfoM
curing. age yels per acre. length of time require to rmef H
pasture an acre. feedesto




NONLEGUMINOUS AND
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NOWROOT CROPS-Con.
lUba cane ................ When stems are tender and half- When stems are tender and three- 3 to 4 rops;80 to 50tons._......... 10to 20 hogs; 20 and 30 days 750
iiiiii grown. fourths grown.
Elephant grass ........... ..... do ...................... .....do ............................ 4 to 6 rops; 40 to 80 tons......... 10 to 20 hogs; 20 to 0 days ...









Btermuda and Hilo grass At any and all seasons. ............ When growth is fairly mature ..... Continuous ........................ 3 to 8 hogs; continuously ...... 4
pastuirage.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Algaroba. .........:... Mature fallen pods are pa stured.... When mature pods fall....... 1 to 2 tons; 2 crops ................. 5 to 10 hus; 10 to 20 days...7*0
Ccu...... ............. Wohen maturefri can knocked When fruit is rpe ............. 1. to 5 tons; 2 crops ................ 2 to 5 hogs per crop. ...300.
Plneapple ............... Mature cull fruits are left on plants When mature cull fruits do not 3 to 5 tons; I crop.................. 5 to 10 hogs; 15 to 30 days..... (5
for pasturing. exceed, in feed, 24 pounds per
100 pounds live weight per day.

3For ,ea rop.
4 Maintenanc nly. ON
6 anenance only; sometimes detrimental.
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SSWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 33
LEGUMES.
Leguminous crops, including alfalfa, cowpeas, peanuts, velvet
beans, soy beans, and pigeon peas are rich in protein and can be
used to a large extent to replace imported grains and millstuffs.
Alfalfa is one of the best perennial forage crops for swine and can
easily be grown, if conditions are favorable. It should be planted in
January, February, March, and November, and 8 to 12 pounds of
the seed should be sown per acre in drills 12 to 18 inches apart.
Cowpeas is one of the best all round annual forage crops for swine.
The seed should be sown at the rate of 20 to 40 pounds per acre
in rows 30 to 45 inches apart. The best time for planting is in Feb-
ruary, May, October, and November. Cowpeas may produce one
ratoon crop.
Peanuts, if fed in combination with corn, are especially fine for
fattening hogs. Two bushels of nuts in pods, or about 20 pounds
of shelled nuts, per acre should be planted in rows 30 to 45 inches
apart. They may be planted in February, May, October, and No-
vember. Volunteer crops may be produced from seed that is left in
the ground. If fed alone peanuts tend to produce a soft pork.
Velvet beans make an excellent hog forage if they are fed when
the seeds begin to ripen and are supplemented with grain. About 50
pounds per acre should be sown in rows from 30 to 60 inches apart.
They can be planted in February, May, October, and November and
may produce one ratoon crop.
Soy beans seed heavily and make very nourishing forage for hogs.
From 25 to 50 pounds of seed per acre should be sown in rows 30 to
45 inches apart. They can be planted in February, May, October,
and November.
The pigeon pea crop, which is practically a new forage crop for
swine in Hawaii, should, before feeding, be ground into fine meal for
best results. From 10 to 20 pounds of seed per acre should be sown
in rows 45 and 60 inches apart. The crop is a perennial and can be
planted in February, May, October, and November.
ROOT AND TUBER CROPS.
Root and tuber crops are relatively low in protein content and high
in carbohydrates. Among the best for swine feeding are sweet po-
Statoes, cassava, edible canna, and Jerusalem artichokes.
The sweet potato is one of the cheapest crops to grow for swine.
It should be supplemented with leguminous forage crops. The cut-
tings should be planted in lots of 10,000 per acre in rows 36 to 48
inches apart. The best time to plant is during February, May,
October, and November. Tubers that are left in the ground are
likely to produce volunteer crops.
Cassava is a rich feed in carbohydrate. It should be fed in com-
bination with feeds that are rich in protein. From 3,500 to 4,500
cuttings may be planted per acre in rows 30 to 60 inches apart. The
time of planting is February, May, October, and November. This
crop does not ratoon.
Edible canna should be cooked before it is fed to swine. From
3,500 to 4,500 bulbs should be planted per acre in rows 30 to 60 inches
Apart. Edible canna may be planted in February, May, October, and
November.




