Canal Zone pilot


Material Information

Canal Zone pilot
Physical Description:
iii, iv, 522 p. : front (port.) ill. ; 21 cm.
Haskins, William C
Bienkowski, A
Star & Herald Co.
Place of Publication:


Subjects / Keywords:
Guidebooks -- Panama   ( lcsh )
Directories -- Panama   ( lcsh )
directory   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:


Statement of Responsibility:
ed. by William C. Haskins, pub. by A. Bienkowski.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 23747701
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Ancon, Canal Zone and Panama, R. P.












Published, February, 1908.





1. The Castle of Gold................................................. ...... 1.
2. The Raids of the Buccaneers.. ............V............................ 17.
3. Capture.of Porto ello......................................... ......... 25.
4. The Fall of Old Panama ............. ............................. 38.
5. The Fall of Old Panama. (Poem..).................................. ... 110.
6. The Founding of New Panama ................ ........................ 116.
7. The Isthmian Bubble of 16b8...................... ................ 121.
8. Trouble with Indians, 1710-1790.......................................... 124.
9. Independence -from Spain, 1821........ .................................. 125.
10. The Isthmus in the Days of '49.............. ................ 128.
11. Lola Montez "of Paris and Panama.".................................. 132.
12. Oceans Linked by Steel Ribbons, 1855................................... 135.
13. Night of Horror in April, 1856. ........................................ 158.
14. Attempts to Pierce Isthmus............................................... 170.
15. DeLesseps-His Great Scheme............................................ 172.
16. Mutteringsof Separation....... ...... .......................... 204.
17. In the Throes of Revolution............ ............................. 207.
18. "jRinging the'Belles.".................................... ............. 215.
19. Polyglot Panama................................ ........................... 221.
20. Story of the Youngest Republic........... ............................. 223.
21. The Canal in American Hands......................... .............. 261.
22. Not by a Dam Site................................... 276.
23.ITaking No Chances ............ .................................. 284.
24. How:Aboutit To-day?........... ............ 293.
25. The King Pin of the Canal ........... ............... :33.
26. Panama's Morals in the '70s.................... .... ................... 340.
27. -Beyond the Chaigres (Poem)..... ......................................... 3.
28. Uncle Sam's Isthmian Domain....................................... 344.
29. Teaching Canal Zone Youth...... ............................. ...... 350.
30. The Isthmian Water Supply............... ........................... 353.
31. Revenue- End of the Zone .............................................. 358.
32. The Guardians of the Zone............. .... ...................... 362.
33. The Pearl Industry of Panama........... ...... ..................... 366.

II Pilot and Guide.

S34. The: New Palace and Theat. ...... .............................. .. 30.
'a35. The Pan-American Railroad......... ......... .......... ............... J3.
31. Panama's Diplomalltc Iorp .... ... ........ ....... .................. 37.
87. Coln, from Old Panama ...... ......... ..................... .........
38. Official Band or tb I. 4.'. I.' .............................................. -.W.
39. TheClub Houss of the Zone ..................... .... ............. :2.
40. Rondel IPoem. I..... ............ ..................... .............. ... .
41. Piping Oil Across lthmus. ...................................... ..... 310.
S42. Panama of Lhe Present Day......... .......... ..... ...... ......
i i-Public Land Laws......... .... ............ ........... ... 414.
(b--Mining Laws.......... .................................... 41l
43. TourIsts' Department. .......... ... ................. ..... ... 4.
44. Churbs, FaOertitm and C'lubs .............................. ...... 44l.
45. Officials of Rep. of Panama, I. C. C'., and P. R. R............ ......... 417.
46. ('lailfled Business Directory or Panau. ...................... ....... 477.
S47. Clasallled Business Directory of Colon .................. ............... 0W.
S44. irertory lf the Canal Zone.......................................... 518.
49. Lamjp EILott.............................. .... ........... ...... ... 1i.
T. Addenda .. ................................... ........................... &W .


Froutlspteee-Present Isthmlan Canal Commission.
L Ruins of lanto Domingo Church............ ... .............. '1.
2. The Bells of Cruces ................. ................ ..... ...... 27.
3. Group of Native Belle............................................. ..- ..84.
4. Market Street, Panama ............. ..... ............. ............... 41.
&. Entrance to Panama Cemeteries...... ................................ 47.
6. Country Scene in Panama Republic.................. ................ a.
7. Cathedral Park. Panama. .. ...... ................... .... 67.
& Santa Ana Park, Panama ....................................... 7
9. Soene on Beach, Colon.................................................... 80.
10. Panorama of Panama Ctly..... ................................ ...... 91.
11. Taboga Village .................... ....................... 94.
12. Chinese Vegetable Garden, Panama....................... ........ ..... I.
13. Palm Trees at Ancon................................................... 100.
II. Early Scene on Seawall, PRnama ....................................... liki.
15. View ofShlpplng, Colon............................................... 133.
I. Panama Policemen.............................................. 130.
17. Ancon Hosptal............... ..... ................................... 187.
11 Sblpplng Bananas at Bohlo ....................................... ..... 144.
1. 1. C. C. Sanitarium, Taboga Island...... .............................. .
20. Towerat David, R. P .......... ............ .................. 1I6.
21 Birds-eye View of Culebra (I ............ ........................... 10.


I.l^ .

ieneon Panama Railroad In '5................ ................... .....
kijaon Hospltal Entrance ................ ..........................
,. oal ........................... ............. ................ ..........
i eye AView of Culehmr i2 ................................... ..........
j ierlc Quarters, I'ulphb ........................................
SAtlantic Entrance to Canal ...................................... ....
cEntrance to Canal .................................................
of Gorgona ................. .. .................................. .
j V .C'. Hospital. 'olon ...................................................
the Trenches In Panama ................... ........................
of the Lautaro ................... .............. ................
Alban Enterlne C'olon ...... ........ ................... ...
m Perdomo......... ..... .... ..........................
& R Station at Empire................................................
Sin Colon in '55 .......................................................
ila DBolivar, David, Chlriqui ........... ........ ............. .....
izdentand Mrs. Amador ....................................... .......
Domingo de Obaldla .................................................
on the Fiquene River, Darien............ ......................
of the lathmus.......................................................
nt Roosevelt and Hotel Tivull.................. ...............
Administration Building, Panama.... .............................
ration Building, ('ulehra............ ........... ............
Hauling Excavations ................................ ...........
| Obispo Cut. .................................. ........ ..............
Eng neers..... ........ ... .. .......... ......................
iDra D e.......... .................................... .......
Shovel Loading Train ...... ....................................
u on the Chagres River................................ ........
ration of Water Works System, Panama ........................
Zone Poetoffice, Cristobal.............................. .............
Station, Crlatobal...................................................
Palaceand Theatre .................................................
te Corps ................................ .......
ro Dutary................ .....................................
Sde la .O a ................ .................... .......................
Sof Nations............ ....................... ......... ......
M Velasco, Author, "The Waron the Isthmus".... ...... ....
J .tonndo Mutts Durau..................................... ..........
tell StMats Marines at Camp Elliott ...............................
t AHerald Building.................. ........... ...................

Pilot and Guide.










-= ~ ~f~inf


In submitting this. the first edition of the Pilot and
Guide, the publisher does so, with the firm belief that
it will meet with the approbation of its readers. He
has departed somewhat from the beaten path of this class
of books for the express purpose of meeting an insistent
public demand, that of a work that will enable people in-
terested in Panama and the Isthmian Canal to gain a clear
and adequate conception of what has occurred, and is now
taking place. Books have been published, and some of
them very good ones. on various phases of Isthmian his-
tory and events, but the publisher has tried and believes
that he has succeeded in massing more "meatt of the Isth-
mian cocoanut," than has ever before been printed between
the covers of a book whose title page hears the well
known name of "Panama."
To accomplish this end has leen no small task. It
has been a case of book-building from the ground up.
Information and facts had to be hunted out of musty


nooks and corners, and as much of the information could
be obtained only from Spanish books and documents, care-
ful translation was necessary. Where possible, the workers
on this book have gone back to the times when the histor-
ical incidents were in the making, and in the case of later
events, to see and talk with people who were on the spot
and knew personally of the occurrences related. Mistakes
may have crept in; a book covering a scope of four hun-
dred years would be a positive wonder without any, yet
the publisher believes that the authenticity in general of
the information herein contained will stand the test.
The workers on this volume realized that its readers
will embrace many different classes, therefore anecdotes
and incidents. all strictly true. have been introduced to
illustrate a little of the humorous, and also, of the tragic
side of Isthmiian history. Another earnest effort was made
to bring the book down to the year of Our Lord, 1908,
and the work in this respect speaks for itself. It is the
only publication now in print that covers the recent and
very important change in plans at the Pacific end of the
canal, and of the decision to widen the canal locks; it is
the onlyv work tlat contains a continuous narrative of the
Great Isthmian waterway since it has been in American
hands, and it is the only book that gives the story of the
circumstances leading up to. and culminating in the seces-
sion of Pan.ana from the Republic of Colombia from every
point of view. There has been no attempt to "throw cold
water," or disparage. but rather to present the information
in a wholly dispassionate and matter-of-fact way. The
publisher and his assistants however, believe that in re-
viewing the past three years of canal history, supported

____ ___~_

by facts and figures. and by a personal knowledge of the
general situation, the book will serve a purpose in dispell-
ing and dismissing many a doubtt and delusion that may have
existed, or may still exist in the minds of some. regarding
the extent and progress of the canal undertaking.

A work of this kind necessarily involves considerable
outside assistance. The publisher takes this occasion to
thank the many who have contributed to the book by af-
fording all information that lay iii their power. He is
especially indebted to the members of the Isthliian Canal
Commission, Panama Railroad officials. Mr. W. G. Tubby,
Mr. H. G. Prescott, Don Jose Augustin Aranlgo, Don R.i-
cardo Arango, Don Ricardo Arias, Don Melchor Lasso
de la Vega, Don E. T. Lefevre, Don Samuel Boyd, Senor
Donaldo Velasco and others. He is also indebted to The
Star & Herald Co., Mr. J. Gabriel Duque. its Director,
Mr. Carl von Lindeman, its Manager, and its staff of em-
ployes for the excellent typographical work on the book. as
well as to the management for the opportunity for research
afforded by the early files of the paper. Cordial thanks are
also extended to Senor Guillermo Andreve and Senor Don-
aldo Velasco for the loan of several half-tone illustrations
appearing on the pages of the Pilot and Guide.

Just a word to the advertisers. Your confidence was
invited, and although you made it known to the publisher
that you had often been fooled in the past, notwit.hstand-
ing the prospectus of the present work attracted your at-
tention. The publisher believes he has kept faith with you
in every respect. It is seldom that a work of this kind
opens its pages to advertisers, in fact, had such an oppor-



tunity been afforded in the United States, advertising
agencies would have taken every available inch of space.
The publisher thanks you for your patronage and trusts
that the 1909 edition will see you again represented.

67Ae Lu AlisAer.


-------b -4*---

The famed Cathay of Columbus' dreams led that
daring, but disappointed navigator to make a fourth and
final attempt in the year 1502, to discover a short sea
route to the East. After being buffeted about for days
by contrary winds in the Caribbean Sea, his small and
Sleaky boats threatening to go to the bottom at any
moment, he at last sighted land in the vicinity of Cape
Gracias i Dios, Nicaragua. Doubling this cape on the
14th of September, in the year above-mentioned, he landed
and explored a region to which he gave the name of
Cerabora. Here he ran across numerous specimens of
gold ore, and by questioning the Indians, ascertained that
the precious metal existed in large quantities in a district
to the east of there called Veragua. He secured num-
erous ore samples, and obtained a rough description of
the mines.
Continuing his voyage, he sailed along the coast of
what is now Costa Rica, and Panama. passing on his way
the famous Chiriqui Lagoon in the Province of Bocas del
.:. 111 i --------------_


_ _

2 Pilot and Guide

Toro, called by the Indians, Aburema, and which quite
deceived Columbus for a time into believing that he had
at last discovered the much sought for passage. While
voyaging down the coast lie encountered numerous storms
which imperiled his boats, and on one occasion forced him
to seek shelter at a small island. Here he found fruits,
fish and game in abundance, which led him to give the
place the name of Puerto de Bastimento, meaning a place
of supplies.
After a few days' rest at this point, Columbus or-
ganized a small expedition, and on the 23rd of November
left the haven, but was obliged to put in to the coast
again three days later owing to a tempest which narrowly
came to swamping his ships. This place he aptly termed
Retrete, meaning a place of retreat. Here he stayed until
the 5th of December, when he decided to turn back over
his course. He kept a westerly direction for fifteen days,
Which brought him on the 7th day of January, 1503, to
the mouth of a. river called in the Indian tongue Quiebra,
.but to which Columbus gave the name of Belen. This
.river to-day forms the natural boundary line between- the
Province of Colon, and that of Veraguas. Towards the
interior could be seen a broken mountain range which
Columbus named San Cristobal. Near this spot, a short
while later, the Adelantado D. Bartolome Colon, founded
the. first establishment on Isthmian soil, but it did not
endure long, being destroyed by the Indians under a chief
named Quibian.
At this point Columbus again changed his ,plans
and sailed back toward the east, stopping at the present
site of Porto Bello (1), and going as far as the islands l4
the Mulatto Archipelago, which lie in the Gulf of Sail
Blas. After som r further journeyings back and forth, ever
on the look-out for a natural opening in the barrier before

(1) Variously spelled Puerto Belo, Portobelo, and Porto Bello.:
-- __________________"-"__ "____"__

Ccasle of Gold.

him, he decided to return, tile bad state of his ships,
making such action imperative.
History credits Columbus as having first set foot on
the soil of what is now the Republic of Panama, on
November 2nd., 1502, somewhere in the vicinity of the
Chiriqui Lagoon. Thus we have two important dates in
Isthmian history nearly coincidental as to the day and
month; the discovery, and the declaration of independence
of the Republic of Panama, Nov. 3rd., 1903.

"In the' Name of God."

Accounts of the newly discovered country, and the
samples of gold having in due time reached the court of
Spain, the fanciful name of Castilla del Oro, or Castle of
Gold was conferred upon all that region extending from
Cape Gracias i Dios, to the Gulf of Urabi, and ii; the
year 1510, Diego de Nicuesa was sent ovcr from Santo
Domingo to govern it. He took along with him colonists
to the number of 700, but during the voyage a tempest
arose, wrecked some of his ships, and caused the loss of
400 of his men, while the others were in desperate straits.
In the tempest the ships became separated and some of
them reached the coast near the mouth of the Belen
River, while others brought up at the mouth of the Chagres
River. After collecting his men, Nicuesa left the Belen
River and went to the port of Bastimento, and when he
had doubled Manzanillo Point, he shortly landed and said:
"We will remain here in the name of God." This was
the site of the town of Nombre de Dios, called into
prominence at the present time chiefly from its having
been one of the earliest settlements on the Isthmus, and
ono of the most unhealthful spots in Panama. In this
enterprise Nicuesa perished miserably along with the bulk
of his followers.
Before Nicuesa's time, two other hardy navigators
had added considerably to the store of knowledge concern-


4 Pilot and Guide.

ing Spain's new possessions. One of these, Rodrigo de
Bastida, headed an expedition th:it visited various parts of
the Spanish Main, and discovered in 1501, a year in ad-
vance of the arrival of Columbus, that part of the coast
lying between Cape Tiburon. on the Gulf of UTrab& and
the port of R-trete. The other, Alonso de Ojeda, ex-
plored the whole northern coast of South America, and
gave the country adjacent to the Gulf of Urabi, the name
of Nueva Andalusia. He founded a town in the eastern
part of the Gulf. naming it San Sebastian. He grew
tired uf the resistance offered by the neighboring tribes of
Indians and very soon abandoned the colony, leaving his
lieutenant, Francisco Pizarro, afterwards famous as the
conqueror of the Inca empire, in possession of the pl--ce.
Ojeda later distinguished himself as the founder of several
places in Venezuela.

The Story of Balboa.

Many a child at school has fallen down on a hard
history lesson, but rarely a dullard so great as to fail in
the recital of Balboa's exploit. History accords it but a
brief mention, albeit it is entitled to second place in the
New World discoveries. Balboa fared forth adventuring
at a comparatively early age. At 25 he voyaged with
Bastida to the Spanish Main, and on his return .to His-
paniola, the Hayti of the present day, he took up the
pursuit of agriculture. His bent did not at all lie in this
direction, and his principal harvest was a lot of baddebts.
To escape these, and an occupation distasteful to him, he
concealed himself one night in a cask, and bribed some of
the crew of a ship lying in the harbor to take the cask
on board. This ship happened to belong to an expedition
commanded by one Bachiller Enciso, then fitting out for
a voyage to the South Ame'rican coast. Balboa was at
this time a man of very pleasing appearance, and later,
when at sea, his presence on board became knownn, he

~_ .

SThe Storyj of Balboa. 5

made such an earnest appeal to the Commander, that the
Slater reversed his earlier decision to throw him overboard.
,Balboa's representations of the richness of the country,
Sand the fact that he had bee.a there before in company
with Bastida, led Enciso to head his course for the Gulf
of Urabd, and the colony of San Sebastian. Before reach-
ing the mainland one of his ships became wrecked and
through this accident, lost all the horses and pigs he had
brought with him. Still greater misfortune awaited the
expedition, for on its arrival, the town of San Sebastian wP
found to have been burned by the Indians, and the
colonists that were there scattered.
Balboa, nothing daunted, promised Enciso that if he
would accompany him, he would take him to the western
shore of the gulf, where another town could easily be
founded, and where the Indians did not use poisoned
arrows. The offer was accepted, and together with their menc
they marched into the territory of an Indian chief named
Cemaco, whom they defeated and took prisoner. At the
town of this chieftain, they founded Santa Mari a laAn-
tigua del Darien, in honor of the celebrated image at
Seville, Spain. This place is noted for its having been the
site of the first Episcopal See, and the oldest church on
the American continent. Enciso was at the head of this
new colony, but it did not last long owing in a large measure
to an interdict received from the Crown of Spain pro-
hibiting the traffic of gold with the Indians. About this
time, too, Balboa and Enciso had a falling out, and the
former, gaining the ascendancy, sent his fellow-explorer
Back to Spain in irons.

Balboa Seeks the Temple of Gold.

The whole country of the Castilla del Oro was now
in Balboa's charge, and one of the first of his acts was to
despatch Pizarro to explore the interior. About the same
time he sent out a company of men. to collect the sur-

6 Pilot and Guide.
vivors of the ill-fated town of Nombre de Dies. He then
took the fiild against the Indians, first capturing and im-
prisoning the chieftain Cuareca along with his family, and
afterwards pillaging the lands.of an Indian chief named
Ponca. This brought him and his men to the territory of
another Iindian chieftain named Comagre, at that time
probably tie most powerful chief in the entire Darien
region. Comagre lived in a state of magnificence, andhad
the mummies of his ancestors enshroudcd in rich cloths,
adorned with pearls, precious stones, and ornaments of
gold. Although lie had 3.0UO warriors at his call, he re-
ceived Balboa peaceably, and gave him the freedom of
his domain. Comagre's eldest son named Panquiaco became
very friendly with Balboa, and besides presenting him with
4,000 ounces of gold, and 60 women slaves, taken prison-
ers in battle with neighboring tribes, gave him the in-
formation that back of the line of mountains that reared
their tops in the dim distance, was a nation very rich and
powerful, having ships with sails like the Spaniards, and
using vessels of solid gold. He also told him of a temple
of gold called Dabaibe, situated forty leagues from Darien,
on the banks of a great river, emptying into the Gulf of
UrabAi (1). In the aboriginal belief, Dabaibe was the
mother of the Deity, which dominated the elements, and
created the sun, moon, stars, and all things good.
Balboa's cupidity was greatly aroused by these tales,
and returning to Santa MLaria, prepared for an expedition
in search of the golden temple. It is evident that at this
period Balboa placed some credence in the Indian's tale
of ships with sails," but had more faith in the existence
of a temple of gold. It is quite likely that this temple
had reference to the treasure house of the Inca emperors
at Cuzco, an account of which, more or less distorted,
might easily have passed from tribe to tribe until it
reached the Darien.

(1) The Atrato River.

_ __

Balboa Seeks the Temple of Gold. 7

His expedition in trim, Balboa entered the mouth of
the Atrato, and passed up it until he reached the Rio
Negro, or Sucio, as it is commonly called on account of
the color of its waters. Ascending this tributary he finally
arrived at the lands of an Indian chief named Abibeiba,'"
without having seen any indication of the object of hi .
'quest. He left here a company of 30 men to guard the"
place, and then returned to Darien, On arriving he found
that the Indians under Cemaco, and five other chiefs, with
a force of 5,000 warriors, and 100 canoes, had planned
an attack on the colony, which plot was disclosed by one
of their number named Fulvia. Balboa at once took the
initiative, surprised and defeated the Indians, and left
Cemaco dead on the field.

In Quest of the South Sea.

About this time there were internal dissensions in
the colony, but Balboa succeeded in pacifying all parties,
so that by the time reinforcements arrived from Spain
bringing to him the title of Captain-General de lat
Antigua, he was ready to set out on an expeditioit in quest
of the South Sea. He sailed from Santa Malia- on the
Sfst. of September. 1513, taking with him 190 of his own
men, some Indians. and a number of dogs. A short dis-
tance on his way, the Indian chief, Cuareca, who had been
baptized by the Spaniards, gave him guides, some Indianl
auxiliaries, and on the 6th of September, after attending
mass to ask the blessing of God on his mission, he took
the road to the mountains.
On the 8th of September, Balboa arrived at the
home of the Indian chief, Ponca, mentioned in a previous
expedition. Here he was the recipient, of the first really
credible information concerning the great sea to the South.
Ponca informed him that the ocean would open to view
after passing certain mountains, which he would show
him. He also gave Balboa some curious, but handsomely

formed gold ornaments, which the Indian said came from
places on the ocean of which he spoke.
On the. 20th of September he continued his march.
The surface of the ground was so rough and broken, and
there were so many small streams to cross, that in four
days, he only covered thirty miles. At the end of this
march, he came to the territory of the belligerent chief-
tain, Cuaracua, who gave him a hard fight. The Indian
was finally overcome, anld perished in company with 600 of
his men. The town of Cuaracua where he now was, laid,
he was told, at the foot of the last mountain remaining
to be surmounted, before his eyes could rest on the object
of his long and tedious march.

Balboa Discovers the Pacific.

On the 26th of September, a little after ten o'clock
in the morning. the Spaniards discovered from the top of
the mountain, the mighty waters of the Pacific. The priest
of the expedition, Andres de Vara, intoned the Te Deun,
and all those in the company fell on their knees around
him. They afterwards raised at this point a cross made
of the trunk of a tree, braced up by rocks, and .upon
which they wrote, as well as on various trees in the vicinity,
the names of the rulers of Spain. On his descent to the
beach, Balboa and his men had to pass through the lands
of an Indian warrior named Cheapes, who treated them
kindly, and made them a present of 500 pounds of gold.
Reaching the water-side, Balboa waded out knee-deep into
the sea, and with the banner of Spain waving in his hands,
proLlaimed the vast ocean, and the coasts adjoining it, the
property of his King.

Find Pearls of Fabulous Size.

Shortly after the discovery of the South Sea, as the
Pacific was for a long time afterwards called, Balboa set

S '"


Pilot and Guide.


78 ard 340 Cerqtial lveiue,

ii I


about making arrangements to explore the vicinity. The
ocean at this point on the coast forms a gulf to which
Balboa gave the name of San Miguel in honor of his
having arrived there on the day the Catholic church cele-
brates this saint, which name it bears at the present time. .
He despatched one of his men named Alonso Martin at-
the head of a small company of Spaniards and Indian a,
to explore the coast in a canoe, while he himself embarked-
and went to an island inhabited by a chief named Tumaco.
Martin, leaving first, has the credit of being the first-
European to navigate the waters of the Pacific. The-
island Balboa landed on was one of many, and to' the
group, he gave the name of the :- Archiepelago de las
Perlas, or the Pear] Archipelago. To the largest island
in the group he gave the name of Isla Rica, or Rich
Island, on account of the quantities of pearls he found
there, some of which were of great size. Balboa's papers
relate how that the canoes of Chief Tumaco had their
oars incrusted with pearls, so plentiful were they at this
period. Some time after this, an expedition under Pizarro:'
and Morales, two of Balboa's lieutenants, was sent-against
the Pearl Islands. They crossed the Isthmus by a less 3
difficult route than Balboa had done, and arrived at the
islands without incident. After four different battles with
the chief whom they found in possession of Isla Rica, the
latter finally surrendered, and as peace offering presented-
Pizarro and Morales with a basket full of very fine pearls,
one of which weighed 25 carats, and afterwards sold. for
4,000 ducats, equivalent to $9,120.00, veritably a prince's

Origin of the "Bloody Shirt." .

After collecting all the gold and pearls he could lay ;
hands on, Balboa returned to Darien, the only notable-
incident of the backward journey being the execution of a
native chief named Ponera, together with three of his as-


Pilot and Guide.

Origin of the "Bloody Shirt". II

0 YOU WANT Jewelry of any Description?

e. Oaf osvc/ can fit to" out.

sociates, accused of certain vicious practices. These men,
Balboa caused to be devoured alive by the savage dogs
which he carried with him.
The year following, 1514, there arrived at Antigua,
a colonel of infantry named Pedro Arias Davila, commonly
called Pedrarias, who had been named by the Spanish
Crown as Governor of Darien. It is related that Pedrarias
was the father-in-law of Balboa, but history does not ap-
pear to be fully clear on this point. He commanded a
brilliant expedition consisting of 2,000 picked men, which
had originally been raised and equipped for war in Italy,
under the orders of Grand Captain Gonzalo de Cordova,
Cavalier of Spain. About this time La Antigua had
been elevated to a metropolitan city of Castilla del Oro,
and Friar Juan de Quevedo was named as the first
bishop, while Gaspar de Espinosa was chosen as the first
Alcalde. Shortly after the arrival of Pedrarias, Balboa
made another and last quest for the mythical temple of
gold, resulting in the usual failure. Then followed several
months of Indian fighting. Tumanama, one of the most
powerful chiefs of the mountains had long been at enmity
with the Spanish invaders, and securing allies in a num-
ber of other tribes commenced a war of extermination
against the Conquistadores. The Indians carried a flag in
their fights made out of the bloody shirts of the Spaniards
they had killed, which is the first mention History


S\2 .- Pilot and Guide.
! akes of that since famous tocsin. The victories gained
Sby the Indians tiased great alarm at La Antigua, and thle
mint and other "public buildings wereclosed. However, after
se\&taldesperate engagements, Tumanama and his warriors
wbr6 utit to rout, and a peace pact was entered into.

Balboa's Last Expedition.
U-pon the cessation of Indian hostilities, Pedrarias
consented to an expedition planned by Balboa, tto-xplore
the South Sea. This involved the construction of the ships
necessary for navigating the Pacific, on the Atlantic side
of ..the divide, and their transportation, knocked-down, acrose-
the Coidillera to some point on the south coast The
work of cutting .trees and preparing the parts of the ships
was performed after several months of arduous toil, and
then commenced. the long and wearisome journey across.
thle Isthmlus. The native Indians were utilized as carriers,,
anid History records that upwards of two thousand of then.
weaiikeed and died under their heavy burdens. In making
the passage, Balboa showed poor judgment. Instead of
journeying by. a known route, he started across an unexplored.
p)art of the Irthmus, discovering the Rio Balsas on his way,.
which stream he utilized as far as lie was able. Reaching "
th-s'buth coast, he put his ships together, and after visiting
the Pearl Ai-chipelago, navigated across the Gulf of San M-i-
Sguel. and to a poilit about two leagues farther on. Here the -
crews of his ships .became alarmed at a school of whales,
Swhom they took to.,be reefs. in the ocean, and induced Balboa..
Sto put about. Reaching the coast again the entire expedition,
was Ibrought to a sudden stop, by orders received from Pedra-
rias, the Governor, authorizing Balboa's arrest and imprison-
lmeilt, under the charge of being a traitor to the Crown.

Balboa, a Victim of Jealousy and Hate.
S'p to the time of the last ill-planned expedition,
Fortune had .always smiled on Balboa's enterprises. At

Balboa, a victim of .Jcalous am! Hlate. "| i3
this period of his life, however, the fickle goddess turi.o[l
her back upon him forever. Pedrarias, the Governoi -of
Darien, had long been jealous of Balboa's successes, and
this feeling culminated into one of intense hate. While
fearing to withhold his consent to the South Sea expedi-
tion. he was busy planning the while how to frustrate .it.
The news of a great Indian empire far to the south hai i
filtered through to the Spanish camp, and stirred Balboa
to accomplish what his able but unIricipi.ed "lieutenant,
Francisco Pizarro, later earned out. Pedrarias was well
aware of Balboa's ambitious plans, and this ki owledge
did but serve to put an edge to his jealousy anl hafe,
With but a farce of a trial, and coIed.Slne, pf.lbeing
a traitor to the Crown on evidence of purely an .e. pat'
character, Balboa, in the year 1517, in the fortyrsco.nd
year of his age, met death .by the headsman's xe,
thus ended the life of one of the, greatest explorersi. :-.
tge New World. Balboa maintained his innocence to .t4p
very last, defying his accuser and .nir.4,erer, Pedr ,-ja ,
who occupied a window only ten feet distant from,.the1
scaffold where the execution took place. .. .,-
In view of Balboa's great achievement, history has
passed lightly over his faults, avax.icq.. :: 4
cruelty were the most prominent; bu.t taking into, accP.qnt
.the general customs of the age in which he lived, the
difficult and exasperating circumstances and emergeccis
.... : '


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he had to contend with and overcome, it cannot be gain-
said hut that he was an exceptional man; an intrepid,
cunning and resourceful warrior whose ultimate success
and wonderful discovery conquered for him a lasting place
in the world's history. Besides, his latter sufferings, im-
prisonment and death on the scaffold on an unjust charge;
were, no doubt, ample atonement for his sins.

Founding of Old Panama.

Pedrarias, incompetent, treacherous, and cruel, con-
tinned in high favor with the king whose coffers he kept
well supplied with gold and treasure wrung from the en-
slaved and oppressed natives who died by the thousands
on accoumt of not being physically adapted to the work.
It was this terrible decimation of the Indians that prompt-
ed some time later a prominent Catholic bishop to suggest
the importation of negroes from Africa, thus saving the
Indian from complete extermination, but at the same time
inaugurating the system of slavery that afterwards spread
over the greatest part of two continents.
In 1515, Diego de Albites and Tello de Guzman
formed part of an expedition that crossed to the Pacific
side of the Isthmus and arrived at a hut of a poor fisher,
at a point called by the Indians Panama, from the abun-
dance of fish and sea shells found there. Here in 1519,
Pedrarias founded the city of Old Panama, giving it the
Indian name. In 1521, by order of Emperor Charles V.,
the title of "Muy noble y muy leal" was bestowed on the
place, and the government, bishopric and colonists of Santa
Maria la Antigua del Darien removed thereto. This was
only accomplished after great privation and suffering, it
being estimated that no fewer than 40,000 Spaniards per-
ished in this trans-Isthmian hegira during the ensuing
thirty years. The court-of-arms given to the new city
consisted of a yoke, a bunch of arrows oil a gilded field,
with two ships underneath, a star, castle and lions. The


Pilot and Guide.


Pilot and Guide.

A iAmm D7 piji


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S. SECOND.--We constantly endeavor to provide our customers
using special care in the selection of our stock.
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_ __ ___

16 Pilot and Guide.

Avenida Norte, No. 70. Apartado de Correo No. 70.


city became the seat of the first court of the Real Au-
dieincia. which obtained in the, Spanish possessions in
America from 1535 to 1752.
In 1525, a C-itholic priest named Hernando Luque
celebrated solemn mass in the Cathedral at Old Panama,
taking communion with two Spanish explorers and men-at-
arms, Francisco Pizarro and Diego Alinagro. He broke
the holy bread into three pieces, taking one, and giving
the other pieces to the two men. The significance of this
act was no other than the solemnization of a contract
between all three to conquer the countries to the South.
They shortly afterwards manned several vessels and sailed
(down\ tlhe coast, reaching at last the "golden" Peru.
Pizarrro's flag used ill his conquest is a treasured relic to-
(lay in tle ai chives at Bogota.

Early Trans-Isthmian Routes.

Some time after the settlement of Old Panama, an
attempt was made to establish land communication from
Nombre de Iios, at that time the principal port on the
Atlantic, to the new city on the Pacific. A road was
finally constructed between the two places, which crossed
the C'hagres River at Cruces. For a part of the way the
road was paved, evidences of which remain to this day.
Later small vessels commenced to sail from Nombre, de

E'arbl TJrints-Istl.lmigaidti ln t,'.


Dios to the mouth of the Cllagres, then up tihat stre: in to
Cruces, where the cargoes were Iranstfered to the Itcks
of mules. Nombre de Dios was :labaindoned at the end ,f
the sixteenth century in faior (,f Porto Hello, kInowl to Ibe oIKe
of the best havens on the entire Isthniaini coast, south o(f Chi-
riqui Lagoon, to which even tle. steamers of thie present d(lay
resort when an unusually strong northern is blowing at Colai.
Nombre de Dios hld long been known as ;a graveyard ',f
the Spaniards, and its decay was of little wpoienit.
After the conquest of Peru. and the development (of
the gold mines in the Darien, Old Panama slprang rap idly
into prominence, All the golden treasure of t he West
Cost was poured into her lap to be sorted for shipment

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41 Parque de la CateJral. Apariad3 72.
FPA 11T A. M A.

Porto Bello likewise became an im-

portant post, and was the scene of great fairs up to the tiune
of its capture by the Pirates under Henry Morgan.

------ >* <-<- --


The attack a(nd pillage of -Porto Bello. the capture
of Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the Chagres River,

-- -



Pilot (ind Guide.

and lastly and chief of all, the sack and burning of Old
Panama, perhaps at the time the most opulent city in all
New Spain, by Henry Morgan and his band of seven-
teenth century buccaneers, pirates and sea rovers, furnishes
one of the most thrilling chapters in the early history of
the Spanish Main, and some of the most notable events in
the piratical record of the West Indies, not only from the
boldness and intrepidity of the attack, hut for the gallant
defence as well.
To-day, nearly three hundred and fifty years after,
crumbling ruins mark the spots where these occurrences
took place, though as the late Mr. James Stanley Gilbert
has written in his famous work, "Panama Patchwork":
Cloud-crested San Lorenzo guards
The Chagres' entrance still,
Tho' o'er each stone dense moss has grown,
And earth his moat doth fill.
His bastions, feeble with decay,
Steadfastly view the sea,
And sternly wait the certain fate
The ages shall decree."
To the Americans employed on the Isthmus and the
tourists that are coming in ever increasing numbers, the
sites of these early Spanish centers of Western civilization
have a considerable charm, as is evidenced by the numer-
ous excursions made thereto, especially during the dry
season. Of them all Old Panama, perhaps, possesses the
greatest attraction. It is easily accessible from the present
city, and really interesting, although unfortunately many
visitors merely ride over, take a look at the tower and
the old bridge, and then come back with the idea that
they have seen everything worth while. The tower and
bridge are near to the beach, and easily seen, but the dense
vegetation with which the greater part of Old Panama is
overgrown makes sight-seeing farther in more difficult.
Thllere is the old Cathedral, the roof of which has fallen

The Raidfs of Ithe Buccancer.'. I 9

in, but the walls of which are still standing. This church
is mentioned in Esquemeling's narrative of tlhe sack and
burning of Old Panama, written in 1678, and reprinted
herewith, as the only one left standing after the fire. the
which was used for a hospital for the wounded (if the
buccaneers. The interior of this church has been used in
recent times, and is still being used. I understand. by the
natives living in the vicinity for a burying place for their
dead. Nearby to the church is the Catacumbas, or tombs,
upon the roofs of which great trees are now growing vigor-
ously. As one proceeds farther landwards, sections of the
ancient city's walls may be seen in various directions, some
being only held up by the gigantic roots of trees which
have twined and intertwined in and about the stones il.
such a manner that now it would be difficult even for a
pry to dislodge them. Large open wells curbed with stone
are scattered about the place, and in these, numerous relics
have recently been found, such as parts of copper kettles,
pieces of firearms, money, articles used in the churches,
etc. If all were cleaned out, no doubt many interesting
and perhaps valuable relics could be recovered, inasmuch
as the tradition has been handed down, and history in a
measure supports it, that the inhabitants of the place in
their fright and excitement sought to hide their valuables,
and as a last resort threw them into the wells of the
city. Be that as it may, the site of Old Panama furnishes
a point of interest well worth visiting.
The tower at Old Panama, which figures so promi-
nently among Isthmian photographs, and which may be
seen on a clear day from high elevations in the new city,
formed a part of the castle of St. Jerome. In the papers
of a Spanish engineer of that time occurs the following
description of it: "This fortification was an excellent piece
of workmanship, very strong, being raised in the middle of
the port, of quadrangular form, and of very hard stone.
Its elevation or height is 88 geometrical feet, its walls
being fourteen, and its curtains, seventy-five feet in diameter.



Plaza de la Catedral, PanamA, R. de P.

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It was built at the expense of several private persons, the
Governor of the city furnishing the principal part of the
money, so that it did not cost His Majesty any sum at all."
The fragmentary and often inaccurate accounts of
Old Panama has not tended to give readers a clear con-
ception of this and attendant events. Nothing has ever
appeared in print more truthful and interesting concerning
the capture of Porto Bello, and the burning of Panama,
than is to be found in John Esquemeling's narrative pub-
lished in 1678, seven years after the events actually oc-
curred. Esquemeling was a member of the pirate band,
and therefore an eye witness of the incidents related.
Although not definitely known, the author of this narrative
is thought to have been a Hollander, inasmuch as his ac-
count first appeared in the Dutch language. It was after-
wards translated into Spanish, and in recent years into
English, the latter translation appearing as a part of the

~ __~___________________ ~



Pilot and Guide.

i a

R &ins of
.' .Santo .ingo c-urch.-.
I '.'-,. ..-
S ~.Panam;a.

I IM m lan -se'ca S P R
t ~t A-
C tl F -, srb-r J'4 ,-t..~ P s

3 ~ ~ K4. kmur~~vri~8ra

S-a.. ...A. .


.. .." ....

22 __ t

book called '-The Buccaneers of America," published by
Swan Soniienschein & Co.. of London. The author's
account is both graphic and picturesque, in which he in-
variably figures in the third person. With the exception
of a few instances where he speaks of the extraordinary
exploits of the English under Morgan, as matters of course,
lie has taken no sides, and is as prone to criticize his
leader, as any individual on the opposite side. The worst
criticism to be Inade of his narrative is his tendency to
magnify the importance of certain places and things.
Hence. from his description of Old Panama, one would be
led to believe it a much larger and important place than
it really was. He refers to there having been five thousand
houses in the llace at the time of its fall. This wouli
indicate a population of 40,000, or 50,000 souls. Even in
a much more extensive area than the site of Old Panama,
it would have been impossible to comprehend so many

Frente al N ercado Pflblico.

Store, front of Public 1vlarket.

F.mIdm SMlik of Grocerirs andt Liquors Always on Hand.
'Coiitry Products Bought and Sold.
(General Counummlission Merch ants.
Flume Absortnmeut of Panama Hats.
P. O. Box: 75. PANAMA, R. P. No. 127 North Avenue.

lot and Gitide.

The Raid.s nf the BnIcchmacr. 2y3

buildings, and there is nothing to-day to indicate it. I
have thoroughly explored the site, and cannot see possibly
where more than 10,000 or 15,000 souls could have been
gathered together. Ringrose, a member of the pirate band
of Capt. Sharp, says in his narrative of their expediti on
which visited New Panama in 1680, that the latter place
then was larger than Old Panama ever was.
The expedition against Old Panama was Henry
Morgan's crowning achievement, and his action toward his
men after their return to the Fort of Chagre, as Esque-
meling terms San Lorenzo, marked the beginning of the
end of his career as the greatest pirate of his time. He
was a man of quick impulse, one good act being almost
invariably offset by an evil one. He cared not for con-
quest for conquest's sake, but he was out for the coin of
the realm, which in his time was figured in pieces of
eight. One of the most astonishing moves in his whole
career was his attitude towards piracy after his ascendancy
to the post of Governor of Jamaica, not long after his
return from the Panama expedition. To him, more than
to any one man, is probably due the ridding of the pirates
from the waters and islands of the West Indies.
The Panama expedition was not as successful as
Morgan had figured on iln the matter of booty. The
escape of the Spanish galleon with the plate and church
valuables robbed him of the best of his expected treasure.
Local tradition has it that he left with as high as 1,200
mule loads of loot, while a biography of Morgan puts it
at thirty-seven. Esquemeliug gives it at 175 mule loads,
which is probably about the correct figure.
We are giving the reader Esquemeling's account of
the capture of Porto Bello, and the fall of Old Panama
in the writer's own picturesque language, which cannot
fail but to add spice to the narrative-Editor.

24 Pilot and Guide.

Panama Banking Company.

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I___________ _


Captrec of Porto Bello, 1668. 25

Capture of Porto Bllo, 1668.
-- -- ---- + -~
Capt. Morgan, always communicated vigor with his
words, and infused such spirits into his men as were able
to put every one of them instantly upon new designs; they
being all persuaded by his reasons, that the sole execution
of his orders would be a certain means of obtaining great
riches. This persuasion had such influence upon their
minds, that with inimitable courage they all resolved to
follow him. The same likewise did a certain pirate of
Campeche, who on this occasion joined with Capt. Morgan,
to seek new fortunes under his conduct, and greater ad-
vantages than he had found before. Thus Captain Morgan
inja few days gathered a fleet of nine sail, between ships
and great boats, wherein he had four hundred and three-
score military men.
After that all things were in a good posture of
readiness, they put forth to sea, Capt. Morgan imparting
the design he had in his mind to nobody for that present.
He only told them on several occasions, that he held as
indubitable he should make a good fortune by that voyage,
if strange occurrences altered not the course of his designs.
They directed their course towards the continent, where
they arrived in a few days upon the coast of Costa Rica,
with all their fleet entire. No sooner had they discovered
land than Capt. Morgan declared his intentions to the
Captains, and presently after to all the rest of the com-
pany. He told them he intended in that expedition to
plunder Porto Bello. and that he would perform it by
night, being resolved to put the whole city to the sack,
not the least corner escaping his diligence. Moreover, to
encourage them he added: This enterprise could not fail to
succeed well, seeing he had kept it secret in his mind
without revealing it to anybody; whereby they could not

26 iPilot tand Guide.
have notice of his coming. To this proposition some made
answer: They had not a sufficient number of men where-
with to assault so strong and great a city. But Captain
Morgan replied: If our number is small our hearts are
fgre t. A nil the fer'er persIons ice are the more union, and
better sha res wre shall har e in the spoil. Hereupon, being
stimulated with the ambition of those vast riches they
promised themselves from their good success, they unani-
cmously concluded to venture upon that design. But, now,
to the intent my reader may better comprehend the in-
colmparable holdnless of this exploit. it may be necessary
to say something beforehand of the city of Porto Bello.
'The city which bears this name in America is seated
in the Pro\vince of Costa Rica (1). under the latitude of
ten degrees North, at the distance of fourteen leagues from
the Gulf of Darien. and eight westwards from the port
called Nombre de Dies. It is judged to be the strongest
place that the King of Spain possesses in all the West
Indili(es. excepting two. that is to say, Havana and Carta-
gena;. Here are two castles, almost inexpugnable, that
defend the city. ieiig situated at the entry of the port;
so that no ship or hoat can pass without permission. The
garrison consists of three hundred soldiers, and the town
con(stanitly inllhaited by four hundred families, more or
less. The merchants dwell not here, but only reside for
awhile. when tlie galleons come or go from Spain; by
reason of the unlhealthiness of the air, occasioned by certain
vnipours. tliat exhale from the mountains Notwithstanding,
theii.r chief warelouses are at Porto Bello. howbeit their
h;abitA tions be all the year long at Panama, whence they
hnI tlhe plate ),upon mules at such times as the fair
igins and when tlhe ships. belonging to the Company of
Negroes, a,'rrive liern to sell slaves.

(1) T1'i. 1nmi gen',rally applied to the' C(arihhean coast. at that
i in- frii Cnpi (rniis s Iios to the Chngres River.- Editor.

She.rSll of Cruces --Panama. 4 .,.J .. ag/fllaq4fddeea.wlw*ieuM t .ienkowski.


28 Pilot and Guide.


La Flor doel tiamo
--* ->----

lk mrjor y la mas grande qlue hasth ioy se ha psiablecido en PaamJ.

Los Ciga iros, Picaduras y Cigarrillos elaborados en esta FAbrica, son del
ME.mO MIATErIAL que se coseeha en las vegas de. Chiriqui y Bubi.
Todos deben probar el tabaco de PrNnamA que es tan bueno
como el extraujero que viene i la Repiblica.
Protejer a las Industrias Nacionales, es protejerse uno a si mismo.

E. MORRIS y Cia.

Arrival of the Buccaneers.

Capt. Morgan, who knew very well all the avenues
of this city, as also all the neighlborilg coasts arrived in
the dusk of the evening at the place called Puerto de
Nac; distant ten leagues toward the west of Porto Bello.
licii-g coice to this place, they mounted the river ill their
sh1ilps. as far as another harbour called Puerto Pontin;
where they came to an anchor. Here they put themselves
ininiediately into boats and canoes, leaving only a few
inint to keep them and conduct them the next day to the
port. About midnight they came to :1 certain place called
E.,tira long Lemos. where they all went on shore, and
111:1' c(led by land to the first posts (if the city. They had
inl tdhe oinmpny a certain Englislhmani. who had been
it'nlinerl a prisoner ill those parts, aitil who now served
them fr 1 guide. To him, and three or four more, they
gav'q euinmission to take the sentry, if possible or kill him

- ---


Jrrival (o the Buccaneers. 29

upon the place. But they laid hands on him and appre-
hended him with such cunning, that he had no time to
give wan ing with his musket, or make any other noise.
Thus they brought him. with his hands bound, to Captain
Morgan. who asked him: How things went in the city. andt
what forces they had: with many other circumstances, which
he was desirous to know. After every question, they made
him a thousand menaces to kill him, in case he declared
not the truth. Thus they began to advance towards the city,
carrying always the said sentry bound before them. Having
marched about one-quarter of a league, they came to the
castle that is near the city,which presently they surrounded.
so that no person could get either iu or out of the said
Being thus posted under the walls of the castle,
Capt. Morgan commanded the sentry whom they had taken
prisoner, to speak to those that were within, charging
them to surrender, and give themselves up to his discre-
tion; otherwise they should be all cut to pieces. without
giving quarter to any one. But they would hearken to
none of these threats, beginning instantly to fire; which
gave notice to the city and this was suddenly alarmed.
Yet, notwithstanding, although the Governor and soldiers
of the said castle made as great resistance as could be
performed, they were constrained to surrender to the
Pirates. These no sooner had taken the castle, than they
resolved to be as good as their words, in putting the
Spaniards to the sword. thereby to strike a terror into the
rest of the city. Hereupon, having shut up all the soldiers
and officers as prisoners into one room, they instantly set
fire to the powder (whereof they found great quantity), and
blew up the whole castle into the air. with all the Span-
iards that were within. This being done, they pursued
the course of their victory, falling upon the city. which as
yet was not in order to receive them. Many of the in-
habitants cast their precious jewels and moneys into wells
and cisterns, or hid them in other places underground, to

30 Pilot andl CGuide.
excuse, as much as were possible, their being totally robbed..
One party of the Pirates being assigned to this purpose, i
ran immediately to the cloisters, and took as many re-:
ligious men and women as they could find. The Governor
of the city not being able to rally the citizens, through
the huge confusion of the town retired to one of the cas-!
ties remaining, and thence began to fire incessantly at the
Pirates. But these were not in the least negligent either
to assault him or defend themselves with all the courage
imaginable. Thus it was observable that, amidst the horror
of the assault, they made very few shots in vain. For
aiming with great dexterity at the mouths of the guns, the:
Spaniards were certain to lose oiin or two men every time
they charged eacl gun anew.

Assault on the Castle.

The assault of this castle where the Governor was, con-
tinned very furious on both sides, from break of day until
noon. Yea, about this time of the day the case was very
dubious which party should conquer or le conquered. At
last the Pirates, perceivi:ig they had lost many men and
as yet advanced but little towards the gaining either this,
or the other castles remaining, thought to make use of
fireballs, which they threw with their hands, designing, if
possible, to burn the doors of the castle. But going
about to put this into execution, the Spaniards from the
wall let fall great quanttities of stones and earthen pots'
full of powder and other combustible matter, which forced
them to desist from that attempt. Capt. Morgan seeing
this generous defence made by the Spaniards. began to
despair of the whole success of the enterprise. Hereupon,
many faint and calm meditations came into his mind;
neither could lie determine which way to turn himself in
that straitness of affairs. Being involved in these thoughts,
he was suddenly animated to continue the assault by seeing
the English colours put forth at one of the lesser castles,
------._ L

..lault on the Casxlr. '3

-- --.r &<.. -._

License to The University of the State of New York,
The State Board of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
practice from
The State Board of the Commonwealth of New Jersey.

8 a. m. to 11 a. n 1 p. in. to 5) p. m.

9o. 44, JFflft. Stzcct, aboue tiic "Pcfiio6iico Cafe"
fzaltfiin Oi on CatrficrZa faCtfi.

then entered by his meii. of whom lie presently after spied,
a troop that came to him, proclaiming victory with loud
shouts of joy. This instantly put him upon new resolu-
tions of making new efforts to take the rest of the castles
that stood out against him: especially seeing the
zens were fled to them, and had conveyed thitler- great
part of their riches, with all the plate belonging to the:
churches, and other things dedicated to liivi\ne service.
To this effect, therefore, lie ordered ten or twelve
ladders to be made in all possible haste. so broad that.
three or four men at once might ascend by them. These
being finished, he commanded all the religious men and
women whom he had taken prisoners to fix them against
the walls of the castle. This much he h'ad beforehand
threatened the Governor to perform, in case lie delivered
not the castle. But his answer was: He would necer su'r-:
render himself alive. Capt. Morgan was much persuaded;
that the Governor would not employ his utmost forces,

32 Pilot and Guide.
seeing religious women and ecclesiastical persons, exposed
in the front of the soldiers to the greatest dangers. Thus
the ladders, as I have said. were put into the hands of
religious persons of both sexes; and these were forced, at
the head of the companies, to raise and apply them to the
walls. But Capt. Morgan was fully deceived in his judg-
ment of this design. For the Governor, who acted like a
brave and courageous soldier, refused not, in performance
of his duty, to use his utmost endeavours to destroy who-
ever came near the walls The religious men and women
ceased not to cry to him and to beg of him by all the
Saints of Heaven that he would deliver the castle, and
hereby spare both his and their own lives. But nothing
could prevail with the obstinacy and fierceness that had
possessed the Governor's mind. Thus many of the religious
men and nuns were killed before they could fix the ladders.
Which at last being done, though with great loss of the
said religious people, the Pirates mounted them in great
numbers, and with no less valour; having fireballs in their
hands, and earthen pots full of powder. All which things,
being now at the top of the walls, they kindled and cast
in among the Spaniards.

Refused Quarter Despite Wife's Tears.

This effort of the Pirates was very great; insomuch
as the Spaniards could no longer resist nor defend the
castle, which was now entered. Hereupon they all threw
down their arms. and craved quarter for their lives. Only
the Governor of the city would admit or crave no mercy;
but rather killed miany of the Pirates with his own hands,
and not a few of his own soldiers, because they did not
stand to their arms. And although the Pirates asked him
if he would have quarter, yet he constantly answered:
By no means: I had( rather (lie a valiant soldier than be
hanged an a coward. They endeavoured, as much as they
could, to take him prisoner. But he defended himself so

Refused Quarter Despite Wife's Tears. 33

obstinately that they were forced to kill him; notwithstand-
ing all the cries and tears of his own wife and daughter,
who begged of him upon their knees he would demand
quarter and save his life. When the Pirates had possessed
themselves of the castle, which was about night, they en-
closed therein all the prisoners they had taken, placing the
women and men by themselves, with some guards upon
them. All the wounded were put into a certain apartment
by itself, to the intent their own complaints might be the
cure of their own diseases; for no other was afforded them.
This being done, they fell to eating and drinking after
their usual manner; that is to say, committing in both
these things all manner of debauchery and excess. After
such manner they delivered themselves up to all sort of
debauchery, that if there had been found only fifty cou-
rageous men, they might easily have retaken the city, and
killed all the Pirates. The next day, having plundered all
they could find, they began to examine some of the prison-
ers (who had been persuaded by their companions to say
they were the richest of the town), charging them severely
to discover where they had hidden their riches and goods.
But not being able to extort anything out of them, as they
were not the right persons who possessed any wealth, they
at last resolved to torture them. This they performed with
such cruelty that many of them died upon the rack, or
presently after. Soon after, the President of Panama had
news brought him of the pillage and ruin of Porto Bello.
This intelligence caused him to employ all his care and in-
dustry to raise forces, with design to pursue and cast out
the Pirates thence. But these cared little for what extra-
ordinary means the President used, as having their ships
near at hand, and being determined to set fire to the city,
and retreat. They had now been at Porto Bello fifteen
days, in which space of time they had lost many of their
men, both by the unhealthiness of the country and the ex-
travagant debaucheries they had committed.


t I:

N r H .. ........

-A group of % -
'atfive .elles in the,
native dress-. anama.
3shmanaM-.-Amirnai OF*.AiAjm /
alrriy am ave.rfing .Pwau.
.,. .ieowcukowk

~l~cl~l ~CC 1 -11~-3~~ 1---~~CY-II- C-~VL-

___ ---

Ransom Placed on Prisoner.. 3I 5

Ransom Placed on Prisoners.

Hereupon they prepared for a departure, carrying on
board their ships all the pillage they had got. But, before
all. they provided the fleet with sufficient victuals for the
voyage. While these things were getting ready. Captain
Morgan sent an injunction to the prisoners that they should
pay him a ransojn for the city, or else lie would by fire
consume it to ashes, and blow up all the castles into the
air. Withal, he commanded them to send speedily two
persons to seek and procure the sum he demanded, which
amounted to one hundred thousand pieces of eight. To this
effect, two men were sent to the President of Panama. wiho
gave him an account of all these tragedies. The President
having now a body of men in readiness, set forth imme-
diately towards Porto Bello to encounter the Pirates before
their retreat. But these people, hearing of his coming.
instead of flying away, went out to meet him at a narrow
passage through which of necessity lie must pass. Here
they placed an hundred men very well armed; who, at the
first encounter, put to flight a good party of those of,
Panama. This accident obliged the President to retire for
that time, as not being yet in a posture of strength to
proceed any farther. Presently after this encounter he sent
a message to Capt Morgan to tell him: That in case he
departed not suddenly with all his forces from Porto Bello,
he ought to expect no quarter for himself nor his companions,
when he should take them, as he hoped soon to do. Captain
Morgan who feared not his threats, knowing he had a
secure retreat in his ships which were near at hand, made
him answer: He would not deliver the castles, before he had
received the contribution-money he had demanded. TWhich
in case it were not paid down, he would certainly burn the
whole city, and then leave it; demolishing beforehand the
castles, and killing the prisoners.


Pilot and Guidc.

Hotel flnuelinl.
Opposite the P. R. R. Passenger Station.
9&o Cooler place in the City. Large and Well-ventilated pooms.
Hotel electric lighted throughout. c4ll cModern arrangements.
'Baggage Transported Free to and from WCailroad Station.
Prices 0Moderate. Special 9ates for Families.
Superior SerVice. 'Principal Languages Spoken.
UEst Cge18dint, *rpprietor.

tiotel finue ini.
Frente Ai la Estaci6n Nueva del Ferrocarril.

Un de los punlos ms venilo os de lo ciudad. Cuorlos Espociosos y Blen Ynllodos.
Luz Elecirico en lodos s CAuoros y Tronsporle Grolis d Eiu ie del Hotele 6 to Estocn y ilcev ersa.
servii: E:amni-rc^:_. Se- Hsalan los Prin2ipales Idiomas.
|31 C gA #ini, |ropietaria.


organ'ss Threat against Old Parma, -37

Morgan's Threat Against Old Panama.
The Governor of Panama perceived by this answer
that no means would serve to mollify the hearts of the
Pirates, nor reduce them to reason. Hereupon he deter-
mined to leave them; as also those of the city, whom he
came to relieve, involved in the difficulties of making the
best agreement they could with their enemies. Thus, in
few days more, the miserable citizens gathered the contri-
bution wherein thev were fined, and brought the entire
sum of one hundred thousand pieces of eight to the Pirates,
for a ransom of the cruel captivity they were fallen into.
But the President of Panama. by these transactions, was
brought into an extreme admiration, considering that four
hundred men had been able to take such a great city, with
so many strong castles; especially seeing that they had no
pieces of cannon. nor other great guns. wherewith to raise
batteries against them. And what was more, knowing that
the citizens of Porto Bello had always great repute of
being good soldiers themselves, and who had never wanted
courage in their own defence. This astonishment was so
great, that it occasioned him, for to be satisfied herein, to
send a messenger to Capt. Morgan, desiring him to send
him some small pattern of those arms wherewith he had
taken with such violence so great a city. Capt. Morgan
received this messenger very kindly, and treated him with
civility. Which being done, he gave him a pistol and a
few small bullets of lead, to carry back to the President,
his Master, telling him withal: He desired him. to accept
that slender pattern of the arms wherewith he had
taken Porto Bello. and keep them for a twelvemonth;
after which time he promised to come to Panama and
fetch them away. The Governor of Panama returned the
present very soon to Capt. Morgan giving him thanks for
the favour of lending him such weapons as he needed not,
and withal sent him a ring of gold with this message:
That he destrfd him not to give himself the 7abour of
coming to Panama as he had done to Porto Bello; for

38 Pilot and Guide.
he did not certify to him, he should not speed so well
here as he had done there.
Departure of the Pirates.
After these transactions. Capt. Morgan (having pro-
vided his fleet with all necessaries, and taken with him
the best guns of the castles, nailing the rest which he
could inot carry amwav) set sail from Porto Bello with all
his ships With these he arrived in few days at the
Island of Cul,;. where lie sought out a place wherein with
all quiet and repose he might make the dividend of the
spoil they had got. They found in ready morey two hun-
dred and fifty thousand pieces of eight, (1) besides all
other ,ierchn;i dizcs. as cloth, linen, silks, and other goods.
With this rich iootyt tiey sailed again thence to their
coinmmon plalIce of rendezvous, Jamaica. Being arrived, they
passed hiee soiiie time in all sorts of vices and debauchery,
:cording to their cominion manner of doing, spending with
huge1. prodig:,ility wlhat others had gained with no small
,labour and t'i!.


Upon the conclusion of a treaty of peace in 1670
between Ingl;i(Id and Spain, which confinred the former
in her possessions in the West IIndies, but forbade her
subijects to trate to any Spanish port without a license;
"a Irnoclimlation wais issued in purstuance of such arrange-
ment Ahlich greattly exasperated the freebooting community,
Iand th, (direct result ot which was an assemblage of the
l:,irgest fleet ever brought together by the buccaneers,
amounting to :f. ships of all sizes, ianIned by more than
(1) rTim coin Ipiee oIf eight had tih value of eight Spanish
rvuls. Eiluivnal-tit to 4(1 cents gold.--Editor.

SThe F1ll of O1h! i nfam, j '71. f39C

a r 'k T ''lT I

Venta de Pieles de Venado, de Tigre, de Culebra
y de rnuchas otras classes.
Ca r-tC>n.xx y Cal. clo rrizmaaera.-
VENIDA NORR E Hip6lito de la Oliva.

?,000 pirates. They met in Decembler. 1670, at Cape
Tibur6i, Gulf of Ural)i. and id lt a council to decide
Whether their forces should be directed upon CO;rtaigenla,
Vera Cruz, or Paianai. The last was chosen as being the
richest, and Morgain was elected Admiral.

S Capt. Morgan perceived that Flotune favored his arms.
by giving good success to all his celterprizes. which occa-
sioned him, as it is usual in human affairs. to aspire to
greater things, trusting she would alwayss be constant to
him. Such was the burning of Panama; wherein fortune
failed not to assist him. in like manner as she had (dopne
before, crowning the event of his actions with victory, how-
beit she had led him thereto through thousands of difficul-
ties.- The history hereof. I shall now begin to relate, as
being so very remarkable in 1;i! its circumstances tliat per-
adventure nothing more deserving nmcmoly n;m occur to be
read by future ages.

Not long after Capt. Morgan arrived at Jamaica. he
found many of his chief officers and soldiers reduced to
their former state of indigence through their immoderate
vices and debauchery. Hence they ceased not to importune


him for new invasions and exploits, thereby to get some-
thing to expend anew in wine, as they had already wasted
what was secured so little before. Capt. Morgan being
willing to follow fortune while she called him, hereupon
stopped the mouths of many of the inhabitants of Jamaica,
who were creditors to his men for large sums of money,
with the hopes and promises lie gave them, of greater
achievements than ever, by a new expedition he was going
about. This being, done, he needed not give himself much
trouble to levy men for this or any other enterprise, his
name being nuw so famous through all those islands, that
that alone would readily bring him in more men than he
could well employ. He undertook therefore to equip a
new fleet of ships: for which purpose he assigned the south
side of the isle of Tortuga, as a place of rendezvous.
With this resolution, he wrote divers letters to all the
ancient and expert Pirates there inhabiting, as also to the
Governor of said isle, and to the planters and hunters of
Hispaniola (Hayti), giving them to understand his inten-
tiois, and desiring their appearance at the said place, in
case they intended to go with him. All these people had
no sooner understood his designs than they flocked to the
place assigned, in huge numbers, with ships, canoes and
boats. being desirous to obey his commands. Many, who
had not the cor venience of coming to him by sea, traversed
the woods of Hispaniola, and with no small difficulties ar-
rived there by land. Thus all were present at the place
assigned and ii n readiness, against the 24th day of Octo-
ber, 1670.

Pirates Go A-Foraging.

Capt. Morgan was not wanting to be there accord-
ing to his punctual custom, who came in his ship to the
same side of the island, to a port called by the French,
Port Couillon, over against the island, De la Vaca, this
being a place which he had assigned to others. Having

Pilot and Guide,




I -

.Markat Sitret approaching the Jdarket-l9anamra.
Sarath la Aufrla I..RS.IAl 4gnarya diAwd(iag biwwe. of..uiukeawM.

42 Pilot and Guide.
now gathered the greatest part of his fleet, he called a
council, to deliberate about the means of finding provisions
sufficient for so many people. Here they concluded to
send four ships and one boat, manned with four hundred
men, over to the continent, to the intent they should rifle
some country towns and villages, and in these get all the
corn or maize they could gather. They set sail for the
continent, towards the river, De la Hacha, with design to
assault a small village called La Rancheri., where is usually
to be found the greatest quantity of maize of all these
parts thereabouts. In the meanwhile Capt. Morgan sent
another party of his men to hunt in the woods, who killed
there a huge number of beasts, and salted them. The rest
of his companions remained in the ships, to clean, fit and
rig them out to sea, so that at the return of those who
were sent abroad, all things might be in readiness to wieght
anchor, and follow the course of their designs.
The four ships above mentioned, after they had set
sail from Hispaniola, steered their course till they came
within sight (f t' i i'.er, De la Hacha, where they were
suddenly overtaken with a tedious calm. Being thus within
sight of land becalmed for some (ays, the Spaniards in-
habiting along the co:ist, who had perceived them to be
llenemies. had sufficient time to prep;;re th:inselves for the
assault, at least to hide the best part of their goods, to
the end that, without any care of pirs-t-rvlng them, they
I might lIe iIn re;iitlness to retire, when they found them-
selves unable to resist the force of the Pi-rates, by whose
fr-equent attempts uponi tihe coasts they had already
leavrn t what they had to do in such cases. There was in
the river at that present a good ship. which was come
from C'artagena to lade maize, and was now when the
Pirates came almost ready to depart. The men belonging
to this ship endeavoured to escape, but not being able
to do it; both they and the vessel fell into their hands.
Tllis was a fit booty for their mind, as being good part of
what they came to seek for with so much care and toil.

Pirates Go A-Foraging.


The next morning about break of day they came with
their ships toward the shore, and landed their men, although
the Spaniards made huge resistance from a battery which
they had raised on that side, where of necessity they had
to land; but notwithstanding what defence they could make,
they were forced to retire towards a village, to which the
Pirates followed them. Here the Spaniards, rallying again,
fell upon them with great fury, and maintained a strong
combat, which lasted till.night was come; but then, per-
ceiving they had lost a great number of men, which was
no smaller on the Pirates, side, they retired to places
more occult in the woods.
The next day when the Pirates saw they were all
fled, and the town left totally empty of people, they pur-
sued them as far as they could possibly. In this pursuit
they overtook a party of Spaniards, whom they made all
prisoners and exercised the most cruel torments, to dis-
cover where they had hidden their goods; some were found
who by the force of intolerable tortures confessed; but
others who would not do the same were used more bar-
barously than the former. Thus, in the space of fifteen
days that they remained there, they took many prisoners,
much plate and movable goods, with all other things they
could rob, with which booty they resolved to return to
Hispaniola. Yet not content with what they had already
got, they dispatched some prisoners into the woods to
seek for the rest of the inhabitants, and to demand of
them a ransom for not burning the town. To this they
answered, they had no money or plate, but in case. they
would be satisfied with a certain quantity of maize, they
would give as much as they could afford. The Pirates
accepted this proffer, as being more useful to them at
that occasion than ready money, and agreed they should
pay four thousand hanegs, or bushels, of maize. These
were brought in three days after, the Spaniards being
desirous to rid themselves as soon as possible of that in-
human sort of people. Having laded them on board their

Pilot n(11 G ale.

Comisariato del Pueblo
Esqulna de IS coNles 13 Esle y Avenido Nonle.
Almacen de Mercancias en
Ferreteria y Herramnientas
para artesanos.

Comisariato delPueblo
Corner 01 Thirleenli Slreet od oM~i W venue.
Groceries and General
All classes of Hardware
and Tools for artisans,

ships, together with all the rest of their lboot, they returned
to tihe Island of Hispaniola, to give account to their leader,
Capt. Morgan, of all they had performed.

Preparations for Departure.

They had now been absent five entire weeks, about
the commission aforemelntioned, which long delay occasioned
Capt. M gorgain almost to despair of their return, fearing
lest they had fallen into the hands of the Spaniards, es-
pecially considering that, the place whereto they went
could easily be relieved from Cartagena and Santa Marta,
if tim inhabitants were at all careful to alarm the country;
on the other side lie feared lest they should have made
some great fortune in that voyage, and with it escaped to
some, other place. But at last seeing his ships return, and
in greater number than they had departed, lie resumed
new courage, this siglt causing both in him and his com-
paniois infinite joy. This was much increased when, being
arrived, they found t hem full laden with maize, whereof
tl.ey stood in great need for the maintenance of so many
p'Iople(, by whose help they expected great matters through
thil conduct of their conlllander.
After Capt. Morgan had divided the sa:,l maize. as
also tlhe fltsh which the hunters brought in, among all the
shilps. cCO 'rdiig to thile 11number of Imen that were in every


-~ ---------

.. -- I





P'reprIfitioJn .for D1pal,-11r. 45

vessel, he concluded upon the departure. having viewed
beforehand every ship, andi observed their being well
equipped and clean. Thus he set sail. andi directed his
course towards Cape Tibur6n, where lie determined to
take his measures and resolution, of what enterprise lie
should take in hand. No sooner were they arrived there
than they met with some other ships that came newly to
join them from Jamaica. So that now the whole fleet
consisted of thirty-seven ships, wherein were two thousand
fighting men, besides mariners and boys; the Admiral hereof
was mounted with twenty-two great guns, and six small
ones, of brass; the rest carried some twenty, some sixteen,
some eighteen, and the smallest vessel at least four, bcs:des
which they had great quantity of ammunition and fire-
balls, with other inventions of powder.

Proposed Division of Spoils.

Capt. Morgan finding himself with such a great num-
ber of ships, divided the whole fleet into two squadrons,
constituting a Vice-Admiral, and other officers and com-
manders of the second squadron, distinct from the former.
To every one of these he gave letters patent, or commis-
sions, to act all manner of hostility against the Spanish
nation, and take of them what ships they could, either
abroad at sea, or in the harbours, in like manner as if
they were open and declared enemies (as he termed it) of
the King of England, his pretended master. This being
done, he called all his captains and other officers together,
and caused them to sign some articles of common agree-
ment between them, and in the name of all. Herein it
was stipulated that he should have the hundredth part of
all that was gotten, to himself alone. That every captain
should draw the shares of eight men, for the expenses of
his ship, besides his own: That the surgeon, besides his
ordinary pay, should have two hundred pieces of eight. for

his chest of medicamnets: And every carpenter, above his
common salary, should draw one hundred pieces of eight.
As to 'ecompences.they were regulated in this voyage much
more than usual. Thus. for the loss of both legs, they
assigned one thousand five hundred pieces of eight or
fifteen slaves; for one leg. whether the right or left, six
lludri'd liecrs of eight or six slaves; for a hand, as much
as for a leg. :and for the loss of an eye. one hundred
pieces of eight or one slave. Lastly, unto him that in any
la:ttl( should signillize himself. either by entering the first
any castle, or taking down the Spanish colours and setting
up the English, they constituted fifty pieces of eight for a
reward. In tile head of thlse articles it was stipulated
that all these extraordinary salaries, recompences and re-
w:1rds should ie paid out of the first spoil or purchase
they should take, according as every one should then
occiiur to be either rewarded or paid.
This (contract wiing signed. Capt. Morgan commanded
his Vice-Admirals and Captains to put all things in order,
to go and attempt one of three places, either Cartagena,
Panama or Vera Cruz; ibut the lot fell upon Panama as
,einig believed to lbe the richest of all three; notwithstand-
ing tinls city (eing situated at such distance from the
Northern sea, as they knew not well the avenues and
entries necessary to approach it, they judged it necessary
to go beforelland to the isle of St. Catharine, there to find
and provide themselves with some persons who might serve
them lfor guides in this elterprize; for in the garrison of
tlit island are commonly employed many banditti and
outlaws belongiig to _Panaima and the neighboring places,
who ;are very expert in the knowledge of all that country.
liit be'fre tihe proceeded any farther, they caused an
:act tio ble llpblished through tile whole fleet, containing
iat in they met with any Spanish vessel, the first
c:ilptiiin \\lio with his men should enter iand take the said
sin. should liavle frl his reward the tenth part of whatso-
,.,r s ldho ldh Ie' found it.hin her.


Pilot aml Guide.











~ ~__I____~

Street showing entrance to .9anama Cemeteries.
.AjdAul J.*rise&AFA.Aim Osuisdwrfliishy.meii -o.SfsiMakomikll.

48~ Pilo (11( Guide,__

Attack Isle of St. Catharine.
Capt. Morgan and his companions weighed anchor
from the Cape of Tiburon, the 16th day of December in
the year 1670. Four days after they arrived within sight
of the Isle of St. Catharine, (1) which was now in pos-
session of the Spaniards again, and to which they commonly
banished the malefactors of the Spanish dominions in the
West Indies. In this island are found huge quantities of
pigeons at certain seasons of the year; it is watered con-
tinually by four rivulets or brooks, whereof two are always
dry in the summer season. Here is no manner of trade
nor commerce exercised by the inhabitants, neither do they
give themselves the trouble to plant more fruits than what
is necessary for the sustentation of human life; howbeit,
the country would be sufficient to make very good planta-
tions of tobacco, which might render considerable profit
were it cultivated for that use.
As soon as Capt. Morgan came near the island with
his fleet, he sent before one of his best sailing vessels to
view the entry of the river and see if any other ships were
there who might hinder him from landing; as also fearing
lest they should give intelligence of his arrival to the in-
habitants of the island, and they by this means prevent
his designs.
The next day before sunrise, all the fleet came to
anchor near the island, in a certain bay called Aguada
(Grande: upon this bay the Spaniards had lately built a
battery, mounted with four pieces of cannon. Captain
Morlgan landed with a thousand men, more or less, and
disposed then into squadrons, beginning his march through
the woods, although they had no other guides than some
few of lis own men who had been there before when

(1) Also koiiwn nii Santa Kaitalina or Old Providence, an island
in tihe ('n rilibii Sen, (100 miles trom thlie Mosquito Coast, now belong-
jig to VW 'ii izu'l;t.


Pilot and Guide,

Attack Isl. of St. (C'it l h 9-i

Mansvelt took and ransacked the island. The some day
they came to a certain place where the ( governorr at other
times kept his ordinary residence: here thel found a bat-
tery called The PlaUft;t i' but inolbodyv in it: the Spanliards
having retired to the lesser island. W ich. as was said
before, is so near the great one that a short !bridge only
may conjoin them.

Pirates in Serious Straits.
This lesser island aforesaid was so iwell fortified w-ith
forts and batteries around it as might s'ee n impregnable.
Hereupon, as soon as the Spaniards perceived the pirates
to approach, they began to tire upon them so furiously
that they could advance nothing that day. but wNere con-
tented to retreat a little, and take up their rest upon the
grass in the open fields, which afforded no strange beds to
these people, as being sufficiently used to such kind of

Soderia Francesa,

J. B. COEROL1 & Co.

We manufacture all classes
of Soda waters and Syrups.
We have engaged the ser-
vices of a graduate distiller for
the manufacture of all classes of
pure liquors.
Prompt attention given to
orders from private liiust..
FACTORY, Nlo. 54,

Soderia Francesa,

B. (OEIRI y 'Cia.

Se flabrieain tol i elase die Aguas
(Gascosas y ,Siril)es.
Prxiia ncutI lle an i un lico-
rista gra;inl do ipara l;aeer today
clase de licorcs Ile.infcvtados.
M i' LI S..


i,. _49

50 Piot iand Guide.
repose; what most afflicted them was hunger, having not
eaten the least, thing that whole day. About midnight it
began to rain so hard that those miserable people had
much ado to resist so much hardship, the greatest part of
them having no other clothes than a pair of seaman's
trousers or breeches. and a shirt, without either shoes or
stockings. Thus finding themselves in great extremity,
they began to pull down a few thatched houses to make
fires withal; in a word, they were in such condition that
one hundred mcen, indifferently well armed, might easily
that night have torn them all to pieces. The next morning
about break of day the rain ceased, at which time they
began to dry their arms, which were entirely wet, and pro-
ceed on their march. But not long after, the rain com-
menced anew. rather harder than before, as if the skies
were melted into waters. which caused them to cease from
advancing towards the forts, whence the Spaniards con-
tinually fired at the Pirates, seeing them to approach.
Tlhe Pirates were now reduced to great affliction and
danger of their lives through the hardness of the weather,
their own nakedness and the great hunger they sustained.
For a small relief hereof, they happened to find in the
fields an old horse. which was both lean and full of scabs
;~1nd blotches, with galled back and sides. This horrid
animal they instantly killed and flayed, and. divided into
small pieces among themselves as far as it would reach,
for many could not obtain one morsel, which they roasted
:and devoured without either salt or bread, more like raven-
s wo.lves th1In mlleln.

A Threat and the Answer.

Thie 'rain, as yet ceased not to fall, and Capt. Morgan
perceived tlic'i mi ndi s to relent, hearing many of them say
they would return )on ho.Ind( the ships. Amongst these
fatigues both of mind and a body, he thought it convenient
In use some sudden and almost unexpected remedy; to this

A Threat and the Answer. 5I

effect he commanded a canoe to be rigged in all haste,
and the colours of truce to be hanged out of it. This
canoe he sent to the Spanish governor of the island with
this message: That if within a few hours he delivered not
himself and all his men into his hands, he did by that mes-
senger swear to him, and all those that were in his company,
he would almost certainly put them all to the sword, without
granting quarter to any.
After noon the canoe returned with this answer:
That the Governor desired two hours time to deliberate with
his officers in a full council about that affair; which being
past, he would give his positive answer to the message.
The time now being elapsed, the said Governor sent
two canoes with white colours, and two persons, to treat
with Capt. Morgan, but before they landed, they demanded
of the Pirates two persons as hostages of their security.
These were readily granted by Capt. Morgan, who de-
livered to them two of his captains, for a mutual pledge
of the security required. With this the Spaniards pro-
pounded to Capt. Morgan, that their Governor in a full
assembly had resolved to deliver up the island, not being
provided with sufficient forces to defend it against such
an armada or fleet. But withal he desired that Captain
Morgan would be pleased to use a certain stratagem of
war, for the better saving of his own credit, and the repu-
tation of his officers both abroad and at home, which
should be as follows: That Capt. Morgan would come with
his troops by night, near the bridge that joined the lesser
island to the great one, and there attack the fort of St.
SJerome; that at the same time all the ships of his fleet
would draw near the castle of Santa Teresa. and attack
it by sea, landing in the meanwhile some more troops,
near the battery called St. Matthew; that these troops
which were newly landed should by this means intercept
the Governor by the way, as he endeavoured to pass to
St. Jerome's fort, and then take him prisoner, using the
formality, as if they forced him to deliver the said castle;

52 Pilot and Guide.

and that he would lead the English into it, under the
fraud of being his own troops: that on one side and the
other there should be continual firing at one another, but
without bullets, or at. least into the air, so that no side
might receive any harm Ib this device; that thus having
obtained two such considerable forts. the chief of the isle,
lie need not care for the rest, which of necessity must
fall by course into his hands.

A Mock Surrender.

These propositions, every one. were granted by Capt.
Morgan. upon condition they) should see them faithfully
observed, for otherwise they should be used with a'.
rigour imanrinlable: this they promised to do, and hereupon
took their leave, and returned to give account of their
negotiation to the Governor. Presently after, Capt. Morgan
commanded the whole fleet to enter the port, and his men
to be in readiness to assault that night the castle of St.
Jerome. Thus the false alarm or battle began with in-
cessanit firing of great guns from both the castles against
the ships, but without bullets, as was said before. Then
the Pirates landed, and assaulted by night the lesser
island, which they took, as also possession of both the
fortresses, forcing all the Spaniards, in appearance, to fly
to the church. Before this assault, Capt. Morgan had sent

Tienda de "San Jose" "San Jose" Store.
Al coslado de la Iglesia del misme nombre Adjacent the Church of the same name.
(lvcnida A, Nos. 13) v 1.1.' rI.t.l1-ly restocked my stora,
ose 04ngel ?ivfera, Prop. i ,,,w i .I-ir 1, t. Public a complete
J-os c nge .vera, irop. II st*i itss ,.rllt int of Provisions,
---__- Winus anl Li|inrs. Preserves. Canned
.' l,, 'iiIliii ,.lit,, i 't i.'llli ll 'll- '.tla ii .t. J11161'.i i aS' osr ae (.' lies.( i ,
i iii.i. i -',i ,i tn, in .,i Iuni I li,, I'It i i. It.. t.. it moer te priesop .

I', .i.-. .,,,;. i I ,,..lN ..., ... Nos. 133-141 fl VENL U E
I'm ii.1.. riUi;Iai1:t Oic. t Nos. M)5-141 CIVENLJU L

A Mock Surrender. 53

word to the Governor he should keep all his min together
in a body, otherwise if the Pirates met any straggling
Spaniards in the streets, they should certainly shoot them.
The island being taken by this unusual stratagem.
and all things put in due order, the Pirates began to
make a new war against the poultry, cattle and all sort of
victuals they cold find. This was their whole employ for
some days, scarce thinking of anything else than to kill
those animals, roast and eat, and imake good cheer, aS
much as they could possibly attain unto. If woodl was
wanting, they presently fell upon the houses, and pultling
them down, made fires with the timber, as had been done
before in the field. The next day they numbered all tlhe
prisoners they had taken upon the whole island, which
were found to be in all four hundred and fifty persons,
between men, women and children, viz., o1ne hundred and
ninety soldiers belonging to the garrison; forty inhabitants
who were married; forty-three children; thirty-four slaves
belonging to the King. with eight children; eight banditti;
thirty-nine negroes belonging to private persons, wit- twen-
ty-seven female blacks, and thirty-four children. The
Pirates disarmed all the Spaniards. and sent them out im-
mediately to the plantations, to seek for provisions, leaving
the women in the church, there to exercise their devotions.

Fortifications of St. Catherine.

Soon after they took a. review of the whnle island,
and all the fortresses belonging thereunto, which they found
to be nine in all, as follows: the fort of St. ,lerome, nearest
to the bridge, had eight great guns of 12, 6i and S) pound
carriage, together with six pipes of muskets. every pipe
containing ten muskets. Here they found still sixty muskets.
with sufficient quantity of powder and all other sorts of
ammunition. The second fortress, called St. Matthew, had
three guns, of 8 pound carriage each. The third and
chief among all the rest, named Santa Teresa, had twenty
g^ _____

54 Pilot and Guide.
.......~ ~-.-.---- ---
great guns, of 1S. 12. S and 6 pound carriage, with ten
pipes of muslkets. like thosee e said before, and ninety
muskets reinining. besides all other warlike ammunition.
This castle was built with stone ;id mortar, with very
thirk walls on all sides, and a hlrge ditch around about
it of twenty foot (clpth,. which although it was dry was
very hard t, get over. Here was no entry lut through
one door. which correslproleii to the middle oi' the castle.
Within it Nwas ;a tioiint. onrill. alw st in iceessible, with
four pieces ',f canrioll ;t thlr t)p. whence they could shoot
directly into the prt. On tlhe :et side this castle was im-
pregn'able. by reason of tlih rocks wliich surrounded it and
the sea lheatin fllioiusly up1)on them. In like manner, on
the side of tlie land. it was s. (co.)iinodiously seated on a
mountain that tlii e was inT ncces tot it. but by a path of
three or f our f(iot broad. Thi' fou rth fortress was named
St. Augustine. having three ins. of S alnd pound car-
riage. The fifth. nam 'd La; P.:,ttaforini de la Concepcion,
hAd only two gutn. of eillt pourtl c:lrriage. The sixth,
by miame Sati Sld\;iva(l. haid like ise to more than two
guns. The sevieth. heing c:illd Pl;ttaforinn de Iis Ar-
tilleros, had also two gutns. 'hie eighth. called Santa Cruz,
had three guns. The nintl. which wa:s called St. Joseph's
Fort, had six guns, of 12 ;nid S pound c r a ;e, besides
two pipes of muslkets ; ind sifticietit aiIuni Lltion.
In tle storehouse were found db)ove thirty thousand
pounds of powiler, witl all other sorts of ;L111mmunition,
which were tN ransportiLd by lthe Pirate is on hoardl the ships.
All the guns were stopped and nailed, and th- fortresses
demolished, excepting t hat of St. Jeromen where the Pirates
kept their guard andt r'eid l ce..

Pirates Start for San Lorenzo.

(Calpt. Morgan ci lquired if -)any :anditti were there
fromi l Panai a (o P.'rto .Hllo, and hereupon three were
brought before hitli, who pretentded to be very expert in

Piratex Start for San Lorei:o. 55

all the avenues of those parts. He asked them if they
would be his guides, and show him the securest ways and
passages to Panama; which, if they performed, he promised
them equal shares in all they should pillage and rob in
that expedition, and that afterwards lie would set them at
liberty, by transporting them to Jamaica. These proposi-
tions pleased the banditti very well, and they readily ac-
cepted his proffers, promising to serve him very faithfully
in all he should desire, especially one of these three, who
was the greatest rogue, thief and assassin among them,
and who had deserved for his crimes rather to be broken
alive upon the wheel than punished with serving in a gar-
rison. This wicked fellow had a great ascendancy over
the other two banditti, and could domineer and command
over them as he pleased, they not daring to refuse
obedience to his orders.
Hereupon Capt. Morgan commanded four ships and
one boat to be equipped and provided with all things
necessary, to go and take the castle of Chagre, seated
upon a river of that name. Neither would he go himself
with his whole fleet, fearing less the Spaniards should be
jealous of his farther designs upon Panama. In these
vessels he caused to embark four hundred men, who went
to put in execution the orders of their chief commander
Capt. Morgan, while he himself remained behind in the
Island of St. Catharine, with the rest of the fleet, expecting
to hear the success of their arms.

The Castle of Chagre (San Lorenzo).

Capt. Morgan sending these four ships and a boat
to the river of Chagre, chose for Vice-Admiral thereof a
certain person named Capt. Brodely. This man had been
a long time in those quarters, and committed many rob-
beries upon the Spaniards when Mansvelt took the Isle of
St. Catharine. He, being therefore well acquainted with
those coasts, was thought a fit person for this exploit, his



i --

a country scene in the .Panama .~ipublic.
fl4mian Ajrimcar, 4 P*j .Abw' j.4y *m ldmwriw Ag.6fifbv .AlnkeoklM

-----rrrru~iiiil~i~;;rii~*i;*. .1... .................

.- .. .-.. .. .- .-. J r. a

Castle of Chagre. (Sun Loren:o). 57

actions likewise having rendered him famous among the
Pirates, and their enemies the Spaniards. Capt. Brodely
being chosen chief commander of these forces, in three
days after he departed from the presence of Captain
Morgan, arrived within sight of the said castle of Chagre,
which by the English is called St. Lawrence. (1) This
castle is built upon a high mountain, at the entry of the
liver, and surrounded on all sides with strong palisades or
wooden walls, being very well terrepleined, and filled with
earth, which renders them as secure as the best walls
made of stone or brick. The top of this mountain is in a
manner divided into two parts. between which lies a ditch.
of the depth of thirty foot. The castle itself has but one
entry, and that by a drawbridge whicl passes over the
ditch aforementioned. On the iand side it has four bas-
tions, that on the sea containing only two more. That part
thereof that looks towards the south is totally inaccessible
and impossible to be climbed, through the infinite asperity
of the mountain. The north side is surrounded by the
river, which hereabouts runs very broad. At the foot of
the said castle, or rather mountain, is seated a strong fort,
with eight great guns, which commands and impedes the
entry of the river. Not much lower are to be seen two
other batteries, whereof each hath six pieces of cannon, to
defend likewise the mouth of the said river. At one side
of the castle are built two great store-houses, in which are
deposited all sorts of warlike ammunition. and merchandise,
which are brought thither from the inner parts of the
country. Near these houses is a high pair of stairs, hewn
out of the rock, which serves to mount to the top of the
castle. On the west side of the said fortress lies a small
port, which is not above seven or eight fathoms deep, being
very fit for small vessels and of very good anchorage.
Besides this, there lies before the castle, at the entry of

(1) English rendition of the Spanish, "San Lorenzo."

the river, a great rock. scarce to be perceived above water,
unless at low tide.

Attack on the Castle.

No sooner had the Spaniards perceived the Pirates
to come than they began to fire incessantly at them with
the biggest of their guns. They came to an anchor in a
small port, at the distance of a league more or less from
the castle. The next morning very early they went on
shore and marched through the woods to attack the castle
on that side. This march continued until two o'clock in
the afternoon, before they could reach the castle, by reason
of the difficulties of the way, and its mire and dirt. And
although their guides served them exactly, notwithstanding
they came so near the castle at first that they lost many
of their men with the shot from the guns, they being in an
open place where nothing could cover nor defend them.
This much perplexed the Pirates in their minds, they not
knowing what to do, nor what course to take, for on that
side, of necessity they must make the assault, and being
uncovered from head to foot, they could not advance one
step without great danger. Besides that, the castle, both
for its situation alnd strength. caused them much to fear
the success of their enterprise. But to give it over they
dared not, lest they should be reproached and scorned by
their companions.

Doomed by a Burning Arrow.

At last, after many doubts and disputes among
themselves, they resolved to hazard tile assault and their
lives after Ia most desperate 11;manner. Thus they advanced
towards the castle, witli their swords in one hand and fire-
balls in the other. The Slpaniatrds defended themselves
very briskly. ceasing not to fire at them with their great
guns and muskets continually crying withal: Come on, ye


I'ilot atnd Giide.

Pilot an(

Fabrica de Baules

Guillermo Leblanc (HUj0)
ea fe 16 Oeate, Sto. 55.

Dispone de maquinarias
para today clase de trabajos
en madera.
Se fabrican catres. me-
sas, lavados, sillas, etc., etc.

Entre las falles B v 14 Oeste.

Serbicio Diurno y Nocurno.

I Guide. 59

Panama Trunk


We turn out at our factory all
classes of work in wood, trunks,
cots, tables, washstands, chairs,
etc., etc. We have a complete
equipment of machines for this
purpose, operated by STEAM
It will pay you to get prices
from us before investing in ready
made articles of this kind.
Guillermo Leblanc, (SON.)
91o. 55 -VA.16tf Street.

Undertaking Establishment.

Between B St. and W. 14th.

60 1'dot ad GuiIe

Englisulh dogs, enemies to God and our King; let your com-
pJnions tfat are behind come on too; ye shall not go to
Panam t lis bout. After the Pirates had made some trial
to climb up the walls, they were forced to retreat, which
they accordingly did. resting themselves until night. This
being collmc, they returned to the assault, to try if by the
help of their tire-balls they could overcome and pull down
the pales before the wall. This they attempted to do, and
while they were about it. there happened a very remarkable
accident, which gave them the opportunity of the victory.
S)ne of the Pirates was wounded with an arrow in his
back. which pierced his body to the other side. This in-
stantly he pulled out with great valour at the side of his
breast, then taking a little cotton that he had about him,
he wound it abl.ut tlh said arrow, and putting it into his
musket, shot it back into the castle. But the cotton being
kindled by the pw wder, occasioned two or three houses
that were within tlie castle. being thatched with palm
Leaves, to take fire. which tle Spaniards perceived not so
soon a;s was uleCOt'ssr. FUr this fire meeting with a parcel
of powder, blew it iup, and thereby caused great ruin, and
1n less consternation to the Spaniards, who were not able
to account for this accident, not having seen the beginning

Brave Resistance by Defenders.

''Thus the lira:tes. perceiving the good effect of the
ar1,row 11nd llie beuILiiiiiin of the misfortune of the Spaniards
\\wer inftiit(ely gladl ,ii.ed threat. And while they were
1tsied in extinguishiiig thle fire. which caused great con-
fui.sil iI tlihe whole caNstle. having not. sufficient water
witerewithal to do it. tle Pliraite made use of this oppor-
tinil y. setting ire likewise to Ihe palisades. Thus the fire
wais seen at, the Sa,;ie time, in several parts about the
ca;st lh, %vlwich gave them huge advantage against the
Spaniarids. For ill:iny breaches were made at once by the

-- ----


Pilot oand Guide.

Brare Re.isifanerl by Drefrudcrs.

fire among the pales, great heaps of earth falling down
into the ditch. Upon these the Pirates climbed up, and
got over into the castle, notwithstanding that some Spaniards
who were not busied about the fire. cast down-l upon them
many flaming pots, full of combustible matter and odious
smells, which occasioned the loss of many of the English.
The Spaniards, notwithstanding tlle great resistance
they made, could not hinder the palisades from being en-
tirely burnt before midnight. Meanwhile the Pirates ceased
not to persist in their intention of making the castle. To
which effect, although the fire was great, they would creep
upon the ground, as nigh unto it as they could, and shoot
amidst the flames against the Spaniards they could per-
ceive on the other side, and thus caused many to fall dead
from the walls. When day was come, they observed all
the movable earth that lay between the pales to be fallen
into the ditch in huge quantity. So that now those within
the castle did in a manner lie equally exposed to them
without, as had been on the contrary before. Whereupon
the Pirates continued shooting very furiously against them,
and killed great numbers of Spaniards. For the Governor
had given them orders not to retire from those posts
which corresponded to the heaps of earth fallen into the
ditch, and caused the artillery to be transported to the

Castle Surrenders-Heavy Losses.

Notwithstanding, the fire within the castle still con-
tinued, and now the Pirates from without used what means
they could to hinder its progress, by shooting incessantly
against it. One party of the Pirates was employed only
to this purpose, and another to watch all tie motions (of
the Spaniards, and take all opportunities against. them.
About noon the English happened to gain a breach, which
the Governor himself defended with twenty-five soldiers.
Here was performed a very courageous and warlike re-
.-_i_ _-----------------


62 Pilot and Guide.
distance by the Spaniards, both with muskets, pikes, stones
and swords. Yet notwithstanding, through all these arms
the Pirates forced and fought their way, till at last they
gained the castle. The Spaniards who remained alive cast
themselves down from the castle into the sea, choosing
rather to die precipitated by their own selves (few or none
surviving the fall) than ask any quarter for their lives.
The Governor himself retreated to the corps du garde,before
which were placed two pieces of cannon. Here he intended
still to defend himself, neither would he demand any
quarter. But at last he was killed with a musket shot,
which pierced his skull into the brain.
The Governor being dead, and the corps du garde
surrendered, they found still remaining in it alive to the
number of thirty men, whereof scarce ten were not wound-
ed. These informed the Pirates that eight or nine of
their soldiers had deserted their colours, and were gone to
Panama to carry news of their arrival and invasion. These
thirty men alone were remaining of three hundred and
fourteen, wherewith the castle was garrisoned, among which
number not one officer was found alive. They were all
made prisoners, and compelled to tell whatever they knew
of their designs and enterprises. Among other things they
declared that the Governor of Panama had notice sent him
three weeks ago from Cartagena, how that the English
were equipping a fleet at Hispaniola, with design to come
and take the said city of Panama. Moreover, that this
their intention had been known by a person, who had run
:;way from the Pirates at the river De la Hacha, where
they provided their fleet with corn. That, upon this news,
the s;id (l governor liad sent, one hundred dand sixty-four
lnien to strengthen the garrison of that castle, together
with much provisions alnd warlike ammunition; the ordinary
garrison whereof did only consist of one hundred and fifty
mien. So that in all they made the number aforementioned
of three hundred and fourteen men being all very well
armed. Besides this they liad declared that the Governor

Castle ,S'urre,,,'.r..- Fban"'r L.,r.q. 6 3

Pablo Tenotfti Pablo Ieiotti
Sucesor le 10 onliguo cosa Menill Hnos. SUCCESSOR TO MENOTTI BROTHERS.
Plaza de Santa Ana, PANAMA No. 17 'clneral Ave., Panama
Unico iiiportador d(l afaimnido Tppe'r
Orust Whiskey. Importaci6n dirce'ta 4- I import dinrelt : l 1t st. I r:.t Irinds of
las nipjores ini .TT' 4 (I' Viios \. ('ill*- \Vi inIs. 1'i"*i'v'\ s. (.'lnilil' (n)Ilds of
vas de Francia Italia, Espa mi.. .\A!ci Frane,'. Ital. S1:;pin. I nirmii y ;an tl-
nia y Estados Unidos. L'litir d Status.

of Panama had placed several ambuscades all along the
river of Chagre, and that he waited for their coming, ill
the open fields of Panama, with three thousand six hun-
dred men.
The taking of this castle of Chagre cost.the Pirates
excessively dear, in coniparisoni to the small numbers they
used to lose at others time and places. Yea, their toil
and labour here far exceeded what they sustained at the
conquest of the Isle of St. Catharine and its adjacent.
For coming to number their menl, they found that they
had lost above one hundred, besides those that were
wounded. whose number exceeded seventy. They com-
manded the Spaniards that were prisoners to cast all the
dead bodies of their own men (lown from the top of the
mountain to the seaside, and afterwards to bury them.
Such as were wounded were carried to the church belong-
ing to the castle, of which they made a hospital, and
where also they shut up the women.

Morgan Starts for San Lorenzo.

Capt. MIorgan remained not long time behind at the
Isle of St. Catharine. after taking the castle of Chagre of
which he had notice presently sent him. Yet notwith-
standing, before lie departed thence, he caused to be em-
barked all the provisions that could lie found, together
with great quantities *of maize or Indian wheat, and

cassava, whereof in like manner is made bread in those
parts. He commanded likewise great store of provisions
should be transported to the garrison of the aforesaid
castle of Chagre. from what parts soever they could be
got. At a certain place on the island they cast into the
sea all the guns belonging thereto, with a design to return
and leave that island well garrisoned, for the perpetual
possession of Pirates. Notwithstanding, lie ordered all the
houses and forts to be set on fire, excepting only the castle
of St. Teresn. which he judged to be the strongest and
securest wherein to secure himself at his return from
Panama. He carried with him all the prisoners of the
island, and thus set sail for the river of Chagre, where he
arrived in the space of eight days. Here the joy of the
whole fleet was so great, when they spied the English
colours upon the castle that they minded not their way
into the river, which occasioned them to lose four of their
ships at the entry thereof, that. wherein Capt. Morgan went
being one of the four. Yet their fortune was so good as
to 1be able to save all the men and goods that were in the
said vessels. Yea, the ships likewise had been preserved,
if a strong northerly vwiid had not risen on that occasion,
which cast the ships upon the rock above mentioned, that
lies at the entry of the said river.
Capt. Morgan was brought into the castle with great
acclamations of triumph and joy of all the Pirates, both of
tlose that were within, and also them that were newly
come. Having understood the whole transactions of the
conquest, lie commanded all the prisoners to begin to
v.ork and repair what was ie essary, especially in setting
up new palis;ads. or pales, round about the forls depend-
ing ,11 the castle. There were still inl the river some
Sp.jaisli vessels, called Iby them chatter, whicli serve for
tlie traislportItlill of mnier'llandlize p alid down~ the said
river, as also for going to Porto Bello and Nicaragua.
'Tliases are commonly mounted with two great guns of iron
and four othici small ones of brass. All these vessels they


Pilot and Guide


Morgan Starts ibr S an Loran:ro.

seized oni. together with four little slips they found tll'e,
and all the canoes. In the castle they left a g:arrison of
five hundred mien, and in the ships withlin ithe riveCr oiln
hundred and fifty more. These tling;: being done. Captain
Morgan departed toward Panama. at tlic head o(f one
thousand two hundred mnii. He carried very small pro-
visions with him, being in good hopes lie shoulni provide
himself sufficiently among the Spani;uds, whom lie knew
to lie in ambuscade at several places by the way.

Pirates Set Forth for Old Panama.
Capt. Morgan set forth from the castle of Chagre.
towards Panama, the 18th day of January in the year
1671. He had under his conduct one thousand two ihun-
dred men, five boats with artillery. and thirty-two canoes.
all of which were filled with the said people. Thus he
steered his course up the river towards Panama. That
day they sailed only six leagues, and came to a place called
De los Bracos. Here a party of his men went on shore.
only to sleep some few hours and stretch their limbs, they
being almost crippled with lying too much crowded in the
boats. After they had rested awhile, they went abroad.
to see if any victuals could be found in the neighboring
plantations. But they could find none, the Spaniards being
fled and carrying with them all the provisions they had.
This day, being the first of their journey. there was
amongst them such scarcity of victuals that the greatest
part were forced to pass with only a pipe of tobacco.
without any other refreshment.
The next day, very early in the morning, they con-
tinued their journey, and came about evening to a place
called Cruz de Juan Gallego. Here they were compelled
to leave their boats and canoes, by reason the river was
very dry for want of rain, and the many obstacles of trees
that were fallen into it.
The guides told them that about two leagues farther
on the country would be very good to continue the journey

~I_ __ ~



66 Pilot and Guide.
by land. Hereupon they left some companies, being in all
one hundred and sixty men, on board the boats to defend
them, with -intent they might serve for a place of refuge,
in case of necessity.
The next morning, being the third day of their
journey, they all went ashore, excepting those abovemen-
tioned who were to keep the boats. To these Capt. Morgan
gave very strict orders, under great penalties, that no man,
upon any pretext whatsoever, should dare to leave the
boats and go ashore. This he did, fearing lest they should
be surprised and cut off by an ambuscade of Spaniards,
that might chance to lie thereabouts in the neighboring
woods, which appeared so thick as to seem almost im-
Having this morning begun their march they found
the ways so dirty and irksome, that Capt. Morgan thought
it more convenient to transport some of the men in canoes
(though it could not be done without great labour) to a
place farther up the river called Cedro Bueno. Thus they
re-embarked, and the canoes returned for the rest that
were left behind. So that about night they found them-
selves altogether at the said place. The Pirates were ex-
tremnely desirous to meet any Spaniards, or Indians, hoping
to fill their bellies with what provisions they should take
from them. For now they were reduced almost to the very
extremity of hunger.
On the fourth day, the greatest )part of the Pirates
marched by land, being led by one of the guides. The
rest went by water, farther up with the canoes, being con-
(ucted by another guide, who always went before them
with two of the said canoes, to discover on both sides of
tihe river the aumbuscades of the Spaniards. These had
also spies, who were very dextrous, and could at any time
give notice of all accidents or of the arrival of the Pirates,
six hours at least before they came to any place.
Tl'lis day about noon they found themselves near a
post, called Torna Cavallos. Here the guide of the canoes


Cathedmrl A.rk, City. of Panama. _
Sk,1ar -Amdeirwca 4 .9.*.2.4mw .cy 4gjrsldvrfsy Sureau n, Sitenowski '

__~_~_~~ ~

---- -- --

6S Pilot and (Guide.
bIlg.i n to cry aloud he .perc'icved an ambuscade. His voice
(c':use iinfinlite jy to :Ill tlw Pirates. as persuading them-
selves they shoullld lilld sle provisions wherewith to
satiate their hunger. which was very great.

Pirates Feast on Leather Bags.

Being come to the place, they found nobody in it,
the Spaniards who were there not long before being every
one fled. and leaving nothing behind unless it were a small
m11)ibHer of leather bags, all empty, and a few crumbs of
bread scattered upon the ground where they had eaten.
Being angry at this misfortune, they pulled down a few
little huts which the Spaniards had made, and afterwards
fell to eating the leather bags, as being desirous to afford
something to the ferment of their stomachs, which now was
grown so sharp that it did gnaw their very bowels, having
,nothing else to prey upon. Thus they made a huge banquet
upon those bags of leather, which doubtless had been more
grateful unto them, if divers quarrels had not risen con-
cerning who should have the greatest share.
By the circumference of the place, they conjectured
five hundred Spaniards, more or less, had been there. And
these, finding 1o victuals, they were now infinitely desirous
to meet, intending to devour some of them rather than
perlish. Whom they would certainly on that occasion have
roasted or boiled, to satisfy their famine, had they been
able to take them.
After they had feasted themselves with those pieces
of leather they quitted the place, and marched farther on,
till they (cae about. night to another post called Torna
Munni. Here they found another ambuscade but as barren
; and desert as the former. They searched the neighboring
woods, but could not find the least thing to eat, the
Spania;;Lrds having been so provident as not to leave behind
th1 ', a;lnywhere tie least crumb of sustenance, whereby the
Pirates were now brought to the extremity aforementioned

_ _~~~~

Pirates Feast on Leather Bags.


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Here again he was happy, that had reserved since
noon any small piece of leather whereof to make his sup-
per, drinking after it a good draught of water for his great-
est comfort. Some persons, who were never out of their
mothers' kitchens may ask how these Pirates could eat,
swallow and digest those pieces of leather, so hard and
dry. To whom I only answer: That could they once ex-
periment what hunger, or rather famine, is, they would
certainly find the manner, by their own necessity, as the
Pirates did. For these first took the leather, and sliced it
in pieces. Then did they beat it between two stones, and
rub it, often dipping it in the water of the river, to render
it by this means supple and tender. Lastly, they scraped
off the hair, and roasted or broiled it upon the fire. And
being thus cooked they cut it into small morsels, and ate
it, helping it down with frequent gulps of water, which by
good fortune they had near at hand.


"70 Pilot and Guide,

Food Continues Scarce.

They continued their march the fifth day, and about
noon came to a place called Barbacoa (1). Here likewise
they found traces of another ambuscade, but the place
totally as unprovided as the two preceding were. At a
small distance were to be seen several plantations, which
they searched very narrowly, but could not find any person,
animal or other thing that was capable of relieving their
extreme and ravenous hunger. Finally, having ranged up
and down and searched a long time, they found a certain
grotto which seemed to be but lately hewn out of a rock,
in which they found two sacks of meal, wheat and like
things, with two great jars of wine, and certain fruits
called Platanos (2). Capt. Morgan knowing that some of
his men were now, through hunger, reduced almost to the
extremity of their lives, and fearing lest the major part
should be brought into the same condition, caused all that
was found to be distributed amongst them who were in
greatest necessity.
Having refreshed themselves with these victuals, they
began to march anew with greater courage than ever.
Such as could not go well for weakness were put in the
canoes, and those commanded to land that were in them
before. Thus they prosecuted their journey till late at
night, at which time they came to a plantation where they
took up their rest. But without eating anything at all
for the Spaniards as before, had swept away all manner
of provisions, not leaving behind them the least sign of
On the sixth day they continued their march, part of
them by land through the woods and part by water in the
canoes. Howbeit they were constrained to rest themselves

(1). To-day known as Barbacoas, near where the P. R. 1R
crosses tle Cliagres.
(2). Plantains, one of the chief products of the Isthmus today;

Food Continues Scarce. 7 1

very frequently by the way, both for the ruggedness thereof
and the extreme weakness they were under. To this they
endeavoured to occur, by eating some leaves of trees and
green herbs, or grass, such as they could pick, for such
was the miserable condition they were in. This day, at
noon, they arrived at a plantation, where they found a barn
full of maize. Immediately they beat down the doors, and
fell to eating of it dry as much as they could devour.
Afterwards they distributed great quantity, giving to every
man a good allowance thereof.

Traces of Indian Ambuscades.
Being thus provided, they prosecuted their journey,
which having continued for the space of an hour, or there-
abouts, they met with an ambuscade of Indians. This they
no sooner had discovered, than they threw away their
maize, with the sudden hopes they conceived of finding all
things in abundance. But after all this haste, they found
themselves much deceived, they m eting neither Indians,
nor victuals, nor anything else of what they had imagined.
They saw notwithstanding on the other side of the river a
troop of a hundred Indians, more or less, who all escaped
away through the agility of their feet. Some few Pirates
there were who leapt into the river, the sooner to reach
the shore"to see if they could take any' of the said In-
dians prisoners. But all was in vain for being much

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The 1909 Edition will appear in December, 1908.
:ull of racts and 1 Figures.

more nimble on their feet than the Pirates, they easily
baffled their endeavours. Neither did they only baffle
them, but killed also two or three of the Pirates with
their arrows, shouting at them at a distance and crying:
Ha; perros, a la savana, a la savana. Ha; ye dogs, go to
the plain, go to the plain.
This day they could advance no farther, by reason
they were necessitated to pass the river hereabouts to con-
tinue their march on the other side. Hereupon they took
up their repose for that night. Howbeit their sleep was
not heavy nor profound, for great murmurings were heard
that night in the camp, many complaining of Capt Morgan
and his conduct in that enterprise, and being desirous to
return home. On the contrary, others would rather die
there than go back one step from what they had under-
taken. But others who had greater courage than any of
these two parties did laugh and joke at all their discourses.
In the meanwhile they had a guide who much comforted
them, saying: It would not be long before ihey met with
people, from whom they should reap considerable ad-
lva tage.

Arrive at Cruces.

The seventh day, in the morning, they all made clean
their arms, and every one discharged his pistol or musket,
without bullet, to examine the security of their firelocks.
This being done, they passed to the other side of the
river in the canoes, leaving the post where they had rested
the night before, called Santa Cruz. Thus they proceeded
on their journey till noon, at which time they arrived at
a village called Cruz (1). Being at a great distance as
yet from the place, they perceived much smoke to arise out
of the chimneys.

(1) Now called Crucrs, head of navigation on the Chagres for
parties bound for Panama.


Pilot and Guide.

--- ---

r*L 1 ~mlmrll~m(11*I rlF'"'"il IrPP'TI'II~II-P'I~I~~pllmmrr~~~r~ r--- -- b

Sanrta zua yrk..4m'rrcan &rclan geolelin the backgoround-anramna.
tmiaon-mrlcan J0 RA Admrrjs a~gncry A .Adrerharmg J.ureau za JZ*k*akraN

m -.

., '


The sight flhreof afforded them great joy and hopes
of tilding, people inl the town. and afterwards what they
ninst descired w\liich was plenty of good cheer. Thus they
went on with as Ilmuch ia;,stC as they could, making several
argpimlents to ,oni arnolthler upon those external signs, though
all li ke c.stlcs I1uilt in the air. Fo~'. said they, tlere is
,mok coni'r in f ot f ,of et'r house, therefore they are
miiiini/ /,I ,.tiur.. /o ro ,,rt an boil what we are to eat.
WVithi otIle tliiiG t t h tlis purpose.
At length they n rived there in great haste, all
s,~wentini and p: ting. but found no person in the town,
,nor ;linytit il t;it w\\s .catille wherewith to refresh them-
solv\e. v111n- it we..Ire 'ood tires to warn themselves, which
thlov wa-inti.d nit. For the Spaniards before their depar-,
ture. Li1d every ,i n .et tire to his own house, excepting
only tltc. st 1'cI'h ll, s.- : tld stables belonging to the King.
Tl ny l ohd Int left behind them any beast whatsoever,
eithlie' :1liv\1 01 (dt. This occasioned much con-fusion in
their rnilim1,., they 1,,it finding tlih least thing to lay hold
on. uniloss it we c some few cats and dogs, which they
imnn'(.liiatelY killed iijil devoured with great appetite.
.At l:ist in time Klin's stables they found by good
f1',rtiiit' fifti. eit or sixt:ee, ja;iiCs of Peru wine, and a leather
s utk ill of l'real. i-IBt ino sooner had they begun to
drink of thie satid wine when they fell sick. almost every
lmn:I. TIis tillli diist..r made them the ink that the
1\\11 \evw; lsitil ,.1(i wlii ll c1Iscld n new consternation in
the wIho : cal![ p. 1. jidlgin, themselves now to be irrecov-
'1 i, i"t. t I nt ii e true irola o was. Ilieir huge want of
s Its 1t i l.I' III t lIi wI, i i v\.y;ge, and tle manifold sorts of
1i.I whl i tli. I l .-tlent i l)fhl i tlat occasion. Their
.I.i,,,s. \ s\;i. .rea.t linat day ;is to cause them to remain !
i111tic till II,. n ..\t iir iniig,. w\\itlioC t heitng- able to prosecute.i
t i'ii I'riii ('. Js tli.y iVisdtl to do, in the afternoon-.
T''hi viil.;l-. is senlted in the. latitude of 9 degrees
; 'l 2 intlites, notin. bi distant from thle :river- --'ofJ


Pilot arnd1 Cidic.


