Ammonification and nitrification in Hawaiian soils

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Title:
Ammonification and nitrification in Hawaiian soils
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
52 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Kelley, W. P ( Walter Pearson ), b. 1878
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Soils -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Nitrification   ( lcsh )
Soil microbiology -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.P. Kelley.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613164
oclc - 10055831
Classification:
lcc - S399 .E2 no.37
System ID:
AA00014539:00001


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AGIMICULT'RA XPERIWEVT#STATION,
w3. TSTGrATs. Agrronowmist inx Charve.

bulletin No. 07.



NIF TIN, AND NITIFCATION

IN HA W AIIJAN 8I0,IB

wi P









k UNDER TEBVIPERVIMIN OF
O2FICEG OF WXPERTHE9NT STATIONSs
U. a. DNPARTHENT OF AGRIU UTlRN.






WA rIGTON:
GozmmLJUTN MR































HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, OHWOJN
'. -. ..:: .

[Under the supervision of A. C. Tav, Director of the Offie of Experment Stations, Jas l
Department of Agriculture.] ': ?:

WALTR H. EVANS, Chief of Division of Insular Stations, Offie of Epearimwnt


STATION STAFF.


. J. M. WESTGATE, Agronomist in Charge.
J. EDGAR HIGGINS, Horticulturist.
W. P. KELLEY,' CAemist.
D. T. FIULLAWAY, Entomologist.
W. T. McGEORGE, Chemist.
ALICE R. THOMPSON, Assistant Chemist.
V. S. HOLT, Assistant Horticulturist.
C. A. SAiH, Assistant in Agronomy.


1 Resigned October 27, 1914.


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LETTER OF TRANSMITAL.,

HO4oLULu, HlAwAii, Januar 10, 19140
-have'the honor to submit herewith and recommend for
a Bulletin No. i37 of.the Hawaii Agricultural Experi-
ttion, a Paper on. Ammonification and Nitrification in Ha-
Sois, repredby Dr. W., P., Kelley, chemist of the station.
n compounds which occur in soils and the modifications
hey undergo axe 'of mrat importance- in. practical agriculture.
iiHawaiii soils the conditions which influence the form and
of these compounds are somewhat unusual. A study of the
which modify: amonification and nitrification is therefore
Sscekotific, and practical importatice. It is believed that a
Contribution to the knowledge of these processes and also
,, understanding. of the significance of the lime-magnesia ratio,
arly as it J's related to changes in the'nitrogen compounds
asoily, is made this bulletin.
Respectfully,
U* nE. V. Wrocox
Special Agent in Cirge.
DirectorOfe of Experiment Stations,
U7. S. Department of Agriculture) Washington, D. C.
Publiction recommended.
A. 0. Ti&UEy Director.
9nklication authorized.
D. F. HousiiiSeretayiof gricuture






































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-------1 -- .. ......... 1
-== nad a vot nutiitd....... 1
ofbre f eain ......4... ................... 1
W mifdnad#elk ncainadniiiain .. 1
ofi"........................ 2
-N-.!" MM --------- -- -- -- -- .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3
ra i . .. . 3
bf M c u n n t s o 3
bf~calium an carb~ateg oitheiiiiiifiiiiiiifidrie
TI T. m n ybe el........... .... ........ 4
of naua n............ --- 4






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MONIF"ICkTION AND -tNI TR-IFICATIONT"'.
,IWAIAN**OvLS



e of bacteria in soils has become generally ""eciogsd.
$m to. tbo extreme ichmical view forwerly,..Ueld itris, few be-
hatwhebiolev'aal awtivitieslgoimgoi soils are, of more fuda
in*portaw, *andthat a euto atra cintemnrl
mean -ore alae mkd cherical transformations are brought about

threoram-,no, longer looked'Ap,.on as dead reservoir of
ts~fod~o bt, on thesoutrry, a tee in th. orgiedlfe
cemial ubsancs, hedwgee o4 porosity, the. moisture
te aa4ethe~actor aexertimprtant influence oxvthe: acliv-
ilayaB0o1r, ims For, thes rason theapplicati-on of feriai-
4, tllwe, crop Irotation, etc.,A directly affect thie soil. orgnss
adeterstreindirwdly, the, chavaicaA, Abwes:.,, But the real seat
-bootKriWlactini orgwoi matterfi. and it is, this part of, the, soil
"Aot unedaoes Ame greatest chag =,p av Aresult of: their action.
Pranticlly all organic substances occurring in soils, undergo domm-
pitin tosome.degee ith.,the.: onsequent formation ofagra
S of: chem ca copud'princpally, organicin nature. Some
Abm tese products ee mrech ialacti4on on the, mineral -con-
sattunts ertan f temaretoicboth to the higer plants and to
dbebooeri thmseVesi-while-othmr serve as nutrients to the -higher
40tos u. .... the end,. oeeteebcm converted into carbon
dioxi,-watr, am oniitrste, free nirogen gas, etc.
VIhases of Woi beeteriology which have received a. great, amount, of
sidn SM4n ar moificationand,: nitaifiction. ..Soil nitrogen exists
sincpaly k complex,, insoluble,: proteiuk-like combinations, in which
hasis s n"avalal to'the higher: plnts, but by: the action: of bac-
44068, .....i .....:is Oplit off, which then is oxidized to nitrate,
Permery, MOc~M& hss placed on the numbers oforass
present in soils, More recently, however, it has been: found that the
phyioogialef~iecy f heorganisms i different soils varies SO
gretly that VOW it: 3s moreomo to measure the products of: their































In the third place, Hawaian soils are eXtremely abnormi na6L i
composition. Various substances, such as ferric and: at.
hydrate, the oxids of manganese, titanium compoundss, iat
present in large amounts. Besides, carbonates, except 4 ij
localities, are present in extremely small amounts. It is co
held that the presence of calcium carbonate is essential to suroo
crop production, for the reason that nitrification is believed fii
dependent on it for the maintenance of neutral conditions. .a1:
other bases can take the place of calcium carbonate is not fully k|i
The relative and absolute amounts of lime and magnesia in iMi
soils vary greatly, but generally magnesium 'occurs in cons
larger amounts than calcium. The lime-magnesiar ratio is-a qr..
of much interest among soil investigators at the present time,iM
bearings of this ratio on bacterial action have not been tho
studied. In view of the large amounts of lime, some of which isa
magnesian in character, noy being applied to soils, a study of ai
unification and nitrification as affected by variations in this ratios
general interest. ..
In the investigation reported in this bulletin the effects of ci
factors on nitrification and ammonification have been studiedi-l
many organic forms of nitrogen are also known to be available tn
higher plants, and other factors frequently complicate the subje4
1 See Ashby, Jour. Agr. Sci., 2 (1907), pp. i2-67.


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staseaikd elpaenea tatand efnthel U0,4 Wou tohW7 som

AFpEqe th a a rountef nitrat andth% itenitam
ina* oil should not be considered as f Ain adequata
eS hd vaiaflitya iogn The rmsultg obtained, in
andannnifcaton xpeimetstherefore, hold. .be
v6*it coution, ,and everyknown condition and fsactr, .as
g~p*qpsto be grown, must bea givea- duo: Weight before #Uythn
actrypractical wconluswon can be drawn.
Am TV,.a",a coiUMM or ooTvTD ors

6f the first questions, studied Minthwi-investigation has reforenc
*6UP _81 whichvhirification An&_ a location take place in
*Wt. This is obviously importoot in eatabihn a basis
comparison of different treatments, and as offering some
on the management of these soils. 'It is of special interest,
vefor the indirect evidence furnished regarding the form, of
that is probably, utilized by the different plants growing on

hlemuch study has h~itherto been devoted to nitrification and
ni~etionin cultivated isois, so fax as the writer ha's been able
fromlitrstre t hndvery little investigation has bee
on nitrificatiori in( sod lands, or soils lying long uncultivated.
in rferences occZur Mi the literature concerning the low nitrifi-
ongongon: in -forest. soils. Grandeau.1 for instance, found no
toat i certain forest soils, while Weis a reported considerable
Oeate in the moor: and forest.. soils. of Denmark. Ritter 2 found
tendencyy toward nitrate formation in moor soils, as a rule,
though .he detected small amounts of nitrate in certain cases.
-Pofit,* on the, other hand, found pronounced evidence of nitrification
, ak, decidedly acid forest soil deficient in lime. The nitrate content
4f .ty sils in America, 4n the other hand, is -sometimes *hnost
N Odii failed to detect nitrate in certain Mcia
peab. It is- generally known, moreover, that practically no n1itrifiP11-
tiou takes place in the subsoils of humid climates.
-lowr. AVr. Prtst., n. ser.,, 13 (=97),, pp- 60p5 64L.
VorstL Yorafgsv.,, 2 (1W08, No. 2,1 pp. 257-M06.
*Internat MUtt Bodank.# 2 (1912)p NoL it Mp 411-M48











































adding magnesium oxid. ?

The results of determinations of nitrate and mmom o~as

uncultivated soils by these methods are givenin the follow

Nitrate and ammonia nitrogen in uncultivated soils.
.. ; .- *** ;f ii


" ....


[Parts per million.]


Soil..........
Subsoil......
Son...........
Subsoil......
Sol.........
Subsonil......
oil...........
.....do.......
Subsoil.......
soil..........
Subsoil........
oil...........
Subsoil .......
Soil...........
Subsoil.......
soil...........
.....do........
.....do........
.....do........
.....do........
.....do........
.....do........
Subsoil.......
Sol ...........
Subsoil......
Soil...........
Subsoail.......

.....do........
....do....

.....do........
.....do........
.....do........
.....do........
.....do........
.....do........

.....do........


Crop and locality.


I --- -


Pasture, Wahiwa.....................................
.....do.-.......... ..... ..... ..................
.....do........................ ......................
.....do.............................................
.....do..................................................
.....do-..................................................
Citrus orchard station.................................
Prices Wailki,.........................................
.....do. ...........................................
Pasture, Kaneohe.......-..-..........-..................
.....do-..-..........-......................................
Abandoned pineapple field, Kaneoheo....................
.....do................................................
Pasture, Kaneohe ............... ........................
.-...do......... ........-..-...-.-.-...-.---....
.....do....................... .... ...............
.....do..........................................
Pasture and guava, Kaneohe .............................
Guava, Kaneohe .....................-...............
Pasture, Kohalal.......... ...........................
Pasture, Wahiawa.................................. .
Rice, Fort Shafter.................-....................
Coconut grove, Kailua................................
.....do..........................-......................
Rice land, Kailua .......................................
.....do ...............................................--.
Coffee, Maunawfll-...................-.......-..........-
....Pasture Waipdo ............ -................ ..............
Pasture Waipiood......................................
Panicum, Glenwood ...................................
Sugaforest, Glenwood .................................
Sugar cane, Glenwood.............................
garn cfo t, Glentwood .............................---.
Sugar cane (Glenwood............................-------
Pasture, Glenwood......................................
Ferns, etc. Glenwood...........................--..-..
Pasture, EItunla.......................................
Pasture, Wahiawa.....................................


1 Not determined.


nitr"at J


Lab.
No.


229
230
233
234
235
236
273
292
293
300
301
302
303
306
307
310
312
313
315
328
330
334
335
336
337
338
341
342
417
449
450
451
452
454
456
4657
458
486
488


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J:
.1
.4
.2
.4
A.5
3.0

.5
.7
.9:
.8

.1
.4
.3
1.2
1.3
.0
2.5
.7
15.0
5.7
.5
2.2
.4
.4
.8
.8
.3
.2
*.3
.4

6.0
1.06


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^A heja~el o. ,86were aken from the
ILA mea th Ian tw l evoed poton

Xl~dm thislamdshoils irnerly. Thertbefore
whichcontaioned any genserable
am, prous-an. .,ele s phan *t h ofcnsiderable
*A





porou~~~~ ,adogmcs6MthWndonitriiaion such I
Of i'ta whn ncutiate. os. 44raton :59ae.Ammnifcatio
*0RPjote sob--bu:.oneofthee ontained morles u hnmt
M~rulle -iwaio fctos M, ths i ton siomekV detent.,
H~wa~wxm, -vtherormeil aelieved potionb
wheitfese~si Expa e rime nt warmer conditions
has be found toa setni andorgi

contento e Boils sewhd isa w es thanta ul the nitrate.
v h.....................................itri i..tio n....ak e











*WIF-M [lan intanes sarcly a al, wich sewl, beh
su sq e tj is iijitoitiiMoiiiiiiioi











".1o ~ ~~~~une Itrl *:desonditionar, g-oso oeo esuint h
-be assimilated.