..... .. ...

34 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMERX TrA

Jerusalem artichokes are greatly relished by swine. Fi'r w
500 pounds per acre should be planted in rows 30 to 60 in
The crop may be planted in February, May, October, eanj
NONLEGUMINOUS AND NONROOT CROPS.
Both the nonleguminous and the nonroot crops, including
grain sorghums, Uba cane, elephant grass, and Bermuda
grass pasturage, are rich in carbohydrate and inclined to .be
Probably all with the exception of corn in mature grain- .u
classed as coarse roughage. They can be planted in February,
October, and November.
Corn is probably the most efficient of the 'fattening graiat
swine. From 7 to 10 pounds per acre of the seed should be p
in rows 42 to 60 inches apart.
Grain sorghums, while inferior to corn, make an excellent.
feed for swine. From 5 to 8 pounds of the seed per acre s
sown in rows 42 to 60 inches apart.
Uba cane is an excellent nonleguminous forage for swine. s
well liked by them. From 8,000 to 12,000 cuttings per acre
be planted in rows 42 to 60 inches apart.
Elephant grass is not as palatable for swine as is saccharine
ghum. From 8,000 to 12,000 cuttings per acre should be pl
in rows 42 to 60 inches apart.
Bermuda and Hilo grass pasturage is excellent for swine to priet
in. It is a perennial and the sod or coarse clippings should bi:
plowed under. ....:.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Among the miscellaneous hog feeds may be included algaroba Po c1
cactus fruits, and pineapple fruits.
Algaroba pods are excellent as a hog feed if not fed in abundancO.
For best results, they should be ground unless they are pastures
Select seedlings of heavy podding strains should be planted 20-by 20
feet with not more than 100 trees to the acre.
Cactus fruit, when pastured, is excellent as a hog feed. .." .
Pineapple fruit, if very acid, should not be fed in excess to swi
SYSTEMATIC ROTATION.
It has been conclusively demonstrated that grass crops shWid:
follow leguminous crops, and that all broadcasted and nonroot .ca.B
should follow cultivated and root crops. Under the-cropping atwl
feeding systems practiced at the Haiku substation, worn-out pu i1
apple lands of low fertility, when hogged off, were. brought upti
a state of comparatively high fertility within three years. On |
other hand, lands from which the crops had been removed and 2gi
which the hogs had not been allowed to run showed a decided: tensi
ency to soil depletion.
SConsiderable corn on the ear has been fed to swine in Hawali in the past. The samsI
farmer in the Kula region of Maui invariably feeds corn to hogs when the rice of dia 'I
drops below its feeding value, or when the price of pork reaches exceptionally high i
levels. High transportation charges on this crop have induced many of the farmers to.:
feed it to swine, and this practice is likely to continue if hogs maintain their presqt:i
high price
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feedng sstem pratice at he Hiku ubsttion wor-ou ::' ]** ,







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.METHODS OF SWINE MANAGEMENT PRACTICED BY LEADING
RANCHERS.


The methods followed by some of the successful swine raisers of
Hawaii are given in the hope that they may be of help to the begin-

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FIG. 19.-Kemoo farm. Pens for feeding garbage.


ner. The data presented were obtained either through interview
or personal observation.
KEMOO FARM.

The Kemoo farm, located near Schofield Barracks, Oahu, has a
swine herd numbering 1,460 animals, 250 of which are brood sows


FIG. 20.-Kemoo farm. Concrete vats for steaming garbage.


SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII.


35




... .. .. i. : ...