ArrieC at Cricr.. 75

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Chagre twenty-six Spanish leagues, (1), and eight from
Panama. Moreover, this is the last place to which boats
or canoes can come; for which reason they built here store-
houses, wherein to keep all sorts of nierchandize, which
hence to and from Panama arc transported upon the backs
of mules.
Here, therefore, Capt. Morgan was constrained to
leave his canoes and land all his men, though never so
weak in their bodies. But lest the canoes should be sur-
plized, or take up too many men for their defence, he
resolved to send them all back to the place where the
boats were, excepting one, which lie cause, to be hidden,
to the intent it might serve to carry intelligence according
to the exigence of affairs. Many of the Spaniards and
Indians belonging to this village were fled to the planta-
tions thereabouts.
Hereupon Capt. Morgan gave express orders that
none should dare to go out of the village, except in whole
companies of a hundred together. The occasion hereof
was his fear lest the enemies should tak? an advantage
upon his men, by any sudden assault. Notwithstanding,
one party of English soldiers, stickled not to contravene
these commands, being tempted with tlhe desire of finding
victuals. But these were soon glad to fly into the town

(1) Evidently refers to distance from mouth of river.

76 Pilot and Guide.
again being assaulted with great fury by some Spaniards
and Indians. who snatched up one of the Pirates, and
carried him away prisoner. Thus the vigilance and care
of Capt. Morgan was not sufficient to prevent every acci-
(lent that might happen.

Resistance Offered by Indians.

On the eighth day. in the morning. Capt. Morgan
sent two hundred men before the body of his army, to
discover the way to Panama, and see if they had laid any
ambuscades therein. especially considering that the places
by which they were to pass were very fit for that purpose,
tlhe paths being so narrow that only ten or twelve persons
could march iln a file and oftentimes not so many.
Having marched about the space of ten hours, they
came to a place called Quebrada Obscura. Here, all on
the sudden, three or four thousand arrows were shot at
then. without being able to perceive whence they came, or
\]whoi shot the. The place whence it was presumed they
were shot was a high locky mountain, excavated from one
i(lde to the other, wherein was a grotto that went through
it. only capable of admitting one horse, or other beast
laded. This multitude of arrows caused a huge alarm
;ilmong the Pirates, especially because they could not dis-
cover the place whence they were discharged.
At l;st seeing no more arrows to appear they
mlic(i d :u litIle frithler, ;ind entered into a wood. Here
i lh y p1'r.',ivd s, l1 I lndi;.ins to fly as ftst as they could.
hItibly II for tlheiii. to take tle a(vaIntage of another
p),st. ;1nd tlhence ,observe tlh 1marchl of the Pirates. There
IeinW.iined not vithst.a ending one troop of Indians upon the
pid., with fthll (esign to fight and defend themselves.
'.'si: coniiat. Ilhey pcfil'rm ed with Iluge courage. till such
tin I s their captain fell to tie ground wounded, who
although he wns now in despair of life, yet his valour
being gr'nter than his strength, would demand no quarter,


Resistance oOifred by! Ilnlili.. 77

but, endeavouring to raise himself, with undaunted mind
laid hold of his azagaya, or javelin, and struck at one of
the Pirates. But before he could second the blow, lie was
shot to death with a pistol. This was also the fate of
many of his companions, who like good and courageous
soldiers lost their lives with their captain, for the defence
of their country.

"A la Savana, Perros Ingleses."

The Pirates endeavoured, as much as possible, to lay
hold on some of the Indians and take them prisoners.
But they being infinitely swilter than the Pirates, every
one escaped, leaving eight Pirates dead upon the place.
and ten wounded. Yea, had the Indians been more dex-
trous in military affairs, they might have defended that
passage and not let one sole man to pass. Within a little
while after they came to a large campaign (champaign)
field open, and full of variegated meadows. From here
they could perceive at a distance before them a parcel of
Indians, who stood on top of a mountain, very near the
way by which the Pirates were to pass. They sent a
troop of fifty men. the nimblest they could pick out. to see
if they could catch any of them, and afterwards force
them to declare whereabouts their companions had their
mansions. But all their industry was in vain, for they
escaped through their nimbleness, and presently afterwards
showed themselves in another place, hallooing to the
English, and crying: A la sarana, A la sarcna, cornldos,
perros Ingleses; that is, To the plain, to the plain, ye cuck.
olds, ye English dogs. While these things passed, the ten
Pirates that were wounded a little before were dressed
and plastered up.
At this place there was a wood, and on each side
thereof a mountain. The Indians had immediately possessed
themselves of one, and the Pirates took possession of the
other that was opposite to it. Capt. Morgan was persuaded


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that in the wood the Spaniards had placed an ambuscade,
as lying so conveniently for that purpose. Hereupon he
sent before two hundred men to search it. The Spaniards
and Indians perceiving tlie Pirates to descend the moun-
tain. did so too, as if they designed to attack them. But
being got into the wood. out ot sight of the Pirates, they
disappeared, and were seeing no more, leaving the passage
open to them.
About night there fell a great rain, which caused
tlie Pirates to march the faster and seek everywhere for
houses wherein to preserve their arms from being wet.
But the Indians inad set fire to every one thereabouts, and
transpjorted :all their cattle to remote places, to the end
that the pirates, finding neither houses nor victuals, might
1b cI, nstrailiNed to return homnewards. Notwithstanding,
after diligent search, they found a few little huts belong-
ing to shepherds, but in them nothing to eat. These not
being capable of holding many men, they placed in them

Pilot and Guide.


4 la ,i'(a'an, J'v'rros In l /,ls.s. 7

out of every company a small :nu'nber; n ho kept the arm.i
of all the rest of the army. Those who irmaiined in tli
open field endured munch hardship tliht light. tle r;tin. not
ceasing to fall until the morning.

The End of the March.

Tho next morning about brc.ak of day beijg tle
ninth of this tedious journey. Capt. ,Morgan conltinuedl his
march while the .fresh air of the i moring lasted. For tli
clouds then hanging as yet over their heads were much
more favourable to them than the scorching rays of tlhe
sun, by reason-the way was now more difficult and labor-
ious than all the preceding. After two hours' march they
discovered a troop of about twenty Spaniards, who ob-
served the motions of the Pirates. They enideavoured to
catch some of them, but could lay hold oni none, they
suddenly disappearing, and absconding themselves in caves
among the rocks totally unknown to the Pirates.
At last they came to a high mountain, which, when
they ascended, they discovered from the top thereof the
South Sea. This happy sight, as if it were the end oif
their labours, caused infinite joy among all the Pirates.
Hence they could descry also one slil) andt six boats, whlichl
were set forth from Panama and sailed towards tlhe islands
of Tovago and Tovagilla, (Taboga and Taboguilla). Having
descended this mountain, they came to a vale (the Sabanas
of the present day), in which they found great quantity of
cattle, whereof they killed good store. Here while some.
were employed in killing and flaying of cows. horses. bulls.
and chiefly asses, of which there was a very large number,
others busied themselves in kindling of fires and getting
wood wherewith to roast them. Thus cutting the flesh of
these animals into convenient pieces, or gobbets. they threw
them into the tire, and half carbonadoed or roasted, they
devoured them with incredible haste and appetite. For
such was their hunger that they more resembled cannibals.


SI&pinwall. (Cokon) '-A ana u ....
. Mtanuian-.4metirvea EJ.9A ...wsu .U v IAidvsertisiny Breau. .af..JSienkoawski.

~ ~

The End of the March. 8

than Europeans at this banquet, the blood many times
running down from their beards to the middle of their
Having satisfied their hunger with these delicious
meats, Capt. Morgan ordered them to continue the march.
Here again he sent before the main body fifty men,
with intent to take some prisoners, if possibly they could.
For he seemed now to be much concerned that in nine
days' line he could not meet one person who might inform
him of the condition and forces of the Spaniards.
About evening they discovered a troop of two hundred
Spaniards, more or less, who hallooed to the Pirates, but
these could not understand what they said. A little while
after they came the first time within sight of the highest
steeple of Panama. This steeple they no sooner had dis-
covered than they began to show signs of extreme joy,
casting up their hats into the air, leaping for mirth, and
shouting, even just as if they had already obtained the
victory and entire accomplishment of their designs. All
the trumpets were sounded and every drum beaten, in
token of this universal acclamation and huge alacrity of
their minds.
Thus they pitched their camp for that night with
general content of the whole army, waiting with impatience
for the morning, at which time they intended to attack
the city. This evening there appeared fifty horses, who
came out of the city, hearing the noise of the drums and
trumpets of the Pirates, to observe, as it was thought,
their motions. They came almost within musket-shot of
the army, being preceded by a trumpet that sounded mar-
vellously well. Those on horseback hallooed aloud to the
Pirates, and threatened them, saying: Perros! nos veremos.
that is, Ye dogs! we shall meet ye. Having made this
menace, they returned into the city, excepting only seven
or eight horsemen who remained hovering thereabouts to
watch what motions the Pirates made.

Immediately after, the city began to fire and ceased
not to play with their biggest guns all night long against
the camp, but with little or no harm to the Pirates, whom
they could not conveniently reach. About this time also
the two hundred Spaniards whom the Pirates had seen in
the afternoon appeared again within sight, making re-
semblance as if they would block up the passages, to the
intent no Pirates might escape the hands of their forces.
But the Pirates, who were now in a manner besieged,
instead of conceiving any fear of their blockades, as soon
as they had placed sentries about their camp, began every
one to open their satchels, and without any preparation of
napkins or plates, fell to eating very heartily the remain-
ing pieces of bulls' and horses' flesh which they had reserved
since noon. This being done they laid themselves down to
sleep upon the grass with great repose and huge satisfac-
tion, expecting only with impatience the dawning of the
next day.

Preparations for Attack.
On the tenth day betimes in the morning, they put
all their men in convenient order, and with drums and
trumpets sounding, continued their march directly towards
the city. But one of the guides desired Capt. Morgan not
to take the common highway that led thither. fearing lest
they should find in it much resistance and many ambus-

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Pilot and Guide.

Preparations for Attack.

cades. He presently took his advice, and chose another
way that went through the wood, although very irksome
and difficult. Thus the Spaniards, perceiving the Pirates
had taken another way, which they scarce had thought on
or believed, were compelled to leave their stops and bat-
teries, and come out to meet them. The Governor of
Panama put his forces in order, consisting of two squad-
rons, four regiments of foot, and a huge number of wild
bulls, which were driven by a great number of Indians,
with some negroes and others, to help them.
The Pirates, being now upon their march, came to
the top of a little hill, whence they had a large prospect
of the city and campaign (champaign) country underneath.
Here they discovered the forces of the people of Panama,
extended in battle array and when they perceived them to be
so numerous, they were suddenly surprised with great fear,
much doubting the fortune of the day. Yea, few or none
there were but wished themselves at home, or at least free
from the obligation of that engagement, wherein they per-
ceived their lives must be so narrowly concerned.
Having been some time at a stand, in .a wavering
condition of mind, they at last reflected upon the straits
they had brought themselves into, and that now they ought
of necessity either to fight resolutely or die, for no quarter
could be expected from an enemy against whom they had
committed so many cruelties on all occasions. Hereupon
they encouraged oner another, and resolved either to con-
quer, or spend the very last drop of blood in their bodies.
Afterwards they divided themselves into three battalions,
or troops, sending before them one or two hundred buc-
caneers, which soit of people are infinitely dextrous at
shooting with guns. Thus the Pirates left the hill and
descended marching directly towards the Spaniards, who
were posted in a spacious field, waiting for their coming.
As soon as they drew near them, the Spaniards
began to shout, and cry, Viva el Rey God save the
King! and immediately their horse began to move against

________ T _____


84 Pilot and Guide.
the Pirates. But the field being full of quags and very
soft under foot. they could not ply to and fro and wheel
about, as they desired. The two hundred buccaneers who
went before, every one putting one knee to the ground,
gave them a full volley of shot, wherewith the battle was
instantly kindled very hot.

Wild Bulls Used in Battle.

The Spaniards defended themselves very courageously,
acting all they could possibly perform, to disorder the
Pirates. Their foot, in like manner, endeavoured to second
the horse, but were constrained by the Pirates to separate
from them. Thus finding themselves frustrated of their
designs, they attempted to drive the bulls against them at
their backs, and by this means put them into disorder,
but the greatest part of the wild cattle ran away, being
frightened with the noise of the battle, and some few
that broke through the English companies did no other
harm than to tear the colours in pieces, whereas the buc-
caneers shooting them dead, left not one to trouble them
The battle having now continued for the space of
two hours, at the end thereof the greatest part of the
Spanish horse was ruined and almost all killed. The rest
fled away, which being perceived by the foot, and that
they could not possibly prevail, they discharged the shot
they had in their muskets, and throwing them on the
ground, betook themselves to flight, every one which way
lie could run. The Pirates could not possibly follow them,
as being too much harassed and wearied with the long
journey they had lately made. Many of them, not being
able to fly whither they desired, hid themselves for that
present among the shrubs of the sea-side. But very un-
fortulnately, for most of them being found out by the
Pirates, were instantly killed, without giving quarter to any.
Somic religious men were brought prisoners before Captain

Wild Bdlls Used in Battles. 85.



I. KAPLAN & Co. gor.Sth St, and Rue, B.



Morgan, but he being deaf to their cries and lamentations,
commanded them all to be immediately pistoled, which
was immediately done.
Soon after they brought a captain to his presence,
whom he examined very strictly about several things, par-
ticularly wherein consisted the forces of those of Panama.
To which he answered: Their whole strength did consist
in four hundred horse, twenty-four companies of foot, each
being of one hundred men compllete, sixty Indians and
some negroes, who were to drive two thousand wild bulls
and cause them to run over the English camp, and thus
by breaking their files put them into a total disorder and
confusion. He discovered more, that in the city they had
made trenches, and raised batteries in several places, in
which they had placed many guns, and that at the entry
So the highway which led to the city they had( built a
fort, which was mounted with eight great gtiun of brass,
and defended by fifty men.
.. ].I

Pilot and Guide.


Captain Moigan. having heard this information, gave
orders instantly they should march another way. But
before setting forth, he made a review of all his men,
wheroof he found both killed and wounded a considerable
number, and much greater than had been believed. Of
the Spaniards were found six hundred dead upon the
place, besides the woun-ded and prisoners. The Pirates
were nothing discouraged, seeing their number so much
diminished, but rather filled with greater pride than before,
perceiving what huge advantage they had obtained against
their enemies. Thus having rested themselves some while,
they prepared to march courageously towards the city,
plighting their oaths to one another in general they would
fight till never a man was left alive. With this courage
they recommended their march, either to conquer or be
conquered, carrying with them all the prisoners.
They found much difficulty in their approach to the
city. For within the town the Spaniards had placed
many great guns, at several quarters thereof, some of
which were charged with small pieces of iron, and others
with musket-bullets. With all these they saluted the
Pirates at their drawing nigh to the place, and gave them
full and frequent broadsides, firing at them incessantly.
Whence it came to pass that unavoidably they lost, at
every step they advanced, great numbers of men. But
:e their these manifest dangers to their lives, nor the sight
of so many of their own men dropping down continually at
their sides, could deter them from advancing farther and
gaining ground every moment upon the enemy. Thus,
although the Spaniards never ceased to fire and act the
best they could for their defence, yet notwithstanding they
were forced to deliver the city after the space of three
hours' combat.
The Pirates having now possessed themselves thereof,
killed and destroyed as many as attempted to make the
least opposition against them. The inhabitants had caused
the best of their goods to be transported to more remote

__ _

---`-----~ .---- -- ---

Wild Bulls Used in Batfle.s.


and occult places. Howbeit they found within the city as
yet several warehouses, very well stocked with all sorts of
merchandize, as well as silks, cloths, linen, and other things
of considerable value.
As soon as the first fury of their entrance into the
city was over, Capt. Morgan assembled all his men at a
certain place which he assigned, and there commanded
them under very great penalties that none of them should
dare to drink or taste any wine. The reason he gave for
this injunction was, because he had received private intelli-
gence that it had been all poisoned by the Spaniards.
Howbeit it was the opinion of many that he gave these
prudent orders to prevent the debauchery of his people,
which he foresaw would be very great at the beginning,
after so much hunger sustained by the way, fearing withal
lest the Spaniards seeing them in wine, should rally their
forces and fall upon the city, and use them as inhumanly
as they had used the inhabitants before.

Morgan Sets Fire to the City.

Capt. Morgan, as soon as he had placed guards at
several quarters where he thought necessary, both within
and without the city of Panama, immediately commanded
twenty-five men to seize a great boat, which had stuck in
the port for want of water at a low tide, so that she
could not put out to sea. The same day, about noon, he
caused certain men privately to set fire to several great
edifices of the city, nobody knowing whence the fire pro-
ceeded nor who were the authors thereof, much less what
motives persuaded Capt. Morgan thereto, which are as yet
unknown to this day. The fire increased so fast that
before night the greatest part of the city was in flame.
Capt. Morgan endeavoured to make the public believe
the Spaniards had been the cause thereof, which suspicions
he surmised among his own people, perceiving they reflected
; upon him for that action. Many of the Spaniards, as also

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WHAT THIS BOOK CONTAINS. Vngc. I. Tilt' of Gold ................ ............... .... ...... :.!. The l1aid" of BUL"CUIlCCI'S ..... ............ ..... a. PMto Bello .................... ......... ... ........ 0 1'h(l Fall o f Old I all:llll!\ ....... ,....... ....... a. The Fall 0(01<1 P n n:unn. ( Potm.)........... .............. .. ..... _, fi. The Foundiug: o f :"icw P:lIlHIllIl ................ ............... 0' '. The Is\llluinn Buhbl e o f .......................................... .. R Trouble wllh indl:lns, J;IO-I7!JO .................. ..................... !l. I n d epende nce from Foipuln, 1811 ... ...................................... 10. The l!lthmus In the I) of '49 ...................................... 11. LoI:t '\ l ontc7. "ofPal l,.:llnl1lHllalJ m." ...... ........................... n l.k:('tlll s Unkl'll by Hlbbom:. I::;':;'::' ............ ................ n :-'-ij;!:ht ,)I Horror in April, 1$.)(1 ........ "" .......................... A t{el npt.;;; to PlclY'c ...................... .................... 1.1. is G I'('n t Schemc. . .. ....................... IG. Muttcrinl.;"" of Sl:' 1 U1Itloll ........................................... 17. JulheThf"Ool"'ofB('\ohlllon ................ ............... .......... ... 18. B elles." .................................. ................ J9. Polyglot P l\nnnlil. ......... ............................................ 20. of the YOUI1!!{'!? ......... .. ... ... .... .............. .. ZO. The K ill!! P i ll o f the Callal ...... ....... ... .... ..... .............. :''6. PlIUl\ma'S :'110m I s in !he 70): ................... ... .... ....... ........ Beyon d the r oem ) .... ........... .. ....... ........ ........ :!S. Uncle Sam's Isthmiun Domnln .................. ....................... ",. TOOching Cunni 7..onc youth ................................ .. ....... :10. The J!

I I I I I I I I I I _. .-.. ---.. II Pilot and Guide. 3-1. The New Pul:u: c (Iud Thlo'au", ..... ... .... .. . -... ..... 35. Tho PllnAmerican Ualll'Ood ........ .. . .. -..... ....... .... 311. Pllllanm'a Diplomatic Corps. .. ...... . .. .. -. COl118 from Old Pnnnnl>l ..... ........ .... -..... -, .. -........ ..... P age. 370 378 87ft. m. 38. Olllclni Band of tue 1. U. C ..... .......... .... -. .... ....... 39. The Club Houses of the Zone ......... ......... ... .... ............. ( POe-III ) ... .. ... .. .. -.... ... ..... 40. Rondel 41. Piping 011 Acl'OSI:i h;HIIIlUS ............................ ....... .. . 42. rl\ Iltuno. or the P n ."!,ICn t. ]Jny ........ ............................ (a) -l'ubllc I..llml Lows ............. ......... ,., ........ .. ... .. (b)-Mlnln!:" L:.tws ......................................... .. 41. Toul"ist8'Depllrtnleut .... .............................. ...... .......... 44. Clllll't:hcs, n nil t'l u t>s .. __ .. ..... .......... 45. OfUc!tth! o f Rep. of PUllllllm, I C. C n n d P R. R .................. ..... 46. ClnStllllcd Business Dln..'Cwl') of PUllnnm ............... __ ............... 47. CIIl8.'!lfll..-d. linslnC>i8 Directory orColon ............ .. ....... .............. 48. Jj)11'f'(:tor." of I he Zone .... ................................. ...... 49. l..'nmp Elliott .......... ........ .. .... ........ ....... ........ ...... ...... .. tb. .. ........ ... .... ................................ .. ......-.--LIST OF I LLUSTRATIONS. ,..,. : :m ;:00. ... 414. IIS -&.'>1. ...... 4(17. '177. 00 1 5 1 3. (itS. 5:20. Pugc. Fronlil;pltX-Prei>CULlst.llm!Un Cunal Commissiou. I. RuhlH o f SUmo Domingo Church ...... .. __ .... .. .. .. .. . 21. 2. The Hells of (;ruCCH ............... .. ........... ......... ............ .. Z7. 3. Group of Native Belles ................................................... 34. 4 MurkelStrcet, P rmnn m .. ..... ...... ...... ............ .... ... ..... .. 41. 5. Rntnlll(: e to Pl:m arnu Cemeteries ..... ... ....... .... ....... ............. 47 6. Country In Pnlllltnl.l. Republic ..... ...... ... .. ... 7. Ctlthoora\ Purk, [-"nntunn ..... .. ... .... .... ......... ........ .. .. 67. 8. Santa. Ann. Pttrk, Panullul ...... ......................................... 73. 9 Soenfl on J.'k"-fteh, Colon ................. ... ..... .... .. ........... ...... .. 80. 10. PnnOn tlll1l of Pil nama Clt. y .... ........... ............ .... ... ... ... .. ... 01. II. Ttlbogn. VlIltlgc ........................................................... .. ... 12. Chlne6f! Vegetable Gartlell, l "amllUU ............................ .... .. .. lW. 1 3. Palnl Tl"OCII at. Ancoll .... ...................... ... ..... ......... ..... 100. 14. EArly Scene on Seawall, munma .... ..... ........ ..... .. .... m 15. Vie w ofSblpplng, Colon ........... ................. ......... ......... lZl 16. Panarnu, P oliceme n ...... .......... .... ....... --. ................ I'" 17. Anoo n Hospital .......... ........... ... ............. -.... ............ 131 B. Sblpping .Bannuo.s at Bahlo .. ...... .................................... 144. 19. I. C C SanitarIum, lo.nd .... .... ..... .... ... ........ .... Ia-t 20. 'I'ew e r a t David, R P ............... .. .. .. ........... .... ......... ...... 11>5 2 1 BIrdf;-ey c Vlnw of Culebru ( 1 ) ............................................. 1110. -.--


'" %. 2 t Pilot and Guide. Scenc on Panama Uallroad In '55. Ancon1iot1pltal EnLmnce ... .... ........................ .... ....... ......... ... .. COl'Ozul .......... .. ........ ..... ....... ...... ........ .. III Pnge. '64. 16i IN 21 View or Culelml (2) .. 41. American C ul!'bn'" '!1. Old Atlantie Entmncc to Cnnni ............ ..... .. .. ..... ... ......... 181. 'S< H12. '00 '00. 200. .. .. .. .. .. ... ..... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. '" .. ... PIlCllic Entmncc to CA-no.l ...... ....... ................. ....... ........ 29. VI c\\' or Gorgona .... .. .......... ..................... .. . r. C. C. Hospltnl, (.:0 1011 ............ !JI Bcroretli cTren<:hesIn Pnnnlnn ......................................... .. ... Sinking or thcLA.ull.lro .......................... ........ .............. Gc.n cml Albnu Entering Colon ....... til. Gene"ll P erdomo ........ .. ... . .. .. . .. .. .. .. s;. P. R. H. Station Rt Empire .................................... ............ 00. ill Colon in 'u."i. ...... ......... ..... .......... .... ............ (17. P lUm Bollyur, Dnvid, Chiriqui ......................... ....... .. .. ... ::So Presldentalld l\1n,;. AllIlldor ............................................... :m. Jos(i Domingo d e Oooldlll ................................................ fO. Sce n e on t b e F'lquene River, I)A.rlell .. .. .... ...... .... ........ 11. Mnporth e ...................................................... .. t2. PrcshlellL RQ()I;Cvelt 43. Old AdmlnLstmtlon lIml Hotel TIVull. ... .... .. ....... Unlhllng, PA-Iloma .......... ...................... 44. Admlnls lmtlon Building, C ul cbm. ...... .................. ........... ... 40. Tmlus Hnullug Exell.\'otiollS .......... .. .................. .. ........... 46. BruJ Oblso Cut. ........ ............................ .......... fl. Anny Engineers .... ........ .. ... .... ....... .... ... ...... .. ..... .... 48. A Cuoo\ Dredge ......... .. ........ .......... ........ .................. 49. Ste8 m Shovel Loo.dl n g Train .... .... .. ... ...... ................. .. ..-00. A Sce n e on the C hagres RIY c r .. ...... ...... .. .......... .......... .. 51. InnugumUon or 'Vnter 'Vorks Bsstem Panllma. ........................ 62. Canal Zone PQBt--ofHcc, Cristoool. .......................... ............ 1i3. Pollre Station, Crlstobnl ................................. ....... ...... 5 t N ew Palace and l'heRlre .................................................. ,>1 Diplomatic Corps .. .. . .. .... ............... ........... 56. Alejandro Dutary. .. ........... .. .. ...................................... 57. J. 10'. d e lll. Ossn ..... 51!. TII-bloon or ... ... ...... ............ ........ ......... -. .. ......... Nutlon" ...... 611. Dolloldo Vt'iIlSC(l, Author, ..... ............ .. ......... .. ... ....... .. .... The '"ar 011 the lstbmus" .......... ....... & Dr. Jo'aculldo i\Iutls Dunlll .......... ... .... ........... ...... ...... .. 6 1 United States Marines at Camp Elliot!. ... .. .. ... . .... 62. Star &: Ht'mld Building ................ ................... .... ....... -----'" 214 217 222. 230-236 240. 2.\3. 267. 2i1. Z18. ,... 294. 30'2-,.,. 311. ,.". :l:ll 366. 361. ,.. 3i1 378 395. .... m .... 47'l 5W tw


----In s ubmittin g the nr!;t edition of the Pilot {(1l.(l (II/ide, the publisher doe!/' so, wilh the finn belief tha.t it will m eet with the npprohati01l of its 1'('a<1e1's. H e ha s d e p arted from the beat en path o f thi s class of hooks for th e ('-'pross pnrposc of !llcating :\11 insistent public d C'IlUllHl. t h a t of a WOl'k that will e n ahle people int ereste d i n and the I sthmilUl Cnnal to ga ,in a dear atld a d equate COll('cption of what has occurre d. an d is now taking ,,1.)('(', H ooks h:1.\"(, heel! publish e d puhl isher tri(l(l and believes th at h e h as succee ded i ll IIIOIT' "" l oat of the I s thmian cocon.nnt: lhfln has O\'or uef orc bcrn print e d between th e of a hQok whose title page hears the well know n lIam o oj' .. Panama. rro accomplish this e nd bas h ecn 110 51n:'II1 task. It has h ee n a case o f book-huil ding fr oll1 tile grounu lip. Inform atio n :llId fads had to he hunted out of mus ty


I I ----IIII nooks and corner .. and as much of the i nformation could IJe ootained Dilly frOlll books and d oc ulI1ents, caro fu l trfLllsiatioli "as possible the wOl'k('l's 011 t.his book h:nc gOlle bac:k to lhe timcs when the histor ical illcidcut s were ill the making, and in lhe c..'l!;O of later events. to see uml talk with people w lw wero all the spot and knew pCl"!lollally of tho .llistakes may have crept in; a book ('oycl'ing a of four hUIldred year s wonl\l he a positive wondcr wit h out

,------------------, 1 nnn by facts :lnd figur es and h y :1 p ersona l kHowledgo o f the' general s ituation, th e book will servo a Jlurpose i n disp elling .tnd dismissing lUallY a (lOllilt. :\1111 tl elu!o;inn that lIla y have existeLl. Ill' l11a.y s till exist in tht' mind8 (If <:'(Illle. regarding the extent and progref.:s of the ('amd 11llclc rtakillf! .-\ work of kind n ecessa ril y im 'okes cOllsidc r able outside assistance. rrhc jlllhlighl' l' takes thi s occas i oll to thank the ma.ny who have cOlltriiml e d to th e Look h y af fording alt informatton tlJ:ll Ifl.y ill their p uwer H p is especially indebte d to th e I11cmbc l'5 o f the I st.hmian Oan al Commission, P anama Railroa d offic i a l s WI'", U 1 'ubby, :Mr. H G. Presc ott, Don J ose Au g u stin Arango. DOll .Bicat'do Arango, D o n H .icardo A rias, DOli 1 .. as50 d e la Y ega Don E. T. fJel'ei,'I'(,: D Oli Samuel B oyd, SPIlOI' DOlla.ldo Yelaseo and others. He is also i ndeLte d to The Star &.-H era ld Co .. i'll' J. Gabriel Duqu e i t s Director, 1\fr. Carl YOIl Lind e m an. it s l\[un; lgel'. rind its st.aff oE employes for the excellent t y pographi cal w o rk 011 th e haol e as well a s to th e lIlan llgc m enl for lh e opportunity for research afforded by the carly files o f lhe parer_ Cordial thank s a r e also extended to Senor Guillcrm o Androrc and Senor D OIIa i da for th e l oa n o f seve r al half-t ollc illustra tio n s appcaring on th e \ Jagrs of the Pilo t and Guide. J a word t o th e {Jut' confldellt!e was iuvited. and althougll you llIa d e it knuwn t o tho puhlish c r that you had oft.en been fool e d ill th e p ast, notwith s tand ing th e prospectus oE til e prese n t w o rk yOUI' attentiol!. 'fhe publi s h e r u e liC\es h e hfts k e pt faith with Y(1ll In c"ery respect It is seldo m th a t it work of thi s kind n p e n s it s pages to ad"ertiser s ill f act had sllc h all O pp OI'-, I I I


, II W _. --= tunity been .Horded in t h e 1,;nited State" advertising age n cies would have taken eve r y availab l e inc h of space The publish er thanks you for your p a tronage and trusts that t h e 1 909 e dition "il l see you again repre,ented, .7h. e Pa6! l -------------------------------,.


I ---_ .. .. -...... -._-The fam e d C lthnj' (I f Co l umbus dl'C':llll s l e d thnt darillS) hut ilisnppr.iiltcd 1l:1.\ ig:l tor to mnkc a. f O llrth find f i n a l aLtC'lllpt ill the ,}'('al' 150::?, t o discoYC'r :t s hort sea r oute t o lh e A ft el' hring-huffr tf'tl a b(/tlt f o r d ays h y cont ra r)' winds i ll th e Ccwihhe:tn S(>:I. his s m all a nd l e aky boat s threatening tn go t.o t he hotto m :It ; l11Y m o m e nt, h e at illst s ight e d land ill t h e vicini t y o f Ca p e Grac i as D ios, NiCtlr:lgufl. D ouhling t his cape 011 th e 14th o f S epte mb e r ill th e )'f'fll' aboveIll,lllio!lC'cl. h e h mc1r d a nd e xpl o r e d a r eg i o n to whic h h e gave t he n a m e f'f C(,Tnuo ra. H e r e h e ran :lc r ass Illllne r Ol1S s pC'cim c n s of g old a r e lind b y questio n ing t he I n d ians :lsce rta i n c d that th e pr ec i o u s m e t a l existe d ill la rge qml.lltil ies ill a di s tri c t t o th e e a s t o f th e r e c all e d Y el'agua H o sec u re d IIUIll( T O U S o r e a nd obtai n e d :1. r o u g h d csc ripti o n o f th e III i Co ntinu il1g his yoy a gc: h e sni l e d a long th e coas t o f wba.t is n ow Cos ta. Bica, nlld Panam a p assi n g o n his Wfiy til e fam o u s Ch ir il}ui L agoo n ill th e P royince of B ocas d e l


I 2 -'1'01'0, called b y the In(liuns. A UUl'CIl1:J:, and w hich quite decci, ed Oolulll\m s f o r a t imo into h r li c \"in g th a t he had at last disco\"cl'ed the much so u ght for passage. 'Vhilc Yoyaging do" 1\ the coast he C'llcountered Ilumerous slorms which imp e riled his bonts, nnd all (lIlC occ a sio n f o r ce d him t o seck at a. small i s land. H "l?r c he found fruits: fis h and game ill ablllldnllc "C'. whidl l ed him to give the plnce the Ilaille of Puerto d e B astimcnlo, moanin g a place of supplies. After a f ew dii.ys rest at thi s p oin t, Co lumbu s 01' a small expe dit ion, and 011 tho 2:Jrd of N o vember left the havcll. but was tc put in t o the coast again three days later owin g to a t e mpe s t whic h narrowly to swn mping his ships. r J 'hi'i place h e nptly termed U etl'e t e m e aning a place of retreat. HC'ro h e stayed until th o nth of December. "hen be decid e d to tUI'll back over his course. H e kept 11 westerly dir ectiull for fifteen di.t)'s which hrought him 011 th e 7th day o f January. 1.')0 ;1, to the mouth o f a. rirer cnllc d in t.ho ]ndi

3 -. him. h e d ecided t o return. the bad slale oC his ships, suc h nclion impC'l':ltiH'. H istory credits ColullIhus [IS luning first sct foot on the soil o f what i s now the l{C'public of Panama, all November 2nd. 1:,)0:? sommdH.'l'c ill tho viciuity of the Chiriqui L agoon. Thu s W(I h:I\' o two impol'lllnt llales in Isthm ian history nC:lrly toincidcnlal as to the d ay and m o nth j the d iscovery, and th e declal'

4-1'ilol ((lid nl/ilk. ing Spain's now p ossess i ons. Onc of thC's<', Rodrigo de B \ s i i d,l. h ea d e d :111 ex p e diti o n th'lt visited nuiolls parts o f the Rpanish )rain. nne! disco v e r e d in J:)O I a JCin ill a d n lll ce of th e :nrivnl of Columbus llwl part of the coait lying h etwee n Cape 'l'ihul' on. on lim Gl1lf o f l'rabr.. a n d th e P Oit of R "tre te. The o th e r, Aloll!'lo de Ojeda, ex plo r e d th e whole llcnt h el'n cons t o f South nnd gave the country ad j nrcnt t o lh e Olilf o f Pr:llni t h e 1I:\lno of Nnenl Anc\alusill. l-Il' fOllnde d a tOWIl ill the castel'll part of th e naming it Sail Sclmstian. H e g rew tired uf th e l'f'sistance offe r e d b y th e 11eighboril1g tri b es ot Ind ians and V(, I Y soon abando n e d the colony, iellYing his lieutenant, F nlllci!'co Piz<1rro afterward s falllou s as t h e conqll<'l'or o f the Inca empire. ill p ossession of tho p i cc. Ojeda later distinguished himself a s the f o unde r of sen::'ral vIaceR in V enezue la, The Story of B a lboa. l\r:lIlY a. c hild '""It school falle n down on:l. hard ) i i,to r y lesson, but rarely :t dullanl so great as to f:lil in the recital o f Bnlh o a's exploit. J1istol'Y nccorels it but a h rief mention, f.llheit it i s C'ntitled to secon d place in t h e New discov eries ] 3nlboa fHCel fort h I1{hC'lltu r i n g at a. comparat i, e l y Cilrly :lge. At Z5 h e \'oynged with to the : \l ainl and on his return to Hispani al:!. the Hn,y!j of th e dflY, h o took up th e pur suit of ngricliltul'c, His b e nt did not :'It fill l i e in t his direction. an d his princi));ll h arvest was :L l ot o f ba.d d ebts. rrc escape th ese, am I ;)11 occup,ltioll dis ta s tefu l to him, h e concea l e d h i mself one night in a c

I 5 lIIade l:i\lch all earnes t app eal to th e COllnnnllde\' that th o lattet' l'ov c r sc d his e:nii c r d er i sion to throw h i m overl>oard. Ralboa's 1 'l' )H'CSCllbtliOIiS of th e richness o f the cOllntry: IlllCl th o fa c t that h e h n d th ero berol'(' ill company with Ba sti d a l e d E nciso to h ea d his course for th e ({nlf o( and the col oll), o f San f3ebastil:l.lI. B e fore reach ing the llIainland one of his s hip s b ecame wrocked and through this accident. lost all th e h orses and pigs h e had brought with him. :::Hill greater misfortun e awaite d th e expediti o n, f o r 011 it s :ll'rinLi, th e tOWIl of San Sobastian WPS found to havo been burn e d by tho Indians, and th e co l onists that worc Ulere scattered. B a lbo;], nothing da.unt e d, promi sed Enciso that if he w o uld accompal\y him, h e would tak e him t o th o western s h o r e o[ the gu lf whe r e another town could ei1sil be fOllnded, and whe re th e I lldians did not use poisoned arrows. The o[[ar was accepted, and with lheir IllCll th ey mar c h e d into the territ ory of an Indian c h ief llall1Nl Cell1:1co. whom they t.l< .. f ealed a nd look p risoner. At lhe town of this c hieft ain. th ey f ounde d Santa l\[ al'ia la Antrgua d e l Dal'i ell. in h o nor of th e ce l e bra.t e d imago at Sevillc, Spain. This pl ace is n o t e d f o r its h ayi ng been the sit e of th e fil'3t Episcop a l S ec, and the oldes t churc h o n the Ame r ica n continent. Enciso was at th e head of this n e w col ony, but itdid not last long owing in a. large 1ll('llsure to :111 int e rdi c t r ccei,'au 1'1'0111 th o C rown of Sp:1ill pro hibiting th e traffic of gol d with th e Indi a n s A h out this time, too, Balboa and Enciso had a fallin g out an d th e former, gaining the ascendall cy, sent his r ellowcxplorer back to Spain ill irons. Balboa Seeks the Temple o f Gold. 'rhe whole cou ntry of the Castilla d e l 01'0 was now in Balboa's charge, and olle of th o first uf his acts to de s patch Pizarro to explore tho inte not' About the same I t ime h e sent out a com pan)' of m e n t o collec t the su r-


6 vival's of th e illfated town of Nombre de Dios. H e then took the j-j Irl against th e Indians, first cnptllt'ing and im pri soni n g t !le chieftain CU:lI'f'C'\. a l ong wilh his tllnily, alia nfterward s pillaging the la.llds of all Indiall chie f Iltl 11l cd Ponca. r:rhis IJ1'onght him and his mOil t o th e territory of :;'l1otho1' T u ( lian cllieftain Hame d Comagrc, at that tim o probabl y most powerful chie f ill the ciltire Darien re gion. Comagre li\'C'd ill a. f'itatc of 1l13gnific enc(;', a.nd had the mumm ies of his ancestors enshrouded in rich clo th s, adorned with pearls, prec i olls stones, and o rnam e nts o f gold. Allhough 110 lHld ;3,OUO W<.Ll'l'iOl'S fit his c:1l1, h e r e ce ived Balboa pC'llccahly and gave him the freedom of his d omain. COlllflgI'C'S eldest SOil Hamed Panquiaco became very friend l y wilh Balbo:t anll besides presenti n g him wit h 4,000 ounce" of gold. alld GO WOlll('1I s la\-es, taken ers in Lattle with uC'ighboring tnbes, gayc him t.he in formation that back of the lino of m ountains tilfl t r ea r e d their tops ill the dim dist:tIlCC, was a nation Yery rich and powerful, havin g ships with sai l s l ike the Spalliarl!s, and u sing vcsse l s of solid gol d H e also t.old him of a t emple of go ld called DauaibC'; situatC'd f orty Ie-agucs fro m Dariell, 011 the banks of a great rlyer. IIlta the Gulf o f UraLit ( I). III th e aboriginal be l ief Dabaibe was th e moth e r of the Deity: whic h dominated t h e clements, and created th e SUIl, mool1, Shll'S, an d till things goo d Balboa's cupi dit y was greatly arollsed by th ese talrs, null returning to I::lanta l\[ aria. pl'cpiwe d f ot' an expeditio n ill searc h of th e golden temple. II i s evide nt that at t his p e riod Balb oa placed some c r edencc in th e Indiun's tal c of ':slll\>s witll saih:i,lI Ullt had m ore fait h in the existence of a temple o f gold. It is quite like l y that this t emp l e h:.ltl reference i(l the tl'CilS Ut'C hOllse of l h e [nca. C'tllpel'or s a.t Cuzco, all aCCOUlIt of whicll, mol'C 01' l ess distorte d, might c

Bf/IUf)(l Seck;; the Temple of G old 7 Hi s expedition ill trim, B : dboa. e nt e red tho m o uth (If tho Atrato. :lnd p asse d up it until IH' rea c h e d the Hio Xegl'u o r Sucio, as it is cOll1l11only called all account I)f th e color o f its waters. AscC'nding this tributary he finally" fll'riyed at the l ands o[ an J ndian chief named AbilJeib:l.' without having seen any illdicntioll of the object of quesl. H e left her o a. company of 30 men to gU:lrd the place, and then returned to Dari en, 011 & lTi"in g h e found that th o Indian s unde r CE'lllaco. and five c hief s with a force of 5,000 W[l.rriol'S:, and 100 canoes, had plann e d a ll att..'lck on the col ony w hich plot wns disc l osed hy Ot'lC of their number nam e d Fulvia. Balb oa at onco took th e initiatin', surprised and d e feated th e I l:dians, and l e ft Ccmaco dead on the field. In Quest o f the South Sea. About this time t h ere werc internal dissensions in the colony, but Balboa succeeded in all pnl'tics, so th a t by th o timo r e infor ce m ents arri, 'e d fr om bringing to him th e titl e of Captain-General d e 1<\: Antigua h e was r ea d y to set out on an expf'Clitioi l in quest of tbe South Sea H e sai l e d frol1l Santa Maria onlh e[8t. of September. taking with him 190 of his own m en, som e I ndia ns: and n number of dogs A !;h ort dis. t::dlce (Ill his way, th e Indian chief, Cuarcc;l, \rho had beon baptized by the Spalllards, gflye him guides some I ndian auxiliaries, and on th o 6th of S eptembe r after attending mass to as k the blessi n g of God on his mission, he took the r oa d to the m o untains. On the Sth of September. B alboa 'lTiYcd at lhe home o f th e India n chief, POllca, mentioned in a. l)l'cyiolls expe diti on H ere he was t h e r ecipient of the fir s t really c red i b l e inf or m ation concerning the great sea to tho South POllca informed him that th e ocean woul d open to yie w after pa ssing cer t ain mountains, w hich he would show him. H e al so gave Balb oa some curious, but handsom ely -, -, -I I I I I -I


8 Pilot (II/d C'lIide formed gold ornamcllts) w hich t.he Indiall iOuitl ca m e fr o m pla ces 011 t I C OCeall of w hich he spoke. On tli.1 20th of Sl'ptcllIucr h e cOlltil1l1c d his march. 'rhe s urface o f tile gtotllH I was 80 rough brokclI. and the r e were so lllC!lIj' small streams to cr05S, that in foul' days. he ollly covered thirty miles. At th e e nd of this marc h h e tame to t he t Ol'I'1tOl'\' of the belligercnt c hief- lain, Cuaracua, w h o him a hard fight. The Indiall wus finally O,"(,1'COIl1(': and p('l'ishcd in compan), with (i00 of his m en. nlC t OW1I of Cuumcn:l wher e h e now W:lS, laid. h e \\";1 5 told, at the f oot of the last mountllill l'c mnining t o b e s u r m ounted. bC'forc his Cyl'S coultl rest all th e ohjoct of hi s l ong anti t e dious Ill.He h Balboa Discovers the Pacific. On the 26th of September 11. l ittle nftE'1' t e n o'clock ill the m o rnillg. the discovered from th e t o p o f th(> m Ollntaio) th e mighty walers o f the P ari fie. 'rhe pl'il'st I of the expe d ition, Alldl't 's d e \';\1'11.. ilil olle

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10 Pilot (wd GI/ide about making arrangements to exp l ore the vicinity. ThE. ocean at thi s point o n t h e const forllls a g ulf t o whic h Balb oa gnyc th e name o f Sail Migue l i n honor o f his haxing 8rri,'e d th e r e o n the day t h e Catholic churc h celebrates this saint, whic h name it b ears at the pl'c!;ent tim e H e d espatcbed one of his m ell Hamed Alonso Martin at-'" the head of a Sill1all company of S p aniards and Indians,to explo r e the coast in a canDo, while he h i m se lf e mbarked and wcnt t o an island i nhabited by a c hief named TUlllaco. : Mal'tin leaYin g first, h as th e cre d it o f being th e first European to naxigate th e waters o f th e Pacific. Tho'" i s land Bal boa l anded on was one of many, and to the g r o up h e gam the Ilame of th e Al'chiepe l ago de l as '" P crlas, or the Pearl Archipelago. T o th e larg est island in th e group he gayc the Ilame o f I s l a Rica, or Uic h Island o n account of Lhe qllantities o f p ea r l s he foulld there, some of whic h werc of great size. Balb oa's } )apers r e l ate how that the canoes of C h ief 'rumacQ had th e ir oars incrusted with so ple ntiful w e r e the y a t t h i s p e riod Some time afte r this, H n exp e d i tion Hude r Pizarro 'I and : M ol'a l es, two of Balboa's lieute n ants, was sen t agllinst th e Pearl I s lands. 'I.'ho)' c rossed th e I s thmu s by a l ess ., difficult route than Balboa had d OIlO, and arl'i, 'e d at th e island s with out i ncident. A ftel' fou r diff e r e nt battles with th e chi e f who m they fOllnd ill p ossession of I s la. Ri c;}, t h e btter finally slIrrende r ed and as peace o ff ering presented Pizarr o and hlo rales wjlh a basket full o f cry fino pearl s one of which weigl w d 25 carats, a!lel a.[tot'ward s sold f o r 4, 000 ducats, equira l ent to rcritably a prin ce's ransom. Origin o f the "Bloody Shirt." After collecling the gold and pc.wl s hI" cou l d Iny h allds 011, J 3alboa r ctu1'IIod to D arie n lho olll y n o tahleincident of the bllCkw:lnl j o ul IlC'Y being the exec ution o f a native chie f Ilame d Pan o r a, together w ith three o f his as


O";!I;N of tlte

-. 0 -0 ... .. 0 I 12 1 ',Ior II lUI G//ide. 0 1 m 'ukes of that sill(,c fUIIlOUl:i tocsin. rhe \'ictories g n i n ell hy the ] I1dians gn' ltt a larUl at L,\ Al1tigui1J ano tli e lIIint and ot.hcr 'lJUblic huildings wer e c1o!)cd H o w e v e r aftc r I s('\VI:n.1 de s pel'ate cng:lgl'lIlcnt!ol.. Tum:.1ll:lIufi :ln d his warri or s to rout, and a peacc pact was cntere d i n t o Balboa' s Las t Expedition. l'pOll th e ces'sation o f [ m lmn P e drari as consrll t ed to an exprditioll planneu by BfI.lbon. : t o e xpl o r e l h e Sea, Thil-' illyoh 'c d th e con struct i o n o f th e s hip s fOl' nasigaling the P acific o n the s i d e of divide, and thcir tr

H {lIIIO(f. (f ,.id;m .IN/I,)/(!;!/ (/111/ /f{ll,. 13 this Jl('rio d o f his l i fC', lIo\\"('\"el'. th e fidd o godclcf;s turltoll hel' hack llJlllll him f orcH'r L'( ,(h;Hi;\",. thr {i o \'( nlOr of hnd l ong heoll of 511CC(,SS(,!oI, amI this f eeling ('uimillnt r d into 0110 of illl(,lls(': h alf'. \\'Idle l"t'f u ing to withh old h is COIl!\('ut to the So tlth Sf':t ex p c di-! lion. h e pll1lllling the w hile h o w tl) frn s lrilt e it. 'J'hc n c"-s of a gr('al incli:lII empire f<1t, t n th e filt(,I'('(1 thmu gh t o thr-Hpn.lliRh c;lInp. and !o;lirre d Hnlho;\ to accompli s h whnt his ahle:-hilt unpriocipl e d l icul plI:lnt. }-"m!lc i sco Pizan o Int rl' rfll'l'l c d out. P e clrilriHI; \I'M wC'1I : .. wnrc of B.-dboa's :lJuhi tiotis pl;lI]5, an d thi s kl}(!,dc d gc j did but SetTC to put nil edge to hi!\ .ir a lC;H1sy :111: 1 hate 1 \ Vith but :t far ce o f a lrlnl. ;llId COJ1lI19 sc::d!fold where th r ('x('c'lIlioll t ook placr. III "iew of Balboa' s g r eat hislOH>' ha s passed l ightly 0\'01' his f all I t<';, alllollK .}\hi.rh I' c ru elty wer e th e 1Il0st promin entj ia.king. into :H.:cmH,t th e g<'llernl C ilstom s of th e age ill whic h h o li\' c d 'l tlw difficult and exasperating Cil' ClilIlShlTlCCS CLARKE & LAWSON"} T A..ILORS. -ntlj .t-r ';" '.-... ll -'; Latest American Sty l es Ferrect fit Guaranteed. We Make a Specialty Dr Cleansing and PrBssing., No. 286, Central A ve. 1 I I


14 Pirot allfl a "ide -he had to contend with and overcome, it Cfln:lOt b e gain said hut that b e was a n exceptional mfillj all intrepid c unning and resourceful warrior w h ose ultimate s ucc ess and wonderful discovery conqu ered for him a lasting plac e in th e w orld 's history. Besides. his I:1tter s uff e rings, impri sonment and d eath on the scaffold on a n unjust charge; wer e, n o d o ubt ample atonement for his sillS. Founding of Old Panama. P e dr a.rias, incompetent, treac h erous, and cruc l continued i n high favO! with the king whose coffE'r s he k ept well s uppli ed with gold and treasure wrung from th e CIl s layed and op pr esse d natives who die d by the thousallds 011 accoumt of n ot being physicnlly adnpted t o the work. I It was tJlis terrible decimation of the 111(1ian s that protupt: ed so m e time later a prominent Cath o lic bishop to s uggrst i th e imp o l'tation of negroes from Africa, tJlUS saving the i Indian from complete ext e rminati on, but at the sa m e t inle I inaugurating the system o f s lasery that nft.::rwards s pr ea d I over the gleat('st part o f two continents. In 15);;, Diego d e Albites alld T ello d e Guzman f orme d part o f a n expedition that crossed to the Pacific sido of the I s thmu s and a rriv ed at a. hut of a poor fishel', at a p o int calle d by the Indi a n s l)anama, from the abull dan ce of fis h niH] sea s h ells f o und th ere. H e r e i It ] 5 19, Pedrarin s founded th e city of Old Panflma, g i v ing it th e Indian name. In ]:)21 by order of Emperor C harl es Y. th e titl e o f noble y !lIuy l ea l was b estowe d 011 tJle place, and the governme nt bisho pric and colollists o f Santa. l\{aria. 1:t Anti g ua d e l D:lrien r emoved thereto. This wus ollly a cco mpli s h e d after g reat printtioll :lnd suffering it being es timat e d tha.t n o th

15 rilot (/lui Guide. -----_u. />. ----_ NO nULL SEASON WITH US. W H Y ? BECAUSE: FlRST.-" -e hu\'c a1war::ltood. :weI shall stand, without n, siugle cie\-iatioll, behind OUI' irOllchL(l guarantee 1..l1lsed upon Ih:LIABI.}; GOODt': )[ODEIV,.TF. PRICES :lml OCR I!' TUEIR "'OU'l'H. S E COXD.---We co n stantly endeavor to pl'o\-id{' our customers with the YEHY lb:I{('HA:S-D1!<;E )ASO'ACTt:JU:D, U SUlg special care ill the selc<:tion of QUI' stock. TllIRD.--W e hlwe ill om' Lallies' Department, the l utest, best flud most (':\1.cllsh-c variety o[ GOODS SIIIRT "'AISTS, CNm:nWEAR, Ho!'n:BY, LACES. E:\! GLO\ER. l :-A:s'CY ARTICLES and It COlU Jllete line of COI'Sf'tS-ROYAl. WORCESTEUJ BoN To::\" and W. B. F OUHT n.-,re calcr (0 the mosl correl't tastes in geutlemell's w e al', and w e can tl'uthfully say that there are no bet tel" dregsed mell in P Ullallla, 01' tlle Canal Zone, than lhose that 11.\\+ OC1'FI1'1'ED IN O!-R GJ::!"TS' DEI'AilT:\IE!"T_ 'rhey arc :Hhcrtising us c,-ery time they appeal' 011 the street, FIF'fR,--'\-c ha\'e won and now hold the most (uSCl'iminat illg clientele in Panama ali(I th e Canal Zone for TilE E:\U:IU:O:'" SIIOE: ( :l castl e fol' the foot), the E LOHEDGE SII,.:X1' Sf:WIX(; 1l.\ND ,\!"o FOOT t:)EWIX(j ) JACHIXES, r\UtI the TlAI,L S.U'E Co-so rlftE Pnom' SAns. ONE PRICE, AND THIS TO ALL. H. de SOLA & Co. No, 55, Cent.ra.l A venu e Opp, Ca.t.hedra.l,


, I I 1 6 ril,}/ mill aI/ide. (00 i\lJSIONI3TH Avenida N o rte No, 70, Apartado ce Corre o No. 70, s ,PANAMA'L-/Z ('ily bCCfllllf' the nf tlJ{' t1n.,t clienei:l. whit h o hbtiJlf'c1 in j IH' America from 1:):;.) to li;J'"). C O llrt o f th e R l':ll AIl p0olf.!ll111 ma.;:;!; in the o.J.the drnl a t Old P:lllamn, i;lking communion wit h two Spanish explo rers a nd 111('II-at nnns, Fr:-wcl:-o('O Pizarro :1nd Diego AllIHl g l' O H e bro ke th e h o i j' 111'1:'01( 1 into th ree pieces, taking 011(, :1.Ild gtnllg th e othel' pit'ers t o th(l tw o 111(>11. rrh e signific all ce o f this :let \\'as 1111 o th('1' thall t i l(' SOiC lllllizHtioli o f a contract hdw('cll :111 th lce to {'ollfluC I th e t o th e South Thr'y s h o rtl y ;,ftcnr;mlr.; manlled so\"end '-('ss('l s :lIId sail e d down lhe coa:-.t 1'L':lch ing at hlst the .: gold('I1 P e ru. P iz:lI'rro s Hag IISl' t! ill his is 11 trC;J s lIr cd H l i c to d;IY in th e ill at Bognl a Early Trans-Isthmian Routes. Some timC' aftl'r the SCUIL'Illt'lit o f Old Pananw [111 nttempl was mad e t o C'!Jlis h land commlHlic :ltioll frolll Nomura de Dios. at thal timo the' plin cil'a l (1) th e A 11:tlit i('. t o tho lI('W ('ity 011 th o P a cific A Tond W;1S fln,tJly COllstructr d h c t\\(,(,11 the two pl:1CC'S.. whic h c r osse d thr (,hngrl'f; Hin'l' :1t For:\ I Ml"t of tilC' way tJl O rond wa5 pav e d. c\'idl'llc('s o f w hich r e main t o this dny. L :llCI' s mllll \'('ssl' l s com m c n ce d t o Mil fr o m Nomura de


17 Dios to til!:' tlHlllth 01' thC" till'tl lip ihal ::-tl"(';111I 14) \\ilt'l'C' tlw we\'( tl'all !'fl'rI(d to I ill Iwd,-:-; of Nnmlm' d e was ah:wliollt'd a t Ill(' ('lIeI o f Ill(' sixlrt' lith ('(-'Btu r y ill LlOJ' of P mto Bt'llo. ];:lIlnrll t o Il(l om of the harell';; otltliC' ('utin' h : thmiall tn,}!;!. or ('hi riqui to whit:h ('\,(>11 th e S l t':lIlWrS oj' tho Ilt'(''iI'IIL d:l )' r('sort \\-11('11 all 1I1111SlWIl y s tron g 1I01"1h'1' i!-i hlow i n g a t Uo l oll. XOlllurc d e Dio!-:i hall l( tug kn oll II as a g ra\C'j":Il d I'llI' til e and its de c ay w a s uf liUlC' 1110111('111. .Hlt'1' the of P CI'll. :11111 th" d { 'Yl'loPllIC'llt (If th e grll d mill(\!s ill th e D'lri cll. Old Panama spnltlg ( ilpidly illto p romilLC'lIc<'.. .1\11 thC' golden t .. ('a!jlll"!' Ilf tll(' \Vl'st wa!o: puun'ft illt o iH'r lap t o Lc sOll('cl fol' s hipm<"llt .. Lacroisad e & Regis. JEUlfRS una IY!lCHMAKRS. 01l11o::l1 (;I}IMI ,,: f; "arIItICI'II ,/,'w,-I,',\', FlIIlI') A rli,' I.,, ; SW!S!-i LOSt: I .'\1';S WATCHES, !-i,l':.:lal .\.';!"'II'1"f lit I'NDEJ:WOO D I SI"'WTill'l': f:,'paidl1;! "f Fin e ":tlcl,,, .. :t SP[I,-:"JI.,', S:""'inJ Onit 'ro! fur EIlTOI'" aUlI "\lill-, I S::lI,',., HCalbeilr,l SqUare. P.O. Bn n. P AiIMA. L a c roisade & RegiS. RHOJERI A JOYERIA y OPTICA. Gal':t!,ti1.U'\;''', ,\.. F"u, la,I:. : H ELO/!'::; I ,OXi;JXJo:S: elL: .... A:':":III'''' ,If' 1:0'4 tI. ,'sul':nwvu/): IlalJih,1a l (""'II"' 1 "I1t"ia l'" l:t< tI" I:...E"J "": .. ,\ E"l""'jlH Y 1"" latl..,.:; l'u:c!o", 4 P uqn I I CalcJnl, Apar l pd) n. P A NAMA. to th e mothe r Coulltr\', P O l'to B ellI) i i k rwisr becallle nil illl-. post. :uu \ was th e SGC'ILC' o f fair s lip t o the l illie (If Its ('

18 l'ilQt (fud (: I!i(/c. and lastl y and chie f of all. the sack and burning of 01,1 Panamrl, p erhaps at the time the m os t o pul ent city ill all New Spain. by H O llr y l\Io rg:'lll a nd his band o f lecllth centur y bucca neer s, p i r a t es and se a r o vers, furni s hes 0110 of th e most thrilling c h apters in the early his tory of th e Spanish : iUain. and so m e o f the most n o table 0\'01lt5 ill the pirnti cal r ecor d of th e \Vest Indi('s, 1I0i o nly from the boldncss and intre pid i ty of the attack. hut 101" lhe galiant d efence as well. 'l'o-day, nearly three hundr e d ltd fifty YC:lrS after, crumuling ruin s mark th e s p o t s w h e r e th ese occurrences took place, th oug h as th e l ate Mr. James Stanley Gilbert has written ill his fllmous work, lIPanam;\ Patchwork": II Cloull-cl'este d 8an Lorenzo guards 'l'he Chngrcs' cnLl'R nCe still, Tho o'er eac h stone dense moss ha s g)'o wnl And earth hi s moat doth fill. n is bastions, feeble with decay, Steadfastly "iew the sea, And s(>111Iy waiL the ccrtai n fate The ages !'!hall dccl"(>c. T o th e Americans cmployed 011 the T s thmu s nlld til(' tourists that are coming in (-'vC'r in cl"r:ts illg numbe r s the si t es o f the se endy Spanish center s of Yestcm c ivilization have :1. cOllsiderable charm, as is evi d e n ce d by the numc)" ami excursio n s made th cl'C'to, especially during the dry seasoll. Of t.IlCm :111 Old Panalllll. p e rhaps, th e g reatest attraction. [t i s easi ly accessib l e fr o m the cit y, an d really intercsting, altho u g h unfortunate l y mall)' v i sitors m e r c l y rid e DYer, t ake a l ook nt the t o w e r and the o ld brid ge, and th e n como with t he idea that they hnv e soe n everything worth whil e The tower and hridge fi l e n ca r t o til(' heac h and easi l y seell. hut tlH'de nse v<'gcblioll with which th e greater part o f Old Pan;\I1l:l i s mrr growll makes sig htseeillg L ntllC'l' ill m o r e diffi c ult. 'rhC'l"e is tile' old Cathedral. lhe 1'001" of which has fa.lle'll


19 ill, but the wnlls of which I of a Spalli s h C'llgiIlN'l' of that time occurs th o following I description of it: I fortification WI1S nil excellelJt piece of workmall s hip, ,-eI'Y st rong hClIIg raised ill the middle o f tho p or t. of llundnlllgulal' fOl'lll,

20 DEL ONICO GRAN CAFE Y CANTINA. Plaza de la Catedral, Panama, R. de P. Licore s Vl\-crcs. CCf\'czas. Cigarros l' Tabacos de las r l cjorcs imp o rtJd cs dircctamClllc.', Sand'VV'iches Varia.dos a. Todes Hora.e SALON RE3EHV.M.OO S. WOLFF, P ro pietacio. -_ ........................................... -........... ........... ... .. _-............................... DELIIJ10NICO BAli AND G lIum HI ,Cathedral Square, Panama, R. P. Finest and 'Best Imported Liquors and Cigars. S. WOLFF. Proprietor :It was built at the C'XPCIlS C of seve-raJ privat e persolls, ti l(' Governor of th e cily furni s hing the principal part of th t' mOllcy. so that it did Hot cost Hi s l\Injc sty allY Sl1m at all."! 'Phe fragmentary and often in :!cc lIratc accounts of Old Panama has not tended to gIve r eaders a clenl' COII c rptioll of Hus [uHI n.ttelldal1t c ycnis. Nothing has C\'cr [Ippcarc d In print m orc truthful am I inte r esting COllc(,l'Ilillg the cnp tul'e o f Port o B ello, alld th e burning of P:1 1Hl1fl1l1 thnll is t o be found in J o lm E s qucJllrling's nnrrati\'o lishc d i ll JG78, so v ell afte r th e O \ '(,lIts actuall y CUlTC'U, E sqllClllC'ling was a Ilwmb el' of th o pintle band. and th e r efore an pye witness o f the incid e nts rC'ln.ied. Although not definitely known, th o author o f thi s n:trruti, c i s th o ught t o h:\\'o b('C'1I n H ollander, inns much as his cou nl hr s t n ppr:1l'cd in the Dutc h 1 ,11lg U:lgl". 1 t WfiS !lfll' l' ward s lrnn.,lalc<1 illt o and i n recent Y(,:1I'S into till" i nttl"l' t 1":11181" lioll :l PJletlling fiS a pftrt of j h('


I --C\J \ I .... I I I I I '" I -' -" ..., I .. ...:: I ;:; --'-- .... I I c \ r. -.. -. .... ; If .!Ruins of Santo fl)oml: 1go Cll urch. !Pan a ma. .!Z!J,m;Q.I'I-:R &-fl..1I.7l-Ar1<'6 &..:11 '" .1Ji onkfJwJld -


22 PilQt (/1/(1 allir1', hoo k ( 'all e d l'Th(' BUCCflll(,C l'R e"f America, publis h e d b y HWfln & no.. of L ondon. f fho autho r's account huth grilphic and p ict uresquC', ill which h e in \'ariahl.r in th e th ird pC'rsoll. Vit h th e exception of ; \ few ins t ances w}1('I'(, h e of U w cxtmonlilla r y of 1h(' under : M organ as o f coursC'. hr has taken no sideg and is as prollC' to criticize h is I(':uler. ,IllY indiyidufli on the o pp os it e si d e The wor s t to hC' made of lIarralin' is his t en d ency t o magnify tl1<' importance of cer tain places and things. UCllce. 1'1'0111 his d esc r iption of Old Panama. o n e w o uld be led t o beliC'\"(, i t a much hll'ger and impor tant p lace t h a n it rcally was. H e refeJ's t o th ere lu\\'ing been firo tho u san d housf'i'o ill the place a t the t ime of its .\11. Thi s wou l l indicate ;1 pnpuJaiiulI o f -lO,OOO, or GO,OOO :souls. EY(m i n a much more exlellsiyc arCa. than th e site of O ld P i lll a m a. it woulll hare been impossible to comprehen d so mall)" F rente a l Publico APARTAOO No. 75. AVENIOA NORTE No. 127. \:\'TJ.; y IlENo, r \ no SURTI D O d., A R \ n RaTES LI(' UI"t Eo; -,,-D E PltO I)Uf"I O"5 D E L P J\lS. EN GBXEIt \ V E N T \ D E SOi\IUREROS O E P ,\N. \ JnA ... .. .. f ,-ollt o f Public 1 1 .. 11 "'"wl;; 0" Gr()ct'rII'M .. u d LlfIIIOt'8 ,\h"flY" 011 1I1t1l11. ( 'ulllllr,' 1'r!Hlllt'l .. UOII!{ h l lIud Sold. Ut'l w r l\ 1 (, ..... 10115 .. 1011 I n \ rrhalll.!1. P illt' 0 .. a 11,,11iI. P O. Bo)(: 75. PANAMA, R P No. 127 North Avenue.


I I T/'(' Haids tlu 111/('('(111(0 '.'1 23 huilllings. alit! t!u 'ro is J\nthillg to-day 10 illclicatl' it. I has(' thoroughly C'xplol'cd the sile, and ('anl1ot Sr'Q \\'h rc more than 10.000 or 1.").000 sOllls could h.t\-c h(,(,11 galh(,I'NI togetllC'I', it member of I\l(' p irate IWlld or Capt. harp. says ill his l1:lIT:1th-c of thC'il' ('xpcdilioll w hich "isilcd P:llllll1l:l. in 1680, tbat the latter place the'll I:ll'gC'l' than Old Panama 0\"C1' 'rhe ('xpcdition against Old Pnll ilma was Hellr y l\Iorgnn's crowning achicrctllCill. and his towoll'd mOil aftf'l' their return to the Fort of Chagrc, :1S E squc meling tcrm s Lorenzo, mnrked the heginn ing of tilt' rncl of his career as the gl'C'Dtcst pirate of his timo He was [I man o[ quick impuisl!', olle good nct bcing almost ilwariably offset by an c\-il one. Hc cm'cd nut for COIl quest for conquest's snk{'. but hc WClS out for the coin of thC' whic h in his time was figtll'cd in piccC's o f eight. One of th e most a stol1i!;hing in til'; whole CAreer was his attitude toward s piracy aftcr his asccndallcy to the post of GoYel'nor of .Jam:lica, 110t l ong after his rcturn from the Panama cxpediti(,I1_ '1'0 him. morc Ullin to allY one mall, is probably dn o th e ridding of lh e pirate'S frolll the waters and i slan ds of the 'V('st Indies. The Panama e.:q)cdition was not ns s ucce ssfu l as ?lfol'gan h ad figured on ill the mnUer of booty. 'l1hc o[ the Spnnish galleon with tho p1:lte and church nduabl es robbed him of the bost DC his expected tre asu re. I.ocnl tradition ha.s it that h e l e ft with as high as 1 ,200 mule loads of loot, whil e a biography of 1\Iorgtlll puts it at thirt y -seven_ Esqueml'ling gi\-es it ilt 175 mule loads. which is probably about UH' concel figure'_ ""'e are gi\-ing the I'('ndcl' Esquemcling' s account o f lhe capture of P C lrto Bello, and lhe fall of Old Pallama in the wl'itel' s OWII pic1uresque hlllgtwgc. which C;l.l1not fail bitt to add spice to tlie narrati\'e -Editor.


-24 PifM (flld Guide Panama, Col [mpire, G na, New York. ---.--._.---Central BClnking Business. Loans made ami i\otes di sco unted. Forei g n Exchange bought and soh!. Unhle t, 'ansfcl's to all points. Dl'afts isslIe(1 on New York allcl ElIl'ope SavingDeposits. Interest at 4 / 0 pel' annun pnid on sa,, ings accounts, on minilllum iJalance dUl'ing each 1l10!l th. Collections, Specinl attrntion pnid 10 collection s both 10l'1l1 and i'ol'c i gn, at lOll pst I'at es. I


25 aptufB 0 orto B 0, Capt. :Throrga n always coml1lunic'l.ted \'igor with his words,

26 Pilof mlf! (;I/id(' hfl.H' noLir.(' of his P o this pr o positi o n some made :tIlSWC'I': 'riley had 11M a sufticif'llt numl,cr o f m e n wherewitli to :Iss:1ult so strong and great a city. But CclPtaili :\r m'g,lll l'C'plied: I f 0111' /lIImU('I i.q IHlI' m'e rll'f,,,t. j l lui tlie/elfe r 1)(:1'8011.'1 Ire {/)'{' the more union, and bcftl'l' H are,'i Irc .'iliall hare in (11(' H e reupon b e ing ",lilllUI rttC'll with til(' ambitioll of th ose Vclst riches they promised lhem,s{lirc<.;, 1'1'0111 th eir go o d s u ccess thoy 11113.lIimow;!)' eondlldcd t.o Y('niu!'!.' upon thal des ign Hut. now. t o th e IlitCHi my reader may bctter compre h e nd the illcomparahlc h old ness of thifi ex ploit. it may he necessary t o S;t)' beforehan d o f thc-city of P o rto Bello. rrh(> cit\' w),itil he:u s this nftme ill America. IS senteel in til<' J'rorinco of Costa Ric" ( 1). unde r tho h l titude or t(,11 dC'gl'(>('s North, th o d istallce o f fourteen lcagu es fr o m the Uulf of D al'icll. o thc y Iml1g thl' plat e IIpOIl Jlluks Ht such timps tl'l Iho fair lJ{'gill!i ami w h ell th e H hip s bC'l u nging to IIip C o mpany of nn'jvc lu'n' 10 :-;layC':-.

---, o '" -.---(.:; 1'"",,:: -'" -c -0 -I I I I I I She $3e1l8 if Cruces :J>onamo. -'s/hr/.,, ... 4 SUiJe 4:J11dll,r'hling $JUNDU .:If .1Jlcnk o ws!o I -. ---


28 GRAN PABRICA NACIDNAL 08 TABACDS La FIQJr lstmQ. --_ __ .--nJPjor y la mas Ilasl1llO) se Iia PII PamU riglll"IO .... Pi('ad Ul'as y Cigltrt'il\os cia b01'l\llo ... ("11 estfl d('\ i>,.:.lon :\L\'I't:rUAL que he (>11 ill;" \'eglls (\(> Ch iriqui y Rubi. Tolloli d('h('n pl'Ohilr el tahneo de

29 upon the place But they laid hands on him and appreh cnded him with such cunning, that h e h ad no timo to give wfln iug wilh his musket, 01' make any ot her noise. Thus they brought him. with his; hands to Capt.lin who him: 110ft things lrent ill the city. alld Ie/ltd forced they had: with Ulany other circumstances which he was desirous to know. A fter every que stion they made him a. t11OUS:llll l menaces to kill him. ill ca"iC Ill' d ecla r ed not t he tnlth. the)" began to achancc towards the city. carrying always the said sentry bound before th em. Having marc hed about OnC -{llUlrtel' of a. leagu e they came to ill(' cas tl e that is near the tity which presently they s nrrounded. so that n o could get either in or out of th e said fortress Being thus posted under the walls of th e castle, Capt. : :\[organ commanded the sentry whom th ey had taken prisoner, to speak to those that were within. charging them to surrender. ;llld giYe themseh-es up to his discre tion ; ot herwi se they :;hOllld be all cut to pieces wilhout g iying qual to any ono. But th ey would hea.rken to none o-f th ese threats. beginning instantly to fire ; which gnxe n otice to the city :'lJId this was suddenly alarmed_ Yet. 1I0twithstanding. althoug h the Governor and soldiers of the sai d castle made :1S great resistance as could IJc perfo rmeu. they were constrained to surrcnder t o the These no sOOner had taken the castle than they reso h -eu to be as gooel as their words. in putting tho S to the sword. thereby to strike a. terror into the rest o f the city. H ercupoll: haYing shut up all the soldiers ;1I1d officers as prisoners into one r00111: they illsblntiy set to the powder (wliC'reof they found great quantity) and b10\\" up the whole ("astir-into the air. with .tli the Npan iar ds that were wilhill. This belllg done. they pursued t he cow's e of th eir : icto ry, falling upon the city. which as ye t was not 111 order to receiYe them. )Iany of the ill-I habitants cast t heir preci o lls jewels alld monefs into wells a nd c istern s, or hid th e m ill other plnces undergroun d, to


30 P ilot {Inri r; /litle """= ,. "--= '"*' excuse, as much 3. w e re p ossiblf', th e ir being t o tally robb e d. One pa.rty of th e Pim t es b eing HS8ign('d t o this purpo se ran immediately to th e cloisters, and t oo k as lllallY r e ligio u s m ell 311d w o m en as they c(Juhl find. The GO\'01'llo" of the city H o t heing aLI" to l',-liJy th e c itil.f'll s through th e hu ge confusion of th(' lawn retired t o one of th e ens t i es r e mainin g, find th ence b ega n to fire incessan tly Ht th(' Pirates. :Rnt the se 'crt=' not III th e lenst ll('g i igent either to a.ssault him (11' d e f end thcllIse\\'I .'s wit h nil til(' courage imaginable. 1 'hus, it W'.IS observah l e th at. ,\midst til(' horror of th e ass

3 1 SU RG EON-DE NTIST_ ;.. .. <.. --Licen8e to The of the State of New M. practice frollt The State Board of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvani a The State Board ofthe Commonwealth o f New J ersey. OFFICE HOURS H a. Ill. t o 1 1 :1, III .I p. 1ll. to :; p. Ill. 44, 5F.ft r l o{',ouc Hlc-u 'l'crl1l1:SlIico 011 .. Ulcn entered by his m Oil. o f who m he pl' csrntly flfter s pied a troop that came to him. Pl'Ocl,liming yiet ory wIth l ou d s h outs of joy. i n s t antly put him IIpOI1 llOW resoluti ons of making new ('ffOi t s t o take th e rest (If th e C;ISjJ(,S that stood out ng n:lIst him: c:.>prrinlly see ing thC' chief,.ci t i "OilS w e r e fled tn thelll. a nd h nd ('ollw'yed thitl!r>r grc:lt part DE their ric h es with ;\11 th e }lllit e to th e chul'chcs and other thin gs d c d icateli to di\ 'illP se n-ief', T o thi s effect. the rf'fol'c. 11(> ordere d t ell OJ ladders t o be m a de in all p ossib l e haste so that three or foul' m ell at olle e might ascen d hy them. These b e ing finished. he commanded all th e r eligious mOil and women whom h e had take n pri sone r s t o fix them against the walls of the castle This mu ch he liad b eforeha nd threatened the Goyernol' to p e rforlll, in case he d e li\ 'ered not the castle, But his answer was: H e tVoulcl llen:r 8W I 1'el/{lel" himscl/alile Capt. )Iorgan was much p ersuade d that the Goyern o r woul d 110t employ his utmost f orces,


32 "i/ol (1),,1 G//il1(;. seeing reiigioug WDIll('1I and ecclesiastica l perso ns, ex p ose d i n t h e front of tho soldiC'l's to the greatest dangel's 1' hu s the ladders, 38 I. hn\"c sait!o were put into t h e h an d s o f r e ligi olls persolls of both sexes; [t nd these wor e f o rced at the h ead of the c0Il1j1<.111iC's, to r aise a nd npply the m to the walls R ut C:lPt. was fully d eceived i n his jud g ment of t his design. 1"01' th e Goycrnol', w h o a c t e d lik e a brarc and {:{JI.1nlgCOUS soldier, refused not. i n pmform al1cc o f his duly, t o lISC his utmo s t cllue:l.Youl's t o d estroy w h o -0\"(:1" came IlCttr the \valls fl'llC relig i ous mOil a nd w o m e n not to cry to him and to heg o f him b y all th e Saints of He;wcll that he wou l d d elive r th e castle a n d h ereby spare both his and t h eir own l i,'es Ru t n o thing could pl'cYail with the obs tinacy

Re.1iu;ul QUlI/"lU DCilpite W ife s 1larR 33 ob s tin a t e l y that. th ey wer e f o r ce d to k ill hilll j n o twith stan d i n g all the c r ies and tear s o f his own wif e and d a u ghte r who b egge d o f h i m up o n tiH-'il' knees h e wou l d d e m a nd qu arte r and Sllv e hi s l i f e ,Vhe n th e P i r a t es had p ossesse d th e m se l"es o f the castl e, whi c h was a bout night, th ey ellclose d the r ein all the p riso n e r s they had t nken placi llg th e w o m e n and m e n by th cmsc k cs, w ith so m e g uard s up o n th em. All the wou n d e d w e r e pu t i n to a certa i n a p artment b y itse lf, t o the intent the i r own complaint.>; m ig h t h e the cure o f th e i r O WIl di seasesj f o r no othe r was a ff o rd e d thel11. This b eing d o n e, th ey f e ll t o eatin g and drinki n g afte r the ir u sual m anne r; that is t o say committ i n g i n b o t h these thing s all mann e r o f d e b a u c h e r y a nd excess Afte r s u c h manner they d eliver e d the m sel,,'s up t o all SOIt o f d ebauc h e r y, th a t if the r e h a d b een f o ulld olily fifty cou r a g eo u s m e n ) they m ig h t easi l y ha.Ye re t a k en th e city a n d kill e d all the Pirates l'h e next d a y, h a"illg plund e r e d all til e y c ould find t h ey b ega n t o exa m ine so m e o f th e pri so n e r s ( wh o h a d been p e r s u a d e d b y th e ir c o mp anio n s t o say t h e y w e r e the r ic hest o f th e t own), c h a rging the m se v e r e ly to disc ov e r wh e r e th ey h a d h idde n th e ir r ic h es a nd goo u s But n o t b e ing a b le t o ex t ort a n y thin g out o f the m a s the y w e r e H o t the right p e r sons w h o p ossesse d allY wealth, the y at last r eso ll' e d t o t ortul'e t b em. This th ey p e rform e d with suc h c l'u e lty that m a n y o f t h e m d ie d upon the rac k 01' presently a f te r Soo n nfte r th e Presi d ent o f Pana m a h n d n ews bro u ght him o f t he p illage a nd ruin o f P orto B e ll o cau sc d him t o e mploy all his care a nd in du stry t o r a i se f o r ces, wit h d esig n to purs u e and c a s t out t h o Pirates the n ce. But theso car e d l ittl e f o r w hat extraord i nary mcalls the P resident u se d as h a ving th ei r s.hip s n ea.r a t h a nd and bein g determin e d t o se t fir' t o the c ity and r e tl'eat. They h a d n ow b ee n a t P orto B ello fifteen d n y s, in whic h s/lace o f t i m e they had l os t m a uy o f tbeir m e n b oUI by th e unheal t h i n ess o f the country and th e e x trayagant d e bau c h e ri es they h a d co mm i t te d.


I I I -- '" 1"....: '---0 -<::: -'-, -----. --, .. ...... -... -.. _-..... ,.,_._ .. _--... ---... -.-.. -.----... -" ...... .. I' 1 ... 1 ,. II I \oil' .. f \ f I "Id/ It ----. -_ ..... -. -... -'--_. ---_ .. --. '\I 'lI \ W .( dJ group of "!Belies -the


-r-------------------------------35 Ransom Placed on Prisoners. H e r eupoll the)' prc p al' l'd for it d('ptl l'iul'', carrying 011 h o ; u d (Iw ir s h ips nil the lile'), h a d got. B ut. hC'f o r e all. th",), th e H eet with s uffiticnt vic tuo\ls f or the oyage """h i l o the-so t h ings w('\,o getting r(':tdy Capblill ::Uol'gan sent an illjundio ll to th e p riso llC'l's t h a t t hC'y s h o uld pit y h i m it ranso m fat: t h e cit y 01: e l se he w o uld by fire c o nsul"IIC' it t o ;n,hes. an d blnw lip :111 t h e c:ls t l es into lil' air. \ V illw h e COIlHllftll d c d t h e m to !il 'lld R P l'C<1iij' two p e rson s t o seck and procl1I'(, tho S UIli h e dC'm:lllcled. w hich amounte d t o 0110 hu ndre u th o usand pieces of eigh t j h is c ff ('c t tw o men were sent t o Ule P resi d ent o f P a nama. who gave him a n a ccount o f all th ese tragedies. rrhc P r esid e llt h a \ ing now a b o d y o f m en i n re<.uli l l ess. s e t f or th imme diat e l y t owards P or t o B ello t o ellcou nte r th e P irates 1,e f o r e thei r r etreat. But these p eople h eari n g o f h is co m ing ins tCfld o f H ying awn)', went out to lIl eet h im a t a lll:l1TOW passa ge thro u g h w hich o f nctessit y he must p ass. H e r e they pIn.ced an h und r e d lIlell very \\'ell nnne d ; w ho, a t the first ellcount er. p u t t o flight n goo d p :lI"ly o f those o f I Panama. This acc ident obliged t h e Pres ident t o retire f o r t hat t ime, 31\ n o t uC'in g yet i ll a post u r e o f s h e n g th t o pro cee d a ny f arth e r Presently afte r this e ncount e r h e se nt a m essage t o Capt M o rgnll t o t ell h i m : 'J' h a t i n case h e d e part e d lI.ot sllddcu ly 1 cif/t a/l hi sfurce.'i I 'om, Port u B ello, h e o u ght to eXl)Cct 110 q u ar tcl'/o r n ol' h i s eOlll)J{lIIioIlSI u : ltell h e shou ld tak e them a s h c hOl1e{l SOOIl t o ( 1 0. C apta i n Morgan who f eare d 1I0t h is threats, kn o wing h e h a d a sec u re l' etrCl:lt ill his s h i p s whic h w e r e n ca r at h a nd m a d e him an s w e r : lIe tfouiel not d e liver the c a s tl e g be/or e h e luti! t e c eiteeZ th e c on triblltion-l1wlwy h e h eed d CIII{(1Ide ll. lVhich in case it 'l(:er e not lJ{ti{l c10 'lCl/' 1 he '1c ould certa in '!! burn tlte 'to/tole city) { mil tlle n l c((l.:e it; d e m o li s h i ng be/or ellan d th e castl e s (Ou l killing the 111'101leI'8


-36 ri/of am1 ( ;J/id e Opposite the P. R. R. Passenger Station. 8{o Cooter place in fhe City Large and We!l-

Morgan' s Threat Against Old Panama. The GoYcl'Ilor o f P a n ama pel'cciYNl by thi s answer that no means would sene to mollify the heads of th o Pirates, nor reduc e them to reason. B erellpon he determined to leave themj as a lso th ose oC the city. w h o m h e came to 1'olio \ 'c, ilwolvcc1 ill the difficulties of making the best agreement they could with tlieir enemies. Thus, in few d ays lUorc, th e miserah l e citize n s g

I 38 P ilo t (lII(r a'lille h e did not cer/ifylo him, h e should not speecl 80 well h e r e a s h e had done th ere. Departure of the Pirates. Afte r th es(' Cnpt. ::'![o rg:l .1I ( h aving pro \"idc d his U cc l with :lll n ecess ari es and taken w i t h him th e b es t g Ull s o f th e ( a stles n ailing th e r est which he coul<.l lin t C:IITY ;J\\":lY ) tiet s ail frolll Porto Bello with all his !o;i1ips ith IhC'se he arriv e d ill few days at the I s l;1lld of ('uha, whr r p h e sou ght out a pin e r w h erein with all qui et. find r('pose 11(' might make the di\ idend of the s p oil thry had gut. The y fOllnd ill read y mOlley two hUIldred Illld tift y pieces o f e ight ( l) hesides all (.Ilicl' 1l'(,I'C h ;'IIC lil,(s. ;t<.: cloth. I i lien, s ilk s all(l other goo d s. 'itll this r it' ll h o o t y th e y s ail e d again thence to their (;OIllIlIOIl pl;IC'l' n f n l l d('zVOliS .Jamai ca. Bcillg arrive d they pass('cl IH' IP HIIIIC LilllP ill all s orl s of "ic e s and debauchery, ,u.'(onl illg tn tlwil' {'OIlWIQII m31llle r of d o illg spellding wit h hllg l JII' o d ig:dity w h a t I Jthe r s hnd gain e d with no small l a h o ul' alld I 'l ii. ..... rJl1 111 the of a trc; l t y of P<':lt"o ill 1G70 h rlw('( '11 E ng l:ll1d an d Npaill. whir h confirm e d the ron n el' ill h p l ill th e \Vest I ndic::;. hilt h er !o,Ililjl'd'i t o 11':1(1(' i o :111. \ 8p.a s p cmtc d th e fr cl'bootillg communily. IIl1d lIH' d irl'l"t H'. inli o f whic h was nil a sscmbla g e of the IIC'('I C'Y(,I hl'o n ght t ogethc r h y thC' buc ca n e ers. amoun ting io <.;111)5 o f all 1 1 "1Il1lCd b y morc tha.n -( I ) I h, oil! .. pit '((> o f ( ig-ht" IIllll til l' l,:; 'lui\'ull'l1l to It) go ld.-Ed i t o l', Y:lIIl\: of eight Bpnni:;:li I I I I


39 --Vente de P i e ies de Venado. de Tigre. de Culebr a y de nluc has otras clases, y Ca.1 d o EXISUiCiA DE fRU1AS C D MS1AH1EMEUE. ERDURAS DE TODIS ClASES. A,VENIOA, NORTE, NVMERO 1157. Hipolito de l a OUra. :2.000 pimtC's. 'rbey Ilwt ill l)('('t'whel'. 1(370. 'l'ibun ill. (;lli f of r rah;i. alld held a cOlln<:i1 at to C(11)C cl\'cidr t.-h e th('\, th ('ir [ orc(,s hl' (Iil'c-ctrh r h a d l e d him t lit'I'd/) through th{JI]sands of diflkul-tics Th e histo r y hereof. I now hegin tn I'(blh'. as b e illg s o H' I)' r e m arkah l e ill :11\ its rin'l1ll1stallt'Cs til;l! Ilt'L {Hhcntul'l' n o th i n g 11101'1..' "('st'rring Illl'Il1nIY Ill;!Y O(,{'Ul" to bc r e ad h y future ag('s, -:Xo t l o ng after ('apt. )ft1rgan arrirC'd [It .JaIllClir:l he fmind m a n y of h i s chil'f aIHI soldiers rcduc('c1 to their f o rm c r st a t o of incligC'Jlrp. through thC'il' immoderate i ces And d e bau c h ery l:irllce th('y cease.u 1I0t. to im p ortune I __ ______________________________ L_


Pilot (IIlfl (; /tiele, 40 him f o r n e w invasion s a n d exp)oit s1 thol'e b y to get som e thillg t o e xp e nd ; lll(, W in wille as th ey had a l ready was t e d whllt wa.<; securc d so littl e h('f o re. C apt. M organ b eing willi n g t o f olio w fOltun e while s h e called him, h e reupo n s t o pp e d th e m o uth s o f m a llY o f th e i n h a hitants of .Jamaic..'l, who w e r e c r e d i t o r s t o his m ell f o r large' ",ums of money wit h th e h o p es :lIu l promises h e gayc th em. of greate r :Jchic\ cll1('nts t h ;lJl (I r eI". h y a lI{'W e xp e d itio n h e was goillg abo ut. 'rhis clollC', h e n ee d e d n o t giy c him s e lf mu c h tronhl(' t o It: y m ell f o r thi s 01' any o th o r ent e r prize, his lla m e b ring n u w f a m o u s t hrough all those i s l ands: th a t tha t alo n e would 1'C':ldil y orin g him i n m o r(' InO Il than b e could w ell emp loy. H e unde rtook th e r e f ore to equ i p a n('w t1c p l o f s hips: f o r which pm p ose h e a ss i g n e d the south sid e o f th e i s l e of T o rlugn. as a pl ace o f r e nd ezvous. 'jth this h e wr o t e di, 'e r s l e tt e r s to all the ;tllc i c llt

-I I I -._-------_.-.Afarlce! Strr!ef approaching IheJJ1ar/

I I I I 42 Pilot (ll/d Cllifle. now gathered tht! gl'('ulrst part of flf'et b e calle d a. ('(Jullcil, to delilJemte about the meallS of finding pro,isions s ufficie-nt fol' so lllallY p eop le. Here th a y concl ud e d t o sClld four ship ilnd one boat, mnnnC'd "ith four hundre d lllt'll, Q'{'el' to the con tili cllt, to tho intent they should r ifle some country towns and villages, and in these ge t all the corn or maize they cvuld gather They set sail for the continent, towal'ds the ri\ 'er, D e ]a Hach:t. with desi gn to assault a slllall village called La Hancherii w h r re is lls u all y to bo found the greatest quantity of maize of all Ulese par ts th e reabouts. In the meanwhile Capt. l\[ o r ga n sent 3JlOlhel' party of his men to hunt in th e woods, who killed tlWI'C a huge number of and salted th 0111. 'l'h c rest of his companions remained 1Il the ships, to clean, fit and rig thrm out to sea, so that at th e return o f those who w e r r srllt ahroad, all t h i ngs mig h t be ill p'adint'ss to wiegbt nllchar, alill follow the coul'se of their d esig n s 'l'h c four above m entl(/lle d. aftet they had se t fr om H i'ipani oili. s teered their COllr se till thE'Y ca m e wilhiu sig ht (If t:l' 1 i \ or, ne l a H ur ba, WiW1C tJwj' wel'e s lldtl cnl uvcrtakt'tI with a t e diolls ('aim. Being thus within sight of lalld iJrcal mod fo)' !-iOIlIC da ys, th'" Spilniards iu haiJlting along IiI" w h n l1<1d percC'jYed them to h e had slIffic i Pllt l illie tf) pn.')J:l re tb 'lIlse !n's for t h e at 1('11';1 bJ h idr the Jwst part uf their goods, to tilt' E'ud that, with out allY ca r e 01' IH\'s':n :ng them: thry might hr in Il'aidllf'SS to reti re, ",hrll 1hrj' f ound 1hC'1llseln-'s una hie tn i'l'!oiist thr force of the P ; r a t ('s, I w fiNl tlPllt nttl'lllpts UPOIl lhu..:e coasts lhl'Y h ; l d !l !1\.'ad .)' Irfll'llt wha.t OWl' had t o do ill such case';. Th(' r c W;lS ill the J'in' I' at that }JI';. SC'llt a good :-.hip. which COIllO from CartugC'nCL t o l a d e maize, and was now when the Pil'n.t('s came nlmost ready to depart. The 1llC'1} belonging to lhih SIll)) endenxoure d t o esrupe hut not being ahl e ttl do it j bOUl they and th e v essel [ell into thei r hanrls, was n fit booty for th eir mintl, as hr'illg goo d part of whal tho)' clime to seek for ",iOl so mil ch cnre nnd toil.


4 3 '" 1 The llC'xt mOl'l1i ng niJout hr eak of day they Ctllne with thf'ir !'hips towa rd th e sho re: Hild l an ded thcil men, alt.hou g h the Spaniard s m;I(.Ic hug o r esistance from a uattery whi .... h they had l'iliRCd all lhut side, where o f llcct'ssity th e y ha.d t o l allclj but notwithst

,------' ----. 44 1'i!ol (/Ild (://idc. isariato del DE RAMON ARIAS F., Jr. ESQuino ae lOS colles 1 3 Esle y AvenlOo Almacim de Mel'cancias en .; C isariato .. .. .. OF RAMON ARIAS F,. Jr. Cmner ollhilleenih SireN ora Ave nue, gener al. :: Groceries and General MerJ h :mdise. Ferretel'ia y H erramientas para artesanos. : : All clas,.;es of Hardware and Too l s for artisans. shi p s, together with nil th e rrst of thC'ir booty. tiJry n'hlillcd t o th e I slan d o{ Hi s p aniola, to g ive accourrt til their ic'adej". Capt M o rgan, of all th ey had performed. Preparations for Departu re. Thr)' h a d now hr(,11 absent fh c entil'e w('oks. aboui the commissioll afol'C'lllc llti o llcd, whic h l ong delay occasione d Capt. l\[org:J1I ; tlmosL to dCSpAil' o f th e ir l'( tul'n, fC'Hrin g ll'f-it they kHl fallen int o the hand s of the Hpllllial'ds) cs J>ctially considering that the placo wh ereto they went coul d easily \'(1 I'clicyC'd from Cal't ngc nn. and Santa. n1:1rta, if th inhabitanLc; w e r e at all care-ful t o alarm th e countrYi all the o ther sido h e ff'llrcd l es t th o\' s h oul d ha\'e made SOIllC gl'N tt fOltunc in th a t yoyugC', and w ith it escflpr d to SOlllt othr]' pI:H:C'. J 3nl n t la s t see ing his s hipf; l'clu1'1l, and ill grelllrl' IItllnhC'l' than tl1C'y had departed. h e rCSUllH.'<.i 1I0W COli l'iI g-C', this sight causing b o th ill him :llld hiR com pllnio n s infinitc joy. Thi s waS muc h illcl'cased w h cli. being tll"rircd, tliC')" IHunt! thr m full l a dC'H with lllai1.C'. whereof tlit,)" stoo d ill gl'eat Il ('c d f o r the mailltt'llallCO o f so lllnllY I ll'oplr, hy whos(' h e lp th ey ex p ecte d grrat through tlir ("lI r Hllid of t\reir COIIIIII.lIIlit'r. I I After Capt. M orgnn had d h'id(' d th e Ii'aizr.:t" al,1) til!' 1I1'sh "hi c h th e hurrt('J':; ill, among ;111 till' I :u'("(lJ'(l illg t n tho IllIl11iwl" o f nrclI t h u t wer e ill l \ \"l 'ry '---


J'n 'pllI'atiol/s In/' /)fjllll'llIl'r 45 ,"essel, he con cluded uJlo n thr df'partul'r, hayin g "iewed bf'fol'ch alld o\'el'y s hip. and o h scl'\'c d their bC'ing well {'(Iuipp c d and ciC':ln. 'Phus h e set nlld dil'cct(>ti Ilis cou r se towards r r ihllrOn where he d e t ermille d to take his measurcs and r eso lutioll, of what e nt o rprise he s h o uld take in halld, Xo sooner w c re they there than th(>y m o t with sOllie oth e r ships that C'II11C l1('wl), t o join tlH.'1ll from .Jam aica, So that H O W th e whole n ee t cOllsist e d of thil'ty-s c \ 'clI '\"hel'('in were two th o u san d fighting m e ll, besides marill er!; and boys; th e Adillimi hereof was m ounte d with twenty. two great gUliS, and six s m all OliO:';, o f brass; th e rest c arri e d some twe nty, som e sixtf'ell some cighte(,ll, and th e smallest \ 'osso l at least f OIlI', bcs:dc s which th ey had great quantity o f ammunition and fire balls, with o th e r iIl\'entioll s of powder. Proposed Division of Spoils. Capt. l\J organ finding him se lf with such :l. great !lum ber of ships, divided tho \\'h ole fleet into t\\'o s quadr ons, cOllstituting a Vicc Adillir a l ) and o th e r officers and com manders of the secon d squadron, distinc t from the f ormer. To e\ T ery 011('; of these he gs\\"e l('tter5 patent, or commissioln;) to ad all m anlle r of hos tilit y ag

46 l'ilO! (flul CliMe. cht,!'t of medic:UIlC'lltS: .And (,Ye'ry carpe n ter, auo v e his ('ommOIl elmw 0110 hundred pi('c .... 8 of o i g ht. As 10 I'ccomC'llc('<:;.lh('y worO n>gulatcd in this yoyagc m uc h 11101'C' 1l1;\11 wm:l!. '('hue;;. for the of b o t h l egs th e y 011(' thollsfl.1ll1 11\"(' hllnc1rrd pieces o f C'i ght o r fiftN'1I 1"01' (l1IC' lpg w\wtll('1' the' right o r l e ft. s i x of C'ight 01' ,ix sl:\\"('sj for :l. han d :tS milc h as for a I('g. :IIH.I for tin' ... of :t1I <'jr onc hun c h'cd pir('{'s of (light or (l1l1' sl:\\'C'. La!

--. --.. -. J .. -- .. ... .. -. .. -.. .. -.. Strt!et showing entrance to !Panama Cemeteries ;1It;" rt'&fUI & !P..N,fl,.,If';.u dlfIU'C:Jl4 :Adn:rll:,jng.7JurcQu. ,:;I .JJi,nka,.-.. k l ---.-------. .. f


, 48 r ilot (//1(1 G uide Attack Isle of St, Catharine. l'lol'gan a nd his companion s w e ighed anchor 1'1'0111 th e C a p e o f rribl1l'o n th(' ] Hth d a y of December ill th6 yC:1l' 1 6 70. .FO Ul' d ays afte r th e y arriy c d within sight o f t.he hie o f St. Cathal'illC', ( 1 ) whic h \\as now III P05-o f th e Spani a rd s agnil1. a nd t o whic h th e y commonly b a ni!"lie d lhe facl o r s o f the Spanis h dominions in th e -\\Tes t Indies In this i s l and a r c f ound huge quantit i es of pigeon s n t tcrtain BenBon s o f th e y ear; it is watere d continuall y b y f O ll l' rintl o t s o r broo k s whe r e of two are always dry ill til e s umm e r seaso n H e r o i s 110 manner of trad e n o r c o mm e r ce exe r c i se d b y th e i nhabitants, n e ither d o they giv e th e m sc h cs the t m uhl c to plant m o re fruits than what i s n ecess ar y f o r th o slls t e n t ati o n o f hum a n lif e ; howbcit, th c coulltr)' would b e s ufti c i e nt t o m akc Y cry good plantnLiolls o f tohacco, whicJl might r ende r c o n side rable Pl'otit wcr e i t c ultiv a t e d for OInt u sc. A s soon n s Capt. : M o l'gan c ame ncar the island with his flee t h e !'\ent b e f o r o aile of his bes t s ailing yesscls t o yiew t h e entry o f th e rin' r and scc if any other s h ips wer e thcre who mig h t hind e r h i m fr o m l anding j as a lso fearing l est they s h o uld giv c int elligenc e of h i s alTiva l to the illhau i t:lnt s of th e isl and, and th e y hy thi s means. prm ent his d esig n s The n ext day b e fore sunrise! all tho fleet came to ;1IIc h ol' ncar th e i s l and, in a c e rtain b;\y called Aguada. O mnd(': up o n thi s bay th e Spaniards lwd lately built a hattel'Y! l1lollnt e d with f o ur pieces of c annoll. Cap t t lin l a nd e d with a th o u s and m O il m o ra 01' I css. and thelll int o squa dron s b eg inning his mar c h through 010 Hlthollg h the y had 110 oth e r guid es Ulan SOme i"ew of his 0\\,11 lHr n who h a d b e cn th c re bef ore whell -(I) \ Iso kUOWIi ll'i Rant n Kalalin : t o r Old PI 'o\" idi'Il(' (', nil i s 1:md ill llu' ( 'udl,ht':ln :O;l lI l lOll miles fro ul tht. i\lo HqnitoConst n o w belong, \' 1 IIIK tu tlW<':\It


, rrll('k IIi' '1. ('{ll/lI/n,'f'. 49 luok Ilnd 1':1I1s[I.(-I.:('d the islnnd. rrlle day they came to a, cErtain pl:\cc Whl'l'l' thr (:o\"(-'l'IloI' oth e r times kept his ordinary herr th('y fOl\lld a bat.tery callrd 'J'he Pln1f!>r m. hilt Ilfdwdy ill it: the Spfwia rd s h aving l'rtir e d to th e Ic!'sel' i:;lallli. "hidt. as ras sai d before. is so ncar the grcat lllll' that a shl1l't /I'idge only may conjoin them. Pirates in Serious Straits. 'rhis lesser island ai'or('s!li d so well fortified with forts and batteri es it n5 might S('l'I"!l impregnable. H ereupon as soon as the p:'l'cl'in'd the pirates to IIppl'o;lch. the y heg-,m t o nrc upon thcIU so furiolls l y that they coulll ad\'!lIlce 110 thing that day. hilt wer e COIlt e nt e d to l'ctrcilt a littl e anc! tal\{' lIJl their I'c::.t upon th e grass ill the open fields, which .. ffonJed no s tmng e heds to these peopl e as h eing ;:sufficicntly uSNl 10 sudl kind of -------------------------, o ena rancesa, j B. COEROLI & CO. W' o ml1llu[llclnl'c al\ o[ Soda. water::; and S,:o'u p s. We have (,1lg'3f.,(t'11 the !>;(>rvices o[ it gl'fHluatc distill('l' fOl' tb(' milllUfadul'l' or all dibses 0( }luro Iiqu ol's, I'l'ompt l1 i knl if)u g-i \'I'll t I) orders frOID p1'i\ 'l1lf' hou"'\'''. FACTORY, H". 54, WEST HF:: STREET. o ena rancesa, I. B COEROLI )' Cia. HI' fa hri. a II lol1.a ela:-(' li e i \ gua, Ga"'t'Q!-lIl" y 1 1('1-\:l1:.i llll lic.-ofrr:ldual!o para hater toda. dil"'e til' licon's St: ,\T[J;:\[I];:\ l'i:lIl\)OS ;.. 1)0-"H'1J.10 ..... CALLE I(j OESTE, HUI.IERO 54.


50 Pil ot (lnd (;/lide. repose; what most afflic t e d UH'IU WitS hunger, having not cat cn the least thing tha t whole day. About midnight it hogan to rain so h

A Tln' eat (Iud flit 4 11$lter, 51 .. effect h e commanded 1\ canoe to be r igge d in all h aste, and th e col ou r s of truce to b e h ange d out o f it. 'l' his can oe h e sent. t o the Spanish of th e i!!land with this me ssage: That within (( few ltow",r; h e deUrered no t himself and all his men illto h is hands, h e d id by tltat mes o sengor Sleear t o him, an d aU that u :et'e rn 'd s company, h e tcould almost c ertainly put the m all to tlte sli.:o' rd, tc1tlio1(t granti'ng quarte r to allY, Afte r n oon the ca n oe reb.rned .. it h this an s w e r: Th(lt the Govenwr cle8i1-ed ttco ltonr8 tim e to d eNberate w ith his offieerR inll/Illl cOll-neili l bont that llj}(Ii1'j trhi e h b e ing past, h e tfo ulcl gi'Ve hill lJositi 've Q}!8lter to th e 111(I83a06 The time now b e ing ela.p se d, th e sai d Gm'ernor sent two canoes with whit e colours, and two p e rsons, to treat with Capt. Morg an bnt b efore they land e d they d e m a llded of the Pirates two p e r sons a s hostages o f th ei r security These were r ea d ily granted, b y Capt : Mol'gan, who d e livered to them tw o o f his captain s, f o r a mutual pled ge of the sec urity With thig the Spauiard s pro pound e d to Capt. M o rgan th a t their Governor in a fnll as se mbly h a d r eso h ed to d'live r up tbe i s l and. not being }ll'o \-ided with !\ufficient f o r ces t o def e nd it against. suc h an armada or Aeet.. But withal he d es ired that Capt ain w o u l d b e pleased to us e a certain stratagem of war, f o r the b e tt e r saving o f his own c r e d it and the r e pu tation of his offic e r s b o th ab r oa d an d at h o m e, whi c h s h o uld b e as f ollows: That Capt. M o rgan woul d come with his troops by night, near tJle b ri dg e that join e d Ille les se r island to the great on e, an d tJle re attack th e f ort o f St_ ) J e rome ; that at tll e same tim e a ll th e s hip s of his flee t wou l d draw near the cas tl e o f Santa T e r esa uuel

, 52 Pilnt mul (;l!if1c. and that he ,YOul d lead the English into it. under th e fraud of heing his own troops; t hat Oil o n c side and th e oth('}' there sllon ld be cOllti0l1e11 firing at one a noth e r. but Witllout bullets, or at least into the ail'. so that 110 side might l'ccei,'c \\ ,,1t",r 1" d", I,uhh. :'\ .. ;111'[ .. ,[, ... "I l'I"\i .. Jlud 1' ... ,..'\ <'''1111 ... 1 /:,",,1,.. l:i",lIil,.. ';Iu .. .... ,k'Q, 1"rfllll .. ,'. ,l1 .. :H IIltloll.'r.t!, Iwin ... Jose Angel Ri'Vero, Prop. Nos, lJ51 4 1 OVENUE 0,


Jfuck SWTl'I/,lcr. 53 word to the Oon'1'I1ol' h o s hould keep all his m o n toge ther in 11 b ody, otherwise if the P irates met any stra ggling Sp flilinrds in th!? st r eots, they s hould corwinly s h oot them 'rhe island being t aken IJY this unu sual stra1ngem. and all thing s put in due 01'<.1(:'1', th e PimtQs hegt"lIl t o make allow W:lr agllinlSt th e poultry, c iltllo and all o f \ 'ict u a l s they cO'uld find. w as tJH:?ir whol e employ for SOme day!', sca rce thin king of a nything elso than to kill thoso anim:ll s r oast and cat. and good rll('el'. as muc h as the y conl d possibly attain unto. If "wood was Owy presentl y fell upon th e hou s e s and pulling them dowll. made fires with tho timb o r ha.d becH dOlle befol' o in th e field. 'The n ext d ay they numb e r ed all the pris o ner s they had tak o n upon th e w h ole isl.Uld. which woro Jound to be in all four hund red an d fifty p ersons, between m on, wDlllon and chil dr en, viz., 0110 h undrcd and nin ety soldie r s b e l o n ging t.o th e ganison; forty inhaiJitants who wer o mcurieci; forty-tlnee c h i l dre n ; thirty-f oul' sJ.wcs belo nging to tho with e ight childrell; l 'igh t b a nditti ; thirtY-llille n egroes iJe l o n gillg to private with tWCllt y -sov e n f e male a nd thirty-four childr e n Pirates disarlllo d all th e Sp ania.rds: and sent th e m o ut illllllp.diately to th o plant atio ns, to seck for lei.wi:lg the warnell in the cilUl'CiJ ) th ero to exercise their eleyoti o ns. Fortifications of St. Catherine. Boon after they took a l'O\'ie\\' of the wbole i!o;laml. and all tho f or trossC'R b e l onging th e rcunto, which fOBnd to Lo nine ill all. as f ollows : the f o rt of Bt 1er olllc, n cnrost to the bridge, hnd e ight g reat gUll S of U and H p oull d calTiage tog e th ol' with six pipes of ll!llsk c t'S. eyel')' p i p e cuntailllllg tell muskets H e re they f ound s till sixty llluskrt!'i with su f ficient qU:l.ntity of po\vder and all oLhe r sorts of ammunition. The second fortress, called St. l\btthe\\" had three gUllS, of S pound c;IlTiage earh. rrh e third and" chief among all th e rest named :D:lllta lwd twenty


54 1"ilnt a1ld Gllide. great of 1:-". 1"2. R al1ll G pound ("wl'ingC' with ten p i pe's of III t1 .... ket!o<. likf' tho!>C' WI' !olilid II('fo' I'(" and ninety n 'JLI:linillg. all otlirl' warlikt ammunition. ('llsUl' \\I.\S illlilt wilh anci m o riaI'. with very thipk wallrs fill ult :-.iliC';;. ,IIHI:L brgr dit c h around about i t of lW('llty foot dt'ptil. which it was dry was \'ery h:mJ t i l gC't IIn' I Ht'rr was 110 ("lilT hut through oue dool' which {'OIT('\WIJHlcot i to Ihe {'WillrlJ(' oi' the cas tle. \\ril hin it \\:IS a IUflllllt. (II' Ilit!' :t 1111 8t illac('C'ssible, with full!' pi{'{'p:, 'If t.,IIIlClIl at iJII'" I llp. Whl'llC'l' they could shoot directly illtu th e 1'(11 t. Oil tht' e I side litis was iDluy 1'(':1..;011 of till' rod.;.s which foilll'l'otlnrled it and t he sea h p;ltillg fUI' iunsl lIpon tlH'Ill, fll like ll11l.uncl', on th e sidt> (If tlil' lalld, il WW" so ('lIl lIlH O diou:-;l y !"l'nt e d 011 a moullt!l.ill that tlil'le W :l" 1111 fI('c r!'::> til it, but by a p a th of three (11' fllllr forti hl"O;l(l. Th,' f o urth was nam e d St, Augustint', 11:I\'in!) tltr('l' ;.!!lII<:', I)f Hilt! (j p o und carrialSf', The tiftlt, U;tlll' d L a P ,'dtahll'll1 : l d(' 1:1 Concep c ion, h :lu oll l j' two gilliS, of C'I;!llI IHIlHIlI l"II'I'i:t6{ ', 'rhe sixth, by name Ilid likl'" i'il' IHI lIIUI"e th31l two gUliS, The sen' nth hl illg l':dh.xl PIaU:lfol'l\I;\ d e los AI't ilJe ros, h a d I-liso tW(} gil II';, I' ll{' eighth, ('alh'd Santi Cruz, hl'lll t!tr ee gUllS. 1'11(' lLillth, whidl W:lS C:tlll'd st. .Jfl-;l'ph's F ort, bad six gUll!', of 1:2 ;1IIt! k plllllirl ('an a hesides 1wo piprs of :lIld );uflil'il'lIt :1l1l1l1llllitil'll. 111 the stol'( h o u!'.e W('I(' flluml :,I,o\,o thirty t h ous and of pO\\'Il t'I". with all hth l l (If :l llllllll llitiuu, which Wl're lrall"purl(ld II) lilt' 011 "0:11\1 tiltJ ships. All tht? gUlls \\'('1\' !o.toPJl(tI a lit I Il:Iiled, :11111 tli' f ortresses dC'llIolishrd, <"x('C'(ltilig litnt ( d i'"\t. .lcl'(lIIH'. witl '!'l! th e Pirates k e pt their guard :111l1 n':'IlIil,'II(;l', Pirates Start for San Lorenz o (\1])1. :\(Ol'g;1I1 l 'lI4]lIir('li ir allY h:llltiilti fl'lllll P illl:LlII:l or P ,lIto HL'lIu, alili hC'I'l'upon Immgilt Ilf'fOIl' hilli. \\'ho p!'l'tl'IHil'C 1 tn h e H'ly were th ere throe wore expert in


Pim/{ 8((11'1 flu Sail Lot(!I1::/). 55 ___ zo ... all the av e nues of UlD S O pm'l s. H e a s k e d the m i f t hey would b e bis guides and S}IOW h i m th o sccurcs t ways a nd passages to Panama; whic h if th ey p crfo rm e d h e pro m ise d them equal shares in all th e y s h o uld pillage an d r o b i ll that exp e diti oll, and that afte rw ards h e would se t th e m bot liberty, by transporti ng til e m t o Jamaica. 1.1hese pro p osi tions pleased the handiUi v e r y w ell, and tiley I'ea dily acce.pted his profiel'!:5. pro misin g t o se n'e h i m "c r y EaiUlfu.lIy in all he should de s ir e e s pecially o n e o f th ese th roc ""lio WRS the greates t r o gue, thief a nd assa ssin among th em, and who had de!!er\' c d for hi s cri m es r a th e r t o b e bro k e n nlive upon the wheel than puni s h e d with scning ill a ga r rison. 'This wicked f ello w lwei :-t g r o a t ascendancy over th e other two ballditti, and could d o m illocr a nd COJlllllflnd over them as he please d th ey n o t daring t o r ef u se obedience to hi s orders Hereupon Capt. : l\I o r g an comma nd e d f our s h ips a nd one boat to be e quippcd a nd pro vid e d W iUl all t h i n gs n ecessary, to go and take th e cas tl e o f Oll

. '. .-........ y, ........ --.:;1/ country scene in the .Panama .99.epublic. .He w .. ytf .1Ji,,,k-.,1(1 .. --",., ....... .. .J. ...... v !l.a -q J 01 m ---.


of Cliflgrc. ( "'''11 / ,I)rclI::o). ---aClions likewi80 h:1\"illg rand e r e d him famolls among th e Pirates. allr l their e n emies the C:IPt. B rodely b eing cho se n chief cOlllmander of theso f orces in three days aftcr h e depal't r d fr om th e pr ese n ce o f Cnpta. i n l'l o r gan. nlTiH' d within sig ht of th e s a i d castle of Ch:lgn': which hy the is calle d St. Ln.\\TCllCC (1) 1 hi. c,')stle is huilt upon a hig h ll1o untaill. ::It the elltr}' of th e li\' OI', and surrounded 011 nil sides with st rong palisades or wonden walls, heing ycr y \\ell tplTrpleined, and H\lr d with earth. which r e nders them as sec ur e as the he!':t walls mad e o"f stone or brick. ThC' t o p of this mountain i s in a m anne r diyidcd into two parts b etwee n \\hich lies a llit c h o[ the deplh of thirty fool. The cast l e it sel!" ha s "lit olle entry an d that by a drawbridge which passes on'1' the ditch llforelll(,lltioned. On the l and sidC' it has foUl' bils that on th e sea cOlJtainl1lg only two mon'. Th a t pn.rt th e reof that look s towards the sOllth is t otally inflcces8ib l e and impossible to be c limb ed. through th e infinite asperity of th e mountain. The n o rth sid e is surrollnded by th e ri"er, whlch hereabout s runs r('I'Y broad. At the foot o f the sai d castle. or r a ther mountain, i s sea t e d a. strong f ort. with eight great gUll::'. w h ich comm:llld s

th e riYe r a. great rock. !;cal'CO to be perceived a.bove wate:', u nless at low tide. Attack on the Castle. sooner had lhe Rpaniards percei\'e d the Pirates to come tha n they bf'gan to firo incessantly at them WitJl th e biggpst of t heir gUllS. They CRmo to an anchor in a small port, at the distance of a lengue mol'(' or l ess from the castle '1'110 next morning \"ery early they WCllt all shore an d marched through t.he woods to a.ttack the castle all that side 'rhis 1l1:ll'ch cont i nued until two o 'clock in th e afternoon. he-fore they could reach the ca..'itle. by r easo n of the difficulties of the way, and its mire and dirt. And although their sCl'Yed them f'xa.ctly, notwithsta nd ing th ey came so near the castle at 1irst that they lost mallY of their mon with til(' shot from the gUllS, th ey being in an open place where n othing could cover 1101' defend them This much perplexed the Pi rates ill their minds, th e y n o t knowin g what to do, nor what course to take, f or o n that side, o f necessity they must the assa ult. nud being ullcovered from h ead to foot, they conld not advance one s t e p w ith out g reat dangrl'. Hesides the cnstlel h a th for its s itu ation an d strength. c

P ilot (I/I({ Gwde. 59 I a rica e au es A VAPOR DE: Guillermo Leblanc (HIJO) eo rr. 16 e:l"t., 55. P.AN .AJ)I.!;.A. ])iS p01W lIe lIIafjUill(frias para lolla c/asc d e fraimjos en t}lQ(lera Se /aunc an catres me-8(($, iauulo8, sillall, et c c t c ..... AGlNCIA Entre las r alles B \ 1 4 Oeste. PANAMA. GUILLERMO LEBLANC, (hijo.) CO)!PI,ETOS A PRf:' CIOS )'16DICOR. E LEGA..'\"TES CAR ROZAS DE PRIMERA, y TERC}:RA. ATA(;OES A)IERICAXOS, ALIDIAXES, Y DEL PAtS. Str'Pici o Diumo y Nodurno. Panama Trunk ufactory. --W e turo out at our factory all classes of ..... ork in wood, trunks, cots, tabl es, wilshstands,. chairs, c t c ., etc, 'Ve ha"O a complete equipment of machiues for this purpose, operated by s'rEAM POWEH It. will pay you to get pl"iecs from liS beforc ill"csting iu )'('ady made a r ticles of this kind. Guillermo Le blanc, (SON.) 55 "lV.16tfl. S trcd. PANAMA. r.i' !"U!\t:RALS AT :llOlH:RATE PIUC t;S. EI.EOAST Bt:AUSES of Lho FIRST, SECQSO ASO THIRD CI,ASS. AMERICAN, GEIOIA!\, FREXCIi and PANAll.\.XIAN COt't'IN!S AND CASKETS. DAY AND NIGHT SERVICE GUILLERMO LEBLANC, (son.) Betw e en B 51. and W, 1 41il. PANAMA.