................6.
i# 11"t WTZ o b 0tnr&Ud oa~n tauo&Tz u u
10 OM
iii0 ~ 'a 1 I u ~ .M
iiiiiiiiiii m o) P 3
iiiiiii NOW = ),p.17
iiiiVe W. 4(BM p 27W40( WI*
4)1W. A L SiiiiiiiiiiW-
... ... ... ... ................. ... i iA































been maintained for a period of weeks; and the vigorousi
S, practically all the uncultivated species'in the islands ando f
as rice, taro, and bananas, each of which is frequently pl ~.
L conditions which prevent nitrification, furnishes abundanti
of the availability of the nitrogen present, and points eo
the dependence on forms other than nitrate. .......
Since ammonia nitrogen was found in these soils in
amounts, and ammonification can take place under th31~ae
conditions, it seems justifiable to believe that ammonia sa
tant source of available nitrogen to the plants growing hereop
ammonification is of far greater importance than nitriicatioi
SOIL AERATION.
The importance of aeration in soils is generally reeogn
general, the degree of aeration depends upon theiproi' y itya
content, and can be greatly increased by tillage. No
the importance of oxygen in soils, and the fact that aeration
bacterial action, the specific effects resulting from aeration are fF
being adequately understood.
1 Landw. Jahrb., 34 (1905), p. 761. Jour. Agr. ScB., 4 (1912), pp. 28k 2 :;
Hawaii Sta. Bul. 24. 4 U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Soiis la.E (ftUW.a:


S... .-., "

