36 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT'

of high grade and 10 are pure-bred Duroc-Jersey ansd
boars. (Figs. 19 and 20.) Each sow on this farm farrows,:
average, 3 litters in two years and raises 5 or 6 pigs per
Crossbreeding is giving fine results, a Duroe sow which. w*i
a Berkshire boar, recently farrowing 16 pigs, only one of : *iK
born dead, and 10 of which are being raised. Outstanding
show a Tamworth sow to have produced 45 pigs in 3 litters
over 15 months. One boar is maintained for every 25 sows..i:
Pigs are weaned at 8 to 10 weeks of age at an average
25 pounds. As soon as they attain a weight of 60 poun4
placed in one-half acre dry paddocks in lots of 40 head.
are given some green feed, such as alfalfa, sorghums, and :
together with aIl the garbage they can consume.
Eights cans containing about 300 pounds of garbage
daily hauled from the military posts to the Kemoo farm.
tainers are thoroughly cleansed and sterilized by steam (
pressure) and then dipped in lime wash. This process an
of hauling of course involve considerable expense.
In 1915 the Kemoo farm sold 365 garbage-fed hog fsr
which averaged 11 cents a pound live weight. In 1918 thei...
creased to 1,686 head which sold for $50,439, or about:i
pound. .:
It has been estimated on the mainland that 1 ton a day .0
managed residence garbage will fatten 40 well-conditone
and will develop an equal number of shotes or brood sows;
a ton of hotel or military post garbage will fatten 100 hogs and
care of 100 shots beside. Garbage from hotels is very much
efficient as a feed than garbage from private homes. In well
lished garbage feeding plants hogs weighing about 125 poun:ds.::i:"
are selected and fed until they have attained a weight of aboutE
pounds. This gain requires, under good management, aboutt'
days and represents an average daily gain of 1 pounds.
Some years ago the Kemoo farm conducted a number of f....lI"
experiments to determine the feeding value of garbage for"
Twenty-four pigs, grouped in lots of 3 to a pen, and weighing't-
58 to 71 pounds at the beginning of the experiment, were give i" Wi:
50 days, a ration having garbage as the basic feed. Supplem ntas
feeds, such as wheat middlings, alfalfa meal, rice bran, barley, .ost
both separately and in combination, were added to the garb'j.9
various proportions. The highest daily gain per pig was 0.
pound, which was obtained by feeding 4 pounds of rice bran asnj
pounds of corn, respectively, per pig per day, in addition ti.,
the garbage .they would consume. The second highest daily 1ii
per pig was 0.76 pound, which was obtained by feeding. 2 pof
of corn per pen of 3 pigs, in addition to all of the garbage Wi
animals would consume. The lowest gain, 0.4534 pound, was .
by pigs receiving 4 pounds of alfalfa meal in addition to all the .g.
bage they would consume. ",
In a later experiment, 20 small pigs, in groups of 10 to a ....
were fed for 40 days. Those in lot 1 were fed garbage only anm d
the beginning of the experiment weighed a total of 298 pounds. :At
the close of the experiment they had made a total gain of 124 pounds..`::
The pigs in lot 2 were fed 100 pounds of tankage in addition to the ii
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garbage. Their total weight was 301 pounds at the beginning of the
experiment and 462 pounds at the close, which was a gain of 37
pounds over the gain made by the pigs receiving no tankage. Only
young pigs ranging from 20 to 30 pounds each were used in these
experiments, and the gains on the whole were comparatively light.
They plainly show, however, that certain kinds of supplements have
an influence in weight when they are fed in combination with garbage,
and likewise that the feeding of garbage is not necessarily the most
economical method, especially for young pigs and brood sows, unless
a supplementary feed is added to the ration. It pays well to supple-
merit the garbage with a liberal amount of concentrated feed, such as
dried, blood or tankage, which has a high animal protein content.
Large and economical gains can be made with such feeding unless,
of course, the cost of the supplemental feed is abnormally high.


Pro. 21.-Molokai ranch piggery. Raised plank floors are cool and less expensive than
concrete. Car track facilitates feeding.

MOLOKAI RANCH SWINE DEPARTMENT.

The following report was received from the swine department of
the Molokai ranch, Kaunakakai, Molokai (Fig. 21):
Good algaroba pasture is more than a maintenance feed for swine, but it is
not considered as good as corn, rice bran, or barley. On this ranch corn ranks
first in food value, with rice bran second, barley third, and algaroba fourth.
The hogs are not pastured on any planted crop, but are daily given one good
feeding of green alfalfa. Rice bran is fed to fattening hogs only when corn
and algaroba beans are not available. Corn is fed during probably four months
.of the year. When it is used, corn is given in regular amounts twice daily on
* ement floors, but rice bran or beans are fed from self-feeders. The hogs
average daily gains of li to 2 pounds each.
There are a few pure-bred swine at the ranch, but the greater number of
animals are high .grades. Practically everything is shipped to market from a
pure-bred boar to hogs out of grade sows. The entire herd is so nearly pure


SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII.