I 60 Pilof (/11(1 Cl/ i(k. Bllfl ixh dOff.'!, {,1H'mic.>; t o Ooll f/)/(1 01/1' KiJlflj let .'/0111' COHIlJflJliolfs tliut (11'(' bdlil/d COllie 011 loo; .'Ie shall not [fo to Pall(llJ/(( flu's UOllt. A I' tel' th e P i 1'3 t es had mnde some trial to ('limb up the th ey ,yerc f orce d to retreat, which t hey a cco rd ing l y diet. r es t i n g th e m selves until night. This hcing come th ey I'c tul'I1cd to tbe to try i[ by the help of th e ir thC'y coul d o \ 'c rcome and pull down th e pal es befure th r "':lll. 'Phis they attempted to do, and \\'hilo th ey ahout it t h cl'o happ e ned a \ 'c ry r emarkable accident. whic h gave them th!' opportunit y of the victory. Oll e o [ th e Pirates waS wou nd e d with a n arrow in his b"lCk. which pierced his h o d y to the otliol' sid e This instantly h e \lulled out with g r eat yalour at th e side of l:!is bl'e:)!o:>t, then taking a lill10 cotton that b e had about him. h e woun d it ahout til(' sai d arrow, and putting it into his mus k et. s h ot it b ack into tbe> ens U e. But th e cotton b e i n g kindl e d by the powder, occaRif)lleu two or three h ouses th:lt wcro \vithin the (',\st l o b ritlg that ch'Cl with palm ll'aYes to take fire'. which th e p Cl'criYcd H o t so SOOIl as was Ilc('C';;;sal'j', 1' 01' thi s tir e meeting wilh i.l. pare!;'} of pDwdC'r, hlt'w it up, and there b y cause d great ruin, nnd 110 i clSS COIl)':tcl'Ilatioll to tho Spaniards. who were not :1blo to llCl'OUlIt for this aeci d ent; not h:1\'illg seen the beginning th ereof, Brave Resistance by Defenders. rphu:-; the Pil 'a t rs pC'l'cC'iyi ng tho good effe ct of tho alTfI\\ :lnd tlw ileginning of th e lllis f ol'il1llC' of til(' Spania rds \\l'll' inf-il1it rly gliHl

; 6 1 fire amoll g th o p a l es, gl'eat heaps of ('arth falling clown into th o d i t c h Ppon t h('se tho P iratcR climbed lip, and got O V Ol' into th o caEtlc, notwithstanding that some Rpania rds who w o r e not bu sie d about the nre, cast down upon t hC'Ol ma.ny fluming p o ts: f ull of combustible maUel' aml odious smell s, which occa sion e d the loss of many of tho English. ':rho Spulli arcls n otwi th standing t he great resistance the y made, could not hinder the palisades from being elltirely burnt b e f ore m idnig h t. l\lcall whilc the Pirates cease d not to p e r s i s t in their int en tion of laking tho castle. T o whic h e ff ect a lth o u g h th e 61'C' was gr(';tt, they wou l d Cl'cep upon th e ground, a s nigh unto i t as they could. an d shoot amids t th e fla m es agai nst the Rpan i al'ds they C011\(1 POI'e ci"e all th e oth e r side: and thus caused many to fall d ea d from the wall s 'Vhen day WtlS com e t h ey obscnod all lho Illoyubl e e arth lh a t l ay belween the pal es to be fallo n into th o dit c h in huge quanti ty. So that now those within the cnstl e did in a m annel' lie equally exp osed to them without, a s h a d b een o n t h e contrary b e f ore \ Vhereupon the Pirates cont i nu e d s hoot ing Ycry f u rious l y against and kille d gr oa t numb e r s o f Rp3.11iards. F or th e Gm'e rnol' had giYe n th e m ord e r s not to retire from th ose p osts which c orresp onde d t o th e hC<.lP S of eartb fallen i nto th e ditch, and can se d the a rtill e r y to be transported to the br e ach es Castle Surrenders-Heavy Losses. N otwit h s t andi ng: th e fire w i thin t h e castle st.ill con tinued, and 1I0W th e Pira tes from with out use d what mea n s th e y could t o b inde r iL'i p rogress. by shootlllg incessautly again s t it One p arty o f th e .Pirates was employe d olll y to thi s plirpOSf', and a n ot h e r i o ,,",l ic h nil the motions ( I f the Spalliard s a n d take all o pportul Hties against th e m About noon th e Eng lish hap pelle( l to gai n a. b r each w hich the Govern o r him3el[ d e f e nded wit h iwenty -fixe sol d i e r s Here w a S p e rform e d a ver y cour ageous and 'warlike 1'e-


62 P iltH {fIll l G llide, sistan c e b y the Sp a n ia rd s b o th with mus k e t s pikes, sto n es and s word s Y e t n o twithstandin g through all these arms th e Pimtes f o rced ""d f O llght their way till at last th ey g a i n e d th e cnstlC'. The Spaniard s who r e mained alive cast th e m selves d own fr o m the ca stle into th e sea, c hoosing rath e r t o d ie prccipi t f d e d b y th e i r own selve s (few or n o n e sunir i n g the f all) tlwl1 a s k ;lny qu arter for the ir liYcs 'I'h e G o\"CI'IlOI' h i msel f r e tre a t e d to th e C01]HI du, om'de, before which w ere pla c ed two pie c e s of ca nnon. Here be intende d still t o d e f end himself. n e ith e r w o uld he demand any quarter. But at lac;t h e was kille d with a musket sho t w hich pie rced his s k ull int o the bra in. 'l' h c G o n:-rn ol' bein g dead, and th e cO'lu; dn gurde s urr ende r e d th e y f o nnd still r e maining in i t alive to the numb('l' o f thirty m en, whe r e of scarce t e n 'Were not wouud c d These inf o rm e d th e Pirates that cight o r nine of thoir soldier s had d ese rt e d th e ir colours, and wore gone to P a nam a to carry n e w s o f th e ir aniyai and in\'asi on. 'l'hcse th i rt y m('n alolle w e r e r e maining o f three hundr e d and f ourtcen where w i th th e c astl e w as garri s o n ed. among which H umb e r not aile officer w a s f ound alive. 'l'hey were all m a d c pri sone r s tllld comp elle d t o tell what e ver they knew o f th e ir d rsigns and ente rpri ses Amo ng oth e r things they declared that th e G O orno r o f Panama had noti c e sent him throe week s ago fro m Carta ge na. how that Ule Euglish w e r(' ('qu ippi n g a flc('t at His pani ola, w ith d('sign to come and t a k e th e said c it y of Pnnama l'.[o r('o\"cl', tilfl.t thi s th('i!" intention had beell known by a. p e rsOD. "ho had run away fro m th e Pirates at th o 1"i ,'01' D e la Hacha, where they provid e d th('ir flre t with COI't1. Th :"t. IIpon this nc,,' S, the l;aid ( ;o\"('l"IIo r hnd o n e h II lid red fllld !':ixty-f ollr 1I1{'1I If) lh(' garrison of thnt c:ls tir. tog e ther w ith muc h prm'i s i o n s :lnd warli k e a mmun i tion; lh a ordinary ga nison w h e rr-of d i d Dilly consis t o f 011(' hUl1dred and filly 111('11. L '0 thal in all tli<,y m a d e thC' 11111111>('1" nfol'(,IlH.'lItioned o r three hundre d and f O lll't(' o n m('n being all yery well al'met!. B esi d es this they had dccl'll'ed thut the Governor


1 '-------------------------------Pab 1 0 meJ\Otti de lu Unllauu cusu MeOOIll H 008. Plaza de Santa Ana, PANAMA "lIko Iml>orllll\/Ir nfolU1aoln ('rlllt W/ti, 'rl!, Iml'vrtad,il1 dlr.'t"1\ .10-IIUII","'" d., ,-lit' Fronda 11.,lia .\I,mll E"l m[o,. PRECIOS SIN COMPHENe/A. 63 Pablo meJ\otti SUCEE8S0R TO mom BR01HfRS. Xu. J7S C,'nlrul A, t'" 1'": III1I1IU< PLAZA SA.NTA ANA. I import ,lin'," nil Ill<' Ionllul .. of (;onel .. of Frau,-,, lin I," :-;"aill (i.-nlll1l1,\ flU'\ ,I ... l'llil<',\ NO ONE C AN COMPETE with Mr PRICES. of PunalllU had placed !.:c\'cml :lIl1huscaucs a l l nlon g th e river of Cllng-re. and places. Y ca, their toil and lalJ olir here far C'xcC'C'tied what they sustained at the conquest of lhe h i e (,f Rt. Catharine and its adjace nt. Fo!' comin g to lltllubcl' theil' mCll. tilC'Y found tha.t they h a d 10sl a hoye ono hUlJdl'('d, besid es th ose that were wounded. whes e Humb e r exceeded seyc nty. 'l'hey command ed the Spaniards that were to cast nil th e dead h odies of their 0\\'11 111('11 down from the top o f th e mountain t o the seasidr, and afterwards to bury them. Such as wounded \\"('1'(' ('aITied to the c h urch belong ill g to th e castle o f \\ hich tlip), m"d e a hospital. and where a lso they shut up 1h(' womcn Morgan Starts for San Lorenzo. Capi. :;\I Ol'g;lll renul!ned 1I0 t l ong Limp h e h ind at the 1 5 1(> of Rt. C'lthariuC'. rdtrr the rastle of Chagre o f which h e Iwd notice prc!';entiy sent him. Yet 1I0twitl1- he fore h e c1'I);IrtNl thence. he caused to be embarke d all lhe provision, that con ld he {ound, t ogelher with gl't'nt quantities or maiz c o r India n wheat. and


64 C:lssa\"u, whereof in like manner is mude bread in th ose pal'ts. He ('olllllHwcled likewise great store of provi sions should be tl'[t.l1s porled to the g:urison of tho aforesai d cas tle of Chng!"', from whnt parts socrol' they could 1 m got. At a. certain plac e on the i s land they ca!St into the sea all the gUlls b elo n g ing th e r e t o with :t design to roturn and l e ave that Island well garrisoned. f o r the perpetual possess i o n of Pirates. Notwith s tanding, he o rd ere d all thehouses allcl forts to be se t on fire, ('xcc})ting o nly the cas U e of St. 'rCl'(,S:l; whic h ] l(' judged to he th e strongest and sec urest wherein to scc"Jl'c h imself at his return from Panama. lIe cftl'ricd ",iUl him all the pri so n e rs of the island. :llld thus set srtil f o r tho riycl' of ChUfrfC, w h e re h e alTireu in the space of eight U:1ys. Jle re the joy of the \\ hole lied wns so grf'at. whell thoy spie d the English colol1rs upon UIO enstlo that they minded not their way into tho ri\ cr. which occasioncd them to lose four of their ships nt the cnLry thereof. thnt. whenin Oapt. went being onc of th e four. Yet th e ir fortune was so goo d as to he ah l e to S[lYe all the m e n nnd goods that wero i n the said yc:.:self:. Yen. the likewi s e had been prescned if :t strong n orthnrly wind had J lot risen on that occasion, wllich Cflst the s hips upon the ruck aboyc mention cd, that lies at the cntry o f the sai d ri\er Capt. l\fol'g:m 'WflS brought into the castle wil h g reat acclamations o[ triumph and joy of :111 the Pirates, both of those th a t wcre within, and a i!';o th e m that were Jlewl y COIllf'. Haying undC'n.;tO(ld th o wholo hansactiolls of th e {'ouqllC'st. he COlllH1,\1ll1ca all tho prisoners to bC'gin to \01'1\ and r epair what was I J O essa r y, esp ec ially ill se tting up now pali s ati l's. or pnlcs, l'Oulid about th e forts depond ing 011 11m castle. r r hol'C W('I'O slill in th o l'i\ 'cl' S0l110 Np:lllish vcs,;el!', calh'd hy thelll c/ia/t('II, whirh serve fol' th e tl':lll .... portatioll of ntor rhanclizt'" liP lWei do\\'n the said riw .. liS ful' goillg to Philo Bolio :KicllrngU<1. Th ese arc commonly mottII tI'C1 with two gl'(,:ll guns of iron alld fotlr ollio l snudl ones of urass. All theso \ 'c ssc l s they


65 Oil. t llg-l'tht:'l' with foul' little till')' f o und tiWl'l', and ;\11 tht (',1I10es. 111 thC' c:l ... tle thC'y left :I garrison of fiH' hUlIll n' d ]I1l'1!. :.Iud in the ships wilhiu Lilt' ri\'er OJl{' hUlldred :Locl fifty 1II0l'L', l'hL'!:iI' thing': brill!! d o lit.'. (':lptaill :\l nrg:ln dcp:lIt c d to\\":\l'll P :Wflllla. At tilL' he:lci o f (j1lC' t/JUlls:llul tw u hUllched 1II{'1l. H e ('a1'1 ied ,"pry pro ,isiolls with him: Iwing in goo d hopes he !lho nld pro\id, hillJ"lclf suffi(,icntly tllllong tlif' wholll he 10If'\\' to lie ill ambllsc.Hle ht s{,\(,1':I1 pblc(>s hy th o \\' ay Pirates S e t Forth for Old Panama. Cnpt .Jl ol'ga n srt forth from the C;IStiC of f'hagl'C'. towards Pi\lIflIlW. the I day of Jallu:ll'Y ill the ),P[ll' llri 1 H e had under his (;ollliuct olle thousand two hUIIdre d men. five uonts ,rill! :lrtitlcl'y. an d thirty-two all o f which w('re filletl with thr said people, Thu s he s t ee r e d course up thf' riH'1' towards P anama. 'l'hat

66 Pilot (Uul Guide. by la11d. Hereupoll they left some compan i es, being in a1l olle hundred and sixty mell, on board the b oa t s to defend them, with iJltcnl th ey might serve for a place of refuge, ill case of necessity. 'l'h c next morning, being th e third day of their j o urn ey, they a ll wellt as h ore excepting tho se a bovemeIltioned "Ito were to koep th e boats. f o these Capt. nlorgan gave "cry strict orders, und e r great penalties, that no man, up o n allY pretext whatsoever, shou ld dare to leaye tlle boaL'i and go ashore, h e did, fearing lest th e y should ue 5111 pri sc d and c ut o H by an amb u sca d e of Spaniards, t hat might c han ce to lie the r ea houts in the n e ighbouring \rooth., w h ich nppcfll'c d so thick as to sco m almost imp e nelrable. H aving t his m o rning h egun th eir mar c h th ey found th e W;IY!S so d irty and irksome, that M o rgan thought it mOre convcnic nt to transp ort SOme of th e m Oll in canoes (though it ('ould n o t h e don e wit hout great In, b o ur) to a ,,1:lcC' farth e r up th e I'ive r calle d Ccd r o Bu eno they J"l'cllIh:u ked, nnd the' tallOOS returned f o r th e res t that were It'll L c hind. t)o thut. ab o ut night they found th ems('h 'cs nilog-ethel' at th o place Pirates w erc extro me'ly d esi rou s to llIee t Hlly 01' J n. 'l'h csc had abo spies, who \\"(\1'(' \'cl'Y d e xtl' o u<;, ;lIld could at nlly limo givo HolltO of all aCCidents 0 1 o[ th o nrriva l of thr .Pirates, six at lensL b e f o r e th ey ca m o t o :til)' pin co. I 'his <-I:1.y about 110011 th c)' f o und th e mselves n car n. po..,l, (':111(,11 TOl'lIa (':1\ alios. H c re th e gui d e o ( the c:tnoes


I Cathedra! .:Park, City. 0/ .:Panama 9sllurtlan .:/lifer /can'" R R:Ii. Aws .:1fflMCj/ 4.:11tNlr/)stn!! ,2jur e au .:II .JJunkowski -


I 68 I'ifni (//11/ (;lIidt. In {'I'," n l o lld h I' Jl"ltl'i\('(\ fin fllllbusc;Hle, His \ 'O;CC (' huts "hich the had made, nnd aftel'w :uds ( ell t o eati ng th e Icatll e r as b e ing desirous to afford som e thing to the f er ment o f the ir stomac h s whIch now was grown Sf) shar p that it did gnaw tllcir yery bowels, haYing nothing else to pn')' np on. 'rhus they mad e n huge banquet upon th ose h ags of lCl.lth er. which d o uutl ess had m o re gr;ltC'ful Ullto thC'lll, if din?l"s quarrels b a d not rise n con cernin g who s h oulll hilYl' th e greatest B y th e c ir c umf ere n ce o f the place, they conjectul'ed the hund l'r d Hp,lniar d s mor c o r l ess, had brcn lht,l'c. And tbeso, finding 110 \ ictua l", thC'y W(,I'C now iDfinit e l y desirous t o meet, intending to de\ our so m e of th e m rath e r than p erish. ,Vho m they would cctt.ainly on tilat occ asion r oas t e d or boiled to sntisry th e ir famine. had th e y bee n nbl e t o tak e UH'lll. A ftcr they h

N"C>G-:El..A..FC>S, OX G-C> S :EI.A.E1. A 1ST C> S, S y I=-EFl.XC>I>IOC>S ..... .... __ .. .. _-.-.......................................................................... "LA POSTAL" ------... _,-,_ ,------I P honogra p hs and Records, Pretty Picture Postal Cards, F ine Havan a Cigars, Handsomely Illustrated Periodicals a nd R eviews. Ihe Best Ptoee tn ponoIT, O II:! these GOOtls. NO. t94. CentlOt Avenue. H e re again h e was h appy that h ad r ese rved sinc e noon an y s m all piece of leather wher eo f to mak e his sup p er, drinkin g after it R. good dra ught o f water for his gre atest comfort. Some per so ns, who werc never out of th e ir moth e rs' kit c hen s m ay ask how the se Pira tes cou ld ('!'It swallow and di g est thos e piece s of l eather, so h ard :lIId dry. To whom I onl y answer: That cc.uld they OIl CO C'X-p C l'imellt wh;lt hung o r or rather famine, i s, they w o uld certainly find th e IlHlllnH, by their own n ecess ity, as the Pirates d id. F o r th ese first took th e leath er, a nd sliced it in pieces. Th(,11 did th ey beat it bet.ween two stou es and rub it, often dippin g it in the water o f the riv e r, to rel1(lo r it by thi s mealls s uppl e and tender. Lastly they scrape d off tile hail', and r oas t e d o r b roile d it up on the fir e And b e i n g thu s coo ked th ey cut it into s mall morse l s, and ate it, h e lping it dowli with fr eq u P llt g ulp s of water, w h ic h b y good f ortune they had nar at hnnd.


70 Pilot alld Gl1ide. Food Continues Scarce. They co ntinued the ir marcb tbe fifth day, and a b o n t noon cam e to a place calle d B arbacoa (1). Her e lik ewise they f o und traces of anotber ambuscade, but t h e pl ace totally as unprovide d as the two prece ding were A t a small distan ce woro to be see n seve ral plantatio ns, w h i c h they sea r c h e d very narrowly, but could lIot filld a n y p e r so n a nimal or o ther thing that was capabl e of r e lievin g t heir ext r e m e a nd ravenous bungeI'. Finally, bayillg ran ge d up and down a nd sea r c he

Food COl/fIll/WI Scan'e. 71 very fr eque ntl y h y th e way both for tho ruggedness thereof ancI the extreme weaklless they were under, To thi s they e ndeavour e d to occur, by eating sOll1e lea\'es of trees and green h erbs, o r grass, s u c h HS they could pick, for such was th e mis erable condition t h ey wer e ill This day, at nOl)n, they arriv e d at a pla.ntation, w here th ey found it barn full of maize Imme d iate ly they beat dC"nl the doors, aud fell to eating o f it dryas mu c h as they could deyoul'. Afterwards they di stributed great ljl1lllltity, giving to every ma n a good allowance th ereo f Traces of Indian Ambuscade. s. B eing thus prQ\-ided, thry prosecuted their journey, which having continue d fOl' th e s pace of an hour) or th e re abouts t.hey m e t \ \ -ilh an ambuscade of I ndians. they no sooner bad discoye r e d } than they threw away their maiz<' with tbe sudden h opes they cOllceiyed of finding all things in a bund a n ce. But after all this h as te, they found themselY es muc h d ecciYe d they mCf'tlng neilher Ind ians, n o r victuals, n o r anything e lse of what they had imag i ne d. They sa w notwithstand i ng on the other si d e of the river a troop of a hlilldl'E'd Indians, m o r e Or l ess, who all escape d away throu gh UlP agility of th(i r feet. Some few Pirates there wer e who leapt into the r ive r the sooner to rea c h t h e shore 't o sro. if th ey co u l d take a n y of the SHirl Indians prison ers. But all was i n vain for being much THE PILOT AND GUIDE Will Be P u blis hed Annually. The 1909 tditio n w ill appear in Decemb e r 1908. Fu..]..1. of Fac'ts SII'R C1AL :lrE8-TURKS SIi'EGIar. ILI.1!I"S'l.'R41l'IQNS. FOR ALL DETAILS A S K BIENKOWSKI.


72 Pilot lUld GI/i de, morc nimble on t h e ir feet than the Pirates, t h e y easi ly baffled their endeavour s Neither did t h ey o nl y Lafft e tilem but kill e d also tw o or three of t h e Pirate. with their arrows, shouting at them at a. distance and c r ying: Haj p e r ro8, ll. l a sa,valla a la SiLvana H a; y e doglt, g o to the plain, go to til e pll liJt. day they co uld adva.nce no farth er, b y r e ason th e y wer o necessitated to pass th e riYer h e r eabo ut.s t o con tinue their march on the other side. Hereu pon they t oo k up the ir r e p ose for that night. Howbeit their slee p w as 1I0 t h e avy 1101' profo und for great mu r muri n gs w ere h ea rd t.bat night i n the camp, many c(lmplaining of Capt. l\I o rgan and his conduct ill th a t enterprize, and be ing d es i ro u s t o retUl'JI h o m e On the contrary, others would rathe r di o the r e than go ba c k one step frOID what t h e y ha d und ertaken, J 3 ut ot h e r s who had gr ea t e r courage t h a n a n y o f these two parties did laugh alJd joke at all t h eir discou rses J n the m eanwhile the y had a guiue w h o m u c h comf o rted t h e m it LVQul,l not b e lung be/ore h e y 1net with pen}Jie, /I'o m whom th e y should 1'eap co 'nsider a b le aclvt/lI i oge Arrive at Cruces. Th e sf'Y e nth day in the !nomi ng, t h e y all m a d e clf'a n thC'il' arllls. lllleI overy G lle dis c harged his p i slol 01' mus k et, without hullet, t o e xamine t he sec ur ity o f their fire lock s Thi s being' d OIlO, they passed to t h e othe r si d o o f th e rh'c r ill th e canoes, l e axing t h e post whe r e th ey h a d r es t e d tho night before, called Santa Cruz r hus t hoy proccpu e d 011 their jOlll'lley till nooll, at w hich t i m e they arl'i"e d a t villftge calle d Cruz (I). Being a t a great d ista nce as y('t from the plnc<', they pel'ceiv(' d much s m oke t o arise o ut of the c himneys. ---( I ) Now cnllcd Crucf!'!, h e ad of n:wigntion 011 tlle Chagres fot' partie!! bounl1 tor Panllma.


.., ...... .. r ,."," -..... ..,.. t t -9 .-. _. .' ...... "-' S arlta .:IJllu.'J'al"k "/,","rlcan Oxchartge1{ol.1 ill Ih. background-.'J'anama, :Jf,t/"rt. .. .I l' JI R .IYIW.J .:JIy,mlY 4 .iJUNUU ot JJullf(fN' .. '-----------.- .' I I ..... -- ::::--


- 74 1'illI' (/1111 (;lIi"I'. Th(' sight ]If'l'C'of :IffOldetl th(,111 g reat joy and hop es (.f tintlillq jlroplC' in Ih(' town an d aftel'wflrd!=; what they mMt ,\llith \\tl<';' pif'lIty of gon d c h eer. Thus they \\ (,lit on With IlS much as thC'y could. making argmnrnf<.i to .'" :11 rin'd thrl'c III grN\t ha"tte, nil sW(,:lting and panting. hilt fonnd no person ill th e towlI, IInt' tll:lt Wits ('iltable wherewith to them- .... 1'111('"s It \H'l'C' .!!oc"l fill'S hI W<11'111 thelllseh'es which tilry W:llltlil not. F't l' tlu" beforC' th e ir depar -11I1"r. h'ul I'H'1'Y ('"C ('I tin' to his 0\\'1\ excepting nnly tl!p ,t(.}"('hnlls S ,IIHl .. helollging t(l th c l{illt:t Till'.)' h:H1 IIl1t IrH hrhil1l1 thrill [lilY beast wliatsocyer ('ithel' :llin' hI' d(>'lIl. This o('casiollcd lllllc h ('olrfusion in thcir mind,. Illpy liqt finlling till' least thing to lay h old nn. it W('1 (' C:its :lIld dogs. which they imnwdiatl Iv killrd nll,l (}('\"onred with app('tite liI,t in th{' Killg"s sLahle:-. th('y f o und hy good ror!lIl1l' fHI! ('II or si:\t('('ll j:lc'", of 1'(,I'U wine. and a Irather 1'1111 (It' hl'(';I(1. But no soonet' hnd they h('gull to chink of flIP \\ illl \\lU'1I Ihr." h'lI .tilllost e\'C'l'y man. Thi, slUI,len dis ,tc,!" thrill think that the ,\iT1f' \\";IS I'ltl:-'Ol\('tl. ,,1Ii,,11 ;1 I1('W ill 1111' "lIrd!' l'lIlIlJl. a, .judging thcllls('hes 1I0W t o be irrc('O\' <'I"a"h 11"t. Hilt 11 C' tnH' 1'(';1<.;,011 th e ir huge' want of !>01l'!t II till'" ill th:tt ",holt, n,\:,gC' :uHl the m:lllifnid sorts of 11",1:0-11 whil'h llll'Y h',,1 1'lh'lI upon that {l("(,.1sion. Tlicir 'If'i.dlr' ... ".1' I ;':1"('. t tll:11 day :IS til (':lIIS(' thC'1ll to remain til('l"e til Ih II \.l IlU Illing. \\itiJollt hl'illg' ,Ible t o pl'Ol'ecutc tll'ir If 1I11H'Y. Ih< \' lIsl,d tn do ill thl:' This, ill.lgt' I.., st'1lh'tl III tlW' i:ltit (ldo of 9 degrees :tllll :! Illillut('" Ji(llfh. distant fwm tile river of I


I 4 1"1';1'(' (It rl'll('f'S. 75 The Star &: Herald Company Has the L argest and Best Equippe d Plant on the Isthmus f O r DOING ALL KINDS OF JOE VV-DR.K. L etter Heads. Bililleads, Receipt 8lanks Sio c k CerUficates Clr. culars. Open L etters, Snipts, Hand B ills P osters. Placards Visit ing and Business Cards. Wedding and ReceDeI ion Ihl'it ations, Obit ua. r y A.nnouncements. Etc Etc Printed N e atl y and fxpedil1ousty. OUR. :FI'FLXCES .A.FLE .. C hagre twenty six Spanis h l eagucs ( l) and eight from P anama. l\I orco\"cr, this i s th e blst place to which boat s or canoes can corne; for which 1'(':15011 th ey built h e r e s tor e h o u ses, w herein to k ee p all sort s o[ llIcrchalll lize. whi c h h ence t o a.nd fr om Panama arc tmll::.p orte d upon th e backs o f mul es. Here. there f o re Capt. -:.rorga n was constraine d to l eave his canoes and l and all his men. th o u g h Il C Y Cl" w ea k i n th e ir bodies. But les t th l' Cfllloes s hould be SUI'pI ized. o r tak e up too many 111'11 fCll' their d e frll ce he re so lyed to sf'nd th em a l l bnck to thc p1:1C(, wilPl'c the boats were, ('xcE'pting on e which h e cAnse,l to b e h idden, to the intent it might serre to ca rry intelligcnce according to th e exigencc of affairs. of th e Spaniards and Indian s b e l onging t o this \'illrtg e \\"ere nl'd t o th e plallta tiolls thereabouts. H ere up o n Capt. ga\' o rXlll"CSS o rd ers t.hat 11011e s h o uld da re to go out o f the \"illagp, excrpt ill who l e compani es o f a hundr e d togeth er, 'l'he occasio n hereof was his f ea r lest the enemies s h ould tnk e an adnlntage upon h is m en by :my sudden Hsstlult. N otwit1u;t:l.1Iding, o n e party of Engli s h soldiers. s ti tkled B o t to ('ontra\'elle th ese comma.nds, b eing tempted with th e desir e uf finding ict ual s But these were soon glad t o fly illt o th e t o w n ---(1) Evid ently refers to distan ce fWIll mouth of l'iycl'.


76 Pilot mId (; I/idc ngain heing: nss.at11ted with great fury by so m e SpalJiards alld f!lelian!:;. who s n atche d Hp olle o f the P irates, an d carried him away prison er. rrhus the yigilance and rare o f C:1Jlt. )1organ was not su fficient to prevent oyary acci dent that might happ en. Resistance Offered by Indians. On tb o eig hth da,Y. i n the mOl'lling Capt. 1101'gal1 1wo hundre d nwn before the body of his army. to dis(ov'1' the Wic of admitting ono horse. o r othe r b e a s t ladcu. l'hi s lllltititut1(' of arrows ca u se d a huge alarm ;UllOllg the Pira t es be('a-use they could not dis con'r thC' ]1I fast ;IS 1I1('Y cOllld poss ih ly IIlror -UI(,III. b > !;\ko th{' ;Hh a lllJlgc of )lo"t. ,HId thcJlCC o!J!oil'n"c lil l' march of t h c Pirates Ph rl'C 1"C'Ill:JiIlCd olle troop ()f I lldi;lllS u pon the pLtt,'. witl] full clL'sig n 10 nnd dC'f clld Thi;.; cOlllhal thc} pf'] fnrm ctl "'i th illlg(' clIul'agp. t ill s n c h finlC a!; th e ir ca ptnin f.'11 to tiff' ground walluded, who "llhallgh h. lIa8 unw ill despail' of Ji:f", yet his \ a l ollr hcillg gl'cnlel' thall his strellgth. 1I"00lid demalld 110


().O"t/'ul b!l 1II!iflll:ol. 77 -----but. endea\'o urill g to raise with undaunted mind l :lid hold of his nzngnya. or jayclin, nlld 8tl'llck at one of UlO Pirates But b e f or e h e could seco nd the blow. h o was s hot to death wit h a. 'This was :dso lho fate of man y of his compt'lIlions who like good COll l'flgCOUS soldiE'l"s los t their !i\Tes with theil" captain, for the defe1lce of their country. A la S avana, Perros Ingleses." ThC' Pirates endearOlll'ed as much as p ossib le. to lay hold 011 some of th e I ndian s a nd take thelll prisollC'fs. But they b eing infini te l)' s\\'iftel' th all tho P irates, o\'cry oue escaped ) l ea\'ing e ight Pirates dead upon th e placC'. and ten wounded. Y ca. had th e Indi ans becn m arc d ex trous in militar y affairs) they might ha re d efende d that pa ssage and not let 0110 sole mall t o \Vithin a l ittle while aft e r th ey came to a. huge cam p aig n (champaign) fie ld open and full of Y:ll'iega tecl meadows. From hero tlley could p crcei\'e at a dis tance b e f ore them a parcel of Iudians ) who stood all t o p of a mountain. \ 'ery IIcal' the way by which th e P irates w ere to pass. They sent a. troop of fifty m en, the nimbl est th ey cOllld pic:k out. t o see if they could catch any of them. and afterwards force them to d e clar e whereab o uts their companions had their mansion s But

!,dv! alld Cuidt' No. q FRONT STREET, COLON. U,"",---L adies' a n d Gents' ) ::;'u l 'nishjngs Hard"\vOl'e and I-Iouseh old Goods. U lass"\vare, an.d En.80'le),vare. 'Valer Filters and Coolers. CEll'pe n le "s' '"1"'00 Is. Paints and Valnishes. Coffin TriolL"l.""lings, E t c Etc., Etc. that in the woo d the Spanianls had placed nil a mbu sca de, H S lying so cOIl\"enieuily f ol' that purpose. H e reupon h e spnt before two hundr e d Jllell to s(lar c h it The Spaniards :lIIU Indians perceiv ing t.he Pirlltes to d escc n d th e mouJIdid so trw. as if tlley liesig ned to a tta c k th em. Hut being got into the wood o ut o f sig ht o f the Pirates, they disapp ca r e d ) and w(lro seen 110 m O I"(' th e passage open t o th em. About nigllt ther e fell

79 o ui of CYCl',Y compnn y a small :lu111Uel'; who k('pt the of all the r cst of th o fl.nll\'. rrho!'p who l'l'IIl,tiuC'd ill t.ho open fie ld e ndur e d milc h hanbhip that night. til(' r;liIL llot c(I[t5ing t o fall ulliil th c m O l'ning. The End of the March. Tho n ext. m o rni ng about ;01' dar .hcing. the ninth of lhi!'l jOllt1lcy. C:lPt. }.rnrgun continued his marc h while tho fres h a i l' of the ]Hul'nillg lasted. For the clouds tlWIl i UlllgilLg as yet orcl' their heads \\-ere much m a r c f:lYouraul c to t.he m than the scorc;hing l'HlS of the sun b y the wfly was no w 1uore d iflicliit alld I

, I -, -. --l Jslhmign-.;1f(m.,.icall" ',R..:fl. ,fJlJdv"rfisi"g :JJllreau -m -, 0 .. I ";:i -, -'" ,.,. ;, --;;... ---, '" I .:YI. !/jie.nkIJwsk i.


Tlte .Em l of a,e .lfarcll. "'" than Euro p eans at this banquet, UIO blo o d m any I'unning down fro m th e ir b ea rd s t o th e m i ddl e o f b o dies. SI times th e i r Having sati sfie d their hung e r w i th th eso deli c i o u s ment s, Capt. o rd cre d thom t o continue the march. H e r e again h e sent borol'o th e m ain b o d y fifty m e n with intcnt t o take s o m e Pl'i90lICfS, if possibly th ey could. F ot' h e see m e d now to be mu c h concern e d that in nine days' ti; ne h e could not meet one p e rson who might illform him o f th e con diti o n a nd f orces o f th o Spttniards. About e'\ening th o y d iscove r c d a troop o f two hundre d Spaniards, m o r c or l ess, who hall ooe d t o th e Pirates, but these could Hot und ers t a nd what th ey sai d A littl e whil e after th ey caine th e first t im e wiillin sight of the h ig h est stceple of PaJUlIn3. This steep l e they no sooner h a d dis co'\cred th an th ey bC'gan to s h o w signs of extreme joy c a sti ng up th eir ha ts into the air, If'iiping f o r m ir th and shouting evc n just as if th ey h a d :t11'eady o btain e d th e yic t o ry and entire accomplish m ent of their d esigns All the trumpets wer e s()und e d a nd every d rum heat en, in t o k e n of th is nni,-er sa i acclamation and hu ge a l acrity of th e ir mind s Thus th ey pit c h e d th eir cam p fOl" that night w it h gcneral co ntent of the whole army, waitillg with imp atience f o r th e m o rning, at which tim e th ey intended t o attaek the c ily. Thi s evcning there appeared fifty h o r ses, who came out of th e \,;ity, hearing the n o is e of th e drum s and trumpe t s of the Pira t cs, t o o bserve, :ts it was thought, their motion s The y ca m e almost w ithin musk ets hot of th e army, b e ing prece d e d by :t trumpet that sound e d mal' 'c ll otls l y ",ell. '['h ose 011 hOl'scback hall ooe d aloud to th e Pirates and threat e n ed th em, s.,tying : P en'os 1108 1:el"em08. that is, r e lloy s lCC shall meet .lIe H a \ ing m ade thi s m o n ace, UlCY retul'Ilo d into the city, excepting only seve n or eight h o r se m en who r e m aine d hovering thereabouts t o watch what m o ti ons th e Pirates mad e


82 P ilot anil G /litle Imm e d iate l y a f te r th e cit y b ega u to fire a nd cea se d 1Io t t o p h l Y w ith t he ir bigges t g un s all night l o n g again s t the c amp but w i t h lilli e o r no h arm t o t h e P i r a t es w h o m they co uld no t co m enic nti y r eac h Abo u t thi s tim e a l s o th e two h u ndr e d Spania rd s wnom th e P irates h a d see n in the n ft el'l1oo n appea r e d ugai n w ithi n s ight: m a k i ng r e se m bla n ce ;IS i f th ey woul d bl oc k up t h e pass ages, t o the i ntent 110 Pil':lt es m i g h t esca p e th e lWllds of th e ir f o r ces :Rut th e w h o wer e 1I0 W in a man ne r b es ieged i ns t ea d o f conceiving any fear o f the ir bl ockade s, a s s oo n a s th ey b a d p lace d sentries a b out th e ir c amp, b egan e y e r)' o n e t o open th e ir sat c h e ls, and wit b out any p re p a r a tion o f napk ins or picltcS. fell t o e a t i ng v e r y heartily t h e r e main i n g p ieces of b ulls an d h Q r ses Hesh whic h they b a d r eserve d since noon 'rhis b elllg d o n e they laid th e u l s e l y c s d owll to s leep up o u the g r ass w ith grea t r e p o s e an d huge s a.tisfa c tion; expecting o nl y wit h unp atie n c e the dawning o f th e next day. Preparatio n s f o r Attack. On the t enUl day b e tim es i n Ule m o millg, the y put all t heir mell in cOIlYenieu t orde r a nd with drum s a n d trump e t s sou n d i n g cont inue d their mar c h d i r e ctly t o ward s th e city. But o n e o f the g u i d es desi r e d Capt. l\I o rgan n o t t o take t h e commo n highway th a t l e d thit h er. fea rin g l est they s h ould fin d i ll it m u c h r es i s ta n ce and m a n y a mbu s -Joyeria, Plaler i a Y OPTICA. 'B!l..A71llIN 0 T'ON CZ: O mnlda Gennal, No. 212, PINAM! O rlD S urlldo dt Joy" dt lodu cla u s. Ar I l clilol do F allll!ll T iller dt (ir ab d n to II ml sml CIS St Cornpollen .rticulot (oli terallDIn I I UIIIO. O EALER IN Watches, Jewelry, Silv erware, and Optioa l Goo d s Fine Asso r t m e n t o f All C l asse s of J e wels and fancy Articles W e do o u r own E n grav ing. R e pain W at c h e s Etc Giyen Prompt and Careful A tte n tion. NO. CENTRAL AVENUE

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cades H e prese ntl y Look h is advice, an d c h ose I\uother way t ha.t wellt thro u g h th e wood, a lth o u g h v ery irksome and d iffic ult. r r hus th o Spl1niards p e r ceiving the :Pirat es had take n an o th e r w ay, whic h th ey'cc had th ought o n or b elieve d were compelle d to leave their stops an d bat t e r ies, and com e out to moet them. 'rhe Governor of Panama put his forces in order. consisting of two squad r OilS, f o ur regime nt s of (oot, and a huge lIumhcl of wild bulls which were ell ivcn by a great Humber of Ill(l ians, with so m e negroes and others, t o h elp them. '1' h o P ira t es, heing IHlW up o n th e ir marc h, cam e t o th e top o f a litll e hill whellce th ey h a d a larg e pro s p ec t of th e c ity and campaign (ch ampaig n ) cou ntry undernC'atb. Hero they disco v ered the forces of the people of PanamaJ e xtend e d in battl e array and when they perceived them t o be so numerous, they wel'O sudden l y sm'prized with g reat f ea r muc h d o ubting tile fodune of the d ay Yea, CbW or nOlle th e r e w e r e bllt wished themselves at home, 01' at least free Cram th e o bligation of that e n gage m e nt, wherein th o y p e rceived H1E'il' lives must be so narr owly con c erlled. H a ying Lee n som e time at a stand: in a wavering condition o f mind. they at last l'cHected UfJOIl th e s traits they h a d brongl.t th e mseh es intoJ and that no '1': th ey o u ght of n ecessity eith e r to fight resolutely or die, for no quarter could be expected from an e n o m y a.g.tinst whom they had committed so lUallY cruelties a ll all occasio n s H ere up o n they e ncourag e d 01lC' a n othe r and resolved eit h e r to con quer, o r s pend th e v e r y ll.lst UrOl) o f blood in their b odies Afte rward s they diyid ed th e m se h es into thr ee battalio ns, 01' troops, sending before th e m one or two hun dred bucwhich sal t o f people are infinitely d e xtr o u s at shooting with guus Thu s th e Pirates left th o hill aDd d escende d marching direct l y t owa rd s the Spaniards, who w e r c p oste d in a s p acious fieldJ waiting for their coming. A s soon as they drew n car them, th e Spaniards began t o s h o ut and cry, Yiw. e l R e y God sare th e King! and immediat ely th e ir h orse b egan to move against

PAGE 101

8 4 Pilo t alld Ci4i d a lh e Pira t es Rut t h e fie ld b e ing f ull of 'luags and Y e ry so ft und e r f oo t. lh ey cou ld n o t ply t o and fro and whee l ab out, a s th ey d es ir e d The two hundre d bu c caneers who w cn t b e f o rc, e v e ryon e putting o n e kn e e to the gru und, gaye th o m n full v olley o f s h o t, w h e r e w i th the battle was ins tautly kiudl e d y e ry h ot. Wild Bulls Used in Battle. 'JJlC Spltnial'( .'!S d e f ende d t h emselves c r y c ourag eous ly, a c lin g all th e y could p ossibl y p erfo rm t o di sorder the Pira t es Their f oot, in l i k e manner e nd eavoure d to sec ond th e h or se, but w orc c ons ll':l.incd b y th e Pirates to sepa rate fr o m th em. T h u s fin d illg t h e m selves fru strate d of the ir d esig ns, th ey attempte d t o d rive t h e bull s again s t the m at theil' ba c k s, and l ) y t his m ea.n s pu t th e m into di s ord e r but t h e gl'eat es t part of lhe w ild ca ttl e ran away, b e ing fri ghte n e d wit h th e lIois e of th e b a tti c, and s ome f e w tLl
PAGE 102

.... + ---LEADERS OF LOW PRIC ES. M. KAPLAN & Co. Cor.8th 8t. and AUB. B PAN A l\;f A THE ONLY AMER ICAN DEPARTMENT STORE ON THE I STHIIlUS l\[ or gllll, but h e b eing d e:1f to th eir rries an d lam e ntations, comlllanded th e m all t o be inlllledi::ttely pis t o l ed. whic h was imme d iate l y d one. Soon afte r they brought a capbin t o his pr('!)enc(', whom he examined y et',}' stri ct l y about scycra l things, p a r ticularly wherein c o n s i s ted th e f or ces of those of Pana ma. T o w h i c h he answ'r ed: Their whol e stre ngth did con sist in foul' h undr e d horse, twe nt y -f o ur compani es uf foot ) eac h b e ing o f olle hundr e d mell complete, sixt y I n di:1lls and some n egroes, who Wf.'r e to LlriH' two th o u s and wild bulls an d cause th e m to rUn OH'r th e El1glis h camp, and thus. by breaking their files put th e m into it. t o t a l disorde r and confus i on. H e di sco, cred mor e that in th e city they had m ade tre n ches. and raised b atteries ill se,cra l pla ces, ill which they h ad placed lllallY gUllS, anel th a t ::.t e ntr y of the highway w hich I u d to liId cil)" lhe)" haa built a foll, which was m ounted wiih gi 'ea t gun s of bra ss, alld d efe nd e d b y fifty l1lell. .-----.-. -..

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86 P ilot (flld Glti(lc. l\IOlgan. having heard this information, gaxe orde r s i n s tantly they should marc h a.nothe r way. But b e f ore setti n g forth. he made a o f all his men. wheroo f h e f o und b oth k ille d and w ounde d a cOllsi d e rable number. and muc h g reater th:\11 had beclI b e l i eved. Of the Spaniards were found six hundre d dead lipan thA place, b esides the wOUlde d and prisoners. The Pirates w ere n o thing discouraged. seeing their numbe r so much diminis h ed, but rathe r filled with gl'f'atcl' pri d e UWIl before', perceiving what huge ad\"lUltage they had obtaine d against their enemies. Thu s hasing r este d thcmse!\'cs some while, they pre p a r e d t o marc h cour ageous l y towards the city, plighting t h eir oath s to o n e another i n general they woul d fight till never :l Hum was l eft a liv('. 'Vith this courage they recomme nced their march, eit h e r to conque r or be conque r ed, carryillg with t.hem all the pri!'cners. They foun d lllu c h diffi c ult y i n their a pproa c h to tb. city. F or witbin th e town the Spaniards had p l ac e d nlan y great gnLls, at several quarters thereof some of which w e r e charged with small pieces o f irun and others with lllu ske t-hull ets W ith all th ese th ey salut e d the l:Jir ates at their drawing nigh to the place, and gave them full and frequ811t broadsides, firing at the m i nceSsillltiy. 'Vhencc it C:llllC to pass that unavoida.bly the y lost at over y step they advanced, g r cat Ilumbers d m Oil. But T : e ther these manifest dangms to their lives, TlOl' U : e sight of so mallY o f their own m e n droppin g down contintlally at their sidcs, could detcr them. from advancing farthe r and gHining ground eycr y moment upon the elle m y Thus, a lth o u g h th e Spaniards n eve r ce a se d t o fire and act the best th ey could f or th e ir d e f ence, yet notwithstall ding th e y were f o rced to d elive r the c it y after th e s pa ce of thre e hours' combat. The Pirat es having 1I0W p ossesse d the mselves UlCreof, killed and d estroyed as ma"y a s attempted t o "", k e th o least oPPoEiti o n against the m had ca used tho best o f thOir goo d s to b o trall s p o rted t o m o re r e m o te

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Wild R ulls Csed ill 87 and occult pla ces. Howb eit th ey fOllnd wit hin th e cil y as yet se 'eral wareh o u ses ,"cry well stocke d with all sorts of mer c h a ndize, as well as sil k s, cloths. linen. :llld otlier things of considerabl e ynl u e A s soo n as th e fil'st fur y o f their e n tra n c e i nt o th e city wa s oyer, ).( ol'gu n asse mbl e d aJl his lllell at a certai n pl ace w h i c h h e assigned, a nd there cOI11J1ul.Jlcle d th e m nud,,)' ycry g r ea t p ena lti es that nono of th e m should dare to drink 01' allY winc. The reasOIl h e gayc f o r tbi s injuncti on was; because h e hrtd received prinltc int e lligence that it had be e n all pois()ned b y th e Spaniards. Howbeit it was th e opini'lll of lllallY that h e SUYc these pl'ucle nt o rd e r s t o prm 'cnt the d el>;tuchcl'Y o f Jlis people, which h e for esaw would be very great f:t the beginning, aft e r so muc h h unge r slls tained by the way, fe<1l'iQg withal lest th e Spn.nim d s seei n g t h e m in wine. s hould r :L1ly their force s and fall upon the city, alld them as inhuma nly as they had lIse d the inhabitants before. Morgan Sets Fire to the City. Capt. :\I orgall, a s 80011 fl8 he had p l ace d g uard s at several quarter s whe1'e h e th o u g ht necessary. b oth wit hin and without the cit y of Panama. immedia.te l y command e d twent y-fixe men to seiz(' a g reat boat, which h a d stuck i n the p ort fo1' W<1l1t o f wate r at a low tide, so tha t s h e could not put out to same day, abo ut nOOll, be cause d mp,n pl'irate l y to se t fire t o severa l grea t edifices of the city. n o body knowing whence th e fire pr o ceed e d n o r who w e r C the n uth o r s the r eof, mu c h l ess what lllotiYes p e r sua d e d Ca pt. th e r e to, whic h are as yet unkn own to thi s d ay 'l'h e fire increased so fnst that b e f ore flight th e gre a tes t part o f th e city was in fla m e Capt. nfor ga n e n dea v o ur e d to mak e th e public b elim'e th e Spal liHl'ds had been th e cause thereof, wbich su s p icions b e s unui sed am o ng his OWJl people, p Cl'ceiYing they r eflecte d I npon him f or that a ctio n M any of tb e Spanin"l s, as a l so

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88 Pilot al/d Guide, so m e of t he Pirates, u se d all th e m eans e ith e r to extinguis h th e flame, 01' by blowin g up h ouses wit h gUIlpowder, :lIlrl pullin s dow n o th e r s t o s t o p its progr ess But nil was ill nlin f o r ill Joss tha n half UII h o ur it con sume d a whole street. T h e Wealth of Old Panama. All the h o u ses of this cit ; w e r e built Witll cedar, bein g of ery curious ancl IlIa g nificent structul'C', a n d ric hly a d orne d \,\, jth ill especially with hal'ging s and i n gs whereof pmt was alre ad y trall s p ortel out of th e Pirates' way, and a n other g reat p wt wa s con s umed by t h e "('II neity o f the fir e b e l o ng e d to this cily (wbicb is a l so lhe h ea d o f a h sho pric), eight m Ollas teri es w h e r eo f seve n wore for m en and one f ol' womell, tw o s lat I I)' church es and 0110 hospital. r r be c hur c hes and mOIl:1sterie!.' wer c all r i c hly :tdol'lled wit h alta r -picces and }J1'linti n gs and hug e ql1n.nlit y of gold i1l1d silver, w ith othe r precious things all o f which the ecclesiastics had hidd e n and conceal ed. Besides th e a bove o rnam e nts, h e r e wer c t o h e secn two thousand h o u ses o f mngnificclit :\lld prodigio1l s build ing) b eing nil elr the grcatest pa.rt inh ahite d by m e r c hants o f thi1t countr y w h o arc \'nstly r ich. F o r t he rest of th e i nhal,itnnts a t l esser (}unlity an d t radesmen thi s cit y CUII tained five thollsan d h o u ses m o rE'. B "rre wele n lso a g r e nt Ilumber of stab l es whic h se n "cd f o r the h o r ses nnd mules tlml cnrry nil tho platr, as well to til e o f Spain flS to priYatf' m ell. t owards the coa s t o f the Nol'lh :"-i('flo The n e ighbouring fiC'lds h e l Q n g ing t o thi s ('i ty nrC' tdl c u ltinl t c d with f e rtile pla n tat ioll!; and p lcnsall t g;ll'cleIH-" which :tfford prospect s to the inliabi t : lIIt s the \\ hole IraI' l ong. ThC' (iCIlOCSC h ;l (\ in this city o f P 'ltl:llna. a. s tat ely tllld magnificent hall. e hcl ongillg t o thei" lradr {llill COIll- m eleo o[ Il<'groes. 'I'his hui lding likewise was C()IIIIll:1 ll1l e d hy C"pt. M o rga" t o be set Oll fire whe r e b y i l "',,s bur"t

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1'hc W e al/It of Old P anama. 8 9 t o t h e ,-ery g r o und B esides whic h p il e o f the r e w e r e co n s um e d t o th e n umb e r o f two hundre d and a great numb e r o E s l av es wh o h a d hid t h e m se l ves t h e r e in, togethe r w ith a u i nfin i t e mult i tud e o f s a c k s o f m e al. T he fire of all lh e h o u ses a n d bu ildi n gs was soo n to co n tinu e f our w ee k s a f t e r the d a y i t began. T he Pirates in th e m eanwh il e a t l e a s t th e gl'eHt e s t part o f cAmp e d s om e tim e with out th e city f e a ring n nd ex p ec t i n g that the Spanin r d s would co m e a n d fight t hcllI 1l1lew. F o r it was known that th e y had an inco mparabl e n u mb e r o f m e n m o r e than t h e Pira t es h a l l. This occa s i o n c d th e m t o ke e p the fie ld t h e r e by t o p1'ese n 'e t heir fon. : ('s u nit ed, whi c h now were v e r y m u c h d i min i s h e d b y th e l o sses o f t h e p r eced i ng battl es, a s a l so b e cause the y h at! :1. g reat man y w o u nd e d all of w h ic h t h ey had put into 0110 of the c hu r c h e s w h i c h : : 0110 remai n e d standing, the res t b ei n g co n s u m e d by the fir e M o r eo v e r besi des these d e c r e a ses o f their m en Capt. : M o r g a n b a d se n t a convoy o f 011(' h u nd r e d a n d fifty m e n to t h e Cas tl e of Ohagl'C', t o calTY t h e n ows of h i s v icto r y obta i n e d s t P a nama, 'rhey s aw man y times w h o l e troo ps o f Spa n iards c ruiz e to and fro in the ca mpai g n (chn.lllp n i gn ) fie l d s whi c h gave t h e m o c cas i o n to slls p e c t th e ir r allying ane w Y e t th(,y 110 \,(>1' had t h e c o ura.g e to attempt a n ything a g ain s t the Pirates I n t h e aftel'llOull o f thi s fatal rlay Captai n Gran Hotel Mil fiv c nid a C e ntral N o s PAN A nrA. D llfIrtamcllt os Amu c1.ohu l 03 r Bl eIL V e n ti A du s lmra Famili a!!; },'x plbld illoB \SiSI Cllci a ESnlc racla ; Grall S a 1611 1mra COIlH .'.:io r ; La U nicn cas.'I {'II P a nall n l quu lmw l a ycnlal l cra COCiIHl I taiiallH y E S l l:l.iiOin. Pll.ECIOS :UODIC O S GIUSEPPE CAPOZUCCHI, Pro p Hotel Milan! Nos. 2(15-260 C c n tral avcnue PANAl\JA. }'umisll c d R ooms Wl'U VClltilat e d for FAmilic s F ifllJ RathB: SpeCial Ser "icc; Spm::iOllii Dilli n::: Room. PRICES nIOD E R \TE. G I U SEPPE CAPOZUCCHI, Prop.

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90 P ilot aut! (; /litle. again the c it,)" w it h his t roops, to th o illWllt that CYC'l J 0110 might bIk e u p h i s l o d g i n g s w h i c h 110W tltry coulLl 11:11'<11 )' find, f e w h o u ses haying cs cap e d t h e dcsol a ti oll o f the fi!'e. 80011 aftc!' th e y f ell to r c r y care fully a m o n g th e ruin s and as h es for u t e n sils of p l : l t C 01' gold w h i c h pel'[lch c n tul' c w e r e Hot quite wasie d b y the H a mes. .A B(l of s u c h things th ry f(}und 110 slllall number ill scn:>ral es pec ia.lly i n w('lIs a lll I ciBt crns w h e r e t h e Spani a r d s ha d hid t hem fr om. th e c(n elo u s sea r c h of th e Pirates. The Il {'x t {lny C;'pt. ]\J o r ga n dC'spat c h c d away byo troop s o f P irates, o f O Il(' h undr e d nlld flfty m e n (,ilc h bein g nil \'(' 1 )" stou t sol dicr s [tnd w<."11 nr1l1c( ] w i t h orde rs to sec k fol' the inhahitant s o f P;I Il :1.I11: 1 who wer e ('scapC'cl frolll th e hand s o f their c nC'tni cs rhef;c h :l.Yi ng Illfldc st>\"cr a l u p and down tlle (,
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I I ..... ..... !Panama Ci/p /r';)m the al/oli 1{otel, Pa.:/fii: Ocean ; n (/'/s1a.1'::c .$slitmIQ" -..AmflrlCon 4-.:P. RR ..hew". .:A i<:JU'.skl -._ .. ---_. ---------_._------------_.------------.--... ------- --" _.-------_ .. --, I I I .... --. --------. ---. -'" I I -

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92 Pilot (fIul Guide. In:::l..porter of No, 39 FRONT STREET, a01 00., l1 epublic OF PS0.81128 'l'he strength of thi s ga.lleo n was nothing co n side rabl e a s h aving o nl y seven and t en or tw e i'\'"c mu s k e ts for its whol e d e f e nce, bein g on th e other side very ill-pl' oyidc d o f yictual s an d othol' n ccessar i es, witl l gront want of fre s h water, an d haying 110 lUorc sails than th e uppe rmost sai l s o f th e main mast. 1'hi s d esc rip t i o n o f th o said s h ip, th e Pinlt cs rece ived rr o m c e rtain p e rsolls who h a d s pok e n wit h 8m'e n marin e r s b e loJlging to tho galleo n at Stic h tim e a s th ey CAmc in th e cock-boat to t a k e i ll fre s h wat cl'. l [ ellee t.hey conclud e d for certai n th ey m ight easily h:.wo t ake n th e s nid v esse l h a d th ey give n h el' e h :180 :lIld p urs u e d h e r they ought t o haro d OIiC', ('s p rcially COIIsid c ring' th e said gallC'oli coulrl not 1 0llg subs ist at se a Hilt the y wer e imp c lled fr o m followin g thi s vAStly ric h priz e hy glutto n y amI haring ple n tifu lly d eb:wche( l fhclIlse\\ cs wil h seve ral sor ts of rich wines th ey f Oli lld th o r o r cady to th eil' hands. So that th ey chose rath e r t o "u tiat e thC'ir f1ppe titc with th e thi ngs nboyo-

PAGE 110

93 5 7 ....... m c nli oll(,cl. than to la y h old 011 the occiJsioJl o f s u c h a huge :l{h a nt ;lge, nlth o u gh this sol e prize would ce rtainl y hay c b ee n o f fal' g reater "nine and con seq u ence t o them th a n all th ey s('cl1I\' d at P a n a m a, IIl1d o th e r places th erea b out The lIext d ay l'ppe nt ing o f th e ir JHsli gencp, and l>e ing t o hlily wenried o f th e yices and debaucheries a f ore sai d Ule), set forth t o sea a no ther bo.'1l well 311ne d t o pursu(' with fill s.p ee d imagina.ble th e sai d galleo n But th p ir prescnt C H e find diligence was in "ai n the Spaniards who were 011 board th e sai d s h i p hnyill g recoi'"ed intelligt'llcc o f the d:\n ge r they w(,re ill OIlC or two dny s before, while th e P irnt es were c ruizillg so Hcar them, whpreupon th ey tttd t o places m(\r e r emote all<1 u n known t o Uleir Take Prizes at Taboga. .x o t w i l h sta ndill g. th e Pirates fOllnd ill th e p orts o f t h e isl an d:-:. o f Ta\"ogi.t. and 'l':).\"og illa (Taboga amI T abo guilla) so\ 'era l hoats that w e r e ladl:'l1 with man y sorts of Y c r y good m e r c handize all o f wh: c h th e y took ing ill all f o ur se t sai l from P"lI1am:1 and having s p ell t e ight da.y s ill c rui zing to and fr o and searching se vera l p o rt s and c r ee ks, th ey l ost all th e ir h o p es o f finding w hat th e y so e arnestly sought for.

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I I ---------------------------------------------------------------_ , .' ., "-.; .... SUbof}O Ililla!le. :JOboga .9"sland. ::Panama .Y3ug. tf :P.71.'Il ..AiHlS JJ!lenCJf 4' .;A JjIt':.'1/(()w.Jla ------, ,-, 'J. .. f .. '< II I I II I I (0 'i:I -. -C .... ;::, --Q ---. =-:.. '" I

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Take PJ'i:cs (It T /luo!J. 95 =" : H e r e npon th e y rcsolvpd to r(turn to th e i s l es o f Tavogn and 'favogilla H f're thry f oulld a I"f':lson:'ll)iy good ship thnt wns n owly COllle fl'om Parta ( Pt'l'u). hein g ladf'1l with cloth sonp s u ga .1" and iJiscllit, : lIlU with twC'nty th o u sa nd piC'CC'R o f e i ght i n )'e ady m CHley. 'rhis \ esse l the y ins tnnti y !,pizpd, n ot findin g thp l ens t r esista llc(> from ally p e r s on wit h i n Iwl'. :Xenr to th e selid s h i p was also a b03t, whe reof i n like m:lI111er th ey p ossesse d th cmsoh es 1' 011 th e boat th ey Jade d grea t part o f th o m o l' c handiz e they had f o und in th e s hip, t ogethel" with so me slaye s they had tak e n in th e sai d islands. W it h thi s purc hase t h e y returned to something b e t te r s ati sfie d of t h e i r yoyage, yot withal mu ch di sco nt ente d they cou ld 1lOt m ee t with tJle gall eon. The COllYOY w h ich Capt. had sent to the cast l e of Chngre r e turn e d mu c h about th e S3-mc tim e bringing wit h th e m v e r y good news. P Ol' while Captain : l\f o rgan was up o n his journcy to Panamn, tho se he had left in the castle of Chagrc had srnt f or th to sea two boats to exerci se p i racy. These ha.ppene d to m ee t with a Spani s h s hip, whic h they b egan to c h ase w i thi n s i ght of the castle 'I'hig being p e r c eiYe d by th e 1-'i1':1t ('s that WHe in the castie, they put forth Spani s h colo urs, th e r e by to allure and d ece ive tJlC s hip that flea hrfore th e b oats 'rhus the poor Spaniards thinking to find refuge for th elllselves und e r t h e cagtle and th e g un s th e reof hy tiyill g i n to the port, were caught ill a snare and mall e pri so n e r s where the.y t h o ught to fillll d e f e nce. Th e cargo which wa.s found on b oard t h e said v esse l cons i ste d of vict ual s and provisions t hat w e re all e atab l e things. N o thing cou ld h e more opportune than this priz.e for the cag Ue, where the y hnd begull a l ready to experie nce great scnrcity ot thi ngs of this kind. Torture of Prisoners. This good fortune of the garrison of Chngre gave occasion to Capt. to remain l o ng e r time than h e --------------------------------

PAGE 113

I I 96 P ilo ( (fluT C aide h m l d clc nnillC'u at Pnll n mn. And h e reupon h e ordere d sc\ c r a l llOW C'xcur sio n s t o h e made i nto th e whole cou lltr y r o und about th e cil),. Ro th:lt while the Pil'
PAGE 114

T 1-1 -II e:: 9 7 F"" A.S 1-1 -III ( or J V I .. 1 ..... The Onl, H o use in Panama that GUARAMTES Stricti, American Slyles. Prompt At/entio n COl'recf Fit. Prices Moderate. :\ whic h put all elld to his 1iff') and il. p e riod to th e ir crue l and inhu man t o rtures. A ft c r lbi s cxec r;1hlr m alllH'r did many ot h e r s of tho R C misc r a h l c prison e r s tinisl. th e i r da ys, the common sport :llld r e cr e ati o n o f th ese Pirates Leing t h e s e and otliol' tl'age di es n o t inf e rior. rrhey ill these their cru e lties, 110 se x or COIld itio n whatsoever For as t o reli g i o u s p e r so n s ami th e y granted them l e s s quarter tha.n t o othel' s, unl ess th!'j' coulll produ c e it c o nsidel'able sum of cHpablc o f being :l s ufficient rali S OIl1. '\'ome n th c m selycs w e re 110 b ette r used, and Capt. : Mol'gan, th e ir kade r and COlllmandel', ga\"e them no goo d exampl e on thi s p o int. For a s soon as allY beautifu l woman was brought a s a. prison e r t o his pr esen c e h e u sed all th e m eallS h e could b o th o f rigout' and mildncss t o b c n d he!' t o his pll'aslI1T'. F o r a confi rmatioll o f wllieh I shall h e r e giq' Illy reader n s hort histo r y of n lady. whos e ril'tlle HII( l COIlstancy o ught to b e t rans mitt ed to posteri t y as a 111('11101':11,10 exa mpl e of her sex Morgan and the Constant Lady. Among the pr isone r s that were brought by th e Pirates from th e isl a nd s o f and 'l\l\ ogilln. lh ere f o und n. ge ntl ewo man of goo d quality : as al s o 110 l es s \'il'tll c ftnd I chastity. who wns wife t o one of the richest m e r c lliwt s ill all of tho se cou ntrie s Her years wer e but few: h('1'

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I 98 P ilot (wll Guid e .:::. ::::::-------------_ --. uriouly s o great ns J w ra dn>l1tul' o I nwy doubt whethe r in all Euro p e 0110 could b e fOUlld t o surpass h e r p crfc ctiolls e ilh c r o f c o m e l i n ess o r h Olles t y H e r hu s band a t that presc n t w;)s :tUSCil t fro m h O Ill' beillg g o n e a s far HS th e k i llgdom o f l'eI'u, aLout g re a t conce rn s of c o mm e rce and tnulC', w here i n his elll plo),lllcll t s did lie rhis vir tuou s Ind y l i kowi s e h eari llg th a t Pirates w o r e coming to a ss :mlt l';.ul am;.I, h a d ahse nt e d h e r se lf lh c n cC' in t h e c o mll<\llj' o f o tl H r f r i e nds and r e l atio n s, th e r eby to )ll'csc n c h oI' life UIlI; u s t tho whic h the cl'uC'ities H n d tj'l':lllllics o f tho s e h a rd-h earte d e n emie s d i d see m to m O lla c e to l've r y ci t ize n Hilt 110 soolle r had slJe app eare d ill the p resence o f UHPt. l\lol'gan than h e commnnd c d th e y s h o uld l o dg e her ill a certain a partm cn t b y h e rs e lf giving h e r a. Ilc grcss, o r blac k w oman, to wait up o n h er, and that h e s h o u l d b e t reat e d with all th o resJloct 0)1(1 rogal e duo t o h e r qna lity The pOOl' aftii c t e u I H u y did b eg with Illullitude of s o l J S alld tears s h e llIig ht b e s uff e r ed t o l o dg e a m o ng til(' o th e r pri80 llrl's, h e r n : 'lati olls, f c arin g l ess the une xp e ct e d kindn es s o f th e commande r might }Jl' v V C to l w a d esig n u p o n h e r c h as tity. Bllt C apt. l\lo r g an w o ulu by 1 10 h ea rk e n t o h el' p e tition, a n d all h e com m a n d e d ill a n s w e r t hrl'C'to) s h e s hould b e trcat ed w ith 1II0 r e p a rti cula r ca r o tha n b e f o r e an d hav e h e r yic tua l s c:lrri ed fr o m his Own t aule r his l a d y h a d f ormerly h eard v e r y st.ran g e r e p o rt s cOllccl'lli n g th e Pil'atC"!o;, b e f ore th e ir alTinll at Pa n fllIlIl intim ating to h er, a s i f they wer e H o t m e n hut, as th e y s aid h e r e tics, w h o did neith e r irl\'o k o the Blcs!)cd l rillity, n o r b elicvc i n JeStlS C hri st. But 1I0 W s h e beg an tu 11<1\ 0 b e lt e r t h o u g ht s o f the m th a n e r e!' hrfo r c harill g e x p e rienced t h e manifold c i v ilities o f M o rgan f's pC"ciillly h C :lring lii m 11I:I!I,)' t i mes to s w e a r b y th o halli e o f G o d :tIlt! 0 1 ,ldHlS C!:li s l in w h om, !-ho was p e r s u adrd th('y d i d !lo t Lch L V C KCit h el' diu tih e n o w tlrink th e m to L e !:'IJ I,:,d. 1ft' t u h : n u th e :-;11:1I) l'H of a s fr o m th o I' C h lt i olls u f M v e r ,iI people :-lh e h n d o ft c lililllCS h e ard. F o r

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I I 99 as to th(' Bame of 1'0"')('}"8 or tlliac.." which was commonly girc/) th rill by othC'l's. wondered IlIlt much at it as s h e salt!. that alllong :111 n:lti oliS or the tl1'\O were t o he' found \\ i(ked 111( '11. who Ilaturalh-('O\'oted to p ossess the-goods of othcrs C'onfllll1l!lhJC' to thCi pcr 3ua:;ioll of thi -tIdy was lhe (lpillinll of [lllother WOIll;ln o f wcuk 11I1dCl'l-\f:llldillg. at P ;lll:tm:t who to \)t'foro the Pilates call10 thithC'l' t-11l' lh>:-:irrd very nllu:1t <1IHi had a glcat ('ul'io!'ily to sec 011(' of thos" 11l{'11 r;dll'd Pi!'ate:-: f o r as much IJe r hw.; banel h;ul o ftC' II tfJi,l hcl' th:!t th e\' \\erc not mell. l ike others) h ut rather il'ralioll;1\ l)(' :lstS. T his silly WOlllall ;It last h appellcd to soC' 1h(' first or them; ami crie d out aloud s;ly il.g-: '/(-l$l/I1 blrll.'i IJIf'! thcsr thi(:f('.'j art like If.'! ..... p rl1liul"f l ..... -Thi s f,dsc ci\'ility o[ Capt. JIo rg;1Il wherewith h e IIsed this lad y w;:s !WOII nftel' changcd into Lnrb,',l'Ous (Tuc!ty. VOl' tlll'(\ C 01' fuul' dilYs b eing past, he c amp to sre her alld till' virtuolls lady r epu lsed hilll with all th o ci\'ili t y imagillflhlc allcl mallY humble and 11101lc!-,t t'xprf'ssions bf her mind. Hut Capt. )[orgall s till persisted in his dis ordt'rly 1'C'(llH?!it. 1)I'('sC'lIting h e r withal with mu c h Pl';lrl, gOIl! :11111 all th nt h(' hild g{lt thnt \\-as prcciolls ,\I\(I val u ahle ill that H)Y;lg('. But the 1:1tl y being -in. 110 1l1[IIlIlCI' willillg to th e r eto 1101' ;lcrcpt llis pl'csC'nt s fll1(l showing h ('l'self in all respec t s like :--:usalllla!J 1'01' ('oll::.hlIlCY. he lIot o an d b rg:lJl to s pc:lk to h er in :lIIother tOilC' thrE'atf'JliJlg hel' with a thousand cnJe iti es and hard uSilges at hi!' hand s nil th ese lhing s she gu\'{' resolute [lllti jlosi. a.nswer. tltnn which 110 (Itiwr could he CXfi. l ted fl'Olll her: S i r J//y IUt-iN ill .'IOlll' /H/lI(IIi: vat ali to 111.11 bod!!, ill 1 'clatirlll /1) that ll'hic-fl .'Itlll /fOllfrt JU'"wade me 10, 1I1y soul shalf ,\If/01lCt' b e separated/I'olll i t through the 'riol ence of you)' UJ'IJI.'i thall I ... hall to)u1i wt(,lI( l to yo II I' rl 'qu(,flt i\o SOOI\('1' had C;'lptuin )forgan 1II1dl"l'StO('(1 this heroic l'E'scJlution of h e r l11ind thlln h e COllllllflllded hpl' to he of the o C h e r fip p art' l and imprisone d i n a dn.l'k some and stinking crIbI' i 1 I

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100 rilot allfl Guide. Here she h:al all o wed her 3n extrem e l y small quantity of meat nud whcl'ewiill she had milch noD t o s ustain lif e for n f(w 1I 1I0t to pmy daily to God Almighty f o r cons tancy nmi patience' against the cruelties o f Capt. ) I o l'gnn. Hilt h e being 1I0W thor o ughly cOllvincf'd of hf"l' chaste r('solu tions, ,18 als de s ir o u s to cOllce:ll tJl e cause o f Iwl' COIlflnement null hard lIsage, s ince mall)' flf the Pirates, h is compnlJiolls. d i d her l:olI(llti o l l. !:lid lll.tIIY f a l se :lccusatiollS to IWI' charge giving t o uml,l'st:llld iwld intelligence wit h tho SpaJlianlii and cor r es p onde d with th elll by )('tte r s :lbu s ing thrl'eily his orm(>1' 1(,lIity and kindness. 1 myself was .111 rye witnes s t o thillgs hl"rc relat e d ami could 1I(,\" C1" hayc judgr u snc h constanc), of mind ami virtu o us clHlstity to uc f o ullll i n the w odd, if Ill)' OWII eyes :lnd (';Irs h a d 1I0t inf o rmed Hie there of. Rut of thi s incomparable lady [ s h all SHY SOIllQthillg m o r o hOI"(,nfte r ill ils pr o ppr plaC('1 wiwl'('upon r s hall 1 (,,1\ 0 11(')" at pi es('nt to COlltllltlC Ill y history. Preparations for Departure. Ca pt. :\lo r gan 1I0W u eell at P'lIIi1l11, t th e full s p ace o f three weck!; COIllIl1:lIH l e d all things to h e put ill orde r f o r his d r pHrture. 'ro thi s eHect. h e g HC orde rs to every com pan)' of his m Oil to sec k out f u r so many beast.; o f n s Illighl suffice to cOllvey th e whole of th e c ity t o th e ri\'C'1' wlirrc his c alloes lay AbDul this lilli e a g r ea t 1'lIl1l0Ul' was sprrad in th e city o f n Jllllllbl' r o f Pirates who intelldcd t o l eave Cnpt. : l\[ o rgall alld th a t by tak ing a s hip which was i n the p ort, thf')' d ete rmined to go and rob UpOIl th e o uth :Sea till they h a d got as muc h hS tli!')' th o ught fit, and th e n rt'tul"II h Ollle wards hy the Wtt)' o f lhe Eust Indi es i nt o Europe. F o r whic h plll"pCSC; they had already

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1 0 1 gath e r e d gl'cnt quantity o f pro y isio BS, whic h th ey h a d h i dd e n i n )wintle places: with suffic i ent s t OI'O o f p owde r bull e t s, a nd all other o f ammuniti o n lik e w ise so m e g r eat gUllS be longing t o the tOWII, mu s k e t s and o th e r thi n gs whe r o "itJl th ey d esigne d not ollly t o e quip the said \'ess(' ) hu t a l so t o f O ltif y th e m selves a lld mise b a tt e r ies in som e i s land or ot h e r ,," hich might sen e the m f o r a place o ( r efuge This d es i gn h a d cer t ainly taken ns the y illtC'lIde u. had lIot )fol'gan l w d timel y adv ice the r eo f g i \"cli him b y 0110 of th ei r cOlllra d es H e r e up o n h e ius t a lltiy commalldcd the mainmast o f t he sai d h e cut d own a m i h UI'IIt. togethe r with all the othr r b oats that w e r e i II the po rt. H e r eby, the intelltions o f nil 01' m os t o f his comp anio n s wt'l e tOhdly f ru s t ra t e d. A ft e r thi s C
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-.. .. ---... -,--....... .. -. .. --. .,-_ .. -'------.. -. -.:;1/ chinC!se vegetable gardan in the vicini/.!; q/ ,7)a:tama. $..lIl1nl OIf P:R:1l ",*",11 & .fkQYQIJ .:A .J3i,,,lraw.Jd. '--------------'---. o [\) c ... !'> -G') N --. '" I

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P reparat i oll s f n r lJ cptfl'tlfl'C 103 ran so m n o t olily thClU!:win's hut also ail th e 1'('st o f tho l)]'isol1er s, as likt'wi se th o h a th bccula r rrgular l\l ot'con:or h e COllllllfllldc d al l th e artiller y of the town t o uo s poil ed. tlwt il; t o !):Iy. nailc:ci and s t o pp e d up. At th o salllC tillle b e seut o ut n st r ollg compan y o f m e n t o set k f o r th o Goyel')\(Jl' of Jlal1:lJ1l11. o f wholl1 ill te:lIigollc c was brought that h c lin d laid st!Yeral : m' lUscades in t he way by w hich h e had to pass 011 his r e tllrn. Hut th 6se who vlor c sent upo n this d l sign r etu m c d a ft er, saying they h ad 1I0 t f oun d any sign 01' fl.pp eal'illiCC o f sitc h amhuscades f or, a. confirmati o n wherC'of they In' o ught with 01el11 some prison ers they h a d tnkcn. who decl: ll'e d Uwt th e said Govcrno r h ad had an int ention of llIa king so m e o pp ositio n by th e wny, but th at th e Illen who m h e d esig n e d t o e ffl c t it were unwilling to ullu e rtak c allY suc h (;'lIte r prize so that f o r W:1nt o f m ea n s h e could H u t put his d esig n i ll ex ec ution Prisoners Held for Ranso m On t h o 2Hh o f }'c hru n r y of the yr:l1' 1 G71. Cnptnin M o r ga n d rpal'ted from th o city o f } )aJlnnw. o r l':ltlirl' from th e plac o whe r e th e saill cily of Pf\Il:lIl1; t di d s l.tlll! ; o f th e s p oils whereof he carrie(l with h i m olle h1lndred an d seHnty.fiv c h eas ts of ctllTifige lml(,11 with sikrr, g old an d o th e r prec i o us th i n gsl u('sidt's six hundrc d pri sone rs m o r e o r l ess, b etweell mell, WOIllC'II; chi l d rell :111(1 sinH 'S. 'rh at da y th ey came to :1 th:. t P:1S S(,S tlll 'ougl, :t (leiic i olls c amp a i gn (ch ampaig n ) fithl. at the di!)tance o f a I rflgllc fro m P a n a m a. H e r e Cnpt. )((Jrgiln put all hi') f o rces illt n goo d o rdl"l' o f m artia l a rra y in Sllt h 1ll:lIll1r r that th e prison e r s in th e middl e o f the camp, surr o und e d 011 all sides with P irates At which pr es ent conjunctu r e not h ing ('Ise was t o be h e:lrd but lamen t ations, cries shri eks a nd d o l e flll s igh s lIf the many w o m ell n n d chi ldr en, w h o wer e p e r sua d e d Cap t. : M o rg all d esigned to tran s p o rt th e m all and ca rry them int o his own country for shues. B esides that:

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104-]'i l o t {/l u I Guide. T a m o ng fill th ose miserabl e priso n e r s t h e r e was extre m e hUlig e r and thirs t e nd u r e d at t hat tim e w hi c h h a l'dlihip and m ise!'y C;l Pt. :i\Io r gnn design e d l y c a u se d the m to t a i n w i t h inte n t t o e x c ite t h e m m o r e e arne s tl y t o scrk f o r m Ollcy whe r e with t o ransom th'm s e l ycs acco rdi ng t o the Inx h e had s d u p o n ey e t } one. }\[any o f the womcn b egge d o f :i\Io r ga n upo n their knoes, w i t h i nfinit e sig h s nlld t ea r s h e would p e rmit th e m t o r e tul'll t o Pan a ma the r e to live i n c om p a n )' with their d enl' h u s b and s nnd c h i ldre n i ll t h e ir l i ttl e huts o f s traw w h i c h til e r "' D ull l e r e c t s eei n g they h a d no h o uses until t h e r e building o f th e c i t y. But his answer was : H e ca m e H o t hither to h e al' l a m en tati o n s and c r i es bu t r a th e r t o sec k m o ney. ':rherc f oJ'e th e y o u g h t t o see k o u t for that i ll th e fil'.::t pla c c wliel'c r cl' i t w e r e to be h a d alld "]'Jng it t o hilll. o t h erwi s e h e w o uiLt ass u r e dly t r ans p ort t h clll :111 t o stic h places whith e r tJley c M'ed n o t t o go. r n le n ext d a y whell th e march b e g a n, th os e l a ment :lbl c cries and s hri e k s were ren ewed ill s o muc h ali it w o u l d h.1\'c ca u se d c ompas sion i ll Llle har dest h ea r t t o Ilcar t h em, But Capt. l t orgall, a m all l itt l e g iven to m e r ty, "\\' a s n o t mo\ ed the r ewith i n the l e a st. 'rhey m a r c h e d i!1 the s am e ord e r as was sai d b e f o r e ; o n e p arty o f t h e Pirates pr ocee d i n g ill th e vall, t h e prison cl's i n tbo m i ddl e and th e r es t o f the P irat es in th c I'('<-Irgllard by w h o m th c m iserable Sp: ll1iur d s wcre at e\'ery s t e p pUllc h e d a n d thrlls t ill th e ir ba c k s alld s i d es w i t h t h e b l u n t ('n d o f their arm s t o m a k e th c m m a r c h th e f a st el'. Morgan Punishes Treachery. h e nutirul an d \ i rtuous lad y o f who m we m a d c m e nti o n h e r eto f o r c f o r h e r l lllp al'n\le l ecl c y find c h as tity, w as l e d pr iso n e r b y h e r se lf b e tw ee n two who g ua.rde d h e r H e r l a m c n t atio n s IIO W d i d p i e r c e th e seeillg r al'l'il d a w a y int o f o r e i g n c n ptivi ty, o ftrn c ryin g t o the Pirates, a n d te llin g them: 'L'hat lfh e ltad

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105 -=. = ,qit'cn orcT rio fifO /'('(;[liO/l P C I' 80Jl,'" ill 1('/tOIll .<.;/ie !tad rdie d. t o go to a certain plaoe (Flld fetch so II/Ilch J1/(J1I6!1 ((I) /tel" rifl/_ 80m, did (011011111 to. '1'//(I( (hClI f/lld l.U 'OilliiU 't7 faith/Idly 10 do if but }wriua olitaillc tf tli,' ,,,,t i d Ill n u e y inx/ N ul (If b rill!/ill(J it to he), tite.'! had {,1IIplo!ICd it (ll/oIIICl' Ira,l} to J'(fl/.'H)Jn 1)0111(' uf 'h e ; r Olf n wlff partiell Iff I' .Ii-ieudR. Thi s ill fiction o f th eirs WllS b y a. s ian': who bro ught a l e tter to tho snid 1 :1tly. H e r ('omp l:lints, :lnd the ca.use thoreo f uein g br o u g ht t o tho e ars of Capt. l'tlorgan, h e th o ught tit t o enqu ire ther ein t o H a\' ing f O llnd th e th i n g to h e tl'lI(,. csp('cially h c nrillg i t confirme d by the confessio n o f the r eligio n s m Oil. th ough ulldel' SOIllC 1'l'i, -0 1 01l5 (,XCIISCS o f ha \ 'ing th e 1Il011C'Y b ut f o r a. day or two within which tim e U1C'Y C'xpcctC'd 1Il 0 1 e sums to r e pay it) h o g:nc l i b e rt y to th e !-laid lad y w hom otherwise h e d'signed t o tntll s p n rt to .1
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106 Pifot (/jul G /fide. In th e meAnwhile h e gaxc 01'd(,1'8 for so lUuch erie ::Ind maize to b e collectfj d th Cl'l'flbotlts as was necessary f or the y ictu alling of :111 his s hips. \t this place some o f th e pri so n ers wer(' ra nsome d hut m:\lIy others could 1I0 t bring ill th eir mOIlC'Ys in s o s h ort a. t i m e he continu e d his yoyng c l elwi n g th e "illage o n the 5th day o f n e xt following and car rying with him al l the s poil t h a t eye r h e co uld trans p o rt. j'\'ol11 this yillagc h e likewise l e d away som e n ew prisone r s whu w ere inhabit!l.lIts of th e sai d place. So that these JlOW ))risoll(,1's ,w' r e add e d t o those of Panama. who h ad not :I S y e t paid th e i r r a ns oms, nnd all transported. But the two r eligions mC'1} w h o h H l div erte d tho money lJe l ong ing to th e lad y wer e r ans o m ed thrce dnys after Utei!" imprisOHlllCl1t h y othC'1' person s who had m o r c compassion f o r thC'ir conditi o n tiJ[1t1 thC'y h a d shown for h e r s Pirates Searched for V aluables. Abo ut tlie llliddl e of tli e way to tli e castle o ( Cliagrt' Gl pt. ::\Jo rgnn COlllll1:llldcd th e m to b c place d in due o rder nccortiing t o their cu:;tOJll. n n d c au se d eve]'y onc to lJe l'Sworn lhn t t hey hatl l'C'scn e d nor conceale d n o thing 'Pri vate l y t o th elllsel \'cs, C\"('11 not so 1ll1lc h as th e yalu e o f a s ixpcnce, r l l his hein g d one, CclPt. l\Iorgall h a \ ing h:ld sOllle exp e r ience lhllt those l l'wd f rliows would n ot. muc h stickle t o S\\C,'l1' f : lllici y in point s o f int e r e st, h e command e d I c\ c r y One 10 be !'>cl1l'chcd "pr y strictly b o th ill th e ir cJOtllCS and f.:;lir h(-'i s and e v cry w l l rl'e it might b e presume d -t.hey had r esrn'ed nlly! hil1g, Yefl, t o the int ent thi s ordcr mig ht lIot he ill tnkell b y his h e pC'l'miU e d himself to h e 8 c :lrhl:cd. (,\'C'11 to the \ 'cry sol es CJf his !)hOeR. r r o thi 8 ('frcd, h y Cl) l\1lll o n t'OIlS(,l1 t thel'(, "'flS :i!;sig ncd o n e out o f C \'CI J company 10 be the sC:lr c h c r s o f all tllC! ]' st. I willi :Frclld! P irM s thaL \\cnl 011 Cnpl. )Io rgull wpre not Wl 'll satisfied thi s with exp e ditioll thi s new I I -_.

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I'iralni SWl'cltul for r(f/U(lhf('8. 107 c u s tom o f s("ll'c hing". Yet thrir numher \)ein,!! l ess th:fn fhat o f the English th ('\' wcr e forced to !-iubmit to it flS well :1S th e othns had d Ollo h p f ore th clll. r l 'hc 8r:II'cli bring O\' {'I'. IIIr.r I'rC'lllhnrk c d ill th e ir C: l IlOCS fin d hO:lb, whic h f1ttelHl c d th rill 011 tile I'ire!' and alTir c d :It the caslle of Ch:lgJ'(. (111 th e nth d,lY of th e S.l it! month of llf\l'ch. HpJ'P tlle\' f oullc l :111 things in goo d order, illg the wOlJnciN l Jlle1l. wllom tltry had Il'f t ther e at.. lh e tim e o f th e i r dl'p : lI'tul't'. l!\u' of I hr se th e gn',l lln III bel' w('re de:-rd. thr ongh the wound s t h e)' hnLl rcceiYN L Division of Spoils. Fro m ('hngrC'; ("ljll. )rorg;ll1 sC'nt pr ese ntl y nftrl' his ar!'iYal lL gren t 1J(J[tt to P o rio 8('110. whcr ein were all the prisoners h e hfld t:1kel1 "t the h i e o f St. Catlwl'int>. dem a ndin g hy th elll II'nlhle l"rlllSOlll for th e cas tle o f whrl'c h e thf'1I WflS threatc ning ntiI e r wisc to rui n find d e m olish it ('\'(,11 it) tht' g r ound. T o this l1lesstlge thf)se of H::ollo m ade :Jllswcr: 'They would not give o n e brthing Ihe ran s onl of th e sai d cnstle, :llld tha.t th e Ell glis h n:i;.;ht d o with it a s'd. Thi s <1l1SWI'1' bein g <:Olll(' tilC di\ idend was made o f all tire s p oil th ey had Qut;1illC'd ill that \'oyngr, eyet} comp any, nnd c\"Cr y partituloir 1 ,(' r80n therein incIud r d. rete-ired their p ortio n of what \\"as got. or rather wllill part C;lPt. M o rgan was plea sed to gi\"e thC'lIl. ii'o r so it wns, tha t the r pst u f his co mp 'lllion:-:. cYcn of his own llntio n cOlllpl nilled of his in thi s parti c ular, and ff'ul"c d n ot to t ell him openly to his face thnt h e ha.d r eserve d th e b es t jcwe ls f o r bimself. For they judged it ill1}Jol'sible th<1t n o g rl'ah'r s ham s h ould b e l ong to th elll thfl.ll 1\\' 0 hundr e d pieces o f eigh t p er capit(f, of s o ITIrllly valu ahle h ooties an d r o bb eries as tlif'y had o b t tlill e d, ,Vhidl small SUIll th ey th ought too little r ewa rd for so Illuc h lab our and suth hu ge and manife s t d:lllgCl'S 3S they had so often exp ose d th e ir lives to. But C.lpt. was deaf to nil th ese i

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lOB "iluf WI" GI/ide. --,-and many ot her compla ints of this kilH1. hav i n g designed ill his m ilil l to c1H'
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- .. I I 1 .' -. :AllceN. po/Ill tr.:tM plall:"'d by lilt! ,'7rrllcll-.:i'ana:no. jIll, .. ., uti :1/",, -,. .. r. 4. .... -Au..'r..;'1 4 ,.",;/, II'" .;d JI',ol I ,jo J : '" 4 : .. -. --. ----- -----. --I I '"" -. -c -;:, --':\, C) ---. -o (() .\ ----.

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110 Pilot and G/f idc bidding anybody adieu, being only followe d by three o r f oul' vessels of the whole fire-t. These wer o slic h (as th e Fre nch Pirales beliCl'ed) as wellt shares wilh Oa pt. M o r gall t owa rds lh o best and grealest part of th e spoi l w h ic h h u d beon cOllcC':1)rcl from thom ill tho dividend. Th e Frf'llc hme n could. '-cry willingly have l'm'c llgC'd this affront upon Capt. : M o rgan nll(l t h ose t h a t ollowo(1 him, had they found thcmsch'cs with s ufficicllt moalls to ellcounter him at sea. But they w o rc destitu t e o f most things necessary thereto. Yea, t h ey h a d muc h a d o to find sufficient y i ctuals and p r ovisions for t heir voyage to Jamaica he huving l ef t them totally u npro\ iclc d o f <111 thing s. -___ -_. --(frl'ltlCII by the laic Yr. James Stanley Gilbrrt of Colon, alld JHlbli s ltcfl by him in H J'allalJl(, PlllclllrQ rk,u Reprinted tll,'oll[/II tlte killd permission [liven tlte of this book, by tlte (fIlIIlOl', 1I1'iol" [0 his d eath,) Hi s Catholic Philip of Spain, R uled o 'er tho West Coast, the Indies and Main; Ris ships heavy laden with pesos a.nd pluto, Sailed o'er tho South Sea. with tribute of state, Prom Lima. and Quito his galleys pulled forth POI' P anama peal'1s und gold of the No. til ; And cargoes of treasure were sent 0\'orl8ud While b i s sold i c r s kept guard from tho gulf to t he strand, F.'om Pa.uama Bay to the port II Name of God" Loug rr o ight tmills of shwcs thro' lhe d e nse fOl'csts trodj 'fhcu, somo through the straits and some fl'om tho mai n Kiug Philip'ij goo d sh i l)S sought their owner again,

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The Fall (If Old 1'1IIUlma, -----On F.nglao,rs !-rt'and throu(' gr<'al ),'i!(lled Alltl 011 sea ll.nd 011 lfintl 11(,1' pow( r m:.illt:lill ('dj o ('I' III(' henrts of h!'!' tmbjeci:l, 0'(>1' thl' C:OIle stout he:lIH of oak-,-As often successfully parric d each stroke, 'rhe I)I'akes and the the (;irellviis ami 'fILe Oxcnhnms, Uuleighs---the props and the stayi': Of England's first greutntliS----were th' heroes o{ old Who helpNI Britain's Queen wilh the Spanish kiug'sgold, 'fhey robbed the 3I' ch-robbel' of ill'gotten gain, And bl 'ought Eu!;laml the glory they wrest(d from Spain. Uia gl.llleons they captUl'ed, his treasure traius scized--Outfought him abroad and with zenl unappeased. At home they defeated the Armada's great fle et, 1\nd laid a world' s spoil at Elizabeth' s feet. Alas, tbat snch deeds lIihould grow dim with tlH." y ears Alas, tbat such men sho\lIJ Im\'e trained bueeanp(,lOS! That from such examples-so noble, so true---A race vl Inllrauders aud l'ufJiau s grew! Thutf1'iellds su(,h as should f ollo w the wuke Of men like John Oxman :Inti -Sir Drake, Who swore by the oak, by the ash and tbe thorn, God helping them always, 10 sail round the Horn '1'0 f;\ir P;lnum:l. and the placid Soutb Sea, Whic h they saw one d:l.Y from the top trc('! For olll England's glory their standard to l'ais-e '1'0 ('I'ui!'i(' the Pacifie and its isle-dotted h ny"'_ -Four miles from where A.ueon looks down Oll til(' ;';(' w Stood Old Panama, whence Pizarro once drew III

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112 Pilot (Inri GI/ide. =:.: 00 -.... au eo."," The bra\-es l of follower!' Ppru to obtain And her In('as !'iubjP('t to thl' power of Spain; Thf're ollce stood clil h edr:lls :Iud palaces fair, Whose a I tfll'lJ a lid U lid In pest ties "n r a \\'cre fhe pride of the people wilo-:.;<, opul(>l1c(:> then ,\r 'hl thl' e!H'Y of and the longing of menj Where alice stately 8tl''('15 to the plains stretched a ..... ay, Ami wnrehouses skirlNI the V(JO;s(>llined blly; Wllcre plantAtions and gnrdens and flowering treeS Once perfumed the tropical c,'cning hreeze----Stands naught but a ruin hal[ hidden (raID -jew, A pirate'S first S{ift to hi'i blood-thirsty crew: -.... rom sacked Porto Bello j 'edlul lIJ cl l tJ.>\ -l 'ame All bloodstained from conqupst ullworthy t he usmc, To the mouth of the Chngres, whel'f', high on the hill San Lorenzo kept guard, to plUllller illltl kill Its devolell defellllcl 's, who eonmgeousJy fough' POI' homes, wh'e;; aud ehildl'(,Il, ac(,ounting ns nanghl 'rhpir lh'es held so precious, :iO before, Could they drive the nereo pirates away from their shor e 'J'hrl'e th('y "('pnl"od them, but to fin,l P\'('l'y night The fop still npOIl them in nc'cr.('udin g figlil. Their arms could not ('oll<}uel' the powers of hell Sun 1.ol'f'nzo SUl"l'l'lll l crct!inglOljously ft'll BUl'ned, famished and blc("ding' frOI1l many Il. wound, Thl' Y Il\y while their litronghold was razPli to the gtotllld. -Ou, Oil, uplo ('rul.'es the i)u('cnnl'('I'f' sped Bul to fiud iL in its illhabitantl:l fl{'(1. Yet on And still o n with )Iorgllll nhend, Th('y pressed down the rond that to P:llIftmfl lerl. Niue days through the forc.;! unbroken they tra ml)ed, And aL 18>11 on :\' moull! 1\('1l1' the dty enco.mped, Il<>for(' them til .. OCt'lUI fOl' lea,cu('s away rolled: Below them the i:;lalllis Ill,\' hnthed iu th(' gold Of the SUIl thill, jUfoit spiting, Jook('tl mOlirnfllll.v dowll Ou tb(\ Ilisl day ot lifl' ot lbl' ill fntt"d t OWllj I

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I'i/of lIml Glfitk. 113 Anejo ,\ncjo 1 I ) -We are the Only Agents on the Isthmus for this Oelebrated Sterilized Win e Illade by :r_ Eatalle &:, 00_ 01" SPAiN. This Win e has been Recommended by o,'el' 1,400 Physicians in Europe and America for the especial use of families and persons Oonvalescent fro III FEVER. TRY IT! UnemHeHorihe Stomach. TRY IT! TRY IT! We also keep a complete assortment of the very best brands of imported wines and liquors constant ly in stock. Corco & Company, I co. B!HN CII: f'io Zl. CC!llrlt .. henne, FreRC!! Orujf Olillosile __ ._-' Frolll Nlllioc e l ratace. ___ I A nciu I I -._-----"

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114 Pilot alul Guide. While around them the piains with groves of hright trees Sheltered cattle a.nd fountains their wants to a.ppease The famed "golden cup" lay filled at their hand, And to drain it at sunrise the buccaneers p lann ed. "Oh ho, for the morrow! quoth Morgan the bold "Oh ho, for the day and the tale to be told 'rhe's faint purple ha.d scarce 'gao to light The peak of AncoD, erst hid in the night, When thE' blare of Ule trumpet and beat of the drum Made known that the day of the sll'uggle had come. Tn the camp of the pirates "To arms!" is the crYi "Pl'CSS forward, my hearties, QUI' tl'casw'c is njgh! Avoid the main road--there arc ambuscades there---Push 011 througb the forest, your firearms prepare!" Now out 011 the hill, still called the" Ad\'ancc," The buccaneers over their enemy gla.nce, Before them they see in the full light of day The Spaniards dra.wn up in bottle "H' I'ay. '1'wo squadrons of horse, foul' thousand of lin e, With bullocks a.nd peons their forces combine. And theIl, were it safer fol' tbem to retreat, Would Morgan ha\'e ord ered the signal to bcn,u Too late it is now __ it is triumph or die! 'fhough desperate to battle, 'twere folly to fly! Ti s lise le ss to faltol' On, onward my men! W(' have WOIl ngaiust odds, WE' shall win once ngain! -AmI "On!" cry the Spaniards, shouting" nl'f/ ct f:cy.' Our numbers arc greater! Ours, 01ll"S is tho day! 0111' bullocks will rout them! Buzz:\. for old Spain! Th(' gor(' of the Ihi('\'(>s shall cmich Ih e plain!" AIIlS, for thE:' hopf' s sadly misplo. ('('d, 1"01' 11('\'['1" l.JcfOl'(> !
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"he H,1l (tf 01(/ P(fl/a1lla, The verdaut S8xanna like a. great river runs With the blood of six thouSllnds of Panama's SOilS!
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116 /'ifot (///({ (; /fide Theil th(' of the clestl'lIc tion of Old Pallnma. rcachrcl tile ears of tht" COllde de LClllO!' t11(,11 S'"jccror of ]") ('1'11. he was so d('('ply o\"er the affair. that he immedia t e l y too k filrps res ulting ill til(' rC'lJ1o Yalof t.he defcat e d govcrno r. DOli .Juan Perez de G IIZII1,ll1. A t tho samo tilllC' h e to th e Que e n Urgcnt (If Rpnill. :;u :l.Tin A IIIlC o f the n ecess ity (If issuing a decrce proyi d i ng f or tlip l'l..'huilding of the city 011 it now sile B ei\Yc(,1l th e Imming o f the 01(1 city ,llll1 th e hu ild o f th e 11('''', neilrl)' two years clnps('(l. During this th e sllni\"(Ma had crcctC'd t(,111POI';\1), homes on nllll :11'0110<1 the old site which WC'IC' tiIric<' yisited al1(1 destl'oyC'd hy c:ontlOIllC' 1I\0n f hfoi, the ccrti fied ropi('s { d I\',n d ncullwnb s uhmitted hy the ()f thC" \ fellin's (If the Pedro rr nl'l'CS L nuz:l<:., t o gcthrl' with plans o f the {lId ,1l1d ll('\\' rrh(' \\'('1'(': I ('t',lllla pl'ovillit1!.:' fol' IlH' fOl'!ilil'l!ion" fir !lap r H'\\' dIy, (11'101,('1' :1I t Wi:!, :!, 1.,tl1-1' /If till' dl'lll:.!'" o f thl' ('ily, nnd :-;:\1111'1 ,,'('0 III I'll II i/o( I til (' a '" 11 f h (' ( '011111' i 1 II litH! : lid t' h :111 :11111 d t Ii n(' a t io III ,IH. l allnlliu!.:' 1,,1' l,uhli,' --I

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117 -'-s i g n i n g b y th e S p ftllis h Quecn o f th e d ec ree a uth orizin g th e c hangi ng of the s it e o f P a n:lm a a ll Octob e r has b ee n adopte d a n d i s n o w obse rv e d as the a nniversary o f th e f o und i n g o f the n e w c i ty. alth o u g h th e docume n t relating to the ph\1l and lines o f th e town s h o w s thnt the i n a u g uration cer e m o n ies i n connect i o n "'jth th e es t a blil;hm cllt of th e lIe w sit e w e r e a ctually h e ld all til e :?Is t o f .J :lllml r y, l H 73. The Imp ortant task o f s up e rvising th e bu i ld i n g and f orti f ying o f th e !leW t own was confid e d t o D o n A n t o nio F eJ'll .. i nd ez d e Cordo b a, a Spa nish c avalier o f h ig h ran k who reach e d the I sthmus i n 1672, with the titl e o f G o v el'llal' of th e Prov i nce o f Tierra. F irme, and President o f th e Real A udi enc i a C6rdo b a on l y s a w the w o rk o f r eco ns tru ctio n COlllmellce. his death occtllTing t h e year f ollo w i n g his al'l'i, al. Th e Queell' s ccdul:.t o r decree 011 th e f ortificfltiolls o f t h e lIew cit y r e f c r s t o t h e sit e o f A nCOll, as u L anco n ", e v i dently an error o r mis print as th e correct s p elling ap p ea r s ill d o cllme nt s o f a l i ttl e l a t e r p e ri od. Til this cedula i s set f o r t h the n ecessi t y o f fir s t pro vidin g the cit y with adequa t e d e f e n ses, m akillg th e m ns s tl' o n g a s p ossihlr, but 1I0 t t o s t nrt th e gene r a l w o rk until th o pla n s h a d been submitte d t o th e C r own f o r consid e rati o n and appro v al. A s t o th e q u estio n o f m e ans, th e Queen uAd_ v i se the V ice r oy o f P e r u, w ith an estimate o f til e cos t that h e may w ith this H otice get th e m ea n s in conf o rmit y with thi s ord e r Contiuu i n g th e docume nt r ends III c har ge yo u (Cordo b a) with mu c h car e that I have .eut yo u to thi s plate t o a ppl y t h e m eans furni s h e d f o r thi s w o rk, with Ollt dive rt i n g i t t o othe r things. To thi s end f orm in tb e city a C OllIICil, i n whic h you will b e prese nt w i th two judges a t w o o f th e oldest sec ular r epresentati v es, and the attorney gen e ral o f th e cit y who with the h e lp o f the o ffi c ial s o f UJe R o y a l 'rre a s ury w ill all o w the expe n se and e mpl oy the r euts r emitted yo u by the Vi ce r oy o f P eru,

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--118 Pilot /llId Guidt'. --. u >- 0: > Cl 0 >-< .J u 0:: 0 > !,J -<: 0 u -> f... '" <{ Cl '" :;: 0 m <: V) <{ Q -' '" I "-c 0 \ 0 .J '" r ..J V) <{ It > !,J '" "-'t> 0 ,-"1 .... ;:,. wilh w h o m YOH will rOlll1llll1l7{'aic y c r y fr e quentl y o n the se poinL"',...... I h o pe' th;lt .) nul' ('xpel'irIlCf'. P;'Ucif' I ]('C, act i\ if.y :lIId ,dlieh Y(lU 11:\\"(' :liW;lYS f'h nwll. will cfllld llre t o the or the king, 1I1.r SOil. nml t o SI1hjC'(,j s : lIId thai YOII lrol'k ill c\"er ythi n g i1 o u ght t o h e d Olle I I

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Avenida Central Nos. 1)8 y 140. M : (WHOA. ('An:, E Tl'., A 'I'OD, \ 8 IIO l l A S on 1)1.\. E$)tER>\QQ. l?lX.EC::03 Sf HUl L !'tutES Y C\STiU\ ,''!IO. JUAN f ARRE, Prop. 119 .. r ,IRIS Nos. 138-14 Central Avenue. m;sl' (' I .,\SS T.\UU ; I O \ltD. ,\11-:11.8. cOI-' n ; l; He'" A T AU. IIlJt ICS 0 Tilt:; DAL SPL.e:.NQ I t) U R Y tc:e:. ENGLISH AND SPANISH SPOKEN. JUAN f ARRE, Prop. III H d ec r ee dl'rtwil lip IIY thr a ttol'lIl'Y gellc r a l o f th e city a nd s i gllc d 10th l()7 : 3 it a ppcar s so m e l1, und t o com pe l jh e inlu lb i l : lIlt s o f Old P anama and yic ;llity. llwithollt exc('pti o n ", t o 1II0 V O t o t l e new si t c. He sllgg t 's t r d IIldUC l lllclll t o 1 )(,I'SOIlS o f s ta n diug un e Xl'lIlpti oll fr o m laXl'S. 111'011 thl'ir a g r l'cnlc u l t o cumme n ce buildi n g jh r ir a nd u ff ices 011 th e new s i le within two 1110 1 1 th s fr olll th e date o f thi s ( I eel'e(', ancl t o occ up y th c m w itJli n th e year. B e urge d f Ol'e('(l co mpl ia n c(' as L o I't'luo,,,1 ill ()I'cil'r :\.s th e document UlO point w hich is 1I0W pop ul:lt.ed ( Old Panama) ma y h e razed t o til t g rolllJd UII c o unt o f lLo l'i'Sk uf (,H elllirs comll1g i ll til e Ilw:H l t i m c a nd jllk i llg p m sessio n th e r eby puttin g a s t o p j{J COIllIll( rc:iaI fr:d'fi c This d e m o l itio n will 1I0 t (,Hiy l lplp ill thr /lC'W f oundations, but w ill furni s h con H llit'lIt n w t e riHI with which t o buii ( l th e IlC'W ami : ,It t he S:Ulle tim o \\ ill put a :-.l o p t o :Ill point s of duuLt tlm l m ight d elay th e t'xe cutioll o f the decree". rrh e d ec r ee pr{Jh ibitC'd th e u se o f (il' rat h e r ccnsers, a s t!le y w e r e th e n kn own, in th e h o uses at