af t th toS Of nitrate andh tnuoi nitrV0o


po.iffttroatfe uncutiva troed so4 cliaed, Woils
tirtopr ilio,
Vt














rom iind locaity.. T

..... Ot usarha~ p taio ................. .... ........ 1. 1
~~~~...... Con tto............. .. .. .. ......... 4.7 M6 8
.. .Citrus ;r;hard',ta on ... :..... .. ... 1 5 15A4
... ..:a .de----------.--- ...... ....v...... .- c A .5 0.
OA- ..Fnape aele................. too. 10M26
....... ..... d6 ................... ......... ............... 12.6 2L 0 I
p ........ ..... o. .............. .. ...... 17.0 10.6
..ao......Netropf Ir heOW ...---------.. .................... 15.4 1.
'W_, .. ..... do. .. ...........................................7 12.6
-------.... Corn, Koha .............................. ......... ... 19.0 15.4
X. .... P* %epplO ------ ....................... 10.0 12.6:
'; .d ........ No crop, W aipio .................... -7---------- 4-- 75.0 33.6
-..do ........ lip crop, Helera o.. ...................... 32.0 28 0
-,.do ........ No crop, Fort 8 at .... ....................... 3.0 & 4
fttsasit....... ..... do ....... ............ ....... ..... w............ 1.5 84
So ........... No erop, Kaflus ..................................... .... 10.0()
.. .> ...,do ............... .......................... 5.0()
.., ~ ~ ~ W O ... PneplsWaiw ...................... ........... 40.0 1.
;..A ....... C rnGle woo ................ .....................726.
.do ........ Liis Glen o d. ..3K ...... .............................. 4.7 21.0
--- do-.... No rop, Glenwood.... :.................................. 1.0 4.2
o....... l& U i .. .............---- ............ 10,0 (
....o... .., Apls Wa iaw .................--................. 10.8(1

I Not determined.

umonsason of, the above data, w"t Ithat 'in the previous table
I-477WWOhat, whsen aerated condition are brought about in H1awaiian
SOWf, nitrification generally bec-omes. active. Au 0oification was
sbo stimulated by tillage. However, as previously stated, nitrifica-
fion is at a low ebb in cetain soil although well aerated. The above
J~ushows !hat soil No. 409 contained only one part of nitrate per
i~oixThis sod' Wa been thoroughls tilled for several months and
a s lrg amount of organi matter. The low nitrifiation
place here appears to be due to climatic factors rather than the
of the nirfigognssadi en ute netgted.

stains
about 20 per cent titanic oxid; No. 288 contains a large excess of
whl hrt ft80Sisie pgl er gnucn

onh vrg.'bu 0 ercn ercwd ic h



















The inert character of the virgin soils of Hawaii has
referred to. Moreover, heavy applications pf various f e.
eluding nitrate, often fail to induce vigorous growth of pnMe
the new lands. In investigating this phenomenon, various'
have been applied, including aeration for different lehgtbs.:.
the- application of lime, burning, and partial sterilizatoa.:,
samples of soil were taken from uncultivated fields, and at t
time samples of corresponding soil cultivated at intervals..:
months without having any crop growing thereon. At t&
sampling the nitrate and ammonia were as follows:

Nitrate and ammonia nitrogen in cultivated and uncultiwated ils,..
[Parts per million.]



329 Cultivated............ 75.0 33.6 417 Uncultivated.......... 0.4" .f.

l Not determined. -f
contain an extremely lowgen nitrate content.



"* V
330 Uncultivated ......... 1.3 14.0 487 Cultivated ............ 10.8
416 Cultivated----------.. 40.0 11.9 4s8 Uncultivated ......... 1..






EFFECTS OF BRIEF AERATION.
.. .:.': .. .
Further investigation of the effects produced by aeration led :os
study of nitrification and ammonification at various intervals t
the samples were drawn. The samples were divided into di i
portions. One of each was spread out in the laboratory to
The nitrate and ammonia were determined in these portbo .
intervals, as shown in the table following.
.I.



C. '..,,:::sS

















niaiiicaton tok il.e-i
11

-r







reach~Ingth botry
NO.




to3t .inadakclst
P4




_%'O 41 Nsteri 10,ula 0



la ~ate CUtak-itraedU& 1.
.......... 0a e 4C8 485.do ..... .......... 200.0 .'..
000 4 7.7. 488......te. ...' 4 400 2, 0. 0 1,6,4
.. 61...... 1.2. 11 4M22 2 W. +1 1.2 t & 0.

the1...1. d'. .....mo..... None took lace to .... A.consderabl


......wit ...the-exception..of.No. N330, was0 inativ in.... t .he ..
*o'.......Th..e...moisture..... 14n of t1ese sols at t tim,7o

...........3.29y 30,.and.4...d .... th ne .t thre We k.. ... .....



..........4...............f.rom.2701 to1300 1. C 8i0 a.ar loe....
vari.........in.e.rvals........... 28 2. wihran wit. a + 17ile spatula,

aid ni.....i...........in 10ls afe 48ho0 p& id of aeratioir.


00 OW~waf ............. .................. None. M 0 33.6 ........... ..........
3W........... m .......... ............. 14 140.0 42.0 + 65.0 +.... M.
M do...................................... 46 220.0 33. 6 + 145.0 .0 5
00 U tvrtd....... ............................ NUM 14.s 14.0 + 2.5 s4 4
........ ...... ... ............ 101 70.0 2EL8 + &7 +4.0 s ~
4" .... do .... .. 14 + 2
40 o.. :................. 2 30 4. 26 +U


A7 d ....................42 1.:20 + 16 + 3.






























Si.La AJAU JO U0 iuu sLMu. ra & LJI.UL I L JA.&EJAC VV p4A L AI *BU 4. ;V. OLaFsUUA P S WlS 0i
to anaerobic fermentation, and that the acidity cap b
(neutralized) by bringing about aerated conditions for a4
length of time. Thus it is that the farmer explains the
effects of tillage. On the other hand, bacteriologists hold
teriotoxins may accumulate in soils in certain conditionw,.s
the nitrifying organisms either may not be present in soi
maining under anaerobic conditions, or lose in part their ph
activity. In order to throw some light on these questions.
from a soil containing vigorous nitrifying and ammonifying
were added to portions of the cultivated and uncultivated soils|
in addition, dried blood at the rate of 2 grams and calcium car
at the rate of 1 gram per 100 grams of soil. After bringing to'.
mum moisture with sterile water, the soils were kept in tum...
temperatures from 270 to 300 C. for 7 days in the ammonifioai
periments, and 21 days in the nitrification experiments. At
of these periods the ammonia and nitrate were determined, as
in the table following. .:....





4-
i... ... .. :::.-H :








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.... ..-. ..:..











.~~~~~~ .... Si18. + 4.v





-- ----- ........... 31.9 IS.& 0 + 2.1 +* to A
---------- 4.0.... .. .. 126 10.0 4- 7.0 + 10.5#
www. gm. blod...............131-.009 + 119.4 + WO
,.. 2go redlo+gm. OthOs*:.. Io 5M0 AW5 +145 0A + 8.2
...... g~dral 1oo+1gm cocaO~+ 1,51440 112.0 +1:13M'4 + W.7
...N n ......... ....................... 1091 22.4 214 +-MA.
.---------- ------- 12..G O~ ............ .63 820.0 1.4 + WS.
2,... g2mV .'drieblood....... -------- ---- 9258.0 189.9 + 9114740 +14&S
2M..;,- 23padriedblood+1 gm.ce.:.....O 1,147. 0 118.0 +111W.01 +19.7
X & ------_--------- ----- I ......... 0.9 V. 78, 14 + M O
I$o.... 1gm.Cacof........................... 6.3 4$20 6.6 +42.9
Ab........ 2 gm die blood. ............ 0... 1 806. .0, +1.474-1 +14&0
-oa.-------- I gm, 4re blood-Ft gm. Cacos... 1100 2.2 +1,12. + LI

ibove results show that previous cultivation- produced re~mark-
Ve 6c on+ armonification and nitrification, especially the latter.
+it *as found that the nitrates in- cultivated so0ils Nos. 329 and
+tet treatment increased. in 21 days from 75 and 40 parts
35and 78 parts per million, respectively, while the nitrate in the'
ntdingv uncultivated soil Nos,, 330 and 417 micreased from 1.3
'0A 'Parts to only 22.4 and 2.5 parts, respectively. Expresin
+results in another way, cultivated: soil No. 329 gained 60 parts
atin of nitrate nitroge n, while. the corresponding uncultivated
N6. 330 galed only 21.1-parts, and cultivated soil No. 416
38 parts -per million, while the uncultivated soil No. 417
ie Only 2.1 parts.
The addition of active infusions brought. about only slight Micrease
in saitrification, while: the addition of dried blood caused a slight
-decrease. in nitrates in soil No. 329, and a considerably larger decrease
in- mil No. 330. On the other hand, nitrification in soil No. 416
Wus greatly stimulated by the addition of dried blood, but no effects
pier oice in the corresponding uncultivated soil No. 417. Ol
Oliht+ effects were produced by the addition of calcium carbonate,
4hus, showing that acidity is] not the cause of the low nitrification in
these Soils*
Turning to the effects produced on ammonification, we find that
Writer the. addition of active infusions nor of lime produced mny
effects, but that the, ammnopification of dried blood wais active in
,-verwy case, although proceeding with more vigr 'in the cultivate



























487 Cultivated.... None.................................. 13.2 53.0 -P
487 ....do........ 2 gm. dried blood ....................... 7.7 281.0 -3.
487 .....do........ 2 gm. dried blood+2 gm. CaCO......... 13.5 239.0 +.7
487 ....do........ 2g. dried blood+2 gm. CaCOi+ 11.5 235.0. +07,':
infusion. .. .....
488 Uncultivated.. None................................... 2.7 602 +
488 .....do.......... 2 gm. dried blood....................... 2.6 303.1 +t. A
488 .....do......... 2 gm. dried blood+2 gmi. CaCOO...... 7.2 227.5 + .-:
488 ..-..do......... 2 gm. dried blood+2 gm. CaeO+ 5.5 226.1 41.9
infusion.

Here we see that ammonification took place, although
actively as in the soils previously discussed, and that neither- lim
active infusions brought about any increase over that which 0
without them. Practically no nitrification took place in any.
of the cultivated or uncultivated soil. Thus while the previous i
nation had affected the nitrate content to a slight extent, the bei
effects produced were very soon destroyed in the saturated conditid
These soils contain a very high clay content and a small aait
humus, and the clay is exceedingly deflocculated. Continued .
therefore, cause packing and bring about anaerobic conditions.
In the following series 10 cubic centimeters of infusion, obtain, l
vigorously shaking'for 10 minutes 100 grams of uncultivated sao fl
417 with 200 cubic centimeters sterile water, were added to 100
of the cultivated soil No. 416 both with and without dried blood i
calcium carbonate. At the same time infusions from the culti.
soil were added to portions of the uncultivated soil. After the
incubation periods, ammonia and nitrate were determined, with
results shown in the table following.









S.......E' i












Ifterts Per millioml

Gain (+).or looss -
"v~tus Cn- mmonia Nqltrte
ditcaLTreatment. nitrgen nitrogen
found fon Amimon Ntb*Wt
nitrogen Uttrogen.

1~ ~ ~ Oit" e. N ........................... ...... 10.5 X. 1.4 + 3&.0
Touln hookN 49......... .4 .79 &35 +30.0
... 2 Of.didb -h 1 g&.C&cO......... 1,472.0 1TM +1, 4M0I +138.0
2 dred blood+1 gm. CsCOs+jnfu- 1,437.0 157 +1,425.1. +117.0
ftam No. 41T.
.1N ........ ........................ &.9 2.5 LS1. + 2Z1
---------o.410o.ot.ft..No..41S. 6.6 3.8 IT2. + 3.4
..... 2 gm dred blood+j1,gm.CzL .... 1, 13.0 2. 2 +1,122.3 + 8
-46 ..... 2 gLdred blood+1 gin. vc~av+infu- 1,102. 0 10.1 +1,094.3: + 9:7
ildin m No. 416


1 ti no 0 effcts were produced-by add'n infusions from the
tothe uncultivated soils,,or vice versa, except where dried
and a lm wee added also. In. these instances the infusions
Iti d oilcauedA dei1ireas in both nitrification and

cton, wereas adding infusions froma the cultivated soil
a stiulat nion nitrification. The. inhibiting agent in the
tdsoil, therefore, seems to be capable of being transferred
in a wtersoution although the results are not entirely convincing.
la -ert study. the effects brought about by sterilization, 100-
gmm ortionswere heated in an autoclave for two hours at a pressure
of *wo tmopheier:- After cooling, dried blood, calcium carbonate,
swi nusinsfrom the .original soils were added, optimum moisture
wudtios bought about, and incubated for -the usual periods. The
-cwiat e that accumulated are shown in the following

Ammonifleaion and nitrification after sterilizing in autoclave.
[Parts per million.)

Ammoni Nitrate
Notmnt codtinitrognntoe
f oun de. fu

4M ~atd .. No in clitiao .............................................. 12.5 57.5
4" -.40 .. TImuin from No 416 ....................................... 18.0 51.,0
4R6 .: ..do...... Infso fromiNo.'416+2 gm. dried blood ..................... 85.0 51.0
96 ....do...... Lns from No. 416+2 gm. dried blood+1I gm. CacOj..... 37.1 55.5
41 4..do...... Ituin krm No. 417 ....................................... 17.2 52.0
416 d ...... Infso from No. 417+2 gm. dried blood....... ............. 31.5 51.0
416.... o ...... Infusin from No. 417+2 gm. dried blood+1 gm. CacOs --- 32.1 51.0
-41 Um1 v te No ino ultion ---------------------------------------------- 12.2 .6
41;. ... do..... Infso from No. 416 ................... 19. 0 8
417 .. ... do.....Ifso from No, 416+2 gm. dried blood ................... 35.2 .8