37


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..... ..... 1E.7

38 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL gXPERIMEN "M

that it would be impossible to say whether pure breds or gradelr:,
more economical gains.
Each sow averages one and one-half litters per annum, but only il
pigs per sow are actually raised and sold. This is a very low average ,
due to nodular skin disease, which carries off fully 40 per cent of t.he
annum. The pigs are weaned when they are 2 to 3 months old, d
weather conditions and their health. All pigs have the run of pastor
some period of their lives, but are trough-fed when beans are out of s
Cooked feed consists of sweet potatoes and potato tops, carcasses:-w
brought in from the ranch pasture, and rice bran, or barley. After beu*'
in a steaming vat for 4 hours the cooked stuff is fed mostly to stf~
litters. No cooked feed is given to fattening sows.. .


PUAKO RANCH.


The swine department of Puako ranch, oh the west co:
Hawaii, is managed with a minimum outlay of labor and equigp,
Throughout the greater part of the year the hogs have the n:
an extensive algaroba forest reaching to the sea, and they ali
from racks as much green alfalfa as they can consume.
algaroba pods are out of season the animals are fed ben*
self-feeders.
KAMEHAMEHA MANUAL SCHOOL -.1
An early attempt was made at the Kamehameha schools t :i
Hawaiian youth in swine raising. (Figs. 22 and 23.) These i
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FIG. 22.-Group of grade pigs, Kamehameha School, 1905. Only pure-bred BerksrS
now at school. .
.. ... ..:..

now maintain fine pure-bred herds of swine and conduct vauaj.
feeding experiments. In 1905 they conducted a feeding test ,w."
swine to demonstrate that algaroba beans have the same value iS
bran and barley as a fattening ration and can be used at half tJI
cost of the imported concentrated feed. By the use of garden i
kitchen waste in the ration, the cost of each pound of gain wpi
further reduced.










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The following report was submitted by the agricultural depart-
ment of the Kamehameha schools:

Breeding.-
Breed g;lts at 11 or 12 months for first litter.
Breed to drop second litter at 24 months.
Breed sows every 7 months thereafter for a litter.
Use young boar for light service at 9 months.
Housing.--
Place sows in 8 by 16 foot double farrowing houses having guardrail, and
opening on leeward side; no draughts and very little bedding.
Pigs in out-of-door runs should have access to shelter during rainy season
only.
Brood-sow pens should be provided with hog creeps.


FIG. 23.-Stock judging. Kamehameha School, 1905.


Yards.-
Should be furnished with artificial shade where trees are scanty.
Should be sprinkled during the middle of the day to lay dust, and make
pens cool.
Should be furnished with rubbing posts.
Feeding.-
Kitchen garbage should form basic ration and be supplemented with
tankage.
Young pigs should be given equal parts of middlings, ground oats, and
meal in the form of slop twice daily, beginning when the animals are
about 1 month old and continuing until they are 5 months old. Not
more than 15 young pigs should be fed in the same pen. After they
are 5 months old the pigs should be fed kitchen garbage.
Boars should be daily fed wheat bran, ground oats, rolled barley, and
wheat middlings in equal parts in the form of slop. Garbage is too
fattening. A standard mineral mixture should be fed at the rate of
1 tablespoonful per hog once a day. 'Rolled barley in self-feeders
should be used to supplement garbage in market pens. Self-feeders
are not advisable for use of hogs that are kept for breeding.
Other features.-
Complete system of records are kept by the schools..
Boars are kept in individual pens.
Sows are bred in the latter part of the heat period.
Attention is given to sows at farrowing time.


SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII.