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I 120 Pilot (llId GI/i(// -Old P.IIHlIll:l. therehy a\ 'oiding-danger o f futur o conf\;]gra t iolls from which they Ii,lel suffered frequelltly sillce "Mo r g an' s raid. 1 t further pro \'ided thal jus t r en ts s h o uld b e paid "i' t o th e time of the c hange, and that th e p eo pl e could not be d c pri"ed o f their h o mes unti l f O lll' Ill onths s u cceeding th e allllOuncement of UlO d ecree The original o f this nl rc d ocu ment b e;Hs the s ignature of Cord o ba th e ntto r nry grllcl'nl. Don L uis de Lossada. Quiiionl's: D Oll Allur es linez d c AllIi]pto, aJ1(l th e S ec retary. D Oll Di ego J U:ln Aranda Urimaldo. The signat ures were aU.osl e d b y A u g u sti II d e L rrutin ) w ith his I'ubica, Hud his signature find ident ity attes t e d ill turn h y thre e o th e rs. (,:1ch with his l'lIhicn. Thl: ceremonies ill Cflllllection with th e i n a ugur atio n o f wurk 011 the lIew city h eld Janua r y 2 1 UH;{. w e r e p'.\l'ticipa t e d in hy GoY('rnor (ionl o ba, find nil the n o tables: ciril. military an d secular. Vith the aSHist:\IIce o f th e milita r y engineer. th e (:o\, crlJo r illClicated th e lines OII which the prin cipa l plHz;} s hould bo l aid (JUt. the l ocation o f th e (\tth c dral. alld th e ce m e tery a l ongsi de. 'l' h e cem ete r y was ahandoned man y years ago bu t lhe old Oath e,lr.1 still rCftr s its twin towC'rs skywa rd. a n d is as solid an edifice t o day as when i t was first built. In COllnection with th e cCIlIf'tcry, it m ight b e i n te resting to note that w hile th e wate r work s for ce was exca \ atillg on Sosa. Street ill 1905. they r a n across and uneaxth c d a grea t mUIl Y b Olles o r th e early se ttl c r s. '-"hc inaug ural CCfClH ollies were pondu ctecl w i th :111 th e p omp and r i tllal COlllmon t.o th e Cath olic C hnr c h lit Owt till1e. Tlt e Bis h oJl and his ;l!::;sistant s pronollnced a. on fhe Cat h e dral and CClllot e r y site, : llJd put one large nlld two s m all Cl'Osses in the c(,lll e r o f the pla z a. 'I'hc n O\ CrIlO I Iikl'wi se indicale d the site f o r the COllnllt, JJ(J\\ octllJlicd h y th e sto r e of]). rardoze and th e gOH'rI1ment tl'legm ph office on ....-\ \"ennc n, Ca pt. ,J lIan H ida lgo B ah-em ) I ayor domo o r fhe co m 'c ut look occasio n t.o call attention lo the f ac t there was a quantity o f buildi n g tim-

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. 121 h e r nlreadr lwai l able Ileal' th e sit e fllld that fllrth cl'lllOlC' a ship had ju s t entered th e bay with a l oad of buildillg m:l.t e rial s urg ing that i t would b e a goo d thing to comm e nce w o rk on th e conve nt fir st, so that this c o n s tituted th e buildin g o f cOIlSelluel1cc to b e erec t e d in the n o w city. The i njull ction to build th e lIew cit. y s f()rtifiC<.'ltiolls strong and w ell wero heed e d ns cyidencC'd by tlie hug e wall of masollr y that today ext"rlll i s aro und a. i a rg(' section o f the s h ore fr ont of the city. fl'hese wall'i C O Ill m ence d in Cordoba's tilll e were not complet e d until 1Ililny yral's afterward ul1de r th e go'-ernmcnt of Al o nso )fe l'cado d e Y illacorta. f ur t ifica ti o n s arc estimat e d to ha,(' cost upwards o f ten million d ollars i ll m O llcy, principall y furni s h e d fr o m P e ru. 'rhis d oes not tak e into : l CCOlllit th e f orce d lab o r employed in th eir construction The st o r y has b een hand e d clown how :l so,cl'cign of Rpain was seen s tanding at a w indow of his palaeo o n o (by look ing t o ward the west with a disturb e d expr essio n u1I his f e a tures. A courti e r m a d e u old to inquire what he was l o ok ing at. III am looking" r e l J lied the King, his fac(l r e l ax ing int o a grim smile, .Ifor th ose cos tl y Willis o f PflllClma. 'rhe y ought t o h e visible e\"en frolll here' ---.. Th e Da.1'iol1 r egio n was th e scon e of tht' firs t aUrmpt b y Euro p r an s, other than subjects of Spain. to obtnin a cOll1mer c i n l foothold on tll e Span i s h ::\Ia i n F o r s ome time prior to 1695 "\Villiam Patterson. one of th e founder s of th e Bank of Engl a nd had b ee n <1 projert of comm ercia l ex pansi o n of considerable magnitude. It W!1S his idea to ('stablish col onies in various p a rt s of the I

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122 Pil o t a nd G u ide. No. I94 Central Avenue, PANAMA. The .America.n Photogra.phers Amateur \XTork a Specialtv_ OPEN" .A..LL TFI"E TI1VI:E. Ori ent, a s w('11 as th(' O c cil lellt, to build lip :t trade betw een th ese p o ints a nd his COUlltI'y, Seotlaud. 1..' ndel' roynl rhal1rl', n ('o mpnny wa s formed, and in the year ] 698 v esse l s with m o r e than a thous(1 Cale d onia, th e immignlllts f O llnd e d the settlement o f Edinhurgh, located about 75 miles t o th e nonhw('s t fl'om Cape Tibur o n on th e Gulf o f Ural L The y built some f o rtifi c ati olls, establis hing tw o h a tteri es o f :'2 can lio n s enc h Only H few m onths e lapsed h oweve r b e fore th e effect of the tropicnl climate [lml i t s fevel's b ecame nppar e nt o n th e hard y 111('11 of the n o rth fll1d 1)1.:> 01'0 th e end of the firs t ),en1' :ul'ivC'd only n l'emllSlnt o f th e ol'iglllfil col ony l'('mailled. In the meontime o th e r C'migrnnts h a d heel1 se n t out from Scotland, but th<,y 1':\1'('(1 e \ 'en worRO than th e firs t COIlll'r s Ab o ut thi s t i m e the Spalliards l e arned of the full scope of J'att e r so n s design s t oward the South Sea. tradC', and d e termine d to fm s trnt o it. All e xpediti o n was sent ngnillst the col on)' Ht New Edinburgh and m e t with but littl e I'C sislnllcr rphe capture d Runi"ors were' ther e upon d e port ed. I

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, -, I , \ I -, --I -' ----=:: -:> -' -J ""< l/ielV if par! if the shipping Iii w/olJ-.'j.)anama. !htluruan -:!IJtrr. n ca" .f !P.R.:It. ..#'ew s ..Ay:,ncp4 .:Adl.,..-#,4 tng JJurvau .. "" L-____________ --------------------------

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124 P ilot aml Guide. -'t-orO Patte r soll did not give up his pi a II with out a. furthe r eff o rt, :l1Id e nd eavo r e d to plant anothe r co l o ny, t i me on the l>ill'ific OC(,311 and nW[lj' fl'ol11 Panama. but a ctin g l i mier o rders fro m Spain, L ie ut. General D. Juan Di!l1. Pimie nto, Captain-Gener a l o f the )ll'o\"in ce t oo k thf' 31'Y t o pr(>vellt it. ........... The p c,.io d f,.om 1710 to 1790 was principally marke d by freqll ont hattles l)('tw(,(,11 the Spaniards and the Indian trihrs of the Darie n Early in the cOllt llry. CathQlic missionaries from Spain f O lllldt'd several pl<1(,(,8 ill thi s r('gion, but ill 1719 the sanl.gcs rose and destroyed th e m nil. In 1740, L icu t. Gen e ral D. Dio nisi o Martinez d e let Y e ga entered into a tre})t)' of peac e with th e Jndi11lls and soo n after the Yi ce ro)" o f Sa nt" F e D o n Sehastian d e Eslava" and th e (J.oyel'llor of Panama, acting in conjuncti o n sent out four prirsts, two tu th e not ih ;111(1 twn t o the s o uth, ill the Darie n rrgion. alld thrsc fouuded Y;t\' i za, a town l o cated o n the Riyc r, the Inrg-psl n ffln cut o f the rl'uira, 01' Tn yra. th e principni rin3 r in HIP Dnrien emptyi n g int o the Pacific. Yavizil t o-day i s all outpost 011 the foruidden fronticr of the Dcll'i clI rndi : llls. this point trave l e r s can go with sa f e t y hut a furth e r jOlll'JlC'Y inland would b o excee din g l y risky. Alt h o ugh Ya viza is l ocated fifty miles o r :)0 fro m the coas t tide wHler do c s not end for seve r a l m i l es pas! th e t OWIl Notwith standing the e fforts o f the ,1 es u it priests t o obtain n foothold ill thi s r egion. it W:18 n ot l ong nft r r b efore the Indinns planned nn uprising' alld 1ho missiDlllll'ies h n d to lIe e f o r lheit lives. In 1 fOl'ls wel'e c.tabli s h e d I

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1 125 o n the Saban:l: ChUCll l UlfJue ami Tuirn. ]{i\"cnij a l w o n the coast of th e Gulf of San but six years late r upon co nclu sion of
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126 F P Nos. P ilot and G /tid e -,\ \ .\ .r PETERSEN, P roprie t or. 178-174 CENTRAL AVENUE, SANTA ANA PARK. E_ P. NEWLY FURNISHED. ELECTRIC LIGHTS, fA\: 'IT' fA\: ll, ll, Iill (Q) (U AMERICAN SERVICE I tlPORTED GElU'lnN DRnUGI1T BEEI ( nLWOrS ON I IIP. liole! Ccntrally Located and cOllrcnicllt f o r the trmlillg public the fad tha t the dccisire !"'tt1c of Ho!,nc,i, "hich mode till end to Hpftnis h dOlllilIiCtIi i n ColomiJia. had b e e I! f o u ght .:1J1(l \ron hy Simo n B oii", H on' r two years before. lIal11('l y \uglls t 7.ISI0. l'his W;lS duc to the I nrgc arme d f o rce I1lflilltnillctl h y S,xlill on til e r stllll1l1:;. The f orts o f 8.111 J l o rellZO :lli d P O lio Brll o were ,yell g:1l'l'i:-.ollcd. while the cit y (If P allama "";1" a t all tillles ill a s tale of p(,l'fl' c t d c fl'Il('C'. Tt) the liltl c t O Wl! o f Los Sallto:.:. ('npibl o r tli(' p ro\ 'iu('c bC':ll'ing the s aUl(> 1H11l\ e h c l ollgs the h O llor o f Ilwking 11lr fir s t opcn Ilifc!'tatioll f ol' lihcrty, :11 III this \\IlS luo ng-Ill ahollt ill thc foll n willg way: J Ii 1 K I!), :t small cluh fnrnwd ill p ;)IIll1ll;l, consisting' o f i nfiurntin l citifor lil' jJlIrpnsc (If carrying' 011 it !i\(,Cl'rt rcrol llt iollnry pl'opag-:lIld:l. .t\gl'llh W(\1'0 selll t o the interi o r tOWllS t o ol'gallizC' o lh('1' for tlJ(' fOIllC'nting of a rcr o lu liollnry tilt.' p r qlldali oll. 'rhe littl e societ y nt I jns Hantos b el'a m c SI) CIlLiIlt.iias li c t!lI.1l it h o i l e d o rcr. and

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.. -------'. IlIIli,/flllll'l/('!" /rm/! Slmin. 18:1 one da y th e member!; tllnl e d out ell mn!-;se alld milde. '!I publi c d e m o n s trnt iOIl ill f.nor of frerdom. ,-.. : E arly ill l S :?!. (lell, J uan d(' I:l (1rllz :\llIrgc(J1l firriyed at Panama h tlying bCf'1l rlppoillte(l b.,-the Governmcnt t o th e post of C"ptaill-nf'IlC'l"al ,-Illd PCC'$Oid c qt of Qu i to, H e \\" 1 1 S furth e r promi.;;cd the po!>;t of Yicel"oy of S'lnta Fl;. if he cOlliel )"('co'-el' ("01111'/11" of tWCI-tllil'ds of tile l'irre illate_ Thi!; lie ypry !-.()ll11 saw illlPOlislulr. rllld 011 Ocloher :2)lId o f th Stllll(> \"<,:tl" (,lIliJ;lrk e d for Quito t o C'xercise hi!; title of PrC'"itil'llt. 1 1';lyilig ill ("om-Bland of th e pr ori n ces 011 tho Jsthnlll":;. L:eutA":oJ. Jo!>;c cIo F ;ibrega who m h e thcn l'rom otf'd to thr gradl' of Col. was h )1"11. HllIl \rhcll h e &L'Y that he was to b o th e arhitcr of thl' fate of the h e r esoh-cd t o th row in his lot with libl 'l"ty-aspiring countrymell 'The r e upoll) n g('IIC'ral lIH.'Lting C'f 1111 tl.H' ci,-ic corp o rati olls) military ::llId ehurch orgallit.ations in Panama wa s called :llll l on Xo,,'mbl'r I. befmo a l arge and e nthu!; iastic <:I'O\nl. th0 of th e I s thmu s from Spanish Illi:o.-rulc IJL'c:unc nil fl('(.'ompli!)h e d fa c t. F ;ibrega himself, "-:1S all intcl'cstl'd of tJlis e y ent. S o m e of the ::';pi.1nish truops !'till 1'C'llwining loya i to th e Crowll: d c b ;llcd
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128 Pilot 611(1 Guid e I s thmian people had already sec ur e d th e ir ind e p ende nce through favor ing cir curust.-"illces ............ ---The di sco v e ry o f go ld in C a lif o rni a a nd th e l ac k o f a saf e and rapid tra n s c onti n enta l m eans o f getting t o the d esire d g oal, i ndu ce d m a u y tho u s and s o f tr easure hunt e r s t o see k the I s thmian tra nsit. Durin g the seyen (It' e i g ht yea r s s u ccee ding ti, e fir s t fin d 0 1 go ld o n Sntte r 's C reek. i t is es t i m ate d that n o t l ess th a n 8 4 0 000 000 in gold, '312 -000,0 00 in s ilv er and 25 ,000 p assen g e r s w ere annu ally a c r oss the Isthn1l1s o n p ac k-mul e trains. B y 1 853 the rus h was on ill carnest, according t o official figures th e output oll(o ld in Calif o rnia f o r th a t year r Jae h e d th e hig h es t m a rk i n its hist o r y namely, The s udd e n d e v e l opment o f th e p ac k-mul e train busilless o n th e I s thmu s b y r easo n o f th e disco, 'c r y a tt mc t e d t o the cou ntry a. large number o f C h i l ea n s P eruvia ns, rlldia n s and mixe d bree ds, many o f w h om camo n o t t o Cl1g ;lgf' in a n h o nest business, but t o plunder. I'o h find lIlurd cr, \ ric h field was a t o nce o p e n e d t o the m 011 account o f the d e m and f or pack-mule trains a. husin ess ill w hich the lllujority o f the m w el'o expe rt. 'rhe Pa mulln llC'w s p n p el's o f lhose days a r c filll"d with stirring accon n t s o f assault and r obbe ry, and mallY pathetic i n cide nts o f peopl e who h a d r eac h e d P a n a m a sllccessful and happy onl y t o b o r obbe d and rrequently Illurdc r c d i n making the transit t o th o o th e r side Oftell s h i p s w ould f1l'l'i\'c from Calif orni a wit h from O n e t o two million s o f dus t and bullion 011 b O:ll'd. and with h a lf as muc h again probably secr e t c d a b out tho p e rson, 01'

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T ltclisfhJIIll8 ill ll1e do!!.,; Of '49 129 in th e htlS"gilgO o f pass engers who tru s ted llobody but th clllscircs, n o t C,' CIl th e ship's strong box. On onc Dcca-! sioll sC\'crai boxes of gold :tlTi\'e(1 at Y ork, apparently inta c t. but w h elJ opclIP d it wa s di sco y ered that from forty to fifty pel' ce nt. had ueell sto l oll. The rifling was accol11-b y thl" :tid of a certain s hap e d b o ring apparatus that w ou ld bring out as mu c h as d esi r e d of the contcnb 1 of the boxes. anti fill ill again with sand, until tbe original weight was lcached. The holes ill lhe boxes were then plugged and seHlcd n eaUy that they co uld 1I0t be detect e d, except upon dose examination. A s II nSlIlll thing howcycl', this m e thod was too lauorious. :111(\ h:lllCls of arm e d mell mad e opcn attacks all p l ck ilssisted by confe d erates a cting as guards. or dl'i\ crs. 111 .January th e S S. Northerner ar-j riv e d from :,;"" Franc isco with ill gold dusl I and treasure 011 boarrl, and carrying :'}OO passengers. Many of lhe latt c r had their I1c\dy gailled wcalth concealed in I their La(rotage [1I1Illcliiatc h afte r th e s t e amer's arrival I tltl -. 0) J pl'tlparati olls hegall f oJ' the pa c k acroi:is. '1'he sL-trt was m,ldC': anel at ;1.. place called Cardenas llbollt one day 's j o urney f l' Olll Pall,Hna h y mule back the passengC'J's were I attacked jll br oad da ylight hy a lar ge body of armed men. I LIl the nghl Ulat f ollowe d JoiOIl1C few of the passengers I sLiccep.cled in withdrawing with their pack trains unobserved, but the robbers manage d t o capture two mule loads of treas ure. amounting to about B l:lO,OOO. During the tight. the l e fldel' of the band, a Chi lean, WflS ::;hut and k ille d. The a.ffair hatl hardl y terminated when reinforcem e nt s
PAGE 147

I I I f \ I I ... .. ---!I t ...... I 0 'f a -'l '4 1" "r .-... ..... .. -" -.I><> 4 9hru .:J>c,liccn/an if .'jJalla/1/a J4...ur"",.":P.1i ..MoW ... ":AiJ.'WrliIi "6:BurvflU ..If -" --. --. ._. -- --- w 0 'ut 0 ., \ I I I f .' -'":I -. -'" --'" -.., ....... ,. [ --, -. -.. ...

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TIl( { flall/l/f.Of i ll flw (J/ 'J,", 131 PAUlI.\. CllEilIU. EmlillE. GORG(IX.1. COLOX. Panama News Agency. N ewspapers Magazines Stationery Powell's Candies Cig11 had hrcn waylaid :lIId Illlll'cI(' l' rd. T h e mCII were artisans -oil thril' WHy h o mC', and had w i th tilf':n a c hest of tools. This ch es t from it s and app earflllCC )('<1 olle of th e llu m e rous gang s o f 1'(11)1>('1'5 t o belicH' thnt it cont[lineu. They o ff cl'C'Cl tilclHscl, (-'s ;LS pa.cktrain men, w er(' accepted. [Iud at a ('{'rlaill p o int on t.he load t.he tr:lY{'iel's w(,l'e set upon and killed. the e ff rcts o f tile dC:1d m c n were found ;1 mas on s :1proll) :1lld othe r o f the order. which incrl'Hsctl the d esire t o lUll the guilty parti es to ca rth. This WflS sho rtly acccllLJllished. Th r pa c k-tnlin m{'1l w e n cf)llf ront c d with th c endc nce find c O llf cssc d they were nil hlken to Pi.lllallla and s h ot. 'fhesc find silllil:1r OCCU l'relices :uou$;l'd to lake some de('isirc flelion l o \yan l puttin g VI
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I I r --, ---------I ---- r age!'. A II that w(lre callght in w e r e gi \ 'e n short '"'su
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,-----------_._--------_ ... -L"l
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134 Pilo t (/)/(1 c harg e d five u ollan; ill tl w bill f o r the d og's b ed. To thi s the Co unte ss objecte d aud on th e landlord iusistin g that the bill should be paid s h e pull e d out h e r pis t ol, alld threalened to settle Ilot oilly the bill, bnl the h o tel k ee per as well, f o r extortion. There was n o further argument. A repl'eseutat.irc of tho r:palJuma Star" illtC'niewcd the artiste 011 :lIay 9, 1 853, al tbe Cocoa Grov e H ole l and wrot e a n account of it a s follows: "instead of meeting n. giantess in appearauce, 3Ull 1\ }>('.1"8011 of mnsculin e manllers a s was expected, 1\"e \vcr e most ub"l'ccably surp ri se d whell o n p.csClJtatio ll to the Countess, t o fiutL h e r a Ia.dy of ordinary 8tature, llud of rat.h e l d elicate frame, possessing the m ost. l'egula]' and handsomc fcatlll'cs, with 3. pail' of briLlilln t lind expr ess i \'c eyes, and withal !\l1 e x cce diugly winniug' address. \\T C we re still more wlJCU 011 oxtending }l('l" hand, L o tiud it so dimiuutive, II "During an bonr'E with the w e coulu -observe no lK'euliarity alJout hcY, b eyon d whitt w e wou ld d esi re to soc in all Y w ell educated WOIllIUI, possessi n g It degree o f assurance peellli n r to poople w ho h3\ '0 tr1tveled much, thus c n abling h e r to give expl 'cssio u to hm' tho u g ht s witJJOut auy of that l':!impering moek modczsty whic h makes many p eo pl e 8ppear ridieulolls, WII.S not uutil aiter dark, and 8S we w e r e about to take o u r It: ilve that W u ha.d a. fair opportunity to judge of t h e courageo us dal'ing of this ) 'cm al'kl\ble womall, Oue of tlre gue t 8 of t h e hotel w h o h a d l)eo u taking no walk about the grounds was attacked and a n attempt ma.d e t o shoot.. him, Lola. M o ntez weut to whero it wa s b"Oing on and rendered what ai d p oss ibl e, returning with th e guest t o t h c house lu all the eXcitclUcut there was 110 dezsit'c to faillt, o r cxpressio n of fClu on h el" part. Sho cross'questi onerl the guest thoroughly, but the nlfRir remainod a. mystery," Th e s ta y of Loh M ontez on lh e I s thmu s was not o f l o n g duration but s h e expr esse d grea.t pleasure over h e r visit and it was many a da.y be f or e tho m e mory o f h e r and her queer a ttire was forgotten.

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(kC(lI/ $ L 'illk(' d by St e el 18 5'; 135 ceans tee Ions, ---The p ossibiliti es illcide n t t o the co n structi o n of a r a ilroa.d a c ross th e I s thmu s early attrac t e d Ule attcnti o ll o f c apitali s t s and oth e r s. The first m o v e in th is d i r ect i on w as m n d e in 1 8 3 5 when; purs u a nt to a resoiutioll o ff ere d i ll th e U nited St.nt es S enate b y H e nr y C l ay, P l'csidellt Andre w .lack so u appointe d C harles Biddl e a to visit the diffe r ent r outes o n ill e co ntin ent of A meric[L best ndaptld f o r inte r oce ani c ('ommun icatioJl; an d to re p ort the r eo n with r efere n ce t o their v a lu e t o the co m m e r c ial illt e re s t s o f the U llit e d S t a t es Ur. B i ddl e came to til e I s thmu s and acco mpa llie d h y D o n .Tose Obaldia at that tim e a m en:Le r o f th e Col o mbian Co n gress, la'ter v i s it e d B o g o ta. wh orE': afte r repeated d e l ays; he s ecure d from the gO'fe rnm ent a d ec r ee giying h i m t he ri g h t to uuild n. railroad a c r oss the I sthmus H e returned t o the Unite d States in ] S:17, but di e d h e f o r e h e was a bl e to mak e a r e p o rt. In ] 84-'7, a FfeilCh s yndicat e h eade d b y M ateo Kline o btaiu(ld an optiolJ on the pro p ose d und erta k ing from th o G o v e rnm ent of N e w Granada whic h h o weyol': was p ermitte d t o lapse the f o llowing year. The ru s h o f the go ld see kers Santiago Rozo LAWYER. Viploma. of the National Uni versity o t Bogota, C o l o m bia. Oft'er. hi. Prote lonal Seryl ce. to the Public. REF'"ERENCES: P ..... B.ak', Co. III. Bilk',. Co. Office, 'No. 36, F i ftb Panama. Santiago R o w ABOGAOO Con D i ploma. de 1& U n iven:ldad Nacio. nal de Bogot Colombia.. Ofrece lUI 8 enolc lo8 Profealo nale REF'"EREN C JAS: B.nk Co, I lIf : 8ank', C o OficiDa Calle 5a. 36, Pauaml1. t a

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. 136 to C'niifCll"llia i ll 'I!) all ill the p r oject. T n :1 ('ollll);'!))' ":11.; I),\" H. A s pin wall. .John L. :-\tpp1iC'lIs :IIHI H elll'} C'h:ulIlcy o f N e w Y o rk C ih' Hiltier tllp II<1I1W {If the P :ltInma Haih oa d Cf/Ill- pall, Tili", S(TlIIT<\ :1 c(jl1tl's .... iotl fl'om the R e -public o f Xc\\" (;1":(11,111:\ giying' it th e cxdusi, 'c pri i l ego o f a railroad 011 til<' I .. thmus ill which w ns i n corpo r a t ed a prmisio n tlml no 1!C'gotiat,iolls lookiJlg t o th o huildin g (Iprl"atintl 01' a ship can;t! ('0111<1 bo conclud ed without Ihl' ('OIlSC'llt of tlit' I'.liil'oad 'rile con cess ioJl w as mad e 1'01' a pnillll of fnriYIIIIlC 'year:; tlating fro m th e cOlllpll'tion flf the 1'0;,\1. 'I'hl' time gi,,'I1I tor co m p l e tiQIl was six }C':ll s fmlll th e ,fatt' Clf !'lignin, the contrac t In lhli"j whell the nlllllC {If the H epulJhe (,f ::\ew G r :uw.t1a was c hungl'(l til thnt of Colomhia {he l'oJlcc!Ssion was ex t en ded for a periqd of llindYlllllc yrar!'<. Ihus Illa k i n g th e clltire term of thc' gr.lIlt II ..... years frolll the date o f com, pletion. \ t thr. ('''pimtilll) d tliis time. the concessio n pro yiticd that the raill'uml
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-'- e;, ---, '- I \ ; d/nccm-Hc.spital and the Capltel iffhe Canal 'zone .,,,/AmiAA .:;!k,crlCQII .?bP..9l..lYtWI dJlU'c.y &ddvl'.rf,;'!J!Jl :&retlu .:;;I .iJit:ttkD/I'Jkl -.

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138 P ilot {tllel G uide. ::::..::::. ----= ... = plus, so t.hat the actll a l amount rcceived by the American j s har e h o lder s was a b out p el' s hare f o r stock the comm c rcial value o f whic h at that tim e was on l y a littlc nuo\"6 pal' 'Whe n the U nit e d Rtates bought t h e property of the Frc n c h canal company, amollg its assets were the s i xty e i g ht se v e nti eths of the stoc k of the Panama Ra i lroad. R oad Pays $250,000 Indemnity Yearly. The rai lroad b as b ee n b o nded for varioll s amounts since 1 851. In 1 897 hower e r nil bond s w e rc retired and a lle w iss'w of 4,000 first m o rtgage 4 1 / 2 pel' cent. twent.y year gold bonds o f SI,OOO eac h was made. Of these b o nds 3,374 were so ld and G2G were retain e d in the treasury o f the c ompany. At the time the property was acquired by the U nit ed States Go,emwellt 1,002 of Ule o ut stan ding bonds hild be e n r e d ee med. l -lldel' th e t erms of the con cessio n th e )'fl.ilrond was compe lled to pay to th e Colombian Government an annua l indemnity of The rai lroad therofore, has not onl y b ee n r e quired to pay fr o m its earnings intercst 011 its bOlld e d indebtcdness, and its o p e rating expenses, but a l so th e a.nllual inde mnity of m o re thall $5:000 P CI" mile. [n 1 880 th e \'aill'o ad company at th e request of the Colomhian Gorcrn m ent converte d th i s indemnity iuto bonds fOl a p erio d of twentyseven and o!!e -li[llf YCl U S 'rhese bond s were aftci wards sol d h y th e Colombiall Government to pri\ T :l t c capi t.alist s so that this inde muity is 1I0W oeillg, and will contiull e to h e until 190 8 paid t o th e PUI'c ha sel's o f th eso bonds. ; \ ft el' th at, (>1' 111 1 91:\ a. the treaty IIllder whic h th e cana l i s bciu g cOlls tructed s t.ipulat(\s, t hat alllollnt will he paid by th e Unite d Slates Gov el'n m ent to the H e plIbli c of Panama. JI1 pre p ari n g f o r th e work, th e compfillj" engage d thc scrvices o f two eminent A uU'l'ican e n gincers, George H r otte n and J ohn C. (fmutwine, hoth o f whol11 had beCI! previous l y employed 011 imp o rtant c ngincc!ill g llnd e rtnkillg 8

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I 139 : = both .t hOllle lIlid a bro ad One of th ese was tho COIIstl'uc ti o ll o f a cana l from Ca rtagen a to the Ma g dal e n a Ri\' cl' in Co l ombia. by whic h they acq uired some knnwle d ge o f the Spanish language, 3m l all in!oloight illt o the mATIne r o f working th e native l a b orer!'. Active work 011 th e r oad hegan ill th e f .1I of HJ.l9. The fir s t three month s w e re d e v o t e d to es t a bl is hin g a d e p o t at GOl'golla f o r material a nd su ppli es, it h a ving b ee n th e origina l intelltio ll to hu i ld th e section ot th e road fro m Gorgolla. t o I>anama. first. This phtn necessi t a t e d th e b'nllsf e r of a ll materi a l from DCeitll s t ea m ers to smaller c rafts and tll e voyaging of the latter nround Point t o th e m o uth o f th e C ha;!re. and up thi s s h eam t o Gorgon.. So many diffi c ultie s a t ollce d e v e l oped t o thi s m e thod tbat it was s h o rtly abandoned and Aspinwall (I) mad e th e northern t e rminu s of th e line One Way of Getting a Job. The lab orers e mploy e d ill th e co n s tl'n cliOIl of the road c am e from m"ery palt of th e w o rld Th ere w ere natives., East Indi ans, "'est India n s, Chino8(l, Eut'o pean.q and Ame ri ca n s, a s motley a c rowd as eye r a s semb l ed und e r th e SUIl. The trial giren th e Chinese proved ;\ dismal failure One of th e leading spirits o f th e time was J a mes L. Baldwin, a c ivil c ng i nc('l' t o whom : by common cOllsent, t he carl y comp l e tion of tho road was large ly clu(. Baldwin was a good jud go of mOil, and h e knew a s if b y intuition jus t what h e could do with th e w o r se th an FaIstaffian mob with w h ich h e was SUlTOlllllled. His tac t I was seconded b y an o ff hand m alll101' of utt el' feariessllt'ss and pers ona l da.ring. One day he had a difficulty at Fri joles with.n illl men se Iris hman WhOlll he had pln ce d in c h a rge ---( 1 ). POl'mer name of Colon. 1\'inned niter W R ASllinwall, onl' o f the foundel's o f the P R. R --

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14-0 PANAMA Pilot (Hul G /lide EMPIRE. "A:l11 9\, I ; f." I; l Commercial S i g n -COLON. "A u.11 0 t.J.::n. s Painting. .of thnt stJ,ltioll in "hic'll fr e qllC'llil: Illul l':li ll fll llj' fl'(,t, -waS lIsed. 'PllC slIl)ordlltat e W;lS \\L'II ,,1.:illl'1i i ll tilU :lIt:'of' se lf defen(,L' ;11111 :t!W: I:S r e ady to ('0111(' t o th e sl'ni1<:h Tho irah' ( hier tlloll g b hC';HlstrnIlM 11'-111 I'(';\ell('d thl' ,Ycllrs of distrrti(lll. Hlltl t !lt' lII
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141 D o you thillk there is <111Y QIJ(l ill the-sc parts that cnn d o it? IJet th elll try it. I Th en:' Hailiwi n said ... I wallt YOII t o go t o F rijole's Statioll, gel ill a row wilh tiIC' track lIla:-;lt l .. gin' hillt II r o u g h :IIHI k i d\" hilll out. Yo n {'all 1IJ('1I lI: l\"(' ilis i oh." rl'h c offer was ,It OncC' ac{'('piC'!!. On th e following llluntinA' 111(.' IIC'W :11'1"1":11 f O llnd h imself at, Frijol es, and l11(' t 111(' hY-1l0-JHt'HI1S {,OHII(lOll!-O I allll I'cfitl(' d ('hal'ge 'I'1iC' IlIltt'1' \\"flS l'C'ndy t o pic k n. quarre l with lilt IH'W\,OIlIC'I'. and soon h(ll h gilt Wfirlll and Clgl<-'Nl to fight it out in :1('( 01'11:111('(.' w illi t h e rul es o f the r ing. 'Phry !-il:ihd orr lill lillg, an d di<,;pC'lI<.;ing with til e seconds W{,llt ; I t it. .1\ f t r l' sC'\"('rai rOllnds ill wllirh o oth showed s i g n s o f heay,Y pn ni: dll llf'IlLllir s t l':l llgC'1' gaillcd th e victory and (>:\Iwll( ti his :l1I1;1g0Ili!-;t from till' ,,1:1<, 1 rhi s OCCUITCII('C i s p C'rfl'd l y 11'1](' :Iud illu!o.t n lt es S')IIl C of th e r o u g h and rl'lHl y eH'llls o f t llose t,ill'('S Oil th e Pall funa H :lilroad AS:III .. ftI'I'W{)l'tI we Illigllt :lfl d tha t th e h ero o f thi s affair was Tom t:;h ;lrp "lio l ,ltl:l' fOll glit his W:l)' to s u ccess ill tllC' raill'ond '\{)I Itl. } ..... rom s ta.rt. t o finish tllP ('OlllP:II1Y "':IS lH'SC't with labor t roubles. The' !;dJo lC'rs that \\,(,'1'{' hlOllg ht t o t1H' ] sthmlls und ('r cont r :lct would llle'lt ;1\\';1\' ill t he s lr(';I111 c .f pc-ople h O llnd f or th e (talifol'l1ia gold-fidds Ill F chru:try 1 Ih(' work was hl'ought to' a. sto p b y it willdrsal c ties(,l tiOl1 of the se IllPH. hut with th e o f 111<' CuIOlnl';!l11 :lllthol'itir s ;] large I l umbel' w(,l'e ; lpp r ehC'ndr d 3m l k ep t ill j:lil ullti l till'Y signified their ll' aliillC'ss t o returll t o work. .All(,tllC'1' facto r in th c l;th o r qu es tion was th e I s lhmi:m f('vcr s which ; I t t imes nwde 5en'I'C inroad!i 011 th e men and gay(-' t o the r e p ort that T he l';lllillll:l Rai lr oad cost a m a n fur every tic .n WITHOUT" F'A-NOR-MA. Why are all that li, 'c o ut s idc thc c ity l i k e ",vh a ns' Be ca u se they arc without Pa-H o rma

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--142 P ilot (II/(l G ui de. --The Black Swamp. Probabl y the largest obstacle m o t w ith in the CQIlwork: o f tho rOMI was tho s tr etch Uu'ough tho s wamps betw('C'n C o 1 011 G:'ltun and pnrticular l,Y o v o r tllp fam o ll S I Bla c k Swamp" swam p is b etween Lion H ill an d Ahoron L agal'to and has been gil' jng tro ubl e nt intenal s cn:'l' s i nce the o p e ning o f the r o ad. 1'ho dumpe d thousands of t OilS of rock, w oo d and other matcl'i;1 1 int o the s \ \ 'amp before n founda.tion was se cure d firm e n ough to b e us ed. (or the passage of trains DUli n g the pcriod of th o Frellc h calla l companies traill sf'lTicc was frequclllly at this point and 011 oac h occasio n tO ilS o f machillery a nd sc rap were dumpe d info tho place Isthmian Ca na l Commi ssion has twice experienced tr oubl e durin g the pas t ycnl' fr o m th e b o ttom fallin g o nC' in this loc ality. 'rh o l ast OCCUI'l' CIiCC was i n Septembcr. 1007, w hen s ixty f eet of tr ack s ank o ut of s ight soon nftcr passcnger tnlin h ad passe d Tb e Commission J11.lS a d o pt e d th e m e thod o f dl'iving piles as a. sup p ort t o the tra c k and whcro this has h{'en d o lie no further trouhl e hns resulte d It i s the int c ntion howcver t o build :t ;Igaulltl e f track around the s p o t to avoid n reClilTence o f thi s llrttUl'C. First Train Into Panama. 'rhe company h :ll1 tl':1ills I'ullnin g 1'1'0111 i\spill w :dl t o Catlin ill 1 Rf>21 :llId to bridge ill 011 .Talltlilry 28, lX5:') th c fir s t tl'aill ),C'fI, c h('d P \1l:1tl H l alld Ihe Sta,. ((-lfcrald two dftys Intor writes of the o,ont ,,-fol lows: w hisUc of the r ailroad e ngine hns at l e n gt.h woke lip the s lumb ering ('ch ors o f P a n;llll:l. llway throu g h the hills an d dales; Orel' th e qni c t hay flIH1 ;ulIid8 t the ru ills of th(' :lllcicll t city, tho firfol.t wild s hrick hafol. gone fOl'th pr oclai m i n g the ad"ftIlCl' of COIll Jll el'C(, anti civilization 011 the PllciH c cons t of Amcric:L 'rhe g r cat cOllllec tin g

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143 ARTU RO KOH peKE. No. 73 Central Avenue, Panama. ---.. .. ---THE OLDEST DRUG IN 'rilE ern: Imp o rt e r of Chemicals Pat ent /'lcd1cil'lcs 3l)d F e rf : unc.rr. Prescriptions Carefully Prepared by Skilled and Competent German Pharmacists. t:rJglish, FrE'nch, @erflJalJ and S p o l w n link of the Atlantic and Pac ific i s co mpl e t e d, th e Pallll m3. Rai lroad i s finis h e d find th e first trai n hitS mad e it s appearance :ullong s t u s, o p eni n g up a new e r a o f prosperity f ol' the people o f th e Isthmu s of Panama", "On Sunday aftel'lloon about h a lf pas t thl'ee o'clock th o usand s of p eople gath ere-d 1l1 o n g the line to for th e fir s t tim e th e a pp ea ran ce o f th e iro n h orse [IS it rattled over th e tnl c k s to th e s tation, EtHel man y w ere th e expressio n s o f surprise and wOlldel' at its app'Rl'allce-, and th e facil ity wit h whi c h the wild creature wa s mallng c d. ilIules and pack saddles al'e now f Ol'e v cl' supplante d h y the s team e n gi ne, and th e mud of th e CL'Uces trail is l'Xchange d f o r :1 comfortabl e sea t in a rai lr oad coach. The twe nty-fiye cen t s p e r pOllnd c harged for trans portin g fr e igh t a c r oss the Isthmu s is now r educe d t o il m ere llo minal cos t and tho l OllS tediolls j O llrn ey oyer the I sthmus has been transfo rm e d into a pleasure trip of a couple of h o ur s".

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---- -" .shipping .:Bananas from .Y3ohio-.!Panama. .!hIJu,oan -p..Il..P. ..AC1l',s .::Age-:IC!!4-.:Adverfi,Ji"g .iJureau .;4. .. .skt

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Trai/l /111" )"1/111/11". 145 \\'hat will follow the opening nf the railroill l it is hard to for e tcll. hllt we ('all :-,C't' great Iiling'i lip ill tho dist anro fur Pan:lma. D ouhLless tlirrC' that will suffer a temporary loss in th eir hy the oJlrll ing o f tho rail ro;td. hut this llIust hf' ('Xlwtjpd as i\ n;ltnI"n l consequcllce :lIlcl \ rill he of short d uration. Far away t o tile confines o[ th o Pacific thr np('lling (If thf' Pilll:llllil Railr oad will b e hailcd with (illig ht. Prom nnrth Ir) south; from cast to wcst o f t hi!>; mighty (J('C'illi will hCllcfkellt infiucnc cs h e felt. From ('n]>o H orn to ()r{'g!Jll. from Kam schntka t o J-
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146 P ilot (l1Id Gui ( lc, 'Vith th e opelli n g of th e road a. hca, \ y traffic SOOIl d e \-el o p e d, whic h with th e extreme l y high rates charged f o r passengfl' and fr eight hauls made largo IJl'ofits for th e stoc kh olders Arter:t time these ex.ccssiyc charges beca m e th e subject o f comp l aints whi c h c ame to the n otice of the Colombia n Go\'e mment. A head tax on each pa sse n ge r ca.rried the road was thereup o n o rd ere d ) aud ill a large number of gm 'c rnm ent e mp l oyes, p o liti c i a ns :1lld influ e ntial c iti ze n s w ere instructe d to be pla ce d o n the free l ist. 'rhis re sulte d ill all exc han ge of lIot es b e twe e n the American l\1ini s t e r r esi dent at Bogota, 1 and the Col ombian Governm e nt and a compr omise was finally e ff ecte d by whie h the head tax was to be r e moyed upon the railr oad company inaugurati ng a lower passe nger tariff. 'fhe steam s hip c ombination s con s titutillg in e ffect :-L 1ll0110po l y wer e not cha ng e d uutil after th e purc ha se uf th e road b y th e Uni t e d S ta tes Gorernment. Panama Not What it Used To Be. 'l'h"t the m ilroad would benefit th e I s thmu s was lIo t imme diately apparent. Six m o nth s afte r th e o p ening o f traffi c the Stll'l" ,C lfcl"{(lrl prints the following article s i glle d :' Tl' aycle r": ':Pllnama is not what it u se d t o be ; it i s u ot the Panama o f I'h e n t h e Ca lif ol"llia tr'l\"el afford e d a large bu!;iness to th e store k ee p e r s IIluleteer5;, tran s p o rtation Ilge nt s, h o t e ls, baggage s ma s h e rs, gambl e r s ;..t.nd Th e compl e tion o f the l:>anama. Railroad OJIab i es passenge r s :lIld fre ight to p ass throu g h from Calif o rnia. without d e lay .Kowall i s c hall gcd g l a ss gro w s i ll th e stre e t s and o n the Plaz a, wh e re once busy crow d s Uuo n gcd. A l a r ge lIumb e r o f husiness h o n ses h a ,'o broken up o r c hang e .l to n m ore prospero u s locatioll. It 100kH t o m e moro like :l. dCHcl'te d g rnxoYfll'(l th:11l the PHIl!)-10,1 o f olel. H i s quit e c l ear that th e railrofid h as not b e n efite d th e I s thmus, but mther th e reverse" c -___________________________________________ ________ ____ -J -

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I 147 llll. Llmr .IXIJ DHESSlLIl\lX G --OF-c. C. S. Du Bois & Co. No ase Centra.1 Avenue ... I Lndict; u;ho hlll;c sotdll!] 1 0 b e donel or fllll} lrllrh i n ultr lill e trill do u;cll t o c nll I)n I WORK PROMPTlY AND CAREfUllY EXECUTED A1 REASONABlE PRICES. Railroad Concession Extended. 'Vith the extells i o n o f l ime gi,' e n b y t.ho Col ombian Gov ernment in J 8 67 n n agreem e n t was en t e r e d int o w h e r e by th e railro a d c omp a n y con s e n te d t o ex t e nd its l i n e t o O IlC of th e i s h tutls i ll the 113I'bo1'. O t' t o a p o i nt w h erc the wharves c onld b e r e:1c h('d n.t all t i m es b y I.wgc seag o i n g resse l s rrho co mp a ny l oo k 110 s t e p s t o COlllllle nce th is work and ill 1 8 77 the matte r was m a d e the s ubject of l"ollsideraLle b e tween i t :.lnti th o The railro ad cOllllJallY t oo k the shuH.1 tha t tho agreemcnt could be complied with at a n y tim e during the y ears o f extc sio11. wh i le tho B ogo t a authorities m ai ntained tJ1Cll it m c ;tlIt fr o m the d a t e o f th e ex t ension The p oint ho\\' o \-el' w a s l os t s i ght of, o r all o w e d t o pass i n th e more imp ortant neg o tiati o n s tha t cam e up a b out lhi s time. Investigating Traffic Complaints. 'rhe traffi c arrange m ent f o m e rl y i n \'og u e iJe tw ee n the Panama }{aiir ofl.d Stf'am ship C o m pAny: a nd the Pacific Mail Steam s hip C o mpan)' whe r e b y the l a t te r h a d th e exclush e privileg e of i ss uing throu g h b ills o f l a d i n g 011 freight from San Franc i sco to N e w Yo r k b e cam e the T I. .. 7
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Pilot (/Iul Guide, suhject of officia l action in JflO;), aJld o n .Tullc 12t h of that yea r the cont ract with was aholished. Pre\' i ous to this it WIIS the practice of the P a n ama :Hililroad Company to recognize 110 throug h b ills of ladin g e x cep t those i ss ued from i i s own office jn New York. Thu s goods brou ght to the Isthmus by competing s t eams h i p linC's were subjecfctl to th e curr e nt local freight rates in s h i ppi ng HCl'OSS. Complain t s regarding Ulis situ ation became so nUlllerous that ill lU05 J oseph Bri s tow WfiS commissiollc d to illYC'stig:ttc th e cntire mattrr, whic h h e d i d b y yj!\ifng lhe hithmns and go ing over the ronto to Sail Francisco. His r e p ort whic h foll owe d containe d mallY important l'ccommclIl iati ons amollg th e m be ing:-Cancelllltioll o f the ('xdusiv(' ('on lractf': with lho Pllcifio :Muil S. S. Co llml till' POl. jlit ::)lc;tm Nasiga1ioll Co mpany. Con tin lied maint('lIuIH.'(' of the P l.lllflma Railroad Steamship line by t he Lnited StMa,.; Gon'!l'lllll('nt. hy tlw Government o f a. li ne bet.ween pari s on the Gulf and Colon in case prinlto cap ital l'efuse d to take it up .Establishment by the GO"Cl'llI11ent of R. !iIlC between Pallama fiud San F ranci:;co, ill the Pacific l l ail S teaml'lhip Co. .1('cidHI to discontinue its sl'I"'ic{1, Ilnd 110 other eOIllprill)' ('utered tlte field. D ouble-tracking tlw P1UlalllfL Hailrond. Th e con tracts w ith l he other s t cnms hip rompnnies wore cancelle d .June 1:? H){).-). The ]);t ll : un:t HailrOfHl C'olll}lnlly is s titl being Olainlaillt'd h y th e H o\'('rtllllcnt as a }Jilrt. o f the oper:ltions of the : PItIl:lllla Hailrnnd Comp:1IlY. 1 t p ossesses fi\'e str;llllers \'il.., thr P : lll:lIn:t. [,(, l O ll \ ( h:lllce Pin;\lIcc an d Alli:111(,:I Th e las t I1:1UlC'd ":IS i ll lilT d od.: during lila l ast half of 1 n07, find hits beell (,lllargcd t o [t boat of th e PHlIfltll:t 'l'h c maintenance o f \\'rrk l y !i:tilings h y th e L'lli t e d l i 'ru it CompfllIY from i\'"('w Orl eans i o Cololl furni shes a bett e r el'ricc tha n fOl'lllerly. an d covers in part tho third -.

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. 149 recommendation mentioned above. rrhc boats co\'er the d istance of 1400 miles ill five da.ys, but the pnssenger ne commodatiolls nrc lim ited. The Pacific lIIail 8teamship Company at the present tim o is again the subject of officia l investiga .tioll. Charges are reported to have been made by the Panama Railroad Company and the Isthmian Canal Commissioll that the Pacific Mail 8.8.Co. has boen r enderi ng inadeq u ate an d un satisfactory serv i ce between Panama a nd San Fn.lllcisco, thus proving all injury to business.. Bri stow h as ollce m ore been se l ecte d to investigate the situati on a nd m ake a report, which w ill be ready carl l' in 1 908. The doubl o .tl'a cking of the Panama is practicall y an accomplished fact. At th e Pallama end the doubl e trac k begins at the La B oca Y ", about o n e -half m i l e fr o m the city p asse ng e r statio n aIH] continues to P e dro Migu el. From h ere to Culebra but one track is used Fro m Culeb l'a to Gatull there is an uninterrupted stre t c h of doubl e track. From Gatun to Mount H ope but one track will be u se d, and fr o m lIlou"t H o p e to Cristobal the re il) a n etwol' k of trac ks, comprIsing the Cristoba l yards. The New Main Line. Work on the now m ai n lin e of the Panama. R a ilr oa d a s it will b e whe n th e cu nal is compl ete d was begun i n 1 un e, 1907 The n e w lin e was mad e l lecessa ry 011 account of the l o w lev e l of th e old track, a great p art of which will be submerged whe" the Gatun l ake i s filled. B y the end of O c t o bf'l', 1907, oycr three and one half miles o f thi s now lrac k had b ee n l aid. One o f the largest r ail r oa d embanklllents in th e w o rld, a nd probably th e l a rgest in point of av e rage h e ight to l e ngth, will be l ocated at Gatun on the Ilew line. It c r osses th e valley of the Gatullcilio river at an average h e ight of about e ight y -tw o feet, i s onc and a quarte r miles l Jng, and will contai n over 2,600 000

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150 Pilot (mel G Id de. CENTI'\.AL AVENUE, FRONTING ANCON BOULEVARp. --_ -.---Hi .. O"Fl"ELOFl. QUA :El..TEFl.& .. ::;TR[(;TLV FIRST CLASS JlESTAURANT FOil L..lDfES Am) EX. MEALS, rAllLF. D'HOTE: $1.50 srLVEH A Ia Carte Service at All Hours of t h e Day o r N i g ht. C hops, Oysters, Chicke n Squabs, lobsters, Game, and E VERYTH ING IN SEASON. SFECIAL R -ATES TO PEB.])4ANENT GUESTS. C. S. BUTTRICK, Proprie t or. cubic yard. o f mater ial. Owing to the great height and l e n gt h of this fill it will be necessary to build it in three sectio n s. A trestle, thirty feet high and runni n g the entire l engt h of the fill, will firs t be built, from which mat e rial will be dump e d b y th e construction trains When the dirt reaches tho top of th e trestie another 30 foot trestie will be built on the dump thus form e d and th e operation will be repented until th e final grade of the railroad is reache d fill c r osses an arm of th e lak e that will be formed by th e Gatlin dam and an opelling will be l eft at the bottom o f th e fill in case it ever becom es necessary to drain tho lak e In artie r t o allow pa ssage for boats a d rawbridge of the Basc u l type, about 100 f ee t l ong, is h c i n g collsidere d The n e w hl'idgc m e r the Chagl'os ri"er n ear Gamboa, will be 1,320 feet l o n g, co n sist ing o f f o urt ee n S O-foot through-girder s p a n s and one 200foot tl i rougb-truss spall 'I.'he c ontrac t f o r the s t ee l w o rk h as been l e t to the Penn

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Tlte Seto Moin L ille. 151 Bridge Co mpany and w ill cost 60,000 'I.'l1e fift een s p a n s will r es t o n f ourtee n pi e r s and two abutmellts nIl of wh ic h will be built of con c r e t e on pil e foundati ons. It i s esti mated that th e ma so nry w o rk will b e finished about July, J 908. The re will h e a tunnel at Mirafl o r es, the first o n the Isthmus, about 600 (eet l o n g [t will b e a sing l e tra c k tunne l and will be lin e d its
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-------------------------------152 P ilot (ll/d Guid e congratu l ated themselves upon getting over the Isthmus so easily and cheap l y Chi ldr e n uuder twelve years of age were c harg e d half fare, or 1')12.50, whil e the rate to residents on th e Isthmus was cOIllUlute d t o the flat a.mouut of 1')50. 00 p el' month. A large number o f articles at that time dId 1I0t come under the general c1ass ificatioll, am I ca nipei spec ial rates Olle quarter of one pel' cent. of its value was charged for the transportation o f gold acro ss the I sthmus Si lvCl was charged o n e -half of one p el' cent.j jewelry and pre cio u s sto n e s one-quarter o f one p e r cent.; indigo and cochineal, 2 cents p CI' p oundj and cocoa 1 cent pC!. p o und ; coa l in bulk $9.00 pel' ton of 22 10 pound, ; co al i n b ags 57.00 pCI' t Oil o f p o unds, iro n in pigs U,O per ton ; r ollo d ir o n 510.00 p el' t o n ; white pine lumb e r 18.00 p el' th o u sa nd f ee t; yellow pin e lumber 1')20.00 p el' thousand feet, and oa k at 522.00 p e r thousand f eet. Horses, mules and ca ttl e w ere tmn 8]>o1'to d at OW1I0 I'S' ris k 'rho rate on h O I' 8 (, S was $40.00 each, lIlules 1')20.00, and catile 57 .00 All bill s f or fre ight had to b e paid in advance, but th e managellien t in its firs t schedule mado th(\ announcemcnt that as soon ag thc business of the road would warrant, some of the a.bove rates might be materially r('liuc('(1. '1'he baggage cbarge was It featur e th e traveling public did not like, es p ecially I nasmuch as the Illi.Hl
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-I ---. ---I ----. -" I .., I I I I I She.!1 C C Sanitarium at 9a6oga 9s/ond #-'!.1't .:A 1JlenkDW.fki --- I I

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154 P ifo t amI G1dde. C0ardoze Corne r of Avenlle B and 8th Street, -PANAMA. -A Varied A ssor/men/ oj DEY GOODS A Iways on Ii a"d. Sole Agency for the SINGER SEWING MACHINES. Commiss i o n employes 011 the l s ihllltls, and ill part to tile' great l ihe r a l ity with whi c h these wnr o form erly trctllc d ill the mattcr of p asses ns the I s thm ia n Callal COlllmission p ays t o the Panama Ha i !road Comp ;IIlY :l errtain S UIll m o nthly (said to he $.),000 at tll(> PI'(, 8(,lIt tillH') f o r pnssellgc r th o incl'(,:lsc (11' docl'l:
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I I I ---I 155 E'c uruary when th o COffl'<' C 1'OP S o f I !:eulldol' a na CCllll'a l America :Ire mOl-jug. Some Railroad Earnings. railroad paid di"idl'llIls (\11 it s ca pit a l !-.trlf.:k oyory J onI' from 1 853 to 18!):? 'rh{' smallc::;t divilll:'l H l durin g thi s (>nlirc period was two ]1('1' C(,lIt, i n 1:-,8.), :1lld th e largest 4 b per cc.'nt. ill ISGR. 111 IFHi5 the r,\pital s t oc k was jllc rc,,-,cd f,.olll Ro.000 000 t.o S7.000.000. Til IRill ., TOWER AT DAVID. PROVINCE O F CHIRIQUI. C,)URTS Y O F G ANDREVC. I I

PAGE 173

, 156 P ilot and G uidc the last year that tbe railroad was owned by American capitalists, a c liv idend of 52 1 / 2 p el' cent. was declarcd. This however, not only represented the cal'llings of thnt year, but i n clude d Ule nssets on hand at the timo tho road was sold to the French canal company. r:rhc averngf' allnual dividend paid from earnings of the company from 1853 to 1 881, was a. fraction l ess UU\1l five pcr CPIlt. The road had always been n. financia l and while under the contro l of tho American stockholders, exceeding l y profitable The original cost of th e Pall:ulla Rai l road WilS ::t littlo over $ ,000,000. During the first t e n years of it s operation it transported ovo r $700,000,000 worth of specie and 300,000 bags of mail, and it is said that not a dollar of tbo specie nor a bag of mnil was ever lo s t durillg this period. Future o f the Railroad. III the investigation of tho Panama. RailrolHl Company made hy a committee of th e Ullited St..'1tcs Hous(' of Hepl'csl'lltati\'('s ill J 905, the followillg qu('stion a s k e d by 1\11' 10hl1 .T. Esch, Rrpl'CsClltatirr fru lll "\ViSClIHSill:--When the cnnal is finrdly compiC't:>d, tho lailw:l.Y line w:1I ho devotet.1 nlmost. wholly to local tmllic, will it Hot? Mr. \ Villiam Nelsoll Ol"ol11w",'II, the mi l l'o:u.1's COUIISI'i, thell ullder cxamination, l"t'plied:-j, ]'hat is n. Y ery illt('resting ql1(,RtiOIl Mr, E::l.ciJ, nnd one l1]>on whi('h Il'nflie mell ditrer .. .. I d o llot 8hal'U the opinioll that lhe Pan,lJjJU HailrOlHl will becomo :\t tilllt'. ;";0 mall ('fIll judg(' what will be tho conditiOlls ten yt.1 'S 11('11('1', with til II(>W tnl lli(' el('ment (tho l':ll1al) ai; plac1it a! tllill).;' IIt,rOl't' it-lint :1 tILl OIT ill:' to-d:lY, 1'11t' r.lllroad \\ill pI',!y Iht:lI he (,ppn1ll' dl'l"ti'i\.]}ow ('1' .. d ... ..... Ilt ohf' of Ilw ..... ... ,., .,. gl'l'nt w:tlt' l' poWCI' l'oil:Il"l. Elcctl'i('ity will tit illl' .-':\ll.'lIliiV('l y ))1'oduC( d 011 till.' line or till' call:).! watt'I'-pOIH 'I', :\nd tile raill'O;ld 1Il:IY I I I I

PAGE 174

I F /I(III"(.J of fl.,. 11(1/lrQ(ld. 157 b e o p e r a t e d in that wny, tlwlS gTl':ltl y l'U llltiuo ,he c ost. of operati o n At th;lt li lli e too, we w ill ha\" c paitl {)IT lho fir st. mortgage o u t o f eA1'uiugs and 0111" fixell cIlHrgc will thlls 00 dtl oe d j the loca l ousilll's;:; will u e actin-, and PanallJll ;lIId Co lon w ill be f a r more i m p'H'lant thall they arc lo-day. :-;('ady C"CI'Y pass611ger IlPl l1'Oachiug t h e callal h y s t clllll{'l" will dh:WIll1)at'k at. o n e or th e other l I miui, and taking th e qui e t l'a ill'Oiltl transit across t he I s thmu:5, will vhdt Ihe c i t ieli li n d the interesting sights during the lby, w hile II J C s teamer j" passing thl'o u g h the oaDU!. The s t ellmer will cllter the callal at 8 \Ulrise Co l o n will make it s t'xit ill PlIllall.aat S Ult set and the ill the IIwalijillll' willll:tvl 0\'('1" the e lectric r a il roa l alld b e alllu.;iJlg llilrl .;l'!f i n Li!ilcr c it y whil e th e s t e a mer is moving t hrou;!h t ill cillI;d" The local traffi c will h a \"c growu to iIllJlOl"lllllll' : lhe COlll1\l"y wi ll lunc develop e d alld will hnve Ill' tllolIg-tile lin e of r oad, thereb y f u r u i s hi u g IOl ul lmffic. Dock Facilities. --'"'" At Cu i o u th e Panama C( mJl !lly h a s three wood e n wharves, aJld 0110 tille II('W dock clllllp ll'le d i n !flOG ( D o c k 11), at whic h all o f it.'i s t ealllC'I S III1W Jalltl. are t w o o th e r ",hal \ "( 8 a t thi s p(,int. Olle OWIIf'll II)' the Roya l ]\ jnil Rtf'am s h i p Co., alld tim ( till t r, !lOW out 41 1"0. p air, by th e Pacific ])J:.i l S. S. Co. T he p ort ,\lid li'l"min a l at L a Boca was CIlJllplC'tc d 31111 (lpl'lIl'd to l"lIl1llnc("ce on r q.. ,'" I ,-0011, ",h:Pllu.tC '" C:;tlh"\-1I 10. _._.'-SPLENDID LINE or CHINESE ANO JAPANES E SILKS. looliSIS nllll In Ihe I Slhmus ore CIIdlnllY inliled I n Orr GOOIIS, WE A LSO A T T ENTI O N T O Our Oornplet.e St.ock. of" Fine Liquors.

PAGE 175

158 Pilll/ (11111 (;uidr, '-'aUlIal" ", 1!J01, at a. cost of r l 'his include d tlte sloe l pi e r wllidl cost the lI1aior portion of this slim. Tho pier is HtiO f eet 101lg, and tho depth o f W'ltel' a l ong :side i s :!li f ee L tiue. III l!lO.) it was l'ouutlllcceSSal'j' to ll1ake a cOtlsidcrahlc extensio n for the unloading of lumbe r :llll l \ie;lvy Ill,tieriais destined for tllo hthlllian COlllmission rpllC I)ie!' is cquill pcd "ith e l c,ctric Cntlll'S other apP;l1;llus for l';lpitl 1I1lloadillg, w hile, tho woode ll IUIlJix'r d O l:k WilS so hllil! thal it cll;thles the. UIlloading of a.s much a s ')00.00 0 feet of lumber i n it single day. ....--.. ,. R ---\Vll ell th e P ;lJlttllla. Hai h 'o,lll was op e ned ill I Kil.) it throw the mOil cng;lgctl ill the p :ll'k-lmin uusin l'ss out of ;1. jub. At that time th e cri m ina l ele ment f orme d J;J,. COIIsiderable constituent of tlte population th(,ir number being
PAGE 176

I 159 Maria. th e cal m of that llIoonligllt {'veilin g IJ1'ul-;(,1I b y di stant cries a Ill! the n o ise o f Ulany feet rushing through Ih e ;lroels. Tho churc h b ells nutside tho \\'alls lolled the s ign a l o f tire, uut ullconsci ous l y th ey nwg' all lIIora terr i bl e nature thall that. an a lartll that h ery alJd murder and sell t mOrc than :l. dozen known gra rc. a l arm of a p elle d r"uto all UIl-of .. T o th e were heard 011 e rery IUllid. and th e rush cOllct:!nll'al cti itself ill that. direction. The Cicllaga \\';18 a tlislrict of the tOWIl. th(>l1 outsi d e th e city proper. whert.' were the pa sf!clIge r station. of fice8. and wharf of the Panama Railroad Company. 1'he same buildings ; \1'(' slalldill;! t oday. practically intact, and are now known a:; the old passengcl' s t ali on. nlld Ule .Ameri ca n '\'-h:uf. III lS?iG there a clu s ter o f c h eap h o t e l s and eatin g h o u ses ill tJle dcinit y of thi s s tation. These hase sillt::c d isappeare d 011 the nft.ernoon o f April I :')th. !l70 p asse n ge r s at' rive d at Pallama from York. bound for th e OaliflJl'llia guld fields. Th ey h a d expedctl to e mbark imm e d ia t e l y 011 the s t eamC'1' John J.J. fStclJhcllN, but the tid e b eing out, they wrre deulin e d 011 s h o r r. Some o f th e passengers were gathered about tlll' station walling to get their ti('kets r egis ter e d. while o th ers went t o th e h o t e l s allli eatin g hOllsC's. Hhol'tiy afte r six o\; kck one uf the saitl to have been und e r the intiuen ce o f 11lJuor. b ecame iH\' oh'ed in all altcl"catioll with a Ilrgro fruit \"emlor over th e settlement for a piece o f watermelon. The Ileg r o made It hostile d e m onstra tion with ;t knife, whereupon the pnssrllgel' drew his r e"olve r ami fired r\ commo tion illll11Cdiat ely C'llsued. 'rhe passe u gel' sought refuge ill the OCt'
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-()) 0 I I I I I I 1 I l l I t I I I I I I I CD -. .fJirdS e !le view if Cu/e6ra and vr'cinilg-.1Janama .. 4J(,

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A .,"if/'" 'if }-frm'()r ill /pril, 1 8: ;r., 1 6 1 L _=" Sombrerer a de M. ENDARA. coile 90. MumelO 69, Henle n CO, PANAMA, E S 1 1 EHO Y EX EI. TI:A H.1JO. El'po'cin l ll1ta I'll ,", '1\1 II 11(' Sombl'el'Os de Panama, The Hatter. Mo. 69, Mlnth SI., HOn! ModulHUPI CO. PANAMA. ,\I\' WOIIK I S S 1 1 1I{1 1.\' IKST tJ.ASS. ILL OHDERS GIVEN PHOIlPl ATlENTION, If yoe flr, -Tlliuking of nnyiug Ii PANAMA HAT :'tI E E'IHST. I A11 A S PECI." LIST IX THIS Nelson o f th e rnilroad company w('re n o t far awny whe n the outbr('ak occurrc,l, :llld quick l y sellt f o r Col. Garri do, and th e p o lice. l\[canwh i l e soniC of th o pa sse n gers hnd started d own to th e w harf to embark, w h i l e o th e r s c lam o r e d for guns and ammunition t o go t o th o rescue o f th e womo n and c hildr e n in th e h ote ls. All th e arms in th e -railroad offic e at I h e tim e cOllsiste d of a d ouble-barre l e d gun brac e o f pist o l!', n sahre alld f o urte e n olrl flintlock mus k ets. Afte r som e d e l ay these gllIlS' werO giyon Ollt and l oaded for d e f ellce. but a sellt r)' was s tatiolle d at th e d oor to prevent nlly from going out :llld j o ining in tho fight. 'Vhi l e thi s was goin g Oil) Mr. Cont e anot h er of fic ial of th e railr oad, !'iu ccee d cd in getti n g th e w o m en amI c hildr e n removed fr o m th o O cea n H otel. Col. \ Vard th e American consul. alld l'fl'. SabIa, hi s secretary, arri" e d on the sceno at this j uncture! and e nd eavoured with o th e r coo l e r h ea d s t o restrain the mal e p asse n gers fr o m mixing in th e fmy A II old cannon b e l o ngin g t o th e railr oad company was dllg out o f th e alld l oad e d wit h ril'ets but Col. V a rd and Mr. Center gave positi, 'c o rd e r s that it w as n o t t o b e fire d unl ess an advance ''fa s m a d e b y t h o m ob. 'rhe consul t h e n sent his secretary to sec if th e p o l ice wero coming, hut as h e d i d not rCilll'll: ( l ul\ 'ing b ee n s ho t i n th o leg), the con sul an d 1\fl'. Ne lson went forward t o soc how m atte r s stoo d. 'rhey had not advanced b eyond th e P acific H ouse whell a c rowd of n atives came from a m o n g th e ca n o hut s 1'[1'.

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, I ----------------------162 P i l ut (fllf l G I/i d e rallC"d t o tll":11 n n t t o fire' lint. lh r y c1i!:l"<'gal'd r d th e o r d el' ;lm l I d off :t !l U IlI !)!'!' o f sh o t:-:. SO l1lC' o f wilil:h hit Col. horse MI' \\'jtlt t1:l' p eo p i r lint til( Y ildd h im t o kC'C'p out of w a y Hild bo t b e lint to i),w k t o th e s t nt io l l I w \",1111('11 t o J...III('(1. :\11". in his t nw:lnl ,lilt! fill; d ly , l wd t hrl'C' ill snff'l \ Ttl the Illennt imc m os.t o f tlit' nile! ,It the l w d gilt i t 'sifiC' tit' t n m p; l IlJ'S 1 \ '1:('(' :111(\ t1IPJII!:f'i n's M' \\"(,11 n s p no::s i h l l' from til Ih: 1t HOW flew li lit'k find The m o h hrHl lIl:tinb illf'll ; 1 l' f'gui;II' fi rC' fill t l u huildi llg'. killi ng-se\'el'fll :1Ilc1 w( !lII d i n g ( I t h e r s A I'ppr'l't \ra s thl'1I s pl'r:H.1 that til(' lliltin s W{,I'l" {'h:111ging th p i r : 111(\ rr" l' y oll" frl l II l i ttl e r:lo;.i(,I", h r lif'\ illg th at w h ell Gd, Cbl'l'itin : ll'ri r r d with th r prdic(', !Ill' tlff:!ir \\'0111<1 be s j l(,t' d i l y t l 1'111ill:lt rr l :Ift n th e IHlg i e of t1l(' p o l iN' \\';I$; ht, :1I't1. hilt (lr e h:lrgillg 011 th' r i o t ('l' s tilt'"" j, i n e d isslI r w i th 1111'111. ; u u l ( O lUlll f'Il CC'tI firing 011 ti l(' d r p o t this l i nl(' Ih(' llIdiH' S 1I('t. H e Itgl' f'f'd t o 11rl'Ont p ;111,r tl1P AutC'J"il':tll p : tt t \ h"l' k t o tilr Si:ltiOI1. h ilt !':t:J/I'cl I l{' 11;111 : ilJ'(I;u l \' 11( '11 l11r ll:', ;IlLd -g o t I I hullp t thl'o u g h his !J; d R r;:r.h ing ti](. fir lhr h rlldlh-. OllCC' m OI"C', r nllltti lli(' ill 1':1111 It l' in g l il(' Ot'f':tll 1-10 1(>1 tho\' :lod ;\I l' \ lIis/ pl"s (', \ \ hil e ;] 11I: l!! o n the' hC':Il'h hall :t ( ; 11)!Ifill ;lIu l jloillt r d :If t lil:' s t(';ll1lt I' 'j'a/uI!lfI I.)ing lI y 1 1 W i t!'. \ \ i t h :--nlll (' tiiflit'ult y lil: d he wa s i1.lIul'pd lIot til f ill' 11(,l"r t on Iltl 'Y Il'ill'tlN I 11wt 011. (:;IJ'1' id o (If til{' --

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I -,0-_...... liThe Best Bread in Panama" I-'A:--':: .:\DERIA DE: JOSE G IB'E R T fnlfe lo! CeliE! 8 Y 12 elsie. 1'0. gl. -Panama. .. .... -\NAUEHIA nl<; Jose Gibert & Co, -BALBINA Gerente. lel -lOi Calle 1 3 E s t c .. Ellnama. SUCURS,\l Avtnida No. 200. Tru Panadtrias e n Ile Josif: m:' ert -:--' ---"EI Mejor Pan en Panama." 163 Verdict of the Colony 0> JOSE GI RT 81 W 121h SI.. one blOCk liom SIO. Ano POlk Panama_ l{ EHY OF Jose Gibert & CO. BALBINA GASIS. 201 .ZO} E DHl SI. l'anan\J. BR\NCII at No. 200 C entra l AVlnue Ik'l1' in 11111,,1 ,\"1111 'aLi J,!d t; I I:EI :T:-o HI:l-:.\ IJ at :m," I 1111"' 1'1,1(', ... L a O ecisi(jn de el polic(' Itnd gone 011 tll(' 'j'uuoga. llis;I]'Jlwd tli(' pass:lnd 1'Ol11oy('(l the h i l e ihf' oLllcl' oj'fi('in l s werl' a1ls(,IIt 011 tilC' ;l!,OH' PlT:llltl. ('cl1iC'1' ,,110 had r e main e d behind to take a 1001 ithout lhe dC'pot. H e found th e freight room f i ll('d wit h 1ll(,1I, ;&-IHI cliildrclI: n\l fl'ying tn SCI'rl'll flll' lIl srl\'('s from th e fir ing th e ll w'ry hri!'k. ,IIUI ill a s tatc' of the \\ ihlC'st exci t rllJ('lIt. }'rom h('rc h e ('Ilterctl tlh o f!kr "IH' r f hC' fOlllHl ; 1 group (If 1IlPil tl' riug' to kC'C'p tit ... 011(( '1' d ool' rlo:-.(,tl. H(' pl'o('C'('(lrd t o tlssist thrm, :11111 ", h i lt" d nit1g sn S;IW a 1l\:111 k ille d h r f n re his ryC's. On tll(, floor {If th e offi('C' 1;lr fonl' or J h c oi" t'IO dt.';ul [llH.1 ,,"oundt',l. r .ra\ ing tit(' scene o f th e sl
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I I 164 Pi lot alld Gui.(lc. of the station. ]If,.. Cente,. discovered two of tbe passengers trying to hold a cloor shut. "E,'cn as h e approached them, thry were both s h ot, (Inc dying i n s tantly and the othpl' in a f rw hOlils. rh e natiycs finally forced a passlig e illto til(' freight 1'00111. and comm enced t o l'iHo Rnd p l undel' carpet IUlgs, H I H I trunks. while the frightened pass e ngers cOlIgr('gll ted h ere: c ried fol' mercy. > Q 10 10 CX) Q -> <: -, Q S 0 Q: -.J -' Q: :c: Il. I
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..... = "" --elfIlHlc:i .1I be IJ hi iloll1ta:)ia. e't.c.:J. n cia,:, eOIl:.'lto.l. II tellt c 11-h po>' 1l50b03 f 0", "l) ('I p o U :.'I. pa-:.a S .... -,o ... (\;.'l lJ e"t'Jeaffuo,). REPRESEmCIOIES J COISIGIICIOIES. A venida Norte No. 129 Bajada del (1erc"do. Paqaft\.l. IGNACIO RUIZ GARCIA, 165 @;itlo" ---' .. :-' -W e beg to c all the attention of th e READEB S of thi s BOOK to O U R S P LF.:SDfI) ASD C O M PLETt: L INt: Ot' 1"0\'1': 1.-TIES AND F A N C Y ARTI C I,F.S Ev ery humming St e a mE'f Brings Us So:'IETHlNO Sec onf S PECI A I,TIES ill CLOTHES FOR LADIES AND MEN W e Rf)r esf'ut. COlllpa.n ies a.wl H a ndle th e ir COllsigne m e llt s. 10. 129 IYenue, lIIlor Ine Morkel. IGNACIO RUIZ GARCIA. Whell Mr. Nel so n and Capt. M cLano re ac hed the statioll nfter l eaving t.he (i.OY(>1'1l0r, th ey found th e police outside in n very excited state 'rhey clailllC'd th ey had fired upon from the upp e r st.ory of th e d e p o t ami wore desirous of retaliating in th e same manll OI'. U p on Capt. l\lcLaue promisin g investigation, Col. {j-arrido ordered further demonstrat.ions upon the part. o f th e p olice to ccase, and together t.hey went to t.he room in th e dE'pot from whic h the w e r e allegrd to hlt\ c come. 'l'bis room they {(lund fille d with W0111en and c hildroll, th e few men there declaring lhey had n O 'e r fired a s h ot. About this time the 3nthOi ities h n d obtained the as ce ndancy ovcr the 1110h : and as as possihle th e remaining women and c hildr en wer e com e y e d 011 board the steamer. Some of the passe ng e rs had ta k e n t o tlie hus h es ill til e outskirb; of' town and a sea r c h p a ,rty WfiS sent out to rOllnd them up. Olle was met who sai d h e had been robbed by men c alling themselves policem en.

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166 Jlil ot (11/,1 (;uidc. An of the milt'oml office afte r tha rio t ; t('ITib!!-Th r dC'ntl :lnd wOlllu.led by allllUlU HlIill'o:lI.1l'vUl' ,,'III,V, IIlId 1I1l1d .. 1,,\' ( 'lip!' of I', ;t.L::; ,:-;, C o .. puu, 1t")1I'd ill II ... ''''''''\ JI'I'II/dnt \ pl'il I!ltlt l:-::I(j,-Edilol', -----

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---r-' .. -------.-... -' .. ------.. -_. __ ... ----... --'-----00--.-, ," --,-I -I I I ----- '- --I I ...., I .. 6nlt-ance to .::IIncon 'tlospilal-Palloma. .1.1I_ i an oAaHrtcGII 4 $Jurellu .A .7)"nlwlNk .. I I ------------------------------------,

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168 Pilot mul O tli d e I) wounded lind olltl"tlgerl, and n. IRrg e nmount of Amel'ica n p l' op<'rty WitS p!undc l 'c d by the }>oliec and inhabitants ofPanll ma 1l1H! vil.'inily. Tlt('sc outmgps, 'ob b c l'ie-s Dnd 1ll1ll'dc r s were for the most part commilll:'d u p o n innocent and unarmed men, women Ilnd ehildrE'II, w h o werc peacefully endeavoring to pass thi s g reat highway of nations. It i s my chie f dnty to employ force unde r my command tOI' the prompt pro tection of the livE'S and pl'Opcrty of Americnll ('itize n s. An carll' explanation therefore, of the enu s{' o f this catastrophe, as well as so me evi den ce of you r Ex c elle n cy s i no! illati on and alli lit y to prevent s n c h occurr ences, is de s ir e d by m o i n dete rm i.oing the n ecessity of m y immediate int(>l'f ('l'ence fOI' the protection of the persons and propcI1y of the citizens of the Un it c( l S l a tes, until s p ccific order s Crom my Govet'nmen t shall bl;' received, r am Sir, Yonr Obetli e Jlt Sel":ant, T BA I LEY, Com lllllluler, U,S,N. 'I' h c Govcrno r r eplied in a lengthy s tatement reciting th e origi n of th c nffair sctting forth that he h a d sufficient f o rce at his dis p osa l to prC\'c llt a repe t it i o n of s u c h oc :111 e n closing dcpo sitiollR from Jose 1\fanuel Lun a who was conccrne d in tho row with the Amcrican, an d two fro 111 native s of th o r llit(>d StatE's O IlC fr. B 'VilliaIl1R, ;n yoars old a native of Georgia and :tn f'Ul-ploye o f th e railroad company, who gave testimollY ngnills t th e pilRscngers I h o sta t(lmollt e"ide ntl y did not afford sa ti!o>f;lction t o tho A Illcl'icnn orticcl' 1'01' two day s lat er 011 th e 25th o f A prill a :o;econd r c prc sc ntat ion made t o t h(' G O \ Cl'lIO I' ,,' I'ollo\\'s:-IISil':_l hfj\'(' the hono l t o or yOIII' r(!.to n ly C'OlrlllllJlliC'i\. tiOI1I>1 o r lilt' :!:1!, n ml in s t A Jl:lrt fJ'Omlh(> lllJII0111h'l' JIl(>1I1 or IIU.lI'CstOl'a.tion 10 theowlIl'f's, of the 1:111111011 !lull 111'1111' i ll f 1gl11l y lflkt'n from Ilt t' $It('ll.1n e l l 'abfl!/ lI l r UlIIS l l' onl't 8 S they me Ii II I' $If1tiarlletioll. I hnd expected

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I Si!lhf of J{(IIT(JI' ill .Ipril, 1 8.; /;, 169 No. 260, Central A I'C. I'anam a --Bile Li/t c of J etrdl"Y l/I/(l Y UCCItiC8. WE I-IANOLE T H E W AI. 'tRAM! WATlllI. CAll and INSPEC T our GOODS. SAlVA elA NT, m M1D1 CfM1RIL, NUMERO 260. PANAMA. ,slll'tid() CQlllpl c l() d e Rclflj(Jls, ,II' ti.elllu ll de JQ!/cri. n!/ rttMif' que Nuestro Establec i mlen to when u sking foJ' illformn.tion IlS to the causes of the frightful occurrences of the 15th iusC, llia, t ap:ut from the immediato origin of the tumult, you would deemed it due to yourself ns the Chief Magi s trat e of this community to state why allrl wherefore YOll lludCl'look the feul'rull'cspolIsibilit y of ol'dCl'iug ,Your police to fire upo n my I'Ollutl'ymelJ, women aud c bild l'cu and to state what s t e p s you have taken to puui1sh the guilt..yantl restore the plumlt:I '. n H T en hav e t:iap sed since Hie ca.lash'oplie uII(11 yet to leal'll that a. siugle cri millfl l It:,s 1JCCH al'l csled 01' that any portion of the immense amount of valuables taken (l'om the passcDgcl'lS lIud l'aill'oati company ha s beeu ,'cstorcd. 1 have yeL to learn thaL your /I COlic i clIc ia de mi s dcberes y la, illteligenda de los grandes intereses que se ligan it la conservaci o u tie e sla linea tnlnsito lIuh'cl's al exte utl s any farther than to order an indiscriminate massacre of ili c passcug c l s over I trans it. 1 have yet to leaI'll that wh e n a. riot 01' It collisi o n s lmll take l ) l ac e here between for e igners 011 one si d e, and n atives on t h e other, that you recognize any higher obligation on yom part than 10 I prote c t aud th c laUer and disarm, 1.\1](1 plullder the f01'mer. I. The deduct iou, I ,'egret te, s tate, affor ds m e little a ss ur ance of the safety of th e tr'ausit for t h e future, unless youI' Ex cellen c y shall devise some most s peedy and CfliCllCiolls method for renderiug these unfortunate elements less t homogenou s hereafter," The lette!" concl ude s with the information that the whole mattel' hltd beell referred to Wa shington, T he affa i r brought the governments of the United S t ates an d Col ombia, at one time, to the verge of open

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I ---------, 170 / 'd,,/ "1"/ (;"id,'. -1 I1pl II 1'('. hut \\ I wads 11I"('\ail('(l. all d s l'ttil'llIt'ill hr ouQ'ht ahnul Ihrou;.dl IIH' 1':IYllll'llt I n' ('pl n lllhia vI' th e b lllll o f 1..\100.(100 gllitl illill'tlillily for jlro perl y :1I1(1 th e hll 1I,j' part tll:11 un fur t her (.("curre n ce:; o f th e "illl] \\lluld 1:.1.;<.' plan', .. 4'_ r ltl' llr:-.I lC't,tJl'd rtl rt'('ogni t iotl girl'1I th(1 of il (';111:11 t!trough till' l ... thJllHS npl'l' llli tc!r Itlilllift.'st hr the lad th:1I Ill' had a n iU:-.iL"ld o f :l "\LIII. alld tll;l!. it \Htld d )(' iUlpi(>ty 1 \)\' Illall to aUl 'lllp t t o \111111' l ilt' \\;llt-I' .... oi' thl' 1\\'0 nn'allS that (: o d h a d Sl'p a r ;iIt'll. Through a l'l'ligitills dl'tTl' l' prOlltttlg:d,d fI,t"Lll"IlIg till' prlljp ( { s;luill'giuu.... alld th is \'a., 101111\\( by ,III (tilt'l I'lIl'hidtl1l1?! IllY OIl(' t1lldl'r }il' U ;ti tj' o r lil'alil fHIIIl ("'Il"'ld"I'JlI;,{ ... nl'h :III (ut"qllisc. -11I' ..... :.?, .. 1 _\. I.IllJd nl'lillg" ttlllll'l' tht' autho r i t y o r 1;/l!i,11". l 'n ... ltll'lif fir the (;I:III:lL l iIlC U.Hlf c l c ra lioll,

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I 171 t-I -fIe) I EL A .... Te >R _. 199201 tlucllllc1 s FRE-EDBE.RG.;or. Amerlun Bar and Reslaurant, Dinino Saloon. fur nished Roo ms. fir s t Class Stnlcl', (.'111",11.1<, 011 tht: IIud AUH:rh: .. n PI,,". W ,II \ ... 11111;.,.,1\ aut! r,ightl \ IhrJu:,:h"llt "illl EI"clril' Lh;lii". Tnt",I.,!'" Ill" fit til,"1.'".!., ml' ". --------. -"-" .--m a d e n !\tud y of th e I s thmu s ]'Qule with a ,iew i o c!5l ahlishillg, a .co;libine d rail and water r ou te. His rrpo l't fIlYol'l'i..l a. canal fr o m a point 011 Lim on B ay to the and th e lise o f th e latter stream t o a p o iut where l'ai lro;HI cOlllmuuication could he e ff ecte d tllC l uost fl'(Jlll th e Pacific coast. H e sugg-cst c d either P'1Il3mll or C hol'l'cra as th e sout hf'l'Il terminus. In Of3R a French company head e d by H a ron Thirrry ohtain e d a cOl\cession f rom th e o f :Xc\\" and to ('ulist th e aid of 1ho Frclich Governm e nt ill th e enterprise. The c omp :lll.r's rrp(Jrt W;JS so f .. Homble that the G overn ment was ind uccd to s l 'lid (jarella t o th e I s thmu s as i t s s p ecial r e presC'lIt
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172 Pilot al ld Gui d e by Admiral Chas. H. Davis th o following year, t h e laHer d ecrie d the idea o f con stl'llctillg :l cana l at this point owing to natuml obstacles. By using the Atrato Ri\'er, the artific ial part of th e route would he materially shortened, but it w o uld bo necessary to tunneJ through tho Cordillera. -J 11 ] 87\ tbe Isthmian route was ag3in this time b y Commander Edward P. Lull and A. G .Menocal. linc rail from Limon Ba,V to the Chagres River, and its valley to high land, and from the-nee following the \'alloy of th e Rio Grande tu the Pacific, practically the 'al1le route as subseque ntly adopted by the }'rellch compauy About this time Commander Selfridge was also making additional expl orations in the Dari e n regioll. 'Vhil e the variou s Isthmian I'outes w e re being con sid e r e d from different points of "iew, the scheme fot' cons tructill g a canal a c ros s Nicaragua was also commanding a good d eal o f attention, and a number of surveys were made. 'rb cse hu, e howew> r but little bearing ou the mai n p oin t at issue-the Panama Canal. Two p o w erful influences wClrked to interest the people o f Franc e in I.he idea of cutti ng throug h tho I s thmus. Olle was the sllccessful cumpletio n o f the Suez Call:tl alld the olhe r was the persollul popularity and magnetism o f its pro m oter, COlillt F e rdinand de Lesseps. The S uez Calla l WilS begun in 1 85 9, a.nd completed ... ith out encounteri n g
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I D 8 Lt-'t:SljlS (lII(l IT,.'1 Grml Schemc. __ -= -to step into the new fichl or canal opcrntions !'Ind the COIl fidence of the French n a lion He was not an e ngineering expert of th o presen t day definiti on, !Jut he had a "ust intellect at his command, and an unu s ual f aci lit y for Organization. Thnt h e WftS oyer-sanguine canuot b e d o ubt ed, and that this fnult Jed to his making serio us mistak es Ilonc deny. On the other hand he was ill earn est in his enthusiasm for the success of the project, and fundamentally honest in his purpose. This canllot b e said of all th ose he had under him. As one of his countrymen ollce 1'0 -marked II Of all the m e n high in authority e n gage d with De Lesse ps on the enterprise. h(' was about th e only one whose chiff cndc:lyor was not to feath e r his nest:' Can it be wondered thnt a. fabl'i c built upo n a found atio n so faulty should be doom e d to failure ? At the inception o f cnonl operations and for several years afterwards D e Lesseps was practically idoliz e d both in France [Iud on the IsthmuR. His advent at Panama was herald e d a s a. greater e"cnt than that of a conquering general r e turning home. -Agitntion in France in fa.,'o1' of constructing the I sthmian waterway was begun ill 1 8 7:), and result e d in the formation of a company under th e dir ectio n of Gen Tun for the purpose of ente ring upon negotiations with Colombia to obtain the necess;H'Y concession. Tn May, 1 76: J .Jucl('n X. B. 'ys(', a lieutenant of engineers in the French arm)" and a. broth e r -inlaw of G(,II. 'rUl'l' was delcgat e d to visit the Isthmus conclude negoliatio n s and map out a. feasible r o ute. r r he right o f W;I)' secure d, with the )wo\"iso that nothing in lhe contract s h o uld be conslrued to int e rf ere in allY way with the granb gi"en the Panama Railroad undcr a concession t o an nssocia t ioll of American cflpitalists entered illto in 11-)J9. 1'h(' concession wilh .. a string lie d to it" lik(, thi s \yflS not entirel,}' satisfactory to the co mpan y "r ys(': r e presPllteli ,ybich \YflS organized f o r promoti o n purpos es only. so an enlnrgement

PAGE 191

-, I ''h 'l'._.- Coro301. an .7Imt!/"icon suvlIrb '1l.POll0ma. $ tlJ.,., t ;:A,,.rr i tlUll 9':I1:n ..A'.:W.l .nil'nk_'Iu) Pi I I

PAGE 192

I ---J)t 1 .l'I>!i('I'SJ/IIl Creal SchclI/c. 1 L F,ibrira de Ladrillos. ES PEr'!.\ I.IIM D B.\ I.UOZ.\ S P L\J:. \ HU"EIl.\::; Y U,\ICO tn III (LASE tn I'AN.''''''. f:>lp''1:i nli"tn pnm Fnbrknr Ilomo't iU;jt:uacioIlCOI tic mnquinari:18 ell gl;!n\rnl. Octirrcut ti In B olit a d,. Barailano, A vwida. Cnllral, NO). ll6. Francisco Escamilla, 'rqnilooto-Crnstrncl'r. -H "I I:rkk Vanl in P;'UUlIlItl ull,l tll1' Ouly UIU' of Itll Cln"lI. S p ecia lly Made 01 Til es and MlIleriallcr Concre t e W o ol limn-E'I(c"'pliollul ,,'ucili li,!' for :\1:111. u 'ltclllr II (J\""II all,1 Ill-lallin .\Jl Kllltl.i 01 .. Dir,d aU l liquiril'$ (0 FllANC1SC O ESCAl'llLLA, Baraiinno's lirug Ston' No. 116 (;clltr .tl A "1'11111'. o f pril'il eges was so lig ht, and on March 20th 1878, a n ew contract was enterod into with the Colombian Governmcnt whic h gave th e association of pro m oters the r ight to c ross th e t e l'l'it o r y occupied b y the P a nam a R ailroad Company, pro viding an amicable agreement could be arr ived a.t with the latter corporation Under the terms of thi s agreement the prom o t e rs w e re given the exc lusi,"c right to construc t and operate a ma.ritim e canal aCrOSS th e territ o r y of C o lombi a b etwee n the Atlantic and P acific Oceans, for a p erio d of 99 years from the d ay it w as wboIly, o r i n part opened to public sorvice, or wbe n they s h o uld comme nce to collect t o lls on tTans it and n a v igation" It wa s agreed that th e general route of the ca n a l should b e d e te rm ine d by an i nt e rnati o n a l comm issio n of individuals and competent eng ine(,r s, nntl up o n set tling o n a. r o ute, the prom o t e r s were to b e allowed two j Cill'S t o form a joint s to c k compa ny, whic h co mp a n y was required t o finiah th e canal and put it i nt o sC'l'vico in twely e yea r s All public l ands n ecessa ry f o r the r oule of th e cana l an d stations, wharve8, mooring s and war e h o u ses incident to it s construction were cede d grati s 1 his also co ntain ed the gmnt o f zone o f land al,out 1.100 feet wide the entire length of the waterway It wa s furthe r s tipula te d that th e canal s h o uld r c main n e utral f o r all tim e t o the e nd tlult ill of wal" IlH? r chant esse l s and individu als m ight enjoy its lise and adranta g ; s UIlIll(.)('ste d. Fot' th ese right!) and )ll"i\"ilcg<'s -

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176 Pilot alia Gi/ide the GoYel'l1ment of Co l ombia was to b e e ntitl e d to :t s h a r e in the gross income of the l f r o m a ll sour ces on an increasing sca l e of fro111 five to e i g h t per cout. da.ting fro m the sc\""cnty.sixt h year after i t s opening, t o th e te rmin atio n of the concession, four fif t hs of whic h was t o go t o the Republic of Colombia, and o n e fiftll t o the Stat e o f P a n ama, tJ1C company controlling the enterp rise t o g u a ran tee h o w ever, that the Government's s h are s h ould not b e l ess Ulan each year. l'ho right to tra n sfer t h ese pri'fi l eges to o th e r !alists 01' companies was concede d bu t a n absolute hibition was made agains t cession 01' m ortgagi ng t o foreign government. Ca.Pl-P l'O -any fllhc international com mission DE indiv idu a l s a.n d engineers, known as the I n t ernationa l Scie ntific Co n g r ess m e t in Paris on 1 5, 1879 wer e present 1 35 delegates, most of wbom were F rench. Nell rl y all Euro p e a n countries were represented hO\'{m'cr, t h e I'!onting ent f ro m the United States numbering e lmen. Ceho con f e r ence wns presided oyer by Count De L esseps, and co ntinu e d in session for two weeks 1'ho net resu l t was th e r eac hin g of a decision t hat a sea-Ierel c,,"al shou ld b e constr ucte d from Limon Bay to the Bay o f Panama. rrhis important point settled, the ca n a l con cess i o n was transferred to La. Compagn i e Cni\'erselle d u Cllna l T nteroceaniqe de Panama, commonly know n 3S t h e P anama C::uwl Company an organizat i on chartered u nde r t h e l a w s of France. Dc Lesseps was giren contro l and o n e o f his first 5teps taken was to purchase a. controlling i nt e r es t i n the Company which ill\ o!\'cd th e c h a n g ing hand, of abol lt $18.000. 000. Arrival of De Lesseps. rrhc :Wth day of OcccmliC'l', IHiH, mClllomhll' in the hi ... tor)' of the I !'<.i1l111llS, lI( mid ill iL<.; of January I. lHSO. \, ill be f Ol'crer says t he SIal' ,C, 1:.\ t :1 o'cloc k i ll

PAGE 194

I I 1 ... 177 th o :11' 1 ('1'110011 Ill' lIwl elity I ill' sfL>:lIllC'r wilh ('('lIlit F etdil1:lIId d e Lcs!:,p WfiS s i g nall e d at Co l oli. :lllt! !'OOII artC'l'wanl s (lnh'n'd th e h;lJ'iJor. The s t cnme r l':l1I1C i llll11l'lli a lt", the" lml' f \\"11(. >1'0 the r ccepti(lll l'Ollllllittec :lppoiuLed i J Y thu GO\"('l'Illlll'lIt. the d c lrgati oll fruJll th e A ssembl). alH 1 a l a rge Humber of invited dtiz(,lI-. \I('I'C cullectrti l u wl'kn m e the illustriotls eng ineer alld th e olhel m e mb e r s o f his p :lrty. A liltl e pnst I p Ill.. th e 1 :IIH.1ing s tng e was !Jut 011 b onnl :llld : tll 1 \'jJ,li r c d t o the spaci o u s sa lool1 o f the "IH'n' n. form;) I of welcom.l'l was made h y .J. A. Cl's p r de s Chai rm an o f thf' rece ption COlllmittee, wllic.:h W;)S l'C'spond r d to i n :1 hrif'f but hearty m a n lle r b y 1\1. (Ie L essl'ps. Theil fcl10wed s h o r t and ;111Pl'opriatc addresses ur Andrc\ 'C' and Presta n o f th e State A s se mhl". Pikr. con sul f or D(,tllnnrk. and )[1'. S. 'V. D l:i c ksoll 011 h e h a lf of thl' En g lishs p e aking r esidents of th e To I dl of titese tlit: dis tingui s h e d g uest l'C'plie<1 with g rcp s and the di:-)tiltgui s h etl e ngin ee r s o f his I wrty matl n all examination of tho harho r frollt, find inquir ell into th e direct i o n :ttH] forc e of the northers. B y th e oid o f a carefully cluli h e mark e d th e l oca tion of the n ec('ssa r y brcakwat('r a s well as th e prnbabl e entrance to th e great I sthmian Canal. In all and on e,ery p oint d e L esse p s declared

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,----------------------1 178 Pilot amI G !lid{ -AFTER THE OPERA, GO T O THE Can.. ti.n.a "''''La Opera" THEATRE No, 19 CENTRAL AVENUE, NEAR NEW NATIONAL THEATRE. i'oTVLI:::1I I !'iT n l1illl, O CATION. Oll. .. r th., Xo;:,f ,'''' :11111111" .. \ \1_ I,.tdh' H"fn ... hlllO lIl l'I:It, ,,. ill ,\11 1' : 11l;IUIU. W illl'iI, a,ltt Di"pnliltd, L lme/", Stl','rtl.. "a"'I'Y ) 1 ;11101))" :111 '::l.l'.: I i,Ill'\,1 JI.1 k ,'r .11" : .y,. OIl I II nud. A ( 'ol'dlil l lu.'lI"Ooll Ii! (aY(!n Tu "'ilit t 'i!<. his gl'C!lt sat i sfaction at the apparent pra ctic ab i lit.y of the g r eat 1IIldrrt:lk i n g and mOrc than ollee becam e e nthu sias tic' in s pcnking o f the pro s p ect .. The r e :1l'e h e s;lid. c 'ollly two g r ent to h e oyel'come, th e Chagl 'cs and the d ee p c utting at t h e su mmit. Th e firs t call bC' s ur m ounte d by turning the h eadwa t e r s of the rirf'L' intu anothe r t hanllel, and the secon d will disappe;Lr before Lhc wells whic h will b e sUlik and c h a r ged with o r suffic i e nt f o rce to r e m o\'e vast quanti tics at, cac h dischar g e The cxi ste nce o f th e rai lr oad will greatly /';lcil itate the work 011 the ca n al. and ullless d ose r eXillllill:ttioll. f o r which the presen t "jsit ha s b ee II nuttle. pr u\'c UIlf a.\'orablc: a result that i s ill nowise :lllticipat cd. th ere i:i 111) d o ubt but the work will h e hegllll ill C;l1'11es t and withollt mat e rial d e lfty.:1 The u tmos t goo d ord e r \': as m ain tain c d. and the 1Il0st prof ound res p ec t was S hOWll tu .1\1. d e Lessep'5 by nIl classes. ", h i l a the enthu s iasm k 1lCw 110 bO llnds. rJ'h e o f ;,11 11,ltiollS w ere di:-.pJayc d. with th e notable excc ptioll uf that of the l'nite d States, aill l th c r cc('ption 111: 1)' U l' id to h ave heen n d el'ide d success 011 the :J.lst.. a t 1 1 it, Ill, th e part y left Culon rnr P anama r rh e trnin was lIl e t at H al'ua coas bridg e hy the Prcsident o f the St.ate: and the p arty w(ts r c l y j I':tllsfe rrcd 1 0 a n ot h e r 11':1in b y whic h it arrircd ill thi s cit y a t 3::tO p m. A fine IUllc h wali pl'ov; dC'tl 011 the traill w i t h wil1(,g. which gare ('lit ire s atis faction.

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I 179 -----Til Panam a conside rabl e pl'f'p al'a ti oll had been made to do fitt i ng h Ol1ol' to lh e great impl'cssario At U1C st
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,---------. -----. --.. -----, 180 ----. -. n (,UITOlli new"p:tp rl' adidl :llld 11;<.; :o,cl'IJlll l wif e ,,"Olo.; hllt :! l ,,1":'11 h e llIarried IIt,1". '11j wy h art' 'iCHIt (-11illll'l..'lI. Tht' :\I {u.!:ttnc o f (:rl'
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I I I I 1 I I -OJ -, -'---" .... ---;::; ---, -I=., I ,. I I I I I I S3ird'.S eye view if Culehra .!h1hmlo n "9merlcon" P.7l.R .A't!II',s :JIgl'ncgl .i}ur,ou .:II.2ienkcwsla I ----, J I I I

PAGE 199

182 Pilot mul Guide. -Pacific O reans. 011 acc(lullt o f the latene" DE Ule h our at which the s teame r left th a wbarf, it was impo ssi bl e to carry out th e program in its entirety without d elaying the return t o tbe city. With th e c ntrallce of tho <. Taboguilla" into th e mouth of th e rircl' (th e first occ:ls i on i n which a steamf'1' had eye r bpc n spell ill that pl;lrf' ) it was consi de r e d as a b eg illnin g of th e :-ounoys (mar k the failure al the star t), and tho rema i nder o f the program was Ula n proceeded with. All was m ade h y Jr. d u L rsse p s in which h e anuounced th e fulfillm ent of his to heg-ill l)1';t clic ai work Oil th e great c anal c lltcl'pri5:.c 011 T ililna r y 1. I S O. H e further remark ed that lab ol's h:H\ lIOW lJf'gull 1111-der the a uth ority of the united States of UolollliJia with th e belleclicboll of lllon seigno r the Bi s h o p of P
PAGE 200

. Cnllul Ballfjllc t til VI) Lf's S C IIlJ. 183 = ----DRUGS. PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLIES No. 1:1, Ccntrill.ll'rnne, O lillosite lIotcl Centra! aud ural' CatliellmI11taZ] Q PANAMA_ 2 'We Carry a Full O,.ugs. Paints. Postal Ca,.ds. -Chemicals. Varnishes. Bonbons. Patent Medicines. Artists' Materials. Chocolates. Perfumery English Novels, Ca,.amels. Only Agents for the Celebrated CEYLO:-l HAS and AM'ERI(iAN TYPEWAITER S = .E3QQ:E-C:S. STATIONERY. BENEDETTI HERMAN OS, PRop.nORS. Our Branch Store is L "cated at No_ 326 Central Avenue One hundrcrl and forty i lwitati ons were issued, anu among those }1l'esclIt wf'l'e notable men from the L f nit ecl States alld evrrj' p art of Ellrope. ilL d e L essep> proposed toast to ':'l'hePI'f'ss:: stating', 'r h at it was the reprcsenta ('If public opinion, and the greatest forc(' of th e epoch. \ Vith its assistance the greatest commerc i : d int eroceanic highway o f t h e world woul d be mad e on Col ombian terri t ory, Hilder t h e prot ectio n o f the Gorl'l'Illllent :llld Lile grt.:!at p owers of the world:' L a ter he again LOok th e floor alld allnounced t hat HI(' T ntcl'nationrt l hac l b een cOlllplete l y organized, and that it would b e di\'ld ed into five sectio n s Liell t. II' )"e after",,, I'ds prop osed t oast to th e h e a l th of the humhl e lab orers, I: \ Vith o ut distinction of mee 01' nation:: IlI;I)' who. ill th e f ut ure may ue t h e llseful and modest in s trum ents to CArry to COlllplctioll the greatest work of the age", First Blast at Culebra. A numorous party accompanied d e L esscps on the 1Il0 l'llillg t.raill of S .. lturdny, ,J anuary 10, lSS0, to

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. 184 P ilot {lilt? G uide -. witness the o f th e firs t Lla,;t 011 th e Cf'lTO CII I pbra. :\L de Lcs,;tps '\;15 } lcrompfll1i r d h y :1 1I1I1IlUf-1' of o f the sl1l'veyi n g party: DI'. F e rro <-,nIOl1ll1i:1I1 Delega te; His Gnu:f>, B : shop P;.l1d; D o n f'e l \ 'pra, Pr(>sidcllt o f Pan<.tlll;t j llrull, th e FI'C'Jlch ('onslIl. }lJl(l rfiri oliS l'C'sidc nt'i of th e cit\', \ Vith I.illl n lfoio his se\'enyC'fll' old dan g ht. ?I'. J l i$;.s F'f'rnalHi:l d c ",hrl was to npply th e I J 'dric spark \vhich W,IS t o tiisciwl'gt' th(' firs t hlast ill th(> l11ight y o p cr:ltioll o f (':w: d eOllstrnC'tinli. The Ill ille illlil bf'PI1 c:In.:-full y I nid i ll:)11 ('x('t'r fiillgi.r hard nlld COmpAf't f ( I'lllfllioll /')f bols,lIt, at a few f('('1 h('io\\' t1l1" find ch:ll'gf'd with Ihll,tx k i l og r:lllls (If pow('l'ful explosirE'. o pf'rnlinn wao.; pCl'fnrlll e d with cOlllpil ,tr SlI(;CCSR, all imllH'tlse malo;S o f sol i d rock being hutlf't1 frfJ m its f O ll ll( lnti v ll. 'fhe party return e d to P n lIama. 011 the 11 iI. Ill. t raill ('x('l'e J ing l y plrflsr;tl'lIcbr of the Surz Canal. th(' grea t.-!' 1':1111(, (If opC'lIillg a 1Hl\' ig:tlJle IIY 1,(,twef'1I t h e two prilll'ip:d oce: wIi. H o wish('s t o snl'!"-if y hilllhclf a8 to tllP j wa(ti(';l lJilit y of hiR Pl'opos('d j'()lItr I I)' 1lC'I'Sounl ins p ect i on. It is n o t lik('iX that ;lllY of thC' oils taclrs will ( 'S C ;lll" the o liSel'\';ltifJlI o f s o tr, i u rl! alHl ('Olll P CtRllt n judge. If hI" ('ol1<'iu<.ies tlint lInll(' o f th rill :11'(' IlII!o\Ul'IlHlIl11t-n.hl/\ the worlt! will Ilfltnr:l!ly pllt f ;,ilh ill his opinion H e h [ ,:-; with hilll H Dirkl". thl" f:t1l1011S Dllh h f'llgill('rr whos e pnll'ti( 'a l :lc hi l\\ C ll1l"l1t ill ('fll1 .. 1 l Mlki ng l' n('xl to the 8tH'z. I r till two II\11st ('('ll'lJr:dt'd ('lIgilH'rr", of th(' ngt' ('OIl('tlI' '11 til... IIl'li('f lhat a :-.lIi p (':111:11 ;,t P an:lI li a i'i pratti{:,I" :It tIll' 8": l { \(' I wi!1 hI.'

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I --185 likely t o Il p:,itl out of lI lt' t'!lrli(1' SlIb. ';('I'iptioIl S One o f tIll' IllU:-ot iJllPOlliult ill 'lll,) o f lhi .... hudge L walo< the pro fit-inking 011 prelimillary (':'\II'I<';I..'s hy th e orgllllil..el' s (If tlif" (Olllp:IIl,Y. l 'l1dl'1' l ite a rt ir'!t's o f il1{'orpo ratil )Il, tlt r (lll l i l 1l'd to ('f'I'I;lili (':n .. 1t and tiftt'C'1l P<'I' ('n t. o f tlt( lIet Jll'tltib. Tlte tlttcr :l1'1'i.111gl'IIICllt ill tltt' :l ... i tl" f,.w th p -------. -_.-. -

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186 P ilot wul G uide [LNCORPORATEO.] Eighth Street and North A venue, F AN AlN:I:A. )R o., t '.Dcp.,dllll.'ld S I ",>:" Telephones Nos. 75 and 78, ben efit of the ol'g"nizel's o f some 1 300 blocks, or f o nnder part s", amo unt ing t o 5,000 fm, ncs eac h and con s titut e d n s p eculation pure nnc1 simpl e blocks I n t e r sold a II the way from 8 0,000 t o 300,000 fmncs, th e profits there-I on accruing t o the original h olders. Cost of Canal. The Scientific Congr ess estima t e d tho emit o f tiIr cnna l at whil e t h e T echnicnl ('oll1mi"ion, 011 which were two Amel'ican m embe r s G. ThL r ottell tllld \ V \Vright, aftel' personally OVCI' the l'Outf'. fOl'lllLliatcd a r e port Oil 1-1) ] 880 estimat i n g the total cubic m etemge t o b e e x cal'ated at nn! 1 lhe cost of doing it 5 J 6 8,600, 000. On F ebruary 20, of the !;nnlC yea r De L essc p s in :l l e tt er on the subject lowered th o eslim"te to 011 tho g r o ulld tllnt h e Iwlic\'cd cOl'tailt figures nllmo n h y tho COlllmission were

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187 too high H e c u t down th e items of the of thr C h ngres and th e C hugl'cS dam by '1ID,OOO,OOO, in which judg m e n t b e err e d as showlI by latcl' d e velopmentg, Spei'l k iJlg b e f o r e a. meetmg o f t h e ;;:)ociety of i ea n Engineers nt Xew Y ork O n i\fare-h 1 lKRO. Dq s t a ted t h at vessel s would be ab l e to go f!'Olll orCOlI) t o ocean a f tcl' the exp e n diture of Referring t o th e typ e of cana l at the same m eetillg he said:-II If the (;ommitiee hiHI uecideli (01' a lock CflIlOi, I :o:honhl IU.l\'e pul OU my hilt flud gone hOllie. LOck s :11'(' \'cry good COl' small but ,,,ouhl not do fot' Jarg\1 sIJip-;. TIH-'I'('> is :l now 011 the stocks 520 feet in length, alltl it woult! take a n'l'Y long tim e to take R ship through a ("nlHl! of tlLi:-length with 1\ single loek, and with a :o:ystelll of doullle locks. i t wouhl be mu<:h mort-' expen:;in' thall allY d('('p cllttillg 011 Ihf' route. .. It is i n teresti n g t o n ote i n this cOllllection th:lt tho D c l.ICsseps spoke of is of a pigmy com p a r e d wit h t he floa t ing pal aces LI/xitallia I1l1d J / ((/(l"l'IoJlia o f th e p r esent day. w h ose l engt h exceeds the I HHO h l' 11'Io r e tha n 200 f eet. The Era o f Activity. D ur ing the first t hree years the company clc\'otecl ito;; clI'r gics p rincipally to the work o f p re p aratioll find ge t ting m a t erial t o the ] s thmus. alth o u g h by the end 01' F ebl1. L u ry. :;00,%2 cllbic m elel's of earth h a d been exc"mle d. and fl w ork i ng f orce o f a bout 3.000 mCIl es tabli:-;hed. A t th e y c ry b eglllllin g th e lah o r crs s t rllck for 1 .jg her wagcl'. 'fhey W C ll t to work f or 90 cen ts sil\'cr p e r day, hut mad e ;t d e mand f or $1.1)0 p el' day, clai m ing t hat the cost or liyi ng h ad increased, and that th e day l aborer in P(\nama was ge tting l. 00 p C I' day ( 1). The demand was granted. ----( 1 ) W:lges uf hlborel's in 1 Slt] wel'C fj
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I I I I t I I I 1 I I -----------------------------------------------------------------dJ new section q/"the. dlmericon Quorte".< in Culeh"o-flanama .'laken .from the .fleservoir. .9.sfhlnian-:A";.an 01:P.R.fl .H.ew.1.1fJlcnC]l4 .:If ----- -'. -.. r .. I I I ; I I -"':1 -. c "" --='", <:J -. -,.,

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--'------, I --._--_. -189 -== :llld ialC'I' 1111' 1':l tC' of \\:1gP "J!'t' t o .. 10 111'1' (by. 'I'll' l'IIITI\;I .... t td' ItJiltt'I'ial \\";1" !lot c(Jll lil1C'd to Fr:IIH.:c. I Hlt (':lllIe frollt ('\I'tT illdll<:lI'ial 11:l tioli. III titr e!' dredg es wen' p'll"<: h;I:-'('tl fl f ; J'hi l;uil"llhia nnll f D r SIOtU)I)t) III Fthrll:II'Y D ing l cl' nssllIllcd ,'o lllm! .,1' 1111' works ;IS lJil'l't'hr (;(,lll'I":.1. Froll: tili::; (JII all ;llIpl'lll::' t\in'll t o npCr:ltioll", :lIl d th e w ur k pnwl'clh d :ll ullg mure "'YS{pIII:tIIC lill('s. f ollo"ing him callie CIl. Aimp d c :-;011 of till' ( 'h l e l Dl' Whil birr b\'calllc intel'cskd ftS a ... ih.'llt p :l l'tl1 r r ill llC'ilri,L all Llll: l a r ge l';tll:tl and .11 'ri'"C'll ('olt<;:id cIiU,I ... pr o lit tllI'nhy Th e origina l plan lIutit'r wll;<-II tllP work \\:15 l e t t o ('olllnH.:t o r s fai l e d to IIlt p l lilt' expec-iulioll-: Th{' (;olltl'ad. h W('ll' 100 ';1I1itll ;11111 LlIO work l!id 110l gil (III qll ick clttJugli. ImhT nil ill!.! Wll1k \\;1'l. l e t out ill larg e contrad:-;: !lUI:';! of th e ('ol1tr'lctOI"'1 prior tn t ime b eco m illg su h l'olltmdor" untll'l" thc Il('W The r(llIt e ot' 11,(> lIeg;11I :11 F u lk:-, Hi\e r. Cris t u h ;d Culoll. fulltlwrd "ppnl\llllatl'k th e \;!lIey o f th(' Ch'lg rt:'!o; to Has Ohi:SIHl, tiJ' ll l"I'(J .. th e C o nlill e r;ls through C'ul c llnl and th r o n g h the y all ey o f t.he Hiu lo mouth_ t h e hill' ( 'lIding-tw o mil es out ill J'. t l1 tiOl1 Ilf a ,Lilli ilt tlr I1l':l1" (;;11111>0;1. 11'0111 whidl tit\! watcr mnlld eSl::tJlC' ill allot iter d irection hy mc.IIIS (,I' dirl'l'!o;iOH dlanlll'!:.;. \\'11h HIP illn'plioll o f t.lllal lll' l'l':ltiotIS. ,111 era u f \';I .. t (''\I'Cntlitlll'l' Iwg;ln. ('ol1trat'l s wer c plal'p d witlw ul d1ll' n'ganl tIl tJIIUIIIY tml Ily ltiS.J it \\as 1'11:1l"l'llt th;l t :LlI tile 11I.ld e h n lh t u tIld I c ngtll o f lilli e iu iJlliltlinp; wOlild he l'xt(:'elic d ..A1JOUL this time loo the bC<":IlIiP :1inl'llle d a t tlH' ruinolls m anlier ill whil'h :h e \ ;l!o;! e5t < thli:...lnlH.'llt Wil'" h{'ing run. The p ress also to o k it lip and a str(lng ulll l ercurrcllt o f acirel'sc public opinion b el'ame IIlllllilest. D e Lesbcps t o ste m the

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190 P i/of (lIId Guide. =-< ,," .. .. "'LA PRENSA" GRAN DlARIO D E I NfORMACION Publicooo PlI 10 TlP O GRAFIA MODERNA, Avenitlo C emlol, N O 37. EN INGLES Y ESPAf\iOL. EL M [JOR PARA AVISOS. Extensa Circulaci6n en la Z o n a de l C a n al. Para iu.i/j, 'UI/' R II ctmd.cio':"II, rll'.' fie LIIUO 'Ie 1!lfl8 oi Cable: IjMODERNA" I TelH,mo No. 178. GUILLE HMO ANDHEVE, lHlltX'TOI! I'IIQI'n:T,\I U O H A lilt I II do lie II t:orl"t'!o Nc. (j.1. THE PRESS A SPlENDI D DAi l Y OF I NFORMAl I O N by llPOGRAFIA M ODERN!, N O 37, Avenue PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH.BEST AOVERTISING MEDIUM Largs circulation in the C a n a l Z o n e. IJUXI Nt), ... <1. LidC' of oppositio n se nti m ent :Llld ill appli e d t o th e }'rcllt h ( :oY<'rIlmclL t f or p er m i s s i o n t o e stftblts h [t l o lt e ry I mlil t h by which h e h ope d thr o n g h the issua.n ce o f b onds to p rovide fun d s 1'01' carl'yi n g 011 th e work rrhc Chambe r of D eputies yut('d t h e d esi r e d p c rmission. bllt the propositiol1 l a ter h e l c l u p pCJldi!lg a re po r t o n a clunl condit iOlls. To thi s elld the l i'rcnc h U On'1'IIlllclit dcspat c h e d Armand H .oss(,ol,tJ, an emine n t c ng i ncer t o the I s thmus. t o g o O\C'I' til(' situailon i ll detail. r('port discoumging. H e dcclilr{'d that :I SC;I len. cHllal could n ot b e c arri e d thl'Ou gJI t o cOlIIl'lc lioll with lile IIlt'HIIS ill sig ht. alill recommend e d the c h a n g ing of the plall s I"I'0m a sea l o n .'J cHllal t o a callal w ith IlJrks as all imlllediate' expt'd iC'IlL Othel's COllll('c t e d with tlu' l'II1l'I pri"ic ('oillcidt.'d \\ ith this "ic\\'. an d D e L essc p s ill till' (,1Ie1 r r lul'tillltl.V g:wc hiiS conse n t t o the t'h HllgC. This pl,111 m a dt' no ciHlnge in the \illO nf the calla I but U le surf ace flf th e (',\11111 ilt iL.;; summit was t o h e f ort.y-nille mete)'s. ()r nhout I UO feet a hove sea \O\'e1.