417 _._o.. ... Infso from No. 416+2 gm. dried blood+ 1gm. C&C0# ...... 37.4 1.2
417 ... do.....I fso from No. 417 ....................................... 18.9 4
417 ...d ..... Infuio from No. 417+2 gm. dried blood ................... 31.5 1.A
417 AL ----- t frsoom No. 417+2 gm. dried blood+1I gm. C&COx..... 31.6 1.9


Tm diA sho that the ammoni-frring ouranisms occurming in tile








































Lab. Previous Treatment
No. condition. nitrogen.,

329 Cultivated.... Immediately after burning................................. 274.0
329 .....do---.....-- Active infusion- --..............- ............... ........ 254.0
329 .....do......... 2 gm. dried blood+1 gm. CaCOa+active infusion............ 599.0
330 Uncultivated -. Immediately after burning........--..-......-.-.....-.....-.- 183.0, '
330 .....do.-....... Active infusion-...-... -......-. ..... ..... ....-....-...-.... 206.0
330 do-----ctie nfuio -------------- m----------------------206.0 *
330 .....do......... 2 gm. dried blood+1 gm. CaCOs+active infusion ............. 929.0


In the first place heat caused an initial splitting off of a
amount of ammonia and a partial decomposition of the itr
The subsequent ammonification was practically -the same in
soil, however, while nitrification took place to a slight extent,
No. 329 only. Thus, again, it is shown that heat reacts on thii
tivated and uncultivated soils of Hawaii in such way as to 4 h
them into similar conditions so far as bacterial action is concern

EFFECTS OF PARTIAL STERILIZATION.

For a number of years it has been known that plant stimun ati
may be brought about in soils by means of heating and by the apple
cation of such substances as carbon bisulphid, chloroform, etc. lTh
1 Hawaii Sta. Bul. 30 (1913).






.. ... .... ..... ..... .... ... ..&..;: ... A








thesebr w* noli commnw*y considered tbe Aue, to
usdon ake, Bollraiet either directly orinrel.
know fo a bme imor instOUc62 that; WWe the, UumI
bacteria -are geabrally reduced by partial sterilization, later
bacterial population rise to abnormal proportions,
different views hold on this- subject may be briefly summarized
three heada. First, the::stimulation theory,: by which it is
_6at the organisms which survive reeve a direct stimulation
Ih reat out in addition tobeing supplied iha&nraei
vuadO available by, the steriization, through decomposition of
vrgAni matter, and in the cells of the organisms killed by the
4.Second, the: protozoan theory, uccordig to wfiich par-
tarliztion causes &',destruction of certain phagocytes, which are
to feed upon the: bacteria of 'Boils and thus keep their num,
Sand, consequently their efficiency,. in check. The .amcebwe,
ietc. being kiled..by the: treatment, -the remaining bacteria
multply ta great numbers, -and -thpgreater numbers of bacteria
arising, rather than increased efficiency, cause the production of
tramounts of available -nitrogen. Third, the bacteriotosin
Soil film theory, according to which soils may contain sub-
0$c3s poisonous to bacteria, which substances are capable of being
*decodiiposed at the temperatures employed in partial sterilization by
oam%= of heat. Volatile antiseptics, ofi the other hand, bring about
.4 serialal stirmulation- stbrough the solvent eff ects -exerted on certain
0r"anc substances which surround the soil particles and which par-
tilywaterproof t thus protecting the organic substances from
t*e attack of bacteria. Upon evaporpting the antiseptic, the dis,-
.-44vekl substances become redistributed in such way as to leave the
soil particles more, open to bacterial invasion.
it will be noted that all but one of the theories above named pre-
suppose the existence -of a limiting agent in soils, the presence of one
or more factors which operate to hold in check bacterial action.
From the experiments above recorded it seems that the uncultivated
soils of: Hawaii contain some. agent which limits bacterial action.
It was shown, for instance, that the low bacterial efficiency is not due
to-the: absence of oxygen as such, nor the specific organism, but rather
"towthe presence of some factor which is susceptible of alteration by
wwration, but considerable time is required for the aeration to exert
its effects. It was suggested, therefore, that, the toxic condition
might be susceptible of alteration by partial sterilization. For this
reason the following experiments were undertaken.
In these experiments the methods employed by Russell and
Huthso were used. The soils on reaching the laboratory were
Iler. Agr. 8E1., 3 (1W09, pp. 111-144; also RaeaeB and Golding,, Wbd., 5 (1912)s pp. 27-47; Rumse and
Pathebrdae. 5 (1912), pp. W6111; RuggH sand Hachnon bi. 5 (191)., pp. 10-22L.































sterile water, placed in large fruit jArs, loosely stoppered, adi.
a dark closet at about 280 C. The moisture was maintain d i
addition of sterile water from time to tinie. At different:
portions were withdrawn with a sterile spatula, and the iiit
ammonia determined. The results are shown in the following

Ammonia and nitrate nitrogen in partially sterilized soils. :

[Parts permillion ofthe ar-dried soil.]
AMMONIA NITROGEN. : .;,
; ; :*.. "i."^:


Cultivated soil No. 329.


Before
treat-
ment.


After 8 After 14 After 21 After 28
days. days. days. days.


SBefore
treat-
meat.


Uncultivated soil No' St i


After 8
days.


After 14
,days.


knellc.


Untreated.. ........ 33.6 39.2 22.4 28.0 33.6 14.0 19.6 11.2 22.4
Heated to 980 C..... 33.6 104.8 106.4 128.8 123.2 14.0 67.2 72.8 ,84.
Toluol.............. 33.6 117.6 114.8 126.0 131.6 14.0 89.6 114.8 120.4


NITRATE NITROGEN.


Untreated....-..... 75.0 220.0 220,0 168.0 220.0 1.3 13,0 14.6 1j ;. l'
Heated to 980 C..... 75.0 150.0 148.0 140.0 164.0 1.3 5.0 -6,0 5.0 .
Toluol.............. 75.0 190.0 180.0 160.0 65.0 1.8 38.0 3S4.8 S


TOTAL NITRATE AND AMMONIA NITROGEN. i

Untreated........... 108.6 259.2 242.4 196.0 253.6 15.3 32.6 25.8 41.21 A
Heated to 980 C..... 108.6 254.8 254.4 268.8 287.2 15.3 72.2 78.8 89~
Toluol .............. 108.6 307.6 294.8 286.0 196.6 15.3 127.6 149.6 158.8,


GAINS IN NITRATE AND AMMONIA NITROGEN.

Untreated........... ....... 150.6 133.8 87.4 145.0 ....... 17.3 10.6 .25.9.,i
Heated to 980 C............ 146.2 145.8 160.2 178.6 ........ 56.9 63.5 73.7 U
Toluol.............. ........ 199.0 186.2 177.4 88.01 ........ 112.38 134.3 138.33:



I,. '.4


Treatment.


3i~u-
ic.

i,f--


S 'i: l
ub
si


t.,. ,....













After 7 14After 21 After 28 thee After 7 After 14 Atr2 fe


196 11-1 14 ID 16.8 29.0 22.4 63.2 42.0 4Z. 430
Z-6, a. 100.8 IM8.4 IM002 32-8 IMO. .14& 4 10D.6 1816
W478 4 100. 8 109.2 M 0 4 .25. 2 120. 4 15K G 102. 4 179. 2

NITRAT9 NITMIOGE14.

70-0 90f0 1 8 664: 00 W 0.6 0- 6 13. 0 &S MO1:
6&.0 65.0 70.0 640 60.0 .7 2.3 8.8 .7 .6
80.0 62.0 64.0 W0.0 60-0 .4 .5 12.0 .7 .

'TOTAL WITTRATE 4ND AMMONIA NTROGEN.

W. 6 IM10. 2 106'a 02 119. 0 2W. 0 59 5&.0 51, 6 54. 0
.., 101.6 151.8 170-.8 170.4 IQ" _A 11.3: 157.,21 160.3 108.6
......- 80. 4 140A. 4 144.8 19 A 2 109. 4: 25.46 120. 9 166. 0 163. 1 179. 8

QAINS'IX $IT4tA'rE AND *MRO"IA NITRtOGEN9.

t .. ....... 11.6 1&.4 13.2 26.4 3D.. 308 32.0 34.6 31.0
ae0 ..... ........ 50.2 M4. 68.8 67.6 ....... 8D. 8 123.7 126.8 135.1I
W-.. .... 80 M2.4 8&8.8 98.0 ......... 95.3 140.4 137.5 154.2-

above datsowht oblefos were produced 'by partial
*ftdliztion. For instae :as -result of the treatment,thamoi
"oteot ingreased in both cultivatead uncultivated soils during
as et~ie 2-da-peiodof observation. Nitrification, o h te
'"Ad, Wa totllihbie in sol os.: 416 and 417, while in Nos, 329
W', 330 it: wag conmiderabl checked in most instances. The data
&-owing the gains in total ammonia and nitrate bring out the effects
lqklrki corrcl sin. the nitrate formed must have passed through
tho, sngaonia stwg. Cultlivated- soil No. 329 gained 33.6 parts per,
Mmllo as a result of heating, while the uncultivated 'oil No. 330
gaied4-5.4 parts. Treatment with toluol affected amo~fcation in
iA N~o.* 329 very much'the sameO as heating, while in No. 330 toluol
jneued notably greater efects, but, in the former instances denitri-,
pe asbecame. excessive, the nitrate content having decreased,
atmF the eigh~th d4y.,. from 190 parts to 65 parts per million. Some
*Misnifiation took place insoil No. 330, although to a much leas

uCosidering soils Nos. 416 and 417, we find. that partial sterilization
prouce smilr effects in both the cultivated: and uncultivated
soiscanigon the one hand, a marked stimulAtion in the monq
Jmtd seel 6n the otathw tot&ely, nrqvetipg.-'itrification. Ttis a awa



































NITRATE NITROGEN.

Untreated-............. 4.7 36.0 44.0 40.0 40.0 0.5 24.0 27.5 3. .4.8 :
Heated to 98 C........ 4.7 28.0 37.2 42.0 67.0 .5 6.5 14.5 16.0
Toluol ................. 4.7 32.0 68.0 139.0 70.0 .5 1.4 14- & L :


Tho-------------, -----------2-i6.-7. 5. 8. 25322j 4:34.8 ALg' I
TOTAL AMMONIA AND NITRATE NITROGENE.

Untreated............. 21.5 64.0 55.2 56.4 54.0 2.5 43.6 41.5 .4.4.6..
Heated to 98 C........ 21.5 72.8 76.4 81.2 40.4 .2.5 40.1 53.7 5.4 51
Toluol................. 21.5 68.4 79.2 53.0 89.6 2.5 32.2 45:3 41'8 .A.'.i

GAINS IN AMMONIA AND NITRATE NITROGEN.

Untreated......-..... ....... 42.5 33.7 34.9 32.5 41.1 ....... 39.0 42.1 P 4.
Heatedto 98 C........ ... .. 51.3 54.9 59.7 67.9 37.6 ....... 51.2 49.0
Toluol........ ...... ...... 46.9 57.7 31.5 68.1 29.7 ....... 42.8 9.3

1 Too low, probably due to error of determination.

Thus it is shown that ammonification was greatly stinmua
soil No. 288 by heating to 980 C. and by the addition of toluf6L
the ammonia was prevented from accumulating toward the
the experimental period by the activity of nitrification, where
fiction was partially inhibited in soil No. 292. The total niit*
and nitrate present at the different intervals show that an
in the amounts of available nitrogen was produced by partial t
ization, but the effectiveness of the treatment was much' grea la
the soil from the experiment station grounds than in the rice i i
In fact, the total ammonia and nitrate at the different interv&W*
the portions of soil No. 292 treated with toluol were practicarlIt


S. .


L i;:i:t;.






the-enttested~~~7-01 -otos htth ees nTh


wero small. Te effets produced With soilWo. M",
behind, were notable' amounting Wo more than 100 Per ceidt
Mn the availble nitrogen.
conclusion to he drawn from, the above experiments is thOt
action in Haysitan* soils may be greatly stimulated by par-
pteiliatinand that, in a few instances, stim~ulatioix vasy result
m.on although it is temporarily inhibited,.
elamedby Russell and Hutchinson'a that. the stimulation
to- a onication by partial sterilization may be slowly over-
byreinoculation with a small portion of the original soil. They
forh example, t144 the numbers of bacteria in the reinoculated
decreased.. gradually diminishing im numbers until approlfi-
tho sa "me number were found as in the untreated soil, and
the moi content also decreased, the amounts found being
Proportional- to the number of bacteria present. They
to thes phenomena to the reintroduction into the t-reated soil
eli tin Wgnt believedd by them to be protozoa) that Occurs in
SOiUS, hihagleat, they hold,- is destroyed by partial steriliza--
For the purpose of studying the effects thus, produced in
Soils, the same treatments a were employed in the previous
were applied to different soils, and they were reinoculated
*dding 5 peir-cent by weight of the original soil. Observ-ations
a much longer period than was employed in the previous experi-
WeatU were made and optimum moisture conditions maintained
woghout.' The results are recorded in- the following tables:
-,:EfBecs of partial sterilization, soil No. 428.
[Parts per million.]
AMMONIA NITROGEN.

At thetet.A After After After After After After Afw
TAW~ent befi""7 days. 14 days. 21 ditys. 35 clays. 63 days. 13ys 201s

atetd........................... 106. 4 123. 2 123. 2 95. 2 75. 6 5. 6 5. 6 14.0
gae tO* ....................... 10&.6 12& 8 141.7 L59.6 171.6 207.2 159.6 11.2
+ 5 per cent =Wimna sil... 10M.4 137. 2 145. 6 154.0O 162. 4 16. 8 2. 8 1&.4
Super cent ..................... 100. 8 151. 2 154&0 170. 8 1810 210.0 IX20 4 22. 4
+6per cent origi wnals .... -- 100. 8 L54. 0 148. 4 170. 8 171. 6 14.0O 5. 6 14. 0
4pareent...................... 9&.0 12&.0 142.8 U& -4 164.0 210.0 24& 8 20&88
+5 perentariginalsoil......... 9&.0 137.2 146.6 168.0 164.0 20C.4 168.0 11L2

NITRATE NITROGENT.

-------------............ 50:5 74.0 G& 0 88.0 94.0 225L 0 310.0 SUS.
losdto Or C.. ............ 5&.5 64.0 67.5 5K 0 W6.0 77.5 160.0 28&60
w~d+ 5 per cowt orgnl ol&.B5. 64.0 62L 0 6&0 60.0O 235.0O 380.0O 3a08
t 4 percent ..................... 54.5 64.0 62.0 W6.0 M0.0 75.0 1K0.0 2f0 0
+ 45 per cent or*gna so....W 5 64.0 ft. 0 60.0 60.0O 232.5 290.0 380.
4 pwerent .... ................. S&.0 5&.0 64.0 64.0 56&0 72.0 80.0 75!.0
+ a per centarigbWnalsa......... 5&.0 0& 0 6L. 40 6 2.0 a 7.685.0BL 309L








