39





40 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTTIAL EX E I.flN I

Other features-Continued. .-
All pigs constantly receive attention. :::
Boars are castrated when they are 6 weeks old.
Cleanliness instead of vaccination is the precaution taken at-
ease.
All pigs are given a feeding of bran mash once a week.
Boars and overfat sows or difficult breeders are forced to exeie:S.
All pigs are daily inspected for sickness.
Experimental feeding is carried on.
Results of this management.- :'
The Kamehameha schools have a swine herd second to none in MHwall"ii
Splendid individuals are developed for sale as breeding stock,- ..
Market hogs weighing 200 pounds are produced in from 7 to 8 m 6nths
a profit of approximately $20 per hog.
OTHER RANCHES. .
At the Haleakala and Harold Rice ranches on Maui extegi
swine herds are pastured on Bermuda (Manienie) grass, with which
the common prickly pear is freely mixed. Such pastures,
during the prickly .
0 on season, make cheap
cellent maitenanc
yo* Since the prickly
4 so commonly found in
waii, the followiw db i
So may be of interest -i.t....i
% o M nection with its use i.t....
O0 1 .; ... .......
o o \ swine ration: :.
o In.a series of t)
-X F-D7 6" E r ducted in Califor
L-- slabs of -Burbank
<^ V%? cactus, 8 pigs rang ..
o \ 35 to 80 pounds
-O \ fed 20 to 30 pounds ;of
Cactus daily for 29 days
At the end of the ex-
4, o periment the hogs showed .
/ s ,o 6 a net gain of 118 pounds
or an average daily ga
FIG. 24.--pproximate distribution of cost in swine of two-.thirds pound e a
production at the Haiku substation. of two-thirds pound eah.. .
When used to -a liitd
extent at the Haiku substation, fresh shredded spineless cactus il ade
a valuable green feed for swine.
SOME FACTORS GOVERNING SUCCESSFUL SWINE PRODUCTION..:,
Raising farm feeds economically and attending to details of.
management personally are the essential factors governing succeass-
ful swine production. The outstanding item of expense is the feet::
and the second largest item is the labor employed. The greatest
saving, and therefore the greatest profit, can be had only by exer-i
cising care in feeding and by the employment of efficient labor.::
(Fig. 24.)
Up-to-date buAiness methods should be practiced regardless '
whether the stock is to be sold on the market or kept for breeding'
purposes.






'SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 41

S feeding stock should be judiciously advertised and exhibited
At fairs so that it will be brought to the attention of the public.
The breeder of pure stock should join the national and State asso-
ciations of the breed in which he is interested.
: Transfer and registration papers should be promptly attended to
when registered stock are to be sold. All records should be kept
accurately and in a presentable manner. A reputation once lost
in the pure-bred stock business can not be regained.
System, business ability, and strict integrity are required for the
development of a worth-while reputation as a reliable breeder.
The swine raiser should not attempt to breed for selling purposes
until he has a well-established herd and a fairly complete equipment.









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age, and other pork products hap and effective been made by means of a home-e.








t the time of al-a-ughter.
Foraiser hints on equipment forably situaughteringd should butcheranimals and cutreatmre the meat
U. f. Dept.some of the hogs on his 913, Kilarm. He will find Curing Pork, and 116, Porkit not only cheaper
..n than purchasaing, Curi, ao tat h an
Only healthy animals should be selected for butchering. Disease
frOm unhealthy animals may be transmitted to persons eating the
At the Haiku substation excellent home-cured hams, bacon, sau-
sageand other pork products have been made by means of a home-
mad smoker. (Fig. 25.) None of the meat spoiled during the salt-
mg and curing process, even when the temperature reached 850 F.
.. Ot the time of slaughter.

s For hints on equipment for slaughtering the animals nm d treatment of carcasses see
Dept. g. Farmers' Bnlletins 913, Killing Hogs and Curing Pork, and 1186, Pork
on the Parm : EKilling, Curing, and Canning.


k




W


42 BULLETIN 48, HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENl;t -iT

The animals were slaughtered either early in the mte
ward sundown, and the carcasses were at once split down .
and cooled overnight in a specially louvered room.9 The
cut into pieces of suitable size, and together with chucks
inches in thickness were ..i
the following morning with aill
tion 10 made by dissolving a:W
of the highest-grade salt al!,'
tablespoon of saltpeter in a ".cJi
of boiling water. After :i
cooled and strained this solti
is injected clear to the bone. .'U
meat is then placed in brine.
A The following data show ,l
\ what products a good hog, we
IF \ about 250 pounds, can be cut .
26), and also what percentage
live weight of the carcass each pro
I I uct represents.