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T h e Hfa oj Actitily. 191 l'lIl' HeW Jillc o f a ctioll decide d UPO Il : th e l oUery h ouds wer e issued, th e limit b eing put o t S 160,OOO,OOO. Each b onr! r e p resellte d a \alu c o f S80: but wer e pu t 011 the mar ket. fit 7:?OO. They wer e t o b ea r 4, p er ccnt. i l l tercsL and be r e deem e d b y a m o rtiz:.\.tioll. r:[1ho i nvcl!itillg public. altho u g h the bait was u ttr active, r efused t o d o 11101'0 t.hall nibbl e and a second at.te mpt likewise p roved a b o rti, c All the Good Things o f Life. Econ o m y W fiS :t n unkn o w n f acto r in the a dmi nis t ration o f aff air s o f th e fir s t compa ny, alld extr e m e gen e rosity cha nl c t e rized i ts e nt o f it s white employes wl-to ill t h e main w e r o fro m Frallce. Th e ave r age pay of a, c l erk was per month, and of :l. c hief of divi s ion f r o m $2 0 0 t o B;{OO pel' lllo nth rrwo years' service e ntitl e d the employe 10 :) m o nt h s 10[I.\e of a bsence, and tra v e llin g expenses b o th ways. Quarters wer e furni s h e d f ree as well as ercl'y thin g n ecessa r y t.o fit th e m up furniture, b e ddillg) l amps k itc h e n utellsils, etc A II th e head offices w e r e in P aII a 11l:l, and th e o ffici a l s all reside d the r c 'rhe sect i o n of t h e c 'ity surroundin g San Fra n c isco Park was the hcrulq u a r ters o f tllC Fre ud l col ollY i n those days. The r e w as 110 syst e m of accol11ltin g in vogue, and employes w e r c p e r mitt e d t o d raw h o useh old ar tic l es upon r equis ition a.b o u t w h ellem}" they l i k e d In a. multitud e o f c a ses this I:lXity was 1 aken a dntnt age of and q uite a busilless in the buy ing and selling o f compa n y's furn i ture, e t c w as sec r etly ca1' r ir d 011. Aft e r pa y d ays m o ney flowed like wine, and it W}I S lIo t a n unCOl11mo n occurr e nce t o see th e s treet a r o ulld Cat h e d ra l P a r k fille d w i t h sca t s f o r th e accomm o d a tion of offici,ll s and clllp'loyes b e nt upo n h avillg :.t good time In t h e offices n. d ay's w o rk con s i s t e d o f l:)even hours, fr o m 7 a. 111. t o ] 1 n m. and fr o m 2 p. m t o 5 p JU. Conva lescents a t t h e T abog a Sanit a rium wer e c heer e d bac k t o health with truffles, JUus hrooll)s,

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--- -I I -, (() f\) > r dftla-:-:tic ontranc,to the Canal atCnstoba! -.'7>anama .$,, /4mlan 4' .7J ...A'(,W.J :A,.."cy"f :A.:I,e.rltsinf/..f3unu u .:A .7.J/e.lfkOIt'sk;. -----,

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-, -' ---" '--I --------. ., -... I I r. .......... -57 .! .7'aC!fic Gnlro!1ci! 10 floe Cano/-!Pa:loma. ;,h f hm, q I pJ'/ 1/ .A ..... .:Ap.."r M .1J A.,dd,v""Mnp .iJ.uNOII .]If .fJUltt, ,, ,,,,/I, ... I I --_. ------------------_. --------

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194 P ilot mul Guide. and all th e d e licaci es o f the Fre n c h marke ts. In fo u r j'C'ar s t h e it e ms of p illo w s, hol s t e rs, a nd oth e r bed l i llen purc h ased from o n c Paris firm aggregated S30,OUO, allel t his was only olle o [ se v e ral firm s furn is hing this cla ss of material. 'rhe purc ha ses o f s tati o n e ry in six mon ths from o n e firm a l one amounted to 515 .. 000 p C I' m o n th. In 1904, the writer saw more than a t o n of P C Il points that had become r u sted and u se l ess, thrown away Veri l y the ma te r ial contra cts were a good thin g f o r the dea l ers, but w hat of the poor peasant who invested h i s s av i ng s in canal s h ares on a rising market? "Dingler' s Folly" (Folie Dingler." ) Standing on a handsome t e rrace 011 the west er n slope of Ancon Hill is a building that r ea di l y co mmands at tention fro m passe r sby via. either the old 01' n e w La. B oc a road s It was the pros pectiv e h ome o f l\l. Dingl e r, one of the foremost Directo r Gen e ral s o f the Fre n c h company, but h e nev ol' occ upi e d it. \Vork o n the man s i o n was s ta r ted s ho rtl y after he came 10 t h e Isthmus ill F ebruary, l 883, and the cos t i ncludin g the grounds is es tim a t e d to h ave be e n nearl y $00,000. For IDallY years It ha s bee n known among the Fre n c h peo pl e o f a s 1/ Folie Dingl e r," 01' Dili g l e r 's F o lly. At the time the Ame rican Govemmellt took p ossessio n the p l ace h a d fall e n greatly into decay, but n ee ded r epairs were made, and for the past thre e years il h as beon u se d by the D e pa rtm ent o [ Sanitation as a quarantine d etentio n sta tion. 'rho experic n ce o f M D i n g l e r O il th e I s thmus is, pcrhaps, th e most p a theti c i n canal his t o ry. Storie s of th o faLll e ffect the c limate of th e Isthlllu s was sIlid to hare on f o r e igners rcach e d l?nlll ce, but D i n g l e r sco ff e d at th ese r e p o rts. T am goi n g t o s how them))' I w is r e ported to hav e s aid, "that only drunkards a m I the d issipate d t a k e th e y ello w f evol' and die thol'e." H e bro u ght with him his wife, S Oil a nd a daugh le r His so n w h o was mad e

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I "[L lRIANGUlO ROIO" "lH[ 8m lRIANGL[" (;" u,..l:1nh E xi"lt'lI";u ,I. .\,' II\-ulo" \liIni I 'll "";III'I,'I"" III 'li(lo ,I. :1H.:njt''''\ LN ill"" 111 '''''; ]':I.":.1IIallO rl a". Lillliu lOm'lido ole l dnO'lIl" Aolm'IHl" pUfII l I I .... l n; Ciutun)m'" (It-(;I a ,';I y {.'UIOl', 'II. SO! pn:'>I' n Esp.'cial AI"l1-cio nllkl10 Scxo. '1'1 ... oulS stun' i n l UlU"''' .'x, -lush' -!y I ,l.'\ul,,1 ." 1I""'Ii.,,., \\'t ("UT," Avtnida None No. SO, Maduro lupl Co. y F C Htrbrurtr. PANAMA. ; 1 Inr:.:, nml l'()IiIj,It,, : ,,,,urllu"IIt ,,( \ : ... ". Iwir orullm, ul,. Hlul 1 ) .-\1'" or 11m lUod, ', \\'t iudl. 11". A1IIcri"11II I. mli, It) Call awl i,ouk uu'r (lUl' liul'. No. 8 0 Norlh Avenut, Nta r I\ladlJfOLupi Co, .. P \NAIHA .... Chie f o f P osts, s h ortly cOlltmete d yellow fel 'e r "lid died. Din g l e r s ubseque ntl y r e tul'll e d l o France on l eaye of ab se n ce and upo n the reappeara nce o f h i m se l f and fami l y Oil th e I s thmu s, IllS d a u g ht e r feli victim t o Y ellow l ack. On th e r e tul'll fr o m a second vacatio n his wif e a l so sic k e n e d and died fro m the s am e f a t a l diseas'. D i n g l eI' a f terward s w e nt b ac k t o }"'r a n ce a brokenhearle d m a n L a ter h e b ecame ins an e a nd died i ll a m a d h o us e The Collapse and its Results. 'rhe c10sillg days o f 1888 m a rk e d th e enrl o f th e D e L efis ep s regime. In D ecembe r o f th a t year the compa n y w e nt into liq uid ntio n a n d 011 F e bru ary 4 1 889 a r ece iver of its affair s WIl S appointe d b y the Civil Tri b lllle o f th e S eine, with auth o rity to t ra n s f e r all, 01' a n y p ortion o f it s a sse t s to a lIe w corp o ra t i on. On th e I s thmu s t h e w or k was n o t d e finit ely s us p ende d unti l l\Iar c h l5, l H89, a lth o u g h but little w o rk had b ee n acco mplish e d f o r tbree month s prior to thi s event. Th e s u s p e n s i o n o f ope l'ati olls thr e w a s m all army o f l ab o rer s out o f :t j ob, and an imme n se a m ount o f s uff ering result ed. Nin o t e nth s of the m e n e mpl oye d O n th e canal w orks w e r e fr o m the \ Vest Ind il"tn i s l a nds. LiYin g ollly r.p o n what th e y ca!'ne d d a y b y d ay th e sto pp age of work br o u ght the m at o n c e to the ver ge o f destituti o n Th e Jama ic..1.11 Gm'e rnm ell t h o wover took cog n iza nce o f

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I 196 Pilot (/11(1 Guir/e. their con d ition, and thro ugh their Resident ap p ointe d thirteen a ge ncie s a.t diff erent points o n the line to carryon th e w o rk of repatriati on. agen cies up t o May 7th, 1 889 se nt back OVOI' G,OOO. while j ,OOO more went b ack 011 their own account. Of lh e ba\;.\l1rc of the 20.000 at work 011 th e callal whell the c l',lsh Ca.I11C', som e l'cJn<.lillrd 011 th e T s thmu s fwd the I'<.'s t migrated to the othe r \Ves t India. i s lands. 1'hc work of repatriation cost th e .Ja m a ic.'lll GOYCl'nmcllt 135.00 pCI' hC':ld, o r a totn l o f about :)30,00 0. 'l'hc Chilea n Gow'rl1ll1 Cllt see ing all op p o rtun i t y a t thi s tim o t o SeClIff' ill"jllligrnllts granted 10,000 frrc passages frolll Panama. to Y'
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197 I .ombrmri ; \ be ([;. Avenida Central, N:; 143. PANAMA .. ---)1.\8 ('lEX 1'01:\1.\;-; Ill: IlE FIE!.T I;o, III'; I'.\.L\ Y 1)1: 1..,,-=".\ 1'.\1 : \ Y X1S"O:-;, ImlJOl' lndon 0 1l'o'('tl\ ttc Ius l<' .. h .. l i e EIII'0I'[ V'II"' C 1",.." P ,......", E -....... 1- D ,...". .. R A 0 ..... iI. Qt;;,: ;, ........... .... ....... ....... .:1 .. ......... .......... -. -.. ,_ .. T:E:E :E:.A.T Ko. 143 CEHTRAl AnHU E E])./.l:F'O EI'U"])./.l:. PANAl\I .. \, C AMAOEO lUPI ProWelfl. Fell II: I tl!l, S U '''''' ""ts, nu,l "lJol Ih,t,., Fill' .1Ilen IIlul ( !llId .... : II THE ONLY HOUSE IN PANAMA 8I!J KING A SPECIAL
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I 198 R P A T A I H N L EAR M 0 A A D A N G E L W N S C Y P i/I)l {/luI C //ide SOUVENIR BOOKS pICTURE POST ALS LATEST MAGAZINES LA TEST PERIODICALS C A H H I ES: NEWSPAPERS, LOCAL & FOREIGN CIGARS CANDIES TOURISTS' NOVEL T I ES. MAPS. B IENKOWSKI & SPERLING, Proprietors. The Second, Or New Company. The hist o r y of th e ncw rOlllpfwj' dOl's not !'l'('old :Ill}" s.t a rUing achicrclllcIIL ill th o tlJl1nu n t of work :H"((llllpli dwd. itt Lid) the ra th e r dNillitor y 111;11111('1' in whil'h 'he wmk wa s c:1lTic d on lelld s co l o r L o th e b e l ief Lll. d it wns org anized prim<1.r i l y at IcaRt t o pr o tC'c t the as!kl'i of th o old company. :lnd t o 1l1;lkc it sal e ",11 (,11 lhe opportune 1lI 01l11'lI t
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(J) (J) -.--- -------------------------------------------------_ .-------------- .:A ,general view gT II,e .7'1mericon Setflcment-Anamp. 6./.6.ia,,Jtnu: nclJIn.f.P../ JJiw.s.:zfpntj/ 4N4IufI.1 i ng1Jurt.Ilu ----..

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--------------------200 l'ilut (iliff G /fide. ---== ___ ___ ._"_ .. __ oz. CBntrai Avsnus, in front of Passsngsr Station, ./-' ......;. lP' J!i!, C "'-........ Good i!cstauraut. Ouick ) icai s Firs t Class Bar. ---' .... --.... --------, -C ... -_ ..... ... --.-::o._'t'w c.. w ................. ..... __ ... a.ct ...... (f t l es t Clgrccah l c and Ccm\'Cnicnl Place T o Wait f o r ih c Train. Billard P arlor and B arber Shop in Connection. OUR.. PRICES AR.E REASON ABLE, USARDO llENES .A" PrOc. -ill ol'g; Ulizing the l1('W comp,lllY IIlfldl' it impl'actic:1blu to COlli ply with lhe nho\'o time l imit) 3IHI llC'gotiati olls with Co l ombia were 1'('O PCIHll. Oil April 1 8!l:{. allot h e r extellsion \\":1:-; granted w h id) pl'O\-idcd fol' th e r es umption o f work 011 a pCrlllillH'l1t hasis hy ()ctolJC'l' :1\. 1 KHL awl the co mpl o tioll 01 th e canal within h 'lI yea r s fr o m that d a te. Toward the clo se o f thr Ilillct;ps it w:tS m:tllifp s l that th c con ccssion wOllld expire ])pI'oI'(, tl1(' work could u e fini s h ed. so ill ...-\ pril ) I !lOO a third ex t ensioll wftS arranged which stipul"tcd thai the "" "" I s hould ht: ('0111 plet('<1 by O c t o bel' :n, 1010. JII it is just to oitSf'trC that th o Col ombian {;oH'l'IIlIIcnL eXl'rci5l'Li iI r e markahl e d t'g r cc of patietlce in this (.'ollllcdioll. A Stupendous Undertaking. r phc orgallinditlll of the IIOW comp an), was a duu:-, in the [;1(,(, o f th e fac t that the mere IlICIItioll j)f "Pallftma" to a Frellch investor waS like flaunting a .n'd !,(lS ill front of a hull. \,ii)iolls o f gra ft a.Nd extl':t\

PAGE 218

201 .. agance float c d Cn"r hrfore m ind. Ho\\'C'\C'r" ill (kloher. UHl.J.. the X c\\' P anama C
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202 P ilot and Guide the condition s would not h ave p e rmitted of any othe r govc l'lIment cxcl'cisillg i t s right,; o f QWIlC'I''ihip in cOllnection with ill o con s tructioll o f th e C:II1:11. ':Phr l'C'crjvcl' to the of trrtlls f(ll' was r iolhrd with a uthorit y t o appoint n. cOllllllissi(}I\ of C'lIgi norl's to l' ('cti f y p revi o ll s l-iun'C',Ys. inspect pl'ogrC'ss made and to s n)lC'l'Vi sc expc nditur es, and olle o f tho first slf'ps t:lkcll was to olganizo th(' Oomite TC'chniqlw, con s i s tin g o r SOYCII Fronch C'lIgi11 N )'fol., 'l'hi s commiUee 111.1<1(' ill nil three d iff eren t r eports. rrh'" first p ro p osed n lock c:lll n nl nn im practicn.blC' height: th sC'cond provide d f o r :\ l oc k cHual, til(' b oltolll o f whidl s h ould 1)(' or nbout O R fee t 8(',1 1errl. locks according to thi s plan would h' fin' in numb e r Oil' e:H'h nt H o bin :wd OhiRpo 011 lhr: Atlanti c side o f th o lIi\'id0. and OIlO e:tc h at Paraiso alld wit h n. Lil l n l lock n onl' )fir:1I1ol'cs 011 thp P : l cific sid(', 1'h o third pl ilu compl'C'hclH.l e d n. ca llal the bottom o f w hich would h e :Ih oul :12 fCf,t niJo\,e sca l e\'c l alld wit h hut three lod,s. Ol\' ilt H uhio, :1I1o thC'J' a t 01' noar P e dro M i g u e l and til(' third Ht Net Results 'rhC' committee's plnn f o r J'<'gui:'tting 111(' Hi\'('I', and to ohtain th erc from til(' l'equisite amount of water to o)Jr1'ilte tiJ(' caHnl at :a\1 cOlisis tf'd ill ti l(' con s trllc t i oll of a (1:1'11 :1t H ohio of :!:)O.OOO,OOO cuhic mclrl' (,:1pa.('il)" Hud o r :1noth('1' dam r nrlliel' uJl the ri\( '1' at Alhaju(ln. (,flp: li)] f' of s toring' 1:"' ,0,000,000 cuhic IIIc t r r s of ",:\1('[' \Vith till' lake at H o llin, and the I'('scr\'oil' at Alhaju('lfl it W:1S that there would he 110 diffic,tllty as t o ft !'uffiei(lllt wat(lJ' s upply at allY p rl'iod of tho yenr 'rll(' olfl e Olllp;lIIY (,lI gin('rl'R propos(' d flir sit e of Uamho a f o r I (lam aftp), it l oo k lip th(' l ock r:l1l:11 hilt. Ihe COlllito I \ l'illliljur ('ol1si(/('rc d s ite :IS ('l1lil'oly uns uilabl e rh o UatutJ s i t e o f Ih(' pres(' II I dny 1I('\,er ente r e d into the cal( ubtioll s o f th e 1"I'l'llch

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203 Do YOLI Want the Lates t News from Home? TU[ IIIL nAil v UMI L I "rTftD JIMII D U[Dnl n" 11 nLlIMLU (JI,'ES TilE RF.-':'!IH:):T ..: TilE 1'11.: !oa:\\"R O F TilE WOB"') D.\IIX I X RI"f'('IXf'T FOlD!. OLDEST, LARGEST a n d BEST IIEWSPAPER PUBLISHEO on the ISTHMUS, .. .. # .... ----.. ,-,,_ .. __ ;;;;.._ '-__ ..... 1' ... .... .. ---..... '-"" ... .. I _._ ..I_I ..... __ 1 _. I'uhlb h ctl D aily Excrp t M o nda),. Hates: $ 2 ,00 1', C p e r m o n t h .//.L CO.lJ.lff"S/('.I'/'IOSs TO No. 1 6 S outh ",,,"ve., Pan arna. rl'hc Comito Technique' Ipft a hrl'ittlgc a :111l0 Ull t of n d uahlc p:lp c n:; upon !;lIl'\"{"j"s :lll d w hich han' bCC'll used to go o d pur p ose h y th o Istlillli:lIl C:111t't1 COlllm i ssion. l \part from tllesC', the r esults of lhe ('!'forts of th e new com pa n)' wrl'(' slllilii. T he actual COIIs t l'lItliOIi wor k was confined p rillcip;'11l y to exc;l\'ating i ll Cul e hrn. cut. lliid \York :It t h o Pllcif-ic C'lltl':lIlCO to tho coll1:)!. Not to C'xccC'li 1llC'1l WNO 011 t h e compan y's p;,y rolls [It :lily 011C' tim p :Hi compared wit h th e lll:Jximum lIumh(' r of :!\OOO i ll the hest d:1YS of t hC' o l d comp'lIlY T h e fllllOUlit of cX(,:\\":ltioll ( IOIIO h y Iho two P rt'I H : h c o m p:lllics l ll11'ing thC' fltlim period of illC'ir C'xi stC'IH':C i s by tho followillg data: "I. ,\:tlil\lI at ('"I<'I'\",L I",f..,,' wfwk 1"'!!:111 ......... It\;ttiml :,1 h"f",'" "(Irk ........ ('I" ";ot"':<1 ,1"I,lh "r :\(':"',llil\lI '.\ till' I'n'lldl n t ... '\"1,111 uf t""'l\\'aliuu 11.\ tI!I' F,'"ul'l, H t 1\, O ),i"'IM) .. TU1l1) 0',,"\'''\'al1UII U ) h. F"" II"'I iul'iw\illg"llin'l",;iull dmlU,Ld :112 fl. t:1:1 fl. Hi! flo ilil ff. i'O.(1()UJ)I)l) CII. \' ,h.

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204 Pilof-{fud G uide. of sC'pal':tti oll 1101111(' t o tl1(' SlIl'f ; u 'C' 1'f'C':ll edly clurit l' r thf' itli rrra i o f r irr h t\, or m or(' i J{' i\y(I (,1I P a -n ll a m a's illlir p r lld"lll' C f r olll Np a in. and Ilir mllV('-1l1C'llt of. l!lO::. T h e l i t tha t h o u nd 1 1('1 to thr UI'.1I1:td i no ("lI Jllf otirralio ll amI l a U T t o ('ol ol1lhi; 1 h a d iJrf'tl :l g all i n g Ollf' I t was (,Oll tillll;dl,r :1 gallH o f gin' :llld take', with .i':llln n H I in the ('h a ri!r r o l l' The' peop l e o f tlie lsthlllll'S W('I'(' n ot l ong ill up th e ; l t H l it!" (':lrI..,. itS \"-::?, !-;tariL' d ;1 srp: ll ; ltioll mOYC'II1CIlt. w hich h a d f(ll' i t s aim ;III1H .'\<1tl011 'jtlt GI'f'at B r it a i n r h o p r i m e lllorc]'<; 1)1' th i s se t f o rth th e f n c t that. th e COllllllCl'Cl .. d r e l ations of P;lIUIIll:l \\'itl! the i n t e rio r d c pnrtm cllts of Coi olltiJia ; IIllOUlltl'd t o htll little : bfll'ri('l's I WCH'lIt illg h ee i utt'!'/..' Illl'!-.t') :lnd rom p l:lil1 li tha t th e inll ('i "il 11(':111 of the Dr. tiC' r;Jz:l W : I 'i hims(l f ill sYllll Htlhy willt th e IllO \l'l llL'lIt. 110 oppo:-;itillil \ \;1S offe r c d lIy tb e Auth o r i ties. D r H u fino C U l"l' v o.:1t t hat t lllle :\rilli<;;t r l' o f C o lu lllI, i;\ nt (lui HI. } u':ll' i ng o f wil d W:I'-' gOillg Oil i l l P :lIlam: 1 ('{d .. \ll!wl lll() P "If'd a illlf l 1)1'. Hil'il n l n lIlI 1;1 P nrla tht,l't, 'lit h ti lt' n bjl'{j o f d isco uragin g tltr IlH I\{,IlI( 'IIt. :111.1 t o rl'ill(nrp n rah' till' I sth!l1u,: iui n II\(' (:r:lll:Hl i l lf ('ollfl"d<.'l'atlnn. '1'11(' ('o llllHissiollt'r s IIIII(' h h('jt rl' :\dtlli l1i s -

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.1I11Ihl'ill!J.": S t)l(,,,/Iilll/, 205 -Nos. 52 ami Eigluh Sir e el, (Formcrly ('a ill' til' So,a) P A N A ,V I A. ,<:' "&'/'o ONLY ,peeiaCry d,,jlll/cd J'vo LADIES' GOODS IN PANAMA. First Class Goods at RBBsonablB Priess, P O dLi bel' & CIo. tr n tion o f ill wlii('h Pftnama \\:1S ('OIl(,(,I'II(, 'CI. ,II!!I full amn es L y f o r t hos(' ronllC'cfrd with Sl'P ,II'fttj()Jl plot. III view o f th e fact Lhnt. t hrsc W('ll"(' !,;Ir!.;rc\ hy gllar:lHtees from Dr. ClIC'n"O, Uf't1-. J lIall ICISt, Flores :lta l tll(' of E('UflClcll, the ))coplf' of I sLhllltls rBt r r eti into a new t re:lt y 011 Decem ber :{1, I f H I. by "hich I.):.IIH ma. ollce m ')rc bC'camc a lllcmiJC l' of th e X cw (1 1':1 Iltlllill II Leagu e T n :J[arch J),)tllingo ( l;l irctlo: Lhl'll Yi(('-Pl'csidC'nt of X c\\" Gnllladil. lhi s lrf'aty, d;umitlg th a t Dr. C UC'l"\"O alltl D)'. P;lITa 11;1(\ (lX('PC'tiC'd t!tril' po \\"rI'S. tlllt! ill t h e !'t y to the :\I.tJl.'" of thC' hlU e r t o :1\'oid PCl"sC'cutioll \\"C'l'l' fon :C'd tCI rxpntri;ltr tlll m sc \ ycs. An oLhel' ngibl tioll for itltiC'))rlHicl1('C' \Y;J!', !o,brted III l R H O i'ostcn.'<1 hy.lost> eiC' Ohaldia. thC'1I (im l rnor. Al thi s p Cl'iot l UI':llla d a was h:ully /t;nillg j us t iJcen mcked by eivd war, whidl itl liu prn-

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I I l ."t!. ... L : .7he.!7. c.C.-Hospital in Colon -JDanama: -, I\) o m

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('biminI! or 'rom as Cipriano )JOS'lIl(,I"I. dil'tatol'. Oh;lhha th ought th r tim e (llUlJltioll :lIIcl :llllulIllll'rd hi<.; intc'nlinns to till' Bogota t7(1H'rJlmc nt a(h isillg Owt it W;13 pl'oposrd t n "t't "l' all ('stahl i ... IIII1Pllt ullcl el' th r protC'doratc' of ('it h l'r th r L"nitt'd t:ll:lhs Fr: lIl('I' or 8l1gl'lltd. \ t t llis jUII<"tnn', Ohallim was sllC'C(I('(l(,l l hy Hallliago d e l a (:nanli;1. (;II\" crnol', : l l.d th{' laUI l' !'('gi('ctrd to f(.!low up till' illhalltagl'. by lhi" tillI(' h n d g'ott(,11 his politic;.! sh;.ightl 'lIt'd Gut sOllle\\hnt, nud tlll'lll'l l 'Itl/'llti/)11 If) til:' 1 ... I II \ .... Ul. hc it deput y to Cololl to IIH'pt tIll' ,lIItl ;IITf WgC a IIC'W tn' nt y ",hith prc)\ ilipd f o r IIIC,I'{.' ;IIH.I hill ill \.'s<.; than a }l'HI' )IOSlj l ll !';l. '11\\ tit t o l'l"lJuciiatC' til(' nKI'{"1' 1ll( '111, OJ! I '\'h. '27, 1 ,,;).) the G O YCI'IlIIH'lIt III' XC'\\" Urnll;!l];. COllr r l'l ? lI 011 thf' I thmu". ih<' titl e of nf P all:11I1:':' :lIId lh e rights and pri\il ('gcs (If ;t a dis t inc tioll 1I0 t s h u 'N I ill "l' til(' olher pl'Ctrilll'(,s (If til( i{('lnlhli('. II i s d nlliJlflll how('\"("", if thi", :let <'\'E'l' lCSllltcd ill ;111\ h{,l1-ctit din' d or ill tlin .... c L to ihc p eopl\.' 01 P ;w:u u :1. --_'Ha", .-' ---R I 'he p o litic:11 i 1 i s tol',r of th e [ .... t1IlHlh i:-; lII: lIk('(l Ill' 1ll!111)' no wn Illll anti 111:111.'" a IHlt it" tl' o uldl d \\;,tl'I'''i has h('('11 stirl'l'tl oi'tl'lI ill p ast thal tilr 1>1'(';II,illg out or il I'C'Yt,lutioll ce:u ; ( d 1 0 ('x('it(' morl' tli:HI passing COllllll('lIl ahroad. )rallj' (If thC'"f' illtl'rlw('illt' s trll!-r4ks WI' I '(' in s i gllilie;l1It ill th pir Ilflturc and of short dll 1':ltioll. bUl thl" ,,',U' of 1!IOO to InO'2 \\;lS o f all (,lI tjrel y diff(,l'C'lIt ('h;lJ;ldl"r and cOI:::.titulc d the 1II0 8t sang uinary l"podl ill tlil" ,lllll a i s lJl th(> l!o;tiIlIlU!'. The trouhle first in th e interif'r or ("OIOIllI,i:l. and hl f llrc were tillally thl' lIalllC' o f I

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20B Pilot amI GI/ide. revolt ha( l s pr cfld the JClIgth fwd breudth o f tho (Quntry. li'o\' m orC' t h }lIl fi ft cC' II ye,lI's th e I'll I i n s purty in Colomhin had h('cli th e COllsenati\'c' (II' dcti c al party it times (';111('(1. rn l ,,,!)H lhis party l oc.t til(' !'rills o f gorel'llJIlf'lll thl'ouglJ :1 dcflC'ctioti fro m its milks of a g roup of 1lIC'1l c:dlil1g thclllsci rcs 0;'atiollalists. TIl(' fay()1'r d a mildt 'l' cour s e towar d thC' Libera l s :1.IH1 e!c'ded Dr. )lnllllC'\ Hancl rlllC'lItC', }"'rcsi dcnt. l\[ Cflllw hil e the Conserratin's \\rH' not idle. and the f ollowing year sll('cccd c d in h;l\illg Nllncl(,lllelltp d c p o:;c d h y .. guJpc de rst a d o ) ( I). r phis In'(ll1g hl the COnSNYfltiH' part y h:1ck into p owrl' with lose' l\J. :;'\Llrroqllill; \ 'iC'cPJ't.'side llt uud el' SanciCIlll'nte, at its h ead I 'he Lihcral party [It this p eriod is s;lid to l awc COIl s t.itut r u : dlOut sc\"c nty per cent. of th e e nti re p O lllllation. e xclllsiH' of the lI11ci"iliz(,{l Intli:tlls. 1\1all)' YC:l1'S hcfvrc whell ill P OW('I', this pariy hHli illCl1lT(' d tlte (,1I1Jlity ()I" thl"' rlHir c h b y expe lling l h o .Jesuits nm l ('onfis( 'l1ti11g c hur c h pl'o p rl't.y f ; ) r t.he us c o f ;\IHI educat i on. N illce thril, t(1 ch r ek the p arty 's gTo\\,th I1ml to stnlllp Ollt libel":11 t ellll('lll'irs: it. i s all r gcd th nl t he offices uf th e chlll"C"h \H'l'e frrqllcntiy Il!'cd. )Ian), nrc snit! t o ha\"c hern l'XCOllllHlIll i (,:ll(>(l: tit f' ltl:ll"riflg o sen' i c e fllld rites (If 1H11"1a l r( fuscd. :l1Hl thrir t.'liilu]"(,l1 d rllir d
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, ,-----------------------209 I F" V O L I AHE Ah'HANUINO P O H N EXCURSION I to ']"'abo g a l s l ond, 0 otlle r pOintR in l-'a n OlllU Hay. \,' ile In' Calion J?:::I::::t:.::rEL EElOT:::E3:EElS, No. III Nort.h Avenue, TtR ll4S RtASONABLt A N D S Cf(VICt G ILT t DGt. furtli!'hPll h y til(' of S;ltIc\ cmcll tr. TIH' tll;lt f ollowed i a stcd tlm't' y<':.lI'S. and ac('ordillg to oHi('i,,1 1'C'!JfJr!.., cost the lin's or ( -\,10'1' ;)0.000 !llell. Th e ili/'OrtllHlioll lIlat h a d ueen comi llg 1 0 P ;ln
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____ I Pi/"l ow7 Guide, 210 -.... ---- -, ........ -: : .. .t. .t ... &.i:; ..... I 100. .' '--c-+:-", f;. Z;I!" f' e ..... -1Ji .. jf:.. k;;;.t-... I I I i. "A {# .00_._Z,:;--... .... r -1',' l.. vz I I BEFORE T H E TRENCHES N E A R C ALED ONIA BRIDGE. ( ) COURT ESY. OF. eON A VELASCO. -..... ... -

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. Illark (111 P III/(IJI/I/, 211 city of P:tl1;lIll;1. HI' th rll <11'111'111(1('<1 throngh the fon'ign I consuls Ilu' c:lp:tul:ltifln of th r tOWI1 "ilhnut lighting ill order to :In.' 1 t of life, Thr CClIlS'!lar r('PH'iSl'lll:ltiq's !ahured ca:'lIrstl: to co m o to some hilt th o Ilt'gutialions whirh 0 cupie d tw o (1:tysl lilll o t'0111pldl' l y failed. 111 111(' 1Il(';tll1ill1e the gO\'Cr11IlH.'llt fnrcrs had bt'{,11 worki1lg d:tj' "IIU l1iA"ht s trclI g tllrl1illA' lhe tll'r 'wst'S :tlltl pl'l'l);lri1lg 1'(11' tlte aUark, whilp llIany of til(' 10\\n s p('ople to(, k :al\,:1l1tngf' (If lite t c mporar y lull in hns tiiitil'S lIy h e t aking to a pl:\('o of s:lfu ly, look r .. fl1go 011 h(J;ll'd l h e Bl'ltis h ('I'lIi:.;ol' Le
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['i/III (/11/1 (;/lit{f. fABRIGA OSAICO DE 8 BADILLO. Av c nida Central, No.3. ;0 P \ )t. \ ,'I \ -Factory of Mosaics. E. BADILLO, Proprietor. PANAMA. 1)1 Ih,I,,,.., I!m,\"'" :11,,111;11111 ,,]0,.,. f',r h"",., liui"lliu;!". ,In.", Ih,' fu r I;n l ..... ,., ( '"urI,., lItllI,. Hul I : .... ","'. ( ,,,,,, ... 11, 1 i n ('"],,r ;1111\ :11111 1l":! III) of 11000i;':11 Th(' ,\];m'c news ('ollpled w i th tilr d eterminc u rr!1;i!)t.tl1ce lIffcrc(l b y the gO\'CrIIllIL'l1t :11111 a !-ho rtt,gc o f ;llJllllllI lltilllt th e l'en.Jntl oni:-,.I .... all(I Ilt the t ennilJeil 11:0' lIw 1H':ld lllilit al'y po::,t o f tilt' CIIIIIllIhi:11l ;..rn\('lllnant Oil t.he J s th tlltls for troops < llld \\a" kept ill l'ompnratiyc (ll'ilCC :1Iul qui el. ; dlh ollg h th e l'l1Sl1lllg two yp:lrs "itlli..'tiSCt! (,(1I1tilillal fighting ill o ther part.:; vI' th e ('Ul111try. \ l olle tilllt' th e I'('\olutionis l s W(' I' O ill PC,ss('!'siulI o f .'\l'ry illl!,u rtn n t prlilit iHld ",jill tlit ('X('('IlII"" ( I f tht, ('it)' III' P ;lll:lIll:l, The Pll i t('d St:lte s Go\'l'l"lI11H'llt at thl' l'l'ljlH.':->t fir till' a t B ogo ta tillally ialld d a for("{' o f 11:
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1'1/(' Sillki'lfj of t/l(' "{,(w/aro" 213 --The Sinking of the "Lautaro". r nlC IHt\,AI battl e ill till' haj" of Oil .Talluar y ')0, 1HO:? which r es uit r d ill Ille ()f th e CQl ombian g UlluoaL / ,(fularo, ;1I1l1 tho d e ath o f U(,I1. Carlof.; Alhan, th e govcrlllllt'llt's c h irf milihll)" I'cp rrsC'"ta tir e on l h t' I s th mus, aH ordE't1 one of th e llIost i ntp1'(>stillg :5pect'lcle s connected with th e l'e\ Ollltio ll A few days pr('viulls t o this e n gage lllC'nt the Lantaro a bunt bel onging t o the C h ilean s tealllline, had heen illlpressed int o se r v ice h y t h e go\'C'rnllle nt a.uthoritie s wit h o ut waiting f o r t h e cOllse n t o f th e heau of affairs at B ogota. GUllS w e r e mount e d and th e boat o th e r w i se put ill rCildil1r::s to go ill sf':1r ch o f the rev olut i o n ary v esse l Padilla, :1l1el t o relieve the g:ll'rison at Aguadulce whic h at that tim e was b eing hall l pre sse d b y th e Liberals. On the nig ht b e f o r e th e Lalttm'o met her f ate, Gen. Alban with severa l o f his officer s wellt O n h o ard and dis co\'cH d th e Chilean c r e w h a d brok c n illto the s pirit r oam and w et'' committ ing dru n ken cxcesses, o n e being t h e l e t ting of all th e fres h wnt e r out of the t anks. Finding it to tr y ;llld discip lin e th em, th e genora l r eti r e d and was :lwakened ill th e mornin g with th e information that a v css(' 1 was steaming into t h e h a rb or showing no dis tinctiv e ('alaI'S. Afte r pa ssi n g inside of w h ere the Ameri can cruise r Philal1 e lphi(t la y at an c h or, th e bOJ t which pro yed to b e th e Padilla ope ned a well-dire cted fire 011 the LantC!'ro d ismounti ng o n e of its g Ull S at the first s hot, and killin g Gen, A l ban and seyernl other m en at th e second fire. In the meantim e the small Colombian gunboat C/Illcllito with Gen E s t e ban HUCI'las a nd G e n H O. J ffri es o n board cam e up from La B oca and steamed to wit hin five hundr e d yards o f the Padill a, 'fhe Ohucuito immediate l y ope ned up with a ligh t r<.tpid-fil' e automatic gun which however, made n o impr essio n all the revolution ary stea m er. 'fhe latt e r continued to hamm e r aWl1Y at th e L(tUtlt1'O UIlt i l th e \ 'ess e l caught fire and san k s lowl y o ut of s ight

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I I 0 u '" < ... '" 0 0 ... '< e -0 0 CI ... 0 .... ). '" '" ::J .... 0: <:.> / 1'"....:;. ; <:( 0 o....l u -, -C!l ul I'".j --<;j 1: h c -' -A, It. 0 0 ...... -V) i -C\J

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'/'//( -",-,,/.'illff of thl' '1},(/II[aro", 215 H Wholesale Dealer in Views, Picture Fostal Cards, -Souvenir Albums, Panoramic Views of the Isthmus. WRITE ME FOR PRICES. {Panama. b e neath th e waters o f the bay, The n oise of disc h a r g ing cannon and th e blowing up o f t h e p owde r j' o n th e doom e d boat a s the fire reach ed it, p c rfOlm c d a fitting r e quiem ove r th e dead b ody o f th e militar y c hief, GeIl, Alban, which w ent d own at th e sa m e tim e r.f..1h e upp e r part o f ih e ma s t s of th e Laul((1"o may be read i l y see n to-da y at low tide stic k i n g o ut o f the water. A year o r so since th e re wa s some talk of dyna mit ing the clea.rin g away the spot, but n o action in regard t o it ha s yet. b een ta k en. The Padilla r e m a i n e d in h a nd s of the r evo luti onists unti l pea c e was d ec l are d It was t h en turne d over to th e Co lombia n Governmen t and renamed th e 2 1 ( 1 e Noviembre .. RINGING THE BELLES," 'Vh)' s h o uld girl s that w i sh t o get m arried com e to Pana ma? B ecause it i s th e gr ea test pla ce i n the world for ringing the (belles) bells. I

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216 P ilot and Guide. The Siege of Aguadulce. In January, 1902. Gen. H errrl'Ct. the Liberal l en der, wilh his Indian allies u nder Yi c toriano Lorenzo appeared befo r e th e town o f Aguadul ce in the pro\ ince of ODele. 'rhe tOWIi was garrisollt!d by a goYcl'lllllent force of about 1. 300 m ell und e r tJle command of Gon Castro rrhe Lib e ral general d eman d e d the unconditional surrender of the gal' ri:5on, at the sa m e timo cOlweying the information of the l oss of the Lautm'o up on whic h th e goverlllncnt troops had depended for s uppli es 'l1he demand was r e fus e d, and o n January 23d, the Lib e ral s commenced th e attack. After twenty-f o ur hours' fighting t.he goYcl'llnlrnt forces wore d efea t ed, Gen. Oastro and 350 of his m ell esca ping to P anama In this e ngagement some 750 mell were killed aHd wounded on both sid es, wbile the Liberal leaders r e ported l h e capture of 70Q pri so ners. I n June, 1902, th e go v ernment despatched a force of 1,200 men t o r e tak e Aguadulce. The troops arrived at lh e town o n June 20th and w e re imm ediate l y 3urrounded by a sn p e riol' f orce of Liberal s The latter invested t110 place so close l y as to cut off th e he s ieged entire ly from oLtai n ing su p p l ies. The government had provided the gnr rison wit h five hundred cattle, but th ese were mys teriollsly rUIl off one night leaving lhe besieged practically with out food. Sucb straits were tb ey i n that they were c o mpelled to kill and eat their hors es, and later on other a nimals, includillg the d ogs D ecaye d fruit, and piece s o f palms and shrubs were a l so utilized to s ustain life. 'fhe garrison conti nued to hold out until Augus t 2J, 1902. when it capitulated, over 1,000 prisoners and a largo amount of alllmu n ition falling into the e n e my's hands. During the siege the garrison suffe r e d the l oss of some two hundre d mell through sickness and s tarvation. Another revoluti o nary ex p e dition orgallized i ll Nicanlgua l anded Ileal' C ham e, Province of Panama, 011 Sep temhel' I, 1 002. 'rhe party cOlls i ted of about 120 mell,

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----'-Tlte Si e g e (If A gI Utdlllt-l'. 217 s ixt y of w h o III wore ('xpC'l'iellcrd C'terftIlS, rtull h ad f o r th e ir leader OCII. Domingo Di:17. of P allama. At Oh;\III(' th e ex p e d itio n wa!; lllC't h y P api Aizpul'tl S('cn'til'j' o f V i c toriull o Lorenzo wit h :iDO .Lnuinll s The f o re' mar cil('d t.o H ej neo where rlt a conf e r e n ce of til(> Libe ral office r s Gen. Dia z was mad e the milita r y Allrl ci"il chil.'f of th e Lih o ral f o r c es on the hthmus. > GENERAL A LBAN ENTERING COLON (COUR T ESY OF DONALDO VKLASCO.) The Story of Victoriano Lorenzo_ The Indians of t h e Province of Cocle J u n c b e en more or l ess ind e pend e nt as far ba c k as histo ry ha s knowledge of. It has be e n their custom to select a. governor from among their number to whom all tribal diff erences arc ref ened, and in whose l eadership implicit confide nce i s placed

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, 218 Pilot a"d (hddc. The Panama Government has given them the right of guffrage, but they have never evinced much of a desire to bke a hand in matters political, and are content to till their fields and to carryon their small trading operations. In th e revolution of 1900-'02 howeve r they constitute,l quite a factor in the warring elements, but it is doubtful if they would have taken a part in it, but for the personality of their Governor and leader, Victoriano Lorenzo, who, moved by a spirit of revenge joined iSSUOR with the Liberal for ces, was made a general and afterwards assi.sted greatly in the victories of that side. One of the commodities in which I these Indians deal largely is salt, and in securing their support to the revolutionary movement, they were led to believe that if the Liberals were successful, they would be permitted a free trade in it About the time the revolution broke out, Victoriano Lorenzo had a large farm and was attending strictly to his own affairs. He had one annoyance and that was the cOllstant nagging of a petty official. Lorenzo finally gave the latt e r to understand that if he was troubled any further h e would take steps to stop it. The official paying no attention to this warning, Lorenzo abducted him and took him into the mountains. The government hearing of this summar y action sent troops to Lorenzo's home where they committe d various sorts of depredations. coming to the knowledge of Lorenzo, and believing himself an outlaw, he proceeded to revenge himself in Inclian style by performing savage atrocities on the prisollers ho captured. Oil one occasion he killed a Spanish priest. By this time he had enlisted quito :\ following and tiring of the outlawed existence which he led, he joinod the Liberal forces and can-ied on a gnel'l'illa warfare. On joining the revolutionists he ceased committing acts outside the pale of civi lizati on, and conducted himself more in accordance with th e usages of war. \Vh e n hostilities ceased, a genera l amnesty was declared whereby the of the Liberal causo without exception wero allowed to

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TIle Story of Victori.aIiO LQren':Q, 219 DROGAS PURAS COMPLETO sanTillO DI<: MEo[ CrNAi'i PEDrDAS Ii 1M 1<' .1. BRrCAs. DESP \ CllOS DE RECETAS ESll ItA ATENDIDOS. PRECIOS Modi. ooa PURE DR U G S .t\SSOlnlfENT OF RECErVED DIRf:CT {rom th e MAXO F A C T OHRS PRESCRIPTroNS CAltEFULLY AND PRO:'i1PTLY COMPOUNDEn either l eave the country, or return to their homes U!!IllO lested Lorenzo believing him se lf secure uuder this proc lamation made no effort to hide, or flee the country By the authorities however, he was regard e d as an ullsaf e man, and late) through the efforls of Gen. Benjamin Herrera he was apprehended and turned over to the Oolo mbian officia ls. He was held a prisoner for some m onths during which time on one occasion he marle his escape only to be recaptured the same day. It is believed by some that the escape was ":nrangeu" in order that all additional charge might be secured against him In 1903 after the country had become tranquil again, a commission was des patched from Bogota with orders to execute Lorenzo. On May 14, 1903 he was condemned to be shot for committing robberies and assassinat i ons, and performing acts contrary to civilized warfare. Moved probably by It spirit of -

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220 J'ilot (/I/Ii Guide. fair pIny, the Governor, foreign clJllsuis :wu prominent cit izens enden.vot'cd to secul'D i1 l\litigation of th e s(,llte nc<', but the Bogota commiss i on d rclarc d they were acting un der specific ol'ders to hnxc him ex e cute d : a nd h e was accord ingly sho t in the Plaza d e Arillas o n ilIay 15,1903 Sign Treaty o f Peace on "Wisconsin". In April, 1902, th e A rehhisho" of Bogol:t is.u e d all encyclical u llder th e uthorit y of the Catholic Churc h o f GEN. PERDOMO, THE COLOMBIAN PEACE ENVOY. (cOURTIJSV OF DONAI.DO VItLASCO.J '-----Colombia in which it was stated that in or der to show tl. christiall s pirit, avo id further bloo(hhod, alH! to end tho bitter struggle that was ruining the country, tho Libo ral s would

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221 be granted imlllulllty and f Ol'gin'llcss, thry would l ay down their :trms and ngrf'c t o peacC', riley were a l s o promi c d ('fIlial rights, represcntatioJl a nd persona. l freedom without prejudic e to lh('ir opinion s Thi!-; letter (lilt not h:1.\'o immediate effed in hringin g h osti l ities to a cios-r, but I3.tcr ill th e year afte r a n exchange o [ HUlIlorous communic ation s h etween th e l.iberal and Government l onders, a. satisfac tory und e r s tanding was .I1Tircd at, and 011 the 2 1st of N ovember, 1 flO:? a t reaty of ) waro was s i gnc d on hoa.rd of lhe uni ted Riaies battleship \Visconsin", Capt Casey Oommander, in Panama harbor. In hrin ging th ese nrgoli} )li ons t o a. conclusion. Gell. B .Herrera l'rprcscnw(l lhe l .ib c rais, while G(,lI. Yictflr M. Sal azar, lholl (.!o\'ornor of P illl:l.lll:l C:ell. Alfr cdo Vasquez Co b o, and Gcn. Nicolas Perdom o the l ,tllcl' b eing tho R p ccia i CIIYOY from Bogota r e prc sc llt c d t}1e Ride of th e GOVl'rIllllcnt. Applied for A nnexation. rnde r date of Ko\'omlwl' 2 8 lh. IS!)!), iJerom the I'm' olution hall bl'okol \ out on th e Tsthmus, th e SUO' ,(; Jlerald printed the following ,'I'ashillgloll dispatc h:-r'Pl\namn bas npplicd for (llluC'xatioll bllt ill "il'w o ( tho Lad that PalHlJu:L hi lIot ,tTl imicI Jl'lItiellt l 'l'!Hlh1i", til(' :tllthol'ilit's dcem it lld"j:o;ablc Hot to jcopal'tliz c the frit']l(lly of the B ogota. Gove rnment with thi s COllutrr, a]](1 tho appl i c atioll h a s 1.1('('11 fli('(l." POLYGLOT PANAMA. Prom 1h(' day of diRcorcry until nOw the I sthmus has only b(,(,11 a la n din g placc alld pOl'teragc f or 11Ioso thaL camc a:lcl went, and w h o w i s h e d Illos t'tily it had bee n all o p en sea instcad. Cnptaiw:; C'f s hips all thc way fr o m th e dink y old galleo n s to the H oati n g palaces of the pre sc nt day ha\' e fOUJld i t an o f D i\'ine Provid ence, ill their opinion uncalled f or. P a n a ma. h a -

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0" 0 -' I I I J I !Jl. !R .YQ. Slalion at cSmpire ... 4' JYfl ... ,s JiI!lency .,..:Adv6rl;"mg .:A .!iJien/(otf'.ski 4) I\) I\) I\) --. ---;:, ----

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I 22::::1 -With Some Side Lights on the Historic Drama of J 903, in which the Interests of three Were Involved. ---I Allllough fnlll' y('ar" 11:1\'(' rl:tps!:'d tli llCl! tlte H e puhlic of Pnll:II11:"I. took it:-. plac e ill the ranks (If the world':-; f ree atilt inti<"pC'IHlrllt 1I,\I;OIlS til( : dr:unatic c,' cnts that I N 1 lip to alld StllTOlllu.ied the 1Il0W'111c! l hare 1IC'\'er be(,11 rlt .. ;II'ly lI11dt'rsloml. Link .. 11<1\,(' bel'1! miss ing, and sOllie jll'l'haJls :Ire stil! mi<.:sillg'. in the dlain or circulllstances. the forging' (If wl1;(>11 !Jrg:lll with th e Ilt 'goli:lti(IIIS fot' a callal lrC}lty hl'lwC'l'1I liJ(' r Ilit('d Rlatcs ;llId Culom bia ; reac h ed tho whit('i1eat ill the l"l"'olutioll[tI'Y iutiLicllts of J culm; nab ng ill th e tC'Itl)lCrt'd :ll1d fin ishcd period of the ing n ('oSllltlpolit:11J I'Opu\ ,ltinn P(,(,IlI;:11" 10 it::;clf i s not s trictly spe;lking a. t0Il1I11llllity. lillf;lIiRtic at'comp lis hlllcllh o f ils pcC'ple hils (iftC'1I h('ell r(,llIarkcd. I t rare to finJ amollg the <"IassC's a pcnlO11 whose nW;l11S of {'x prcssi 11 II ('untilled tn Olle tonglle 01' language', It is n ot II II 1I!-i 1I:l I to hC'in' hnlf :t do,-:clI l:ingllag('s lIs( d at 011('0 ill allY t:1I:III1'(' C1'owd, ( -;ihl':l!t:ll' with its "I'O('k scor pions' h:t.
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224 Pdul f1uri GI/i(/c. IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS. noons. II E8. \ Tru\S CE.l\' ENT. nJ ... J I AH.O" ... \.HE. ETC. E'l'C, WE MAKE A SPECIALTY OF COFFINS AND COFFIN TRIMMINGS. P O. B ox: 291. UPPEr Boillar SlreEI, Colon, R. P. present. as repi cRonted by tho impending trenty with C o l ombia; i ll which : :1Inl(:;.1110 relations b etween Panama and th e m other country bid fnir to b e res t o r ed. Mr. E. L. H ockwood who ll;ls fUl'Ilish c d The Pil o t und Guide with mu c h information i ll c onncction with thi s nrticJ c wftS a resident of the Col o mbian Capital while these events wel'C takin g place, an d s p eaks o[ th e s ituatron th e r e from per s onal knowledge. plot fdld th e C fl s t h:1.\"o ueen at banu. 'rhe dram atization Dilly ha s becH lacking. Editor. Why the Colombian Treaty Failed. It i s n ecess ar y t o t ake a. dis p assiollflt c yicw fr o m both sid es tu tlI11lC'r:;t;wd til(' CVClIt s that put in action the se parati o n f!,f}Jn Colombia. nllllmnde th e H rpnblic of IJallam,t a rea.lit y 'hcli tllC f-Hates underto o k t o Il('gotiatc a CHIl,ll treaty" itl! Colombia i n the earlier P :II't of I one of the imp o rtant l n d l e ading fignrcH of tho laU c!' COUIltry of who m th e r e i:; ycr y Wtll' known o ut s ide was Dr. 1\1. ]danoqllin. it nwn tiwn ab out G7 YC:lI'S o f age flf excelle nt eh:lraciC'1' alld l'l'putatioll and hy pr o fC'Hsi oll a. doctor of law:-, Th o stHldl..'1l rl'i il'cmc nt o f Pr es ident Sall clamcl1tC' brought )bl'l'oqll i n into the as n. I'('Presentativ c o f thc COllscrvativc parly, othcrwise known as

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Wh.ll lite CololII/li(tII 'I',.N tf!l F flif('r!. 225 -the C le r ica l p:.trty f r oJII its deferc nce to the Church in af fai l'S of stn t e nnd a dmi nistration of law!'. P lte govern mcnt a t th e capit: li a t th e time of )[arroquin's ascend:lI1cy was d o m i n a t e d b y a n u n pri1lc i p l e d po l itical faction whose po licy was rul e o r ruin. a n d pan'd t h e way for U l e long aml wast e [ul Ulrec YNll'S' war ,Vit h the return of pcace and t h e asse mbl i n g o f t h e go\'ernmc n t f o n nd itself still d o m i n a t e d b y this faction i n both branches, which was wors e than t h e o p e n r e o lu tiu n s of the L iberal party. It i s bu t just t o statC' th:lt th e Cololl'Lbial1 contai n e d m a llY p atriotic an d hil.j'h-millded 111el1 who 011-d e avor e d to act for l heir country's go o d but the fa c tio n a l e le m ent for getting the goyernment intI} their h an d s at an y cost ,,11<1 illcidellt ally the cOlltrol of the n a tiona.l annual inco me: compared to w h ich the Isth mus a nd th e ca nal c u t hu t a secon d a r y figure. The y had as their lead e r Gen Y e l t'z, w h o was s lated for the presi d e n cy if a c h a nge cou ld be effecte d A t lhe t i m e w h en the wa r of t h e re"olutioll was i n full sw i ng o n the Isth mus President )[arroquin appe'lled f o r h e lp fro m t h e "L"n ile d States UOYl'l'Jllllent it, pl'csene o rd e r there ill f" ,'or o f h is go"ernment. es p ecially along the l i n e o f r ai lroad p l'omisillg i n return t hat w h en t he r e v o luti o n w a s o \ 'e r h e would sig n a canal h 'cnty, t hereby pl e d gi n g the word o f his country as its p resident. l'he States l a nd e d t r oops and thereafter unti l t he ces sation o f h os til i ti es k ep t the transit clear. The n c am e the asse mbl illg of the Colomhian 0011-gl'f'SS f o r the d isc u ssion o f thr prop o se d cana. l treaty. a nd PrC'sidcnt 1\IarroCJ.uin was i n form ed t hat h e wou ld 1I0t b e all owe d t o compl y wit h his \yon 1 un l ess auth o r ize d by it. d espite the s pccial p owe r s tha t had been co nfe r red up o n him f o r th is p urpose, i n whic h th e honor of bis country wa s compromise d The Col o mb ian Congress was d uly pllt on not i co con cc rnin g acti o n o n t h e tl'C:1.t y as cyide n ccd h y t he f ollowing

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226 P ilot {llId (i I/ilk. memorandulIl prcsel, t c d h y the Unifc d Slat e s l\Iinistl"1' at B ogota to the ColonliJian (joYcrn m cll t .TuIl C 13th1 Sir:---I inwc instructi o n s fl'01l1 my goYel'lLmenl by ('abieto the effect that the G O \'CI'I1IU(>l1f of Colombin. b,":1l1 :11'p C fll'aliCeS, does not hilly appl"N' iate tIll' gt'a,\"it .... of t he sit lI:i t iOIl. !'h e ncgotiMions for the of the ea nnl at P a n!lmn W{'I'(, initia.ted by Coiombi;l. :\,nd W('I'(' III'Wntl .... l"olicitcd f,'om 111,'" Cl'nment fOI' m a n y years. I'hp I lI'Oposiliolls presclll'1i hy Colollibia, with a. f('w modifieafiolls wen' fina]],\" adopt(>u b .... the United Stn.tcs. In \"i1'lu(' of this agl'(>l'mC'lil QUI' COIl;!I'f'SS revok e d its prel'ious d ec ision, a.nd (\ecir l c(l fol' l1u'\ Pllll:lml\ ronte. 1C Colom bift now l'<'jN : t s thr tl'enly, 01' unduly d e hQ"s its I'atif icn ti 11, tho a micable I'chtlio n s rxistillJ,r b( 'twccil tho two conntl'ies will be s o th;lt OUI' in its l\('xl I'IclSsion JUiiy adopt til;"\I mll)' bC' b y all fl' iends of Colombia. Cou g l'C'!'1-l'; r{'gl'('tte d rnlig ('\'irl(,l1t1y h:1li 110 impl'cssioll 011 th(' fadion ill ill o Cnlombi:lll illciicai(' d l owing cahles t.o the Pall: ulla 81(/1' tt Ilt:rrtftl: <1omin:lllt i ll tho fol-Bogota, ,lu1y i, 1 no::. 0en, Velr:7., lendel' of lil(' !'laid, ;'\1)' l Omlll'),Ill('1I rll'r oppoge d to Ihe lre:l1.\' asi, 11('''' .-;jancl!<,a::; tlIl'Y d o 1101 tilink that Ihe L'llit{'J States UN'1l g-l ll(' I 'OIlS ill th(' 1 ('I'llIs olTl.'I'('d .J1I1y About M U I'l' Oljllili th(' (':lllal II'l'aly, ).l illist('l o r F(}l'('ign AfT:lil''; ill: t IlHwh It)lpilltHIt', ] i'I!'C'h !t lhe a lt :lll (If Ql'gIlItlPIIIi'l, 1i1l lll," (,{'Ilvilleillg tlln ','IIEY :lJlPI'O' O 1 III' CHlla 1 t n'l l! .r urf(ll't' t Ii{ 'i; sigllfl. t IIrC', Tt apparcnt t n } l nrroql1ill that thc faclioll::11 ('iclllc llt W:lS the' c lllla i t o place' him out of \1m,,('1' anti brin g th ('ir f ollowing into ('on Lrol of govC'rlllllc nt. ;t1H. l Ilwt to llliai n this ohJ('ct til('Y W('I'O I'cady :11\(1 pC'd'('ctly willin g t o s;l(')'ifi('(' th(' ('illl:ll tn':! I ;

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.. "' Y. .,.. 0: .. : o ,-, '" "' ;,:; :J;; .. ,T, 227 W JEWELER & OPTICIAN CRISTOBAL, CA. -A L ZO'" DIAMONDS \.\ :->1'/-:/') \Lry \1.\ liE OF Tllnl .. __ .! Xo:\ E Ill' I' 1'1.'1,'Ff'/'r !'of.ll SILVER GOODS. H"f.L 1.1:\1'; TO '"IIIKhl': I ItO'!. W A T CH E S. I \11 KiwI. lOr 1t.1 nmu nIL) H'/1 ;;S ",nit I IIn'lI. l:l::lu H.,U. Jla'uill'J!I. Ell" CHIEF WATCH INSPECTOR, Isthmian Canal Commission, p, R R, Co. ':: .. ,- .. .. -" ., '" '. .:; ., .. .. .,. A ftCI' t\yO month'S or IWlre o f duha! ,' ill both tho came to :t ,"otc in the lower In; \llCh of COllgl'C's:; and was e nd orsed by that IHJ(ly. It thC'1l Wl'nt t n the foIl'll:ltc w h e re Y c lei': and follnwillg 11:1(1 maliC' ilil pl'C'p:tr,ltioIlS to fight it to the last ditch. 'I'ho result "I'po"rs ill the cable herowiih:-. 'l\lg-llst I:.!, 1 !Hl;;. The IT it r -If (-I'I'a: l c a 1If111l"C';t t Y W;I S f If'f {',I t 1'(1 ill 1 hI" Cn i{lll1id It II Scu,lt(' to-day ImUlediate l y th e l'rsul t known. Prcsi( l cn l ")lnl'roq uin adopted n. which had for it-; OiJjl'ct th!' placing of the dominant political faction ill the Colomhian Senate in a corner ilt allY cost. lIe 111a(' up his mind that as president of th e country his word woul d he complied with indirectl y if it could lin t he diredly. and accordingly appoillted Dnll D omill!o de Ohaldia. who was pronounc e d :tllll outspoken ill lhe iuterests

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228 P i/Ql (l1It1 Guide. -="" .. of P ana ma, to b e its goremot'. Thi s raised a s t o rm o f protest, and s howed that a p o lit icn l n\O\'e was on the board that had 1I0t been th ought o f hilt with all the criticis m s of th e Co\nmbiall p r ess 011 this nppoilltlHC'nt, 110110 d enie d hut that Ohaldia wa s a mall of high ch:lI':lcb 'l' and ability. It w os this: fact UJ"t stirre d them up the most "Fro m the Colombinn at '\Va s hin g ton and from i ndi,'idllal s amI compitnie s ill th e lfnitt'd Stales and Euro pe, h a ving co mlll c r ci:li interes t s ill Colombia, camp cabl e aftor cable conce rllin g the m ove ments and purported plan s of th e reVO lutionar y agents of Panama. These cables ,rer e sent princ ipall y Over the l i nC's touching \Tcnc Ztlcia. and from th e re tran8mitt e d by t e l eg raph to B ogo ta. it being consider e d unwi se at this j unctur e to send th e m in the usual m anner through Panama. ::Hany o f the cables urg e d the massing of troop s o n th e Tsthmus in o rd e r to f o restall the rumor e d change in p o liti ca l t ics So well inf o rmed W:lS th e Colombian G o vernmcnt :l1ld e 'cn privat e partiC's at Hogotn, that it was a. mattc)" oE puhli c comllle nt on the strcct s a t this p e riod why no action \ras t ;lim n looking tc. th e despatc h o f troops to th e I sthmus. 1n the m eantimo the faction who had d efe:t t e d tho can:1l tre aty gave open expr ess i o n to th e b e lief tha t thi s tum o f c"cnts w o uld brin g it s adhcrents p e rman e ntly t o the fr o nt. and its lead e r into the pre s identi a l chair. were at that time in Bogota. Sf'\"(:!Jl UllJus :llld tro o p s o f th o Colombian Lille. and [llloliler (C'II thou s and w ithin rCfLCh, all well-drilled and arlll e d and offico rcd hy mOil on who m the could d e p clld. yct 110 1110i C was mad e to m ohilize th e m ill :1l1y wny. o r [lilY indication giH'U that 111C'y w e r e to hC' Ilesp:ltthc<1 t o the coa st. Presi d e nt 1\Larro quin h n d ample tim e to place all tho troops noed e d 011 the I s thmll s and w h ell ,lit allxious m e r c hant asked him why JlO did 110t dn so :d"tcl' so 1Il1lch \\' nl'lling, tho President I'cplied "\Vklt 1'01"1" rrh(-' Illt'I'C ilallt thcll

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WIi!1 lhr Co{rJllliJi(J1I 'J'rf'(lf!l Failuf. went on to state that according to :llh'ices h e had r e ceivcd ther B was a rp\ 'o luti olla ry junta working ill Kcw York filld\Vashingtoll. and it was npparcnt Illc r c would be trouble nt Panama. Prc!:iid cllt r eplied t o thi s in il. s aying that th o ullC'xpectl'd h :lpPclls." It was tho gonora l belief of those who J\I1('\\, 'PrC'sid ent M arroquin intinwtrl y a s well ;\s the circlilUsblllces sUl'rounding th e Panama affair, lhat he nliowed the seccs s i onary m Oyelllcnt t o pl'o ceed without takillg nny tlccisire steps to st:tse it off, not altogethcl' to I'm'cllge himself fol' the s l ight put up o n h i m b y the \-('l o z faction. but n8 a lesSOli for the bette l'ment o f his country. an d to ,lYoid a r e p e titioll of th e occurrences that cha.racterize d the royolulio n of 1 899 to 190'). 'rhc m[\.nl101' ill which even t s s hap e d them se h cs is now accepted in Colombia as Olle of th e best thing s that cou ld hay e happ ene d for the renson that the affairs o[ Panama hav e alway s pro\'cd a fruitful source o f disse n sion ill Co l ombian p o l itics. while its secessio n Jla s o perated to 1'e m ove this dis cor dnnt ;lc tOI', th erehy tUl'ning the thought s of its people iuto wise r and broadrl' -millcied ch:lJIll('l s ExPresident to-d ay h ns the r es p ect of all ill th e Col ombian capital, wherea s if it was though t that h e had perpetrated a grievous wL'ong 011 his cOllntry, his prC'sence would not h:wc b ee n t o l erate d for a m oment. Th e dflfcatillg o[ the calla l treat y docs n o t a pp e al' to have m et the will or th e wishes o f the peoplo of as a. whole, hut was hr ollg ht ahout thro u g h tho sdlcming of a political clique thnt h;l d hoen drawn tog e th e r IlY thr p ossib ilit y of g etting th o n'ill!{ of gO\'crnlllelit into its 'rho excuse u se d by Velez ami his (Ohalllpi olls in hlocking favorahle action Ull the treaty III th e C o lomhi a n Senate was that th e Uni t e d States did not oHt"l' enoug h f or the priv ileges sought f o r amI that it would br prejudicial to th e i nt eg rit y of the R e publi c to p e rmit th o ... -\..mcl'icu n GO\' e rnm ont to exercise s upr o m e ('ontrol orol' the ca llal s trip, thi s d espite th e fa c t th:lt the 10ll'er hom;e ratified th e trca-

PAGE 247

Pilot mul GUide. l y ,,' ithout ques tion, ]lI o l'co\'OI', t h e a m ount o f SIO,OOO,OOO, that would. Jtarc changed hand s u p o n tho i ss u e of thr trC'aty was faJ' m orC' libc!'al than nlly propositio n 1 1 I I -,; > Q < 0 0 > '" 0 '" "' to -<: -" 0 -J 0 U <: -UJ <: UJ u V)

PAGE 248

W" y the ColoJ/luiflll T n-fit!! Vai/Nt, 231 theretofore made the COIOlllbi:ul (:OH'rllll1C'l1 t ill connection with the canal ullderlaklll g Theil 100, \ 'c l{'z was all ;l\ -owed e n e m y of progress anti his antipathy to foreigllt'l's and foreign enterprises wa s Ilotorious, After Congress :ulj oul'llCll. tlw (' of coull-ol than was stipulated in the l1:1y-1I('ITnn tl'catr, A "f'fu: ncceJ.;>:luily a. "C'fu,.;al to m a k(' nny pl'll c tieu.ble lI 'caty nt all. HI1Ch refu:o:al therefo"c J.;quar{-Iy misell the questioll w h ethl;'l' Colombia. was cntitl e d 10 IJar the tran si t of the world's tl'nffi(' :tcl'O!ITe Colombian sovereignty und the tl':mtiit, the Colombian U O \-{'l'lIment would declare IlwrtiflJ ]:I"W, and b y virtue of \'csted co n stitutional authority, when jluIJ!i c Ol'tl('l' is (list.mben (would ) llppro\'e by ll ecl'ee I he l'ali fica t i o n o( ti l(' C3 nnl treilty os sign>d: or, i[ the GovcrumCllt of the United States prcfers ( w o uld )

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232 Pilot aml Guide ......... [ST MOST I RTANT lH[ IS (:JIlIPOtl'o." o f "lib JapaIH',,''''' Sifl'u, filic lI, 'i'ralull '":l,lot"fl. IDuot:IJ, Sablll1l.:1-... Gil I _var"" C\,.1);::'OIl-='C.} ... '1111.' -,,0;::'(:0.' ... '\111.'. A Splen.di d Stock.. T o S elect. From.. (I rtides and No\'clt ics Const antlr l \rri v i n g f rorq (;ili n a a nd J a p a n COlll and Seo 'lt s 13ofol'o 13lnJing-E l sc u ; h cl'c. ti mil I!II)ong, fjong lice & \!Lo" PoSI Ollice Box, No. I. [ PAN A M A I HOS.InI199 EoSI131h SI., 1',((. Iv. B call an ('xln\ fI;(';.;sioll of lhe Congl't'sR-wi t h new nlHl fri e ndl," nwmlJpl's-ll(-xt )' 1 :lY t o a ppl'O\'C' the t!'caty. TIfl\'ing tlll'iii' facts in view, thel'e is no thnt th o Gov{'j'nnH 'lll of lit(-' U nit('d 'tutes Pl'opos('d n. !J'c:dy thal not only just, bill g'('IH'I'OliR to Colombia. which QUI' peo pl e l'('glll-, I (.d as: cl'l'iug, if at aJlj 011 the: ):;id(, or o,'('rgenel'ositYi whidl was 11:'li\('(1 with '\('light by the pcople o ( tlte immediate io('aiiiy through whil'h til{' ('final was to pass, who \\'(>I"e most <'t\nCCI'lIf't! as to till' lIe w ortler o( things, :Inti whil'li t ilf' Colombian aut ilol'it it's HOW l'C'cog-niz,c fts h('ing $10 goooll that th('y :l1'f' willing' to pI'0Illi5(, its llllt'OIHlitioIlHiratifil'alion if o n I,\' \\'{1 will tl('l'f'rt those who i POW('I' 10 IImlo what Iht'," llitl. I pass by till' I[U('S11011 :1<': to what : l s:; ll n tlH'C "C' h!t\'( tha.t Ihc), wOl1ld now kf'f'plhcil' plC'd g alld not ngnin l'C,fllS(' to I'll lii'.\' till' 11'1'nl)' it' lli('Y h:Hililf' jlOW(' I': rot' o r ('OIll'S(', I \\il1 1101 fIll' 011(1 11IOIll('l1t di"ic'lIsS I Ill' po!-isilJilily of I hf' UuiH'1I Ht:uc's l 'OIumiltinJ..C ana('1 ofslH: h bIlSt'llt'''S aN It) ab: lIltion til(' IH' W I{('pnulie of

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Why'/'(' ( "folllhial/ '1'/'/(/(1/ ""i"", 233 J II ] no I. oell \'( Iez tilt, lead e r of tht" allti-l'an;d facLio n was a. candi d ale f or l h e Ool omhian pJ'rsidt'ncy
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234 ........... =" .-BISHOP & SEALY. U P-TO-DATE TAILORS AND CU1TERS, WE GVARANT E E T O GIVE SATISFACTION TO OUR CUSTOMEF>S AND WITH QUICK DISPATCH. ONE TRIAL WILL CONVINCE YOU THAT WE WILL DO ALL WE CLAIM. PI ices within reach of all.W e extend you a cordial invitation to visit tiS, till' sO\'CI':1IlC<.' o f (lo l iti(';. d tirs wilh'!('o l omhi: t Tll o rt'snlt W:lS the n;-lIning of :t ,jullta of .. J ose Augn stin A r:lIlgo, 1 ,'('<1Pl'i('o Boyd. Hitarclo Aria -!;, :?\';CflIlNI' A. d e Ob:II'1'io, ::\fflilu e l Espinosa B., :lnd Dr. :\lnmu 1 Anwd o r (-:11 (' 1'1'(11'0. the iaH rl' IIO W o f th o RI..'public. Plans w e r e 1<1.;(1, and t n Dr. Amar!tlt' w a s rnllll:;;tcd lhe t u v isit th o l" tliled t o a s('e rt ain h y mf'a n s of inil'n "icws how th o movcmC I t would b e l ooke d Up01\ thel't'. Tll cnllllPdi!lll Th. 1\I11[1l1o r to h [ I\'<' lIw (If Capt. B een; ) fOI"lIlC'r1 y fr eig h t i l gent f u r lho P:1nama Jbilroad. Duri n g lhe l ast of ;t m ce t i n g W;IS )wld ill Y ork Cit y ;tll{'lIdc d by Dr. AlH:ul or. A m a d eo A 1'0-l$('l1ll'IJ;1, 'l'r:ll'Y H ol,il1soll. forlllcl'l y wilh thc P :lInlllla H ailroad ('(1Il1P: Ul." at ('1:1011 .. J. Gahrie l Duquo o f th P r lllam:t .. ,\ 1 l cral(.\".Hll d U. L cw i:-. also o f P;JII:lllU1, I 'h c New Yllt'k \\'"ul'lIIIHII, it \\llS !"ilOllgh t tll('., ./Hll 1)(' l':l..;ily O\'f'I,thl'o\\"lI. Il \"1'I'OI"Il',l lo Ih" cOIl!miuN' Ihal th(' l n il(' d l/ltes wOllhl vicw I hl' ll"'Olt 'lith fn, 'ol 'l alHl would tAke a n

PAGE 252

o /0", 0 .... tN,."'!1 /'", to /: .. d, 235 iullil'cl:t Ilalltl ill it 11." al IIllt' p 11I",]i!!g Innrilll'" III kt"p Ihl' IIPl'1l fill' (mHil'. :t1101 \\\1111,1 pt"'11I11 III. fig'ht illj.,t alollg tl)( lill(', 01'111 dlll,'I' \ 'ud nf i t. '1'111' I'\'Olllli.'lIi,,1-< ul,pn.l'illl t .d t1wt thi". atlitllri!' would 111' of ilJllIlI'lIS\' .. lInlllta:.:!'tu "ho\ \'( I WIIS ill 1' 01111"01 lit P!llllllll:llll1d "01011. awl it wao, ,It,!ilk.! t o {'t'liter all UII'il 't'lllrgit" !II thl'M' )'oim ... ",1. (:llbl'i,'! I)U'lllt' W:lS "i'h'dl',l to \1 .. ;1 WIl",I,h ,/!loll : ul1l lH'ljllllil1t thp alillliui ... tl'atioll ('ollii.j"uli:llly with 1111' p la n ... Ht WI'l1t Ihl'I'(> :It '111,'" ,llId HII H 'p"'mll('I':: h:H[ a l IlK lalk with :-1(,(,,'1'1111'\' 11;1" ill whitI III-tlufn ld"1i t ht, wh.)I Pallall1:1 ''''' !!l'!UP. o 0 .\11-, H a y hall h t' lirtl uf I t 10\,1111'1' lIlIl l 11;1.., III1I'l'I',.:ll',1 I'hit'lly ill Ihe Ilal<>scl f 01' lli" l'f'I'OJutiol1, awl lht' \' .'w,'1 11111\11'(' o f 1)1>" plalls, ;\11', 1111\' did IIIlI t1ft h'l:dh" \' O liHICII;tIl\'I' 1114' I"l \'f/J ulio ll o 0 J l i .. 1'l'ulal'kR IH' I'I I'l'l"f"I'lly ,II'O Pt'I': it WHS Wl;;lt III' ,1i,1 Ufll say, wllll' I 'lhali whalla' ,li,1 ',; I Y thai tit" l'cI!ll u IiOlli"t.. ;lllllcillI""' Ih"1Il 10 I'hall'..::t' 1114'11' 1'1:111", "\'"u nn' 11111(,11 Ion ita"',"", .. :Ii.l 1 1;1y II)"' Ill w:\s ,.Io1 of III(' tlall' ,.,\', Inl" lli p 1""1',)11 "I'oJrullhia ,,1111111.1 hI' j.!in'1\ 11 ('ha lll't' lo ""1'1'111, I f ,..h l' .. !IOllld .. llIn\" III' .. iJ.:"l1" of n 'p('Il It"!IWt lI"illl111:L l'('aso)lIaJ,Io' liull', ,1'11\1 11"1)111. 1 of eWlI",', lJI' fI'pI' 1 0 L l kt' lUll' a('liul\ 1'011 saw liL ao; \ '011 al'l' 1101\, lt111 it :->1'1 '111'" to !Ill' i l o 0 0 1I"0uid look 111111"" lu'th'I' 10 wail "h; 1\1",1;: .. tH "0, (If "11111',..,' ,YOU 1I11,1t'I'"Ialld thaI if Ih"I 'I' i"i a 1 ,,'\'OI11ti.1I\ Ihp L'lIilrod Stall'''' will kl'(' P lhe l l'ilhmll'" Opl'lI :11111 :111011 110 li).!'hlj "J.! /It':lr "11' 1 ,;.illl'II,I', If Ih(' p to Ill' nlly it wil11tll\'l' 10 1,.. dOll!' h('fol'p OUI' nl:\l'il1(," get tltt'l'l'," n'-:\rl', OnqlH' 1't'l1I1"Il('
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236 -= risons at. Panama and Colon hr :-;trcngt h r IH'd at O U C t H e wa s infol'llll'd that his :Hh'j('c h:1t1 hccll i'ollow('d and I that th e r e were :?OOO pickell 111<'11 at w h e r eas the gat rison 1Il1lnhel'cd 0111,'> ahollt -tOO. ,\'hell i t wag too l ate Colombia ;lctc d up on Dr. licrr:tll's suggC!;tioll, for it w as lIo t until ::, thr day the new republic was proc1aimcd. th a t :\ Colombian gunboat and a cha r te r e d s t en m el' arri,'cu Ht Colol1 from Cal'tngcll:l with :WO troops on u o ard of OltC'. anrl 200 on the otllt'\". l e tting of the cal Ollt of the bng c r ea t e d som o cOlll1l10tion in the rcroiutionary camp. a n d l('el th e m t o b e extreme l y cautiolls ill thrir future mOH'IlH'lltS Dr H crran wrotc th e I'c]1J'C'scnt;ltin' of the Jl'l'Pl1ch cann l com pan y to the effect thlt h e \\"olii d hold thclll rc'pollsible f o r \\"h a t --, .,.' PLAZA BOLIVAR. (DAVID, R. OF P.I 'oc' OF Go ANDRtrV ... 1 L-____ ,000'"

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-------------------Colombiet G ets the .\"c /t'Y 237 transpir e d ill this case After thi s occ urrel1c e tJiC' cable only was used for tho tmnsmission of illslm c t iolls. No Coal for Colombian Boats. j 'We thought it be st," writ es D o n A l 'a ng o in hi s Notes "to let Col. J. R, Shaler, Suprrintcndcnt of the Pall!tlllfl. Railroad Company, kn ow of our plall o through Capt. Reol's, so one day when both w e r e in Ill y offi ce Capt. Becl's explained what we intended d o ing. Amo ng the things that came tip was the s upplying tho Commanding General o f the Co l ombian military for ces with 200 t O il S of c oal which the General asked throu g h the Goyornor at fir st, then d i re c tly of the raill'o nci company. It wa s explained that thi s coa l was urgently needed f ot' the g unb oats Padilla and Bog-ob, whic h were unuer hurry orders to go to Bue na vcntul':l, a nd bring the troo p s that wero thero ready to embark for Panama. As thi s would ha\' e been fatal to our plans, 001. Shal e r consulted with me as to the b es t way o f C\'ading dclircry of th e coal. rpho only way we co uld see was to put off the request frolll flay to day by tt lli n g t.he G e nel'.11i that th e coa l was in COI OII, a lth oug h th e r e W i l S a gn'at qualltity ill Panama, rwd so m e oE it had already been sold to the different steamship compani es "Supt. Shale r gave m e autho l'ity to look after thi s matter, and I was abl e to put off th e Commanding Gen eral in spite of the notes which h e sent m e to s uppl y the two vessels named. I bad talked with Gen. Varon, com manding the Padilla, and as certaine d that h e wns in sym pathy with our cause, and afterwards Dr. Amador had it clearer understanding with him. 'Ve then advi se d that tbe Padilla could receive coal, and aftor a talk with Col. Sbaler over the tel e phone about it, tho "upply waR furni "be d. We also offer e d to supp l y the Rogota, but mentally had no intenti o n of following up the offer. I advised Col. Shaler t o take the matter in hand direc tly in case the Commanding General was not satisfiod with my promi ses,

PAGE 255

238 Pilot am' Glddc. but he replie d that thi s wns und c r my churge entirely, a s 1 was the one th a t atteml e d t o th o su pplying o f tho go, 01'11111ont by the c0 1.llpany H Gen. Huertas Casts in his Lot On the return of Dr. Ama d o r fr o m New York. pre p a r a tion s were at o n ce srt und !'!' way fot' the c ru cia l p e r iod. Tt was d eo m e d ad visahle to i nfo rm tho pe o p l e o f the impending o\'on t, and GC'Il. D o mingo Dbz1 Dr. Euse bio A. D Oli Carlos C l ement, anI I D O ll Pedro A. Diaz we r e selec t e d for tbis missio n Gen. Diaz was a pp ointed i ll cha r ge of the day fixe d f o r tho breakin g of r e l ations The date set was Nove mb e r 4 hut as lM8 bee n prc\'i ous l y stat e d the IIOW'::; of th e d espatc h o f troops fr o m Uartagclla induced the jun t a t o ndv
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-------------------(;(,11, /fllaios III JIi.'1 Lot 239 "-'.:>"' ... .. -'-.. .. .:.. .. ::. ;::_ ; -==-e.,..., .. ... ",', ... '--,", .. ",-", .. ..... '., ,." ..... .... '" 1/-:x: u !\ h !'\ ;X; t\ -_. -" v ,.. .... The Colon Electric and Ice Supply Co. >::" SUPPliES THE PROVINCE OF COLON AND OM THE RAilROAD AS FAR IS SAN PABLO. Special Rates to Steamships and other L arge Users. O V R I C E I S UNEXCELLED IN LING AND FREE FllOl'l .H.L I lUl'URITIES. AODRESS AL.l.. INQUII"lIES TO The Colon Electric and Ice Supply Co., Colon. Republic of Panan'la. \/ {\ >< c::::::c,.-::c--'. at which time a serenade w ould b e given ill front o f w h ere the y were l odged. Dr. Amador seut my SOil to ach' i se Gen. D o mingo Diaz that the h our had been changed and found him at th e head of th e p eoplo in Santa A n a Plaza. 'l'his c hief answer e d through his brothe r P edro Diaz tha t by 110 m ea n s o u g ht we t o p ost p o n e tho arrest, and a(lYising that h .. would put h imself at th o h ead of the populace and m a r e h t o the Uuartel. \Vith g r eat f o r es ight Genera l Huertas w h o knew that tho affability which t h e officer s had s hown him since the i r arrival was but cover ing a tem pest that might at any moment burst over his head, r e solve!l to e nd th e s u s p e nse, a nd orde r e d Capt. lIf arcos A. Salazar t o put h i m se lf at th e h e a d of thirty m en and imprison the genera ls. This was quickly accomplis h e d in the pre se n ce of G e n Hue rta s himself." L a t e r Go\'ernol' Obaldia was also arrested and COll duc t e d to the p o l ice statio n From the re, accompanied by

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24-0 Pilot mul G lIide Oommander Vald cs,n nd Col. J. A Arango, h e was e scorte d to the home of Dr. A m a d o r Guerrerol his f riend a nd l eft the r e as a prison er. n Gen. Tovar's Arrival In Panama Vriti n g o f (jen. r ov a r' s r ece p tio n i n P alJa ma, llie Colon 81'/6t of Decembe r 1 7, 1 903 saicl: -I' He was rccei \'CO by the ga l'l'ison "'it It t h e ('ol om biatl staud Rl'd, the military b n ud a n d the populace. As t h e Ge neral drove through the streets, t here wns not Jacking any evidence of t he l)esL of intentions on lht: pal' j of t he people, But t he se paratist plot had r onched a VCl'y sh'ikillg point. by tho \'c r y presence of the Generfll. It wai'i to nip iu the bud, ifpossihlc, t he sccc8s ion, tllat Ihe General had bee u hurded to the Isthm us, with the li .. "t cOlltingent of hoops. It wus supposcl1 that t he Hc p ublie woul d baNe b een declar ed on the 28t h of NovemlJcr t\m idst t h o fes ti vities, so the General t hought ll i mself in Lho e n emy s a n d that any aUempt. at a. revolution could be easily crushed But he fore Lhe Slut had gone down tbnt eYeliing b e h i n d t h e silent. sentinel of Mount AUCOll, Colombia's ru l e on t h e I s t h m us had f01'ovel' ceased, 'I'ova l wbo bad be(.'Il we l come d that morning under the Colombi:mll
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I 241 d e mand. at the exp iratio n o f th o t.ime m e ntion e d h e COI11-m e n ce d firin g. r l h e baU e r y o n th e B o \ 'cdas l'cplil'd n.t OIiCC. an d the Nogata r etire d hastil y a[ter firing but tw o s hots, 0110 killing' a Chillfllll:lll. th o o nly c a slInlty in the enti r e revolution. Th e was shuck \\-hile wal king a l o ng Sal:;ipued es StrC'ct and i lllm ediate l y eeased t o take an inte r es t ill earthl y things. T he tllat kill e d h i m is n o w ill th e p osscsssion o f 1' [1'. H O. havin g b ee n pr ese nt e d to him by the :'IfinistC'1' o f 'Val' of the Provis i onal GovCrtlmeut. "Without Hatred and Without Joy. 1'11C manif esto issue d h y the pro\ i s ional tim eve o f sepa r atioll re('it es th e fol' the f o l l('w i ug lan g uage: junta act. III Tilt' ll"lJJSCI!IHil'lItai ad whieh h y a. 81>ont:lIl(>01l::; 1lI0,'cm(>IIL lhe of tilE: J slhmns of PaliHUlI.t hiWt' ju,t executed is t h e ill(!d:uble <:oIl Sf'lIUClIC t' o f il situ:uioll htl:s heculI!c gmVel'd: lily, L o ng: tIll: recital of Ih e grit>\'nnc(>:s that tilt: inhahitallts of the htb IllIlS i w ve s lItT('l'cd from thei r Colombia 11 lH'otiu:rs, but these gl"icnillcc::; would h",c 1)C('11 withstood with rcsi gll atioll fur thc sake of iUl.l'lllollY ami national lllliolt, IIH, d its :;llp a m tioll be('11 possibll.!J und if we could have cu\t'I'tail.lcd wl:"ll [ouucif'd o f impro\'('lUf'ut allll o f effective pl'o gn'sl) ulider tho :syst e m to which we WC1'C suLjected by Ihal Hepuhl ic, W e base to :SQlcll1uly dcdartJ thL t we have the :;illccl'o aud pt 'ofound COn viction that a ll hOl)CS wer e fulilc, amI all Ihe s a c rifices 011 our part The I s thmu s oC Panama h a s iJeen by tht' R epublic of Colombia wilh the natTo\\'-lIlilld edu(>ss thai ill trllllspore was Rpplicd to tlH..'il' by the Em'opt'3U lIatiollsj the Isthmian peovle n nL1 tCl'rit ory WQ8 a Source of fi"l'al l csoUl'ces fI!ld !loth i IIg 1II01'e, The contracts, n d negoiiatioJU. ; I'egal"ui n g tlt e railroad and thc PflllaumCnlJ..lal,and the nation al tuxes collected on the T 8th-all [he

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242 [>i/fl/ (/11(1 (://idl'. -Ita\'(' nt'ltt'll to ('IJloml)ia t r(' m ellLlOll.5 whit' h WI.' will 1101 llctRil. Hot w i .. to app l.'iH' ill this; wh it'h will go down to po-.tclily, :1'0 h einfr Ill(we'l h.r a mCl'C;enllry :(' n 1101 is 1111"; Olll' pur poi'lf'. Of t h r:;e :SImI';; f ht, r,.,thlll1l:-O h:l:-: lIot 1'{'l.:ch (,I\ the hem'lit of a lH"id;,!(' fOl illly of ib IlltmcrOU:;l l'i\('J' .... nOl' ihe t'oll!'Otl'llcti o u (If ,I :-:illglt! road betwctoll its 01' n pllhli(' huilding. 01' a s.ingll' 1,.'01-lege, anll hn,; IHjther scell interest. dis playeu ill adV a ll( iu g i ts.: illlh:::;ll'jes no! hihi ill(> 1 110t<.l iufinite pad o[ t hOi"rbeen applied tomll'tis its pro ",ppl'ity. A ,"e r y }'('(:('IIII <,xam p le of what \\'t' haY(' a IJo';e i s what lin!' o("cllI,],<'ti wi t h thc of t h c PalHlI lll\ Call1ll \\'hie-h I whell takl'll IInd t'r ('oll;::idl'l';1 t io n 1, .... Co ngl'l';;::;;; W a!; l'( jeded ill a mfillll"l'. 1'111'1'(' W('I'C a (ew publ i(' m e n who e x pt'(>s ... e d tht,il' :td l el':;!' ol'inic,n 011 th(1 g l'olmd that the l ... thlnu;:: o f Panam a fllolI P 1\';1 ... to h(' fal'on'" hy Ill<' o})('ni n g o f th(' l'il'hl(' of:l tl'f'aty with Ihc Cnitcil Stat!;':", a n d that the n 5 t o f f'ol(lmbia would not l"'('('iw' allY dil'eet benefits of a m -sor t b,' Ihat wOl'k, a,., jf that W;I .... of l'e;lsouillg', (,,'en though it II'('I'P COI I'pct wouldju:;iify tll!' Il'1'Cp:l1':i1, le aw11'e l'petual dllmage w hic:h w ould hl' CllU1i('tI to liy the I'ejection o f the trealy ill til(' 111lllll1C I ill whith it \\';1" dOlI(', which w;"" ('Iju inllt 'll t l O do:-illg Iht, dool's t o f u l lll'e IIPgolial i olls. The peoplf' of th(' I:-;thm u-s ill "ie-\\' of "'mh U,)tOriOIlS eau"elS h:\\'!' tleeidcd io l'e(,O\ ('I' r h('il' ,.;oVt'I'cigll l .... ami beg-i n to fOl'1Il :t I':u't of t h e s,)('il'lyof th(' fl't'(' ;lIlt l illllppPHI\ellt nation:o:, i n ol'l.i l' l io work out it;.. own tle ... liu.", to illl)lIl't;' it;.. f u l lll't' ill a 1111l11 1Lt'I'll.ntl di$('hal'l;e Ihl' lnli(s "'hid! it i:-(,1)l1('ti to do h, \ t hf' !3itu :l tioll of iti' h .'I'I'itOl'y :11111 it-. iUllllens(' \\,(':lltlt, r r o Ihllt 1\'(' 11)(' initialO r,., of the 1ll0' -elll('111 C'fTt;'ctetl a:o:p i l'l ', I W I'e olJtl1incrl all !lHilUilllOUS ;IP I ",,;,\';l1. \\'(, a"pil'P to tht fOl'rwlli;)IL or a tl'lll' l'p\lut,l i \ wltl'I't: 101l'I'nut(' will PI't"-lli!, 11111;-1'(' 1 Ill law .. hould 11(' Ill' innll'i u l llt' of h mil' I'a i II/-.(', nlll lot I h '-''''(' g-t)l'l' 1'1Il'1!; \\' II l' l 't' err t '/' t i \'to! pellt' l lit.' 1'>.;l:lh\ifiiht'l \ wiJi,h (l ... j..,1:-ill the fl'l'i..' nml hlll'III0 u ioILJo. plllY of 1'1.11 illtI'C":-tl' rwd nlllll'1idlit'''', lIud fiunlly, i\'iiizUlioli lUlll I!I'0gl'(''''' will Hull Pf'I'p(, lllI\1 AII1H"'olL1l1leIlN'1l1(' n t oft ht, \ ifj' 'If nn illl! IWllllt n t l1:uioll. W (lilly llpI'n'('iail' tilt' I h n t Shuo bUI h .. '"

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W ilh,,"1 fif/ln" allfl W llhurll JU!I, 2 4 3 Dr. J CUEVA GARCIA,-LAWYER ( Graduate.) CO LON. PANAf'.1..\. GUAYAQUIL. E CUADOR. At.t.ends t. o Colleet.ions, Ju.dleiul Eu.siness, Tr .... n.slation of Docu.menta an.d Legal FOX'n"1I1B we h:l \' e profound faith ill the got)d S('Use llnd patl'iotbll1 of the Isthmhlll peol'ie, :lml we snlliciCllt e u e rgy to oIJen OUl' way by lllealL:; of h ll ml' to :t h:lppy ( u tur\! without BUY W(II' yor any (!ange l '$, tit :lCV111.ltiug" fl'l)li l (JUl' IUolh{I,. of l't. lollliJia w\! do it without fln y irul n .'d :lurl without an.\' .in.':' SOil with tha.w s fro m his }latcl'l1:111'00f. the ll)tl ulli;lU IJt.'OV1c in adopting the lot the.v 1.III\'C CI!OSt' II wilh grief, hut ill COIlL' pliance with tlu> :ultl ill!'\iialJ\c (lut)' T1u'.\'ow{' to them sel\"{'s, Ilnd Il!;l r o f t ht,jr OWl! w('-lfa l'{'. \Ve t h e re!(II'l', begin to f O l'hl n pal' l ,1I110H g tht, l'l'C Hati (lll:; o ( I he wol"id l'OIJ1oiitit"l'iug" Go!on:ruh l n..; a :-.i:;ter nalion, with whic h we b e lIlay l"Ctlttir e i l l :\:1(\ fOI" whose prosp"rily \\' 0 til(' Ulo:;1 1'1:'1'VC'ut :lnd SilL\!Cl 'e (:::iigucli.) AC(;l':;'l'IX AHAXGO, F t: I>Im f co BoY IJ, J\I:I.\,.., T he f o rlll a l t1ec ial"aliull o f illdc p clllicllce WliS m ade by the J\[unicil.Hd Coullcil o f the cIty (If Pan;.lmaat-l o!c1oc k o f the :l f tel"IIOOII o f 1\ o\ e lllh c r J. ill Cntitcclm l P laza and the junta, took upo n itsel[ the directio n 'of af fair8 ulltil the cstaulis h m c llt o f the pl"urisionai g o rel'lIlII e llt. The Show of Fight at Colon. The news of th e arrr-t't {)f G ens. To\al' :llld Aluaya did H o t reac h th e par:.; o f Col. rrOl"l"CR ftllll his fl)l"ce of C olombians unlil the train r eac h e d Colon o n th e f orolloon of

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I 244 P llut (/lId CI/hlt. 1110 Ill! H o illlllwdiateiy lIotinC'u l'nil('d Stall'('" Os('ar )rahlllos thruugll th e Culon 10(';11 :tlltliOlitil's that 11 II l ess the imprisolled wC'rr! set at lil)(,l'l y hy '2 p. Ill.. lie would OP(,II lir e 011 th e lown :ul(l kill c \'('l' y \ Illl'l'i('ati ;11 it. I'his th,'cII1'S, til''It was t(j COIllIll:lIitlel' HlIlJ h:m.l o f ( \,J. r pfIlH':".' thn,:I1. :lIId th e adifJll thl' ('Ollllll:lIldrl' t ook is ron.'n't! ill his nlli"j;tI rrporl of th e illl'idl'lIt. .. l', S. :\'w,11\ illl', Thir,\ Halt', j'ololl, U H, ( 'olllllll ,ia, :\'o ';,'uJ!1I"1" .t, 1!'II:i. "sil': j'I'wllll!-\, 11 ",1mI'll'll' I'I'POI" Hf tht' (H'('III'I'''II!'I'''' of I h, la ... 1 tlan',' 1I:1.\">; :11 (.',,1/'", ..... ,llmuhi:l. !lw",1 1"'l", ... I!',,11y ill\'ill' tilt, Jh'J!:U'lltll'lij':; atll'lIli\11l 10 o f the ,ialt' of \\',,11111 ''''.\: 1 '', :\'0\"1'1111",1' L "hit! 1l11l()lltlll',J \11 1I1':I"lil,:t11., 1!t\lIwkill;.!'!lf \\:11' Ih" l'tlill'd h)' till' Oflil'!'I' ill "Otlllllllllli 01 thl' ,'01, 0I1I1,i:l1l Itonp ... ill ('O\!)II. ,\1 I O .'!fli:k \'. Ill .. 1)11 Ihal ,jatO', \\';1'< 1111 ,..1101'1' b y 11 )11"'1'011<"'1'11'') ,.,i;!II:11. HILI 011 t:llldill;! 1111'1 Iht' 1'/lill,.1 "(11""111, \"i"I-()1I"'1I1. a",1 01. SIt:!!"I', ,]". J..:"'III'I'ul "'''I'l'l'iull'lllh-1I1 of lit., l'all:!lIl;! 1::,ill:111." "'1'111' ;111'01'1111'.11111' tltHI Itt lta
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-.. 245 -.91u: Glul..Afrs..lilanud .-:Amador GtJl!rt'D. ",' 'rIc_ .p.JtJ'i .,.<, :t/lI'Nnu"'1

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l)ilut (111(1 G lIi de. ---l t'S. woulo! opell firc (HI tlic-I(m II o f '01011 Ilml kill evc;:ry LHited il1 the plact' HIlIl my n(hice nud actiou \\ re quested, I n,h'bed that a ll thc 1;nit('d ('i li1.i'lI-':' lake )'efuf{e in lh(' "'!II,d of lilt' l\wuma Haih'on d ('flmpnllY. fI Slone bllildiltg o f !leing put in a good l)tlit(' for de fl'u('( > and tua t I w(lllid lan4.l s uch body of m e n with extnl 1'01' the {:ilizf'n". ail; Ih(-f'omplf'nlf'll t or ti1(' would p ermi WiJIg 111"\ .. \ 'erun! Ol'tlpl'S to )1r, \rib;e} to take lhe 1'(-fel"l' ;'(\ t o nbO\t'. toput it i nt o thlues t state of uefC'llce po<;:oi tiL(-I't"', Hot IIllles;; fir e d lIPOI1. Tht' wOIUC'n :llld childr(,1l took l'lElIge 011 ihe GP1'UIlIll steame r ::Uun :omaui9. and the P ,l1l,UlIiL Rail1'Oill! ste:1mlo'r ('i l,\' nf \Ya.;..hin,!!lon. bot}J 1'(';llh' to hnu! O ll t fl'OI11 d o(k i f .. "'1'h(> got uuder way ;lud palrolled along till' \\ 'al('tf l'out ClO;1t" in 31lt11'c;lol. 10 use ('ithel" l'oma\l a r m 0 1 I w l lire. 'l'lI P f'olombhlll'" ",ul'l"ollnd"d t hl' building of the railroad COl n p:1 n y a 1 most i llllll t ;1 i:1 t{' 1.\ a I'll" I' we 11ft r l 1;1 kC'u PO;;:;;(>SiI; iou and fol' about oue and :1 half hOIll'': their attiWdf' W;lS mn .. t I h I'ClltC'uiug it bcing t lwil I'IIl' P()!l(' to pl'o\'nkc Iltl n!l: .wk, H :IJ'pil,\' OUI' IIWI1 \\','(' ('vol and :lml whilt' : ltl tE'll. -;ioll \\'a ... \ c l'y greal. 110 .. \to' \\'1\,. 111'1'01." .. At al)OlIt ;;; l."j p. tH ( ,.1. Ton', '''' \';IIIll' intc till' building for au iull'n' i t '\\' nud ('XlJIc ..... t>tl him ,.\-lI' : U ; 1ll0'<1 fri(,lIl ll.\ r i'l lh(' llli lllillg thaI w!lOll' tllTni, wn ... :1 lIli"'lu' l\ :lmltl111t lit' wOllld lik, III ""1111 Ihf' .\h:l h l(> of ('"I()n III P:I IHlllHl 10 ";{'l' (:el1. 01'0\'111' awl Iw\ !Ilim lil,, ,t I h{' ,li"",)ntiull : u H(' of the o f .\ train \\I\S J'lll lti,.It,t! llml t'owlm'i g:URI':illtC{'d At :th')l1\ .-';:':1I p. III ( '01. 'I'nl'l'l'" IlIfh l e Ilw 1\1"Opr.-:iliol1 of withd"ll\\ill!! hi,: 1I'OOP'" I ) .lliU if I \\'Oll\r! \\"ithd l : I \ \ lh(> l\:lz.,h\illt'" 141\1.' ... )\lItllI-:\\ lown in po""'( ',.."i011 of th{' (loli,' \\lI li1 r l,l' 1'\'1111"1' of Ih. AI" : l i d t' 011 Ih,of 1 111' ) Ih." I I I

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1---------' 247 R(j= AMERICAN LINE. \\'eeJd\' 5ailingsJ't' OJl1 CoIUJ! loSe\\' '1."01"1, VIA KlNGSTO N J-A.:I:>t:rAIC A By the Unsurpas sed Steamt>rs: PRINZ EITEL FRIEDRICH PRINZ AUGUST WILHElM PRINZ SIGISMUNO PRINZ JOACHIM ADOV STEAMERS APPROXIMATELY TONS REGISTER. J" termediate Steallllll"S to New Y ork: ALTAI VE ::-:rETIA SAILING TWICE A MONTI-!. --RATES OF PASSAGE -S'I 'EA)IERS $70 and : H i O fin ; l (-Im!s; $10 A L'I'AJ & Y Er-..'T.'I'I.\, t)\\. O n !.\' fh-:-t ci a p : l S :'lagc sold 011 I h e i'(' hoM!' S ailings from Colon t o P o ri limon, Caffalrn a, SlI.baoilla, St. Thomas and e ur ope IlI' fer 1I month F o r flill pfl' ti cl! /11'" I'!)II T il i IIfl I l t/ n ayr (/ ,Id /"';[1" I "P! )/!I t HAMBURG,AMfRICAH lINf, Colon, Republic 0 1 Ponomo, M. FIDAHOUf S SOHS, Ponomo .. After an iutel'\' i\ w with titl Gllitet\ Atat(':-; c o n s ul :lIld <.'01. R l llll ... to tile prol)ahilily of g-oolllaitL ill tlte IIHlfll'I', 141ecili('d 1 0 i H : C "pt the propOSiliotL 11I!tl b nlught Illy lU ('1I o n b o a l' tI, tIl(> r li:,;.pe<:lfnll \ JOltS' IIL'lm, \ RJ), ( 'olllman(]el', l'niled Slah',. :Navy ('o mlllan.ling-,"

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" -248 Col. T orres 1Il:1tln :L l lllmb0\' of eff orts tf) ge l in I r \ c gnlph 01' tele ph o n e COmnll!I I it':dioll \\j lll th e grllcrals llt P allclllla. but faill'd. t h e olliy f1ns\Y('r th} I t \ Y :Hi l Wl'rnittc d to his mcssHtW bcillg th:lt hf' wou l d he (':\pu' t p tl to comply w i l h his duty. F ollowillg is :\ ('(Jp y (If :l ll.'l r g ra m se n t h y Col. t r OlTe's a s killg f ,,1' i ll R tl' tlc t iolls. \\'lIi l c the i)th th e l'l' f C'I'('lIcr t o I'I'('Pf,rat i oll for hO!-Jt i l i t i('s woul d inff'r t h a t i t \\':\5 filt'tI a.t L l olo n be-fore' t he OCCli ITt'IICC'S of t.he Uh:-, ( 1 1 1 "0',' 111111 ,'fl\""" WI' I :J I amllil "J hnn' 10 ntld;:;(' yon llinl Ih(> (';l.l'iilj:rC'J1:l, \(11'1 \'I'f'-1(,1'(1llY :lg':l.ill"lt m y o rd('n ... I Hm :lwaililtg' YOIII' iU: dOIlt'. rh" (:01111111:-;:,illll which b('('11 SC'ltt will Ill) t in pill,tir,tllal. ,\gflin and fOI the last time r desire .... ""1' 01' .1"1':-: ill (wdC'I' 10 \\'itil II,PIll, J h;),\'(' o btained ptt IU[:..,:;;;OII to u(' nllow(d tiol1 with Cit'n, Tovar \'Y tt'h. 'phou 10 ];."1 ill .... II'II(_ lion". I'ht' (,Il('my s ,,oop .... : l ull utiUI;' ;11'(' pl' l'p_willA" fot :111 atta(k. The Anll'l'ican lI'O O P'" :In' 1I11'owillg' 111' .]I,ft'II ....... : lIll1 :1I'e l1<:-p10 .... ing. W h at ought t o lJt'd4,.ltll'i' J .'w;t it yo 111' j,lllllC'tiiatl' E I.I:-: EO 'l' 0 In: F.:-: (; ... Embargo Placed on Carrying Troops, T n connectio n with Ihr :ltlit.udC' o f the' Pall:tlll;l f b ilrn:ld UOllllllltlj' i ll lh(> 1t!:dtrl" o f ling h'uo p s 0\"('1' it s lillC'. tlw followiJlg lrl rgl";llll \ \ill C'xpbi n : II. (;. Al"I'lL Sup!.. 1"':11111111:1, CO\OIl, iI:{)\'C'Il1I.)('1' I HIO:] 'rhf' f o llowill/-:, <.'Ollllllllllitntioll rrotll ('1l1ll1l1:l1l11"1' 1', R, R X:\ .. II\ ill., for YOIII' illl'fll'lun l ion a l l 1 to bf' govl'l'lIid aC(,flI,. lill!.{I.\:-I

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249 5-IJ)omingo d e (5 6alrlfa, G un'I 'liur of I'mt:ll"a III 11 Ii' tim. "r 11,, .. i('II. :\1 i .. 1 ,r of I',UtHllHl:lt \\' n:o I. illJrf 011 IIIl 'OJ n It,\\ ,""1111,,, II!:" \din:! ]',",,j,I"lIl m b('1' .t. Sil':-ThC' contlition of OIff;I;1'1' :It P:Hlama bf' ingslIC'h thai allY lIlon'llWIlI ofII'0') p..;10 (Iml pl'odlltt'lt (,(.ll11i(i anol illlt'lTII])\ lh:Lt 1I'lw, o f lh(' Isth m us. w h il'h lh(' C. fi. (:11\'(-"111111'111 j", p\'tlJ,!f>tl to IlHlintaiJl u n inte r l'upl(>\t, I IIlll oblig( d to lll'oiliiJil tiL(' cal'J'ying of o r eith('I

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I I 250 Pilut (Uul GI/ide. !,arty, 01' i u cithel' llhediolL hy l"ailt'oa!\, :\1111 h(,l'f'hy notify yOIl that I \ 1 0 HO pmhibil it. Yom's ",-!',\' ],t'Spcdfully )011:\ r rnm.\Ro 1.:. S. N:1\' Y t'omm:1llllillg I Tn Col. Slt:llel'. General P H. n .. C()\on. More U. S. Vessels Arrive. I Colon Starlet:-rrhc United. Stntcs stea m e r Dixie :lni\.Jd 011 th e :)th at 7 }1, Ill. A feJrce of hdweell t hree :1Ild four hundr e d mell wa!' imm('di:1tely hlnclec1, rrhc Dixio i s :1 praclice and troop !'hip nttnthf'd to th o C:lI'ibilral1 Heet wit h headquarters at Cule h ra [ s l al1(1. P o rt o Rico Col01l t;tarlct. 1\oycmhC'1' 12:--rr'ho H. S Atlanta left Jamaica at 10 fl. Ill,: t.he fith illst.: and ;llTirqd .. 1t Colo n 011 th e m orning o f th e lilh. a record rUII, and !;l chance for n. crac k s hip to displa y her stea ming POWC'fS. Atlanta was oyclel'cd to U ua.lltnllu mo, Cuba. 011 OctohC'1' l R th, 'Phis brin gs the comhined Amer icau fOl'ce.nt (101 0n to three yesse l s and o\'el' 1.000 men. '\\'as hingtoll despatch datcl l .Noyember 7:-').1he bat tlf'Kllip l\[aille has bN "1l onl el'c d to Colon. (From Col01l St.ri et, !\ol' elli h e r 10, In03), NO\'cllli)r-l' (;:_'1'0 the AnH' ricHll )l':\\"al Com-1111l1H1<'r,; 011 the I sthnms: Fo,'c(',; will h e if l H.'('PSSil '." tn )11"(\\'(,111. C'onflid b('tW('I '11 the B c ,!.!ot. (1o, 't' ,'n/n(>nt awl tIll' Colombi: :;elll(' /h(' qWIl'I'l l wilh it:.; sub.iN-h, ]l1':H. -pfull.", it at all, I t i. .. tht' 0111. -way 10 t op liJe yelll'I,\ ill'lI: I('(tiOIlS on til(' and Ihl' l'lIi/(>d :o-;tllt(i'; of til\' 1.1I1'.lt' ll (If polidll!? 11 !f'J'J-ilm-," thai i .. lI(lt it---0\\'11 Colombian Troops Re-embark. T11(, ('ol omlli'lll fl'0011S fll(' h :lil: llioll. J,i('h wel'(' l en ill c harge o r ('01. (lurin g

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--251 ---VVHISKY! -v'V"HISKY! W ATSON''::> 3 STAR, GLENLIV E T A N D Nu. 1 0 TO THE FFIONT. These Brands are the StanJ ud fJr values and a t All Times a Joy tJ the m o s t fastidions TI) IU; 1f 1 Jj U v} r J'IWJl MAXIMILIAN wONAS. COLON. HEPL T I -HAC OF' l'A':'\.A. \ IA. SOLE: AGE.NT or t.he. ISTHrw:t:US o F'ANAD<1:A. th e C nhlrCC'l1 nbs(,llcC' o f n ells rOYal' flnd AJl1j\\'[( ill P;l- lIa Jtw stlITClll lcl'( d their :11'1115 (III the' ijtlJ. two d:lJ s after the nct of !oic:('('ssiull. <.111,1 ill'l'tlngE'IllC'llts \\ e r e :11 (lnc e m a d e for t heir rrtl1l'l1 t o ( \lIi;lgcn:t. I t was tir s t tiC'titic d th,ti G CIlS 'l,(j\ ' 111ft'll" h .. of the l',:--: l'1:ll'illt ,; we'r e lit Ollt,{, takell dO\\'II," A s illl n.clditiolJnl iullu C ( 'IllCllt t o the Col oml ,iall t roop s to accept w i l h r esigllaliol1 till' t1('W of affairs <.L p u r se o f 1I1011C'), l"f'p o l'h d to l liH<.' LL'cll uwdc up alld tUI'IlC'd O\"cr t o Col. T urres for hilllf-.ielf illld m c n Jt \\":'1.'; :\lso rUlllor e d ;It t h e time that thi s office]' \\"[lS illTe!ol.t ed illll i s h o t npoll Ill::' arri\' al at Cal'lagC'tl:l. hnt ll1C' ('111011 8 fal'irt o f '\Io"C'mhC'r I t 11 ('Ol'l'cci:;; t h e rC'pol't. 'Im i 1'C'f('l':;; to the ( Ii!"lJos:ti)tl o f th e m OIl(,)", a s I'ollo\\"s:-

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PilQt f/lul GuirTe. --"\\" ,. tllHh r.,tfllHi til:lt Col. Torri ... 11('11 .. hoi a .. \\"11" rf' pOll -II,HllI) that thl' Illf.n'y f,'om Pllllama. :t:",UU(l in !::nlli.whilh WH:-l 10 Ilim:",lf flllt111'j)0P", Ill' till'Uttl 0\'1'1'10 hi,., (,l'lIln\' III 011 hi ... Hr,-i'al at (';'1'1:1,g't'1I:J. o.,\'\;. .-" .. AIIt' .. 1 1 ]11' )I:l1' ;II-("I':l1'h ill TIH .. day'., i!-:-uf" of Ilu' ow'!' ('III. Tol';'{' .... II) tItI -( '"loll1bi:\ll :lutlwl'ilit, .,:11 ('al'la::'ml. tht, IllHl"')" hi' I'\ n ,j\"\,. \ a s H 1",(,-,('111 11(fol'l \":I\ill,!.:' ('{,loll 1111 l\on' 1I)h"I itl.. \\(. h:I\' I shu'I' l",{'1l :llIlhol'it:lIi\'ely iufol'IlWfJ Ih:ll 0,'11. 011 atTj\ illl-(" HI {'olon till' mnlll'y wjth hilllHIlt! 1'. t L l"lIPd iI, Junta Defines Status of P. R. R. BdrJ\'(\ affairs 1'C":tt'hc 'll ;1 rritic;d oflil'inl!o; III' tile' P:lll:nll:\ Ibilro:ld ('OIllP:IIlY :lIri\'(d nt :111 1IIldrl'l'ii:lI1lIillg" \\ith tht' 1t :tdl'IS IIf tlu !-.('('(>SSI O Il:ll"\" 1lJ{IH' IIIC"I1t. as d ( sI'l'ilH.' d ill 1111' ('opit' S ni' rOrl'('spoIHlplI(' r J'(' llI'udll{'( d itrl'(>, I t iN illll' n'stltlg In 1I0h' Ilt;tt il W:\" litl' idt'a nf IlI'n\ isioll :d jlll1t : t to 11;11111' tilt' 11t'\\ l't' Jlllllli{', 1 Ill' H "Jluldi{' or Ih(' b.lhlilliS It i s p\ i dt'llt that tlti s 11:ltlll' did lIot llH'rl \\llh pOJlular Ilppru\:Ii,:l ; 1111' III'\\' 1'l'llIIhlit c:nnr illto IIl1dl'l' tht! lIallll' oi" th(> Rrpllhlic oj' 1':1 11:1 1ll:I, P,\X.\ :If. \ IlAILHO,\1) emf!'.\"Y. I II' H I 1'1'1'''('0 1 1:-11','1101 Y(OIl h('I'('\\'irh 1111'1110, of Jloinh 1"IU1111d hI' ",H' I I d ill ll1l ,\' .'OllllHlllli('alioli add I'!',,,,,,,,,! I,) ()I' ('11111':-1. t1Wt'I' :11' \ 1111111\ 01111'1'1", all.1 \ '011 Ilad 111'111'1' 1"1',' Ill', I'al.ln A,'(I""'IIII'II:I :I.; "".1111 '" \'011 ('lI11110 ",0 i'OIl"il"l "IIII\ : 'l1d 1.' 1 hill1 atll'i:- \"11 filII,\', Till' o\,jl'l'\ i .. \0 han' lit .. ':01'1'1'111111'111 ""lId II'" ."'!I.,11 will fl'/,4' II" rl'(lnl lialoilit.' illl':h\' IIl.,,'p i" n f niIHl'\', 111111' 1 fail til ,l-!,' I full :lIhi"i' allli Ill' hy it. I !'o""d Ihi .. l)\ ,j iO-1ll01l'II\\ Ilwl IHUIll:!' ha\'P it l lIl'il '" \'UIII'" II'ul.', .1, H \I.IW, Uf'u"1. XliII' '" ------------------- I I

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I ./1I"/ff ",/il/('" "I' p, I,', N, 253 "ur l'CIlU'''e, you ihal \H' will 1101 IU'{'t'pt !Ill)' 1'('. 'lu"',.,I,.. rl'ollllhc' 1I1'0I,o,.t-" XI'\\' mil!,.,,..,, tlu.'yarc Iml'hd up 1,." milital' .... rOn'('. But 1 atl"j,.l' you of thili fuily ill l'II"l' Ibl'l'l' limy he illlt'I'I'Ul'tiol1 of 1'01ll11l1lllil''IIlUl> !'It'1I1t.>, .. the fJllt'litiOIl, I huve to SUgf,"C8t that X(;\\, tn{'nt hi add,'(',..,. it l'Omlllllll h'at ion to t Iw (; t"!1 'I Rupt. ,..tatin!: the f;H't,.. that IlHly haw' tl'flIISpit'('1\ lip to ch(' tillll' \\1H'11 I S CENE ON THE FIQUNE, DARIEN, I I I ______________________ (CCWRJESY OF t;, ANCREIIE,)

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254 P ilot (1/ rI C"idf'. -"""' -they n w .... \\Hlli II) Hwke lIlt.'" l"('quI'"!''' of 11:-. ,hnulli :-blt' lil(' fac t ")I,; to t h ei l H:-:-UlHl'tioll of authority o f ( '0\"(1'11111('111-The," :-h o lli ll gilr(\ :l,.';!l1'111H'P thaI the.'" will "l'llJl'l'\ut(> 1,1'1)tee-HOll to the B., H. ill it .. PI'Opt "tit:-,tllIl i ll" rig llh; Ihe $1111(' il:-l 8 ITUI"t'd to H H ('0. h,'" eOlltl';1(;ts l},;iu alit! 186 Arti('it' ::0. alld ('l"pwht]'{ II ith Bogota Gtw 1')'11111(>111. I n CQlIl:Ihit-I'llCoIll of i hi" rl<'t iOll 011 pUl'l of \ 'J'IIlJu > ut, I lay will ('x pl'd Ilk H H C;o. to (111], 1 .... wit h t ht, )ll'( I I 'h-don,; of .\I-t. 1 0, nlj( 1 to fUl'Ili. ,J, promptly;\l1 1 ',11'" IIt't'\'SSHI''y forl'Olllplyillg with the IWQvisitlll" Qf :ja il! ftl'tid .. II) Ih.;: IlI'W (fO\'CI'llllll'lIt. TII{'.'" 11111$1 uotify thp H H. Co .. tltat tht\ lIew Uon. 'l'lIInCII\ (by wlll\te\"('I' il" nan l(' mllr 11\.') Ital'o fOI'('!' neee::-:
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,------255 PENNSYLVANIA HOTEL. I EMPIRE, CANAL Z O N E I 1\. HOlliE, P I 'U[ll"ietol ___ -<0 .... ____ ONlY H o m i n Empire whue IRAHlERS GAN OBIAI N SlRIGllY f i R S1GlASS AGGOMMODAlID N S E \S\' IlIS'r.\ Xf'! ; OF t',\S.\L 1I1-:.\I)l l (',\I:T EI::-. T H E 1 : 1 :1>:.\"1 <;n E I W \ ('1''1'. \)<11 UTIIEI : l OI X T::; IIF ISTEHE:-.T. Conveni ent 1 0 Pnn ;;lI":nD R ailroud S tioltio n Rooms Larga, Na8L, Cool and W all VantiiataD. I BATHS AND All MODERN SANITARY EQUIPMENT. GOOf) lUll I S D'dClUXl' I X f 'OXXBC'I'JOX. OXL r /JO II I /.YG .. I / / f 1".'1 FOU PUBLIC (; '1:: IX 1'11f: xtJ. n:. P:E=l..XC'ES Fl. E.A..S C> N'" .A.."'A.:r... E. ] $501lml J:-.G : I u we h ope tlln t you Oil y o m 'plll' wi ll compl," w it h At'ltC']l I n. H I H I 01h,,1' 1l1l:1lo g ous IJoillb ilL til" ".;8 m e ('ont 1', \('[:-. ""e abo t ) illfOl'lll )'Ull ,hat lilt, !le w lIo\'\ :l'uuu. 'nt. i n ;Hltliti oll t o tlit' IWl':.lige wi t h wid t h it i)CClL ill\"t'::-(e d u \' all t h citizen"1 h :l-. 1111' lIIi l it i l l'Y powe r 8ld1i(:i c n t r01 the PI'otl' (t i o n o f t h e of Iht Ha iil'() a d l'ompau...a t ;tn," tim(' ihat you may find i t t o {'all 'V e h o p e that Ihp traflit' iJetween i hi...; c i t \. ;\1111 t h e d t \ of ('0\(111 will h e lllllilllaiu(>d with, out any dlHlIl!(", ;IS ilL lluru!Hl t illH .. aud til(> GOVt'I'III1H 'nt whkh \\,( wilt ill 110 t';l"'e pel'mit oubit!t inter[(,l'ellt t' thaI' w i ll illtt'l'l' upt t I l(' t r;lffi, 0 1 the rcgulari t y {If th(' l l'Hiu-;, W e a l'f'. ,1. A AnA!\'(. ( I FEDERI(' U B OYD AnI \15.