Efects of partial sterilization, soil

[Parts per million.)

AMMONIA NITROGEN,


No .. 4 8.


*-. :.:;::: !:.


Treatment.


Untreated..........................
Heated to 98" C.....................
Heated + 5 per cent original soil....
Toluol 4 per cent....................
Toluol + 5 per cent original soil.....
CSB 4 per cent......................
CSi + 5 per cent original soil........


Before
treat-
ment.


After
7 days.


After
14 days.


After
21 days.


After
28 days.


After:::A
6days. ,.
I t


.- I I 1- i. -l


8.4
36.4
39.2
47.6
42.0
44. 8
42.0


16.8
56. 0
44.8
61. 6
56.0
64.4
61.6
1


14.0
46.7
39.2
61.6
33.6
67.2
67.2


22.4
22.4
8.4
33.6
14.0
70.0
70.0


'.4

11.2
11.2
11.2
70.0
72.8


as
itt


I ..


NITRATE NITROGEN.


Untreated........................... 10.0 18.0 23.5 30.0 30.0 32.0 6 2.5
Heated to 98" C.................... 10.0 13.0 15.0 30.0 66:0 82.5 92. :
Heated + 5 per cent original soil.... 10.0 14.8 20.0 32.5 70.0 75.0 Ut)
Toluol 4 per cent..................... 10.0 10.0 8.4 16.0 36.0 .65.0 9IL
Toluol + 5 per cent original soil...... 10.0 12.0 14.8 27.5 62.0 72.5 Wt.
CS, 4 per cent.......................- 10.0 1.0 2.8 5.7 7.6 8.0 M10
CS2 + 5 per cent original soil .....-. 10.0 2.5 5.0 8.5 8.6 9.8 St.


TOTAL NITRATE AND AMMONIA NITROGEN.


-" : ": ,!*.'
* *"..*Bi


Untreated ........................... 170 26.4 40.3 44.0 52.4 40.4 it:
Heated to 98 C..................... 17.0 49.4 71.0 76.7 88.4 99.3 I
Heated + 5 per cent original soil ... 17.0 54.0 64.8 71.7 78. 4 86.2
Toluol 4 percent ................... 17.0 57.6 70.0 77.6 69.6 76.2 88.
Toluol + 5 per cent original soil.... 17.0 54.0 70.8 61.1 76.0 83.7 106!9
CS 4 percent.................... 17.0 45.8 67.2 72.9 77.6 78.0 97.4
CSs + 5 per cent original soil......... 17.0 44.5 66.6 75.7 78.6 82.6 10&.!


GAINS IN NITRATE AND AMMONIA NITROGEN.
........ ::. .

Untreated........................ ........ 9.4 23.3 27.0 35.4 23.4 .539
Heated to 980 C............................. 32.4 54.0 59.7 71. 4 82.3 1. 1 .
Heated + 5 percent original soil ......... 37.0 47.8 54.7 61.4 69.2 S8.
Toluol 4 per cent....- .........--...-...--..... 40.6 53.0 60.6 52.6 50.2 7 4
Toluol + 5 per cent original soil..... ..... 37.0 53.8 44.1 59.0 66.7 8 .
CSI 4 per cent............................. 28.8 50.2 55.9 60.6 61.0 80 4
CSB + 5 per cent original soil............... 27.5 49.6 58.7 61.6 65.6 91.7
-,-.. -...


S; I

' 4?
-.i.


.....










Mi :N7i




4kO 4 1#10 14L 0 11.,2 -14.0 68 I.
40 8
IL O 0 81. 2 71 8 It. 8 1IC 8 I0S 0
& 0 78 0&8 0 IM19. 6 10&. 4 U17. 6 &. 4
1& 0 'M.O0. O 0. 11M. 8 M0 4 16. 8 11. 2 14.6O
&.. 80 646 R. 96,2 91L2 101.8 114.8 11%0-
&F. 0. 72.9 90. O.21 1OM 2 U6.k2 11; 2, A2




-!-4
NITI ATE NROGEN.
------ 6..0 ML 10 20L.0 25 & 250 34.0 X0.0 8i7 5
...... 60 14.0, 10.0- 19. 0> M50: IMS.5 107.5 17 0
ift4iI soil.. 6.0 & 0 14.0 X6. 640 90011 140.0
-----------.. 6.0 5.0 5.1 15.5 &.5 7.5 00.0 14a00
tgeriialSqilSO..- & 0 50 7 9 .0 4M 0 91.0 12(k 0 135.0
......... .0 0. L5 2X.0 2.5 & 0 310 7.6 220
cfthwa MRl... M. 60 05 2.0O 3.0 &. 2.18 102.5 130.

TOTAL NITRATA AND AMIMMNTA NITROGERN.

....................... 14:6 2&. 34 .0 3 36.2 48.0 S&.8 9& 7
-------....,... It.o 8&.,8 110. 8 10. ID 94. 2 1119. 3 115. 9 184.
3 at aen _orign soft. J 14.0 X 08 95. 2 98& 9 80. 8 106. 8 134. 3 IM. 0,
.. .e .. '-1 14. 0 83. 4 10.8 19 1.9 12& 1 08& 4 151-.2
-rii o 75.0 96.6' RR 8 9(L 4 107. 8 131 2 149.0
------. .... 1.0 A .66.1 .91.6 97.7 9& 2 103.8 122.4 134.0
t ol.. ~.. 14.0O 73. 3 102. 8 98. 2 10M. 4 112.O 113. 7 141. 2

GAINS IN NITRATE AND AMMONIA NITROGEN.

--- ------ ------------.. -------- 12. 4 20.0O 25.0O 22. 2 34.0O 72. 8 S& 7
Ag* 16 -------- ........ ------. 7218 9&. 8 89.0 9 0. 2 165. 3 101. 9 1M70.
fqa" O t riginalsoil.. ----- .. ------ 0 -81.2 84.9 66.8 92.8 M203 14M00
--- -- -- ------ -- --------.. 6.. 9. a 9 8 95.1 97. 9 11L, 1 84. 4 137. 2
prCwnt oridigg soal ----- .------ 61. 0 82. 6 -95. 8 76. 4 93. 8 117. 2 135. 0
pheet......--....... ..... 51.1 77.6 83.7 94.2 89.8 108.4 M 00
5per amt orginh oi...w. ------- 59.3 8& 8 84.2 9&.4 98.0 99.7 127.2


Jt wil be seen that in each soil an increase in the ammonia content
ase~eeted by partial sterilization, but that after the lapse of a cer-
ininterval of. time, varying in~he different soils studied, and also
the "Me soil when partially sterilized by different means, nitrifi
asi~on set in, wit the result that the ammonia content became
to a low and practically equal concentration in all the differ-
.portions of each soil, with the exception of those treated with
n bioulphid. In. this cewe the ammonia content increased
the time of observation, only slight nitrification having
place, and then. only after a lapse of several months. The
Sof 5 per cent of. the original soil to the partially sterilized

produced more vigorous nitrification in the early periods,
no doubt to the introduction of active nitrify*n organmims. The
of effecting partial sterilization probably killed. the greater
of the nitrifying oraim present, as has been shown to take
by-malad uehao d tes






iiiiZ ii iiiii

























'adaU .LJY UJUDJutA ULl U' LJD WV V0 pLCL nUGU. U aL U II A4 It5JI IUL iAtI#.
in a notable decrease in the available nitrogen.
Turning to soils Nos. 485 and 486, it will be seen that "1i
sterilization stimulated ammonification throughout the -i
Reinoculating the portions of No. 485, heated and, t..
toluol, and the portions of No. 486, treated with toluol ai
bisulphid, on the whole produced no effects, while the rei
of No. 485, treated with carbon bisulphid, and the heated
No. 486 caused a considerable reduction in the total nitr
ammonia. On the whole, then, the effects produced by r
the partially sterilized soils are not in harmony with those
Russell et al.
It has been shown by Gainey1 that the use of small amoivp
antiseptics results in immediate stimulation of the bacteria wi
a reduction in the numbers present, such as takes place wherSi
amounts are used. Gainey further found that the applic
different volatile antiseptics produced notable stimulation'.,,
growth of crops, but he failed to detect a corresponding effedtJ
numbers of bacteria present.2 .
In the experiments reported above, the antiseptic was ~allo
evaporate from the soil until no further odor could be detected :
treatments were made on air-dried soils, but, upon bringing ito,
mum moisture content and allowing to stand a few days, a f ,iat
of the antiseptics was detected in most instances. Where,.
bisulphid was employed rather distinct odors of the substanrice
noticed till near the close of the period of observation. Since KM
1 Missouri Bot. Gard.,'Ann. Rpt., 23 (1912), pp. 147-169. ':
2 In Gainey's experiments the moisture content of the soil was brought to one-third or one40lf 9i
tion before the antiseptic was added, and since the substances used are miscible with water tV 6
extent only, it is possible that the different organisms present did not come in contact with the ninb



.. .. .... .
.. .. .. .. i i
U2 :::





LT


Ina










bactera. shon in'ther Aftmeri Atals whom Aer Afrb
Aimo ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 82~ whnbeg oh~ fefc ing paria striiato
Thismay ave eon dues dto s th nhiiing. actio d ofs thes

spik ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 "poe inth fol.m 61.rllei wer Nos810. 2 18.8 an

deft fro patil er& atio. Th porion used47. 00
pere .
0'A
I h 10j










.xeie ... ... 5.6,0 1the soils had. 185.0i i,200h0



TOTA AMMONIAE ANITRMOGNI,
ie






.... ...........--------- 1.1 6: 2Z4 .6 1%8 5&10 7 2. 8 8.6 580.4
Q80.v... ........ X9.6 12.2 44.8 .56 610.6 720.8 1803.6 12& &
-+, Win..... 1. 6 16. 25 S.2 5.6 61.6 724.8 9.284 14C 0
................ 1&, 2 a 6. 4 41. 8 615 6i21.6 5.1 4 824. 0 131.6#
................ 36. 6 00.0 & 3 4 118 4 264.4 214. 4 70.6 100. 8
.... .. ..... 364 3. 6 15 6 24.4 72. 02.4 109.2
........ 99.6 489 7. 3. 00.0 5. 5.60 30.
.V. 19. 6 0. 36.0 755 119.6 270.0 103.6 284.0 292.
W4"8 so# 1& 2 40..2 5&. 8 72.8 270.0 752.6 192. 4 164.
I L
iiiiiiiiiiiiiROiEN .
...................... 7.5 L 0 5 .0 10.0i12ii0i137iiIW O 28ii
ieiCii..i&iiii 2. 1560 16.ii17i 16. 20.
to IS*iiiii5
---------- --------- 0 X 9, '8 .0 11 1&0i15.0ii5.0i06.
02PI mm. ........... 1 2Q X 10 0 16. 140ismo 22.
4ver mt ------- ......... 6-8 4& 0 55. 10. 1K IN.0i1i.0i26.
4 p~r0=t+SPaiii








............. ......... 1&8 350 600 1Wiiii 375 18.



....................... ... ..... .. .. .iiiiiii00, 4 1 .0 4 .0 M 0 8

. ....................... 9 7 iiiiiiiiiiiii& O 10 3 2 C
.................. ................ L 6 4L7 7.2 M O. 22kii21.8 2i02iai
0. e m .......... K2 56 W8 156 216 144 2C 5.
4 e pt........... X4 4& &4 1&4 2L 1. 7. 2
4ieiiii6Wom dgm





















CS4 0.2 per cent........................... +19.3I +49.2s +1 60 1-- ..... + I4& +- i
CS0 4 per cent.............. .... ........ +23.3 +54.8 +98.3 ...... -214
Cs8 4 per cent+5 per cent original sol. ........ +19.5 +4.1 + 55 1 ........ -1.9

The above data show that greater irregularity resulted
treatments than in any of the previously recorded experime 'i
the end of 15 days no important increase in available Mitrg'...
found,, except in the heated portions of soil No. 288 and the
of No. 329 treated with 0.2 per cent carbon bisulphid. On t
hand, a decrease was observed in a number of instances. At tA t
the portions of No. 288 treated with carbon bisulphid conta
tically no nitrate. After 33 days each of the treated portion
tainted an increased amount of available nitrogen, whereas no -i
tion was manifest in soil No. 329, and after 82 days no "cI
found in any instance except the portion of No. 288 treated I
per cent carbon bisulphid and those of No. 329 heated ad 4
with toluol. Reinoculating the portions of No. 288 treated
toluol was without effect, whereas in No. 329 it caused a red ft|ic|Af
from 325.8 to 309.2 parts per million. The use of 0.2 per centio ttj
toluol and carbon bisulphid proved equally as effective as 4 per e
It is notable that irregular and sometimes negative effects
produced by partial sterilization when applied after the soils hEl
air dry for several months, while the same treatment applied :
fresh soils produced regular and stimulating effects.
Before taking up the general discussion of the foregoing
will be of interest to examine the data already submitted; i
view to determining how long the stimulation continued it'M!
different soils studied. In the table following the dati presented
the preceding tables are brought together for the purpose of sho
the gains in available nitrogen during the different periods.

.+ :! .


.-.... ..': ,i
::
... L,,~~~ii" i..
;, El:..
,. i..i::




o









son NO- M9. Zail NO. 330.

bays Days DaMa DOyS Days DaYS Dy Do"s Da"s Das Days- Dals
1-&. &14C 1421L 21-2&. &4&S 14-28 1* 8-14. 14--21. 21-28. 8--28.. 1-28

+IiO4-1.-a8 +,67.6 &06 +11.:m+ 1n.3 -68+15.4 6.2 + 2.4. + 9.2
+14. 4 +14. 4 1& 4 ,,- 3. 6 6 1.-8.+42+L
W44 1.-8.-9 11 -82+1. +22. + 4.0 .6. +25.4 + 3.4

Boll No. 416. Boll No. 417.

IPAs Day D sDasDy Days Days Day Days Days Days Day
1-7 714 1-21. __g,8 T-8 14.17.7-4 1-21 21-2&. 7-28. 14-8

+11. + 4- .&2 +1&. +16. 1.+308 1.+2. 361 + 0 2 LO
+W.2 +10 .4 1. +17.4 1.6 -90.8 +4%. + 3.1 + 8.3 +54: +11.4
41 .+...... 4.41 +11L2 +40.0+56 W 96.3 +45. -2. 9 +16& +5s. +13.S







---------- +36".3 &0 --&.0 -16 +61.0 + 85.0' +2&4 +146.8 +152.8
,......+35.7 +16.4 + 8.4 -+10.0, +57.2 + 34.8 -28.4 + 9M. + 82.0
lcr









---------------- +44. 3 + 6.4. + 2. 4 +11.4 +29. 4 +131. 0 26. 4 +M5. 2 +148. 8
.. ------------- +W-.9 +) .8 +10.8 +15.2 +43.0 + M54 -18.0 + 67.2 + 66.4
------------------ 44...7 +2D..4 + .8 +14.9 + 4..1 +48.4 +126.0 +133.6
-.. ------ +MO. +24.89 +13.6 .4 +62.0 + 38&8 +23.0 +161.8 .+137.0
orglSoflt- +44A2 +10.4 +21. 4 6.0 +45.9 +81L.1 -51.8 +104.0 + 93.6

sonl NO. 485.

.......aD, "syD Days Days Days Days Days Days
1-. -1.14--21. 21-28. 28--35. 35 9M.94 7-156. 1415M.

................... +9.4 +&. +3,7 + & 4 -12.0 +30.5 +30.6 +75.1 +61.2
---------- -----. 1--8+.4 +2L6 +5.7 +17 +10.9 1.2 +33.1 +8L.8 +60&2
........... ....... 437.0 +10.9 +&.0 +68.7 + 7.8 + 9.1: +36.2 +77.5 +06(L7
............ +4160 +12.4 +7.6 &0.0 + 6.6 +12.2 +22.8 +5&.6 +41L2
Sr PWe arigleal
.................. +37.0 +16.8 -9.7 +1&.9 + 7.7 +22.2 +13.1 +65.0 +49.2
COW ----------------- +28.8 +21.4 +5.7 + 4.7 + .4 +19.4 + 9.7 +61.3 +39.9
-- wmt rid Wala.. +27.6 +2L.1 +0.1 + 2.9 + 4.0 +25.1 -14.0 +50.2 +2L I

son No. 4m6.

Days Days Days Days Dama Da"s Days Days Days
1-7. 7--14. 14--21. 21-28. 28-8. 35-0O. 94--156. 7-1W6. 14-M5.

.................... +12.4 + 7.6 + 5.0 + 2.8 +11.8 +38.8 +11. 9 +77.9 +70.3
........+72.8 +24.0 7.8 &.8 +25.1 3.4 +6& 1 +97.2 +7& 2
.........+64.0 +17.2 + 3.7 -18.1 +26.0 +27.5 +19.7 +760.0 +SL88
........... "a4 +2D. 4 + 6.3 + 2,8 +1&.2 -26.7 +52.8 -"7.8 +47.4
-----.............. +01.0 +21L6 +13.2 -19.4 +17.4 +2L4 +17.8 +7&.0 +52.4
4ZL...... +51 +26.5 + 6.1 + .5 + 5.6 +1&.6 +11.6 +68.9 +42.4