,:, .. .; .
Cuts and their percentage of live -we.. "W.
of the carcass of a hog weighfIg fft .
pounds." :...


Cuts. t m
raiuqs if,;,; ::-'.;

Per eat&.
Hams ......................................
Shoulders................................." 1A
Sides...................................... t,
Loins.......................... ............ .
Prime steam lard....................... .... N ;
Tenderloins, spareribs, tails, snouts, etc....:....
Leaf fat................................. te
Casings, heart, liver, cheek meat, etc........ I0
Moisture and offal........................ 12


FIG. 26.-How to cut a carcass to ad-
vantage. A, hams; B, shoulders; C,
fatback and loins; D, leaf fat and
bacon; Ca and Da, ribs; D, bellies;
E, jowl and hend; F, trimmings;
and G, feet.


Carcasses weighing from 120 to
140 pounds (fresh pork) bring the
highest market prices in Honoluilu. ||
Hogs weighing over 200 pounds ar:r
less in demand, and heavy ho,
such as find ready sale in the State
are difjfcult to dispose of on:the :
local markets." i1


TERRITORIAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE IMPORTATION OQit
SWINE.
SEcTION 1. All pure-bred swine intended for shipment to the Territory :at
Hawaii for breeding purposes must be accompanied by a certificate of health
issued or approved by an officer of the United States Bureau of Animal Indust .y
or by the State veterinarian, to the effect that the animals have passed a caref ut
veterinary inspection and are free from any indication of disease, and that
*A room with walls made of well spaced boards which are sloped to shed rain il4t
fashioned somewhat like window shutters to admit light and air.
10 A patented meat salter was used for this purpose. It is a rather large instrumeut:i
resembling a hypodermic syringe and is used with a specially constructed needle.

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SWINE RAISING IN HAWAII. 43

I, neither hog cholera nor swine plague has existed within a radius of 5 miles
tof the premises on which they have been kept for a period of six months im-
mediately preceding the date of shipment.
SEc. 2. The owner or importer must present an affidavit to the effect that
the said certificate refers to the swine in question, that the same have been
I shipped from the premises mentioned in said certificate in clean and disin-
fected cars, without unloading, and that they have not been submitted to the
serum simultaneous or double treatment for hog cholera within 30 days prior
r: to shipment.
SEC. 3. All pure-bred swine intended for breeding purposes arriving in the
Territory without such certificate and affidavit shall be subject to a quarantine
of 2 weeks at the expense of the owner or importer.
SEc. 4. All butcher hogs intended for shipment to the Territory of Hawaii
for the purpose of fattening for the market must be accompanied by the certifi-
cates and affidavits as in sections 1 and 2 described.
SEC. 5. Such swine arriving without the required certificates and affidavits
shall not be allowed to land in the Territory.
SEC. 6. All butcher hogs intended for shipment to the Territory of Hawaii
for the purpose of immediate slaughter must be accompanied by the certificates
and affidavits as in sections 1 and 2 described and shall be unloaded into cars,
drays, or trucks and transported direct to the place of slaughter and shall not
be disposed of in any other way than by slaughter.
SEC. 7. All such cars, drays, or trucks shall be thoroughly cleaned and disin-
fected under the supervise on of the Territorial veterinarian before being allowed
to return for reloading or to be used for any other purpose, such cleaning and
disinfection to he at the expense of the owner or importer.
c. 8. The Territorial veterinarian may permit the landing and slaughter of
such swine when unaccompanied by the certificates and affidavits required by
this regulation providing that upon arrival and inspection they are found in
good health and are apparently free from all swine disease and are slaughtered
within 2 weeks after arrival.
SEC. 9. All swine of whatsoever character arriving in the Territory exhibit-
ing symptoms of hog cholera, swine plague, or any other disease contagious
to swine shall not be allowed to land.
ii"







ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
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GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT
5 CENTS PER COPY
PURCHASER AGREES NOT TO RESELL OR DISTRIBUTE THIS
COPY FOR PROFIT.-PUB. RES. 57, APPROVED MAY 11, 1922












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