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256 /'ilot (/1111 al/ir/e, Flag of the Republic Hoisted .. Y es t enlny morning .:\'0\'(,11111('1' Olh. ;1t tOil o'dock th e ver y i!lter{'stin g ceremony of hoistillg the nag D E th e 1I0 W R e public was performed nt the Prefrdul"r:' :says th e Culo n Starle t o f 7th. All th e for eign heads of the P a n am .... Ha.iil'oa d sororal ofllccrs o f lho l 'll ited St..les forces, Illel'<'hu.nts, and a hngc numhel' or oll1l'1' IH 'I'SO IlS. hoth Co l omb ia n s a lld foreigners weI'(' pre sen t to willies!:) the B e f ore the !lag W. Ui hoi:-.ted O cMhl. "Viccl)rC'sicic n t o f the las t Col omhiilll : )ltlllieipai COllllcil, r cad a r eso luti o n w hich was p<.lssc d at a mee tin g of the hoa r d 011 'rlllll' s d aj') Sigllif yillg t h e ;H.lhc:-ioll o ( (\,lo11 to the HC(Jubli c o f P a niLma. Selio r Melendez tht'll ;l(ldrc:.;srd th e meeti n g s t a t ing th a t the ohject that h a d urought tlit'ln alt togelh('l' ",;'IS o f so tr;lJl!'Cl"IJ(l cllt.t1
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J lllJt (t L itlllJ Too L ate. 257 THE BEST REMEDY IN THE WORLD FOR Ringworm OR Dhoby Itch I S FOUND 1M l TLF:tN A F o r sft.1 e a1; Esp:l:n.o.n'. f1ge ut s o f th e r e v o lution a r y j unt a afld s hown that it was f o r him t o t a k e allY actioll as th e ind epe nd ence o f P a n a ma. h a d b eco m e a n a!o>snre d f ac t. 'Vhe n o ff e r e d t1le comma.nd o f the b atta lion T i r a dores," as i ts superio r office r h e r e fu se d and stayp d o n b oard th e stf'allle r r e turning wit h his s t a ff t o Co l ombi a It w as rum o r e d h e r e th a t th e r evo luti o n a ry agents w o r c fig h ting w ith it w ea p on o f m o r e p o t e nti a i force th a n t h e most m o d e rn arlllS a n d th a t G ell. Gutierrez w ellt a way conv i nce d o f t h e u se l ess n ess of m a kin g any e ff ort agains t th e m S ta. ill B e .... ld o f N o v e m he r 1 9th:-Y es t e rday lhe Frc n c h s t eame r C{t, n aila, ani"e d a t Co l o n with the Co l omb i an co mmi ss i one r s Oil board, and w i t h Grll. R eyes a t t h e i r h e ad. The y w ere e n r o ute f o r t h e Uni t e d S t a t es. A co n f e r e n ce was h e ld o n board w i t h out r esults Ge n R eyes, who had h eell d e l ega.te d full presi d e nti a l p o w o r s t o repre sent the G o v e rnm e n t o f Co l o mbia Admi ral Cogh l a n the co mmand e r o f tll e America n n av .. t l f o r ces o n t h e Isth mu s t o cah l e Pres id ent R oosevelt tha t Co l o mb ia w oulel n o t r esort t o any act o f h osti l i t y to ward s the ne w R e puhli c o f Pamlma.. In the e v e nin g tll e co mmi ss i o n e r s t oo k a r i d e a.bout Co lon in comp a n y with th e P a nam a Gove rnm ent d e l e g a tion tha t h a d co m e ove r t o m ee t them. T hey saile d f o r the States the n ext d ay. How the News was Received a t Bogota. B o g ota i s o n e o f th e m os t isolatn d c ities i n all South America, aDd it wa s n o t ulltil the kth o f t h e m onth that the Ilf'W S o f the secessio n reach e d the re. The i nf o rm atio n was aug m ente d by th e r e p o rt tha t the A m e rican flee t was

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I 208 P ilot an n G lti( l e a t :Panam a and Col o n and tha.t tho O olombian force s were n o t a ll owe d to land the r e rrhe n e w s wa s not une xp e cted t o those-current with the s itu atio ll. but. it. c reat e d intense e xcit e m ent among the middlo and l o w e r cla sse s who thronged the streets c r ying Down Government, down w ith M arroquin. Otho r s s h o uted, "\Vhy didn't the Am cr iC<),lls ta kp. u s in als o." In, B o g o t a at tha t t i in o the r e was a floating, irre s p o n sible c who p re f erre d r e volution and robbery, to w ork. r rhis e l e m ent was attrac t e d into the public p31'h o f the city b y bands o f and e l oque nt who tU'gOO that th ey mu s t save their country and \nor c h to Panama.. They had m o r e p atriotis m p oure d into thcf1l O}\ tha t m ;psiop tha n they h a d o v o r h oard ill their Jives b e f o re; w e r e p resente d j a b a n q u e t in hQ41?I's figure q l a r ge l y was pre p a r e d anel wilh voluntary .:'llld s ,ubscr iptiollS f or ex p e nse!?, ab out o n e m e n s t arted f o r the c o a st, equippe d ,, :itb an old qf A s a Gov(,l'Illllent OffiCUl.l afterwards 11, the m o ut o f h e r e and they will never opin e qack." 'And th e y did not. This tbe mu c h-ta lk ed, of e xp e d it i o n to P anama overland b y way o f th e Darien. Durin g n.1l the e x cite m elJt a t the (Jolombian e n pital the r e wore 1)0 d emostl'a tion s ur threat s made again s t the; Am eric31l L egation, as r eporte d ill the at the lime, 1101' wer e the r esident Ame ricans m o lest ed. 'Vh e n th9; same p a p e r s w e r e publishing r e p orts of Americans b eing J,ille d an d th eir prQ p erty d estroye d a cab l e t o D Pre sid ent 1Ylarroquill bro u ght a n ans w e r tha t the American Legation :11 1 d 'the American col ony h a d been g u arantee d absolutq pro t e ction. .. ., Railroad Officials Complimented. D o n Arango in his littl o sto r y o f th o sece ss ion tak es occas i o n t o co mplim ent h ighly th e ," oOO offic i a l s 001. J. It S h a l e r, a nd his able a ss i stant, MI' H. G. l're, for I I

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259 their part ill th e affair. H e says: I'From lhe day he know of the mO\'cment, 0)1. Shalf'!' s h owf' d ill l \ C !'}, ;\d his Rj'IlI pathy 1'01' lIS, nlld Lhnt h e was trying to pr otect u:-\ by :\xoici iog combats all the line with th e troops th:1t had c omo I'I'UIII Colombia, which we h ad deb"l'lIlillC'd to atta('k if they hnd reached Panama. The pal t he took in till' Il' l'lIllw.rkatinll of Col. r:eon'cs lllld his mC'lI also merit::. our gmtitudc. Of no less va.lue w(>rc th(' seni ces of th:1t 1101ahlo American. :)[1'. H. G. Prescot t, secon d superintendent of the railroad, who had for many yea r s pl' cyiotls made home hero and m:1L'l'ied ill this countr)' Prescott ill accord with his chief went to Colo11 where h e r emained until lh(' arrival of the Colombian forces. H e was ill COilst.'lnt cOllllllunication with us, tnUlsmittc d Ollr instl'uctiolls and kept us informed o f whal transpiring therC'. By this and othe r raluable sf'l"vices the Prlll;ll1lllll i :tIIs owe :\Ir. Prescott" great d e bt of gratitude:' Col. Sbale)" and :\1 r. PJ'C!:il"ott ed with the rail-1'oad company for 0'('1" a. year after its purchase b y the Unitcd Htates Goyernlllcnt in the samr capacitirs, Mr. Prescott serri IIg as Acting Supcri Iit enilent for severa l m o nth s after Col. Shaler's resigll
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260 Pilot rnul Gllillc. rYI THE ISTHMIAN NEWS DEPOT. ........... ---COMF"L..ETE ANO TTRACTIVe: LINE O F STATI:lN E R Y POSTAL CARDS and Kronks uno POOIiJ SUPPlieS n MAGAZINES. VIEWS ISTHMIAN CUR I OS, k1r SUle Hen!. PERIODICALS 6C. illso n and tJ. Gabrie l Duque, til(' two la s t being citizens of til(' r nit e d St.ates." -Gell. Hue rta s t oo, was the recipient of mAny n ttC'lItiOIlS. Had h e not berJl won O-\:.{"l' to th e cause hringing with h i m h is m e ll, theRo w o uld pro bably have had a d iffe rent s t ory t o tell at least th e e nd could o t h",-. hee" attained without th e s h e dd i ng o f blood G(,II Huertas was feted one night s h o rtly after the proclamation of independ e n ce ,Vhila the banquet was in progress, of a s udd e n th e r e occurred the simulta n eo lls popping of lllfl.lly corks, and the n ext instnnt th e doughty gen e r a l was d eluged with th o conte nts of a dozon b o ttles o f champngne, wliich poured from his person in s treams. G c neml to relish his nO"el bath. 'rhe milit.'lry rC'cord o f G en. Huer tas, : .md the s ubscqu ent events in whi('h he figured will be found in another part 01 this book. Recognized. The firs t coulltry to I'Pf;ognizc th<.' inLic pcllciC'l1cc of Panllma. was tho UllItcd States, th e ackllo\\ I c dglll ont h eillg madc 011 .Noycmhe r O. Tn m essago 1-0 111(' C Oli, titution al COilYCllti oll o f .'Jauuary 1 5, I no I. thl' proyis i o nal jllllL\ announc e d that th e R ep ubli c h all lip t o that tilll o been acconJ e d recognition hy Ib e foll(lwing goyc l'llments:-Unikd

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-261 -States, Fl'tlIlCC', China, Gcnn:lllY, Russin, D ellmark B e l gium, Great Britain, Italy, J a pan, Xorway .1IIll Swedell f:)wit zcrliUlti, P eru, Cuba, Costa Ril'a all d Nicar ag u a ill the order II[llI1Cd Til F eb ru a ry, InOI, Guatemala l'c rsi;-), H ollan d and \'ellcZlIcia f ollmn: d suit; ill Marc h M ex i co, C h i l e, B razil, H on du ras, Argl" t ina and Sah' ado r j i ll 1\Iay, U l(' H o l y See and S pain ; ill f ullo, S e r via; ill .lu ly, Paragu ay an d H o u mallin P ortug:l i Grecco and Urug u ay h ave ne\'('r tend err u their form;).! recognit.ion lJut a tacit und e r s t andi n g exists. As regards Ecuador, f o rm e r Pres ident Lisi.l1'll o Garcia se nt :\11 autograph l et t e r t o Presiden t Amado r setting f o rth that it was th e wish o f his gO\'C'I'IlIllcnt aBel people t o maintain the fri e ndli es t relati o n s with Panama. 'l'hosc rol ations hax c b ee n um l e r th'3 governme n t of 8en. Elo,)" A l faro, th e pre sent rul er. The tardillc' ss in llIaking formal recognit i o n i s said to be du e t o a llcs irc o n t he part of E cuador Hot to disturb th e a m icab l e relatio n s be tween it and Col ombia. During th e Spanish-Am o rican war the importa nce of an isthmian calla. l was realiz ed on more th a n olle occ asion Had a wate r way c onnecting th e two great oceans b ee n i n operati oll at that p e ri o d : th e l o n g and r eco rd-br eaking mn of th e batUcship Oregon aro n nd the H orn w o uld have be en redu ce d t o trip o f a f ew d ays on l y It is hardly a matt e r for wonderment then that the calla l qu estio n cam e up i ll the firs t Congress assemble d a fter the r e tul'll p eace. In D ece mbe!', 1 8HB, th e U nitecl State, Senate: acte d favorab l y o n a bill pl edgi n g government s upport to the

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262 Pilot and Guide. Nicnragua route, but it came to grief in the lower house. During the argtlment on the m easure in committeE', the l'cpresentnti\"cs of the New Panama. Canul Company were aHawed a hearing Oil their proposition to reorganize the concern under the laws of the United St..1,tes. ill yjew of r e ceiving national aid. 'l ) h e agitation of tll e question had some result for ill Marcb 1899, President M c Kinl ey was authorized by Congress to invetstigatc \"ariolls cana.l routes with the object of d eter mining the pract.ieability of eac h, and the p ossibilit.y of obtaining sale control over tJlem. Pursuant to these instructions the President organized the first Isthmian Canal Commission consisting. of Hea r-Admiral .Tohn G. \ Valker, (retired. 1I0W deceased), Samuel Pasco, George S 'Morison, Lieut.-Col. Oswald H. EI n,t and Col. P. C. Hains, O. S Corps of Engineers; Lewis j\(. Haupt, Alfred N oble "nd \V!lliam H. Burr, civil ellgineers. and Prof. Emory R J ohllson. To this commission was delegate d the work of examining the plans of the Fr ench canal company and to ascertain the hest terms for which its property could be s ecured. '1'he commissioners took up the subject in detail, find had several conferences with the canal company's offi cials. In a report submitted to the Pr esiden t ill November, 1901, the announced that the canal company demalllied tho suru of :;';109,141,500 f o r its ho l dings. During the progress of negotiati o n s the commissioners had fixed upon the price of -10,000,000 as a r easonable valu alion of the property, but the French directors held that this amount waS much t.oo low, pointing out that the assets nt the time of the failure of the old company aggregated over nin ety millions o f d o llar s, and that the de preciati o n of the property since then would be in a measure offset by additional plaut equipment pnrchased by the new company. The commission's report cnded with the r ecomme ndation of the N iC3ragun. route. as against the Panama enterprise,

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, Tile Callal ill .1I11C 1;('01l /fall(ls. 263 th(' form e r being Illor' H f('[ts ibl('," all things cOII"idc r ell. l h(' publi catio n of th e r('port. which practica lly s h c l yel l their h o p es, electrified th e stoc kh oluers i lito imme diate :l CtiO Il, a nd b efo r e the year U)O L had reach e d th e clos(', word was l'ccei\ 'e d from Pari!') that all offe r of [or tbe eonlpany s plant would b e ente rtained. Upon r ecl'ipt of this inf ormation, th e cOlllmission appended a rider to its pre vious report, setting forth t hat ill v i ew of th e C o chnllged co nditi ons that n o w ex i s t," the Panama route would be th e m os t practi c able a nd fea s ible f o r an isthmian canal und e r lhe contro l man agement anti ownership of th e United States. Congress Moves in the Matter. \Vhil e the negotiittions betw een the canal comrui ssion and tho Fre n c h s tockhold e r s w c r o und e r way: th e H epburn bill favoring the Nicaragua route was passe d by the House of Herresen t a tive s. In the Senate the bill met with d e tet min e d opposition, and was d ebate d. It was s h own that the prepon deran ce of opinion, not only from an cligi ncrring stfllldpoint, but -from thos e engaged ill ocean commerce, fav o r e d the P a n ama. r oute At thi s juncture w hat is known as the Spooner bill (fathered b y Hon. J o bn C Spoone r the little st.:'lt csman from \ Visconsill), ca me to t h e re sc ue, a n d was filially passe d by both hou ses. rrhis measure under which operations nre JlOW going forward, provides CI for t h e construction of a cana l connecting the wllters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans," and contains amo ng its authorizations the f ollowing:-1. '110 acquire the prop erty, rights and privileges of the New Panama Canal Company, inc l uding the Panama Hailroad, at a cost n o t to exceed 2. '1'0 acquir' fTo m Colombia. perpetual control of a strip of land not l ess than six mile s wide extending from th e Q,U'ibbea n Sea to tbe Pacifi c O cea n and the right to govern it. --

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264 Pilot (fJllI GI/ick 3. 1' 0 procee d w i t h t h e cxc: w atio n of a s hip can a l upon p ay m e nt t o th e F re n c h com pany o f th e a m ount Hgree d up o n 4. In c a se n egotiati ons w ith th e F re n c h compan y ol' the R e pu blic o f Co l ombia s h o uld p rove un s u ccess ful t o ac q uir e contr o l o y e r til e n ecessa r y t erri t o r y in Ni carag u a 01' Cos t a R ica f o r th e con structio ll of a can al. 5 Appro pri a tin g $10,0 0 0 0 0 0 f o r pre l iminmy e xp e n ses, u nd pro v i d i n g f ol' a pp ro p r i atio n s fr o m tim e to tim e o f a m o u nts w hich s hall n o t excee d in the aggregate the a dd it ional S UIll o f $ 1 35, 0 0 0 ,000, III case o f th e adopti o n o f the P a n a ma. r o u te. (1. Guaranteeing th e r epuLlic whose t erritory c r osse d th e u se o f cana l s a nd h arbo rs c o ming witlin six-mile ju risd ictio n afo r esaid I S th e 7 C reati n g a n i sthmian can a l commi ss i o n of se v e n m e mb ers, four of w h om shall b e p e r s oll s l earne d and s kill e d i n the sciellce o f e n ginee ring, o n e o f th e f Ollr to b e an officer o f the U nit e d S tates Army, fin d o n e t o b e an of fice r of the U n i t e d S t a t", N avy 8, P rovi di llg f o r th o iss u a n ce o f ex p end i t u res bond s f o r ca nal 'fbi. bill was a ppl"Ov e d b y th e President on June 2 8, 1 002 The Treaty With Panama. The h isto r y o f tb e secessio n m oveme nt a nd th e fai lure o f tJle U llit ed S t a t es in n ego t ia t ing n. can a l treaty with th e R e public o f Co l o m b i a is full y cove r e d in an o th e r arti c l e No t ime was l os t in carrying t h r oug h a trea t y with the 1I0 W R e pu blic o f P a n a m a, as th e f ollowing r eco rd s h o ws:-Separzlt i on o f P allama from Colomb i a, No\'elUool' 3, J 903, New rcpublic r ecog ni ze d by tho Unitc\ l Stnt es, Nove m oe r 6 ] 903. Canal treaty s i g n e d aL W lls b iugtOll1 No\'e m bc r 1 8 1 903 R atified by Panama, Decem ber 2,1 903. Ratification advised by tho U. S. Senate, }"ebt'ua r y 23, 1904

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'1'1,,. Trf'fll,'f Ifill, rOllfll/lfl. 265 --.) .. \ -, -Cor n e r 9th Street and BoWe Alley, Colon, R P ",... .... -_ 'UHSTS FOR 1' J 3 .... UjJl1Uill 11f1!. (,,,',, ) 1 .Ii.-il1ul :11111 Tuild \'1!1>;1mtio .. ll;!lld F eb"lull'Y 2'), u)04. Ratificaliolls e:.:choogerl at \\'f8hingtoll, F t 'I)l'tWl"Y Pl'oclaime d F ehl'tl ary 1!)04.. Th e full t ext of tho treaty I'ollo\\'s:-The LllitNI :::;tu t ('" of A m C'rit'li HI\t! the Hepublic of Pallllma, being desil'ou'i to the or it !-puhlic or Col ombia, and the soyereignt:", o( slIch territo r y beiu g actually n'-st c d in the H epublic o f Panam:t, the cOllt1'tlctiuC; )Jltrties hrwe resolve d for that pU'1, ose to eondlHlc ,I COlln'lItioll, and hase al' col'dingly appointe( f as theiL' plcnipo t cllti:I1'i('s: The P re:sitient o f-the United Hiatcs of AllH.'l'i('a, John lIay, S('cl'clill'yof Stotc, and the GoVel'llllleUl o f the R C plIblil o f P fllluma, Philippe Buna u-

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I 266 P ilot (lUll G uidc. Yarilla. E II\oyF.xlnIOl' i liIMI'Y :'\11(1 )rini"t(!l' Plenipol t' u ti:lry o f tho llt'puhlic of, lh('I'('111110 (>lllpow(>l"cll b y '"'aid gOY(,I'nnu-lIt. who after with each ( I h e r liwit' I'p"pCdil'cfull P()\\'('Ii<. fouud to h{> i n good find due fOI'III. !ltLY/..' HJ.!'re('d UJlOIl :111(1 (,onehHl(>(l the follow in g llrtic-i(>s: -AM1', 1.. CF P.\X.\ :\L.\, 'fhe L"lIiteli :--ll,\lp" gtl:lrantpcs flntI willmllintain the i lltll'pt'ndl-'Ilc(> of th" RepuhliC' of Pllllamn. ZOXE. The Hl" ]H11,lil' of Panama grnnts to the l'nilt'll State<; i n AnT.::!. tb" u:,,(".occnplllio n awl ('oul1'ol o f II ZOIle' of l Rm l and l;1nl\ 1Illdl'" \\111(,1' I'm' til(' ('tlllstl'1wlion, lI1:1il11 CII:1 11('(;>, Opf'l'fttion. :tllll !woleclio .. of .. (lid (:nuIII or ill<' widlL o r tOil t'xh'uditlg' 10 II t, fli"'lalu'p!If lin' milt':;; QII {'nt,h !o'idc of ecult'l: line of tll{' l'IIutl" of 1 hl' ('lIl1:d to hfO "'llI"tnu:kti: the :;aitl zOlle h egi llu iu g ill the ('al'ihh{'llll St',l linN' tnlll'ilw Iliilel'> frOln In\\' water mark ami C:'xtt'lHlillg' 10 nIHI :\/'J'O";"; Ih., of PlIllfinl:\ illto tll(, P;l.(;ific O c'e:w 10 a. distulI('e of Ihl'l'l' Ill: nnd witters ollbiil (' of the zo n e above fIt'sl'rihet1 \1 hieh ma\' b e llt'Cp","'an' :HlIl cOll\'E"nie n t f{w the eOll maint('n:IIl('I', QI;I'l'iltioll, :auiiatiflll, aUl I }ll'olet,tiflu o f the (';llla1, 01' of allY :lll'dli:ll'Y j'lwal", 01' olhe1' wOl'k..; all,1 CQll"ui(>lI \ I'm' til(' t:Ou:-;II'lIeritl/l. lllailLtClI:tII/'t', operation, ! of all I:lTIIJ...: :11111 \\HII'I',.., IIII'uliom'll 111\01 in said .o\l'ti I'll' :! wlJi. h 111t' Cniti'd \\'011101 1'0 ..... l .. ..; !lilt! (lxr>!'(ist' if il W(>l'C tilt "'I "t'l, if'1I of Ill(' h'l'I'i t oJ',\ wit It i II wit i"lt "ti i f I I a lit I .. ;1 n.\ 11"1\1 el'l'> a I'U I OCIIlt'd I tv Ih{. C,X('l!r-inll .,f tl\l' t'.\{'!'(';"" I.,\" 1111' of j'U1ltIlU I\ of 1111." slJ(h l'>o"l'ci!!1l l'ight-;, jlfl\n'l' o\' :-il B:-ill)r.\\:, A:-; $uh ... idi:l1'Y It) Ih( :rho\'(' gl'flllis t h(' R ('pllblic of Awr,.I, ill l.t'l j1('llIil.l' 10 lire l'llitcll StalC!i the right to liS!, Ih., l'iVl'I-I'>, lllkl's ltll i l oth('rholiief'; o r wttl t' l within its limits fill' IIl1\'it,(utioll, lli(l !!-lIpply or Wlllt."!' or W
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-CARIBBEAN SEA. ISTHMU S OF PANAMA. P i/lit mlft C'lide. 267

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268 Pilot fIllil O llid(' other purpo'",(,S, 80 fll!' :\,. the lI"-e of ... nill !'i\'crs, St\'CllJUeo. lakt';; and hodies of W:ltCl' lIntI tln' \":\tel'S thercof IfW.\" lJe Il('("CSSlII'V allli ('OII\'(>Jlit'lIt fo]' the constl'uction. maillif'uanCf', O!W}':l!'iOIl, aud vrotetliou of the said C'ann.1. 1IOKOPOLY FOB ('OXS'fRCC'l'CON, ETC'. I The HepllbJic of PalHllllfl o'T;l1lb to the t;uitc d Stall's in (Il'!"AI:1', J. lJlooopoly fol' the CQII:-.tnLt-tiolL mninten:uw(' awl op(,l'lIlioll 01' ally s,,',;;IClll of COIllIllUlJir':ltiou by nit-ail.;; of t>olltainerl jn thi!' lI'eat)' 01' hy 1'(':1:<011 of the of Ihe Vuited it... ,Igents 01' ('m pl o.I(,!::: 01' hy j'ea"oll o f the tQn!':!l'1ltiioll, maintCIlRlIce, oprl'ation, :-;\l1iI1l1ioll :tllli pl't)It"l'tion t ,f th(' !d fOI') ... 1Ialll)(' upprni:;ed ami s('llil'd oy a joilll ('ommi.,,,,ioll ilppointe1l 1,." tilt' OO\'l'1'Umf'nt::: of the {TlIited Hlal('" a 1111 11i(> H('vubJic of P!lnillllil r who!;(> tlecisions as to ;1I('h lIalllHge's :-hall be filial !Iud whol';c :\Ival l" to such ... hnll b(' ]1:1111 h y lil(' lPnit('d ,No part of the w ork 011 s:\id ClIll1l1 OJ' Ill<' Panam:l Ihili'o;ul 01' 011 HUY ,,-'uxili;)l'Y wOl'k:-; I'elating' til('l'(>to nllil nulhm'lzNI h.\' the terms (If thi" Il't'aty be pl'f'\'l'ntcd. dt'la.nd 01' llllJlelled hy 01' IWlII.liug 1-;lIcll to a"('(:l'talll ,";lIch t1altlllgt':-<' '1'1l\' aPllI'nil'nl or ",aid 1'l'iI':lte lallt!" ;uiOl pl'i\'all' 1II'OpeJ'Iy an,lllIl' of tlunUl14('" to ,hem :-
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, 269 .., \ -'T -RENAUT. l E_ FASHIONABLE l.\I.I::J:LLXNER.. E f ine d i sp lal' of t h e l a test and m cs t di r e ct fro m Paris. ,:> wne .J.nd Pdlldmd udies CQrdidfJy 10 Call and inSTKcf My Stock N o 52 EIGHT"" STREeT, PAr-"AMA. -ro:ul. All :mch works of 81111i11l1ioll, ('Olll'I'lioll ami di:-;posilioll of !)('W;lgC Hllll ;ii.:;tributioll of wntcr ill Ih(' til i",s of 1:'anilIllH ami Colon "hall be mad e at the expense of the Uuit(;d ami t he UOWl'lllnclit. of the United StnIC$. its agellts, or uQmin('('s ... hall he aut hOI'iZ('d to impose a nti (olled water I':ltel'l aud t-,l'Wel':lgc 1':ltes whi c h ,..hall be s ufli('ient to ]1rOYit\f' for the payment of iutcl't'st awl the fllllOl'tization of the principal of the o f said works withiu a pt.'riod of fiily yell]'s : and 111}()11 the ('Xpil'fltioll of said tprlll of fifty years, til(' sy"t('m of allli w nter work s :,;h ,lll I'('vel"t to ,Hid hcconlC the pl'op('rties of the of P:\IHlllllt and Co l o ll, ('x('Cpl to the extf'lIt that watel' rate's lIlay b-.: IIceesfol' Ihe opel'atioll ,\nd m aintt'llt\lll' e of ... aid !"y"tcllI of sewer s fwd walel', The Hcpubli .... or j.Jaliama ag'l'ce,.. lhallhc eitit,s oC Panama and Colon shaJl comply ill pl'rjJctnity wi t h til(' ":an itar." ordinances of a pl'e\'enti\'c 01' cumlin" (.'1i;II';1Ct('I' preserilwd lIy the Cllited State.;: amI in (.'ase the Go"el'lllut'nt oC P a nama. is 11II:ll,le 01' fails in its dllty t o enforce t:ompl:an ('f' by till' citi(,.: of P;lnama and ('01011 with the-j:;;\Ilit3I'Y ol'din:lllces of the VnilNl th(' H ( 'J)u l )l ic: of Panama. grants to the l.."nit e d State:! tilt' right and authority toenfOl'c.:e the :same, The saille righ t and a nthorit," are g'l'
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2 7 0 r ilot mal G aide. --- zo n e l le!wdbcd i ll ,\l'licll' :! of this h'cn.!y lIOW i nc.:lud ed ill t he COHces s ians t o both said e ntequ'iscs 3 11,1 1101, re(Jllil'cu i n t h e cOllsh' u ctio n at' ope rati on of t he Ga.nal "h dll'ev('rt to t ho Republic of P allama, ex c e p t allY PI'O! )( !ty now own ed l y or in the o f s aid co mp a nies within P:Ul:t mll 01' Colon I VI' t h e lJOltS 01' tel'lll inuls t h c I'cof. P O H'l' S A'L' O F C .. The United that lil(' pr )l'ts a t eit h e r cntl',Luce Awl'. n, oj' t h e (Jana l a ll, l tIL' w 'ltl'l'.'i t h o l'('or, a n d till H opublic of P ;Lllam:l agr {'('" t lmt I lu : IQI\'H!':i of Panam a a m i Co lOn b e free fo!' all timt} so litf'l'c shaH lIot lJl' i m pOiW!1 01' colledcd e mtom house lolls ton n age, . (:Qn,:mI'11 if! I o f \'I"t o r til'" R e p n b l i c of P:uHl.lIla, :lllli lIJlon \'c'Ssl'is louchiu.;at tHe l J,II'IS o f Colon a.nd :uld w hich do not (:I'OI'S 1 hI;' C,'lIltl r h c Gov(' l'IInl (,llt llt cOlllr'ahalld tr.ltl(>. 'fhe United ShtE', 'i shalt b'In' till' l iJ.:'hl 10 mak(> of tho tOWI1 S Q [ PILllilllHl a .nd (,ol oll a:-o pht('l ... ot' nd IQI' rnakiJlg l'('pain:l. fol' IO:l.dill,!?, u n lo,u lill).:', d p o:-il illg', or I mni'!sldppi u g r'1lJ'-gOl'S either iulnl.n"it o l 'clestil1(>ll 1'01' tilt, :;t'l'\i(:(, I ) f t itt' Cu n : d and fOl' J othel' work;:; to the ( } Ulitl. K I 'C. T he Ht'puhlic of PlllI: lma thitl 1I1t'I 'C J-.It:lil 1I0t I w imAWl '. HI. pOI't.'d allY taxe:-;I U;llion I, Illunicipal, Pl'lHl,\' other CIUl'll, UP()lIllu Canal, tilt l 'aiJwnys 01' I1l1xi lilll." wOI'k s ttl).{s Hlil l otlt(" vessel s ill till' '('I'd"l' of 1 he ('a 1111 I. :
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r-I I'-I C\l .... ---- I I <.> I I I" "J .-i -CCl I, e 1""':: @ I .... I '" .- I' II I I t )1 I I I -. 'lhF;!.C.C IiOTtCON TIVOU tilL!; --t\NCON Q!\NAL ZONe-OC"'UjJICc.l t>rl.!;;i;dent P.! .... du"r1, .... 0('1 lohe I!lthrnu.'.) NO\4.rnbcr 1906 .. I I } ( I I I I I t l I -I

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272 PilJr (Iluf Guitl' -... than those I'Ctluireu fl'om onidal .. in the ben of th(' euitcd Smie8 \.CCESS OF E:\ I PLOYES The Con-rnment of tin: l{epuulic-oLPllnamn pE'rmit Ani'. 1:1. the immigration nUll free nCi:f'I'1'> to th(' l and!< nlli l workshops of Ihe an,1 its auxili:n.r w{lrk ... of all ('tll p ioYI'f: :In l workmen o( whate\'rl' ualioll1l1ity unliel' ( OILU'flef 10 work t1pOIt 01' seeking employmen t upon, 01' in :my wi:-:c l'onnc(ted with the ::ai\ 1 ('anal and its llUXili:lI'Y wOI'ks: with their r(,blwdi,'e C;,uuiiirs, fill/I all I)ueh p el'80n s "hall he free and ex(mpt Il'om the mUil:u'Y s..-ni(:c o[ the Republic of Panama. DIPOlt'l'.\.TIOX 1;'\'1'0 Z OXE. l b e United !'itatps lIlay iUl}lOI't nt lilly lime ililo the :'laid ART. 1:':. ZOlle and l.Hlxilial'Y lnlllh, 1'1'1'(' o( (-uslolll dllties, ilnposts, taxes, or otil('1" lind without lilly rcslril'lioll", allY :1.IH1 all (hedge-s. clIJ,.\'illel"', eHI'S, II1IWhiIlCI'Y. tools, explosh'el'l, material", fmpplie::-, amI otlle-I" ,ll'tidt'" I H'(-('l>l>,u'Y alld l'oll\"(,lIiell t in eonstrUc.tioll, mainteu:lIlf'l', opcl';\lioll, l-allil<1tioll, lind protl'Nioll of the Canal :lnd auxiliul'Y \\'o]'kg, alltl ,\11 P]'()\h,iolls. mcdi('ill{,s, ('Iolhiog, sup, plies aull other things nCce .... ll1)" and ('OH\'Clli t'li t for tht olfice1"$ employes, workmen allll ];\00]'('1"8 ill IIIP :llld .'mploy or the l:nitf'd States find (01' t heir ramilil'''. It' any such urlit'!es ;l\'t:' dil'lp oSf' d o r [01' use outside o[ the ZOllO ;lUll 3t1xilhll'y land:; grllntf't\ 10 the l:nilld S t atl'8 und within the o f till' H r]'ubli(" tiw)' shall he subj('d to the same import 0 1 othel' duUcs a" l i k(' ;ll,ti(I('s imported tlndel' the law!'-o[ th Republic o[ Panama. \ '1' I UX, .\::0 tbe lH'ice 0]' i:Olll lwns:dion fol' the !ight .... l 'O\\'C]ti illltll1!'j, ART" 1-1. \,jJcges granted ill this h!1l\'('Il(ion by the R('l'ub!ic of mu to the Uniletl ::;tat.'l', tli(' GO\'('I'ulllcul of th(> t niled Stll.I(:'1'I agl 'ces io pa.y to lhc HI'IJuhli{' of 1':IIIH1ll;l tilt' --11111 of li'll million dollars ($10,000,000) in J!old coill of IIII' l 'lull'li 011 the ('x.ltange of thtll'ntifii::uioll of thi", c oll\4;.'lltion Rud al",o 1111 annual JI:1YIllf!nt dnt', the lif c of this l'onw'ntioll of I \\'() hllll{il'e,l :111,] Jifty rltou"',lIld dollul':'; (,fl;!")O,{\OO) in iike gold ('oill. h('gililling r till!' .\"t'lIr", aft('I (ltl date a(O!'e :;:"\ h I. 'l'IH' p] 'o\'i", i l1ll" of thi" .\vl il'it ",hall I,,: ill allolilion 10 all othcr bCIl('fit"<;; as:;II1't'd 1 0 Iht' H I'IHlhlic of l>an:1T1I11 u1Hlt' l tllit' ('OIl\l'ntiO ll But no dto'!;1Y 01' c!itf pr{'I\t(, of Opillioll Hude'I' Ihil> AI'j (Ie or :"\ny othel' o f tid .. (1'('a!,\' ",hallntrt'('l o1'iutPI"'U)ll t h (' full o p (' I 'alion :lml dfl'('1 of thils l'011\", Ill i(lll ill all utill'l' lt'l>I,ci:t .. JOJX'J ,'())DIISSIOX, TIll' joint j'OHlllli""ioll I'tfi'l"I { ,d to in .htidt' Y l l"hall be ('I;.r\WI', \."). lllblislutill!oo 10110\\-;: TIl{' 1-'1( ... illtnl vI" lilt, l'llitl' ll :<11<111 1I01uillatt't\lf) 1)(>1 'son", llllcillH' j'l't"sidl'lll o( Ill(' H qJlll,Ii., (,f J>awlIlw .. hall HOUriI Wlt two I WI"MJ!ll>. 11 11( 1 )o:hall prnt.,t:"01 til 11 !\ui .. iolt; 11\11 ill t:,,,,, of tli::O:lf,"I' et:, II1C'UI of lit( ( 'OllllUb..:ioll (Ily 1'1":1,,011 of Ilwil' t ,t111l11Iy tli\itlt'd in '---------

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Tit !' '1'1"1111.11 /l"ilh /'UI/II/IIII. 273 Colon Construction Company. WALTER HENRIKSON, Manage r. qt'NtJiT'\.L C01'li'iily o[ a (1\' l"mpil'c, or of lli..; Otlliltiug', tiN'linilLl! 01' cC; ll'i llg to :H'i, ili" plate "hH1\ 1)(' fillell hy lhp appnin!1m:llt nf fiUO(itl'l" pt']': ('Olllllli"'l'iioll 0\' l.y tht, ull1pire :<111111 U{' fill:l!. EX'rRADITIO)[, 'I'hl two Clon'\'1lI 1 wu t" ... hall mnk .. i.ull'ljuaj(\ Jll'od ... ion lJ," .\nT, IIi. flltlll'{' llgl'('(:Ill{'lll t'u ] fht, p11l'!;uit. ( 'llp/m'l', impl'i:;cllIlll{>1l1. d (,!E'ulion, :lnd (ll'liw'I'" \\"ithil1.thl ZOI1(' lInt\ 'HI.\ililll'" \!ludl< to the of ,II(' o f J'llIHtml1 o f ]1( ]',,0111< ('IIlIl"g't"(1 wilh (hp Nlll1mitnH'llt of C']'i!lll'S, ({'iouies 01' without ;..aitl Zt)lH', tllH I r 0 I' I he Jll1l':I':.]IS t II ; or l'f'fllg'(' (('II' a u,\' (,lIll'lo,n''] ill tl1( ('lItwl amI f o r "II 'l' s>:('I ... 01' hOL1I1(1 to pa",s throug'li til(' (.'!1I1al. whil'll 1O,1Y be iu di,:;\l '('';'" 11111 1 UP dl'h'cll to seck refuge ill saill pOl'ls, Su('h ______________________________ 1

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274 Pilot aJlll Gllide. \'e-l';:,('ls shall he exempt from anchol'ag(' aud tonnage dUNi all the part of the U<'})lIbli(' of PUllama. NEL"THALI'l'Y HliLER. 1'hc Caual when ('ol .... hu<:tC'd. lind the entrllll('C!; I hel'elo AWl' 1,0{, 1\1'1I11':\.1 in :llld fol.hall be opened upon Iht" pl'ovillt'll 1'01' by Xt'l'lioll I of Al' ti<:IC':1 of, and ill ('oIJft)J'mity with. all Ill{' of tile treaty ('Ilt(-I'('d i nto by the GOn'I'IlIllf'Ilt:-. of the I'nited ;lIH1 (;I"('llt Bl'ilaiu all Novemher 1 9, I lln 1. l'HEE THAl'SPORT. 'I'ht C:ov(','nm('nt of the Republi c o f P,HHlllHI. shall han" the AWl'. In. r ig ht to O\'O?l',ht, ('anal, its and its troops :JJ1(illllluilions of W!"lI' ill SUdl 111 fill tim('s wilhoul j)ayillj:! ,h:lI'I.!'l:'''' of lilly kin/I.. 'I'll(.' cx('mption is 10 lJl extended to t ht 1IIIxilhu'y for the of V el'MnS i n the s{>n icc oC the H c})u hlic o f P UJlama ,01' of t he pol icc f ol'ce e lla I'ged with the lioll o f I'IIb1ic Ql'd el' out:;i II' or said ",on", ;1:') well to their baggage, m U lliof \\':l.l' alld supplies, r.\XCELL.\'fIO:-;r OF EXTS'l' rNG 'J'RKA' I'f ES, If b y \'il'tue of any exi$ting' trealr ill I'('buion to the i e l'I'iton' AH'r, :!tJ. of tile TRlilll1l1S Or'J>3I1HIIlH, whl'l:eor the >;hail u'scl'llli 01' b(> a ;.:sume d II)' ih(' Rcpllhlil' of PanaU1:l, lil{'l'e ma,\' 1)(, fHly pI'i\'ileg(' 01' (:01l1'(':;iO Ii in fa\'ol' of the Go\'t' l'IIlI1ent or t hl ('it;",I'!lfl ;Uld of a lhird powel' I'elalin : to an ilitelol'cfllli(' menll<;: of cOlllmllni(':Ition, whidl ill ;l;:.c,\' of it;.: t'I'IIIS muy int'ompatiblc with the of the (:om'' lltiOll, t11( Ht 'Jlublic (If P;Ul:1l1U1 ngol'('(>"; 10 ('anc,,'1 01' modify RIICh tl'caty ill dul' fOl'IIl fol' which plll'pO";(' i1 >;\mll go;"/' to Ill(' ]low\:'1' Ihl.' I'i'tlui;.:itp notifit'ation witldlllhl' tl'l'1I10 fOl\l' 1!1Onlhs f)'OIll thf' ";lIe of thf' 1,1-(0<;('111 t'OIt,'('ulion, Hilt! in f'a:,(\ thl' contains 110 elall!-le il-; IIlOdilil'llliol,S or lUi-1I111111('lIt, the U e lJlIhli c of 1'1I11nnlll 10 Iil'Oeil]'''' its 01' alJlllllm('II\ ill :-lilch torlllihat thi'!'(' ('xl,.;1 llll." eontiil.' 1 wilh 1111' :.liplllnticlll!Oof rill' PI'C'S('ut ('oll\-(>ulion, AN'I 'EHI O l t DEnTS. (,O:\(,I,;SHION:j, E 'j'(', '1'11(' and !wh-ill'W's j!1'llIItl'(] "y 111{' RelluLlil.' of P:lIll1-. \n'r,:?1. In n io tlH' Unitt'd StaIr!; ill till' IJI'l'<'{'tiillg AI 'I1('I(' s 11I'l' 1111_ ,,' dr-,-!Otood t,O Ill' f"t'C' or nl! Hllt('l'iol' tlt'h''',li{'Il:::, Inti'll:;, 0 1 I a hi lIt ,0 r ('0 ,0 I )\1'1\ i I <'g('..; I 0 011)(,1' ( ; 0 '-: 1'11111(' n t,.;. <.'1' I'POI';It 1011 "l, II,J Il-fl h';.:, 01' III d I VIt III at-., :111 d ('011 $('( tile n 11 Y I I f I II l'l'(' silo uld n I'i St' 1111)' c"}lims Oil or till' :'1U1 pl'ivih'l-'{'s 01' olla'I'W]!,;!', Ihe t'illlllllIUI,.; I'('-_Oi"! 10 Illl' (;0\'1'1'111111.'111 of the Hr}lllblic (Jf_ PlilllIl_lHl. ILIlII 1101 10 ,lil(' l'nitrd ::italt'''' fol' :llly illdl"HllIityol' {'(lllIl'l'O-w lHell LJe l'ellUII't'd,

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TIll' Tnalll Irilh /'(/11(/111(1. 27:l HEXUiC'IATIOX 0 1'-HWIl'l'K. The R l:l,ubli( ofP:ul\ (,O lllt'art with Lwicn X. n. \\, ... c nU\\ oWIII'1 1 h,' till' Xt'\r l'a namn '('flllal f'olllIHUlY. alld any ,111.1 all other ]ight .. 01' ,:'aim .. of a !'1('lI niary llalUT '(' fll'i-;ing !IIlll e r 01' to ('C"ll!tI'"",j(lU. fll' Hl'j"illU unde r 0 1 I'dtttino to the ('olH (,,,sions to till' PlIlLllma H ai\1"(.nd ('olllIHlII\' o 01' allY cXle>n"'ion 01' IlIOlliticatiOIl 111(-1 '1'01' : :lIlll it iik.'wj.'l' ,'/lOlllll( ... "tllL fb'llls'and gl';lllts t o tllt' UlIil{'d SIah's, llf)W aud 111'1'1';.1(1<'1'. :!l1 the \'ighr-. i\ud pro p el'ty l' e::;en'ed ill th(-cOllct ........ iolJs. wlddl nlb('nri:,f' wOIII.1 belong to Paoama al or I.(:fon. tlu expimtioIJ "f I ht' It'l'm" of uiuPlyniltl ye:ws of the g l':llIted 1 0 01' I1rld b," the ahOYf"11Jt'l1ti01L1'\l !lal'ty :l ,nd COIll!I:tnie'i, lllld ;\11 right. lith', :Intl intt'rt "I wllidl it Ito\\' ha ... 01' h e l'l>n[tcr may h:\\,(', in :llId to the lanti", (,:1ual, work:<, prop(-rt," and rights held by the "aiil eompaniell, Ulldt>I "llitl t'IJIlt'"" ... iOIl", (11' llnd a c quil'(-'tl 01' to lJe acquil'l'f\ hy the l'nited Stalt,,, fl'OIl1 01' Ihl'nllg-h the New P:lnRIIl:\ Caual ('Ol1lpall,'" il\('hlllillf! an,\' pn)ptl'l." awl right.. which might, 01' way ill the fUtlll't', ('itill'r I y Lip (, (If lilllP, i'rwf('itlll'( or olhel' \\'ise, rC\'('1' 1 10 til(, H e pnhli(' o[ Plllll1llll HII'IL'I' lllly {'"nll'ad ... 01' cOll cessioll$, wilh said \\'."se, ' lui\'u.,;:nl l'anll11,ll L';1l1ll1 the P aullma Railroad ('OIl1P ;III,\', and thc Xcw Pllllllnta {'lUlal ('umpllllY, 'l'he afOl'esai ( 1 l' i glJt,,; lil1l1 Jlt'Opt'l'l,\' ,.hall !,{' awl atp (t'PC' nlH l released fro m fill,\' Jll'esent 01' I'c \ et,,.ionlll'." inl('l'(',,1 ill. 01' (!aim,,; of I-'ana. mll, a n d thc litl(' of the l'llitl'{\ *at('", thel'eto upon ('lllhlllllm:lIioll the contemplated P11l'..:!t'I,.;e hy lilt> l'llit ... o f lh,' i-(el'Hhlil' .... i't'l'ifi(ally secured under thifl tre a t.", PH O 'l'E C'I'lOX OF C .\X.U .. 1 i t should become neCl:s";UI'." al I ill\l' lO (>;111'10," arlllPoi AUT, 2:':, f Ol'cei' fol' the fit' protection of th" Canal. (11' tlf lilt' flhip:) that mftke u,,(,> of IIIP :, ) Ihe l"!litl' l ::it Ites ,.;h:1l1 II:I\'C' rill' at :llJ I i lll\',., lllld ill its disJ!l 'Plio ll to lise its p oli('c ftnd it-, Illnl !llld II11.n1l fOl'el',"; 01' 10 ( ..... tablish f O I tifi c :llions for th('::H: IHII'po: 1:\\\,,.. aUl l AR1', 2,t, h'en.tiefl of tit .. :epuhlic of l-'au:\I111l !;.11ll1l, wilhoul IhE' t'OlI-sent o f t h e L'uitcd St11ie ... litre !' all." r ig-ht of ti' l' L'uil{'l l States untIel' the present eom -eutioll, 01' IIndl'1' I1n,\' tr('aty "tipilial ion between t h e two l'ountrie,.. thftt now 01' ilia." ltel'(:'llfiel' iug the subjeC't matter or tid.!! cOIl\entioll. If the Republic of Panama shall h t"l'eaftel' el1t{:1' ,I,. ft cOlJ:-ti! u ent illto auy other govcrnment, 01' into any ullioll 01' t'lmfl,JemliOIl of s tJltes so :1:-; to mCl'g e her 01' ith lt>}wncit'lw(> in ::-IWIt Gcn'PI'II' II1cnt, union 01' l.'onfedel'Mion, the right:; of t!I(' L-lIitl't1 Illldl'l' this cOIl\'eniioll shall not be in all." l'l'sl)ed le:-"l'ned O L il1lpait'f!(1.

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276 Pilot will (;/Iir/c PANAMA HATS B. R .GDA & X v 9 Front St., nrar P H. R. Dcpot, Colon, II. P .... THE LARGEST DEALERS IN PANAMA HATS. '"VV'holesale & Retail. till ('Iassc:::; and Sizes f e r {"len, W Oll}c n an d Children. WE IMPORT DIRECT FROM MANUFACTURERS. PANAMA HATS {'OALTX(l H'L\.'j'IOXH. For Ihl' beth,]' ,',Pl'fO]'IlHUlN' o f th(> (,1lq'agclUcllis of Ihi-.: ( on AWl', 1. \"(-111;011 llllcllll till' ('lId (ff the l'flh'i('llt Pl'otc'diull of tl1<.' (':111:11 nml tlit-of it..; uClIlraiit,\",thcUon'l'llm(>nt of 111(' h' (pu1;lic-of Panallla will -.(>11 ol'}t-a"'\-10 !lu. l'uit'll St:ltC'''' lauds a,J{'1I11i,t! :11111 lIE't'''",''';l!'), fill' nayal or couliul-! :-talion,., 011 Iht' l);IC' iJit' (-oa,,1 and (m ille WI',.,h']'1I ( 'HI'iJ,lll':ln ('(HI:"! of til(' H p pulJli( nt (e l'laill I'oillh 101)(' agrce' l i IlpOH wHh tiJe Pl'(-':- po ...... ihk. III faith \\,1I1'J'(>of Ih(' 1':."lp('lil,'C' Pl t'Jl ipol P lit ial'IP'" 1111.\'('. si.!-!'IH Ill(' t'Olln'lIlioll ill tlup'il'nlt' IIlIti II:tq' hCIt'IIHtn aflh:ed LII!'ir ,; ... I'(tli\"( .... D Olll' al Iht ('ih' ,.f '''a ... hiug'IOJt Iht' .... 1h ,b\ o\" XO\ '('IlIbl'" i,l 11\(' .nHI (If nUl' !.unl uiw'lt't'lI IlHlltlt'('ll aul! tht!'t: 1011" H\y, 1'. lk:\'.\l" Y\H1L1.\. NOT BY A DAM SITE (=-'(':11) (:-i(HI) YrJl1llg 1.0('1.. Ellgillt'l'l' ( tf) hi" lIl' \\ tI (';I I I har(' ju ..,i hC'('1I qllllllt.'l'd IIp h y til(' Ill'\\" dalll, :\('\\ Hridr (loIJ1,illg :t lilll(, \rhy. Wl' su r ely wOIl'l hol\e lo gu lip IhNC; lin t by ;J Cblll sill',

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277 -The Deal Goes Through. Th e :-;:tlc of tile ranal p roPC'l lil'S were nutiwril.(,u b y th e s lwl' clioldel's flf th(' 1\cw Pall:lllla Canal ('Olllpnl1.Y 011 .. \l)rii 2:], lDOl th e instl'UIll'llt of cUllyeyaucc bcillg tlS foll ows: Xow, t]ll'rt'f(l\'l' W(', tht' Xl'''' P[llianlH Canal ('OIl1P:IH.",I"'PI'l" ";l'uted Lt," Bo awl \ Ibt'l't. Hi .... lI1lHIHIl, ill ('011-si,l('l'atiOH of tilt, I mYIll('nl Ilf f01'ly lIliliion duila!'.; ill gold ('Oill of til(> l'lIitell HIatt''"' of .\nH'I'i('l\ to ,.;ai,] ('mtll'allY OIL its 'W\ll']' 01' lielll:m,l, \OU1C'IIlPN'flMPOIl .. ly with the tll'lin'I',\' or thi:-111'1'SCllt tOll\'PYllU('(' to {!tt' {WI) 1'{'1Il'p-.Pllt:ltiv(',.; of the l'nitl"ti of Anll'Ii ":l fil',,1 aho\'(' Illf'llticlll('tl, Itlltl tho to lh('111 flf ]H'OPl'I'ty ill PlIl'i,... allli thl' (,c),tilit'all' or P:lllllma HailrOllli ,..hart's ( Ihl' 11I()P('Il.,-of til{' CPIUj)uny 1101 1m Ii{'r:;t 00' Ito i III'! \I( 1(> Iii I' t n'a S \II',\" 1" \) r t 11(> l'Olll pa 11 y i ll(ll1dd(;'pOl allli ('ollfil'lll III(' "al(', and tlo p:,\,:lIlt. Hwl a",..,i!!", tlltll:
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---.-----I .. .. I\) '-l /' CD l I I '-j -, ::: -'" -I -- :;') --, -,.. .Panama Canal O.lfices -.Panama, 3JIAtniQII .A" l trf(." til

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279 11HE BEST in COLON. Fl'iIXISHEIl m AP. UlnIEm. Electric Lights and Fine Eaths. Only One Block fro m P. R. R. Depot. App1V at "The Casket", COLON STATIONERY AND SUPPL Y COMPANY, l'a" l romlj G'),).ooo :teres o f land under the "\Vysc :?26f) uu:lclillgs i ll P:lllmnn, Col on. and a l ong the lin e o f th e (':tnnl, aut! three s t ea m e r s of ab out 2,000 lOllS eHcil. The Great Scrap Heap, Hayjl1g complet e d th e pur chase of th e c:111al prupel' ties. Lient. :\I ark Brook e wns empowered to t
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280 P ilot (/Jill Guiiie. or 'y'-l..rcls at diffcrent points :dollg' the rOlfj-six miles o f cnnal route. The contellts of these huildings ;'lUll ptrdc; \\"Oldd if sllI'end olll in 0110 pl"lc<", a :,)OO-I1cre f:ll 'lll, thl'C'l. feel (1N'\). and !e:nc ('Hough 0\,('1' for a fence twice ilS high to E'ncio!O.(' it. According to the invelltor)" of the Frellch. thi s Yn&t :lnlOUJlt of 1ll:11el'ial r e p resen teel n buok yalne of >;'D.OOO.OOO. In the I'nreilOse of til(> ('anrd this stu ff was not cOlilltrd. but .\dmil'fll Ih,\t it :111 1)( thrown in part (If the deal. Sillce (h(' \ llIcl'ir:lns look h o ld. milch of this lIlfltcl'ia l lias hecl! uisposc(l of. Tn IUOG. II deal c l ill old iron in the ('ol1l1':\(;tc<.l for two RUO.OOO ill y:titU\ while tOllS :lull tOilS hnyc h('cII going to "Xew Y or k fh b,dlast 011 the Panama H uilroad b oats. Hundreds of lllachines. ellginl's ('te .. were fOllnd ill fair conditioll. and h ayc heen macie on'}" ;wd put ill se n irc. 'rbis work h; :lbo 011 hiliHI ;j, ::K )";\\\Is 21 :-.;j eam bUllches. The r e w('re iH!Il big ]lumps of Y:l.l'iOliS rock drills. 110 ::;te;]111 winclll's 'rhC'l'c was a tloilling drill tlppamtus yalued at a horing JlI;lcilinc ;It X 1 n l'ul'i101l dredge worth alil l ntill' r whose ,,1111(, lUllS i1lto the hundrc d \!; tv ('iiI'S ;1Ilt! thero wen' :11 .\I11Nic:111 l orclllloti\'('s \ ';ll ned nt X:WO.OOO. :llld :?I:! Bl'lgi:lIl \.llul'd at of SI.OOO,OOO. In :lClditioll till'rc W('I'C a l ilt of ])l'(';Jmilll' el1gl1l(.':-'; ;\lId Ilarrow gol ngc DI'('i\ 11\ i lit lnH'I, l'\"l'I'j' foot of the la:-.;t ha \ ing :-.i IIcr IWe'1l Jlllt to good USt'. Tlt l're \\"l 'I'(. ;liso ).000 dUlIlp C;ln;. :Iud ;),000 fill' t,lI'r'ying llilt awny from lite talla!. 'I'he .1Iso illl' l udl'll the magnitict'nt ... .\Ilcon Hos-pital ('osting till' F rl'lIl'h uJlwards of thl' l l c I hflllS(,1.l 'Jt ('I istoh:!l, fiI(' Illliiding ill .I'ana",a ('ity ror \\ h,..h lhe I 'rrneh pnid lhe

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I I I -1'/10 Gnmt ScI'(lP If!'flr 281 l''si(lence of thf' Fl'l.!lIch fiSt P anRl1lil, ( n o w known as the Am 'ri(,..lll Lt'g:ltion ) which cos t S60,OJOj the gro tlllcl s ano build Igs of thp 'rau(lgn Sanitarium all b ogn nil w:ti,l) c>:.?n.OOO was s pent, and th e D i n gler rrsiden('e o n th e L a B f lca road, costin g about 850,000. It is the opinion o t!IO:"-t hu 11Ilye beell constan tl y in t o u c h with thE' pr ope rt"'-' ;I\''iu;I''' d flo m th e French compallY, that th e price the L niteu States pai d for them was way bel o w the ir actuu l vidu c at the t ime of the transfer. \ Vhen the Uuited States ca m e i nt o possessiOll, the so le contrul of canal affail's () II the Isthmu s WilS vested in tLe Dire cto r-G e n era l th e d e l ega t e of the B oar d of D i r ec tor s of th e Frenc h company i n P aris. R epo rt ing to thi s Direc tor-G e n e ral wer e chie f s o f d epa rtm ents, or bureaus havlllg to do with engineering and pl ans, accounts and cash, mate rial a.ud supplies, h ea lth a nd lands. The r e was but one se t of files, 01' pla ce of d e posit of r ecords aud this at caual headquart ers in P a uam a As th e Frenc h comp any was operating und e r a fran c hise, and was d e p e ndent f o r protection upon the sovereign government, p olice pro te c tion came of and all juuicial procee dings were, of necessity, conducted in the courts o f said government. For cases of emergency th e chiefs of section, 01' d e p a rtm ents, were eac h provided with a stand of arUlS. The Sanitary Department was such only in nam e The r e was n o atte mpt to institute any hygi e nic m e asures save such as the l aws o f the sovereign required, that is, none at all. If th e employes w e r e injur e d or sickened, they w ere care d for b y the Company's ph) s iciaus, in o r out o f th e hospital. 'rhe medical officers had n o ind epl.:!lIde nt dis crcti r)1l ot allY killd :llld the cialls wer e not obliged t o attend falllili es of e m p l oyes, al though they usually did SII. First on the Ground. 'fhe first party tn 011 the I s thmus in connec tion with the present undeltaking consisted of Major William I I

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---. -. 282 P ilot mal Guide. r I r COLON. PANAMA. largest Best Stocked liquor Store on the Isthmus. PROVISIONS, BAR SUPPLIES KND TOBACCOS. Agents (01' U r('willf, jl;socialiou St. J .Allli", :'.l u ,)l oot. & ('1,lIllllo u '!j \Y hit!-Sea l C hallll)Hg'llc.l 'jllll\tl ian (;111 h i lsoll '8, 1 1 U 111 c r's G fI .. 'CU J: i \'el', :wd ],It. Yerutlll Fi", .. Whiiikil's .. --Dnffy !! Pur" ""alt W h is k y.-D C L Oltl 1'01\1 Gin al\\ l Scotch W hi l;ky .... 'J' cll nllllt's XX-X St ou t Hnd Palo Hoy al Jklfnllt Gil1g"'r Ale, n nd 1\.Qla.-llarie nrizlIl tl & Hogt'r.l 30n. lcnux.Fin (:st Liqll(ol \rs .... ncfrigOr:ltor Co. WH!lhhurnCroshy Co's }'\our. CALL for BUOW E ISEl t "KING OF ALL BEERS". A ddress: Post O ffice Box 53 COLON. or P ost Office Box 9 7. PANAMA. M Black an d Lieu!. Mark Broo k e, U. S. Oorps of En-. ginee r s A C. Harper as c ivil engineer, and J\l r Harry D R ee d as clerk and s t e nograp h er. 1 h e party r e ached Panama on April 16 1903, o\'er six month s boforo th e sece!-ision, a nd near l y a year b e f o r e the proc l amation of the ca n a l trea t y 'l'h e ir m i ss ion wa s to k ee p tab o n the work and m e th o d s of the N ew Pa.nama Canal ComprlllY. : M ossl's H arpe r alld R ee d h ave l ) ecll with the canal enter pri se ove r since The f o rm e r i s now R esident w ilh headquarte r s a t Co r oza l whilo lho latter has fille d lh o posili on o f Exocu ti\'o S ec retar y f o r o\'or three years p ast. Dr. O laud e O Pi erco h as th e hOllor o f b e ing t h e fil"s t sa n i tary r e pr esentativo o n the g r o und as well a s the firs t t o a rriv e If) an offic ia l cap acity a ft e r it w as k n ow n that a trea.ty woul d b e negotiat e d with Panama. Dr. Pier ce wa s d etac h o d fr o m th o U S Marine Hospital serv ice at K ey V V est, Fla.., an d sent t o th e I s thmu s to make

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I Pitsl m Ihe GrQUNd. 283 a s p ecia l r e port on sanitary conditions H e arr i \ 'e d at Colon D ccel llb e r 31, 1!)03, lln d for lh e foll o wing six o r e ight month s made his h eadquarte rs at PiUluma. Dr. is 1I0W Quaranti n o Offic e r at Co l on. rrhe n ext ill o rd e r wa s Dr .. 1. P. P erry, ahiO d etached frail! .l\iarin e H ospit:t1 duti es f o r temporary Renice 011 the r sthmus Dr. P ClTY arrived F e b y (j, ] 904 a nd wa s stationed at Co lol1 for se vcral months On the o r ganizat i o n of th e D epartment of Sanitatio n he b ecame conn ecte d with it, and n ow h o lds tl1C pORitioll of Chie f Qual'antill{, Offi cer, wit h headqunrte rs at Panama. The fir s t larg c pf'rlllanent p a rt y t o al'rivE' wa s h e ad e d by : Ma jor-Gene r a l George 'V. and co n sis ted besi d es of Maj o r Black, Ernest IJaga rd e jr., the fir s t Exec utive SccreLlry o ( tbe Ca n a l ZOIlPj Eugc n e C. r:r obey, Paymast er, U. S. Navy; Richard L. Sutton, D., U S. Nav), ; M ason E. l\iit c hcll s tf'llograph e r j George R ey n o ld s Shunt o n Oharles L. Stockelb e rg and J ero miah Co rcoran. i'L1c party arrived Ma y 17, 1904, and its appearance co n slituted the i nitial step in th e organization o f th e work und e r Ame ri ca n manage m ent. Paymas ter Tobey not only assumed the dutie s of Disbursing Officer, but a t olle tim e was ill c harge of tho Material di\ i sioll, Rm'e nu es, and POSt8. In fact, h e and ThIA.jor-General Davis ha.d pra c ticall y the rUllni n g of tbings for a month or so. 'rhe r e w e re a lot o f r agge d e nds to draw together when the can a l was taken over from the Fre n c h and with l ack of sufficient and a d equate h e lp it wa s nip an d tuck with these two JUeli for one whil e, to keep matters running s moothl y The :MajorGeneral acted as "Managi ng H e pre senta.tiyc" until C hief Enginee r ,Vallace arrived, whil e rJ'obey co ntinu e d in th e perf0I111anCe of h is multifariou s dutiC's until Paymaster George C. Schafe r came to r elie v e him of the di s bursing eud, nud Col. Tom. Cooke arrived to tak e c harge of rev ellues and posts. Owing to th e pressure of work, p ay days at that p e ri o d were lon g d e ferred, the l o ngest on rec ord for th e gold mell if the memory of the writer -.

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I P ;lo! 01111 (;lIidl' -h ping in w h e u t herE' was, t'liotiting d o ing" Iliitil the 17th of tile mo n i h lfowc \ e r. r v( r.Y \)0<1 y aC(,f'ptRd t.he gOt ,rl-ml tu It' d Iy (' Ilr) ugh, t11f) 1111 eli of )JPllll:icsS l r 3cr u t s up [ I t "\ V ill t h e hosI it: I p aj'l l w,'l'king lip ''''.\(' i b /n{nt n' l'lIl :11,3' wa its o n a l imit, a wl tha t iu dc.l.nlse d Oo : olllhiau CUi i elLey E. C To!'!'), w as Su11man \ \ h o th o ught i t mi ;Iit b o somo r eligi o us cere mony, took off his ha t nlld od ull co \ 'erctl ill the h o t s u n until t h e rel l flag h a d pa;sp.d. }Ie evide utly th ought i t host to he on lhe safe s i de -Panama Star & Herald in 1871. .. ---------------. I

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,--------_._--------------285 JOHN CHONG W I N G & Co., CULEBRA, CANAL ZONE. c:neafers in Chi ne s e and Japanese Silks, Fancy cArftcles, Etc. Efc. COMPLETE STOCK OF PfWYISIONS. FINE WINE S AND LIQUORS THE nEs' r STORE OF ITS IHL\'D IX C;ULEnn.\. REASONABLE:. WE S OLICIT YOUf\. PATRONAGE. New Commission in Harne ss. On R, 1904 l'residen t H oose\'elt i ss ued th e I e U e r appointing the m e mb e r s of th o first com m iss i on t o b e comp ose d of R ear-Admira l J ohn G. 'Walke r United States Chairman. l\l ajol'Gcnoral George \Y. D avis, United States Army; Villiam B a r c l ay Parsons, \ Villiam H. Burr, Benj a min nL Harro d Carl Bwa l d Gl'lIlisky, civi l eng i neers, and 1 \11'. Frank J H ecke r. l'he PrcsidC'nt's c h arge to t his commission read s i n part as f ollows:-" r lJav e appointed yo u as the Commission w hich is to und ertake the most important anr} also the most formidabl e en gineering f ea.t that has hitht>rto bC'eu attemptell. Y on are to d o a work t he doing of which, if ,>;ell done, will reflect high honor upon thi s natioll, alld, wht>n done, will be of inculclll:tble b e n e fit, not only to this na tion bllt to civilized mankind Y o u hav e been chose n I Hll'ely becaus(' of your pt>l'son al and pro(e8sionall'eputation s for integrity and ability. You r epl'esenttho whole country, You reprt'se n t ntither sect ion nor party, .... The plans are to be t"3.refully mad e with a j ew of the n ee ds n ot only o f the m o m e nt, but of tho f uture. The ex penditures are to be f:uperdsed as rigorously as if they w c r e being made fOl a. pri vate co rporati on depend ent for its profits upon the rE:turn s. You are to secure the best talent this cou ntry cun affo r d to meet the conditions cI'cat c d l}y every llced wbicb may ari se, I Tht> mcthods fol' ac hi eving the r esults must b e yOUl'S. Wbat thi s n ut ion will insist upon is that results be achieved

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, l\) ()) .. ; .. ()) ,I II Ii ., oAdmini .. ft-alior. .!JJuilding-Culebl'a, Anama, 1 ... ;_ ....... ,..'77. 'PAIt .. "0.., 7" ._-----------------------------------------------,---------

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New Comm;ssiO'1 iIJ H arness 287 The Commiss ion h eld its first meeting Itt W as hington o n lIfar c h 22, 1904 anll immedia t e l y planned f o r trip to tho Isthmus to s tudy the condit ions o n tbe spot. It aHived at Colon on April 5, ]904, and establis h e d provisional headquart ers i n the old D e L osse p s mansion on Cristobal Point. During lts visi t the Commiss i o n occupie d itselE with a stuuy of the plans and metbods o f work, as tben carried on hy the New P anama Canal Compa n y an d with an examination of the physica l con dition s of the pro p o sed ca nal route. At the time of th e Oommission's visit, th e only w o rk in progross was the excavation of Culebra cut. Tbe outfit h e re consiste d o f a few French s te a m ex cavators and dump trains, and n f orce o f about 700 men engaged on the work. Although s m all progress was h eing made, the Commission d ee m e d it advisable to conti nue the employmellt of the existing force until a bett er o rgani z ation coul d be effected. The Commission's invest igatio ns d e veloped the fact that while under M. de Less ops anel the New P a nama Oanal Company a l arge amount of study was done o f an accurate and scie-ntific k ind, new and extended surveys w o uld hav e t o h o made by reason of the diff e r c nce of the standpoin t s from which tbe w o rk waS approa c h ell twentyfive years ago with to-day. This, to a large extent is duc, to the immense increase of dimensions of the waterway illand e d by the ships of to-day and the near future. 'I'he Commission returned to the States on April 29, hav ing decided tbat the first step in field operation s should be the organization of survey parties to examine furth er int o certain problems of canal construction with which it was confronted. The Commission was received very cordially by th. Panama Goternment officials and se'feral fun ct i ons were held To provide against contingellcies, the party brnught along a large stoc k of mineral wa te rs and also, it is re ported, a number of zinc caskets. The latt e r howev e r were not cR.lled into requisition

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..................................................... "GEM OF THE PACI F IC," ....................................................... Ideal Spot to Sp end your Sundays and Holidays. Battling. Sigh.lSeeing, al1d a General G oe d Time. WRl'rE :t>l fil:fJ:: f b:t> t .... TJ HEG.uW1NG OR SEE J J 4..., 4=) V IT"i-I "iii EXCU HSIONS No 111 Nort.h Avenuej Getting Down to Work. TIlf' clIp;ineering work of the C Olllmission h a d its b eginning ill th e organ i zat ion of five ellgincel'lllg I'al'ties, eac h in c.ilal'gc o f a enginecr Tho first of these engi n eering partics saile d for th e Isthmus ahout the middle of ilI ay, 1 90 4, and th e remainder followed suon after. One party w as assigned to making surveys for proposed harb o r impr oveme nts at COIOIl, another to m aki n g investigat ions and borings ill th e vicinity o f Gatun, a third t o conducting s imilal' investig a tion s at Bohio the fourth a nd olle oC t h o J al'gest parties put in the field, to m aking sun'eys for a. Jlossihl e dam at Gamhoa, and t h e fifth and l agt [or d e signing of a waterworks and sewer S\ystem for the cities of Pan:tma an d Cololl. On May 5, 1904, ilIr. Johll F. W a lla ce was ap p o int ed Chief Engine e r at a salary of p e r anllum, to tako effec! J lIlIO 1. AI 1'. O W all ace arrived on the I .t1l11111s J nne 24:1 reli eving i H ajOl'.Genel'al Davi s of all WOI'I-:: in cOnllection with ellgineering ope rations. At that timo t h oro were vCl'y f o w s uitable rcsidences n,.\'ail aule, alld during the greater par t of his cOllnectio n wit h t h o COlllmission, h e occupie d lhe thl' cestol'Y buildillg ill now the h ome o f th e America n L ega tion. rrh e attention o f lhe Chic[ Enginecr during the re mn-illdcl' o[ tho year H)Ol was pl'ill('ipally confine d to su pen'i s ing tho work of th e fichL _pa l'ties, to ascertaining what I

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I COtii/I!1 DOi ell to Work. 289 w'" the Fre n c h co mpany had l eft of va l uo, alld cond u cting ex p c rim onts i n ClI l c bl'a cut wit h a view o f tHriving at th o cost of {'xcavatioll p e r c ubic yard. 'l'h e work o f t hi s peri od may b e said t o have beo n wholly pre parat ory. A start was mad e 011 tho P a n a m a watC'l'wol'ks pro j ect, alld work was commenced on a few now building s for C'lUployes. It at oncc b eca m e nec essary to piacCl lar ge or d e r s f ol' materi.ll, and th e s lown ess with whic h tll080 wero filled was a source o f co n s iderabl e dissat isfact i on to the officia l s 011 the I s thmu s In order to r e l ieve thi s situatioll mu c h ma t eria l was purc h ase d in the local market especially i n the lin e o f i 1 u i ldi llg ma.terial s Some Early D rawbacks. Employes com i ng OOWIl wer e obligerl to fill(1 quart ers a s hest the y co uld. The Adnllni s tration Building in Panama Eor th e first year an d a halE was the gen e ral office h eadquarte rs, engi n ee ring sani t atioll and everyt h ing e l se, and large numbers oE empl oyes wer e co nstantl y ill Panama' This influx had the imm ediate effect oE raisin g t h e price of r e nts and at one time a r oo m that wouldn t rcnt ill N e w York C it y for more than $5.00 per month wa s hringing 820.00 h erp.. Salaries ill 1904 were o n a much l ower scale than at the p resent tim e, the :.veragc for clerks being about S100 per m onth. The t e nants of r oo m s had to pay for the i r own wate r, and as the only meth o d of gntting it at that timC', es p ec i a lly during the dry seaso n was from the aguadoHs, or street. water JJeddl ers, it cost quite a p elluy, parti cularly if o n e i ndul ge d i ll the daily luxu ry of It bath. Water g e n e rall y retail e d for fiye ce uts go ld for five gallons, but as the dry season advanced, and tbe wells o n the o u ts kirts o f the city bcgan t o get low, the price ro se, unti l th e article, includin g the lu gg i ng up a flight of stairs, sold f ot' as high as 1 5 ceuts gold p e r fiv e gHllolIS. Anothe r st
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290 P ilot lIlId G uide 2.5 000 PAGES THIS I S WHAT THIS EDITION OF The Pj/ot and Gujde. AMOUNTS LARG E S T LATION OF ANY BOOK EVER PUBLISHED ON PANAMA. Advertiser s S houl d T UITlbl e r o l h e s e Fact s on th e side were n o t prepare d to he pl ease d with the seven o'dock coffee of th a t beyerage and bread, wit h an egg if you aske d for it, and ins i))t e d upon it, and some times fruit. The mon o ton y of the cooking r o utine i n time t oo pall e d up o n the It was simply a matter .. of math e m atica l ca l cula tion t o figure th e Ul9 1lU a h ea d Ice at five cen t s gold p e r pound, and on l y a l imite d supply at tbat, was too costly an article to b e supplied hy t h e k ee p e r a t eve ry meal. It is true, the latter h a d his or h e r troub les; a n d th ese w ere n o t a l ways g i v e n pro p e r consideration. E\' ery housewife on the Isthmu s knows the senantgirl probl e m ill tJ1C not a mluke r to wha t it is here ThC'se and kindr e d dra wback s tog e ther with the "quiet" lif e c r eatRd in the employes a longing for a r eturn to the" Resh p o t s o f Egy pt", and during th e first year of th e canal in A.merica n hands, about erery boat t hat br o u g h t a batch o f lIew employes took anothel' load back. E s p(cially was this so when th o f es t i e st<.'golllyia. bega.n to get b u sy During the year 1904, there were comparati' e ly}ew cases o f yellow [e\,er; not e llongh to cause a l arm. f).'he rc W ilS a s m all outbrea k in D ecc mbrl' o f that ycnrJdurings w h i c h :Mrs. Seager, wife of th e ('hief e ngincer's pl'iYatc sec r elary f e llyictim. 'l'his caused a fceling o f gloo m over th e A m el'ican col ony, but as th e r e wcrc but few acl ditionu l cases )10 unduo excite m ent WflS ca u sed. 111 Apri l ilnd 1905 and on up to Septembel' of that year, the co ndih9 ns

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291 alllong the AnlC'ricnn C'lllployes had all tbe of ;1 pllllic One of the principal SOurces M infection during th at period was tho Administrati o n Building ill Panama in which two 01' tilreC' hUlldrccl were thell employed. )r. O .. l:1(:kSOil, Supf'nising Architect, fwd R. H. \\'('st, Auditor. wC're counted among the ,ictilliS. During the height of th e seart' some of th e had it working force lwaibblf'. Ilot from hut because of d es('I'liol1 'rhe honts left Colon crowded 01\ 0\'('1')" trip. and many a Olle tr)ok stCCl'flgo pnsB:agc mthC'l' th a n wait for the next Y{'sse!. Then' \\'e re two or throe case's that resulted fat ally whel'o employes hilt! been 011 th e I s thmll s 1('55 thnll ten lIay s. 'l'he morc harden ed sort to ok .1 huge delight at this time' in r ctailing tcrl'ible for the e d ificfltioll of the scared newcomer, A ('ilse is ccll1ed to mind whero two you ng m('n uni\'e(l 011 the Isthmus on the morning of a certain day and reported for duty; sent in their resignations in lhe nJlE'rnoon, and returneu to the States by the bCl(1, t lea\jng the day f o llowing. They lost 110 tim e in geLtillg out. It became necessary :it th is juncture in to r e establish tbC' working m orale t o m ake a dcciLlcd increase in salaries, :lS the thousands and thousands of fairy stories printed in the States lwgnll to h,l\"e its effect on Lhe efforts of the Commission to maintain the persollllel. l\[ost of the appointmcnts of this period specifie d that quarters would be prov ided, but as the COlllmission was unable to comply with the provision, commutation was allowed em ployes, at first eight per cent., :111(1 later fifteen per cent. of their monthly s:lial'ies. Employes and members of tbeir families were at first allowed the reduce d rate of $15, fat' steamship passage New YOl'k t o Colon. This was raised:1 Iew months late]' to and afterwards reduced again to $:20 whC're it stands at present. Old Commission for Sea-Level Cana l. The engineering committee of the 'Valker OOlllmission consisting of :JIessrs. Burr and Parsons visited the rsthmu ;

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292 POnt m/(l Gu ide l TLF"'CN A La J1!f.ejo l' .Alellicina pLl/'a los E.A1PEINES. D e venta e n l a FARMACIA CENTRAL, Avenida Central No. 130. e:-.rl y i n J 90f>, UncleI' a rf'solutioll of t h e M aj. Gell. D avis, t11C Il GO\' CrllOr o f th e Calla l ZOllO was mad e a rnC'mber of th e committee during its s tay 011 the Isthmus. Afte r holding sess i o n s almost daily f o r severa l weeks, the committpo met and pre sen ted a ff'p ort ill favor of a sea leve l callal which i s summed up in tJlC following: -RESOLVED, That this committeo appl' ovtl and recommend fo!' ado ption by the Commission a plan fol' a sea leve l c anal with It bo ttom width of 150 feet, and a minimum depth o f water of 35 feet and with twin tidal l ocks at ) [ il'afiores,wllose nsablll dim e n s ions f;:hal\ be 1 ,000 feet long a nd lOO feE't wide,at n total estimated ('ost of $230,500,000 Such estimate includes all allowance for administratio n, enginee r ing, sanitati on, and con tillg encies, amounting to $38,450,000, but without allow \ nce for interest ( luring constructioll, expense of Zone Govcroment, o r collatel'fd costs, and wate t s upp ly, se w e r s, 01' of Panama Ot' Col on whi c h last items al'O to htl repaid by the iuhabi ta.nts of those ci ti es, '1'0 the committ ee's conclus i ons, an estimate 011 three types of canal was s ubm i tted by Chief Enginppl" '" allnce, o n e being {or a canal with a s ummit l evel at GO feet o l ev,.ti o n to cost $178, 013,406; another wit h s um mit l eve l "t 30 feet e l evatio n t o cos t and th e third the sea lev.1 type, to cos t $230,:;0 0,000 of flhove est imnt es included pl' obable cost of COllst1'l1Cting a breakwater a t Oolo n figured at $6,500,000. committee set forth that a sea l e v e l c ana l woul d furni s h <\. waterway with n o restriction t o navigati on, and w hich ro uld easily be enla r ge d by widening and d ee p e ning at any time i n th e future to accolllmodate an increased traffic, wit.hout any incollvenienc e to the s hipp ing USillg it.

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293 whereas n. l ock cana.l would h e:1 pe rm a n o n t restrictio n to the volume of t r affi c and size of s h ips that u sc it. The additiona.l cost or a sen-Ion') canal OYO I' that of n canal with locks w it h a s ummit l evel uf no feet above moan tid e was $;;2,462,000 01' lUorc tl"." the estimated cost of a l ock ca n a l with il sUlillnit l ove l Sf) f ee t above mea n proposed b y th e f Ol'lN' l' l s thmian Ca n a l Commission. R e f erring to th e pro po sed dam at Gatun, th e COIDmittee r e port e d that, tl 'nolO sur\'eys and examinations which hav e b een m a d e i n regar d to a p ossib l e d am site acro ss tho Chngres R iver at Gatlin s h ow that s u c h a. structure is 1Iot feas ible. 'I'h e width of th e fioor of th e valley at that point is about 5, 000 f eet, and two h o rin gs m a d e at what appears to b e tho most f a vorabl e sectio n p e netrat e d to a d e pth of 172 i feet and 1 39.2 fee t below sea-level r especti\'e ly, without finding b e d r ock. Othe r ex amination s and b ori ngs hav e :llso been m ade a t o th e r sectio n s of th e C hug-r es yall ey where a. d a m s it e seeme d po ss ible. b e tw ee n Gatull and Bohia bu t with equally unfavorabl e r esults. It is dear the refore tLat it i s not feasibl e to co nstru ct a d a m ac r oss the Chagres H iver at any point lower down i n its cou r se th a n at B ohio." /I The borin gs alo ng th e sites pro p osed for th e dam a cross the C hagl'cS near Bohia h:wc s hown th a t b e d rock is deeper th a n has been s upposed at all th e sites con temp l ated 'I h e greatest d e pth to roc k b o th at the Fre n c h site and on that tentativel y pr oposed by th e F o nn e r I sll,mian Canal COlUmi!:is i o n i s about 158 feet b e l ow sea l e v el. ..... These re s ul ts indicate greatly increase d diffi cu l ties in the construction of any dam in th e vicinily of B ohia HOW AE30UT IT TODAV? The Panama market is n ow abundantly s uppli e d WiUl fruit) Y egetabl es, eggs) fish, string b eef, a lm ejas, o ld w o m e n nak e d c hildr en, J ohn Chinamon bad odors a nd hungry d ogs Th e Colombian E agle r ejoices outside Panama Star & H erald in 1875.