ergffae. +89.83 +29.5 4.6 +11-2: +2.6 + 1.7 +27.5 4-67.9 +3&.4
W--






























after a time the effects of the treatment disappeared en

DISCUSSION.
From the investigations above recorded it has been
nitrification does not take place in most Hawaiian soils a d
is employed, and that the effects produced by aeration nmay--.
destroyed by continued wet weather. The virgin soils will ..
port nitrification until they have undergone aeration f. .
months, while the cultivated- soils sustain active nitrification:i,
lack of nitrification in the former is not due to the absence o*a..l
fying organisms or acidity. Neither will the mere brinining .
aerobic conditions suffice. It is necessary that oxidizing oi'.
be maintained for a considerable length of time before .iai
Will take place. Hawaiian soils, therefore, require the ope.t'
the weathering process in order to become suitable to the a
nitrifying bacteria.
Some of the inert virgin soils appear to contain soluble su
which inhibit nitrification. Sterilization in the autoclave":
both cultivated and uncultivated soil in such way as to re in !
practically equal in regard to subsequent ammonification and.|
about conditions toxic to nitrification in each instance; similar.
were produced by heating to still higher temperatures.
Partial sterilization greatly stimulated ammonification, *
stimulation persisted usually for about two weeks only, follo-wed*8
by a retardation in ammonification to a point below that whbich-i
place in the untreated soil. "
:: .
.* ::.:


S.. ... ....
.I : EE: : ": E* :***3 S










soia. tPartial stexgiaion h ore, did not _bA*n
Mnsi the iniert soils as faebeto nitrificittion after
Anas area produced by, coftne aertion, and the, total
nitrogen found in: the partial strlie soils after a lapse
ihonths was in number of isacsless than that in the
soil.
ation. of partially sterinMh5pr eto h
4sRtin some instances caused a teprary reduction in the
-oft aitrato and ammonis- presn, bt this effect was not
permanent. In -fact, the total n a ;mni, in -the
uader observation for the: greats length of time, was iW
stacesincreased by reinouelation In other instances, no
%were produced, while: in still othe instances a permanent
A In the amounts of available nitroe was brought abouL.
0 idene presented above seems topint .to the probability
gatheringg process, aeration, br about-effects similar in
tbut differing in degree from those prodced by partial sterili-
These effects are beieved by the wrter to be in part of the
,oftiddation, but more largely physdl being affected through
produced in the colloidal soil .fms
p rotozoan theory of Russell. and Hutcinson. appears to be of
application to these soils. It..ay be stated that some of
jeea tudied, especiaAy No. 428, contane numerous organisms,
lyinfusoria and ammebw, so.-nueous indeed as to be easily
=&ndr there low-power microscope No. attempt was made
idaitfythegd~i-ganisms, but they appeared to be as numerous in
soltreaed. with toluol and carbon bisulhid 2'some weeks after
tas in untreated soil. LIn the heted portions, however,
Theeorgnaniss were not found, buV im- ifcation was stimulated
by the touol and carbon bisulphid to pracicaly the same extent as

`here is much reason for the belief tha te effects produced by
different methods of partial sterilizationar complicated and can
atbe satisfactorily explained as being deto a simple cause. It
been repeatedly shown that heatingt 98* C. causes more ,or
decomposition of the organic mattero soils., Such changes
Affect subsequent bacterial actin Frequently heat has
shown to bring about conditions temporarily toxic to the nitri-
bsprevimm~alypred the preseceofprotozos i niannis E --- seeHawaiH ugar Plnters,
A. AMd fhes Bal. 34 (1M1).
*oun that the addiUo of proosnw to ctmi Mdjt refmdpo th nmber of bweiftrs






















physical nature of the colloids. Such effects maybeb: .c.,:
be of considerable biological significance, for.new point. |. i
would thus become exposed, fresh supplies of organic :
viously more or less protected from bacterial .invasion i.
open, and an increased food supply brought within t~eir
In addition bacteriotoxins, if present, would probably
some decomposition, and the organisms surviving the it.
find in the cells of the organisms killed an additional store. & .
perhaps easily susceptible to decomposition.
The action of volatile antiseptics may be explained on er,
grounds, the effects produced in this case being on soil
brought about through solvent effects, after the manner de
Greig-Smith.2 Thlat there are substances in soils soluble i4J7
carbon bisulphid, chloroform,3 etc., can hardly be doubted n
such substances would tend to accumulate around soil pa
and on the films also seems very probable. The volatile ani"
would dissolve some of this material, although the amounts
be small and upon evaporation a redistribution of the dis
stances would be expected. Thus new surfaces of organic:
previously protected in part against bacterial invasion would i
exposed. It seems probable, moreover, that some direct
tion would result to the surviving organisms. ..
Thus, according to this view, the effects produced by ..a
sterilization are explainable largely on the basis of its m :aki :
able to the surviving organisms food and organic materials *
alterations in the colloidal films. The effects produced by a
are probably in considerable part of the same nature with the:a|
1 Hawaii Sta. Bul. 30 (1913). '
2 Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 35 (1910), pp. 808-822B; 36 (1911), pp. 609-612, 679699; 37 (192), w.M W
243, 655-672.
8 Texas Sta. Bul. 1566 (1913).


:'AIm


...0. : m
mmJ, (E(m










voio naey ha~t anic to f e pout om

`$lslkrd.' There is urgent nee~t or further wr-on
Ibfore the fundamentalpicpe' can. be positively


'W" the Mitrodutction, lime and isoccur in H0awatiian
'-idely variable amounts, both rltively and absolutely,
y sealagthe magnesia co fen exceeds that of lime.
manesin ratio- therefore is abnormal For a number of
inwressing interest has -been take this ratio in its rela-
plant'growth.. Widely different conclusions have been

subectreceived one ofits first imporant contributio'sfo
okof Lo~ew and May 9 in 190.1. Asaresult of their experi-
thyconcluded- that the ratio of lim to magnesia has an
bearing upon the growth of, cr During the following
Uew* and his coworkers 'in Japin 3 ducted further expAeri-
06"g this line both in: cultureJ sltons and soil cultures,
"frther con-firmed -the conclusion aived at formerly. As
ffite lime-magnesias ratio in sojils a come to be, known as
Lewtheory. In general Loew found tat a number of plants
eonsklrably affected by variations in hi ratio and that different
,are, best suited to -the growth of differnI species.
investigators, working with bot field and pot cultures,
*hakiv4d at-sdtogeth4er different conclusion while Voelcker, lafiter'
cumr Of Carewulpot experimentaton confirmed *h theory
krAs the growth of wheat was. concernd
tn water ciultures- conducted at the Poto Ric~o Station, Gile *
that the concentration is-of the greates importance in deter-
miagwhether -the ratio of lime to magnei exerts an influence on
lrbwt. At a low concentration he found that a Wide variation in
&ipratip, 10:1 to 1:10, exerted no influene while at a much higher
edeatrtion the ratio 'is of considerable significance. -He con-
eA# however, that the higher concentaion is, rarely found i
pr* FumMM of ferroos irn compounds suggests itself as beng rd to the inactive tate of a& 21-
In the unealtivated soL s Hwail soffs contain musull hug amounts of Iron, a cnieal
of whlkh exbfts asv ferruxid, but the wate solbl ftw k= romm ocsIn extrmely smsU
MMo d0merec between go cultivated and unmUivte- so in thberespect is v&iy sligt. ame
St.BaL M0X
.Dept. Afr.0 But Pbsnt Indus Bal 1.
s, ul. C4L AVr., Tokyo Imp. Univ., 4 (192M, pp. 861-S, 5 1M), PP. 495.-M; 6 (1M0), pp. 97-10%;
nd A so, Jbid., 7 (1M0), pp. M95-M0.
$4umaerman t akL, Leadw. )abrb., 40 (Ml1), pp. 173-254.






































Concerning the biological phases of this question a few
have been conducted.
In 1904 Lbhnis found that the addition of magnesium car us
to culture solutions caused a loss of ammonia from the soi.bR
from which he concluded that this substance is unsuited to i
nitrification studies. In 1907 Lipman and Brown 2 found ta
addition of magnesium carbonate to Omelianski solutions0:
a loss of ammonia during sterilization, and that upon subw
inoculation with a soil infusion still greater losses occurred,
ing in 25 days to more than 50 per cent of the ammonia
present. Small losses of ammonia were also sustained where'
carbonate was used. In addition only slight nitrification t
in the solutions which contained magnesium carbonate, rea
a maximum by the sixth day followed by denitrification, wh(
active nitrification took place throughout the 25-day period of ol
ovation where calcium carbonate was used.. On the other hand, Q
'in 1908 concluded that magnesium carbonate is better suited to
stimulation of nitrification than calcium, potassium, or ammot
carbonates.


1 Centbl. Bakt. [etc.], 2. Abt., 13 (1904), pp. 706-715.
2 Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc., 29 (1907), pp. 1358-1362.
a Georgia Sta. Bul. 81 (1908).


-I --


;*i*:.;;
;ri"


''li,


;;r"













lvbdib f~t hateaaslm abat not Only"A

Orgabma -,m: the eawly stages of VakehW* Wtk
I 4=fm *tm, but, at Enrt iA inhbits the gow* 4
dida" JoI feth~er inves nationn he found that mog-
twnsed *zreater loss of monafrom ammoi
timthan onltium carbtnate. This loss Ashby attributed
betwen ammniumsulphate and the 'Oarbonatoo,
Andeimnwabonate Js formed, which::in tam,. tends t'
*4if "the Solutions. ,Magnegium iqarbonate bebig more
04alftu cwrbonate, would, therefore, give riselto gre Mater
shameium crbonata, for: which reason he accouts for
been in the former insacs
pan-* found that, in the presence of more'than, very.-low
who e t lnmag ium chlorid, the amobific ation of paptone
PzubtU wsasgmefly hindered, *iad that the simultaneous
Wf vT*yn sanweats of ealcim chlorid did not overcome
tflocts. 11e coowluded, therefore, that magnesim chlorid
tote- action of B. mbtidis, =d. that there is no antagonis
solataand mwagesium chlorids so far as the. moiiar-
peptonsis concerned. It: should be borne in mind, however,
14 seral it has been found that calcium is. not necessary to,.
vi, t66teria,- and therefore, from the conceptionn under-.
,tww's theory,. fhee need not be any antagonismm between
And -ansum The point of greatest interest in Lipman's
indets i this conneotion, however is the fact that the mag-
*mdat actually proved toxic at low concentration.
41@I OW ps found from somes investigations with soils, in Texas
6 ~ ~ ~ ~~e. Mieadto fclimcroate. caused a greater stimulation.
Wa atfc&Win of cAttonseed meal than magnesium carbonate,
Aot amxreOf the two produced intermediate effects.
14pmen, P. R. Bown, and 1. L. Owen 5 observed in 1910: that
agiitonof I ra of .cablium. carbonate per 100 gramsof a sil
lNew Jersey eaaoed a stimulation _in the ammoifiaio af
tblood,- but hindered -the. amonfation of cottonseed meaIl
-&a other'hand, 490eiu -abnt .a IoWide to, the .mmoni-.
l owr. Aff. Sol., 2 O1M0), pp. 3541l.
noBt, Gas., 4& (M90)s pp. 106-M5 49 <1010), pp. 41-M0.
Tu l/ u W(m)
No Jesy-- p.110 .14
























fiction was greatly reduced by magnesium carbonate, atd
toxic effects were not overcome by neutralizing the
carbonate. Calcium carbonate, on the other hand, did not
with nitiification.
In 1912 the writers conducted a series of experiences t
subject, using two sandy soils from California. In the:: i..
cation of dried blood 85 milligrams of ammonia nitrogen iwe*r
with calcium carbonate and only 53:9 milligrams with
carbonate, and no antagonism was found between the two eaCi
In nitrification studies using dried blood, calcium carbonate p.
about 50 per cent stimulation, but magnesium carbonate I
inhibited nitrification. In addition to preventing nitrifilt
magnesium carbonate also caused slight denitrification, the.:i:
nitrate content having been reduced from 5 milligrams per liOi,
milligrams, where 2 grams of magnesium carbonate was ad
finally no antagonism was found between calcium and
carbonates.
In view of the results previously found and the fact that,'i
main, conditions differing greatly from those encountered t.`:
studies have been employed, it becomes important to stuidy~Rt
question further. It is of special importance to study the effetesi
different ratios of lime and magnesia on the various phases of bactfla
action in soils, since it is now recognized that so much depenids
the biological phenomena of soils. The following investigatifl
offered as a contribution to the ammonification and i
phases of this question.
1 Science, n. ser., 32 (1910), p. 159. '
SMem. Dept. Agr. India, Bact. Ser., 1 (1912), No. 1.
SUniv. Cal. Pubs. Agr. Scl., 1 (1912), pp. 39-49.