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.'lFa;ns hau/Ji'g the excavations ./i-om J Culebra Cut-:J>anama) 9.tlllnIlQn...:4muic tln A-fl..J!91. ......... .... .:Adllutllins -*JL;iTgu .;ff ,p,' tflKow.,k; -, c .... '" --0 ---. I '" I

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, .i/lelJll /lilf ,11(' l k.'it Silt', 295 Importer, and W f.oles ale and W,.efail C[)e afer in Groceries Commi s sio n 8Merchanf Erpo rfe,. of 8{ali and -1 T iroli.' Old Commission Disba n d e d u IH.:t ame says S ccrchll'y Taft in his :tll lllla l report for 1 DO,1. :dul'ing thr month s sl1('cre ding t he appointm ent of the first that the b o dy of se 'ell m e n as o rgan ized W:'IS n ot all effective f orce for doing

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296 Pilqt aI/II Gllide. t.he work r equire d ill the cO!lstruction o f th e canal. 'The m embe r s of the COllltllissi o n th clUseh "es agreed that as constituted, good results cou l d lIot be e xp ec t e d from it. Y ou (Presidf'll t H ooscvclt) linel s ubmitt e d to C o ngr ess during lhe winter of ] 9045 a r eco mmendatio n f o r an alli e ndm en t to the law b y which you shoul d b e giYeJl a fr eo hand in the numbe r o f agents to h e sel ecte d b y YOLI fat' tho work which the act of i t m and a tor y upon you t o p e rform and illformrd Congr<.'ss th:lt th(: method of co nstrll ctiolJ b y a COlllmi:isioll of SCYCH was clumsy and ineff e ctive. 'rho H o u se of H.epl'csclltat i\'C'1:l gnH"l Ihe request e d in a bill which it son t to tht:' :'olctla te. Th ere the hill lUo t determined oPPoBii.i on, nnd in the s h o rt sessio n it was CIl tirely possible f o r it s enemie!ol to d e f ea t it. I t bcccllUe yery apparent tll a t radi ca l acti o n \\3 S necessary if Letter work was t o he sC'cIIJ'ed. H y your d irection, in J[al'ch, 1 905, 1 request e d th e r es i gnation o f the t.hen callal commissioners. whi c h were a t once tendercc1' as well as rhief Engineel'j H e ar.Admi ral 1Iordeeai 'II Endicott P t). Nayy; Brig. Gen. Pet e r C H ains, LI. H. Arlll y ( r el ir e d): Col. Oswal d H. Em t, Corps of Engin ee rs, U. S. A rmy, ;.lIul B enja min.1\1. Harrod. Tho sabries wer o fixC'd at .. jOO f o r eac h memb e r p e r annulU, th e C h airillall ill n ,ddition t o receive th e sum of H.1I1ll1iJ.lIYi the Chipf i n('er, Fil 7.500 :lllilualiy,and th e (:o\"orllo r r the Call,1 al1l1ually. rrhe firs t m eelillg of thi s COlllllli!S:o)ioll wns held April :3, lno,,>, alld an cx('('utin! cOlll1llilt('o nppoillte
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---297 r h a r ge o f th e e n gineeri n g and w(ll'k o n th e J s thlllll S whil e GO\'e rnol' wllO succee ded U e n D ,wis, assum e d cOlltrol o f th e Z one administl"l tivc function s and th o sanib llioll work. wit h Col. Gorgas ill direct ch:uge of th e l atter. :;U r ::->1101lt8 drafte d into sCI'\'ice to assist him in th e reor g ani za tion of tJw \Vashingtoll offirc, Col. Edwards fOl'lllerly Chie f of th e BUl'eau of I llsu l a r Affail's ; David ,V. R oss; General PUl'cha s ing Agent at asnl:\I'j' of S lO,OOO p el' a.nnulll and E. S. B enson Auditol') at the sam e ,alaI'Y Wallace Quits the Canal. The rc sig n atioll of Chief En gi1leer \V allaec came l i k e a c l n p o f thunder out of no clear s k y 1t was remotes t fr o m the th o u g ht s o f anyone ill allY way connected wit h th e under b k illg from th(' P r e sid e nt down. \Vhilo i t gen o rall y kBown that h e W
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I I 298 ------ FOREMOST PHI{RI :ACY IN THE REPUBLIC of Y. F'RECI.A.DO &::; Co. Avenue 13., o Eisht.h Stre.""t, Panar=o.. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. i "Prescriptions 6arefully aod Promflly GompounJed by Graduale Phumacisls.<. BRANCH S I'ORES: P i ('.)r An, I:!th .. a11ama S;lu lll Ana PLtr.!I Post Of"fice Box: No, 71. Telephone No 44 would n o t go back to th e Isthmus nt all. J g:wc 1\[1'. II" allace a full opportunity tc, staIr all thp reasons that actua.ted him in but this is the only 0110 he mentioned. : It i s quite probable Ihat thp quo tion o f hrallh enlered considerably into l\Ir. \r nlli.lccs tlec isioll. At the tinw h e returned fr o m tho Slate'S yellow fe\ cl' had hren u prell y bri s k 1'01' !-:cn'l'ni mouth s :ll1d the pros peets f o)' its nhntemcnt did !lo t l ook P:lI'tit'l1iari,r \rhile' 011 th r ) 11'. \\'allilC'c COlltillll:llly g'lIanlc d possibi lity of il1fcdioll. H i s I'CSillel1cc was th(' fir s t t o be screencd: :lI1d c \ "er." p oss ihl(' prccaution blkcl1 1.1) 1)J"c\'cnt tho introd u ction of th e disc:lsC by m osQuito infection" ,fl'. 'Valloe.s pla c ,' 'I1S filled wilh o ltt l oss of t illle lI y the appOinLIllC'llt o f 1\1 r. J(lhn Ii'. tC'\ "CIIS" nil ('xp N i. 1 '11('('(1 railr oa d mall, \\ h o was o n tll(' (.""0 o f
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299 til(' (;On'nlIlH'IIt. :,\fr. Ht('\"{,us lllTivcc1 011 till' 011 luly:?7, 1!)0;; :wd il1llllC'riiatriy took Ill' the work "here his I ll'('d('c('!'sor Iwu left fliT Engineering Operations S uspen ded \ ncl' til(' ,islt (Ir tilt' (;ollllui,,!<.inn to the' rc:tilmlls ill .Tilly :111(( \ ugllst. I!HJ.i. it. 1 )('(':1111(, ('vitlclil that two things must he done heforc ill :111 engineering way could he cXI't'ctrd One "as the propel' housing of employes, ;lIltl the otli('I', the illlpro\'cmelit of hcalth ( 'oliciitiOIiS. 1"1 IIlight he J:o:aid th;1I fit this jUI1CtUl'C: the formrl' WaS the ilion' impol'tnn t as it in l'l'alily d o\'cbli l cd i nto the o th er. it hcing sl'lf'(lvidcnt that conditio!!,; woul d improve immediate'l), modern. wl'lI\"('nlilat!"u qU;\l'lcrs were fur nis h ('d. The recognized that this prcpara tl)l'), work the tin .. t ('sselltial, and ordl'red a p:lltia l of (,lIgillC'cring-operations. (tuitc a lIumhel' of 11IC'1I were hack" ith the information that as soon as i:-: was dccici('d to reCOllllllence work (.\11 a large scal e t hey woul d he n ot ified J t was :It t his time that pi ails \\'('1'(' mlltie a l a rge nlllllbel' of qU
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gi n e e r, w h ose o b s cnatioJHi on t h e t o pograph y a.nd c h arac t e ri s t i c s o f the callal t e n i tol'Y, n ow in bo o k f orm, arc yaill a bl e; p S t(>(t1'llS hydrau l ic e n ginee r of H os t o n ; J osep h Ripl ey, at on o tim e c h ief e n ginee r o f the S oo CalIa l a lld a fterward s e mployed b y th e I s thmi a n C a nal Co m m i ss i on a s l o c k expert; H e rm a n Schu ss l e r I s h a m Hando l ph o f Chicago Drainage calla l fanw ; \ V H e nl' y Run i e r, chie f engi n e e r (If the l\I:l1lcbest el' ship ca n a l represe ntin g t h e B r itis h Gove r n m ent; Eugen 'rincauzel', c hi e f e ngin ee r o f the can a l at ]{iel r epresenti n g the Germ a n Gov c l'Ilm ent; A d o l p h e G u e r a rd civi l ellgi n e e r r epre s e ntin g the Fre n c h G-oyernmcnt; Edouanl Quellelln ec, cons u l t i n g e n ginee r of t h e S u ez C a lul.l am I .T. 'V. \ V elc k e r engi n ee r a nd con struc t o r o f the N orth S e n can a l r e p r e s enting the H olla nd G oye rn m e nt. Board failed t o r e a c h an u n a n i m o u s agree m e Jlt and o n J anua r y 1 0 1 906 pres e nt e d two r e p orts, th e fir s t a m a j ori t y r e port, sig n e d h y e i g h t m e mh e r s, o f wh o m fi, e w e r e t h e r epre s en t a tiv es o f f o r eign go vernm ents, fav o rin g a sea-I eye I canal : a nd t h e 01' m i n o r i t y r e p ort, s ign ell b y fiv e m e m b e r s, all ill fa\' o r o f a l oc k can a l a t an e l el"atio n o f 8 5 feet. r h e Isth mia n Can a l t o w h o m these r e p orts w e r e s u bm itted for consi d e r at.ioll m alic a r e p ort to th e Secr etary o f W a r o n F ebrua r y 51 1 906, olle m e mb e r d isse ntin g ill fav o r o f t h e l o c k canal r e co mm e nd e d b y tbe m i nority r e po r t o f th e Advi so r y Board The dissentin g m e m be r C ivil Enginee r Endi cott, U. S N., submitte d a m i nority r e p o r t i ll favor o f t h e s e nI erel pla n A cco mp a nying th e Co mmiss i o n s r e p o r t was a s tatem ent from C h i e f Engi n ee r Ste v c n s r eco m m e n di n g the a d o p tion of tllC lock -ca n al plan. Con gress Dec ides for a Lock Canal. ':I:lle r e p ort.;; w e r e b('i'ol'e COllgl'ess from F e br u a r y 19, 1 9 00 until Benl' th e d a l e o f ad jo lll'llillc u t 011 .1tIllO 3 0

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COII{JtC&J D ecides fOj a Luck PROSPERO PINEL PABLO PINEL .... o f Deal e r s in rearl s and Commissi o n Mer c ha nts. I IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS. No. 11 l\'ORT I 1 J\.VEl\'"UE. POST OFFlUE nox: 113. 1 V06. On Juue 21. t he Senate by a v o te of 36 ayes to 3 1 Jloes pass e d the act d ec reeing the construction of a l ock cana l of the genera l type pr oposed by the mino rity of th e Advi s\lry B oard The H ouse o f R ep r ese ntatives concurred, witho ut divisioll: o n June 27, and on Jun e 29, 1906, th e act becam e a law thr o ugh th e a pp rova l o E th e Preside nt. Wbil e tb e pa ssage oE th e ac t set at r est th e uncertainties that t o som o extent bad existed hitherto, and enabled the engin eering forces to procee d on a deinile basis, it is doubtful that muc h h eadway could ha\"e been mad o up to thi s time, outsid e of Cul e bra cut, for l ack of preparedness in o th e r dir ec tions. By tbe middl e of H106. the c louds surrounding the s auitary borizoll h a d w'11 nigh disappeared, amI considerahl e advancement h a d heen made towa r d furnis hing quart e r s f o r cmp l oyes, b ot.h gold ;)lId sil"cr. Unllcl' Stevens, the rather chaotic s tat e of affairs that marke d the end of the fi l'st Comm ission had been r educed to a well-defined sys tem, anrl things had b egull to

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:lJas OhispoCut. Conal Zone .Panama. ., ..... $tJ .,n; otr ,:rI,,1I!'''''UIn of:P.R.Jfl. :JIgutq/ .BuJ.H1I ..JIl.1J..mkcn u ( .. w o I\) "t! 0 .,. :;:, -q) --. .-". '"

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303 -' -""'" w o rk milc h m o r e f.illloothl y :\Ld .r rial nnd s upp l i e s wcr e h eing ha n dle d w i th a. of PnJlIlptllL S S I w l \;:1I( WII ill l ;l l'li\.'1' d o l n : T Ill! 011 t.1i: 1';lIlroild a l s o hpg;lll to illl-111'0,"C'. At (,UC t illlC' ill InO," it look nlil h e \ra y fI'0l111hl'{,C' \\cl,I,::.; to t WII lIIontiJ s t n gd, a ( ol1 .... ignlllcnt. H eJ'ns s th e 1:..111-IIl1t S 1'1'0111 tulol!. w hich t.lll s r d a S t Ol' ilI of prof<':41 1'1'0111 t.he \n(";1i m(,l'cllali ls. fl'he d e l a y dit! not oc(,1I1' ill tll(, 11';111 -si t :ll;roSl-:. hilt "': IS attrihllt ahlc t.0 :III f' IlUJ'lI I{)l\ S t:OIIg't' s tinli o f fr eig ht. at t h e llol'li ll'l'II ('lid o f t h p !'Oa,d. a m i n f IJI'op rl' f a c i liti e s ill h :lll dl i llg. A IHon g (Jth cl' IIIC';lSlIrc s p:tss t d hy Congr ess ill I!lOli 1't'IOItill3' t o the' (;;l11al. "'; I S (ltiC r es t r i c t i n g the p ur cila srs o f mat<.'ri;1l a n : i pct ll i p mL'llt 1'01' it s usC'. t o articll's o f d omc s tic p!'o dll ctiotl ; lIl t l lila II lIf:\.t'f 11 1'C'. except ill ca s('s w h e r e th e p r i c e o r h i d \\'as p l ; .in I Y lllll't':ISfJlIable. Army Engineers in the Sadd l e r h r ),(": 11' 1 flO, IJI]('n p ill t ll(' IH' I' o f t h e nln a l ('Olllll l is<;i o it. T h c IIn' ; l k oC'clll'l''l1 011 S r ptl'lllik'l' ::?l. I BOIi wit h tliC' t o f (; o\'C I'll O I' l\f n g l)o ll t o ClIlIn. '1'1]1': filia l ciisi nt r g : iJiioll \ r ilh th e l't' !'.ig llfltioll (If i\il' T O \'11 I" S t C'\'Cll S \\'hie:, t'S 01l1 y l'qllnllc d ill ti lt' CAse of 1\J!', 'Vallacl!. :J11'. r c c:ll1 l1i \\ ith : IIIYO ll f' 1\01' 11(' h :\Jllprl'c d with lllrll Ipss Ltllli li:11' wit h th e suhjrd, tll:lll himself. R -C', illt illlakd that i f

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_________ wishes were 110t complie d with h e would f ee l compelled to seyer his conncctio n wit h the undcrtaking -, t "i '" "Q "J '" !; I,; ::'. -. .. ..... ..... '.,. ..... a I: c ., < ( .. '" s: .., ';;-a -... :;,'" u s: \ s: -, '.. J s: '" -, !!'I >- .. ") .l,

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, Inll!! EII[lill(,CI'S ilt the Sadrlle 305 --FABlO RIVERA, PropL"ietor. E.:b
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306 Pil ot and G /tid e i s tmtioll and Goyernor of the Canal Z one ; Col. Gorga:.:. Chie f Sanitery Offic e r, Head of tl, e D epartment of Sanitntion: M r .. Jac kson Smith, o f tho D epartment of L a b or. Quarters & Subsistence, and :lIt-. Jose ph Bucklin Bis h o p as S ec retary of the Commi ss i oll. and in cbarge of !l'!te ('mwl Rec ord, the official r. C C. organ. Under th e Exec utivo order o f N o \ 'e mb cl' 17. 1 006, the judiciary a nd e:ln u i ZOllO gOH'rIlmcnt wa s combi n e d ulid e r the lIal1l(: of La w and (.;o yernm c nt. with :\11'. Hi c h :nd Reid Rosel'S. I ;C'lIer a i Coullsei. ill charge The eiyi l gU\'Cl'Illllel1t W;l!:i late r lmll sfc rrcd to the I s thmu s and 110\\ comes ullder th e h ea d o f Department of fJi,'il Administration. At tiH' t i m e Col. <+oe th a l s t ook charge th o ro w:\s 1I111('h talk a.bout m ilitarism. Shortly nf tcr his H lTiy;d. a. l"cc'l'l'tioll was gi\'(,1l him nt th e em'ozit! H o t pl. ()n this ,,,I .il'c[ h e ,ai
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The Cmml RQulr-PllllI.'j I/I('m/rd. 307 silo of old La. Bocn. and sa.\ 'es lllallY l ega l preliminaries in connection witil the sec urill g of prirate land s ill the submerged area contemplated by L.ko Sos.. A brief sketch of the calla l by sectio ns, and tho work that i s being done i s givcn herewith:-HARBOR CHAXXEL -Tho harbor chann e l o f the C<'lIl:1l at the AUantic end begins at :t point ill TJimoll Bay atJOut half a mile outside o f 3 l ine drawn across from .:\f:lllZ3Uillo Point, to Point T oro. width of the c hallll c)"s mouth will be approximate l y 1.0 00 fcct. and tb e OPE'llillg will be protected hy converging jetties chanllel from this point to the mouth of the l\[illui RiveI', a dist ance of four and miles, will a bottom width of i\00 feet, and will be llredged to a depth of 40 feet. At )Iindi where the canal In : oper ,tart, th e ground i:. only a little aboyc sea lovel, but rises uulil at Gatun 2.0 mil('s aw;lY. the eienl tioll is Sj feet. GA1'l:N DA:lL-Gatun is the site of th e great dam destin e d t o imJlound tho waters o[ tho Chagres. Th o dam will b e of eartL I'ipnlpped ill tho portions most posed to Wear. top of the dam is to be 100 feet wide. find i t s ('l'C'st will be 50 feet aboyc tho normal lake l o\'('\' ':Phe width of the (bm ilt water l eve l will be :$1 I f c('t. ,lIlel at sea 10'"01 :?,G:?:J fect. Its total longth will be i n th e neighborho o d of 1,00 feet, and its height 13i\ feet. Tho of the dalU hilS ueell slightly c han ge d from th e origill
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P ilot all(l G /fide. 30S .. LUIS F-ESTENOZ. Comerciante en General y Constructor. AVEXIDA No. 53, COLON, R 1>, ................................................................................. .... LUIS F_ ESTENOZ. G eneral Merchant and Construc t o r No. 033, AYENUE PAEZ, COLON, U P. b el'. HID" f""ored loc k of the latter width. The gates are to b e i n dupl icate and of the miter t y pe. except that the r olling gate t o tha t now ill u se all tile Ohio Ri\'er will h e s ub s titut e d f or th e dupli ca te se t at the lowe r end of eac h s ummitl el'e l l ock. Tn addition th e re will b e pro vided an a uxilia.ry pail' o f gates at the lo,,"er ellll o f eac h flight f o r u se as coffer dmns in case it may be Ilccessnry t o pump out the locks, and it ha.") been d e t ermined t cnta tiYc l y to adopt it swin g-bridge type of dam for emerge n c y lISC GAlT::\, LorK i::U'l'E.--l h e r e has been a cOllsid cl'ahlo dir isioll o f opinio n with r e f e r ence to the suitabil ity o f the (latLllI lock Hitc. Chief Engineer 'Va II ace wellt all record as opposed to dam and locks at this p oint Oil account of what h e ci::limcd to b e bck of p r oper foundation f p O act u ally dm'cl o p the c h aracter o f tho f oundations all w hid! the l ocks arc to lost n, o test pits, c;lc h six feet b y e i g ht. were s un k early ill IDO; t o th e depths o f the lock walls at Gatlill. am i 011(' at the G:ltUIl dam s p i llWily. On lheir completioll Engineer s Alfr e d Fred( 'ric k P F:;I C;lI'llS and JUhl1 H 11'I'CCl11illl m a d e a p e rsonal ('x;llllinati oll o r ilia tCl'i;l I taken therefrom. and under dal e o f >lay 2. I nOi, r e p orte d as f ollOW$;-'W(' heg to l'('cm'd that w{' founu Ihnl :.Ill of the or i1u: t1imclI!:;ioul'l HOW proposed will "cst upon l'otk of such a. ,lu\I'llcler that. l!thOtlhl fUl'Ilbll 1\ Hnd stllbl c f o umlation

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7'''(' ('(/ J/(Il Il 011/('-I Ill ended. 2109 Sillc r thnt time carefu l borings becH continued 0\'('1' the (lniiI'D :Iron i n ortie\' to secur e n cont o ured p lat o f the rock SlIl'fl1(,o with fI \ iow to tho most rcollom;cfd of the lock s to tho sit(l. Soft sand stollcs o f :t d ldy g r eenis h-gray color, dCl'i\-cd fl'ol11 igncous r ocks with n.'eml S :\lId claycy cement, a1'O tho m ost abundant rocks of the G;HUll formation. 'rh(l r oc k s are all well COllsolida t ed. tho\lgh i n it fe\\' nut' cascs I:lyf'l's arc fonnel \\ hi(lh cl'umhle 011 ex posure t.o llw a ; 1'. L h rse nrc th('\ hcds t h n t hl:H C bcell l'cff'ITf'incf' true rhys make up uut. a smnll part of t.he f(llmation. 'rhe lH'tis arc all "rock'\ though ill some im;tnJ1ccs soft e nough to b c iOO!'iclie d with a pick. It is c\'idcnt that at OIlC time thi s sectio n was ent i r e l y Ullllel' wa.t OI', as sea s h ells ha\'o b ee n pil'k e d up on t o p of sOllle o f l h e hill a R ecen tly a s t rl.llll shovel dippcl' dug lip at Gatun all anci cnt bomb fit a d epth of f ourteen f('et below the surface o f the g r ound. How it came the r e is it myste ry. A n exte n sive erecti n g plant. cabl e ways, cle will be instnlled at this point, fol' the c arrying and conve r sio1\ o f material requ i red fot' use in the loc k s and dam. GATUN LAKE.A s SOOIl os the portions o f t h e clam ahutting Spillway Hill :11'0 high enoug h to s taml 50 to 55 feC't of water ill tho lake) it is pro poRcd to build llCI'QSg the C iMlll1 c l through Spillway Hill a concr e t e clam high cnoug h to h old the lake at the aforementioned leyel. During the dry scnson f ollowing, the da.m across the channel !hrongh Spillway Hill will b e brought to ,t, full h eig ht and a p ermanent spillway con structe d including t.he necessfll'Y r egu l a ting works by means of w hich the SlIt' plus water o f th e lak e will be p asse d down to lhe sea It is probabl e th e lak e will not he allowed to fill t o the height of 50 t o 55 f ee t until the up per end of lh e Gatun loeks has b een erecte d an d th e upp"r gates huilt. The ""ea of the l a k e will b e 164.2 3 square m iles. Its c ubical capacity is not yet know!!. The lak e will extend all the '----------------------,

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310 ----------------------._--------._---_._----------_ .. -. way frQIll Gatti!! t o Bas Obisp o an d the tow liS n f Lion H tll. F'r ijul('s, 'l'abe rn i llll f:)all P ,lblo; (}orgOllil. a nd ) I<1t:lchill will hf.' 011 pntin'ly sllITouuLleti hy wat cr. H e t ween G a tlin and B as Obi s po. th e Hiv eI' the cOllt e r l i nE' o f the calla l 110 l ess th :!!1 2 3 OYER TEfE Dl VIDE .--'l'h c C hngres \ y i l l ont r tha l a k e nenl' H as O bis po a nd at thi s P O i llt thu c allftl begin,; t o c r oss t h o d i \ 'i dc, h y w a Y o f Cld cb r i l ('lit. alll i UWI\('c t o P e d ro :lliguc l 11(':11' w h e r e the low l erE' l is a gllin r r;1c h ed, a, dist ance of about t('11 miles. Dllri n g th e prist y e[ll' til(' w o rk of ex(';].\"ati oll i n the Ollt h a s brcn p rog r ess i llg satisf :1ctor i ly. 1 'l1e A ug n st, H107 (' xcnx atiol1 f ro m t he c :1l1;d prism ma d e SUdl a ll excellent s h o w i n g a s t o call f o rth the f u l l owing congratul a t ory cable f r o m th e P resitlcllt:-O y:;!!' Bay, Y ., Sept. 5 I9or. Goe t hals, Culcb r a. I hea r tily congrntul:1te yon and all t h e m e n on t h e cana l fo r extraordinn ry showing YOlt h ave m a d e d u rin g Iht! m ou t h o f Augu::.t. .t\ s this i s t he h e ight o f t he r ai n y se a llon, 1 had n o t f or a moment supp osed you woul d be,able t o kee p up y our al ready big record of w o r k do n e, a n d I a m surprisE-d as; I 3m ple a sed t hat you should h ave it. 'l'UF.ODORF. R DOSF::n:I,'J' The record f o r the m o nth o f .t\ n g us t w n s c ubic yar ds, tho highest up t o tha t t illie. sillce h as b ee n i n Amf'r ica n hands, A nd t his despit e :l 11.S n inch es dllr i n g th e m o nth. th e c<111:11 rainf ,1I nf A s t h e w o rk of e xcavatio n p rocee d s i ll til(, he:n 'y c utti ngs o f the' Cnlr brn Dh'i. ion th e questio n of dl'ninagC' becomes 11101'0 :11Ic1 m()r r i mport ant. Ai thf' H o rth ('!leI o f t h e CuleJII':t D i \ i s i o ll whc r r lh e C'hngl'('Is the linC' o f t hC' ca n a l thr c )cnlti oll o f lh e wal pl' slIl'f"acf" o f th e riHr at d ea d low wat e r is:about plus II ;Ind during the rain)' SNlSDIl u n d cl' n or m a l conditio n s ahn ut 49 t o plll!O\ n O I

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I I I I I I I <.. -'---c;, -"" -c -'-,I I I ----------_._------------------------, -----_. dI Canal fiJredge. :rsthmilm-.;t!Jm./"/c(Jrt *.!AR...iIJKt .. .;4f1*ttrJl A .3Id"./"l/lln" SJu"'.fI .If .A3/'",k_u, ------I I I I I

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---------------------3 1 2 Pilot (111(1 Cl(icle. o U Q. (fj M. S P. Co.'O' C:;2Sc (tgt !{rrna1 jJ;1nil Uead oriier, 1 8 Street, London, E. C TOURS TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD. ,n IJ) 0) :D Tn clle York. ElIroTK', Brnzil, l'mgll:ly. C ulm-,S: )h'xico, t('lIiraJ .\llwrica :'JI:lill 1'1U'tugnl. I,'t(lllct' tlll'll ,..dill'l' r:mNlil rn 1 i:l, ('hinn aUlI J :l1)!L1I (fj l;'ORTXIGllTL'k: from COT,OX TO SA\',\.sII.LA. LA GUAY :E HA. TUINrD,\I), li'UIJADO'\ f'nERnouHO '\:-;1) Soc'rll.\ ;\II'TO"", It o :ll n \I!U\OOS "'Olt Tim IS1)1A [SI,AN";, ANI) ? ru LU } 'OWrXJf:JlTLY from f'(jLOS iu.J,UJ,\H:,\ ami X t:w ,"nlu\: POI' (ull in [ormation apply at thf' CO:\lPAi'\l"S OFFICE, Co fG lOll, or to BRAND07\" II,:, BROS., Agcllts at P:ttHl11Ul. ru lfl M. S. P. Co bllt during the great nood of December. 1 906, the water th el'o reached a h eight of pillS 79.g. I:lt is thereforc evident." the report of the Commission for 1 907, "tha.t wh(,11 the c:lIlal is npp!'o:)('hing comple tion, f\, 1Ja.1'l'icr or dam must he p l aced at the northern e lld of the Cu lebm Dn ision. Il('ar the riv er, to kcpp Ollt the waters of t h e Ohagres and thAt the larger part of the <1r"ill"l(e of th e cana l must b e carried to the south, whC'l'e toward the Pacific, the land slopes more rapidly. It will howe\'l')I': b e necessary to i n stall cent,. ifugal pumps ill 01' ('1' to dispose of the wat e r which will come down into the c ut and G:111-not be conveniently c..'ll'ricd off by natu ra l drain age t o the sout h Tt is ,"cry illlpol'tnnt t o di\'el't fTom the cann!. for C(JIlstl'uction flS well flS for economy in mainl c IWllee afte!' the c:lnftl hn!' becn comp lctrd all pm.sible wnt rl' \I hieh would get iuto it frolll th e adjaccut Wltte1 he(1. .It is therefore proposed. durin g jllo n ext fiscfli to l'C'pail' :l1ld put ill opC'raiion the old 'Fr enc h diversioJl c h anne l cx-

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The ellllal ROlllc-P lalls A mended. 313 ----_. t(,llding from Culehrn. and emptying int o th e C'h:lgrcs 011 the wes t sid e of th e c
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,--------------------1 ---_ .. -314 P ilot (Oul Gllide. A s regards the charaete .. of the m a t e ri a l that s h o uld com pose tIle bo d y of th e !;tru ctul'es, the same Board re ported:-"For the Sosa-Co and La Boca dam s the bottom width of the impe r vious portion should uot be leEs t h a n would result from a. top width of 80 to 100 feet at 15 to 20 feet a bove the water level in the lake, with slopes not steeper than 1 o n 4 to 1 on 5. The r esulting width at sea level wou l d be 640 (pet, or more. 'fhe compal'atively small c ross-!
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I -'I' lle ( 'lIlIal Houtt.-Platl." I II/ull/cd. 315 THE SUMMER HOUSE. In front of the Market, Empire, Canal Z o ne. C. D. l.oCIKICEAD, Propri"tor. SALOON AND TAILORING ESTABLISHMENT. sC'ttiillg o f Ule track of six t o tf'll feet whell l oaded trains "rerc al>plicd. It was tho ught that if the tl'(lsti c WtlS lower. b e U e r r esults might be oLtained. but with the wesl tres tle o n l y eight fre t th e surfaco of the' gl'o ulld a n d the pil es dri r en to ro c k, s imilar failures followe d. Whell the d iffic u lties 011 t h e east tres tle clon,lo p eo, an investigatio n b y borings ,lIIel test pits was made to d e termine th e characte r of the llldte l'iai orerlying the rock. It was f o und t o be fol' the g reat e r pilrt of an uuctu ous blue clel)' without g r it, possessing hut little suppo r ting p o wer instead o( stiff ch\y as indicated o n existing pro tiles. 'rhe ill\estiga.tiol1s clearl y d e monstrat e that the COIIstructio n of dam s which would remain in p l ace after t h e lak e i s filled c,,,, b e acco mplish e d only. b y the r e m ol'a l o f all material overlyin g the rock, and after prepar a tion o f the roc k s Ulfac., by bu i lding the d a m s of se l ecte d mate rial. 'l'h e d epth to which the m a terilll would have to be r c mov c d is frolll I to 70 f ce t a nd suitabl e material for dam constructi on would hav e to be tra n sporte d to the site. Inves tigatioll s of the foundations o f the Sosa-San Juan dam show th a t the material is the sam e; the difficu l ties to b e encountered will be greater becau se of the r ive r. It is estimated that the cost of buildin g the two ,hms following the plan that th e JllVestigations and work done indIcate as nccessary will be abou t $ 11 ,573,800. 'rhe estiroate suhmitted by the m inori ty of the Board of Co us uit illg Engineers for these dam s i s $,3 1 -1,000. a d iffe r ence o f As this diUerenee to secure stability

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316 Pilot WI(l G uide. =. is excessive, an eX:lOlinatioll of th e calla l route from Pedro Migu e l t o the Pacific was und e rtaken to ascNtain if morc l-iuitabl e p l aces for lhe lock s and dams c ould b e foulld. In m a king tJ)cse examillations car o was tak e n to sec u re f.;;1Ulplcs of the materi a l s to b e C!!CQlllltCl'cd :1.t yarious d e pths and corrs procured of the r ock. A ca reful study was madC' of all u ata o btained alld foul' possible projects present t.hemse ] ves for cOlIstmcting that portion of the callal l'xlcndillg frolll the f;OULh e nd of Culcbnl. cut t o Jeep ,, 'ate r in tito Pacific Ocean. Firs t Project. 1:hi s i s the pr ese nt pr u ject Ilnu callsis t s of Qlle lock at Pedro Migu e l and. two at La. Boca. WiUl dams of s uitabl e material on rock. 'rho estimates submitted b y th o Board of Consulting Enginee rs. aro correcte d to conform to quantities and unit that additiollal illform:ltioll and experie nce show will giye more nearly the actua. l cost o f th e work. The proj ect pro vidos ,,500 foot channel frolll P e uro ,!iguol to a 1,000 foot c hann e l through So s Lake to La B oca and a 50 0 foot c bannel fro m La Boca locks to d eep water. Second Proj ect.Two locks at P edro :iHigue l alld one a.t l\ l iraAoros, 'rith a 300 foot chnnllc l through the lake fr o m P edro Uigue l to Miratlores, :lRill ; as :t conse qu e nce th o currents in th e ('!Janltcl will l'(':wlt only from t.he tidal tlow lllld will n o t :lttain a as g reat a s Due foot. a second, whirh will not illtCI fl'l'c with n:L"igatioli.

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The ('flJ1fI7 )( (mil' r f (111.<: II 1II('lIdl'l/ 317 F ourt h I nrk at Pedro M igue l onc at an d Olll,} at(L a B6c;:I. wit h 500 foot c hann e l s b etwet'll l oc k s a nd to 41Cl,'P \\'a!cr i ll th e Pacific J n each case stiol1 of d am:., thr upper ('11(1 of th e l orks bcil1g SI) close t o th e .1\liratlo r es hills and the lower en d so close t o Cocoli H ill thnt th e gaps can bo closod by w r y s h ort d alns found e d O I l rock. Untler this plan th ere will b e vir --. ... _-_ ...... -.....

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I 318 Pilol and Guide VThen in Colon Corne a.nd See Us. -iii] ( '" p American T Go. D I REG'-IMPOR'-ER8 OF Chinese and Japanese Silks, Fancy Arti c1es, Dry Goods, Provisions and Hardware. Con'le in and Lool< over Out" Stoele. = --= 1 .--, c::: iD ......;j I Nos. 334, 336 il nd 338 Fro"t St COLOH, R. P --a t:< ... -Olle blook from V'Ve Can PJ.ease You. tually no Sosa lake, as it provide s for onl y about a mile of lake JlaYi gation b e tween Pedro l\I igue l and .l\Iirdflores From Cocoli Hill to deep water in the Pacific a Rea level cana l is conte mplat"d :;0 0 f net wid e 'I.'he l ocks and dams will lie immediate l y b e hind high hills, thus b eing effective I y protected from hosti l e operations frolll the bay. The Contract Phase of Canal Work. On January lZ, J 907, bids were opened for thA construct ion of the ranal by conlracL The proposal of the Oliret'.Bangs syndicate was the low es t bllt on the ground that the S IH'cificatiolls were not fully complied with, this ami all other bids were rejected The report of the Commission lor lU07 comes out flat-foot e d agaillst Jetting any of the work out by contract, and auvances a number o[ arsuments why lh e United Stntcs s hould contin u o tho undmtaking in the snmo manllor as at present. Vhen Col. Goethals first took c h a rge of th e work, hc was rc 'h' "e.

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Tile Contract Phase oj C(III,,7 1rQ/"k, que s ted by th e Presi d e nt t o make rep ort re l a tiv e to contract work after h o h a d b ee n on th e I sthmus n su ffi-I cient time t o f o rm nil opi nion, The r e port says in part:-"The Panama ca nal preRents a pi ece of work unpre cedented in ma gnit ud e which mu s t be dOlle under co ndi tions e ntireJ y different fr o m s imilar cla sses of work in th e United States. The w o rk nntumlly divid es itself into dre dging, dry excavation, the cons tru ctio n of the l ocks and dams, and th e cons tru ctio n of th e new Panama Railroa d The r e i s no contractor, o r syn di ca t e of contrac tors that by any co mbin a t ion cou ld brlllg t o thp. I s thmu s an organization read y f o r t e am work o n any of the s e twits. From the U nit e d States the s uppl y of labor i s the sam e whe th e r th e work be d o n o by contract or h y th e GoYernment, and the character o f th e l a b o r must b e th e sam e S o l o ng as w o rk is plen tiful th e dread of the t ropics will d eter men from see k i n g work here i n preference, and this i s eq u a lly applicable to the contrac tor and the GO\" ernment. A n ad e quate supply o f labor fr o m th e UniLe d States is not possihIe rrhe r eco rd s here s h ow that no contractor ca n even attempt to recruit labor in th e "\VeRtlndies, an d that great opposition will d eve l o p to a n y recru iti n g by authorize d agents of the Commi ssion i f the labor pro cure d is turned o\"er to th e contractp rs. i sla nd gov e rnments canno t be blom e d for their h osti lit y t owa rd th e l atter, b ecause of th eir experience und e r th e French which left an inde libl e impressio n throu ghout the i s l an d s.:' "Conditions o n the Isthmu s are pe c uliar. It is can" t e llde(l, npparentl y o n r easonahle grounds, t hat servi ce i n the trnpics saps t.he ene r gy an d that a mall is incapable, after a t.ime of p erfo rming the same am ount of w ork that h e w o nld b e ablo t o acc o mplish had h e s p ent th e same p eriod in a cnoll'l' This creates a d esire t o ac cumulate sufficicut m e ans t o ayoi d th e n ecessi ty o f rela-I ti\"eJy hard01' work on t he retUl"ll to the United Stat es, and it il' a quc!oition t ita t the w o uld be ob l iged to face, as w ell ., the U nil e d States The wag e sca l e o n the

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--,--.. .. -I .. -\ .. -' .. .. .- -'" ,- -- S.\om /(ladtjio a tru!" o f cor.,. i ll Cu/cura Cut.-.1Jo/:omQ .. -,y ,.dr""q -;11,.,,'/"(.:111 I fiJ.Ii,j; .A:,rf d :Ad .i)UI'o'OIU :A ,j):(u{("" I k. .. .. ... --- .. .. --, .. w f\) o

PAGE 338

7'ht' ('0111/"11('1 Plrmr ('(/111// 11"01'1.-. 321 I s thmu s i s p ractically adopted [1.1111 a. contractor would h e oblige d to mainta i n it. : 'The exta\-ation of the Culebra. d irisio n ha s alrea d y been un d ertaken by hircd l a h o r ; pra<:tically nil 01' th o plant r equired for this w(ll-k ha s h t'CIl sec ured :lnd paid fa)': it com plet e and thoroughly l'flicient o rganization [or th e same has uecll buill up. and thc lioY e rnm c llt is not h ampere d ill all Y way in pl'orul'i n g th o IIC'CCSSiUY lab o r for filli n g \'acnnci cs that ari se The (:Uyt'l'llIlH'ut ha s all han d o r und er contract, all th e that will b e needed for excanltillg such parts of the cannl l ,l'Ism a<; ca n b e mos t econ o m i!;ally lJl'rfonned IIY ela!';:'\ of lllachillcry s u ccess of lock con s t ruction de}lC]H, l s I:lrg('iy up o n tho qu a lit y o f ccment u sed. and thrrC': is nc. Cjuestion but th a t the G o v el'llment sh o uld all th e Ct'IllCllt. Xo con tr: lctOl', o r a ssocia tion of contraclors lJOSSC:o;S(,S the lIC''y p lant f or h andling the enormous quantities o f COIlC'l'ctc required f o], these structures. t;ubSCI)UC'llt t o the constructiOll of th e lock s th o eOlltractor conld ha n no further u s c f ol' the m ac h i n ery instnllctl, eYCll if tho p:lJmcnt of fr('ight f o r its r eturn to t h e Sta.tes was \YalT
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322 PilOl alltl Cuic1e. j FRONT OF THE P. R R. STA TJON. CULEER..A. C. Z. -. FIRST CLASS BAR and DINING SALOON, Billia.rd Room in. Con. n.e: c::tion. B est P lace of Its K ind in C u lebra T o Spend Your leisure Hours. C ----"'\ -_ "ftI ..-.. .............. .. .. I' .. / "'n" ----........... -.. -----_ ... /( Proprietors and equip p e d f o r ma k i n g all nee d e d r epairs to machin e ry now 011 hand 01' s till r e quil'e d f ol' the ,,"Ol'k. S O fal'. th el'e f o r e a s th e plant it s c a r o and r e pair a r c cOllccl'Iled, th e Gove rn men t is better eq u i pp e d t o carryon th e w ork a s a d vantageo u s l y and e co nomically ,,:8 an y co n trac t or. l U a uy th o u san d s o f e mpl o y es h ase b ee n scc llr e d, a n d all e ff ec t i v e w o rki ng ol'gallizatio n h as b ee n perfected. The c mploy<,s are well s h e lter e d a nd i ll ge n e r al. well-f e d j th s al arie s p aid a r c satis f acto ry and th e w o r k i s p rogressin g s moothly. A c h a n ge f rom t h ese fa.v o rabl e conditi ons ill th e m e th o d of pr osec u ting th e w ork would disor ga nize all exi sting COIId itio n s and w o uld und o ubt edly i n c r e ase t h e es timat e d c o s t and t i m e o f comple tin g th e ca n al. rl'he con clus i o n that th e w o r k ca n b e d o n a b etter, c h ea p e r and m o r e quickly b y th e Government h as beoll r e a c h e d olily a ft e r fr ee and full discussion b y th e vari o u s m embe r s o f the Commissi o n allc l t h e hig h e r offic i a l s cOllllec t e d w it h th e cOlIstl'llctioll work, a nd afte r car eful conside r atio n of :\11 sides of tho pl'o posi tion."

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Rccoy(l of EJ 'cal!atiOlt to JWL 1 },?08. 323 =or Record of Excavation to Jan. 1, 1908. The followin g t..'1ble will s how amount of excllva ti o n done sin ce th e c a n al has b ee n ill AmCJi can h ands ; also, amount ye t remni n ing to b e excavated as of January 1, 1908:-Amount ox('uvato.-l under A merical! conll'Ol: cp nrc} \ n D S In C ul cbm D iyi!.ioll (CIlnal ] l rism) to .Tulillar y 1 JOOX ... ,.,...... Totlll cJ:ca\'n lion aLII-II )loint s Ulltl .. l AmericillI IJOntrol 10 Jun. I lOOiI Totn l oxclI\'at ion by the l<'ruu c h 01.1111 points lind iUClutHu!;" di\'CNi()1I channt'l., .. ... .... ,', ...... ,., ," .......... aoou t T o t a l est imaled excuvAtion rc1luire tl A]lI"ill, too7 for nil 85fool l .\'( : 1 can a l : In enna! pris D I. .......... ,......... ....................... lOl.O.iO,OOO O n lock s Ues., .. ... ... ,"", .......... ,.... ..... 7,!l6.:i,OOO For regulatin g w orks nlld II i vo!rsiou c hnn nci ... ::',1.)(1, 000 Dredging i n 0111 Chan nel ; Crh.t.obW 1 0 Gatlin to o l, e n constrnf' tioll l;h : lUllei ; a nd at l'3llalUrt, to keep channe l (lIKlIl to La lloca 3 3.'iO,OOO ---Tutn1. ................. .......... .............. .. .. IH,.a15.000 Canal Finances to July 1, 1907 EXPENDITUREs' Construction {If Canal. ... "'J 60 ,. .., I Buildin!.'tI ..................................... .... ..... 5.862,:18 4 .00 PanQnut wate rwork s !lewerH and paving .......... .. Colon water ..... urk", ami puvillg ................. Pauama RaiJrond (uh'anceOi ............. .... .. ,.. .... Total C(ll h ltruc tioll a nd ellgi n eeri n g ....... Go ve rnm e llt of the Ca llal Zone ..................... .... Ruildiugs .............. ," ............. ....... .......... ZOlle highways ... ...................... ...... ..... l,t17.445 .5 763, 302.30 1 ,826, 683.50 .. -1 fIJ, I ::'!.' :188,101.4 0 7 0 --,._- 'rotHI c ivil J,"Overnment ...... "... .............. S: lIli IHI ion un.1 hI\!! pi la I s .......... .. ... .. .... ....... 7!)1I. M2. Q.j B tLiIdillS8 ............... .......... ...... ,. .. ....... Tot a l aRnitat i uu ... .... .. ...... LUlln s t o PanaJUa Railroall .. "................. ... PUl' C h lliJ60f l'anama Railroad stock .... ..... .. ,' ..... of Santa ROM and Tivoli Hill Ilt'OlWrtJel .... ,. U R lanoo IIl 1 6 by la borers for their tranlll)(lrtatiun .... 750 [,65.96 ..... ...... 1 .fi3I,2::'7 .3 4 1 5 7 ,118.2 4 r." """ "', '''', ""

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-324 Pilol 01l(l GI/ide Bills I'Cll!\f'red ag;liu!\t Pttn3nia Itail run I a mi OtllCrlS, tmt IIU' collec ted ......... .............. ... ......... C"ltecti olllj from imli"idulIloi lIlId COllqmnicS remittetl to ['nite, 1 S lates Treasurer I S r('cCil'hi.. 1 9-19,699.91 Labor furnishotl ttmilllatc1'i:l i "olrl t o P jl11allla the HeplIulk of P:nmma, ColJl1llisl!;OIl t'mph,yrs, 311d 0 1 her alliNI illlcrcRls ...... ........ ,.... ........... ...... l.n:;Q.fJ:.t Cash fmtillllcolleNc(llJi\lR :'II n ll'iow< IIO"p;IH III, .. ...... "31""'1 .,. _. Leils Tot:!l mis('cll,lIIf'oll" ....... ...... ... ... ... G .422.!106.41 AmOllntlllW iJJtlivj,ill!lis awt ,")1Il1).1ni"" fVI" c]nims ulio"'(',1 unl lint l'aid 011 11,;", ,Iule.. :Ii ::.05, 375. 1 8 .AJIlOll uBIIUPllid 0111'3 ,\ 1"011". "'" JUIIU ','" .. 1.290.'1 1H.1 4 PriOl 111011 t ... 14 ]':J:! .0. Total amoLlnt of collectiolls mall. (11111 loill" rcnolcn: d uml iucJwll,t\ ill ")I;, Il('lIlliturcs widell ]""('11. or will 00 iii till' r. S, T l 'cllSUl'y HS m )'pnt I't" :!, S73. 116 Ii;l "nine tof }o'n'lIc h 1Il1l11 'l'iH I tt) tile \\ 'ol'k 01' Sl) l t llt) iudi IIIH\ COUIJ!llllics wllieh \;e"11 ('ft;;tlitt ,t! to 1IIII'chuse prlce of (;:111[11, .... ,. Xct ll1iscellllneoll!4 ..... 6-I1I.51I.ti5 :i 4 3f1.jj9 ti1 ------------.. ........ ----Total .... .. ..... lIalnncc n'IIi1ni)lc .ruly I 190., ........... .... TOlil! ..................... ..... 41'l, :!I\.'>, lIt. 31 : t ] :!:!:I, :! \ ---III Augu st, 1 907, the Chief Engine c r a.dvised tho Secretary of'Var th\lt con structio n wor].; for tho fiscal year e ndin g June :30. 1 908 was pr oceedi n g f<.\ ster tha n cont emplate d i n illCI'Cil!icd expenditures for Inbo1' and material. H e estimate d that a d ditiona l fund t o the a m o unt of S 8,000,000 would be requir e d in ordl'r t o up the same record f)f work f o r the r r]lI:1indcr o f tho p e riod. 011 Augu s t 2(i, the Pl'csid(llll nppro\N I the J'(\CjlH'St. An appropriation o f 1;1 has bcen a s keu f O l tllC fiscal year endiug J l111e 30, 1

PAGE 342

, I ;abol" 011 the Callal. 325 /tow ABOUT IT? W/tAT? w/ty, RfNGlfO IT'S Tile BLOOD / IEDICI Ne RIlEUt\f
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. 326 P ilo t mu l G uide THERE IS NO EQUAL TO OUR LINE or IMPORTED FRENCH CONFECTIONERY and BONBONS. Direct Importatio n s of the \'ery Highest Grade .nd Select Stock of W i nes, L i quor s P. Ganavaggjo "'! ---t ; ) o Tobaccos, J2,). 32 Cell/rar Jveuue, Ciga r s n PcANcA8VlcA,
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, 327 _=. h brought to the Isthmus during the fiaca l ycar cnding .TulIC' 30, H107, an aX(,l'ago of nearly 1500 mOil prI" month. 'I'he total f o rce of skill e d alld unskilled "'h"rcrs of the Isthmia.n Calla I Commi ssion and Panamn. I{aiil'oad 011 June :lO, IflOG, was 19.(j00. and June :1O, 1 907, it \1',,, 29 ,4 46, an increase of about 10.000 men. During this p e riod men woro brought t o the I s thmu s b y the Commission from all parts. At th e en, l of O cto b er. I !'1)7. th e grand total of mell emp l oyed in branches \rr.s th e lar gest f01'.::e ever on thc cana l pay roil Slllce the inau guratio n of th e work in At the pr ese nt timr the f orce in s om e s maller owing to comp l etion of work I1IH.I redu ction of forces in somo of th e d e partm ent.s The C ommis sion's r e port for HJ07 states: "The labor problem i s still an unsolved o n e but tho ex p e r iments of the past ,)'f'ar with a d iYersity Ot races al1(l nati o nalities impr oved the efficiency of the f or ce and p romises t o llIakc the t crm of sen" ice l onger Tropic a l la.bor is m igrato r y Im!l notwithsbndi ng superior wag es h ous ing an d su bsistcnce. there will always h e l arge p eriouica lch:tng esill the illdi\'j dual for ce, A r eg ular r ec ruiting organizatioll, change o frol11 onc r center t o [lIJother, will always bC' !lCCCSSilry to k ee p a ma...ximulll force Feeding the Canal A r m y. At th e cio,e of the fiscal y."r, In hotels \\'cr e op pr ated for white Americans, the price per m eal b eing 30 Thi s Lloes not include the Hote l T i\ oli, whp.l'e 011 account of superior accommo d ations, higber rates prcyail. Eighteen m css h alls are opC'ratD d f ot' Europcans whcr o n day's i s furnished for !O ccn ts, stewards alld cooks at th ese m esses are llsually E uropeans and food to whic h tb e3c lab orc r s arC is sen'ed. There are 23 kit c h e ns for Vest Indiall lab orers where a day s b oa rd is supplied for the sum of 30 cents and )Jl'eparC'Li h y cooks of their OWll nationality. 'rhe subsistence operations aro design cu. to be only s e lfsustaiuing

PAGE 345

328 Pilot aml G1lide. The income from hote ls uuring the fiscal year ending Juno 1907, amoullted to $ 492,694.40 ; exponditure" $4i5,9G7. 54, l eaying a n o t p,ofit after deducting all it e m of $ 3 755 32 charged to loss ac c o unt, of $ 1 9,9il.54 The Washingtoll showed "loss during t h e year of S 820 34, alld the Hntel 'l'iYoli, a l oss o f S 6 667.32 sillce Janua ry j, 1907. 'l'h e income from kitchens a.mounted to S 525,-63'>.7.J; exp e mli!ures $ 466 247.30 a lI"t profit of S 59, 3 8 5 44 'l'h e arc ragc numher of m e a l s s oned during one month was about 1 000 000. 'rhe report of quarte r s for all c l asses of e mpl oyes s hows the follo wing: H o us e s -tor s kill e d marrie d e mploy es, 537 ; hou ses f o r skille d ba c hel o r employes 223; h o u ses for unskille d marri e d cmploycf.;, 3?9j houses for un s kill e d ba c h e l o r olllplo y es, 52 8 ; hot e ls, 16 ; llIes s halls, 19; kitchells, 55 ; miscellaneous inc lud i ng offic es c lub h ouses, e t c 501, a grand tota l o f 2) 0 8 Redemption of the Isthmus. In a. s kel c h e n Panama, a Ilo t e d encycl o paedia a few years ba c k th o ullqualified s tatomellt that "th e climate is s u c h that n o whit e mall c a n li,' c th e ro," Every thin g hyg i enic all y evil about t h e l s thmu s has hith erto been char ge d a g ain s t the climate. Y ellow fm' er m nlnl'ia, Hnd a half-dozen l essol' ills f orme rly commOIl to the ist hmian cOllntry h a v e nIl b een cha rg c d t o that S:Hnc di::;l'eputablo (?) c limat e 'Ve, o f this day nnd gCIlf'rnti oll however, ha.\'c c Ollie t o kllow b ettol'. Th e sa n i t a r y s h owing made 011 the J s thnlJ s since the cftnal h:l.S br Oil ill Am erican hands h as w ell n igh dis prov rll all pr cvious sllrmisf's, doubt s an d f ears. Th e his tory of th e );1l'clic h compani es goes to s how tha t ill a hygienic W:1.y th e y phlccd 110 crede n c e jll tho well known Illaxim thllt An OllIlCOOt' pr'\'flntion i swol'thapountl of cu,r: The y took C3rc o f th eir sick ill a commondab l e l1li.IIIIl CI' disease had s tri c k ell the m d o w II, but they mad e n o t th e s lightest prC\' i s i o n f o r pl'c\'c ntin g sickness.

PAGE 346

N crlf'lIIptiOJ' of till' I sllIlI/lis 329 UNIVERSAL BAR. JOSE PA DROS, P,op";elor. In front of Panama Railroad Sta t ion, Colon R e public of Panama. .. I)JIUX T DII'OHTEIt O F TilE IIIl;IIEST O F L1QCOI:S S I'A XISlI TUB .A(CO ('J(;, \ IlS Axn n(!.\HF.TTES. VV"h.o1os.a..10 a:n.c:l. .Fl.e1:a.i1. ORDER S G I VEN
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330 P ilot and Guide --royal. FI'OJU M a r c h t o Se pt embe r InO :;' th o commones t sig h t o n th e stree t s o f P:lIlI1Ill<:L w as som B d etac h ment of the fumigatio n bl' i g a d e Th e cit y was fumiga.t e d i n sec t!ol1s Ollce, th e n a g a i n yct again. and i n th e f o urth and supre m o e ff ort th e r e was a ge n era l fum igatio n oyer tho cnt i r e cit y at th e sa m e timo. upo n t o n s of p a p e r W(,11t to p laster tip th e c revi ces i n th e w alls o f h ouses, and somo o f t.h e c r e\'ices i n SOIlI C o f the h O llses would eas i l y ha \ c ad m itte(i tho historic ba m door fumes of s ulphur an d p y re t hrum were i n constan t asce n t t o th e upp e r air, w h i l e all around :1 P e l eel i k e aspect pl'cYaiiecl. w e re t rying clays to th e h o use h older. H e' d b a r e l y recovered from his l as t d ose bef o r e mell with l a dder s uuckets and rolls of pape r were agai n h esiegi n g his pr omises H \\";1S a nip
PAGE 348

R rdrlllplioll 0/ (//(' 331 P a nama. During this yeaI' the i n sane w ere rCll10yc d to new quarter s on the Ancoll Hospita l site. <\11(1 tbe 1('11('1':'; have heen segregated nt Palo See o a. point 011 thc h:lY. west of L a Boca. Ancon Hosp itnl tillci}equipped l aboratory and all other facilitieg r equir ed for ;tIl up-t o -dat e hospital. 'The conmlesc ents are nursed Lack to complete h '(I Ill! at T aboga fja nit al'iulll, an institution 011 'l'; d Joga islan d f o und ed by the French. and uft el'w0-twee n La Boca ii.ncl t h e Am'on Ho!'pit:l.l hulldin gs f Th e s i c k are cal'ri e d in eith('l' dir ec tion on t he railroad day in hospital cnl' S Figure s are oftell dry, but occasion ally they are e l o quent and spea k f or themsclyes III Oct ober, 1 WIICIl the Frenc h had 1 9 ," ;+ IllPn o n th e l s lhlllus. they lost llil. In ] n05, wile n th e and .P. R h a d 1 DJih.) in their employ the y l ost bnt :j:). The de;lth late o[ the g e neral p o pulation of th e Canal Zone. :tn d the cities o f Panama and Colon i n HJ05 was per t hous:md; ill 1906 49,]0, ",,<1 of tho IDOi fisc. I ,Ycar, .j."OB, a ,lcndy dim inutio n i ll mortal i ty, a s will u a obsened. The lotnl d eath s fro m all caU15es among employes ill 1 007 lIumhert"t 127 3, of which 10-:1 w e r e d ue t o accide nt. The rate was unu sually larg<>. due t r l an inc r ease i n th e number of railroafl
PAGE 349

332 P ilot (lml Gui de. H. E. HY A TT.-Watchmaker and Jeweler. EMPIRE, CANAL ZONE. (ir .mophones lind T ypcw r iltfS Rep ai red. R i ngs latest Sty le, A Specially. YOU CAN'T 00 BETTER ANYWHERE. thflll any o ther discn se. .Malaria, tuberculo sis and typhoiu fl' ver follow in the order named. During th o 1H07 fiscal yea r 11. !)7i) p e rson s w e r e treate d at Commissioll hospita ls. Til .Tullc and ag,lin in Augns t 100\ s ing le o[ illli)ollic pin gu o occulTed Ht J Jn.Bu e a. rrhcl'c was llospread. In 1 !'l07, :t case of yellow fC\'cl' wa s taken fr o m one of the boats ill th e harbor. None of the othol' passcllgrl'S exp ose d i){'c:' lm e infect eri. In August, S e pt embe r and October, 1906 th ero was not ft dcaUl among lh e G,OOO Ame r ica n m Oil. womf'1l and c hildr en Oil th e J StJll11US a. truly r CI11:lrkalJie occurr e nce. A llf'wcomel' Oil the nowadays w Ollelers at the ah sence of ill Panama :ltld Colol1 alHl the spt tIe d port ions of the c. Numbor of immigl':lIl t s I' tled. I L Thc' q II a rJl II t i Ill' !o:tntioll 011 tho Pa cific will he l ocated s hortl y 011 tho i s lalld of Cul ebl'a, ill P :tl1: lI11a Bny. Th e l onge r O ll e I'emaills nn tiJC' T s thmll s th e b CUl'T' illur<'d he h ecolnes t o th e cond i tion!". This is tl'tlll in till:' majorit y o f c a ses, allel i::-dC'llIonstratC'd hy the cons tantly a\'cl'ngc s i c k mho :1I110 1lg th e employes F ol' one whil e during D ecember: lD07, Lhe avcrage daily hos-L-_______________ --'._

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I pitat admissions were lowe r than nny similar period bince sanitary operations hav e been conduct('d 0:1 the present scale. ---']'he true sO}lI'ce of the Ohagrcs has nc\'pl' been accurately detE'l'minc d It h:ls, )v)we\'Pl', two principal branches, 01\(' (the large r ) known flS the P eq u eni. rising in the Cordillera San Bias, which at that point forms the Continental Divide, very c lasp to the Atlantic Coast. r .rhe other bl'nnch has its -oi'igin about twenty milE's (by the river), above Alhaju el:l, at which point the Frenc h Oana l Company establi!'hcd a gauging station. B etwee n Alhaju e l ti and th e Caribbean, the principal tribuL
PAGE 351

-'"1:1 -c .. -,. '" .:II .$t:JlJW on the ChaJl1""U /H/vi!.r-!Panama ... ..... "..:A_'*-' I

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--------------------T h e Ring l'i I of tho ell/wi. PURITY IS PROVEN An :lna l ys i s l a t e l y m a d e b y th o p :ll'tl1l('nt of SllI1i !ntioll of th e I sthmian C;lIlHi Commi s sion h as Ill'OYOn t h o pur i t y o f Paraiso Spring Water, lif t S ('yon f o u n d i t to u e nAs G ood As D st i l ed Wate r (' a r a iso S pr i ngs Carbo n ati n g Work s \ V N SEITZ, P roprieto r ZON E 3 3 5 HERE'S T O Y O U Xnm(' of Stntioill Y c1mr;!(' iu ell u i > ill cubic Dbchurgtl I n I to dut.' dl,!,' 1-:" ... 1'111 & ilHm, mo!)ti .; l>roj le'96. 1 30h;,, ___ 1 e'l!.!.O tiM e ( I't lK!r 8('('(Jud f((-I 10('1' c uu i > ft. Rfle. nll t .. V n t o }:!,3.Ot:(l) ApI. 0 1 1 2!O ApI. 0 1 02.00:1 2300 ; 6,000 IM,OOO 1 2 -,,:.OO2-W __ 0 1 4003 T I:c gaugin g s tati o n at G a t ull was es ta.blish e d ill l\Iny 1 907, a nd w b i l e d ischa r ges h a s e b ee n m eas ured t h ere si nco flin t t i lllC', th o obse nati ons h a\'e n o t been c a r ric d 011 f O l n s uffici e nt time t o p crmit their u se a s 3uth o r i t a tiyi', Enou g h d a ta. h as been scctll'r d lJOwC\'cr, fro m m easul'e m e nt s m ad e thi s yea\' t.o enab l e u s t o comput e th e Clisch a r gc a t 1 35 p c r ce n t. of t h a t at B o hio. 'fhe f ollo w i n g tab l e t a k e n fro m t h e r evise d edition o f I G e n e ra l A bbor s book "Pro b le m s o f th e P a n a m a C a nal will s h o w th e m:tx i mulll d i sc h a rge re a c h e d i n th o eight

PAGE 353

-.----------------------, 3:::16 Pilot amr GI/ide. flQoch; o f th e (If which th e r r i s Huthc llti c !"Ccorll. 1):1 r (' Per P \:r ),'0'" U,'C' C<:11I ler i n :''6.& .. 4'J 3-- It .>; ;U:!.W 6!) r 9-1 I '" 3-1 --? ....... I') 1-' ;) 11 48.2 7 8 "" 3 4.61' 4 3. 41).1, 33.7!) I --1!oorde
PAGE 354

, I ------337 ju c in. and Cl'Uces. n com p :U'l calcal'colI'l itsf'lf. coni11inillg o f lhe npper OligoCC'l1C or period. while th e h ed of th e rin'I' at O:1mllo<"l, is comp ol:;('
PAGE 355

-------------" 338 ?
PAGE 356

SUlise t alld SIll/rise Tabl e 339 SUNSET AND SUNRISE TABLE 1908. SUNR ISE SUKSET. H. 1\1. H. M Jan. 1 6 1 6 A. M. 5 52 P. M. 11 6 1 9 5 M 21 6 21 6 02 31 6 21 6 06 Fcb. 1 0 6 20 6 09 20 6 17 6 10 Mar. 2 6 14 6 11 1 2 6 08 6 1l .> 6 03 6 1l --Api' 1 5 57 6 10 11 5 > 6 10 ,-:H 5 8 6 1 0 :\fay 1 5 H 6 10 II r) H 6 11 21 r. '0 6 1 3 3 1 5 3 9 6 16 June 10 5 W 6 18 20 5 42 6 21. 30 5 H 6 2H July 1 0 5 46 6 2-1 20 5 49 6 24 30 5 51 6 22 Aug. 9 5 51 6 19 19 5 52 6 1 5 29 5 52 6 10 Sept. 8 5 50 6 05 1 8 5 49 5 59 28 5 49 5 53 Ot::t. 8 5 48 5 47 1 8 5 48 5 42 28 5 49 5 39 Nov 7 5 51 5 36 17 5 54 -36 > -5 58 5 3 7 -, D ec. 7 6 0' 5 40 17 6 09 5 H .--, 6 I. 5 49 1909 Ja.n. 6 6 Ii 5 55 The above table is in local Panama t ime and is eomputed for Lati-

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,-------------------------------------340 Pilot (/1/(1 GI/ifh-. .-Onl)' Short Orde r lIouse on the Canal Zone, Oys ters and Fish, a Specialty. Ice Cream and Candies. LO(; _\TED TilE P.c\ X.-\:\L\ IL\ILRO.\D DEPOT AND c.:OX\'EX lKXT TO TlUYELI Nf: r[BLlC. Quick Service. Rea.sona.ble Prices. GAN DOLF O & RAFFO, Proprietors EMPIRE, CANAL ZONE_ tude 8 dog., 57 min ., and LG s('c. north; longitude 7 9 deg., 31 min., n ud 4 s e c we st. Colo u is in Latitude 9 deg., -12 mil] .. 16 sec north i l ongitude> 79 dE-g. 52 min., :lnd 2 7 sec. wcst, th e difference betwee n locul Colon time and locall'anama ti m e be>ing about two miuu tes. By d ed u cting lhel'eiol'c wa minutes from the figtll'cs on the u.bove laNe will give t he correct sUUl'isc and sunset timf' at Colon P ANAMA' S MORALS IN THE '70S Thi n g s arc l ooking lip in mor
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. -, -------------------------_.-.-' -.--- -. ___ 19'-: .is.. --= .".--.::..T l'Itllll: .is.. 19. :-= ""' -.::..T:;W 11 i R A I N FA L L (Y) AT COLON, GOHG01''\', CULEBHA, & PAN Al\1A. 1 STATIONS: .1.\ FEW\" Itt' A l } U L ,,1.\ r .J r:l' I,: Ji 'I.Y A I'fL RI,:P (H u f "XOY. Ilfo:r. I --. --. -- CU I..tU. (:j i) (;i, ) (;l.., ) (:) i) ( ;; i) (:; i ) (.Hi) (.J(i) (;j(j) (:J/ ) ( ;j() PH) :l.!H) 1 an 1 -.) -Ul l:!.l' 1:; 1 HUfl 1 .; os l :!.-l i 1 ;U," :!l.l:l J :!. 0 ..) :'I[ax. 1!) :!O G,ID n. q 1 -., .)., (10 :!:!.OO :!7. 6il .)n :!:!. !HJ "0 ''') .. : U lL ;;O.O-l -. I .) _d. _.). ) ) -( Y l'a 1') I flO:! IS!):) 1 SHti ISO.) 1 il:J I J S-) lR09 1 1 S 0 I S i:2 IHG:! l hfl3 1_ ( ... :'Ifin O.U:l 0 0 I O.O:! 0.-1:1 I.G:; G .-11 9 .07 --fl -.,-f) R : 3 7.0:\ 0.0 4 !). I ( ;) .. ):) ( Yeflr) IH>'D I SDi 1 HG.) 1 S!HJ 1SiL I S!H) 1 DO.) I!JO:! l SG7 1R9i 1 88 .. I H i;{ -GOHGONA: ( .i) (:') ) (-I) ( .i) (.'i) (.') ) (.'i) (.J) (j) (.') ) (,J) (-I) pall. .) :;.) O. :i.J U "'.-; :! G (j 1 .. 0;; I 1. X ( i 1 1-1" IUlO II.i(j .. "" -. -.) 0) ,- ) .) I I -:llax. -, :l.OL ;;,]1 1 -1 --l q -.) 1 n. I -()' 1 -.)i.flL '-d.'1') () ) .). :) ) .. ii I I -I. I ( Yenl') Il'-n!J l!,-!'D 1 "!l!) !J,'i-l !JOO lDon 1 R!)S 1 R!H 1RO-l Hi9 7 c.::. IR!)7 I c 'f)-, I ;\l ill. I ." 1 0 D.OO 1 -""I S ,').0 I -I.01l .;. 1 G S HH ) 1 .)--. ) I.Hi ;:: 0 t r-....; .' } _I) 1 1_ -( Y Pill') 1 J i 1Rfl7 1 I"DR I Rn, s 1 R !l.J I X!Hi I S!)(i 1 !lOu I '\ J lSD '" I CULEBRA: ( 1 I ) ( 1 X) \ 1 S) ( JR) ( I S) ( 1R) ( 17 ) ( J i ) ( 1 R) ( 1 J ( L S) ( 18) c -. un 0.-1 :; () ,S I J K 1 l.-l 0 D O O D.O ( 1O.S.J. 11.0 :' 1) 7. R 6 -:. .111 J:.., I ) l\f:l >( ) .) 3.01i 1 6. i O .,., .)(} lUll) :? () :.? (j I'. i n 1 R I X "f) t'" 2L 1 0 : ; + .6 0 -.) -_ J.J (Y,'al') I'l! :c lR!W H, "(] IbOG 1R!!, JUOi I [JO! i IRf!O 1 R:):, IHxH l<';[JG ] .,.,--' I Min. II ,In (j.O() I). tlO I). (j. ( ll. :!n ., q -:! -,,-n.:!:! -(i. G!l 0 .:3;") .l,L) ;) .... .l.,,) (Y I'a 1') I s9.; 1!)O, 1 S ( I no;] 1 I'-<.;S 1 \. -,):--i. ) I DO(i lS0fl J900 ----PA,'HIA: ( 11) ( Ill) ( I ll) ( I 0) ( I 0) ( I ll) ( I () ( 10) ( 1 I) ( 1 ()) ( I 0 ) (J 0) :1\IPRlI. I..J I () 6;; 1J. >t ',(, H !1. Oil H -.) (i.!J 1 -() I 1 1 .0:; I U:! ., 0<) I I .' ) I ; ) I .. 0) :'II ax. .).til .) .J. j'] ---II.:!:! 1 1 -",., ll.-lH ],; .(1(; 1 n 1 -k') I .) .) .) .), I ,,",, .). ( -;-',,) -, -(Yea I') I ili!) J R i D IIli!l 1 900 I Hsl lDO() 11'-<.(0 J !)O I I !lUI) l S i!) 1 9 0(l I ( 0.00 1).00 o 00 :; (J:l I,: n .. 0.) .0.; -I -{' J (' 0 9 8 J ). ) ( Y ('a l' ) 1"iR2 IPO O ] R...;:! li-l.!1[) 1!l07 1 1 -] 000 1RRO L H-O 1 IUU1 ] noo. 1 NOT E : No in par enth es e s d en o t e l' cars o f o b s c r l'al i ol). I> Ki, ] 002 l!)O.I. ]004 1 000, 190 1.

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, CLIMATOLOCHOA"W DATA, CANAL ZONE, 1905. : w If\) ------. --------_____ J _AH_ _fE_ B._M...:..AR...:... DEC. MEAN OCI. ---SEP. Pressure "n "'l. ) 8 _.. u ._'n, .0) "n 0 -:1 CI ..... ("1. 1 :?!l,R l "'J 0-L, ,C'.I I ,n H" -OJ. ., Maximum Temperature Mi;,imum T .1 Mean Temperatura Rebtive Humidit)" Dew -, '" 'I" H.i n:J -, ,-I}(i '" I'; J 7 t OJ S') ilL 70 71 71 8 l. H 'V.n S t U !to ')' -91 'iti 7,; 02 -" SI.J Ul' .-, ')' -71 70 811, II R7 !JI 71 !I(I 70 7[), 1 H7 7l 70.6 SII,7 "'J .. 1 -" f I: it 'I Ii g; Wind-. Direction Wind--Velocity Sunshine--Per Cer.! X. II, K II-. N. W. X, \\" X. I\", X, ,,', !\" II'. X W X, IY. X. \y, ;0;, I';, X, \\'. ----Ij 1 .. '" 12 (ii .iU fit ) 11) s 7 .-\\,hilE' thl.' of PilllallHl i hig-h uu,l cnervating tlnring thc day, tho nights Ul'O co,"pal'atin'ly ('001 and n:(1'f'1;1Iing. Thc unirOl'mity of tf'UlPl'l'iltU('C jll' e \'ailillg' throughout tho Isthmu s is lilt'ikiugl Y illll);(ra(erl iu t llp l l.'col'll of fiCty-'ix cifh' s :\1\(1 tOl\'115 situated in part of lhe 'oulltr,)", !:>Ol1lC 011 th' Caribbean coast, 1-00111(1 on fh(' allli othpl's ill Illllltills in thc illterior. Th coolc:4 tOWII follo\\",; a lUCllU tl'mpl'ratlll'c of II ---,-,----" " " --r, 7 6 HI '. -, L' .j 1 'I' 811 :;1 'j') -,-0-1 .. ...
PAGE 360

r------------------------, I 343 ----TUI:! fIlcH pn.\DE ,JeWEL.RY O F TUB JS1 HMUS. --,.'7--.: .. r .. -- .. .. '-' .. D o YOll want to make: a nice present? YEo? T O th e "-Sw i ss Na 87 Central Ave. PANAMA, R. P. .. OF Tlri': I-:l l tO I'EAX L'()XtiTXXTLY IX :STO(;K cti III i l'om "Pi1ll3nl:\ 1 \ l tc hwurk i s repl'ilit e d with the kinu flc<'onic(1 the publisl H'l', by the :Iulhol' priol' to hi s deat h At the tim e t he lJ il.:CC was \\l'iIt (n. the nB.Il1 C "(,hagn'':; '' was hnl'dly olle to t"OlljIU'(' with. It was ;).s:;ociated with (('n-l's, and all lIl,-lllli el' of e,"il. t!t(' uame has so me of its p otCll('Y mystidf:m, alth()l1gh a.t. lh(' lu'es('llt tinH', l h(' tClTitol'yof thl! Uppt;'I' Chagl'l's i s l'''}!i .111 unknown, allu as i t lIIay u'"cn the tl'UC source o f thc riw'l', tieJl:tinctl to 11(" t iL(' grea t f C t;'d(:l of i ... :\8 ,n t The so <:all<'(1 "Clmgl'es Jeyel'" i s lIothing 1II01'e ,ban nil agl:,'T:I\';ttl'd typ e o f malaria. I 11, .. (;l"lgn'l< 1:,,,,-1' \ /'HII \ htl\ 10.::1(1 I'HI,,:!!h .. '1'<1 l II" ft','l j ); d"n,lly ],j'I-Pl.-f<, T o m:,I:u'iu'" .. '1 hr"alh llt ,,,,, ,,,\the tropit' fn);':l1' ill Id" l:1il' \lId 1IIIIIllr"'\ d:mgt'I'S IIiol( ill Ih. nil', B.-him ] ,11(' I"nll, I" HI'lIe.,11I till.' .\, .... cn,r'pl't)\"lIt Of:\ million d if{cren tln'\!(:\!:s I

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344 P ilot awl Guide, 2. UI'\"OIl.\ till' (l.:!'I ,j.\ !:in' r 0 palh!! furo : "'f Ullkn!l\\"lI I ill. rt .. pitlc) '1ll'Hlh .. ad. A '11('(1111 "H,'11 f1 h.,\"<, III<' Jli" I":ol rtl uau'lud 1 ,11\ ... .\II,t 10 hi .. 110><"111 JJ is :':11,:"t ellfvl [ B.,yo lld III.' .. niH' r TI" .. lh. .\1'1' l,alill> 111:11 1.'1111 Iv 1110111111111111 O f 11111"<'''' \ '11'':':;11 gul, l ; Bill IllY th'm ellll\'i .'tilw, W IIII" \ ," 1:11.'11 ,110"\ 1 11. ] hUI Iwn,wllil" 1:;,,1' .\11 l':lt118 11';14 stl":li;!itt Iv I..II:U ---,,_ ....... ---Tho trC':1ty pro\'id('s th;lt tIl(' C:1llal Zon e s1l;111 extC'Jul from lhc ;)-11111( l imit ill th e \tJan tic OCl'UIl 10 the lilllit ill th e P,l(.:ific O"C'all ;'111(\ to the disiall(,C' (If fire luil(':) 011 (lither sid e 01' the ('{'ntC'r iillf' (d' the C:111al. B r thl' ag rcrllwllt (>l1tt-'l'(,d illto by Urn D;l\ 'is, t llC'1l Uo\'C'rnol' of the en.nill Z OIH', JllII )"rprc::;cnb ti\' ('s of the P,lIlama Go\' ernl1l(,Jlt, 011 .Julle 1,-" 1 001, tiw l illlits of lh o Z Olle w(']"(' p1'O\'isionnlly d e lcl'tllillt 'tl with l'cf(lJ"(lllt'c to thc renter l ine o f sen.-Imcl calla l jll'(ljcctC'd by t he V],C'llch c:ln ; d compa n y 1 n ;t fo\\' l ocalitic8, wi1l']"c it IW(;;llllC ill ordel' to settl e p(,ll(llllg the prrwi siolla l limit s \\'('1'0 IO(,<1Ll'll and llWI'ke(i, h y jnill l adioll (.If htlllC authorities and P:\Jl;lllln. hclI lh(' C(,llt('1' lill(' o f Ihe In.k (,:1n:ti to be huill hy th o Sl:llrs waS 1(H'all'l1. it ht' t';ltIll t o dekl'lllill(, :tlld 11I('<.\t(1 thf' p r'I'IIl:1JlCllt bl)\UHI:ll'Y lillI'S of th e i ZOllC', "fOre Jln' p ar e d h)' th e (';\11:'11 00111-Illis"jotl !'h o win g l1w IlroP():owd pl'l'lll:lIwllt h oun dary l ilH'S, and wer e t u IiiI' Panama (;O\"l'\"lIllH'lIt. ",hidl 3 rcc plld lli ('Ill. .Joinl p:lI,til's 1111(\l' I din'C"li oli {If (lugi IIP('rs n 'llI'{'Sl'l1tin g 1 ';111i11ll'\ ,nul Ihl' ( 'oile d :-:l all's, \\l're pllt ill Ih e l i l'ld I'llI' Ihr' of I ')l'aling thl lin c! iI)o. )o.ho\\,11 (m Llmsc lItaps. 11110 1111(,'" \\ 111('11 h :I\'u !lO W \)rt'll l oci,tcd ('(ll1si& t of a. surc l 's..,ioll l l f l:lllgcnls, in:;t{,;HI o f ('111'\,(':' :1<; did the pr o\isioll:ll bnulldary linl' s .It is propoo::.ed to 1ll;\I k the' iut o]':; dioll o f Ihe lallgcllts by C(IIl Cl"clc IllOIllII1lCllts, .wel .. -........ ---.--. ... _--

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UH{'7c SOIll',9 1 st'III/iall Jlollwill, 3 4 5 ---where th e b o u l\daries illt'r scc t s t rca m s fllH.l ronds, h y iroll pipe$;. 'The pro ri sio llal b o tllldarirs o f th e {'itics alld hn.rOOI'S of P "II!lllla aliLl Cololl, which are exrepwd from til c Callal b y the trraty firc !-;till obscl'\'cci, a l tho\lglJ it i s expecte d tiJa t h c f o rc I01lg th e p e rm;lllcllt h OUlillal'Y lillcs of th esc cilirs and h arho r s will b e d ctl'l'lllillr d thus d e finitely sottling the qucstiol1. The lin e oE d elll:1l'cnlioll hl't\\' ('ell lhe Canal Z one and the city of P;lIlama i s at present fixed a s follows:-"B('ginnin g at slake s('t l11)ove high-wnt<"1' ll1:\I'k on Ihe extl'emily of the Punta. Paitilla, Oil the :-hol'(1 of Ihl' of Panama, which l'Oit,t i s 011 the rnal'gill of thl' llilrbol' of the eity of Panama, thenl'c northr,..!." 10 ft stak(' )ol(,t Ileal' tlw of Ceno Pelado, saill cel'I O ( hill ) bl.'ing lIho ul 011(' huncll'c:d met!'!;'f' to the SOUlu of tho H,lvannah l'oatI illlt\ a.i/ollt f'ighler-n 11101111'(>11 llll'tl'0S to thf! westward o f Caledonia Bl'i dgl'j th(>llo:e w f'steriy in a straight liBe to a. stilke ad o n the !Su mmit o f Cerro ('01'111](111, whicll is fotitnatcd on right b,Ulk of the rin;:l' of the same name, n eal' wh('\' e !olIid str(' plant to Coroz:l.l; tllt-m'e.: in It s traight line i n a. dil'('diOJ1, eros;.;iog the raih'oa d tru(,ks \ 0 the La. Bo('a jlllH'lion, t o a. stake> at tll(' sOllth east.cOl'llCI' of the tl'act of bmd hcloHging 1 0 the t;nitl'll <-ailed L a Section, w hi('ll stake is on the n orth side of Ihe 1'0allJelLdiug from P a n ama to the T }nited States hospital on the ;.;Jope of AnCOIl Hill j thell ce i ll It s tl':"I.ight line across the fields and meadows and passing about 011(' m etre to the no:,tb of the springhouse known as Chol'l'illo to a stake abont I;; metres to the west of spl'inghousc, set on thc north of the roatl l ending Irom Pa.lHlIlHt 10 La Hoca; t henc(' in n line aerOa!; the L a Boca roali 10 2. Sblkc set jUf't abo\-e high.walC!' mark at thc cx1.rclllity of the point known as the Punta ;\[al a on tho !'o(h ol'c of Pauamn, BfL, y Rnd opposite the Island of Ga,bila n," All of th e arca cn c l osed Oil three s iu(' s IJv the h oull d a r ies describ e d anel on th e fourth s id e th e s h o r el i n c o f Panama. h r u 'bor fr om l)unltl. M a 1<1 to Punta. P ai lilla, con stituting th e city of Pil,n a m a a nd tho h a rb o r adj;lcent silu ate d be-t ween th e sa id h e adl all d s or p oinl ... are ullder the jurisdi c t'on of t h e R e publi c oE P am)lIIa All oE lh a t p ortion of the o ld mu nicipa l di s tri c t of Panama w h ich is within fhe stalut e miles of th e centre line, o r axiR of the C,lIlal, :l1lc1 which is not in c lud e d \\-ilhin l he city l imi t s ahove c1es scribed, has b ee n recog n izr d b y Ilmtu r d agl'c('ment of the aulhorilies of the United Staies and o f those of P anama. as

PAGE 363

, I 346 r ilat and Guide. ... -,,, EO -& = b r l ongi n g to tho j urisdidi oll of lh e lJllit c d States. r r he isl and s of N P eri co, Il'lamel1t;o, 'l'ol'to i a an d Changal'lIi :1l"e i n lim Calla l ZOllf', whil e the isl311ds of ]\lL.IOga. nlll l 'l'nbognil1il. arc under the snl o jUl'is dirtion o f P a nfim ;t, The provi siona l lJollnd:lI',Y lines of th e city and har bor of Colol1 i s as follows: -"Beginning at:l sta1.!' siHlRleli lit Ivw wate r mark ou thl' nOltlu :l' n :-:hol' c o f Bv(:;l (,hien, 01' Folks HiYCI", : 1 1 a jloillt .}O to ru e (-a !)!' wa\'d of the l"cnl,'C lint' of tht-llIaill tl"ll(:k o r t h e P ltlUl lfla Hllill'o:lU,. n e al' whel'(' :,:1il1 J'aill'oltll ,.'ntE'I":il-11]1011 tlH' (:a!l s cwa,'" !'=aid R o(-t\ Chictl 10W:11"(1 tbe south, the:l('\' iu ;1 (:H]"Vt.'U li llE'. a l \\,:l.r1> Pllf llllc i 10 the C('ulrl' li n e of the main 11':.(;).: o[ th" Palllllll:l Haill'oad, lowtu'll the city of Colon :md ah'llY, .. aL fhp uniform of .-)lI IIIc l l'('''; fmm "idd (' \ 'ulrl' lim.:, 10 a poiut wllt'!'l' the e11l'\t'l l li lll parnllpl with th c l'aill'ond fl'Ht'k ;o.llilll illlt"'l'.,"el th. ("'ntl'" Jill" of Htrl'l, c a lled l:olinll' SII'I,cl, "il,\ .tI 1 \,1 "\1: liwlIl'I'. 1'1,llul l 'ing s:1i,1 C"lltl'C Jilw of B{)lh' ; u' :-511,(',,1, t o tl,I' illlt'I'1'('li(,u Ihcl'l'o[ \lilh Iht: ('eull'!' Jim' of E I('\'I' l l l h .. /'I in thc saitl ('il \' of COIOII: th"IH'1' ill thc l 'lIil'i' lilw ot' $1; 1 I;lt'\'{>' lth \ \'{';.,It" l r to the <;Ilo!",' of Limon tht'I IC('. f ollowing" th" low watt'I' !,,\,(, j o f L i mon BlIr, a l o n g the Sllt, I'I' Iilwl'f La ( '0'11' I'kiil to lL poiut on :.aill Hhol'tl lint>, a 1 If)\\' waLel' mark of the :-;;(11If' 1 1 ;1'.-<: 11:-; Wf':.l !J[ tlif' mOll 11-mClIt of Columbu .. 11/'-.iC'I'11 t'x tl'l 'mity t of l '(I'l'c P I/in: thence ill ;1 "t!',lig-lll Jiu t' dill..' \ \'(':" Limo ll Bn:-; It) Ilh' shore t!If"'(>of: tlwlIl'e 1l00'rlwl'ly ("ill/I I ill!.r Ihl' IOWII'MpI :
PAGE 364

, nH:lc Sam' s I StJlIlI;flll ])O/lln;lI. 347 _t. _. ----( ) [I = Fe Importer of fine hand-!:1ade Ccl:;mbian Cigars_ :\1 THt; 1 '}o;I.I::IIII.\T: I) IIIGIl l II ,\In:: TOJ.\CCOS 0 1 "AST ......... -In;,t A:'[\ ,nIIlALI.ll \ IS" Tli I U : I'l' IU .l(' 0 1' COl.Q '\II1IA 'V'V"HOLESALE AKD :R.ETAIL, "'Ii," Tilt: :.:E I.I('ICJC'" lO:- at pres-cllt are Empil'C', GOl'gOIJU and Cl isto bal. rJ'he gl';lnling o f liquor l ice n ses i ll th o Z one is directly Hilde r the contr{J1 o f t h e Commissi o n and sa loons :11'0 on l y nllowed at cer t ain poillts. ':rhe allilua l lic e nse is $ 1.200, r. S currency, rrhiJ'ty-f
PAGE 365

, 348 P ilot /Ill G.til1 c number of agricultural leases in llle Cana l Z one during the fiscn l Y(,:11' of 1907 ha s dccl'f'asrd, instead o f increasrd. as was expect eLl. fl'hc I'eason for thIs is H ot appare nt utt!rss it is that th e r etUl'IIS from ng-ric ulturai ('11-hires arc slow, and r e quire' an amo llnt oE capital which th{' small illr cs L o r who WQuill l'llg agc in incirp cndcn t pursuits in th e t ro pics is not p re p:1l'ctl to furnish; d o ubtless. i t is also partl y du e to I he f1\('t that l'c illuneratirc employment call always ue sqctll'c d 011 the call:d works. ':Phc r e du ctio n ill th e Ilumu c r of l eases h as [llso h0cn du e to some exlcnt I to th e Cflllccli:1ti(l1l oE I C;U;l'S Ot! watctrshl:ds, draining illto I r esenoirs whidl furni s h the wHlrl' supply f ur t OWIIS all(l villag es all the ThrC'c walcl'!:iill'ds h :IVC ucell CIItirely clcnrcd uf human h : \bit al.ion. allti no IC:1ses fIr e IIOW mad e in t h o yicilli t y o f wiLlHIllt l'dl'Il'IlCC to th e Sanibr), D e partm ent for [Ippl'o\ 'a i as to IOC:ltioll. In viow of th o fact that IHflnj' roach; llnd trai l s ha,\'o peen o pen e d ill the :ui1llinistr:lli\'o v i .\JlCUII, Emp Ol'allOi nnd tht,L'o i s ('\'cr)' rr:lspn to b ciic\{' th o Humbe r of agr i c ulhllai l eases will increase during tlte PI'CSCHt fisc'al ),cnt', as tiwro i s IlOW nyaiirlble a large : : un o uut o f \,:llu:lhlo agric ultural lnllll which hilS h ithcrto !Jeen illac cessiblc. The t 0 tal JlllllliJcr o f it' ascs f o r building Jots in f o r ce oil .JUIlO :W, 190i, Wa!; lin. ; J1If1 fol' :lgl'icllilu1';iI lands, t;:3 j th o leases f o r ngl' i c ultul'al lands c:oH'l'ing hectarcs of blld. Ah out 5') !-;qu:l1\' miles of land in the W:l.S PUl'dl!lSC:lI1Y. antl l;-,!) S'jlli ll'C' miles '\as a c quir e d flOll1 P anama ulIdL'1' the tn'aty. }IUl'il vI' this land will h o require d for cons tru ctio n purp oses alltl a large part o f it "ill b e 8 uhllll'l'grd b y till lakes f o rmed hy the canal. autho rit y 1'01' Il'lIs-illg L'1:' is f o 11 1111 ill the A(t of Congress :lppro\'{d .Iul y :IN. I':--H2. the H cc rctClI'j' o f \Var t o il':t!-;(,. for a pl'l'iod 1I(,t t'\cl'r dillg fhe years allli rorocab l o :It allY tillH'. I)1'OJlClty of tlit, l 'nilC'l1 Hlrtt l:i undcr I,i s co ntrol. H! !Li not J'(''1ui n:-d f ol' publ ic u!-'('.

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349 The land ia". o r th e l"nit e d S l a l es d o not a ppl y to, lh e 0 ;111:\1 .% 011(,; ,l1ltl the land l aws o f Pilllan u l ill force ill th e % Oll{, lile l i m o o f i t s t o t he l 'ni l e d nr c n ot ; lp plit',lhlc to th e con d i t i ons i ll th e Y.;OIlC. ''It i s b e lieved." (:O H I n o r Biac k buill ill his officia l I'r p o l't. ,that a s SOUIi a s i t i s p ossih l e t o d c Le'l'mill(, with 1'('asol1ahlc certainly th e 1 ;\11(.18 th ,lt will b e r e qu i r e d f oJ' C,lIt:tI p u rp oses o n the lsthmus, th e rC'lllailling 1c1lHI s !lhoul d h e opene d t o cul tivation : \Ild SCtllClllCl1 t und o r som e that will .'lSSIII"C perm alle nt t ellu r e t o p e r solls dpl-ii ring t o secu re it. A great d ca l o f puh lic hllld ill tl lf' C all,ll Z OllO is o(:clIpit'l l by squatle r s who h ayo b o rll all th e land for IltiWy years, with out leg-:lI r i g ht. These p ersolls a r c n o t cxcept whe r o th e i r ol'f'up atioll o C th(' h lll d inter f e r es with tilc call al \York. COllsiticmhlc lfwd ill the ZllllC claime d by p ri"ilte p e rsol1s is. it i s IJciirred llctu nlly Jluhl ic bud. T he t i tks t o su c h land "will b c adj u i.1itateu in t he cou rts. 'l'ill' new Co d c o f eiyi l Proced ure lI'o \ 'i des :t simple method o f t es t i n g titles ill su c h c a ses. ,. The oWller 3 b i p o C land ill th c C a nal .%;O lll is as f o l lows: Owned b .... Ihf' Lllitc( l Htatt,.:., \ Y pUI'dHlSe fl'om the i'ew!'l:,ulillilil Cau,lI ( '01ll}>1\1I)'. "." .. ".,."." OI\ I!('Cll, .... the l"nithl :--;',11(''::, hy ( 'oJlllt:,mnlltion nml pm'ciJa"e, tlll.' pl'o\"i"iollllltldilllitalioJl of til Z o n e .... .. ... ... ... .. Puulic 1:11111 11t'1'] hI' r uilt't l Shl t(':s I ,, ('P ... ,.:.iOll f roUl f'anillll
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350 Pilof (lud G l/ide. thf':;(, lllH1 a lso t o tal 1'(lcC'ipt s and C'xpcllIl itures for the Ii ,,,tl .rcal's. 1 l l O :;' I lJOG, amI I n07: -Fill< -; aull L iqllot-lil-('Il:
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1 'nIt'hi"y Ca./(If ZI)I!f' j 'OIlt1" 851 N o,",," Is tJle Right Tjn,e T o Chola F:mni ng, fru if, Gra.sitlg T imbe r and M ine r a l Lands. TRACTS FROx.-r: 6 to 5 000 ACRES FOR SALE. "UIIII' ;l1nrkd, ",'uter'l'r'llu;,;port,,'lou, Nomina l ( "'al r L'lho:, Exct")'cnl Cllmlll., "",11:11, \h .. in' (ImHll \l1u\"inl /jot.! n ul C l 1 [,,'r P r (\JI"IIi .. (July 1'1:0[' 1':1:1'[1:.., \\ I T II I'I.1:FJ';C'J' '1'1 [LE'; n,\XIIlXD, W rite for information to J a ClI nt' I, C onsnltlng, Civil ani Milling Engliln lEJ. 1-.1.;;, PANAMA & AGUADUL CE. De{'C'mher to .Jall, :")th illc Di,lhc1:1Y: the work Il"eccuing East(ll' BUlld:I)" and D ecorati o n D:lY T hr !-'t"iw(ll:-; l'('(qwJlrd O ct obcr 1. 1 n07, \,ifiI :! I ill 0P('\ati oll The school,; for childr e n :lr(' 1 (11,::11('(/ :It 1,: 1 H oc;, .. \lIcon, I ( ,tlr o ) liguC'l, PUl"aiso. (;u it 'IJl' a, F:ll ljlin' Cascad:l=-. (:urgouil (:atun am i Cri"toh:ll. 'J'he f o r culmcd thildn'lI hare bel'1I E'!-;t;lhlislle d nt L a Boen Las Sab:lII;00, J')qO alil l "I LO pOl' m Ollti" [;, i-i, ('111'_ r C ll cj' f c)\" lJilir months in th o ycn!". r rCac!u.'1'S for the \\hite sch oo l s ha,e he(,lIcar e fully from th o llla llj' app \iratiolls for appoint1llC'1It. pn' f{,\'C'llcc b oing giH'1l t o t hose: witli IIIJ\"l11nl selio o l traiuing and p\"c-:------------------------------

PAGE 369

\'iolls experience ill th e L nited titates. Ali but four of the teather s c mploycli f o r the whit o schoo l s h:wc had such ex- pertClleo. '!'he col o r ed schools are in c hal'geof t.ho m ost e fficient 11.1ti\"'c and \Vest lndi;lll t eache r s th a t it is to attract t o the senice, :J neI Romo d e la y h;ls bOPll ('xper i enccd ill o p e nin g thpso schools b y tho r eason uf tho diffi c ulty in sccuring prop erly qu alified colored teachers. All o[ the colotrd t cac h ers clrO from the "Test I1ldies or Panama rnlC l 'nrolllllc lll of pupils ill lil c white sch ools f o r Norembel'. I was : aYCl'age dailj :lttendHllc(', :l11 EIl rolltllcnt ill .:olol'od scllooh-. 101 !): a\"el'ilge daily attt'lldaltCC 7 30 rrhe !o;thools are d ivide d illio eight g rades. ill conformity "itl! the simi lfl..r orga nization o f elem e ntar y schools ill tile llnit c d f::itatcs. 'l'h e CUITicullll1l includes reading, writing, grammnl', geogra l hy: (llt'lIlent:lI'Y physiOlogy al1d fr ce-hi.lnd dr;).wing. ]11 a dd itio n t o the' inst!'uttio n ill these' subjects, Engli sh-s p eaking children are tau ght Spalli;-;ill and t:ip:1llishs p cakillg childr e n arc taught English. .Fo!' w hite childr e n who am too f i ll' a d vance d f o r th o e lclllC'llL
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353 tlr c fnrni h e d t o th(' ehilu\,f'1) f ree of c h nl'gr .:\0 expellse is t o he incurred hy c hildr e n o f the Canal ZOIlC' atten d ing the school!:;. exccpt :l n omina l c hal' ge for the Illut i l atlon or 1088 of b ooks o r oth e r p roper t y l'L'sulting from the pupil' s carelessness o r IIcgligence It the nim o f th e Diyisi(lll o f Schools t o prm idc fot' the childrell o f Am ericall p nl'('llts instructioll sim i l:!l tn th:lt \\hit'h thr,y wOIII<1 rfl'('ei,r in the Jlllhli('sehools of the Rt:lte'i ill (lI'dt ,\, that tla'.\' 111;1)" lIot 11(' It:lIIdicapp rtl lIy 1'(,:15011 of thf'i!' tt IlIjl(\r:IIJ I't'!--idcllce ( I II th-:-,11111 to pl'o r i d e f o r "'lti\'(1 t hildn.'11 1'C'!-.iti('l1t withi n till' h(lne :\IIc1 riJiltll'f'1l of til p nJll1ll1issirlll'S \rl'!--t ] lIdian !:thor('\':-) !-.u('h :\!' 111(',)' Illight oJlfai ll il l lilC' R epublic III' {';I1lillll ... or ill th l'ir ll:diH' :\11', Davit! r. O'Collnor ib illtl'lIdt'lit o f ("lila I Sdwuis. L ---ill;{ 1lC't'(1 ill thl' ('i l il'S Ot' P;lJl:1lll:t al1( l C.doll W:IS <111 ;Hit, qllate water s uppl r The il1h aiJitclnls Wl'!'e: drp('I1 ;iltl'l' t lte o f dlY w(';\111I'1' the:-.o wcrt' of 110 furlill'l' 11"('. nllt! th e ]1('01'1(' holll tn t o the (/f/ll(frlon'.Ii, l 'lll' hlXl11'Y of :l dHdy iJ:lth ('
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I I 354 rilot mul Guide. -- G e nera l Impor t e r and Comm iss ion M e rc h a nt. Xo. -18 Front Street, ( O LOX, H cpublic o f Panama. l"'cleg-n. \ phic A c l ci ress: "BHUUN" A. t<. C. CODE 5th scml, the Honr o f tho hahiLilioll: fuurth ;I1H .l i:lslly u:-;c:d in off the sido walk ill front. ,"hell the Comm i ssion first gl'flpplt'tl tho SUbjNt i t }ll'lIpol:;C'l 1 to cnllstruet;1 dam and 1'C':.;crw'lir 011 th e Juall D inl. :1 clC',11" mountai n slrC;ll1l abollt finer!! mi les frolll P an;\ln:l. 111It tIff thC' litH' of l'aill'o:td. T h e i':lIlam a (jO\Cl"I1Ill(,llt \\':l:-i bl'gt'l y ill f,l\'oJ' of this plall. On :l('(,Olillt of it." :tl'(:f'ssihility. th e plait (If hui ldillg ;1 1t'-';(,l"Yoil' at Hill Glaude NIlj)f'l'ior t o SllP\'\Y th e city of POI lla ma, ;[1111 intC'l'lllcdiioll was ol'ganizP( l f ot' this work atld !1 corp" of 11\ ( II sent d own ill '-Iul,". 1 !lO,1. ill cli;tl'gf' of Carleton K 'l'hc ele p nlltll(,lIi \\a'i the'll 1';1\0\\'11 as tla' o f \\'alrr \\'orks and aft('r"':\1'l h -\\',,{t' l' \\'o rks. ;--;l'wcr ... :Iud H'J;Jd!o<. ami ai 111(' of :Jl u l li e ii);I\ E!lgiIlCl' l'ltlg. \\"at el' WilS the I'c('piL' (If 1'''1111111:1 on th e 1"(ll1l'l!1 of .r oly. I !l()\ ;1I1l1 tIl(' W;I'\ f11l fill!" l. I 'h e uc;c;,.,ioll :ll'pr411'1 i ;'tt'i y n'it'j,ratC' d tlte II/('al l;rC' lip l' al't llh'lIl tUl'lling !lilt ;lIl d making :l tl':-.l of th" h ydl'ant<.;, T he \\urk nf pining :lIld !S(' \\'cring' liw o f !'''Ilama and Cohnl \\;ti (,:lrri:, d 0\11 hy this de p a rtmt'nt. (I11t'lllli"lIs h ;l\ illg pl';Lctically I1l'(' II Im .. ll lr:1tt tf) ; 1 riose 011 :\ort' lIlh<,1' I, I HOi' .. The Hiu (jr;l ll dc !'lst.'no;!' ,,!til'll P itllamil and pnill t s bl'l,\\('t'll li.,-, d ir('ctly 1111 i11f' raiit'l);ul I t'll lniles 1'1'(1111 III!' l'i!.r. I t'! tll'igilla l ( '
PAGE 372

I 'flw W llf,)" SIfJlply. 355 llgU supply. The l'C':;;CITOil' has l'l'Cf'lItiy been C'1l):t1W!l 10 h old g;d l olls. Tho w;liL'!' is ('oJ1\"(-'JHI ilu'(Ju!.dl I a l(ji nch ll1:"lill to :lnotlll"l' l;cSCl'roil' at ,\1}(,0 11. wlif'l'C' ,t if, filtereli alil l d istriiJuft'd through th r city mains. I 'lip w;lh'l' n t timps h as it cellI\' and t:l:-;tC') but !-;('\"(ll':d h,l\,f'-h C'rll Illade 1Iy c:qwl'Ls wlin st:lto that 111(' qu a lify o f t h e w:llrl' comp:ll'CS I',worahly with that inl'nico;h e d ,VnsllingtolJ, B altimore'. Cit..... :lilt( othl't' 'rho ohjrc t ioll:th l c olioI' and 1:1str is E-aid to he duo to t h e amo unt o [ harJnkss Illotiir C1'u::,l:\{'ca ftHIIl,j ill till' watel's o f all tro p ic;t\ co u ntries. 'rhe re is ;\ good dl':!! of fille Ril t h eld ill snc;;pCI1SiOIl. find it is fu..lrls;lhle to l)I)i l the W:ltCI' bef t l\'e for (il'inking P U I 111](' aY{,l'.lge (lail)' (,OIl5111llI'li (1I1 of waleI' in Pall:lllt:l during Xon' lllher, 1007. was 77n.:H.l7 gallons. flS wil h 7SS 0::q gallOllS ill 'xml'lllhC'l'. 1 HOG. J :his !'hO\n; i\ s111:111 falling off notwith s tandi ng the fnet th:lt il l XovellliJ{'r. 1 nOll. thl"1'(' w e r(' only U2.-' connecti o n s cOinp al'('d "'jth COIIII('('/iIIIlS i n Xovemhcl'. 1 \10,. The ('("ollomy ill consumpli on wIJl.!!,\' due t o the of mctel's 'rilc frnll' Empire to Bas Oll i.sp o illC"iu"i\(' is stlpplil'(l h y I he Call1.'lcilo 1 C'sel'roir. wi til a c;'1lacity o f :l?>{j.OOO,OOO galloll!oi. )Iatudlin .. J uan (;j';lIl{l e and :\bmei :l1'e supplie d fUl!ll a uf t;.'J.OOII.i}OO gillioll cilpilc ity. The citil's o f e llIott :\IIl l Cl'i:-.j,d)al arc fUJ"lIi:iIH:d frum th e HI'(cI.lIS Bronk r esc noil". th e (,:II':lCil." of whic;h 11 .. 15 l cccntly 1J{'f'll illCl"c flsr d to .) I X.16."),O(li) Wdl!llls. Plio Ilo rmal d:tily COIl'itlllll)tiuli ill Cololl lJet\\'l'C'1\ JOO.OOO a "d galillns. 011 X O\'C llIiJ CI' I. IDOi. tli('l'c hat l iJf'{,1l bill in tilt' city of P anallla lJ.: W lIli1(' s (.If wate r pipr. of \':lJ'iflllS n.1:? l1li l e s ill thL' city of ColCtll and 4:2H O IIld l's ill thl' Callal Z one'. ll111k ing a tota l o f 3D:>:? llIil{'s. During tllo period Ih el'e h ad bCEIi b id i n th o c ity n f Pall:lIl1:l. J 7 .4:0 milc') of !"cwcr p ipc; ill C olon :).80 IHiles. :11111 ill the Oallal :lH.l;) mile3, a. l o t a l o f i)') :3j. III P,1I1illll:l 1,8-1:0 b ouse cQullec fiullS had been m atle :lIJd ill CohIll &J9.

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( r -----Si're9
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. -The l stJHllian Watel' Slfpply. 357 FOR EXCURSIONS T O Pfj\RL I SLj\NDS, pnN nl'Hl fij\Y, aqd COj\ST P O I NTS, AP.PLY, OR WRITE TO .. ,-..-.. ... w.\ N o. lIt N'rt.h AV!'lU.e, FANAMA Only Firm all the Isthmus Catering to the Excursion Business. JJa[JII("/icelitly Equipped nelO Twin-Scl'!J/O Steamers t a be))11 t ill the sCl'oicc Ods year. I'b e re b ad beeD 1 3-1 fir e h ydrants pl a ced in Panama and 54 ill C o lon. During th e same p erio d t h ere had b een l aid in ama 0.1 mil es o f brick pav e ment s comprising 63,764 sq u a r e yard s, in streets ranging i n width from 1 3 to 35 feet j :3.03 mile'S of concrete a nd macadam pavements 67,62f) square yards, in s t ree ts r anging in width from 8 to 30 f ee t ; and 10.4 mi l es of curbing had been placed fn Co l o n 2,721 lin eal feet of brick pavement, comprisi ng 6,410 squar e yards, h a d b ee n laid j 3.2-1-mil es o f m acada m pavem ents, comprising 39,603 squar e yard s, in streets rangi ng i n widt h f rom 14 t o 44 fec t, and 7 3 miles o f c urb an d g u lt(', s h a d been inR talied. Th e fire p rotect i on furnish e d to the cit ies o f Panama and Col oll is equa l to that su ppli e d t o citi es o f sirnilal' si7.c a nywhere in tue w o rld Several r o ads h ave lJeen constru cted b y thi s Divi sion th!'oughout the Z o ne the princ ipal ones being as f ollows: Road fro m Panama t o L as Sabnnas, whic h is about f our miles in l ength; from Pana.m a to L a Bo ca, about three miles j a compl e t e system of r oads around the Hote l Tiv oli and Ancoll section; all necessa.ry highways at Cu i ebra, Empire, Las Oasca das, Bas Obispo, GOl'golla, P edro Mi gue l and a road from Mount H o p e to Cristobal. This divisio n is limI e r Commissi o n e r l{ oussea u an d under the direc t sup ervis i o n o f D ivision EnglUeer J. G. H o lcomb e _. -I I

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-358 P ilot allc1 Guide Public Works. In No\'e mb e r 190u, the position o f Vat e r Commis sione r was c reat e d which was c h a ng e d to Supe rintend e llt of Public Works on March 1, 1907, when the water and sewer syste m s turned over to that d e partment. Th e wOlk o f this office iucluu es the maint e n allce anLl o p e rati on of the watel' and sew e r syste m s and p av ing of the citiE."s o f Panama :lnd Colon j th e collection of wa.te r rents from p.rivate p a r tit,s supplied with water fr om the wat e r systems constructe d for Commissi(,11 purposes in th o Z o n e j the ill spec tion o f plumbing in C0l11mi5Sioil buildings i n the Z o ne; the COl1struction uf r oa d s and trails and oth e r improre m e nLs ill t h e ZOllO; the ope r ation and maintenance of s l aughtf'l' h o uses an d 1TI.lrknt.s in the Z o n e, str ee t lighting a n d mai u tcliance of publi c buildings. During tb e dry se ason cxten d ing fr o m 1906, t o 19 07, 37.31 miles o f roacls were const ru c t e d i ll th e Z o ne. rrhese inc lud ed n. (-mi l e trail from Panama C it y into the Z o ne, f o\lowin g tho old Cruces trail; a 5-mile trail from Pedro ThliguC'1 t o Arraijun; a tra i l fr o m EmpIre toward C h olTC'l'a; a. trail from Bas Obispo tow ard. Cruces; a macadamiz e d roa.tI from Culebra t o Empire; a trnil from Empire t o G o rgolla, and a B-mile trail fr o m MOlilit H ope t o the inte rior of the district of Cri s t o bal. The p resen t Superinte nd ent of Public V o rks is Mr. George L. Camp en ('annl ZOIlE' f'nstom s t h e p orts of .... .. --rrhe Cana l Z one is dividt'd into tw o c u s tom s distri cts known as Ancon and Cristo bal witb Anco n on th e P acific si d e, and Cristobal on --. -------_.--------.---. I I I I

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----'-------------RCI"C'lI1IC Elld of file Zone. 359 the Atlantic side. l'he iillf'S ell t cl'ing the p ort of Ancoll are the P ilCific Sh'HIll Ka\'ignti oll Company, pallia SudAmericana de Va pores and tho P
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--------------360 P ilot mid Gldde A ENS EN AT M I N'ERAL WATER FACTORY. COLEBRA, CA...."'O:AL ZONE. Q u a l ity /lig h t u p to the Mark, Give u s a Trial and be Convinced A dd re s s all i n qu i ries t o the above a t C u lebra C. Z. a nd twofift h s acres. The c h a r ge f o r t h e r e ntal of bu i ldiu g l o t s "aries i n accord a nce with t h e dero,il'a b i l ity of locatio n a ud the village i n whic h t b e lot i s sit u a t e d The am o uut colleclRd d ur i ng 1 906 fo r l aud r e n t, \\'as SS,597. 29 ; f o r bui ld ing rent, S3 1 S 95 ; for t h e fir st three q uart e rs o f 19 0 7 en d i n g Se p tembe r 30, l an d r ent, S6,663. 20 ; bui l ding r ent, $42 7.2 5. --Canal Zone P osts Th e P osta l Di visio n has se'f"eutee n pos t -o f fices as f ollo w s : A ne o n Statio n A A n con, Coroz.l B ohio, Bas Obis po, Cu l ebra Cris t o b a l E mpire, Gat u n G o r gona, L a B oca, La s Casca d a s M a t ac h in, P a r a i s o P edro Mi g u e l S an P ablo, an e l Tabel' nilla. 1.' here a r e i n this scnice o n e direc t o r o f posts, fifty gold, a nd twenty sil ver e mpl0.Yes. R eg i s tr} anI.! money orde r Hyst e m s h a v e been installe d i n e v ery post. officp, and direct service is bein g giv e n t o all points, b aUl foreign and dom estic. The m o ney orde r busin ess w as ('st ub lish ed in June, 1 906, and has bee n o n a s t ea dy i n c r e a se from its incept i on The m o ney o rd e r s i ss u e d payable ill th e Canal Z one a nd othe r poi nt s will r eac h a m o nthl y sum o f S350,000.OO. P os t age sal es for t h e ca l enda r yea r o f 1906, amounlR( 1 to S42,197.04, for the ca l en d a r yea r endi ng Decomber 31, 1 90 7 to $67 ,559 7 7 In accor d ance w ith Exec u tiYe orde r of D ecem b e r 3, 1 904, the 'tnmp s used ill th e Can a l Zone posta l service are s tamp s o f t h e R e p ublico Pana m a surcharged with the wordR "Ca n a l Z o n e," whic h stamps Are

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-- --- = '. ., '"....:, >---" --c.:; 1""= --"" -'" ---R., I U.S.5hst Ql/ice q(fices-Cristobal. !J>anama. PJlR. .AII''' .:J'..ift'.q J. oAJIf.r!i#it;g.iJUI"IQII. :1t .JJknk_Jki .. / __ _____ ___ -. --, e 1 J

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362 l'iln! (l1It1 r;//iflc -p"rchn,rc l of lhe "utho, ities of lhe Hcpublic of }'''''''111'' at I 40 pel' CC'Ilt. of tiH'ir Y:llno. Dllnrlg th e Y(,OI1' 1 nOli. lherc wor o l'f'gistc rcd i II the Zono 7 :1,21 S d o m estic and ft)J'cigll l c ttpl' s al1d p'll'crl s Durillg the period J antHlry 1. 1 H07, to June 30, 1907, tht're werr. regi s t e r ed j:J,GOO domestic nnd foreign )ettpl"S and pal'c{'ls. 'I'h e f'ntil'e r en'llU('S coll('eted by the H<.'\'cuUC tlc p al'lJl1('d during the calendar 1 90T, nmouuted to $l86, tlh ided as follow!'; : Distillation tax ................... '. ...... .... $ :;,; 0 (j:-' L a ud rents....... ...... .. ............. ...... Building rents . . . . ... Liquor lict"llses.. ...... ......... ......... ..... .. 9,6;);;.0:) 1,700,;) -IO,bOO.OO Alll1liuistl'uti\'e districts.... .... ......... ... .. ... i.l.0.i1.:;.) ) IOlH'Y 01'11('1' f(>'s .............................. 1;\1 26.n.) Pos t al sales net Zone HCYellllt!S GO p'r cellt ..... 40,33.3.'\6 T otal Zone l'eve nu es ........... Administration of Estatc s Tho Collector or i s e:c-0.l./i cil} \ cl III i 11-i s tr;lt o r of EsttLtcs nm l 011 of d ecraseu Americ:lll rmployesof the b i thmian Call:ll COIll:1l1tl of tho P;lIlU Il1<1. Bailr oad Compa n y \\hoso os tale do IIot exceed ::;:;00 go ld. 'rile Di\' isioll of R erenurs. Customs ) and Lands is under th o sl1penis i o n of Col. :1\1". C(luke, itll hendQIl:1l'ters nt 1\ IICOn. 'rhe d e puty collectol''' flrc :1\11'. H A. Gu dgol'. AncolI :Jllrl l'f1' B. L. Bake!') Cristobal. I 'Plio P o lice D cp' \l'tmcill wa-; rl'ganizl'Cl ill )Ia., 1 no I, aflor tho biking of the C:uwl Z onel Ity tho AIllC'l'icClIIS. I n has jurisdiction 0\,('1' ami corcrs the enti r e I

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J -- fPo/iceSfation andJatl at !h11,:n;IJ" .( t?Sl $I .. './ '-::Advt!rfISillg .:A I -, '-----'-, 1 --------------' -

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l 'lw (; I/(I/'rlialllj' ,!r fill ZO)/e. 365 BE:v.r E D I 0 D E para ei Rtumalismo y Enfermedades d e la Piel. DE VENTA EN LA r ARMACIA CENTRAL, Manuel Espinosa B., Avenida Central, No. 1 30. erne d by th e main s tation sJ all s tati ons being i ll immediat e cha rge of a o r ser ge;lnt, who i s r e q uired to re port daily t o P olice H ea dquarter s All and out p osts arc a lso illllllediat e l y co 11 llcctCLl with P olice Hea.dquart e r s b y t elegrap h and t e leph o ne'. 'fh e present stro ngth o f tile fol'cC': is aile chie f of p o lice. aile c hief c lerk. six clerk s 0110 fir:,;t lie ut e n ant, aile seconu lieut e nant. t\\"el\'o se r geants twe nty cor po!'als, 8 0 firs t class policclIl(,lI. all of w h o m arc white, a nd eighty c o l o r ed policemen. 'rho unif orm worn b y thC' white office ri' i s kh; lki with regulati o n cclUlp:tign h at: that. worn by the col o r e d officer s i s J.;haki. wit h klwki IllIIIIC't. 'fhe sid e arms used arc th e r egu l a tion p olicelll
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366 FilM (wfl Gllir1e. .-All polico officers ill command of stations al'<', b y virtue of th e ir position, d e put y mar:::hals a.n d deputy COr Oilers, antI r eport direc t to P ulice l i c adqu31'ttjl.:::i, A IICOIl. -1 ----F or lll:lny. m:lll)' .\"(':11'':; jll'iul' If) flip :llhrllt of the COll<]uistaclul'cs, the PC;Ir! 1 ,,\:ll1d ... ,11, 1 :1'-\\'('re knowJl amI ('xplo ited fill' th t rich that. abollnded i ll the shoa l watC'rs off th e s holl', island s nil an:hil'clngo a nd l i e We'll nut ill B,'lY o f P:lllrtJllIl, about !lindy m i l es from P,U1anw C i t,\'. Tit "]''' arc in tlw lleighhol'huod (I[ J H i!-;\alJti!-; HIIU lUI] .. in the group. the I:ll'gcsL of \\"hich i s the hda dC'\ H f'y Ha.1l } l igu{'l, the Dilly tuw n o f consequence ill th e is loca te d o n this pC:1tl fisherie s have hOI,.\ worked mOrc 01' l ess Yiriol'Ousiy e\'el' since th e o l'cllp; di oll. alld t h o lls, anti s upon of bcautiful gems hare brell brought t'l li:.dlt. .\t th e preSCII( t i m e th e gro und s are not so prol itil\ and it is only IIOW and th ell thill tl JI(,:1ri of except ional value i s dis('o\'(-'r{'(1. r p l w p e arls f o und ill these j<,.jands :11'(' cl'e dited \rill! I!a\ 'illg i\ !-\u] )llrio r hrilli ;lIlCj' of lustl'C'. }.ml range ill ,,:liuC' ;111 th e \rot)' fr o m 10 'Pile' fi'ihillg" is d Olle r tililost (,lItirel,)' b y lIE'groes who l i\'c 011 thC' islands anl l dive fur th e Iwari-; in the lIlost primiti\( fashiun. u sual m e lh n d o f fishing is as 1'01 -I'cC}ching th e hank s "hich lie frlHll fifteen t o C'i gh tcC'1l fath o m s und el' ""lt er, th e d irer ties :1. rop e abo ut. his ho{h-. :'lnd with a SlIlfLlI weight attach e d t o his pe lson 1 0 filcililalc s inking, p lungc:-; out o f tho b oa t !-ilraight t o the h ottullI I landing i n the oyster b c d hl' se i zes and

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I Tile P ca/'l 1 ud//slry 'If l'lIIWtl/ff. ft 367 .1;. HAVE YOU A WANT? ) 1 IT ttr HAVE YOU LOST ANYTHING? HAVE YO U GOT A BUSINESS? I,'IIIE\',"', IN THO;:: to HAVE: YOU A HOUSE TO RENT? .\ .. HAVE YOU A GeOD / & H -IJ !-lAVE YOU A HEAD FOR ADVERTJS:NG?I eru u. r;: l 'It. 1 :l' fr 0 xc .(" J G :; ,! No. J6 SOUTH AVENUE, 3 'il.-e. .............. "'-. V ""'''' ......... .. _A./ .......... .., ..... ... ,,<; .......... .....-........ ;,r"' ............... "_,, "l.-..... ", .......... "' ... ......... ...v"l.. .... .s ...... J,)<''7k<;. tu cks OIW oys ter tllulr\' his tUIll, ilnd holding 011(' in c;)ch I)
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,--------------_.--------.--------368 Pilot a nd G I/ide At th e time of the Conquest: p earls were held in great estimation by natives in yarions of tbe X e w 'Vorlel. H cmundo de Soto f o und them in Florida where they were u se d t o 01'1lamcJlt the t o mbs of the I n d ia n princes. Gom
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= ." Tlu} Pew" I1I(111stry oJ P m/(l/JIl/ 369 furn OUtthB BBst BrBad MadB on thB Isthmus, QUALITV UNEXCELLED. Only Expert Employed, OUR BAKERIES NOTED FOR THEIR NEATNESS AND CLEANLINESS, H Ollse Deliveries Marte. Family Trade Solicited, E.AX:ERIES .AT P ANA II' Cor. E 131h SI & Norlh Av. EMP IRE' West St, & Cor, C and 14th St, Rai lroad Av, GARCIA BROTflfRS, Proprietor s a.mou n ting to some cle\"en ponnds wrre set as ide for th e monarch Philip II, rr'he di"ing operations at that peri o d w e r e under the c harge of all overseer, o r Arnlador A fast as they were brought up from the ocean's bell, a was lllflde) two oysters going to the Annada!': two to the di\ 'cr, while the fifth was apportioned to the King. of the Armadol' were opened first, and he had to usc the utmost vigilanc e for the direr had a knack of swa ll owing the most valuahle pearl aloug with the lire oys t e r which h e threw into his mouth with a dexterity d e f ying cle tecti oll. After the Armador's, the killg 's fifOl W;lS openecl, and lastly th e
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I 370 P ilQt alul G uicle. The u!';c of the cliying b e ll in cOllnection with the pend indu s try has been tri e d on scycral occasions, but with out sig nal nUccess. ----.. .,. .. -----ili a Th e most ('(lillc{' ill thr HC'puhlic of P:IIH1-is 1he> lI ew P ;\}'ca (Jf 0110 hlo c k b d\\,pcll An'lllle B. 'fh e pi-llne(' front s 011 t1w t hf':l t I'C on i \ -cnllC' 1 J. the hay frollt. COH'l'illg Ccntral :-\ \ '('1111{' and CClltr:d .. \ find rrJlC' strllcturC' \\' n s rOllllllf'IIC('d ill Ino;; a nd will he filli!;iwd ill the (';11'1), P;ll't {If 1 nOf':' Tlw ('stilllat<,d em;! tlt ('(ll11pl r tioll ; s go ld. 'rhe ciilll(,l1-sinlls of tilt' III i lt ling :1n' ;lp pl'Oxilll :ltciy h)' I u I fect. r p h c an.:hitcdllral sty l r is patte nll !(\ aftcr th o ltali a ,ll B": J Ull (' {' The principal 1'00111" ill the pa bce :11'" Ihe Prcsidl'lIt:-; o rAeC'. n'cC'pli oll Iw.ll I1tHl pnrl or. p riv,Ii( li\ing 01'-fiers o r th u bccretari es alld their sta f f o f hall of Co n g res s a nd rooms of lIle Xat:ollal T n ;ls ury. Iho mOllls will 11(-': ltaIH\s ollle \ y Illli:--hcd and /'ulnisIH' ti. Til l tllt'rll!'!' will 11<1\(-' :l s(': lling t:1P:l('il y of i.IOO. :11111 a t p l,,1 sea ting ;11ld standing t;lp;lcilr of ahout 1.tjOO. l ll\{' intel!rw con s truction is o f :lIlt! iron and tit e buildin g is a\).:;uiutpiy lil'r prollf. 'I' h e s t ;\ge is o f lllagn ilicC'nt siZt'. and w i ll flCCOllllllod,Ii (' tilr \;lrgc ... t co 1I1)l;1IIie::, now tran: .jing. 'rho s tage settings :ltltl equipmC'nt. til(-' mutal cur t ain are o f tho l:itrst Hlld lllO::.t nppl'o\ 'ed d c"ign '.L'hc curtain, as \\"(.'11 a s th e d t'co ratiH rff<-'cts On tli p cpilillg and foyer W(-'I'e paint e d h r the ,,'ell known arti!o:lt, i\[r. H olle d Lewis; it citiz e n of ]JalJ
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, ,-------------------------------------' --------------------------------------------------, I .. -PROYECTO DEL PALACIO DE G081ERNO Y TEATRO NACIONAL I ....................... ---- ,.. -, I -,

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372 P ilot mid C llide. BOTICA LIBRERIA. PI010 10 CoIMJOI, 01 Holel CenlJOI, Plillllmo, R P nr:OG.1S PIWI)UCTOS QUIM ICO:;, l lEIHCrNAS PATF.NTE, I'EHFllllEHIA Y Aln'I{;C LO S PARA nHOGU ISTAS, UTILES de ES n:JBIH, L1Hnos "Ii BLANCO. '1'AHJ E'l'A S POSTALES Y AHTlCUl.OS P .\i{A INGEN I EHO S Y AWI'lSTAS :lIATEHLAL P _\JlA ESCUEL J \S. Unicos A genfes d d Cde&iJdo aTE CEYLlNDon, y d e liJS tMAqllina s de Seriol r ,rrAME'1?ICAN". CH:OCOL.A.TES Y CONFITES. Venia C onstante de Sdlado y E slampiUu de Timbre N a t i on a l BENEDETTI Propietarios. SUCURSAL A,cnldu CentrK-l, No. 326. spent many } 'ears at Paris i n th e interest of his w o rk. 'l'h c a r e of s pecial design, th e wor k of the ce l ebrate d Bonlnlli of Italy. Itali a n ta l ent wus also bro u g h t i nt o play ill cOJlll ectio n with the pai n ting o f t h e s tage scon e r y : th o seni ces o f Prof Agostini, n. ma s t e r of this art, h a v ing b ee n scc ur e d E oI' tho purpose Th e m a t te r has b een broac h e d of working up n. regular theatre c ir cuit for tJw wes t coast c itie s of So uth } \ m cl'ica. S h o uld thili com o to pass, Plln r mIa will bo r e prC'sC'lIletl in it, anu th e theatr e going publi c treate d t o th e best o p eras and pla ys tOlll'ing th o America s In v icw of th e l ong jumps that t o b c m a d e somc gO\ ornmcllts o f koutil Am cr i ca grant a s m all subsid y t o promi n ont lh eatri cal l'ompnllios, find in thi s Wflj' secure som o ex('optionally till e t a l e ni. fOlct hO\\,(>\'01', that Pnll:lll1a, 11M; an IIp-to-dato phljdlnl1lm wilt furnis h inducem ent to IIla n), o f these c ompani es who han' not h crotoforo includ e d tho I s tJllni a n ca pita l ill their itin e r a ries.