~~~i::' :
"" : : ": *' n
I...:. .












%0.031 s suet. I00-gram Ortions of awrdrid ois
,o a to epreset-the-principal typ". found Mi HAwauii, waee
wit 2 gram of the nitrogenous materials And'
thnplaced in tumblers, brought to optimum-moisturel,
wihwatch glse.Dried blood. was: used va a source
Atr inoubstion for seven days,: at from 27 0. to 29 0 C.
-M determined by. distillation in the usual. way."'
usoi'azied greeatly in physil and chemical, conmpoition.
hevy ferruginous, clay soil, containingg "T.10. Per cent
,j~.1.4 er cet iansi. No. 330 is a. heavy clay soil from
section of 'the Wahiawa district.- This sample con-
thn0.2 per cent of both lime and magnesia. No. 335 1*0
m ,already described. The results are.-shown in the


of xleibnand magnenium carbonates on the ammonsfecation of dried blood.
IMMllgrms of ammonia nitrogen We 100 grams soil.]

Soil No. 288. soil No. 330. Soil Mo. 33&.

DupH-Aver- Dul-Aver- Dupi- Aver-
cats. ages.. c=t9. ages. cae. ages-

...... .. 59.9 .......... 83.4 .......... 99.3 ----------
NOW.... ..... 77.0 6&.4 63.8 73.6 9&.8 96.5
a .. g M. 6. ; .& 93.1 .. 62.7 ---------- ---------- ----------
......... .. 77.0 5 06 .564.1 ---------- ----------
.. . 85.9 .......... V(. i.6.. ... .
.............. I -- -- 9&.5 90.6 8 0890 .. ... ..........
U VPL E M ------------------ 91-4 .......... 09.7 .......... ....... ..........
.... .......... ... 87.6 89.5 8&.4 71.5 --- ----------...
.......... ... ()..........- 57.1 .......... ....... ..........
2.0.. ............... 9 95.0 88.2 72,6 --- -- -- ----------...
.... .. ...... ... 57.1 .......... 8C.0 .......... .......... ..........
gaLCSC S. ..... ............. 50.9 58.5 108.8 96.4 ......... ..........
... ... ... ... ... 87.6 .......... 105.0 .. ........ .......... ..........
gUL SCO ........... .. 9L.9 9L2 123.2 114.1 ---------- ----------
........... ......... M8.7 .......... 51.8 ---------- ---------- ----------
........9-L... 94 86&6 79.5 6&.6 .......... ..........
.. .. ... .. .. 10D. 0 .......... 49.8 .......... .......... ..........
0.5 JAL ------ --------- 82.0 9LO 65.8 57.8 .......... ..........
Le gUL.................... 99.7 .......... 112.0 .......... 57.3 ..........
_IA ~ gD..Ox_---------------- (1) 99.7 12LS8 116.9 64.7 62A0
2A PL O ...----------------- 90.4 .......... 12& 3 .......... 54.0 ..........
U gO................... 98.0 -9L.2 126.6 M254 54.2 5L I
U 4.0 99L. S.C.. 84. .......... 108&5 .......... 54.0 ..........
gm-.................... 68.6 76.3 113.4 11L4 5&.8 55.4
.25 ~ U*U ..................... O4.4 .......... 89.9 ........ 49.0 ...... ....
it .....-------------- 64.1 64.2 99.4 94652.4 5L0

1Lost.
44 n Wovoresults show a wide difference in the effects produced
bi~t diff ret, solls. In soil No. 288 the addition of calcium car-
upt- 2 per cent caused a gradational increase in ammopi, :0
bu with larger amounts slightly. les ammonia was found.
No.0, calcium carbonate in amounts less, than 4 per cent
only sliht effects, while the larger amounts stimulated
---on These effects may be dlue to physical acausm since
























































Effectof calcium and magnesium carbonates on the ammonifeation of ij'id |
soy bean cake meal..
[Average amoimt in milligrams of ammoni nitrogen formed per 100 gramse ofiSl

Soil No.9. Soil No. Soil No. Soil No. Soil No. Boil T4.fl
292. 428. 448. 461. 48A.

Soil Carbonate a a a u 91
t added. I D |o 9

'0 'a 0 O Q '2'0
w toa H E I ..
+o FI m + : m U,

1,2... None......... 51.9 99.1 156.9 94.1 53.4 74.3 39.3 78.1 94.4 98.3 45.9 79.
34... 1.0gm. CaCOO.'. 4.4 103.7 160.8 97.2 52.6 79.5 42.0 80.0 118.1 8.1 .L.
56... 2.0 gm.CaCOs... 55.4 104.8 158.9 99.5 64.4 82.4 42.7 82.5 126.2 98.2 46 90
,8... 4.0 gm.CaCO... 56.1 103.4 160.1 96.8 61.3 889 443 88 9594 11.. ,,.5.. .
9,10.. .Ogm.MgCOa.. 6.0 104.1 175.0 93.9 68.6 78.5 53.6 95.1 119.8 94.5.......
11,12. 2. gm. MgCO.. 70.9 108.6 163.8 95.0 93.6 82.7 07.6 98. 89.6 94.1 0.7 1.J
13,14. 4.0gm. MgCO.. 65.9 98.7 172.0 92.3 109.9 92.5 73.5 100.8 82.8 89........
15,16. 2.0gm.CaOs+ 10L3 ...... 9. ...... 88 68.9 97.3 106. 9Lt 1,U (,
2gm.MeCOt. .T -.
17,18. 4.0 gm.CaOt+ 70.9 104.8....... 92.4 98.7 83.4 67.6 90.9 99.7 92. .2 .
2 gm. MgCOa.
.. ..... ....:.. .

1 Baker's .analyzed magnesim carbonate, having the comtpostion, 3MgCOu8wORI)g(a3 lS
in these experiments. In all other instances reported in .this bulletin Merck's reageat
carbonate, MgCOa, was used. ...


J ... : I.l


...... ... :


SJ.b_.,.....







ere~~1 -ouedo n tnt oieid 7t Ii il I
|i,


inenML thh ata nsl o.9 se 2,48 hl
annnictinof'eybe cake 1", aNo. 01 gand (
ij

in No* AM8, while o iderable sfiamlation rsle
tonof, &Wi blood in:N-o,. 61: and of soy-heaiia ex
'485. With, the addition of magnmsum. carbonate, the wai
-ionaf dried blood was stimulated in every soil except No
4lso was the ammonification of soy bean cake meal in Nos
and 485. On the other hand, magnesium carbonate produced
oA 7the ammonification of soy-bean cake in- soils Nos. 9
.461. In -MP Case only--dried -blood in soil No. 461--the
of ,sigesim~crboatecaused a decrease in the.aout
found.
| instc where carionate prodc
Further addition of calcium carbonate wap withu effect
%Omulation. In the one instance where man0u ab-
ved toic: the addition of calcium carbonate, however,
haveoveromethe toxicity. It is doubtful, however,
"JAW, is a true case f antagonisms, so far as the biologcal
are roncerned-
offatsproduced by magnesium carbonated in Hawaiian soils,
provedd to be quite opposite to those found. in ammonifi-
atedies in solutions and Mi the few- soils. previously reported.
us ~Oiyof soils ,used above contained an excess of, m agei
No.. 29.2 especially. so-yet we find that the addition of
-abonste pDroduced only lih~t stimulation, whereas the
Of mafesium. carbonate usually caused considerable stim-
it. geems justifiable to conclude, therefore, that the lime-
asaratio mas uch has but little or no significance to the ammoni-
a procss. *bove results, moreover, are' harmonyy with
observationss ofIpa et al. in that the effects produced by
asiumcarbonate depend in some instances. on the nitrogenous
"adeia being micted upon; and, finally, it is of interest that mag-
ausumcarbonate caused a more marked stimulation of the ammoni-
'#otm~n of dried blood than: of soy bean cake meal.
I mitiference has al-ready been made that the smaller amounts
yeauaoiafound where magnesium carbonate was added are due
Aoh -formation 9f amonium, carbonate and its volatilaicatio
thnto an actual inhibition of the moification Procem&
rdr t9 throw .Some light on this point, further experiment-A
carried, out with soil No. 335. In these experiments 100-gram
Swavre mixed with the carbonates and dried blood, then
tioiitmuimiiuriiiteiddtinifiieil wteian
wide-inpuW bottlesfitted wthitwo-hoeirubberstoppers




























The above data show that 14.1 milligrams of ainmoi I..
was volatilized under the influence of calcium carbonat-
milligrams with magnesium carbonate. On the other I::
milligrams accumulated in the soil where calcium carbons..
added and only 39.5 milligrams with magnesium carbonate.
bining the ammonia accumulated and that volatilized, nwp..
that 76.1 milligrams of nitrogen Was ammonified in the'p
calcium carbonate and only 59.3 milligrams in the press
magnesium carbonate. It is thus shown that in this soil m1:
sium carbonate was actually toxic to ammonification. It V.
be recalled that the soil used is composed principally of grai""i"
coral sand (CaCO,), yet the addition of relatively small 's
of magnesium carbonate proved toxic. The inclusion, th
seems justifiable that magnesium carbonate is toxic to the
fying flora of this soil, although there are other factors that m
considered.
.....: i;::.i !:.B
EFFECTS OF NATURAL LIMESTONE ON AMMONIFICATION.i
Notwithstanding the theoretical interest attached to the 6ed t
produced by magnesium carbonate, it is of more practical viB
to determine the effects produced by the'naturally occurring dout
carbonate of magnesium and calcium [MgCa(CO,),J, dolomite,
is present in greater or lesser amounts in practically all limest
which are now being applied to soils. Through the kindnies
A. F. Whiting, of the University of Illinois, a few pounds of u0.
ized limestone (CaCO,) and a very pire dolomite were obtained,
of which is reported as being used on a large scale. .
.. *... .. .i
j, : ; i.
: : I t' !
A:
"." -"t: .
V













































P itnio i soil 3 No 335 qor stimulating in soils Nos. 465 and 516.
e: tis shown that the effects produced by dolomite in no way simu-
Shose produced by magnesium carbonate. Further discussion
:%eo4t:will be made after the results from the nitrification
bl hare been presented.

ncB rs OF CALCIUM~ AND MAGNESIUM CARBONATES ON
: NITRIFICATION.

i& aitrinfcation experiments, 100-gram portions of air-dried
afte: thoroughly mixing with the nitrogenous materials and
i were kept at optimum moisture in tumblers for 21 days,
Swhich.the nitrates were determined-by the phenol-disulphonic
| method. Dried blood and soy bean cake meal were added
li.: rate of 2 grams per 100 grams of soil, and ammonium asl-
tat the rate of 1.2 grams, which furnished nitrogen in an amount
mediate between those supplied by the dried blood and soy
; k..ie meal.


r": .:i:} '
ii'.' .~ : ....., ..... ... ..
::I ..::! :E" :: ::..: .!: :. :'.::':.." :'. :: :. .;::** i..;. .: ..
..... '::iiii~q : ': : i~it$iiiiiiiii i~i~ii ;i ;.ii',..f i; .:; ;: ; :.. .-.;:... : ..
T~~~i : ;~~ii;imi::i ::.iiI':: .:.. : : .; .
:: ii..:~:i !Ei ..:::!i::..: .. ...,, .:.
"Iii ::i :!;: .


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9..... "No e ............. 18.5 ...... 15.0 ..... 21.5 ...... ..
10O...........do........ 150 16.7 17.5 16. 22.0 21.7 4 4
11...... 2 gm. Ca Oas...... 14.5 ...... 19.0 ..... 2.0 .. .... 00
12..... .....do............ 15.0 14.7 20.0 19.5 20.0 1.,0 5.5 '5.2 2 0"
13...... 2gm. MgCOa..... 16.5 ...... 8.8 ...... 19.0 ...4 .....&. 1 0 .
14--...... ...do.....- .... 20.0 -18.2 9.8 9.3 19.5 19.2 3.5 4.4 20.
15...--. 2 g CCO 2 14.0 ...... 16.5 ..... 19.5 ...... 3 .0 ..,, f 4
gm. o MgCOa.
16...... ... ........ ..... 22.0 18. 10.5 13.2 1 9.5 .5 2. 7 LT r
---,,----~-,..----....~: -...-----......--
AMMONIUM SULPHATE, 1.2 GRAMS.
1-----None----------.0------4.0-----17.0--------......L--
17...... None............. 2.0 ...... 4.0 ...... 17.0 .... 1.4 ...... &5
18-......-.....do............ 2.2 2.1 4.1 4.0 16.8 16.9 1.5 1.4 A .3
19 2...... 2gm.CaCOa ... -.8 ...-. 9.0 ...... .... .7 ....... I ..L..
20...... .... do............. 5.5 4.6 9.2 9.1 15,6 15.5. 1.5 1.6 3.9 .7
21...... 2gm.MgCOa..... .5 ....... 3.2 ...... 170 ..... .. 4 .... 1
22...... .....do............ .5 5 3.0 3.1 16.5 16.7 1.4 1.4 1 3.1
23...... 2 gm. CaCOO +2 .8 ...... 3.1 ..-. 16.5 -.... 1.9 ...... .0 ...
gm. MgCOa.
24...... ......do........... .9 .8 3.3 3.2 17.0 16.7 1.8 L8 3.0 3


From these data it is shown that the nitrification of
was stimulated by calcium carbonate in soils Nos. 292
while no effects were produced in soils Nos. 288, 329, )
magnesium carbonate, on the other hand, proved toxic in
288, 428, and 485, while in soils Nos. 329 aid 448 it was
effect.
In the nitrification of soy bean cake meal we find that
carbonate produced but little effect in soils Nos. 292, 329, .aa
but was stimulating in soils Nos. 288, 448, and 485; the addli
magnesium carbonate produced stimulation in soil Nos. 292 and .
was without effect in No. 428, while in soils Nos. 288 and 4ii
ticularly the latter, notably toxic effects were produced.
In the nitrification of ammonium sulphate, results soi
different were found. Calcium carbonate caused conari
stimulation in soils Nos. 292, 288, and 485, while in Not- 3':8
and 448 it was without effect. Magnesium carbonates, ot .tM.Ji


..... :...
:1:;

A.
.im.:.






77
Akf
-1 A
&Wlo
Or-
1=ts t 6t m*o

pio m Amkig
I I W I

*Mathrel oi. o ba'ck iw'a n6
". ".04, 0!!!!e! blood or M!! su%!!!a
th-attato!15o ntou 6
V bean oiiiiiiiwhilei265imillgramiwasiadded
iiiiiiiu uph te eihe -
u toatrbueiiitelakofiiiiiitin.mth awo
........................ .......... ... ...
for b refrri4 o prviousa~moificaiiiixperients
own tat v~rousfion f dridibloditooiiii
tio~a.I ad frtharwrethoamont. ofiiom frme
wa gealy'i em f henirae.Itisposil
Vftt cocentraion ofMuiiiihaiiiiiiiiedforith
'Of thenitrffi .. O.. iffe.111ho1e the 111111g powe
-, o l i s r a h e o w :iiiiiii n h e s e of A
iiiiiiiiiiWM 3NLGNIER~o OIS
arionierbeiiiif'hglyi@u oiso
04iiiiiieppesmkeviiiorgrwt.inoreit
lih onntiictoiiihs ols fexeiet
out, singboth.calcum an ma~siuiiarboatis
Aresh wniiiteiiiiingtal6
40f fekm nmauimcroato ~fafmi agns 0k
[Aea 9 M U WUo imenb M e 0 r=DL
DYMM A0001 iiiW
iiii&d
ft~bome mt& 0 No.C5$rqusf addd.iiiiMb
A_ 51 '1 ..54 5A
....... ......iii5iiiii2ii@

x m M x........ iiiiiiii

SO BE AEMA,2GAR

.. ...... .. ..... .... ...iiii2iL4i14iA.. 2iiiiibO&i+2ig
t OLCWA..... C0 14K o ....1. .




























Effects of coklium and magnesium carbwonat an d different measo
[Average amount in milligrams of nitrate nitrogen par 100 grain l

Soil Soft o
No. No. So!. son
or- Carbonate added. 5- 29- Carboate added.
tirn. P. Soy dried ....a
anbean blood.
cake. cake. j
________ ________. .


1, 2...
3, 4...
5,6...
7,8...


None.................
2 gm. CaCOsB...........
2 gm. MgCO ..........
1.1 gm. CaCOa+0.9 gm.
MgCOa..............


44.5
67.0
3.8
8.2


113.0
9.0
5.3
6.4


*9.7
11.8

9.8


9,10..
11,12.


2 gmi -iwestoag (CaIMCO
2 gm. dolomite.........

: .


70011
Io oii'
4 p* 1'


Again it will be seen that calcium carbonate produced:'
stimulation in the nitrification of soy bean cake meal in o
and a retardation in No. 516. Magnesium carbonate agm;
toxic in each instance, and the simultaneous addition, of ae
magnesium carbonates, in the amounts in which they occpurhi
mite, produced effects similar to those of magnesium carbon..ate
When we come to the natural limestones, it will be seen t
the calcareous and dolomitic limestones produced effects very^
to those produced by calcium carbonate, and that no toxiit w
produced in any case by the dolomitic limestone.

DISCUSSION.

From the experiments above recorded, it has been showyt
calcium carbonate produced only slight stimulation of the asr
fiction of dried blood and soy bean cake meal in most of td~ i
studied. Magnesium carbonate, on the other hand, caused
erable stimulation in the ammonification of dried blood in a
of the soils, while in a number of instances the effects on theaP.
fiction of soy bean cake meal were negligible. In two soilb


SSee Hawaii Sta. Bul. 26 (1912), p. 55.


...'*:,


...
~~
t.i!

I .*ri~






|4 4


mlo
fbudfoild from'the, ime bt 'the istn y
sakieramounts of m nita
Of _mageum carbonate,. were not entirely d ibibtile
W na~nia. Hence, magnesium carbonate W86 Waide
o* ntgonsmto the action of magnesium' cr
FW cra1e& by calcium carbonate.' but ince -magnesium
r tber doluble, than dalcium'carbonate 'we are not justified
th o significance is to he Attached to the lime;-mgne"si
tdear pobabe, however, that the -stimulating effects pro.
6arboxnate, on the one hand, and the toxic effects,
--rwere not &ue to variations in this ratio, but rather to,
idthe &conetrution. of 'Magnesium sad to double. decompo..

an^ arboatestimulatd the ammoniiation of dried
Sdily el- whicit shlredy contained ,abnormally hg amounts
J,ti std,-s~ice ammonia in, an available form of nitrogen,
fitition 'of M agnu carbonate -to these so]l mgt prove
anial value Wo crops. The magnesiu1m in these soils exists
'%Ayrou silicateol, and though -present in much greater
10- IiI -iiiut id





dn calcium is considerably less soluble ia diue acds
O~r, aad consequen~tly Is probably not present in the soil solu-
imit amounts equal to those obf Oalcum. It has been shown in a
--ot connection that:1Hawaiian, soils have a remarkably hg
t_0 power foranme of chemical substances. Ptsim
hisanc, ioixd Mi relativelyolarge amounts, but at the same
"0 corresponding amounts of.. calcium. and magnesium are set free.
"Now, in allthe sols studied above,. save No. 335, it is probable
isadoluble galit of mgesium. (in this instance magnesium car-
and the. slts of organic acids formed through the reaction
a magnesium: carbonate and the organic acids set free in the
tonof the materials added), would become fixed through
ledecoimpogition, -thus setting free potassium', sodium, and cal-
"Therefore, the concentration of the several constituents in the
#A~tmwould become greatly changed as a result of adding mag-
ckrbonate. .Hence, -the effects produced -by mgeimcar-
toon ammionification are probably complex and can hardly be
tdwholly to its acting on the bacteria directly. 7U. fact
magnsiumcarbonate caused no loss of ammonia' in most of these
is probably -due to' their fiigpower. for -moiwhich has
iho" w lswhere to be usalyhigh. "In every instance,
iiiiiii he: flos pouedby,..
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiti ultigiriiiiyreuledfr m head iton o

































were striking, but as in the case of ammonification, p....
antagonism was found between calcium and magnesium. c
Dolomitic limestone, however, produced effects very simi~iar
cium carbonate, causing stimulation in the soils in whici, ?
carbonate produced stimulation, and no effects in the soils
unaffected by calcium carbonate.
It is not possible to explain fully the action of magnesium
It seems probable, however, that the nitrifying,floras of dif
would be affected differently by magnesium carbonate, bel
in some soils and without effect in others. It will be obs
reference to the table (p. 45) that the effects produced in: ...
by magnesium carbonate depended on the nitrogenous ma
acted upon. This may be accounted for, in part, by the dried
and soy bean cake meal having reacted unequally on the
those organisms which feed upon ammonia and nitrates.
observed, for instance, that wherever magnesium carbonated
added a more abundant growth of molds took place The "
acids formed in the decay of the materials must have reace..
the magnesium carbonate, leading to the formation of
organic salts, the specific effects of which are not kno.wn...'
] Peck has shown that calcium carbonate produces considerable stimulation an aitrificatioftM
the sugar lands of the islands. See Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Sta., Agr. and Chem. ul. 37
s Loc.cit.
9 ....



.. ...... .... ..... a








ptW~loibootdsti ofo too=*Ct
Al-

wherv $4l Ow via trification Of driedblo a ye
A0, sambo soi were, probably due, in Ma 10041t-1.t
is'hadresince the nonnitrogenous constituents of *as.-
4fer greatly. The driod blood contained a veryekl
atrct-while the soy, bean cake meal contained -mome

produced: effects unlike those Of magnesiu car-*
lably'W 4de t -Wh iJaoluble nature of this material, and
foAfithat dolornite reacts with acids of various sorts las
viroen than calcium carbonate. Consequently the mag-
senaiedin the dolomite probably remained insoluble during
eahf tbe experiments.:
416 th Sirst 'series of experiments on amonification (p. 39)
at analsed ma neiu carbonate; having the composition
id(OII,)3%I0, was used'... As already: pointed out, consid-
'Atinistion was produced by. thisa-mterial. in two heavy cldy'
whic stmulaionwas slightly greater than that produced by
poding amounts: of calcium: carbonate, while the effects in a
Ssoilt Were prono-uncedly Aoxie.: It. was suggested that these
towere 'in part referable to the mgesu hydrate contained
i matriaL ith the hope of eliminating ma~gnesiu hyrt
acwnisidaratioun, Merck's reagent magnesium carbonate, which is
44.-t bie ..frew from the hydrate, was used in all the subsequent
rients. This material, however, probably also contained some
seenmhydratej as a saturated solution of it proved to be Of
oxima samealkalinity to methyl orange as a saturated
inof Bakersi:carbonste. It is not certain, however, that the
44aio ivnt moification, as compared with that of cal-
.6"aboxate, -or the toxicity found in certain instance$, was due to

Abe~eperlvmets: previously. reported by the writer using sandy
from California, Bakeres magnesium carbonate was used, and
rd tqxicity, ot to ammn Cation and nitrification, W86 pro-
SIt was found, for instance, that the addition of 0. 1 per cent
theUian carbonate proved toxic to a considerable degree and
,OAt per cent produced practically maiu toxicity. Subso-
Al t has been-found that the alkalinity of water extracts
bted ble ..ing portions of one of theme soils after amnfcr
had ensued for. seven days, bore no relation to the toxic or
OPlain effects- produced, by mansUm or calcium carbonates,
totvey.On the other hand, C. B. Lipman has shown from
ILU
'2at m. IAC,3 MtP-UW





























SUMMARY. .
(1) The pasture and forest lands of Hawaii, the a
aquatic crops, and most other island soils not subjected~t.i
tillage contain very small amounts of nitrate. but- co oR
larger amounts of ammonia.
(2) The uncultivated soils are capable of supporting
ammonification of dried blood, but are toxic to nitrificatioM ij' i
(3) Nitrification takes place in Hawaian soils after
conditions have been maintained for a period of several an
not immediately following tillage. Ammonifcation 'is' iaso
lated by tillage.
(4) The inactive state of nitrification in the uncltiae4
is not due to the absence of the nitrifying organisms or aiditq i
(5) Sterilization in the autoclave and burning failed to, bring .
conditions favorable to nitrification, but burning caused splitt
off of.large amounts of ammonia.
(6) The beneficial effects to crops produced by burning r .""
is probably due in considerable part to the formation of mmni,.
(7) The plants growing on the uncultivated soils probably 1ba
nitrogen largely in the form of ammonium compounds .... :
(8) Partial sterilization of Hawaiian soils stimulate a4Hi
cation for a short time, usually about two weeks; followed theke
a retardation in ammonification. Nitrification is inhibited :.



'iY
.......



".' "":':;: ':'. P :: ,.









a IL
taseigagh elany bokirbm (nitrate aa
shama h whhshabone ogain'while',.
elthe lpeially te ster7_ iitise hiabe iAnsta
thb te ai 'ltiasa tofammoneimentaonpfet attiOndh4t
-WA prtially iikudb the- aaihlntrogra senate and_
h(Fats ofbactertial sterli.aini etinsis hl
pe6?irat cantoof tmunia, conducagborganisrospgin...emd
y -t4operd theos ftheeprmna prosad

w bmeleved that both the s,%eration and partial sterilization
aoils bring about stimu lation in bacterial action through
used on the colloidal soil, films, but continued aeration,
effctie.The protozoan theory appears to be of doubtful
to' these soils'
Oslinmcarbonate, produced considerable stimulation in the
WS" on of dried blood a-nd ioy bean cake meal in certain
iAn othergi, only slight 'effects. Magnesium carbonate, oix the
,baud, produced mar~ked'stimula'tion in a number of instances.
, soils, Only, mgeiM_ carbonate was toxic to ammonificai-
Dolomitic nad calcare'ous limestones'produced effects similar
produced by calcium carbonate.
1A certain soils calcium: carbonate stimulated nitrification,
in others "-rffects were-produced., Magnesium carbonate,
asother hand, was toxie to- nitrification in a majority of the

)Nitrification was found to be equally as active in the man-
aru and- titaniferous soils as in the other soils studied, but
m carbonate was especialy toxic in these soils, and was
Uroxi to the nitrification of soy bean cake meal than of dried

Woomitic and calcareous limestones produced similar effects
stion, rngn about stimulation in the soils in which
carbonrate produced stimulation and no effects in the soils
-veorduaaffected by calcium carbonate.
Application of calcareous and dolomitic limestones will
produce similar effects on the availability of nitrogen
SUia soila, brut regarding -the effects of *the burnt limes, further
Brinets are necessary before conclusions can be drawn.
iiPositive conclusion can not be drawn concerning the effects of
lhemgi7rtoo fcto n irfcto isis
























































*. i= ;. ... 'h r





















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