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_______ I" \_C _IO_ P "' _,,_rC_ _lIl{ l'ho buildin g was de s ign e d lI y 1\f1'. O. N. Ruggicri of Panama. and cons tru c ted ulld e r th e slIpcn' isioll of )11'. P. H. A rosemcn:l The contractors were AlessI's. S. (;ahl'i(" Duque and H amon Arias jl'. The d cco rali,' c paintC'r W;18 Mr. Ellrico COil rad o build ers arc to b e compliment e d 011 the excellence of their work, which will s tand as a. htst ing monum e n t to their cfforts I., ---Rut for th e tlt1timcly d e ath of thai farseeing slat('s ma,n, (,. th e Pali -Am erica n Hail way woul d donlltl es s now b e an acco llipli s h e d fa c t. 'rllf' sch e me, if H ot horn ill his hraill, was cer tainl y fath e red h y Hlai!l(, from the m o m elll),e b ecaille Secretary of State, )[1', A, ,J, Cassntt. form e r president of th e PCllllsyhania Rai lroad. was mncle c ha i rnu lli of lh e firs t commiUpo fr o m th e var i o u s American r e publics, and all went woll until death call1' d the prim e m over. Afte r Blain e s d e a th and during the Cleveland admini s trations, the Pan-Ame r ica n Railw ay f ell into innocuous dc!o)uetude, and not until ;t l ittle O\'er two yenl's ago, whcn Andre w Oarnegie offered to finan ce th e und e rtakin g, llid it COIlW to life ngain. 1\1 ... Carnegie pro \ ided the m oney to scnd commissio ncr s to consu lt with the vari o us South Ame r ica .1I rc publi cs inter este d and th e amount n eccssary t o COlTect th e surveys mad e by the United States (iOYCrnmC"llt during 1\11' Blaine's hour of influence. Sinc e : Ml'. Carncgip llIade his generolls offe r th ere has b ee n considerahle shak ing up of dry bOlle railway proje c ts ill South Am erica, B o th the railway s of Argentina, ending at Bahia Bla n ca, an d those of Chile terminating at Valdi"ia, have mooted new pro

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374 Pilot mul GI/it1e. -jec t s for exten din g the Bouth Ame rican railway "yslc m southward toward the Straits of )Llgcllan and Capo H ol'll .About the Stl'il. ils go ld allel coa l abound) and wit h the ove r-in c reasing tid e o f immigrati on the t e mp e rate' cou ntries of SQuth Ame ri ca find that it p ays t o open lip new lancls h y the bu ilding of rai lroads. Argentina i s liD\\, co \ 'e r e d with a netw ork o f storl. w hil e new project s [l1'C c\'er form ing. A trunk lin c ex tends 1'1'0111 Buenos A yrf's to Jiual1uco o n th e 1>01'(lrl' of B oii'(ia. w h e r e contractors are at work cOlllle cting the 1'rans-Bo lirian r a ilway with the Argentina t o the sou th ancl at the same time huildi ngnorth"fI'ard to the P e ruvia.n railway that i s s lowl y making i t s way thl'ough that countr y But there is a ga p of o n e tho u sa nd mile8 between QIIZCO i n Peru and (:U
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diYertrci from Europe until today twothirds of the tmdc with ) rexico is with the gl'l"at r c pub lic o f tho 11(,rth. l'::rcl'Y yejll' the I States sends goods of greater \"11.1110 to ::\r exico; Central America and Panama thall th" t o t n l of the clltirC' exports to Routh America, which amounts to hut a s9ant $30.000:000. :;\1 r. Cal'll<'gic hclien:os that commerce follows the locomotire, and therofore he has promi sed that comm(,rcial drumm e rs will he able to SCOUl' the South American continent ill:;;ido of ten years via. the Pall.. .\merican Railway and its nunificntions It is n. great cOl1tl'act for one man to Ulllle rtflk(' the building of a railway. much of which must be above the clouds. .Never oefore has man encountered such engineering difficulties as tho::;e that confront the build e rs of the Andean lines: not eyen in constrllcting railways in the H imalayns of I ndia haxc such stupendous obstacles PI'Q sentt:'d themseiyc:,s. 'rile l owest trans-continenta l passC's i n the Aneles arC' highcr than the s ummit of )I:ont Blanc. Only siow-\YOl'king n a tiye s will be able to l abor in Ihis I'iIl'efic d atmosphcre, and many pa ssengers from seacoas t Irlllds will probably be compelled to take the journey in stages \\T atc r for III all, b('ast and l ocomotive will to be carried for hundr c d s of miles ill these high altitudes where spldom fa.lls. Great bl'irlges mll st span appar ently bottomless gulches, and tracks l aid alo n g the edge of precipices and ill Slooves cut in the mOllntainsid es. scen ery will he the most sublime erer spread h c fore tho ('.ye of mall but the panol':llll .. l. will cost the projectors o[tlle Pan-.:\ merican railway m ore than to produce ----In all the capita l s of Central and South Amrrica, none can boast of a better or more intelligeBt representation ill

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I 376 Z o iii If) :;) r ilo t ( 1 GI/id e CI c c c::I --.... -fl)l(,jg'll tiipi o lllali c and ('0118111111' se n ico lhilll PnmHll:l. TII(' tii"C'I'!;ity (If 1I;ltlo naiili es alld illlrrll:lliolial illt c n'!-.t:-; 11l\' u h c d ill th e con structio n o f th e grea.t c.anal has I('d 10:111c nppoinlm r llt by th e vari o u s of wide :lw a ko progl'cs",i, c 111011. Nat.ur a lly th e country Illos t interrs t rcl b y r e aS(JIl of c anal o p e rati o n s i s th o U lIitc d States, hich m a intain b oth a L e gation and a C o n s ulate General.

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-------------------------------P(lI/{fJII((' H })ipl"lIIatit CorjJs. 377 On October 20. 1 906 the Hon. H. G. Squi e rs was appointed to the important post of Pl enipotentiary ;lIld Em'oy E::draordillary DE the' States at Panama. to succeed Chas. E :\Jagooll. Squiers i s a. natiye of Uallnda. born April 20, 1 859 H e received n thorough mili tary traiuing, and entering the Unite d States Army on October 1 2 he was nppointcd Secon d Lie u tenant of tho Fir st Illfnntl'Y. and SPl'\'E'(l ill Dakota, taking part ill the Black Hill s expedition of 1 8 7 8 H e subsequently joined the Seycllth Cnitcd States Cavalry. as First Li e u tenant, at F ort ,.. atc" Dakota. I n th e fall of 18 85, Li eut. Sq u iers officiate d as Prof essor of M i lit ary Science and T actics at St. .rohn's College Fordham, :N Y., and as a testimonial of his (h c years' sen-ice at tlut.t institution, h e was honored with thc d cgrees of N A. anel L .L.D., i n JUlll', 1 905. In 1 b!)O. whe n trouble brok e o u t with t.he Indiaus in South Dakota. he rejoined his regime n t at Pine Ridg e A gency, and aftol' taking pn.rt ill a n ardu ous winter's campaig n the hostile Si o ux, h e sened on garrison dut y at F ort Hiley. Knnsas, unti l i\oycmber, 1 89 1 when he reo tired troll1 nn n y senice. ';\fr. Squicl's Iioid the position of Secretary o f the l -nitp d fltatls E,"bass)' at B erlin in 1 894, and in 1 898 during the Boxer troubles in China, he was Secretary t o the l'uit ecl States Legation at P('ki n During the P ekin siege, he ncted as Chief of Staff to Sir C harles :)Iacdonald. for which sen-ice h e receiycd thp tlJ:lnks of the Briti s h Gon? 'rnment. He was also Unite d S t atcs Plcnipot entiary and Envoy E xtraordina r y to Cuba. from tilO formal inauguration of that government ill 1 902 until he r es i gned the position i n Dec(,lllher, 1905 His r esidence and office i n P anama is at the America n L e gatio n corner of F o\nth St.
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:7orejgn !l)jplomatic Corps-.:Panama .9 .. Jbmlfln :AmericGro 4. .:Advo.rlt,&i"9 $JUNIlU .:If. $JiMkow.1ki. .. -" I I I I I

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,---------------------------------, PaM/mo'R IJiplolilatic C01'1'8. 379 in lSH;{: nud was nppointccl British vice co nsul at Pannlll3. 011 .J uly 1. }HRJ. H e WAS aftcrwards appointed consul, WiUl headqu:lrtcrs at Panama. for the Co l o mbian d epartments of Cauca. }\[ngdalcJl::l, B o li,'ar, and Panama. I.a.ter he was plaeed in cb<.Hge at. succcssiyc perio ds o f the British L egatio n at L ima, J)c ru, Quito, E c u ador. and Bogota, Colombia. 011 December 2-1,.1 he was appointed consu l fol' the Republic o C and ill 1907 he was Ilppointrd .1'finistf' l' R esident. ':rh(,lo i s probably not ft l'orC'ign represcnlHtiy(' in P:1Il:l111a lJcU e r YC'rsed ill Col umbian, or P;lll;lmtt affairs than Mr. Mall et. rrhc Brilish "ice cons ul. 1\11'. l!\ \ V l\fallllc:'s was appointed in ] aUliary, 1 HOS, und assumed cilar;.!'l) on .Tan 27 succeeding "J[r. 'l'IJOmas Hroadwood trallsferre d to Houma Ilia. Ege rt o n Shaw Humber, tJle p ro consul, W::5 up poilltccl Dec. l. lOO Anotiler populilr ami 0110 knowlI to all l't'sidC'lIts of POIlIaJn,I, is tile fInn. F'edrl"ico Alfo nso Pcz ct. who appointl'
PAGE 397

:=180 P ilot (llid CliMe. RESTAURANT. WILLIAM ARTHUR REID, Proprietor. C U L EBRA, Canal Zone. --_.+_.--GOOD SERVICE. ATTENTION. PRIC[S REASONABLE. d o n e muc h t o pl'Omote his cou ntry's illt(,l'est s i n a. l i t er;l r y wny. nmong his works heing 0110 cntitlecl Tho (:tuestioll o r t he P acific, in P hiludrlphi<1 i n H ) 09. and a. c ompil atioll of articles which n p ppn r('u i n tho .Ame ricnn p r ess wit h l'C'f rrcl1cc to the 'l'acna-A rica ('on h'oyer sy a lRo th e qucstion of illtC'rn :1lional nr h itr; l tioll, i n spirc d and III p art w r ittell hy ill III h ile consu l genera l ill En g l and, hE' was awarde d ill ISS! I h,' \Ibcr t o r I h o Socie t y o f Arts n.:l d Com merce 1'01' hiR WOl'k on P e rn. h e r Commcrce and J{ CSOII I'CC!:=) and has lC'ctu re d frequently be f o re c hamb ers o f commerce and oth er instit u tiolls in Englan d nnd America a l\\':1\'s in t.ho interl'sts of :ThJI'. A moltl S hHlIldin. [ t 8, cOH sul-genol'al, an d d e an o f th e cons ubr corps of Pflll:l.llI:1, wns a ppoint e d t o hig pr l'sc nt p osition 011 Hept('lllill'l' 1 tiO!>, illld took c h a rge o f th e office 011 'xoycmhrl' '27 of t h a t ),('ar su('('ce( lin g .Jud ge H, A w h o 11[\(1 fille d t h e position ill :Ill ablr mann e r 1'01' 1l1:11l'y YC':l1'8 1II'('\ioIl8, ) 11', Sha nklin was h o rn a t Cal'l'Olton, 1Il issoul'i, in al1ll1\1'.\', IRIi6. H e gmdun te d 1'1'0111 th e l aw d('pnrilllC'lIt of \V:I<.;hinglnll l'ni\,C'I':'iit,v a t St. J, ollis ill l1-iO!l, find fnllcl\\'C'd tilt' pmdic(' of law 1'01' a. lIumh e r o f ,Yr1-lI's. 11f' wns ('olllmissir ,l\el' t o l\rC'xico f o r th e pUI'('haM' r ,\po!-;ilioJl. Dlll'in g his I'eside n ce 011 th n I s thmlls, ) r,., 11;1<': mad e lIIallY \ \';\rnl fl'icmh;. both ill P an ama govcrnment anti cUllnl cir c l es 'rhe U. H. D e put y COIl-

PAGE 398

I l'l/)/(/JII(l'S lJipfolll(lfir (,'0/')1.'1. 381 -su i g(,llcra.l is Mr. Caspar L. Dreier of )'Ii ssouri appointed ill 1907. --rrhc haml of death r e moved 011(' o f the hest known COIIrt'prcscnlnt in's during the yeaI' ]!J07 DOli .Jeronimo OSS
PAGE 399

382 Pilot lIIu7 CIli(7e. -DIPLOMATIC CORPS ACCREDITED TO THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA Honorable TT. O. Sq u iel'''' ROil. Claude Cow'lIlry ) r allc t lion. Antonio cIa F ont al1l':l. X;'l.\"iel', A. J. d'Am:ll'al MUl'tinhn TlO ll. Henry Moet, 1101.1. Federico Alfollf!o Pezet, A I berlo Bl'ci'a.1l i Rossel, llOIl. F ede r ico Boyd, Envoy Extra Ol'tiill:l1'Y ano PJC'nipol ('111 iar)' o f the 1; n i tetl Stu tcs or Ameri('a. Jlis Rl'iHmnic :'Ilajpsty's 1\rini .'ltl'r h'e:,idcJJt Brazilian :'Ifiu i Rt{'1' SCl'l'Ct:1l'Y, Drazili:lll L(>gatioll. l"I'oneil Churge d').IT;lil'('s, 1'('I 'uvial} Charge u'.\tTail'('g. AUa.<:hl! Pertlvian L t'ga.lioll. CIHll'g(' l1'AO'llil'(,5. -ACCREDITED TO PANAMA, LIVIN G ELSEW HERE TIOIl, E. P ollet, Hon, J, H Reu s, )lini-;tel' R Cf;ident, wiih l'('sidcllC'(, in Guatemala. N (>1111' riaud s l\ l in isl el' H den t, w i I h l'(':-1ilh'llce ill Cftl'ft<:fH-!, CONSULAR CORPS ACCREDITED TO THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA, A 1"l1Ohl Silrll1 k Ii li'(' lix Ehrmnn, V. \\" B, n. }"illanql1C', Hamlin Ari[t!'1 P., Antonio B. Ag:H:io, Ul'ib(', AT l'A:{AMA, COllsnl O('ne l,ftl o[ j he Unit(ld of i\n H'l'ic:\, :11,,0 :1<'1:-1 ill ih(' iJltc'l'l':, t S of C'hiut\ lllltl (;1'('('(',-', (O('I1('ml of the Pili/cod S I:11l'::I o[ AnH'I'it':l, nt'pH Iy Consl1 I (; ('ll(>l'lll of 1 hco t'11 it ed of AIII('l'it,:1, 1Ii!O Bl'jtannie ) Iajf'"t,\")
PAGE 400

J. Gnbl'i('l DUl}lWI l'rllW lJipltWlftlil' ( 'OJ'IM' 3 B 3 'uL:w (jf n('nlllll1k l)n miui l'tlfl Consul. .J. 1.. :\Jnduro. :\r alll'icio VitlanljllC' RfLmon 1-"1 jl"1 P(>tl l'o Aria -; I". Adul'O KohpckC', COll";lI\ .,f E\'l1:ulol'. ,10!';e FCI'II;tIHI o Arflllgo 01', A J eSl11'Ull, Dr. A A rtul'O Kohpckcj JOSe Al'anH 'l1l1inj Dt,. Angu!;to S. Boyd, A lbe r to t l(' Obal'l'ioj Federico Boyd, DI', Augusto R, T Urin PotOIlS y )f:ll'tinC'7., COl'oll('1 S, ) [('Gill, F.l lwiu TIunh'l' ) [I'ldill', AibC'l'i HiU, C. F:tj:l!'{l o II. Yi\'I'-Comm\ of E ('u adol'. Dis Tlup(,l'ia\ German :\faj('S ly's (:('11('1':11, Consul of ITolland, Honduran Con:m\ UCIlCl'fIl. Ital ian COIll:!ul. :\ft'xi\':lJl Consul, Nit' u \':! gua 11 \ -iCC-COlI <;II!, PC'l'u\'i:l1I COl1sulAI' Ag-f'llt. Sahwlol'Hll C'om;ul U{'nrl'lll. :-;al\'tlJlomn \'icC'-COIJ:o;ul, Hpani:-h COl1slIl. 'j'l1l'ZIIP !;l1l ( 'O W-ill!. 'JI'WI 'go i a 11 \. iN'-<" '0 11 SIll, Yi,'C'-('ou,
    r, F:. F, HlH1 "onl A J H cn1'iquez, Jua n C Stevl'lIso n R Emiliaui} Antoni o :\L. Hojn1;1 f'OLO:-: H('igiU!ll, Ur 11111:1 l'k. FrancC', Gl'l'ntnny. Gl'eat. Britain, H o l!n nd. 1I'ont1l11'lls. Tlal,' )It';dco,

    PAGE 401

    384 Hilary B. Parker, A. B. Abe llo, P ilot aJul G aide PeI'li. Juan C Steve n soll, J ose )[, Fidanquc, Emltlhlo San Salnldol'. Sa nto D o mingo. Spain. Dr James C. K ellogg, J. M., F. Salcedo Ochoa, UnilE'u Sta t es. Y c ne7.ucJa. -DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES ABROAD Y ie n na, T l'ieste Brusse l s, Bru sse l s, A ntwerp, ."-nlw c q ), Ya!pal'!liso, Coq uimbo, Ya!divia, T q u iqui. ABG R osolino Pilo Can alE', I gnacio FUl'th Xieol0 E, Senlstupltio, BELGIC, :\[ Ph ano l' Ed el', F. Sim611 C:1PI'OIl, El'll(':)t E lfIe, Edmou d Magill, emLT-: D aHlel L yo n JohnW. Fortune, Pablo H offmann. Etl wnl'd E M ut't-kf', ('JUNA. Rf':;:id(>nN' in H o n g Kong, AliJ.'I, t o ) I Ol"(,IlO P('I'l'Z, COST A HItA, Slt n .r OlolC, Pucrto L imoll, Pn 111 nl'('IIU!';, TlltVf\UII, lli'llj: lIn ill E PiZll, H u m6n F', A t(,\'pllo, Enl'iqu l' lIt'utI !'z, ceBA. Consul. ('0115n\. COIl!=.ul Consul. Yic<:>Consul. Consul. Y ic-{;Con sul. Com:ul. CamHil. ('our-ml. Com. nl. l 'oll:u J Gl'm, ll'nl, COllsul Gt.'Il(,I'nl. Consul. ('ollsul,

    PAGE 402

    PWU/II/(t'S JJiplf)/1L(/lic Corps. 385 RY IN THE CANALZONE. me Gleol cul60rc Cui OM Conol H600QuOileiS Wllhln Eosy Reoch. HI FINEST AND MOST CENTRALLY LOCATED FIRST-CL"lSS AMERICAN PLAN HOTEL Newry F!lrnished. cAll Ododern Con"beniences. i Ear and Rsstaurant i n Connsction, -l; .A.. ROJ>/.LE. Proprietor. EMPIRE, CANAL ZONE. : < DEIOlA H K AXD POSSESSIOXS. St. Thoma;,;, GmtplCluil, 'rho Dam, David O. Bomul ECUADOR. Ram6n L. Vu.llarino, Consul. Consul. Consul. FRAX('E A..'ID POSSESSIONS. Pal"is, Hobel'lo J:..ewis, Goglia", C. G. D. J l (,lman n, Dijon, :Maul'ic:o Polack, llarsf'illes, Cltrios R. erodel, H avre, Stier, Fort de Fntnce, Gaston Drwid, Sf, Naznil'e, BOl'llclmx, 'l'heol'hile fmI o-Chill:\. (1'{'sj, I ('ucf' ill HOlIg KOlll,("), Al uerto ) ( orello Pcrez, Consul Gener:l\. Vice-Consul. Yi cc-Cons ul. Consul. Cousul. Consul. Consul, Consul. Consul O(,I1C'Ia1.

    PAGE 403

    386 GotlJa, Pl'ankfol't, H aml.Jnrg, Br('mE'1l Berlin, Pil o t aud (rllil1 e G ER.MAl-.'Y Julio Al'jona. Q Cn1'lo8 Hummel, Leonhard Gro ssmann, Oeo. A P. BCI"cnd s, Friedrich Undiitsch, Phil ip J. 1... Bicl'banc l', Consul G e neral YiceCOl l s lll C on s ular Agent Consul. COlli':ul. Consul. (mEAT J3RITAli'f A..'1D POSSESSIONS L hc rp ool. Livf'l'pool, Kingston, Kingston, Barbados, So uthampton, Southa m])! 011, CIlI'JifT Glasgow Syd u ey, Gl'imsby St. John's, New Brunswick L on(]o ll, L ondon, N ('weast Ie-on SUn dl'I'1;lIH11 Swansea., \' n 1\('0 u "('I', 'rol'o n lo, Malta. B ('liz(', Birmillgham. C ll. R Za.ehl'isSOll Y, Ju a n B. Chcvuliel'l Julio Al'dil a, C Al'll O hi )fa i aoI'P, Fre d N )Jarlinez, H erbert Guilhtullle, A. ,Dunlo p ; .J. A Kidrt, Ch. John Clclaml, Audley Coolp, Tomas Sutcliffe, Percy 'V. 'fhomso n, Robert John 'I'm n et', Edwin C. Wnlh!', J F. W eidner, Spptimns P ell-cock, A lfl'ed Rohllc, M:b:imo P )fol'l'ifl. .J. Enoch H o mco Yudala, L E. ('tle\as. Ji'edel'i<,o Ilil'kinbolhnm llong J \ IbC'l'lo !\fon'H o Xt\\(ltstlC',:\. S. W !\fat1U('\ !:)egundo ntnllt lnc h. f:iln:tll al', E lll'iquo Tm08Joli ) 1 1I1U'h('st(,I', F A. Co !'t ez Lt'ighj Port or Spllin, E. ('. Hkillnel', .Tflm('S l h o ll1p,.:oll 'l'igll{' J'a ...... loll ) h .l bo\lt uc, Edwin Phill ip1ol, Consul Gen e rn.1 Vi ce-Co nsul Consul. "icc-co nsul Consu\. Consul. ViC:C-t'01. S lIl. Vi ee-('o nsnl. "ice ('on su l. icc-Co n su l. Consul Consu\. I. ViceCo n s lil. Yi ('cC oml1l \. "icc ('0111'-111. tonslil. Comml. ('onsu!. Cons ul. ('011<;111 GC'llcm!. ('OI1SUl. ('OIl';;UI. Con s u l. ('OIl!O;UI. ('01HH11,

    PAGE 404

    , (:lIal('lllalil. PlI(ll'lo B.'ll'l'ios, .: Dipfolllftfic CO/'P::i, G A. remm'l Joaquin Hl'chl, Consul. COIiSul. ('011<'1111. 387 nOLLAN"D AND A tnstcrdll. m, Cllt'llcao, Genoa, i\I H:i n Florcnce, Naples. Palel'lUo, 'l'urin, Messi on, Yen ice, IT. :\r. Schiefel'dcckel' :Uoisei elf> Sola, Anlonio Pnpi AizPlIl'lI, LotlovjC'o Plies, Al'(ihillc Al'miconi, Guio;:cppe Salvatore Taglia\'ia, \} <'jnndl'o 13on:1, Antonio l .. ai, Lionello G o hls(hmidf, JAPAX. R es idence in Hong Yel'aCl'IIZ. 'l':lInpico, .!\f(xico, Mexico, i\[an:lguft, Mnuagu:\, ('; .nno, Pni ta, AI'eqllipa-, M o\l('udo, Kong A Ib<:'I' lo )'fol'eno Prl'(V'-, : MEXICO. Raflle! Al'l!cIH\g-a., J;'i.III'eglli, )1 iguel ; \ lam:"Ill Gen:u'O Rlli7. OI'Q7.(,O, NlCA RAGU i\, A Ie eo R:u:ern AI'i::;lit1('i; Jrau'I':\, PERU. Anatolio PI'eyre 1 'edpl' i co Bologncsi, A ndn's A ReinosoJ Abel .J, Ml'ndez, COhSUI. Consul. Consul. ('011 5 11l. Con s ul. Con s ul. f'OIlSUI. ('Oil !'luI. ConS1I1. ConsuL Consul Gf'neml. Comml. Cons1I1. Consul. '"iceConsul, Consul, Yic(',('oIlSul. Consul, ('oni'!ul ConslIl, Cons"J,

    PAGE 405

    3BB ].30 In ba)"cquc, R:lla verry, Lima, I.i s lJon Oporto. I s h }-'lol'cs, Tsla Fuyal, hla de Pito, Rail )Iigucl, Al':ljut la, BarN'!Ollil, Cadi z ::\h'iln g n S a nlamlcl', ( 'omlln, Hta. ( '1'1I)( de -Pilot all(l Guide Nicnuol' A. Carmollll Ed. Sarie"o, Alfredo S. Leon J. f'opuldo POBTU{:A f-J. Yizt om\c ua Rh' el':l Bra nl, Antonio Eunardo Clama, llblnuel PI..'tlI'O Lopez, l{Odl' igo Labescat, Anton i o J romen d:t Costa, R USSIA. M",rit1. Sc ltwul zkoif, SAJXADOH. .Joaquin fiUI'I'n(!t:l, Pal':, l)(nis SPATX. Bernardo Yal!/lrino, Guillermo J. YiIIlH"(>I'd<" Luis Kraner, 8ru'ai G d(> Pnl'c-des l"t.'l'lIf1IHloOl1l'io"olll Jose (.'a::stl'O DUllS, Palma, )I;wnel A. H odl'iglH'Z, "i:.:o, ,Jnviel' Puig, Las Palm!I';, Autonio Nlt"JlI'I'O, ( I 'ul.dt' '1'('ll-( 'I'i[(> Yah lt('iu BarN lo nil I Hixto .1 u \i() V;U'l'fi. Hicnl'lio UOlll('z ('nl'l'illo Erik WillH'11ll H W l'I' Z 1-:1{ I.A J), ('onsul. YiN' -Consui COil !'lui Consu l ('ollsui. Consul. (;011>1111. COli I'll Of'u(>ral. Yice-Collsul. ('ollsIl1. ("onsul. Yit'e-Cousul, "ite-Consul, Yio.:(>Consul, (;om;1I1, ('011";111 ('ollsu1, ('0IIs111 Y i (>c-( 'Oil s ill \,i('I'-('Olll
    PAGE 406

    \ r II ",I. i ngl on Xew York, S. Frnllci:!'co, S. Francisco, St. Loui;::, Xew Orleans, Xcw O1'1C;1I15 Philadelphia. Chicago. Atlanta, Suo In. de Pto. Rico, Port Townsend, Bnltimol'c, ) [obile, Jo:;e .\ugustill .\rallgo, Ph'uiI'Q* te:ntian' Ilud Envov Extl'ftordirlll.l'\'. -. ;\f;lIIuel E. Amador, ('OMU! General. :Hanuel Quintero Y. olli'ul Geul:l'al. Hodman C. Poll, Yi ce-Consul. Edward E. Prince, H )ctolfo Perez, ('onsul. Xathan Ei"clI111aull Wilfred R. Schofl, ('. Uilbert Whe eler, Rtbsell IJopkius, .\. A. "au Alstyne, ('hades Garfipld, James F. Fel'gu!';oll, Juan de Oio s Amador, YiCC('OIl SH 1. Vicc-('Oll.-Ul. COll8UI. COIlm!. Consul. :\IobilE'1 Juiio Zlimeta, \ 'icc-Consul. "ice-Consul. "ice-Collsul. Cousular Agent. Cousul. H ilo-Ha.waii Ji:ftginalt l o F. Guard, Philippines, I'f'sidellce in liong Kong. All)cl'lo ::\[oreno Pcr(>z, Gulfport, Daxid :\uiiez H Clll'iques, CUl'aca:s, Cal'llpanO, La Gliaira. YEXEZt:ELA. J. Palil'oll L :slal'iz, Luis F. Cah'uui, Luis n. :'IL artul'E.'t, COli sui G(u(:ral. COll:sul. Consul. Consul. Consul. D uring the month of September s('Yeral of the employes of the I st hmiaL1 Canal CommissIon assembled at Cristoba l and p e l fected plans for the organization of a b rass bam !. I I I

    PAGE 407

    3 9 0 Pi70t allel Guide. The objec t o f lh e o r ga n ization was to f urnish r ec r e atio n t o those o f the C ommissio n employes w h o migh t' u e COIll O m embe r s, and J a t e r : w h e ll th e b a n d s h o uld l ul.YC b e come p rof i c ient e n o u g h th a t i t might furnish r ecrea tion t o t h o ot h e r employes) throu g h t.h e concorts w hich i t would b e ab l e to play. Owin g to th o exp e n se illl:id cnt. t o furnish i n g all E''1uipIIlCllt for th e I UlI1d, it W i'\:;; frlt that lh e COlllllliss inll s hollid i l'tU.1 a IWlld t o ; I icl, so 011 8'pt(,11I11('1' Dr. B 1{, LpHny l-it'l1t a cOJlll11u nic< dioli t o C harlc::-E ?I I a gO(1I I. w h o w a s 41ll'11 gO\"C'J'lIor o f th o C:I 11:1 1 Z011C, his coo pe rat ion ill s('clirilig a set of i n s tru illen t s r nlC' Gmcriln r f:wo r:lhly imprrssrtl with th e p roject. all d n.:'aLli i y IOi.lIICd his illf lu(,lIce to i t s furlh o rancC', <.111<1 all orde r \\"1:15 place d for t h e illS trllluCUts. first rost e r o f th e h;111c1 : r; Dr. rllI"1I H B lake w"s clrct e d i l s fir s l p r esident; l k RH. L(' Boy. yicc-pr('!'>.ido nt ; L L a rsulI, t rc;l su r c l : Illd B. I{O!JSOII. !'rCl'('t;1r y n,l'. SlIIllIlCl' Coolidge wa!:; :lppoillt c d l)in'ctnr. w hich positioll h e h cJcI unt.i l ;\ft o r (he r oorg:lIliz;'l tioll w
    PAGE 408

    Ql1ici(ff Baud 'if Iho r. C. C. ::191 An IU(]) :fJIJ)((])NI(j)o INGENIERO CONSTRUCTOR. SC cNCAIlGA Dc TIlA B AJOS D c ALBANILEIlIA. ElXI:FERADOR, Z.ONA DEL CANA L .. ..... .............. ................... .............. -..................... -............. Ai) r ( (Do ENGII'JEER AND CONSTRUCTOR. n rWILL A L S O UNDERTAKE MASONIlY WOIlK Cr: E MFIRE. CAN AI.. Z,ONE. -i (,Hitil'S tind e r \\"hich the m c n III b o r e d m a d e it hard to h o ld lli o o rg:lllizatioll togdller. J ohn F S t cnO'Jls, who W:t!-$ then tho C hi ef Ens i llc( r an d Iah r C h;linll;t1l of th o COlllmissio n tuok a L1<,<'p intcres t ill th o ""01 ran.' (If tlw hand ;lIld gave it his h l':ll ty s upp o rt. Ilis d ircc l ioll th o phns for th e ]'c(Jr galliz:l liflll wer e fOl'lllUI;lteci :lllrl ca rri e d into ('xc(;utioll :Illd UII } \,IJI'll:lry I Ifl07. it Iw c:Llllo tho official I,alld of tllt 1 o. 1111111 II. I IlL' ; 1 1 t 1Iioriza tiOl 1 pro \ ill i n g that th e bnml !-ihn ]lId h;w o thirty-tirc I l aid 1Il(' l1lhl'r:-:. b esi dr!-i a. i\l n sica l Dir('ct<)I' :llId Ilil)],:lrian. 1:111('1' two to dovot o tl1'i]' (,Iltil'l' tilllc tf! th o work uf tho lJ: llld :11111 he paid p cr man o llt sa l:lric:-:. Th o ot.her mcmhC'rl-; w e r e t o b e p
    PAGE 409

    At present the ba n d numbers ovor memh ers [lnd new mell arc continually app l ying for positions ill it. Four r c h cnrsll l s arc hel d each month and f o ul' COllc('rts ginll. rrho m embers nre working with a will to illcrense th e efficiency of the o rganization, and hop e by the en d o[ another six months t o put it on a pal' witL th o best amateur bands in th e States All above t h e thil'fy-fh'o memhrl's who :11'0 ra.rricd on th o ]):1)'1'011, beside the l\f.u s i c al Diretto! :tntl LibrHrian, are held on a reselTe J ist, and as SOOI1 as 111('), become proficient enough alld th e re is a. nlCllll("Y all th e pa y roll, they a1'O apP ollltcc1 to become b andsmpl\ :l.nd th e ir l1an1CS p l ace d nn the payroll. Until then tJley sene throu g h a probntionary period. Changes occu r quite often in th e membf'l'ship Tho men comple ting their sen'ic e with the Commission o r Pallama Hailroacl, of course, cense to be members of the band. as it is s pecified in the authorization for the nppoint m e nt of the hand 28 t h e (ljfi.cial hand of th e Commission, thnt the members he omployes of th e Commission, o r P'lJHlmn. Hai l road. The members hip is composed of all classes of help e mployed by the Commission and P ana ma Railroad, clcrkB:. doclors. policem en. ciri l engi neer s t imekee p e rs, carpel1-t c r s supe rintcnde nts, f orcmcl1, sal1itnl',Y inspectors, Ilwchi!lists, etc. I t is also ycry cosmopoli t an ill that at lcn::.t n. dozcn lIati'Jllalitics aro }"rprcl)rlltell alllong its mcmbcrs r l 'hc lihmry of th e band made lip o r nnd p o pula: selectio n s and is being added to conti nuall y ---,..-...... --r l 'hc Young ) r en's Christian J-bsociatioll club houses at Cuiehra, Empire. U o r gana and Opl'l'
    PAGE 410

    '---------------------------,1 The cr,th lit(' ZOIl('. 393 "'. >, ---which the Can al CommisslOll erected :l1)(} equ ipp e d 111 each of these huildings t he nlflill str uctu r e provides f oJ' <1, bu s illf'sS officc. Hocial 1 01llly, ice Cl'cam p:1I'l nr, h illiard a n d poo l rool11 accommo d n.tillg n\'e tabl es, lounging and s lllali gft1l1C' room. l'l>:tdin g room. cOU1milteo room and an ent ertainmen t hall, whic h h as a. !'walin g (';1pacity of t hree hUIl(liC'd and which is also used for S},llllHlSiulll and s u c h games :lS IJl1skd ball tlnd rolll"y b1111. rll1lCl'C is :iIl allllex l'rm i d illg two howli n g al leys, baths, l ockers alld ad,liliona l gYIllJlnSilllll apparntus whic h C;ll1 not he lIsed ill thE' cllte:rtn inmc nt h,111. 0011-lIC'ctillg the mai n i:itrnctllre a m I a llllC' X flrc two corridors, in 011(' o f w hi(h i s inst:l\lC'd a hnrb el' s hn)). SIJ:1ciol1s vcr andas e n circ l e b otil flool's of th e m ai n LHlilili n g aud add lIluc h i n :111<.1 comf ort. The reading room r eceives regularly about o nf' hundred carefull.f sel ecte d llll' position or trade is ghd t o join without bein g urged, rrlIC're is no il1ili,ltioll du es arc B12 p el' year. p e r half yetn. 01' B-1 per <)l1ul'lel' year. A n o minal f cc i s charged P('l' gmne 011 bowli n g, billiard s and pool. rrhe cost t o memher s f ol' :tl i privil eges is compare d to most clu b s b eca uso (If th e Go\'ernment's gin'lI lib erally to practica l metho d s of serving the rt'u:catiw, socinl, physic:11 anu mo ral IIC'Pclfot o f empl oyes. The f oul' A ssoc ia.tlOns h:ne :tbou t se v e n teen hll ndred m embers in good s t :l1ldillg and I he attendance averages b e t ween 700 and (30 p CI' da)" The o rganizations arc a part o f th e i nt ernationa l organizatio n of Yuung }\Je n 's Christian whose Internationa l Oommit tC'e dil'ect sup(,l'Yision to the con du c t of the work. M e mb ership tick e t s from any Youug )Jo n 's C hr isiiall As-I >

    PAGE 411

    . Pill)t (Uld U lIide. soci a ti oll ill the world a r e hOllored by th e .A!;soc.:iation:-o, Ott the O'lIla l ZOll e 'rile actiy iliC's prolllo ted include usually fCJl1ml ill ::;;illlilnl' orgnnizatiolls ei!';cwhcl'C', ) LC'mbct'l: i form thcmsc h'cs into gro up s and arrange for toul'Ilamcnb in c h ess, ch cckrl'R p ool find billiards: atul bowling. Anoth e1' gronp finds inkl'es t ill the gymnasium, whero boxing. fen c ing. wres tling. work 011 lllHts and b :I],1o;, baskrt bnll. ii(.'lti flnd track work t a k e llP thf'ir n ttcnti oll. Theil nllH'l'!:I find e njo,Ytll t'nt flnd prohl i l' stmly Classes arf' o rg:Jllize d in SPHllisb, m c tiwllicnl dl' a w illg
    PAGE 412

    , ftollrfd. = --- By ALE.J .... !\OHO Dt:TAHY. 395 T il" p ,lIrnrlllfJ .w'i,('/i,w'OIIi tllC P(II of /I,r hUlllr ial1 j}IJt'/ .1/ 1', Afr;/fIllr1r o lJltt(/".", ,c1lo Ita." rlmlribu{c({ farrldy ill 0". lu 'he I; !It: : ralrlo tid /,.,Im()" (fIul o'''a III/Mica/illll .,. SlIIlle til/It "(/(/ Ihe l 'ihH (1111 / (; If it/t IWJ lie -Iul .II r. lJu f(f J'!I In If't I I 11(1 fC II i.-; )flt"n-; Ie }IJ'I){{/ICtiOIl, .for I/IIMira/iolt ill (/,is 1'"llIlIIe 1'1i(' "/t(l/ultl" WfiS Id ... ('/10;('(:. ---Al pi{-de lao cntrea1)iel'la (:(-10:<130 T empls. ('1 galall ton manos misteriosas I

    PAGE 413

    396 P ilo t mul Guiflc. FURNISHED BY THE A A r I rg I rolon Electric a Ice S ply Company. COLON, REPUBLIC OF PANAMA, -Eleclric Lights for Houses. E feclric L ig Ids for Stores. Eleclrlc Fans. Moli'CJe Power for Machinery. Save Labor, Time and Annoyance by I n stalling Our Service. RATES AND FULL INFORMATION GIVEN UPON APPLICATION AT THE COMPANY'S OFFICE. Stl sonol'a gnital"l'a, Y :lllloI'o:;i" Canci6n c lltonn., lI(>l1ft d o 1l1"1U01lia. -Al (sc:ndlfil' lR dulcc mclodja ])ejil. ('\ 1(>l;ho ht Yll'gen plLdoJ'osa Y aSOIllfl, fiU perlillic I'cilli( Dio,.;a. 'l'ras In, {'utl 'pabi( l 'ta y \'ieja I:(:\O::-iil. -Y micmtt'lIf;i 01 galu u COil nlegria, {uula. y toell, III calle t('nchrQ"'a. lllun inu n call 11iZ de lUl!dio diu. Los ojos t'xpl'e::-ho s du Ill. Ill'l'mo:<3 Hetliuada cu la vie,ja tc! o,.ia J The O i l Company (If ('alil'ornill iH ono o f Lhc Irtl'gest independent compauies w h i c h produce. LI';tIl SpOl't, I

    PAGE 414

    P ipil/{J o a A ero .... .; 397 )' and mark e t p etro l eum in the stat!' o f Cali f ornia. It w as o n e of tbo e arliest companies t o estn.b l i s h itse lf i n th a t s tat e and ha s hoen o n e o f the firs t to o p e n up f o r e i g n m a rk e t s 1'01' Ca l i f o l'llia oil. '1'he main office o f th e Compll n y is l oca t e d in thr c ity o f I.Jos An ge l es, a n d i t s prin cip a l s tockholdC'l's alld d i r ecto r s n r o m o n of the hig b es t in th e oil indu stry :IS w ell as i n the financ i a l world. fl'ho eight inch oil p i p e l i n e cl'ossil1g th e I s thmu s from La B oca t o M o unt H op e w a s illst allecl b y this compan y f o r the purp ose o f d oing away with the l o n g journey b y sa.iling vC'ssel s arou n d C ap e 1:1a m i n or d e r t o m arkc t i t s p r oduc t s 011 the Atlanti c coas t a s the tr a n s -contin cnta l roa d freight r a t es arc absolut e l y proh i b iti\'c Th e plant cons i s t s of n. lar ge p umpi n g s t a tion at P etrolia IICllr La. Bo ca, COllllectcf[ h y al\ e i ght i n c h pip e l i n c f o rt y e i g ht m i les in 1f'llgth \\' itb anoth e r pumping sta tion all th e othe r sille of th e l s thtllu s a t l\Iount H o pt'. '11 hr. actua l laying of the l ille w as c omll1etlcl' d 011 Apri l 1 ti, UlOG and cOJllp lC't e d 011 O c t o b et' 1 G H l06. f l1ho compa n y h as f oul' / 0 0 b a rrel tank s :1t cac h t ermi n a l site maki n g a total s t orage capa c ity o C :WOIOOO barre l s Th e oceall-going oil-c:lHy in g vcsse l s o [ th e company lan d i n ur c dged u e rth s all e ith e r side o f t h e I s thmus disch a r ge their ca r goes b y m e ans o f a flexibl e hoso i nt o t u e comp an y's bilks, and reecivo their cargoes from tho samc soul'I.;e
    PAGE 415

    398 Pilot alld Glli(1c. AREA, Pall
    PAGE 416

    _. ----, -H c public is w('IIlIigh sC
    PAGE 417

    , I I I I I. -J. Fra.ncisco de la Ossa, Mayo r of the City of Pan ama. --I

    PAGE 418

    Sierr:t de Yerag-lla s This range contains )fOlillt f:bntiflg' D:J7,") rrut:l. -).000 feet; and Halltn. :\L ll"i:l -UiOO fN't. :\fidway hrtw(,(,ll th e (,flstrJ'd ,wei wcstCl"t\ o[ lhC' (oUliliT. the J1louni:lin !'l,vst('111 i" broken II" till' (\Ilrlmt "hich all altilmlr of ollh' 2HO frct aho,'c !-iP:I- 1 ('\pl. alld is th c Imr :"'st pa ss ill thc wC!:>lern llIountain sys-Df ;\orth :tlltl Routh .\I\1(11"ic:1. with tl\{, l-.illglc ('XCI'PlioH of II pas!-; ill )\iC;Jraglw. East of ellie-ill'a. the 11101111-g"1':Hln:llly int.'I'C';!lo;(' in el(,nltioll. culminating ill 11](' peak s of )[:ll'i:l Enriqu'z. 1,:: 10 fect. and P:l('OI':l, I.i{JO f ('PI. The' N en:lllia liP! D:lricil. r:lnging ill altitude' frolll ,-)t)O to :.!,"iOO f('rt .... kills th e (';ll'iblu,:tn coast from P Oilu B t' llo to til' {:ulf of l "rah:;. 1'\\"0 W':lks ill thi,; 1':t11g'<' han! nn Ilf :LOUO fl'd, \\hill' till : T ihuh' low :1" fect. Lnti'l':tI lidg(>(, COllll('ct ll1c ],:1IIi:1 d('1 lhnrll \\ illl tl1C' lhl1l1u r fl"olH th(' mouth of the Chepn Hiy('!' ttl t!1(, :5ollth(,l"l1 h0I111thr.\". p:i1::sing thro11gh into ColullIhi,l. P:II1.1I1l: 1 is itlt(']"sl'tled hy 111[111)" 1.-)0 l\:\(.,ltillg lhc CHrihlJ(';\ll Sl':1. whilc twit'(' tiUlt llllllllJcr drtJin illtn till' P:u.:ifi(' ()CC';lIl. The' l :ll'gest I'il"('" (If Pall
    PAGE 419

    I .... 402 'J'.,{ COO'PEI(. '" r ilot allll G11idc, C C yfcfif!E. Colon Stationery and Supply Company, No. 53 Boliva r S t .. C o l on. R. P -_. -DIREOT IJY.I:PORTERS OF EuropeaJ\ aJ\d f[mericaJ\ Goods. --1..\l1(;E STA'l'IO)1EHY 1'[lt\l:; IX El'H(WE. AG.:.N 1 S : .1-\lIAI('. \ TDIES. OTlIIW WEST I Nn].\:\" I'.\I'EI::-:. ONE BLOCK WES T OF PANAMA R..A I LROAD DEPOT, tlte Calab e h ol'a, and th e Rio d e l o s l nclios f'lllptying' i nlo th e Car ilJhcnll Sen: th e T : ll'ir c llC'ftl' lhe C'J!'tll Hil';l ll h OHllda!'y: U w SI1I1 P e dro e mpt ying into th o Gulf (d' 7\1'1116 lijo. :lI H 1 th e fiambu, 90 miles l o ng. df'h ollChillg info tllr Iby of P l \ 1 Illi l' :l 11 t o B ay all tho rnrillhf':l1l ('('In!'t H C'a\' th e Costa Rican hOllndal'Y. mile s long frolll t.o with a width l'allgi n g fr011l :! to I : : mil "", 11 i S l'lli('r('( l fHllll th o spa h y tllD B ocn d e ) l)r;l{:to n lHllllt' H O(,:l uII 'roro :l1lll afford s h :lfe :lllc \l(lr:lQ'C' f o r the ian.! ( ':.;t 'rhr 11n.gOOIl. pl":1("tirally f O llll ing ollr hodr of wnt r r wit.h AIllliralitc is. m i l:'l!o; l o ng' ;111(1 I:! \ride ill tlit" conter. with a widt h of n\'c m i ic!o; ;It I\l(' < ';,,,lrl"l1 (,lid ; llld -10 : I t th e 'rill' ;trt'a of the L n gooll i" :t?O squarc mih'!o;, II j<.; r ntf'l'ctl lIy th o HO('1t d r l 'PigI'(" which 11:1" :l width of linN' :llld 0llr llfIlf llIiiC'!o;, Nr ('111'(.' ;l1l('hul'ngo i s affor d ecl ill fro1l1 no t o I:!O fl'rt of \\;Ii('r. '1'11<' (:ulf o f Sail BlaSI I,ying al tllC II:-HTOW('st pint (If I\u

    PAGE 420

    I S lhmu s i:-, 2 0 mil es l ong and l O wille, :11lc1 is s h e lte r e d from th e n o rth w i n d s b y th e hlul a tns A rrliipc lngo. r r h c I m y of .lUnndiltg.'L o n th e sou th w est ern sid!' o f th(' gulf. f o rms lleh alf milts. At this point i t tU1'IlS to l h e sOtllhC';lst whe re it is known as D a riell ha r uor: a l amllock e d l ut\'( 'll l'1('Ycn m i l es l o n g four m iles wid e a t ill; ,tnd two miles a t its h ea d On t h e wcst el'll sid e uf t he bn,r o f P a n ama, i1-' t h e bflY o f Pal'ita.. n eal' l y t wollty miles widc at it" m outh. l h e Gllif of M olltijo. twen t y mil es long amI futll'M tc ell m i l es wiele at it.o; mon t h cont ai n s lllllllCI'O ll S islands. The COil!'l t o f P anama is l-:kirted with r l h n P acific roast shows 1,0:'):1 ish llJds with it tOM t a l of :;00 sClu a r p a n d t h e CaribuC'a n coast. O:W isla n d s an d isl e t s with a. t ol al a rca o f 1 J 7 squa r c miles. 111w C h i r iqui Al'ch i p e lR.go PI'O tl'cts Ailllil'flnte Bay tlll Chil'i rlUi La goon Co!tlln\)u<; I:;l and, pr otec t ing i \illlil':lnt e R ay i s Sr'Ycn miles l ong anel t hroe m i le!-) wid e. .It fin! and cmpr o d with d e n se' fCJ1'cst<.;. Pro \ 'isioll :L:.lflnu, lying <'l\,t o f Colum b us hiland I:;: e i ght mil es l o n g a n d i r r ('gn l
    PAGE 421

    404 Pi1M and GI/id e and ('oYcJ'cd with forests and cocoanut gro,cs The Pearl hlands ill I)anama Bay covel' 400 square mil es o f land and water. The i s lands are low and but littl e cultirated. The l a rgest islnnd o f the group, Hey: is 1 i) miles l o ng and 7 m iles wioe, 'l'hcrc is a peak 011 thi s GOO feet high Ooilw, the largest island b e longing to Panama, is 21 miles long n Ilt1 from t to 12 miles wide. It is cm'C!'ed with den se fOI'r.sts. Cehaco Island lying across th(' mouth of the (Jilif of l\f onlijo, is thirte e n amI. one-half miles long and throe miles wide. rraboga, a gem o f th e Pacifi c is 0110 of th e prettiest islands belonging to th e l{cpnblic. The grcater p ortion of its surfa.ce is lllOtlllta i n O Hs, but a good denl of the lan d is tllldE'l' cultinttion, Taboga P :110 apples arc lmown all oye r the while mang oes, and othel" fruits nre produced extensively. The island is 1 2 miles fro m Panama city, anLi is much resorted to b y people from th e mainland P[lIHtma i s di\"ided IIllo se\"CIi provincrs Politit';ll Oi\"h i o ns. namely: B oens d c l i'oro Chiriftui. CoeIe Colon, Los Santos. Panama, and Y el'uguils E ac h province i:; [ u.1ministcred by :l (jon'nlol" appointed hy and I'csIJollsi hie only to th e Presi d ent of the H c puhl; c r l1he arc ill turn, divid e d int o municipal distL'ici.8. gO\'e\"llcd by :1. municipal cou n cil wbo:)e :UC' pnpularly ('Jected, : :\1111 by an Alcalde, or 1\fayOl', \\"ho is th e chief adlllinistratire official oE the municipalit y and also the d irect agcllt of the p ro\"illcia l go\ 'e rnor, In all intcrnni :lfi'airs the muni cipa l ities scJf-go 'el'l1ing rPhe con s titution o f the new I'epuhlic camo into \:O\ '('rnlllcnl. force 011 F e hru3,r y 1 90 1. 'rhe fUildalllC'ntnl 1.1.W pt'OyidC'!; 1'01' n. centralized republican form u f gO\"C'J'll-1l\C'1l1. Suprel1lo exccuti\ 'c :luthority i s in the Pre!oiid ellt. H e is e l ecte d by p o pular \'ote f o r a term of JOUI' yell)"s and is ine ligibl e f ol' tho Ilext l-.lIccc('{iillg t el'lII, ... \ n t'\Cl'ptiOIl was made ;11 tlte C:l!;O of Pl' csiliC'llt Amador \\ 110 "'''' e l ectr a hy the :\aliollo l A ss IlIbly illslead o f by pOJlII-1:11' \ott'. rl'llC pow e r s (If the PI'f'sid e llt nrc imiial' to those by the chie f executi\ 'cs I" all republican go\'el'll-

    PAGE 422

    I P mwllla of tlil' PreReut })a!l. 405 ments H e must sign Ot' vcto all bills pass e d by l h e i l'g isiati, c body within from fhe to eight days, d e p en d ing Oil tho l eng th of the bills. otherwise they become laws without his signaturo. Hills ycto e d by the Presi d ent by reaSOIi of th e ir doubtflll constitutionality are r eferre d to th e Supre mc Court of the country. If that body decid e s the y iolate 110 pl'o\' ision of the constitution) the President lIlu s t affix his signature. Othor "cteed bill s ll1:ly b e repassed by the assCllIbly b y a two-third s vote 1'b o Presi dent appoint s nil the high e r I'esp o nsibl e officia l s o f the country, including mcmb r r s of hiR Cabinet, judges of the Supremo Court. diplomatic and cOllsuial' I'L' prcscntati\'cs, and gO\'cl'llors of th e provillces fll some th e chief. exec u tiye acts alolle; in other cases a ppro\ 'al of th e I cgis lati\'c body is required. All regulati ons. or d e r s llnd d ec r ees of th e President must be c ount e rsigned b y th e lllC'll1ber of his CaiJillrt ill charge of the subject ullder consid e ration. r nlC Pr('sidellt is nssisted in the rlischarge of his dut ies b y a Cabinet cOllsi!'.ting of a Secretary of GoYet'lllllent .1us tice: SCLI' t ary of l?ol'rign R e lations; Secretary o f S ecl"etal"Y of Publ icIlis tru ctioll and Secl"etary o f Publi c \Y o r!;,. officials ha\"l> fl "oice, hut no ot e in the l egisiatiyc b ody. 111 case of the d eath or disability of the Pres ident. exe(;utiH': power s d c \'ohc upon one of three p e rsoll s terme d D esig nadores. elected fit eac h session o f th e A ss embly, and in the even t of th e disa b i lit y of th ese three officials, uJlon a. m ember of th e Cabinet. The law-making o f the goyernmellt is :t sing l e b o dy, the Nati ona l A sse mbly, Cfllls i s ting o f Deputies elected f o r a. t erm of four yea r s in p roportio n of one D e puty for every 10,000 inhab ita n ts. or a.fl'actioll 0\'01' 5.000. Substitutcs are e l ecte d i n the sallle llIitllllcr at the same time and f o r tho samo term. r:rhe Assembly meets m-ery two years and extra sessions may b e called by th e Presid e nt. .cour ts. The :t(lmini s tratioll of justice is vested ill a SupI COle Courl, circuit courts, d istric t co urts. 3ud otile, inferior tribunals established by law. Th e Supr eme -.--. I I

    PAGE 423

    ,------------------------------------, Court is lo('nted ill Panallla wit h jurisdiction :tnd p owe rs to lilllS-> by slic h cour ts ill uiher South (;oll111rics. ]lr.; judges. tin'" ill !lumber, :11'(' 110m i Iintel l fl y the l)rcsidcl1t :llHl confirme d by the AS5CllIbly. 'rile circuit of which there i s 0110 for (' .. l e h proyincC'. locat e d ill the cap ita l city oj' ('ach, jurisdictioll. coC'xtclis irc with the rcs\,cctiy c pro vinces T he distJict 0110 for cach 1l1111licip:d district. have l oca l .iul'isdicLitlil. Th e :1I>poillllll(,111 o f .iudg es of the t'in:llit. dii:itri<"t ;\ll d otli('l' 111l'l'l'iol' c ourts brgely willi the illllllcdiate trilJIIllah5: th e d ceisiolls uf inferior cour ts arc suiJ,iC'ct to rcyjf'w liy thl highor tribullals. I n a gener;)1 way foreignf' r!-enjoy lh e same rights ami privilrgc!) I x' f ore thc tri bunal s (d' til e H epublie, :Ui citizens do. All illlp or t'5 into R e public. with the ('xTcpt i oli ( "-(0"'> I' I -I IfI I J I II f '(1;1 IJllltC l llIIHl)(,l'O .ll.rIICeSlm'IHee III lC rco l i .... t fll' to a SI1{'citic (Iuty, Vay an ;td yalorem duty of t e n ]lcr cent. S Ollie' o f th o m o r e import .ant articl es 011 thc f rce list ;He :1IIim<-1.1s for hrecding purp oses icc; gual1o, ;lIld machin es \\'c ighing I ('ss th:tll 2204 I":ud ma k ing ;.IIld c;)llni machilwlJ. railw :\y rolling :-,t oe k and I rac k RlIp pliC'l'i. h']egr:l ph mate rial s imported oy th e C'OIiSUIllCl'. hri d gl' iroll, ;11 1 d partl'i. raw llultCLills ill tlw 1l1,1IlufactuJ"B ()f Ilccr. c:llldies :llld sonp (''\('C'ptillg tullow: hookbinder s ;\nd prilltC'l's' sllpplic:;, inc lud iug ink :llld p;lpcr : arlicle'" illlpol h!d hy s teamship COIllre]igiouo; alit! I.:harit:lhlc an d by ilu! t;O\'C'l"IlllH'lli f or ('xcl u si\ c II!5C. Spiri ts. liqllors, to-h:ll'l'O, ctl ffee. matl'i;es mati'll matC'riais.. opiUIIl. :nlll l';il ti r ; I re tl) specific dllti es as f(d-imrs: (hdin:tr y s pirits aliI! ils rOllq1oIlJl(I<.:. up f t :21 Cartil.'r. sHch as 1"11111. hr:luliy, gill. ",hi:;k), refilled l'os .... llli .... orangI' cordi a l l'iih'C'1' pCI' iitpl'. Liquor"! of from :12 drg, to .. I:? deg, CllrtiPl' suc h a8 c h \l'tr(' lIsC-'. ('\'PlllC (It' (:Il';IO. jlrpp c l'mint. P:ldrf' I 'l' J'Il:1. 11 kiilllillel. :.i)"illtilr, Pl'!' Iill'l' ; alcolml up to 1:1 (IrH. Cartier, "1.00 I'l'l' l i l e l ; akohol a!Jovo 12 deg, Cal'liel', $1.;0 p el' ,---------------------'

    PAGE 424

    407 I i tC' 1': cOIll'CntralC'tl liqu i d llse d in th e mnnufaclul'c of dut iable bC\'L'l'ages. B\.") 1>('1' liter; bill e r s sllc h as Ali gosttlr:L f erllctlmlllC:l. {'ocoa; 60 cent pCI' l iter: white red al1(l Bonl r : ltlx wines 1 0 cents p CI' lit'l'; swed. Inal:lgi1. s h el'ry o p orto :llld v e rmouth 20 c('n t s p e\' litrr: f'lli llllpflgUC'. pe r lite r : f\llel mineral ",ail'I'S r li,irs and m e dicill!11 willPS i lllpo;:tc d ill s p rcia l iJoWe's. :!.-' I'C'I' (,{,lit. s ih 'l'1' 011 not go ld ,,;due; cigars 1'('1' kil o;.:ralll; cig;l l' ctte!' 111."[ kiIClgr
    PAGE 425

    408 Pilot all(l GlIiric. c h arged. 'rhcsc flrC'th e i ndu stl'i;l l 01' m
    PAGE 426

    I l'lIIUWIll of the p"(.,/CI.t Doy. 409 .. '" '" Y. FRECIADO & Co ... '" ... BOOKSELLEHS. Store 'Hispano=Panamefia' Xu. 51 and 53 Sixth Street, Panama, n. I'. .. ] Mill iu:: Ollh !' of Paei lie 11 ail 8 Co. LARGfST AND MOST GOMPLm STOGK Of STAIiONfRY ON THE ISTHMUS. FULL LINE OF WRITIN G MATERIALS MIRRORS. TOYS. NOVEL TI ES. COMMIssION. IMPORTATION. EXPORTATION Tilephone RD. 44. Cane: [retla'o. Panam', I. B. C. 4th & 5Ih. [dillon ... ... .,. Y. P ,EC1ADO & Co ....... "'J Pallamu, $500.000: COIOII, $ 1 :;0 000; Chi riqui, $22;;,000; Coele, S 1 i5,000; L os Santos. $1 i 5 .000 ; "eraguu., Sli 5.000, and Boea s del 1'oro, Since tlWll muny roads have b een constr u c ted, uridges built. schoo l s and oilier buildings o f a puIJlie chal'acter erec t ed In Panama. city severa l new sc h ools and colleges have been put up, and the work i s still being continued J A L oyd. a c:lJltain of engineers ill Simon htllllllUII "lJolis. TIoli\ a rs army of indc p endC'llce visited th e lsthmus in lS27 and Bla d e a care f e l s tluJy of th o f orest riches in l'anama. H e statrs ill his notos that in "igor and YariE'tics, the woods of the Isthmus challenge compe tition with all,)' part of the wnrld. II :Mr. .Til Sanchez, a citiz en of P a n ama, and 0110 of tho bE'st mpn iii the country Oil its natural resources, has written a vcry interes t i n g l ittle hook 011 the forest riche's of the Darien region. The timber lanu s in that 1"1I't of the R epub lic covel', it is

    PAGE 427

    410 P ilot all(1 Guide. '-estimated, nearly 0,800,000 acres. comp risi ng hundre d s o f varieties of na.ti,c woods. A book could he devoted to :I, description of these woous. but it i s the pUl pose of Ow Pilot (mll Guide t o m entio n ol1l y t h e m orc prominent ami well knowl1 s p ecies The gll:t'yacnll, or lignum v it ae family is w ell r e p resente d 011 the lsthmus and comprises m<1I1Y kind s Its durability i s of common knowi edgr. Pieer!) o f this ",Doll Imbe dded ill the cal'lh f or many yeal's h:nc berll known to becom e petrified Tt is rel a ted that i ll U)92. :\n a.bandoned min c 207 yc a r s old \\"38 an d in it worc fonnd some lignu m "ibc whee l s and a xles l1<;od i n h ois l ing OI'C The," were in flS g ood con d ition as w h e n first fashi u ned Anoth e r pr ominen t and Ycry valu;-\ ble woo u is tho caci!)l1c (hcRd c hief), or kin g o f woou s. '.['h(' true s p ecies is whitis h yellow, of a yory high polish and has a l o n g tough grain. 'rho othe r variety is o f a t'e ddi s h col or. Tts n ame ig supposed to h avo becn d c rired from its as a. symhol o f authority hy Indinll chiE'ftail1s. On e o f its peculiar finalities J!-i it s power t o ins tantly s tan c h the flow of Llood : M n hogallY i s r cry cOlllmon i n certai n disit' iet s and I<-Ir ge l y e'xpol't cd. ThcrC' nrc t"o kind s tIl(' tangu el' ay. Ot' swamp ma h oga ny. and Ole h a rd. 01' upl:lJlc1 maho g any. The f o rmer i s ligh ter both i n weight
    PAGE 428

    r W/(IIII(t. of fhe rl'CSCI l f /J (fY. 411 iugs. lik e zebra wood. lllld ha s a. fragrant smell. The pri e to nH'iety ha s :t b ea utifull y figu\' e d grain. rind g row s to about thl'\}o f ee t ill diam etf'l' It p o lisl lf's b ea utifull y rlllll is ill grea t d e m and for canes 'l1he finest cedar i n the countl' y i s the cedro 1'(,:11 nma.rgo. It grows t o fi\'c alll i six feet in diam e t er. hilS a l ong grain with th e f amilia r odor of cedar. nlld i s mu c h u se d in b oa t bu i ldin g 'rhe espl:wo prieto is ono o f the C Ollllllonest \\'oo u s so methin g like elm; :111(1 is muc h llst' d in h nuse buihling. 'l1he gua\'ita. i s n white soft wood of an extre lllel y hittm ta s t e. Tho Sft p from this tr('e i s used b y the ll:1tirus as all anti d ote for snak e hites. The jagua col or a d o is a s oft, c l osc gl'ai n ed, hut t o ugh dye wnod used b y th e Indians f o r earring spoo ns ilnd orn :Ul1ellts. Th e jobQ tic l agnrto hrls a bark like th e skin o f an :'llligator. l\J a n g le lLllnng r o\'e) is a COlllmon woo d of a reddi s h bl'vWIl col or, and mak e s a most excellent firewood, burning l ike tind er. .l\Iat a p olo possesses th e p e cul iar allli rath e r unfortl1nate faculty of killin g a n y o th e r tree growing llf3al' it. rrh(' wood i s whit c and t ough, ha\" illg a l ong. c l ose, white, shillY graill It is common an d grows to larg e s izC'. QU:1jado is an indes tructibl e wood with nn 1lntrfrctablf' grain '11o tulll a ( the ca laba s h tree ) grows to th e s ize of OII C f oot in diamet er. and is quite p l e ntiful. Vel a b Nll'S a fruit consi!'ting o f
    PAGE 429

    412 P ilot Ilml (;uitlc ---," ---s pecL'i to Alaha ma long Cotloll of th e onlllJ::ll')" kind 1.:;111 h e easily l,tlitivutl' d UII tl1(\ hnt owing tu l abol' con ditioll!':. rais ing has n ot lU.'f'1l pro titah lc. The gigantic tree of the I stlllllUIi gr)('s hy the n:Ulle of quilw, and will I'i\':d ill size some cd' th e g i ant ll'oes of th e ::\I'II'j POSft. Y;llley ill Cal i fol'nia tOll b oat,; l)l'('11 h ollowed tllit of a si n g l e treC'. Allutiu'l' pt.tulia!' troe th e woo l e ll 1 r('c which Jll'udnces i L p o d tille d w i th a tl'X ture closel y :wimal wo ol. rt lI1;(k(')) exce llent mattress and p illow mat e rial. '1 T h e jil.gllHI'. 01' f::)o llih Ame rican tiger i s f ound II >1<1 A",,,,,,,,, l l f t [tl J (I I II III (I en'JI par!..') 0 1('. S WHIS t lO1l1 a tta cks 111;111 unlc:';s ; lllge-red. huL i"i a t e rrol' 1 0 cattle ers. R accoon s s a jillos. !1 E:>l'ecios or wihl l W :lr rabbii.!' s m all decr and IUOIlJ.:O.Ys a\)ollml. .Phrl'o ill'O s enTal !oipCcies of squilTc l!:' HlILl th o l aUer h eing i ll ill'tiy U dema.nd a s pels \ V i l d lIil'd s l'esC'llIblillg tile t \ mcl'l cnn h ell pigc ons. UHl'ks. palTo[-; and pat'()tjlle t \ arc to h e f oulld. 'rho f i lmily is ,,,ell r e j lresc nt e d from t h e g rent b oa -con s trictor to t h o s pit eful c .1l'nl. tigcr s nake i s lTctiilC d w i th one oE lilt} most \,CII(lIll ous. Insect lif e i::i e\'cl' a c t ire, [tml til e app e arance o f somo of th e Isthmi a n bug:5 defy ipLion. f t 'WtJitl h e sn!',)' t o have [I se l o [ CUl'\'CS t() come at the r ight mC;\"';;nI'l'm ents. Durin g the dry sea son w h e n anill1a l lif e is 1IIUl\' o r l ess d Ol'mant, bug lif!) <\'i bU8y as C\'e r H oaclll:'s and allts arc th e C0ll1111011 IH'sts of the hOllsc iliid a.rc cOlls taull,v sc h e m illg f o r <111 i ll\ ;tsioll. 'l'h u ill'madillo, and alli gator a r c mor c 01' i(''';''j 1I111l1C'I'OU .... Flu]';t. Plall t lif u un ih o !)h o\\::, it \igoI'01l') gl'vwth. h ut i ll th o lIIain is peculiar t o tl'op i r:s. J'h e orelm l fa tlli l y i"i llh.' lIlost 1'1'1I111illl'llt. illld compri ses a. g l'eat m a ll Y \ a rietil':-'. 'rh u 1Il0st n otab l e sp('cies arc the E s piriLu S :lIIto ( H o l y Hntl lhe Simta. ( H o l y w e ek) r h o ::'I'eci:ti l'h :lradl'ri:.,lic of th,.., E!:) pir itu R a nt o is the fruc tif ying col umn ill the ('( 'JllC'1' of LiIC Hower with it.'S :LllliJ.J1' au d p rojccling glands 1 I

    PAGE 430

    rallamll fJ.r th/' / 'I'(,.';Cllt }jay. 41 3 = "'" of pollen -lH[lsses whic h lH"eSPllt l.L s trikin g r csemb l allcc to a tlO\'C;>. The br east: extended wings th e h ead and and cn'l! two purple dot s fo1' the eyes arc all disti nctly !--ho\\'Jl and nlmost as tru e to Batur e as tile art of man ('an depj ( t them. Fiv e sp ring from each bulb of the plnllt. 'rhrse Ipayes arC' frolll 20 to ;W inc h es ill l ength, bv fire or inches ill hl'cndth-Iallceolat e in forlll. The strJl) of th e flowpl' grows fl'o m three to fol.ll' feet in h eight. b ea ring UpOIi i t s summit a s p ike of g l obose, Heshy, )"f'llo\\'ish white Howers whic h yield a d e l icate p e rfullle. H OIllf>limcs there is a p c('u ll(,01l iliscow'l'f'd Ileal' B ocns de l Toro. hill llot in p:lying flIHLntitiC':.;. Copper deposits OCI.;UI" D.wid 1111tl t-;:lll F clix: iroll in th e Yicinity of the CelTo SiUl f1rislohal. f rmrc s of pC'irolC'um have hC'en foulld ill Chiriqui 'wd Santos provin ces. Pl'OUll('r,.. Hal1[lIHlS form s th e l e ading ;3I"lido of export of :11 I I I at't! fOllnel ill all parts o( the country. 'rh e grcntcs{' degree o( pro-t (Iurti\"olless howc\'er i s rC C hang-ui-1101a and Six o la distrid.:;; of tLte pro, incc of H ocas I ']'oro where the "Lniteu Fruit COlllP,IIl," control IHrgr> plantations The l'i t r of l30cas is found eu upon the I h;\lWI1:l
    PAGE 431

    414 Pilot and Gui(lc. are a l so pl e ntiful :dong the (;hagIPs, a nd are brought d ow n t o Bohio and Gatun i n or nati,'e canoes; ,\lid from these p oints s hipp e d to Co lon by rail. Coffee rC:lc h l's its high es t s lage of p erf('ctioll in the proyinc c of Chiriqui, where in th o yic inil y o f Boqu e tl', mall)' f oreigll. PI'S a r e ellgnged ill its ('ultivumpti o ll como from th e re. while t ohacco :lIlU garden pro du cts arc produced cxtellsire ly. The hest r;lcao lthe (.Dcon o f com m cr(,e) rOlTIC'S f ro m Coclt, pruvincf'. Rugal' ralll'. used p rin cipally in making molasses a nd native rUIll. I S raised ill O hili qui, Coch.:. Los Santo s :llltl Provinees. O the r products of COl'll. l'icl", rubL e r il1dlgo, coco anut s palm tlnd i\"01'y nuts. sal'snpa rilla ipec[lcll{' lauds: lind -;u('11 as now 1J('iQugto lin Illml, OJ'juridic pf'I'sons. AI'!.::!, Pull owncl'>: h ip of these wa"le lfi1Hl s j ... \'esl('d i n tllt' Il:llion, I 'rhe adjudi{,lIt i o n of \\'rl!':lf' Illn If;; hnR for its OiJjN' t Ilwir .\HT:1, ('UIU"nlioll, 11Ilil t!1(' f'!'itahlij:: hllH'II] of i ndustl'it'jl;, ort-oll' I ('('rnb of public b{'uf'til. vi1." (I) For ,h(' ('l>.llIbU:;h 111\'111. ,Ic\'(,lnpmnl nlHI l'QIIlIll O n n!':(' of t'itil'S town!' nnll villngl's, -.

    PAGE 432

    Pa,llli/In of tilt' !'tc/;cllf Va!/, 415 1m! adjuliications cannot 1)(, iI'ansrel'l'( 'd, ai' ,li\'ert(' d to anothel' ohj('(-l, plot..; of land for ('ily IHI'110ses which may \)1;' e:eded f{1'atl1itously, leaseli 01' sold by the l'ei'>pce:tive m ulIieipalitif':; on COlHlilioll of building on tlll'lll according to the I form, :lnd within the lime stipuillted, by till' afll1'c<;,aid ('OI'POl':UiOIl", Fol' hOllu,..!('ad", that if.; to soy, coulltt'Y'I'I'siticl'I(' e-., Stll'l'OUlHlcd by laud<: fur :lgl'i\'lllllLl':1i :\IHI gl':lziujt ]111l'1>05('5, ( : ; ) 1'01' the e"t,lhli ... hm(' ,:t" of pu1)lit, hf'll(;'fit. hut !-otH,h Hdjuuiel.ltioll shall be l'Ouhject to I('gi:-lalh'(' S:lJlcfiou, (-I ) 1-\11' the t :.:tablis l lllH'lIt aud de\"dopmcllt or {'otonic .. tllltllOriZt'l11,.r l;tw, ( j ) 1 "01' till' as:-.i:-.tallt'c amI l'Oubsidy fhal lila.\' hl' hy I:\,\\ fol' {'oH"'tl'ul'iion o[ wa.ys of COllllllllIJicatioli bllT ,.m,h adjudication::; :-lwll oul." bl> mali(' iu IlltCl'Uatt.' l ot::> along tht' rc"'pt'ctiw way"" (6) Only 1111' I:.l.w Sll:lll clcc r\!c or any atll{'r cia ... ". ( 7 ) .\.Jlllatlll'al,ol' juritlit !ll'I',.,OIl,..; llomicill..'ll ill Iile counll')' ",hllll ha\'{' tlie !'igltt to hn\'c pOl'til)l1s of bUIll ;llI oUed to till-ill, I'X' cepl thaI fOI't 'if!IH!I'S who are of couJltl'ic::> \lilt'I'I Pamumtlliau>; ;t\,\, not pel'milled to own 01' ('Olmh;,' 1)1'0})('I"Y libHIl 110l t'njoy thi!; right, A tax or 2,) cent,. gold l)( !I' hccllu'u I::; illll'o::>cd UII the bsullU{'e of whethel' pl'ovis : ( Jllal 01' d(:tiuith'(', The Oll title1-ur lhi-i l;lw be u:;ed r\BT.." !) to 10, to aefray the (>XPt II,.C.., of IllHwlgt'lIlellt lilll'\ I:)' I llld ad-jUtlicatioll of llaliollal laud,., 1"01' thp adjutli<:utioH of ('011('(01'118 fo1' the public henefit, dl'n:'lopmcnt of COIOllic". alill WHyS o[ comlllunic;niolr, the tax 011 ;shal1l'fllI g e [I'OUl :!:-) to :;0 ('Clits goll! pt.'r hCd;\]'(', A HT J J. 'fh e tax obttliu .. soon fi::. the filt'tl with the Commissiol)( 'l' or uatioufli who a COl', l'cspou
    PAGE 433

    416 Pilot a1ul GI/ide. PROSPERO PINEL. PABLO PINEL. F'ANAJXLA Agents of La Nave gaci 6n Nacional. DEALEI!S PEAI!LS m COmliSSIOX JlEl!cnms. If"{PORTERS AND EXPORTERS. SHIPBUILDERS and SHIPOWNERS. "So, 11 :NOnTli OFFICE nux: 11:1. C'hlim<; against applications for wa<.tC' lauds mU!iit be ART 16. prC'!':l.'uled within ;)() tla ,ys 1 0 til(' (late of the third publication of the edi'" in the GI.I/'{'ta (Yiria/, to the Commis"iol\{'l' of lIatioua,1 land;.; 1'01' that district. the lapse of 30 any claim having been ART. I;. prt'sented, anti if pl'pseut('ll. decidrd in fi\\'OI' of the ap thoCollllnis:oionN' :0:11:111 dl'ln('I' the-llpplicntion to au of1i<>illl ;:;\Il'\'{>yor. who in thc lIC'xt l.i day .... li'hall draw np Ihe pilln ot tlif' lan!l, ill and sublllit hi .. l'epOl'I, .All ('xpensf':'i iuclII'red in ihc openillg' of thf' .\nT, :!O, fOI' the IllNlSlIl'l'llll'lIt of thl' I:lnd, IIlId f('ll' up the plnll:-S I h e l t' f, ::.hnll bf' hOl'lle by til(' party 'rile cro:.tipn.ths i'hlill hu\'{" minimulII width of two m e tel:;;; (about; f('et), '1'hl' plan, nH.'aSIH't' lllf'lIt !llItl report h:l\'ing h('1'1I Rcccpt{lc\ .\IIT,2t. 01111 l\ppr'o\'Nl by tit e r e .. l'olluuis ... iolll' I 'S, n!HI :.nlisfnctor,r proof l':ddbitf'd of til x l 'l'I'('\I'('d to in this law illlyill,!!' been pllid, the S hllll proceed to i:O"'.Il(' n visiollill title. ThEl term for til(' Il{lfllli'I" fI!ljUtli"fltioll <'hlpSl"tl 31. without IIpplil'l1.lioll h'!\'ill/.!' h('l'n Comlui'l' PI'C('P{>I\ to IlIitl\,' Pf'l'''Ollltll,\', 01' a rlf'JllltY I nn o('u\(tr (' f tit" IfllI4l,"I1J if troUl iU-'P('ftion it !'Ihould --- I

    PAGE 434

    Panama of file Present DII!I 417 result that tlu' pru'ty concel'llc O\\'npl'ship of III uel foha II 11(, "{',(:iflterrd ART, at tho expense of the coneel'llC'd at the propf'r He gistCl"S oUiec within :10 dnyo; nH('r tiwy It:'''e h {, f 'l\ j;;;;>;Uf'tll fo insUI'C \,fllidity, Ally r c"i,len t, and ill general ftl, lypf'l'SOll not dehal'l'cd 1,," ART,43, Ihe, 01' who i!'! not the owncr ot: hlml;;;, lhe righl to the IIl'O\-isional ndjmlicatiou fol' his 1'(::;;(l(:I1I't' of n!:S much as 20 h('ctarcs of waste hUlls fol' such pl11'pOSC1 wl1<:I'(' \'CI' hI' may select; provided thf'Y nl"l' not fOI' IIllyotlu:,l' use, Tho maximum of wlIsle lands to b(' :llljudieal('d to a ART, iil single pel'son shall 1,,8 20,000 hect:ll'i'a_ (Xote: ...-\ hf'ctal'e equal ... 2, 171 J Hcr<,:o, milking-the maximUlll allot w<,nt i n a C l'eS 4:!), Immcdlll.te-ly aftel lh(' ollicel' ;;;electerl to p:h'c )10""Cg"iOll J \ RT, OG, of the hllld l'c<:eh-('s luf' COIUt1lllHl('at ion f!'Olll thf' 1)I'o\' i ll-eial commis;,ioncl', he shalillotify the Pfu'ty cOIll'el'n('d, nnd ... 11:111 post a. plrlcunl dlll'jUg 4 8 hou!';; in the offif'e of the Alt'ald(' of the District, :UlDoIIIH'ing the day and honr in \\'hi('h th(' o( taking pos::;e5'>ion will OCClil', On I hI' dayaud datc appointed 1 thcomC'el'cntl'u"ledwirll ART, G;, !!,j\ 'II1g' possession, 1I('l;ompanied by two fjunlilicd wit-nessc", :lllfl the pllrt,\' eOllcerllcd, 01' hi .. I'c]lI'Cscntllth'c: shall ,'epail,to tho ad,iwlicated land, and fOl'tuwirh Affect making ;1, record oC the pl'oeE'enph per;;;;oll. subjC'l't to th(' prepayment of a. tax of :!:; ('enti! gold lIel' heclfll'(>, Pf'l'mits I'M tl'ansitor\' ('ultin,tion of waste hlllll., may A!{1', ,1. b <;I',mre,1 1'0\' n tl'l'[;1 not fiv<, Y('lU'S. all:1 t il e tAX nil Ih{!Sf" p l' nnit..-slwll be Pl"'pilid 1lt til(' rail' of 10 e('lItc: Id pr r hf'ctnrt': nod it shall bo itH'I'('URCtl gmduully nt tlllrate of J c('nt,;; gold WI' bC'cI;lre 1>('1' annum, ulltil Ihe I'nte of 50 golJ p e r hc('t:1l'(' pcr allllum il'> l't'llched, at wllicb I:lUC1' it will

    PAGE 435

    , 418 Pilot (wd Guide. I'I'maiu IWl'nHl.nent Iy. 'fhcse p e l'mit s s hall not be grolutecl fol' plots O\'er ('ight hecTares in extent. Landi'. held by sa\'age, or half-savage indigeno1ls tribe" Art. -;!J. tire not suhject to a.djudication. 'rile i,-= ,'mpowE'l'e(\ to dete l'llIille under this law tbo l)1'pci:-:t> o [ tbfose tenitorial reservatioll'::, and to rf': ill (.'onformity with tlpecial 11i\\s which hell I product!, H ehltes to fort'going R11icle ill de1nil. One poinl nHlti'" .\I'h, ,'1 to i,. that those who arc public lan,1;.; for c:lttle wilt haye IwO yell I'::" time to })I'on' up tileil'cJaillls iu adju'li(.'ntioll under IhE' lIew law. \I'IS i->i-ll() 100, Helates to the method of pl'oCledul'l' hefore tilt: court ... in case o f 01' oppo: term of OIlC yeaI' shall bt' gl'allleil in whi<:h to u('cll:u't' wheth(,l' Ihfo.'" desire to make use of ::inch I'ight:,;. llceeptingtlH' obligatioll'" whic'h the.'" (>l1lail, (>le ... ht, 10;), Helatcs ill (lctnil whnt (.'tJll:o;idt'I'ed laml lIllliel' ('ultimlion whel1 pro"iug Ill' the filial title, PI '('scribe!s that pel'mauent Oi.'ClIPUtiOIl of Innd b.'" c.lltle .--\rt. 106, and hOl'8es give" l"ip;ht to Ihe u .. e (,f "'\I(>h 11111<1 at 1111' rale of one llL'cto.l 't" pel' heall. Gi"h right to (CII('c bllul if lilt, 1\11 ItIUt 'l' of cnUh' .\1'1.107, i., in Pl'opol-tion 10 the lilllouul o( land (>u(' lo: d i\'ifle'd iuto thl'C'(, ).Iiningi.Jnw.:;, as l'ulloWR: (1) mille''', :-otlt\i :lS iron a.nd cOI Jper. (:!) LodC',ol' \C'ill thmm or pt'C'cioli. SlOIlC'R, Riin'!' :111(1 Aolcl, (:l) mill(>s fOl'meti of allu\ iai hrds of pl'r('loH<';

    PAGE 436

    ]>OlUI III(( of the "resellt j)ail. 419 s t o nes and m e tal s w3s h c(1 clown by ri,'cl's. A p e r soll o f s ecuri n g of a minin g property ill P'\Iw ma. 1I111S t fir:-;t n o t I f y th e Illunicip;t\ hend o f the distl' i d ill \ h i ch the min e i s loca, trll, stating th e exact l oca l i t y ns 110[\1' lIS gi"i n g th e e s tabli s h e d n anlC', if it ha5': 011(', fillet p l acin g a p e rm a n ent mark at th e place rrhe will the n h e dill y r ec ord ed, and ; IS SOOIi :18 th e Ad hll g h ee n I('g.-tl l y autho r ize d. th e party will b e fUl'lI bhe (l w it h a. ('opy Th e dillWII S i o ll s of ('(leI! dai m sh all h e n I'cct;1l1glc HOO llle t e r s (ab out 1 feet ) I O ll g h y to ll11'i f"l'g (about 7 R 7 I'('(' t ) wi d e The c i nilllillll to it veill m illc \\ IIC'Lhe r a. n e w or a band o n e d pr o p e rty at his e l ec tioll. will han' lIH' right o f :111 up t o tlil'f'e clailll s with o ut pl'('judi cilJg the right:; o f th ose ncljaccnt. 'l' h e dimensions of Illl alltl\ iulll min e s hall b e a squnre w i th a b : l se o f thre e k i lome t e r s or r ec t a n g l e h a Y i n g two of b : l SC b y lj\ e k ilome ters Oil th o sid es. '1' 110 d i m e n s ion o f scdJ m ent minc s : w d tho se f ounel ill h e d s s h all he a squ
    PAGE 437

    4-20 Pil ot (wrl Olddc. -----same number o f claims as was cOIl'rcye d t o the origina l di s('orrrcl'. ,Vhell the i nstrument of drIlOUIlCE'Il1C'ut has h een cx('cuteil, the Exec uti, e Authority s h all order that posses-sioH oE the mille be gil-en Th e head of th e llluni cipality will th Oll, upon pelitioll of th e party d enouncin g (,OlllllliRSioll 1 h e ins p ec tor o f Poli ce to com 'c.\" p o ssessioll Sh ould the p a rty (lcllo nllcing fail to claim within (;0 (\"),S a!'ter Jlublication of th e n o tification without good C flUSf' he will forfeit his rights to the minco ami it s hall b e
    PAGE 438

    421 of th' thir r l cJaS:-i, Th e cnpy (jf notification nccompnnyiuri tho illstnllllC'lIt of Ul'1l0 UII CCIl IC'llt R hall be lU :!.l Pall,lma rUl"l'L'Uty. ullllllal bu('s arc ': On milil 's uf Jll'f'tiUIiS .:)tO IiCh. :::;10 P a nama C UIT C IICY pel' slJll:ll'e kil ometer. and il l prop O l'ti o n :lccol' d ing to l el1glh o f milles. 011 nlll1\ 'ial til inC'!". I 0 Paullina. currency ful' each 2 5 kii olllrtcl's 1' 0 1 liolls not exceeding the kilome t ers will h ave to pity ;11I(t pro portionate l y in excess of this m e aSUff.'Ill('llt Ill' t o :!.J kil oll1ctrl's 011 ljuart", OJ' yci n min os, !-);J Pallama curr ellcy f oJ' cac h :lpl'lIl'tcnall(,c GOO meten, hJlIg IJY :240 llW tel' s wide. Thr right to a Illine is l ost whell tll(. t a x i s !lOt paid pUllctually. r he t ax ('311 b o paid ill 'UIYtlII C .. fvr allY IlUIllIJ<.'l' of yea r s d C!iir etl. Owner s t o iitIes 011 not ill litigation. ca n sccure perma.nent owner s hip: l' x f'mpl fr olll future tax:lii(lll, by pa.}'illg i n alhnn c e til J ing tax es for "0 years. 'l'ax es comme nce from d : l t c o f possession. YalliWla 0110 of lIle few cOH lllril s in the F1X,\),cn" ci"ilized world t o-day lhat i s with/Jut a. IlaLiolla l ueht. Rhe stnl'll'd off from the jUlIlp with l\. lIicc l iHic Stllll ill the GQ\'(,l'IIlll t 'n t exche
    PAGE 439

    " 42 2 __ __ !' rrhc Go\ cl'llme nt fin:lnciul statemel\t for th e calendar yea. 1 n07 makes a partic ularly excellent s howing. The t o t a l I'( .. yenu('s from nil s(Jurc('S a m ounteu to gold. dcri\'ed fro m import duti es, and inte rnal a cOllsid('1';\1110 i n c l'c;:lsC oyer th e prC\ i O ll S yon,r. f ollowing table s hows the revenlle from impo rt s f o r th e yea r s 1 flOU and 1 !l07 :-" 011 1"nbjl d lo 10 per Iluly 011 impo l'la.lion or 1irl'101'S On i m ]lort fll ion (If tobacco,:; amI eigal'c li es On imp o rtation of salt 011 impor ion o f ma tches On imp rtntion f c olTee T o tal .. .. ..I. -"' J ( '--I)" .,; ... ", I,ll.. u 3li ,078.,18 -l.l,S4 i. 70 4,661.81 l',OOO,OU 11. 5iiJ.4 i -$ /.li,DSUIO 4:lS.2!)O.lO 7 ,66!L -IO }D,563.38 .)'1" 0 ,-. -.j ----Thi s s hows ,1 llC't incrense o f oypr jh c y "a,. I !lOIi, Thi s ,ho nld b e an inde o f th e healthy condi tin n of com1l1C'rcc in th e I T puhlic, as th o item o i rere llU e ill(,l'C' nsc 111('<1115 prop o rti onally l<1r ge illcr r asc in the o f 1h(' import!-i. ] n I1dclilioll t o the nl>o\'('. opium pro du ce d n revelluc (If 3.j ; natin distillntioll o f lilIUlJr:s, h e;lcl tax o n ( ; IUlI!. tn all exp o rt s pl'im.ipally ilan:t n n s X I 7 f): sa l(' o r st;u np('d pa p el', 1;,) I 1 9 "i.11: m illing rightF. R2,U:?0.{).): pa tenLc; Ilild p tivi l('gf's rrg i s tra t i u n f Cl' R 'i ; COII:'U!u1' fl'C':O:. .... 18: p o s toff-icc 1 20.0'-': tch gr;lphs : mtl t e l(' 1'11011(':0:. pnslHI cOlllmi ssirJlIt-: I.O:?: loUery. compani(,!o:Ij :)7; jll'iirl n;:oh('riC's !--iljOO; lIatioluti property X!I.711'1.0:!: liqu or Itl'('Il:,l'S l)H U :'1B.f>O; inl)Jortatloll oj" c atth $ 1 I J.:)Q; ItIO I H j c h;lllgrl'fl. puhli..-m:1J'kt' t 1'01' month o f 1 ) ('('('11.1)('1', 1 HOi. dale it WII!) tUI'Ilrd O\'er to tlH cily k:!. :n:,?02: ill 001011, k:J,,-' -C' I 0" u.

    PAGE 440

    423 -Misteli, the Swiss Jeweler, In Order t o Select a Good Wedding Present." W n PLACE m IHX : U ":oiE liE .. \I.\L\YS TIIB FIXEST A:-son'nIEXT IX THE BEST MOUNTING STONES, A SPECIALTY. The t e l egra ph fmd lon g d istalJce t e l e pholll' Le\C'ul1tph-s allll sj's t r m (If tho countr)' is the [ )l'o l )er t ) Clf th e T (> 1 ep holJ t>,... ]"lrtllflm::l UOre l'lllllent, 3n d extends fmm P a lla llla to D uyjd ill Chil'iqui Th e system is diYifl c d inlo six sec tions f ollows :-P a n :l1l1a. t o C h amc. Chamc to Ag-linduice t o S O Il;i. 8 011:1 to H elUc d ios; H e lllr d ios to Dm-id and Santia.go t o L as T :.I.olas. 'rho total l ine JIliic;lgC i s about liOO miles 'rhe p ole construction is o f irol1 and hard \\oods 11::\1 -H{,SS. of th e pr ese nt l i n e r in. Co r oza l and A naijHll. BeW telegl'aph line is :dso heillg huilt COllllccting Pal-111
    PAGE 441

    424 -__ 0 'U. __ O= __ __ F ollowing is a cOlllpl e t o li::.t of the Panama Gun:l'llITIcnt tf'legl' n ph and h'lcpholJc offices:-'fEI.EGR.\PU OFFICES l' L'nlra I f-h:;:t\ 1<[ un I'lcl''i \guadulcI:J Aulon { 'lIpim Ch:\lllt' ('hiil'f t horrcl':l Da\'id Il ol'conei l os I ,;t::; l-'alHlas Las A\'('nw B Los :-: :'1ltllt; ]or :tel! ra(';) s Pari! ... PCll o llom{P o cr i R cnwf lios San CllrlO::; Santiugo Soml. TELEi'UOXE Q}' FlCEH. \l'l1t ij,i.u ( 0 !Ultral'\: I .a >r nlil OC(I Sail Felix uubm, :uul of :! I wirC's J'l'nlH Clllcbra t o Pan:HlliJ. Elf"-(>u t e lC'phone :lIlci t e legraph offic('!) arc maintained T otal !llImber of 8uhs(,l'ibcl'!'. a hout 830, moslly in callal (lftiCC'S_ (lllc wire o f thi s sys tf'm is nsed :Hi a fllr(l ngh drl 'lIlL 1'10111 Y o r k !o HuclJos ..diles, rrhc co:st o r a. t e n wlon( anuss th e hllunus is :!fJ I.:Cnt R golLl. 'rlll'l'l' i!i :t luc:d it: l r phollc (.lXcllilllMIJ ill Panama. ('Ity o)lf'j'ateli hy p rj, ILtC ('Hpit:tI tJlldf'1' pri,-i) I'ges. Jt has :JQO (101011 is th o sit e of tlw (Jllly t c l rgr: lph sLltion 011 the Th o 1I(':J1'C':-.f othrl' is at Puerto L1I1101l) with "h:('h COIllJf'diull IlJllintaincd_ The ('oll }ll s t atioll l 'lllipPld with DL' Jt'O l cst :lppnl'ntns '---_____ 0 0 _______ ---'

    PAGE 442

    I I I I --------,-----------. 425 --ell bles r hree lines of cable communication reach the Two helong to the and South Amer icall 'l'elegraph Co., and tho othcr to the 'Vest Tndia and Panama Co. The Ilew / All Am('rican cable establ ishing direct communication between Cololl 311d New )'(Irk was laid ( l uring 1907, the work having bee n completed in T uly. Offices of the cable companies are maintained at both Panama and Cololl. With the exception to POlllt. on the Pana-POt>t Otfices -J del' ma "l.ailroa, in the ann ZOlle th e t.rans-portat ion of mai l s on the Isthmus is almost wholly dependent on wnter com munication. rhe National Company has t he contract for carryi n g the mails on the Pacific side, and maintains n regular i tinerary. }'L'om the ports, mail ic; cnrrie-d into the intp-l'ior by hor;o;ebac k. The headquarters of th(' postal system is in Panama city, with :\J1'. Samuel Boyd in charge as Postmaster General. Do mestic mai l rates of the United States applies to mail matter scnt from there to points in the Republic of Pan ama, and the Cana l Zone, alt h o ugh this llocs not seoru yery well und erstood by t h e merchants a n d manufacturers i n th e f o rmer country 'j1he letter postage rate from tho R epublic of Panama to points in tho United States is two and a-hal f cellts gold. Panama beillg ill the Postal LUtOn the parcels post ),E'gulatiolls govel'll, the rate being 12 rellts pel' pound. The interior parcels post rates are 10 cellts gol d for one pOllnd, and go l d for the max i n Ulin weight allowed, viz J 11 pounds. '1'00 post-offices of t h e R e p ublic are as follows;-Agnadutee, Prov, of CocM ,Anloo, PI'OV. Cocle At't'aijall, Pro\', of Panallu'i. Bastimeutos, Pro\', of BoeRS del Toro BoclI.s del Toro, Pro\', of BOCRS del T(Jro Boquetc, Pro\', o( Chiriqui Cnpira, Prov, of Pau:tml'i. Pro", of Co16n IJa Palma, Pro,', of P a namu Las iUinas PI'O'", o[ Los Las Plllmns, PI'O'-. or Vf>l'aglls'i Las'l'tl bia sl Pro,'. of Los Santo:, Los Pozos, Pro,', of Los Santos Los Sanlos,Pro\'. of Los Santos )Jacaracll s, Pro\'. o( Los Rautos Pro\" of CocM Oeul Pro\,. of. Los Santos OtoqUI", Prov. 1)( Pftllamu

    PAGE 443

    I 426 Pilot and G I/idc Chepigalla, Pro\,. of Panama Chepo, Prov. oC Pa.uanlll Chamo, Pro\,. of Panama C h ll,nguino la., Provo of Eoens d e l T oro Chi riqu i Gra.nde, Prov. of BoeRS del f oro Chitro, Provo of Loft Santos Cborrera, PI'QV. of Panama. Col6n, PI'OV. of Col6n David, Pro,' of C hi ri q ui Dolega, Pro\', of Chi r i q ui F.l Real, Prov. of OU:\l'aI'6, Prov o o[ L os S.Ultos -HOI'COllCitos, T'rov of Chiriqui La. Mesa. Prov. of V ornguas Panama, DiRt. P:J,.l'ita., .PI'OV. of L os Santos Pedas!, Proy. of Lo s Santos Penollomo, P ro\, o f Coe l 6 Pe so, Prov. of Los Sa n tos Pocl'i, Prov. of Los Sa.ntos H o m edios, P,'o,-, o f 0 h i l'i q u i San Ca rl os, PI'OV. of San Feli x, P I'QV. of Chiriqui San Migml Prov. o f Palla ma S:wtiago, Pro\'. or" f'1':lg"Ul\S Sixola, Pro". of Boc:ls T oro Sonfi., Prov. 'fabogn., Pro\'. o f Panam a 'f0I1091 PI'OV. of L os Sant os Toh'i, Pro\, of CLiriqni Schools. Sc hool s are w e H tlisbibu te d throu g h o ut the se ttl e d p or tion o f the country but in th ese onl y the primary gra des are tau ght. Th e capital, howeyer offe r s excelle nt facillit ies f o r educatio n i n t h e high e r g rade s i n the following Rix instituti ons :-Normal School for girls; Norma l Sc hool f o r Y Ollllg 1\f en; Nati on:) I Cull<'ge o f Language and Comme rce; Superior School for Y o ung L adies; Super i or Sc hool for Young 1\[ e n ; NHtiolln) Sc h ool of l\{lIsic and Declamatioll, and School of Arts and S c i e n ces. A sc hool i s als o maintain e d in Panama city f o r th e ('duca.tion of San Bias Indian buys, are a numb e r of private sc hool s and colleges ill additi o n t o t h o a.bovC'. n lis t of whic h will h e found ill the dil'f'ct.ory p : ll't hf thi s volume. The Department o f Public Jllstructioll is in c h a rge o f i\ll'. l\1'e l c hol' J ... aRso d e l a VegH, w h o i s illde f atigable in his efforts tow:wd build ing up the sc hool s o f t h e J{e public. r n lO cleg r ee of illiteracy :unong Ihe lru e P;III3. m allillll i s 8111:\11. rspecirtlly ill th e cities, IIm: h l ess so than in som e l oca l ities ill the Soulhern SLnto.:). rllhc l'c are very fow im lectl that canllot rend 01' writ 'l. A l arge lIumhc r o f nC'w school h OI1$icS h : l\' o hcell e reded in the se \'cml pr ovinces since th(' new j{C'publi c was f OI'lIl(,<.I, and erlch yenr w i lllrsses llll ille!'e ascd ill the cali s e o f e ducati o n 'ril e lltllnh f'r of sc hools, t.<"[tell

    PAGE 444

    ------__ /'_ _"'_ o"".r ___ ___ ----4 2 7 TABLEAU OF THE NATIONS BY PUPILS OF THE: COLLEG E OF SAN JOSE.

    PAGE 445

    I 428 Pilot all{l Otlide. ers emp l oyed. enroll m ent; sch ools of the H e pnbl ic in an d average attend a n ce in the 1906 was a s 10110"'8:-Pl'ovi nef' No. No. 'Enroll A Attend-Sc hool s Teach e rs. m C llt. allee Docas !.lei Toro 1 0 1 3 447 356 CocM 1 5 24 8:19 637 Colon 2 4 32 1020 870 ChiriquI 29 37 1348 1087 Los Santos 33 42 14 05 1 2 t1 Panama 46 45 I9S!! 152-4 Panama ( Dist Cap.) 6 (Sc hool s) 35 1418 1011 Panama (Dist. Cap.) G (Colleges) 3 7 660 660 Veraguas Natio n al C Ul'I' ency. 24 31 950 ';"30 -------193 296 ] 8,116 At th e time of the secession, the Colombiall silve r peso, and fractio na.l d e n o minati olls t.hereof, consti tuted t.he principal monoy in circulatio n o n the I s thmus. 'rhis had a fiuc ttwt i ng vnluA according to the curre n t rnte of exc han ge 11he lHOIlf'Y changers usually gaye 82. 10 Colombian silve r for 8 1 gold. but in commerc i al transaction s t h o rate som e tim es wont as high as $2.15, Colombian pap er, h a"i n g a "alue of one ce nt go l d to the d olla r was n ot accepted as l ega l tender. The pr(>scllt currency i s known as the Ba1bon 11 series, the balhoa. bein g a fictiti o u s uni t of "aln e r e pl' eseuting 1 reha highest actual denominati o n a t present is tho sil\ltJ1' p eso, Ot' h a l f-ba. lboa piec e, the ralue of a ll Panama sil \'er C ltTCtlCY being half the value of the same d ello minntions ill AllIl'I'ica n gold, The oth e r coins in cir c ulation lIrc the silve r ,jO-ccnt piece, the 20-ccnt ))ioc(', t h e lOcelit pi('('o, a nickt fivc cent piece. h eing its actual go)
    PAGE 446

    429 hundred d in this way. Ameri can gold nHd silve r coin s down to t h e IO-cc nt piece are i ll gcneral cir culatiotl, quite as lllu ch so in fact. as th e l oca l curren cy American fh-e cent pieces and coppers arc not accepte u Races. rrh e population of Panama pres ents a yariet)' of types. Thoro nrc th e native ludin-lIs, O l' nborigines ; th e mestizo!:i COllSistillg of a m ixtu r e of. with Indian; the lIlUiUL(IS. of white with lleg-roes; the z::unbus, a mixture o f negro with fndi;l1I. and as yrt a n unclassified t y p o cOllsis tiJi g of a mixture of Indian and lIC'gl'O with Chin<.'se. Se\'e ral flldian trihcs are scattC'!'cd <\, bout the I sthmus, tho chief heing th e Sail BIas hItler arc jCnlOllS (.If and do lIot a llow foreigners to t'llter tbeir t e rritory. 1\Iany stories a r e told o f narrow csc:-qws I;y those w h o had the temerity to disobey the injull<:tion, '1'110 San Bi as I tHiians arc a. p eculiar race. 'rhey arc very small ill s taturf\ wit h ahnormall y larg e heads: 110rma l bodies and ulHlersizeu l egs. The youths arc ailowcd to leave the tribe alld ficek emp l oyme nt ill cirilizeu comm unitics! but ilre required to return a ftpl' a certain age. 1'h e ,,,omen are rarely seen ab r oa d Some of the wild trib es s till adhere to c ru e l customs, Not IOllg since some India n s fro m olle of the w es tel'll provinc es were bro ught to P anama f a)' trial upon thp. c harge of LUI') ing a mentall y afflicted I1lemiwr o f the trihe a lir e III addition to th e above, th e r e a r e th e native white resid e nts. white N or th Am ericans and Europeans, :lond a sprinkling of nearl y all the principal races O n the face of th o g lobe, B y th e la w o f 190.t ; Chi n ese, rellrk s lllHJ Syrian s were debarred, hut the Chinese were already h e re ill l arge !lumb e rs. (lnd practically contro l the retail trad e i ll groceries. The Ipga\ wei g h ts alld arc t hose of 'Veights a.nd tl .. I I M ea'HII'CS. 10 metnc system: uut custom laS mtro< llced other:;:;. r:rhc American p o und weight i s HOW cJmmonly used. 111 m eas ures o f length the pulgada ( inch), and pic (fout) is u se d instead of centi m eters and d ecimeters, but beyond thi, t h e meter and k i l ometer of the mot-" I

    PAGE 447

    430 ri c i s r esorted to. The liter i!' u))cd iltsll.'ad o f tue quar! mea s ure, but thr g;llloll i s frl!'juenUy l'rfclTcd tu. 1 II m easures o f s urface, h ectares i!'i the> only metric mCllt i n COl11mon u se 'fhc!'f' is really no W:lI'1' n'v('llltcs:, .\11 inc-omin.::; :Il'l' 1I0W !Jo.lnh d hy C '\t .. !OIllS um ci:JI!':, whilr 111r ZOlU' (;'O\CI"IlI11C'lIt it'i 0 1 ..

    PAGE 448

    th e Pan a m a ( :;OYC1'1I1cnt a t:l.O PCl' cent. of their fac(' aill e Tn r e tu rn. it was !'tiollll1t e d t hat P a n a m a sh o ul d I'p du ce it s o f duty f rom I i) to 1 0 per cent., a n d to ab olis h th e o n e p CI' ccnt. t ax all C'xp orlli of gold coin. rn d el' t a r iff agreemen t. goo d s enteri ng either the Can a l Z o n e. 01' Rrpublic o[ Pan:lllli\ (C'xcept goods d esig n ed f or ca n a l purposes) wer e s u hject t o th e d u t y o f te n p('r C'IIt. The n:1Yigalioll l aws o f Pa!lal1la. a r c ycry Local Nayiga t ion liber a l a n d fa\'ol' enrollment o f merchan t Lawl5. R I cra ft 1I11d e r i t s tlag. e f ore a m e r e l a n t y osse l C etion \ 0 r esident All1er ica n s t he llulrines WPl'l'. tran sferre d t o AIiCOIl) w h i l e l h e lI-et c )' o r k Jfal'l:Jl cltead,

    PAGE 449

    432 r it"t (111(1 Cllide. 80.1;1011, and iJelllliJlglrm I'ode at cUI(.:ilor ill Lho bay \\'ithin a few days after the trouble. the army consistil1g 1)1' about 400 me n \ras dis banded. and theil firearms tIl111('<1 oyer to the Zono authoritie s fo!' safe ke e ping .. \t tIle same timf', nearly all the gUlls 011 the seawall werc Vith the disappearance of the army, tlte polic e f o r co was largely augmented. Afte r the disbandment" (.1' tin :ll'lll\ .. Gen. Huortn1i. H t (. I ( I t I uer as I'C' II'C( 0 liS C OUll 1')' IOIlll' l!t';II' Aguaduice, W]13I'(, he h ns since boen ouietly I'osidi llg. 'The gellcnd i s very p O Jlular with all classe):;. and has a s trong following His military (';l.reel' is a re co rd o f :t eo ul'ag eolls ;"lnd pain s taking soldie r, for which fro m time to time. hr rcceived merited l'{'cogniti oll H e was hQrn at ClI l omhi::t) i\I:ty 2;4: I Hi:?, cllt{'J'cci th e ::trm)' WhCll hili nilll' and olloall' YCrlrs of a ge and frolll IH'"i,) to I took part in 110 l ess than :{f) c ng;lgell1Cnts--..:2:! land and 13 sea fights \t the b
    PAGE 450

    ---- ---rrhe "isitol' t.o th o r s th mlls ordinarily losc!) nJUciJ LililO nnd pati(,llcc in b e ing com p elle d to male inqui ries a.t Il cal'l y C'\'ery turn. and in finding out for hims e l f th e things he shoul d b e n ble It) p ost up 011 heJorchnnd. It is the aim u f the P i l o t alld (Jj/ ide to a ff o rd tourists and tra\"rlers } l cort.lin flillOllllt o f geJlcra l information oj' this natu r e as will t e nd 1 0 m a k e their visit a IllOre thol'ollgu nml pleasan t Oil' The I sthmian rtu;u'fllltinc r egu lations nrc '"c r y I Qn:lt':lntlllL'. strict ami must be com plied wit h Lo the l e t(t.el'. Incoming ossels lJIust Hy:t, yello\\" Hag at tho f oro an d :nnJit quarantino at th e :lllchuragl'designated. 'Pb e H ag must lIot he l owered nnti l pratique' is gr:lllt r(\ by the qllflralltinc o f ficer. The cHptail1 o f sl1cll \'t'sscl must n ot allo\\" any boat 01' o ther craft, except th:lt 1)1' 1 he officorg o f the port. to approach within '>00 m e t e rs. or allow anything to lea\'C' th e vosseI. \'esse l s h o\\'o\ ol', urrivil1g at the p 'Jrts of Culon [ lild Cristobal arc allowed : al lhe discrctiiJlI oE the Offit:cl': to come fllo n g !-iido the wharf f or illspection excep t whclI th ey have sickness 011 ho{m.1, o r cl.rc fro m p orts infected w ith qU:lI'aIltinahlr they hare propel' certificates s h o w in g that they h ave 1101, lain fit all flllchorage ex p osing sllc h tn illfcclioll fIlTi\ ing at night lllu s t tlllC hor 111 tho bay alld not COIlle' t o the w harf fot' ins pedion before' daylight. of H cnHh. y ol5sei s e nte ring the ports of Ancon, ul' C ristobrrl from allY f o r eig n port w h oro th e re i s a r nit ecl Htatcs cOl1slIlar officcl' must present a h ill of h(lalt h of th e same characte r and form as is 1'e--

    PAGE 451

    434 Pilot (llIf l (;"ide. LARGE ASSORTMENT O F SPE CIAL JEWELI?Y, !; = -c ," Z -,'. z No. }4. BOTTLE COLON. R P --,,_ .--11lI1 1 0 I 'II'roflhe CchhrltfNl C 'OLOitlrJL\N CIOAHI": lU"ch-(ron> Ih ... Hl.::;h G .... d., '.z'OIHU (fl.'l ",. '\llIlm lO'IIIII Ilud )iillillallll"r, m m 2 -------.:. CALL FOR GUAVA VELEZA DELfCIOUS CONFECTIO N quir e d of vessels ent e ring' Ihc pnrl s of lh e Uni ll'd S tairs fr o m r oreign p or is. Sne h \'t's sri s h:wing c nt e r e d Or (';dled at illt erlllc diat"c p ort mu .,1 .d50 i t supple m e ntal bill (If h e a lth The p enalty 1'01' n O Il-ob scn'fl.llCe o f rrguiation i s a finC' of n o t to Rf)OO. the :l1l10unt to b e fixed b y t h e courts. Y ('lIo w F('VI;-I' P a sse n ger s 011 Y('S!-"PJ:,. l'om i n g fro m pO I ts illf cctN l or sl1s p ('('tN I of heing' illfcc tC'd w ith yellow fever will b e h 'l1ullN I flS follows: H immune, an d so certifie d tlH'y will be a d mitted without r e s tri c tions. Oth e r s will ht:' 111'111 ill (lbsen; ltion t.o complC'te six full days f rom dat e o f lns t CXpOSlIl'C' to infection. \'t'Sst'ls Ilr ri\ ing with casrs of .Yi'llow fC'H'r al)()n rd will bC' tre ated in :1cconbllC'(, willi tLC' sOurce of InfL'dioli. J f n o t cOlltl' i let c t l on 1I0;lnl, they \ \ ill hC' di:.;infrct e d ;llld lIlny II(' gi\'C'u pralir}ll at: 011CC. otlie rwise'. th('l \'(,5Is('1 will be disill ft,('tC'd and th e p c r soll ll e l h<:'ltl ulltlrl' ohserYnlioll six full dilY!'> fine r C'ompl<:'tio ll o f disinfe c tioll A 1\ pa! llger!'> llIus t prcscnt. sali sfadory c \ 'i'1In'lIml101l. dC'lIcc o f pl'otcdion fro m s mall -pox. c ith<:,1' h y 1)I('\iolis :tLlack. 01' hy vl1l'c iliatioll I f till Y:l('cin.l.tioli IS lIo t r ecc1lt, it will \H' 11(,(,(,!'l!'la.ry t o b e rllCCilllltf' d : I gaill. o f th e i nward hOllnd llotniJl y th e I I

    PAGE 452

    ,---------------------------------, Tf)/II'/., ,-(' / ) ( 1'111'1 n l e /I t 435 -P ;lllalll
    PAGE 453

    -_436 l)ilot and Guide VL. AXXJ:\"G I 'OR AX E X ('(""SIOX TRIP 0' TilE WATEit Pinel Bros I>O;-;'T F.-\tL 1'0 CO: :FER wITH ? A GENT S FOR "LA NAVEGA C ION NAC I ONAL". Only Firlll Catering: to Excursion Business on the I sthmus & I .' :-; 1( IIUi'!'''' i II I n': V I I r i .1. r .. r(l./II,( I1. Lo>! ,1.:(111/<)". B oyaro.. C(lCU -{iaSfltill,. < T,j\\ : B"l11 ;fliOh" Indpp'II!Ullcifl. CamlUI .sUI'IIIIO -QUlee No. III Nonll Ave., Panaml, R. P r 1 ,-:.' Z&,&.::;" .!:" seeds s.hipped fr o m port s il1fe c t nct willi plague s h o uld lIot h e r ecei\'e d as ca r go, and "ill 1I0t he all o wed to bl' hind ed fit the port s o f Pallflm::t: Or th e Callal ( D eCi-ce No. of the H ellU"lic of P a"ama \ Ludl'simh}p dut('ci :\Ll l'l'Il 1,. 1 HOLL pl"oYidps that no p ." f -II I II 1 I I I I WI Ie H uW('( to 1IH unl ess IC' las in hi s p ossess ion a slim o f m n J)ry (If l10t l ess than $11.00. Thi s pl'oYisioll does n o t :Ipply t o contracted f o r by th isthmian Canal r.\II'( :'ign cl's will not -b e admitte d to the Isthmus who arc im';q1
    PAGE 454

    437 ........ ...... ... ..".. ... > .... ....... .... ... ._ ..... ."", _" '. ....... "". ... ,", "M, ... ",_ .... -:.' .... .... >" '. '." .... .. '.. ,." \j"" .'_ .. .... .. .... ..... ". ..".".' '.M'_ .. .......... ,-....... .... ....... '. ""'" .... "".' () THE 0 K. HOTEL 0 ;\ .'-, >< Fl.. s BFl...A..::J:)"'Y", Dl.I:n:n.agor. >< \l G_oQc..TUN, CANAL. ZONE. .-I .. /\ p r I \<-" J.: lX '1'111'; { ) \ '1'0 n).;'I' A /:., Stock of Wine!, Liquo."ll and Ciga" Coutantly 0'1 Hand. } ,\[J. TO IOl'"!!: I S \ j'.\I,1. ( ; \ 'ITX. \1 .. '"', .:.:. .... .... ..... ................... ,"".,' .............. -............ .............. ........................... '. .... ..' .. .... ".' .... '. '.. '. .. .......... -............ : ................ .. .... .. ............. ........ ......... ........ ... ..' ......... ... ... ......... ..................... -....... ".:i<:i all the of the R r publ i c (If Pallach th eir d e ill nccordflllee with th e laws Qf th e C{)ll11try to \\ hich they : 11"(' go ing, and that thry a l C fin:lIlci:-t!1y ablo to do so. P(,ISOIlS fallin g under th e p rovis i olls of t h e f OI'Pgoing will be requirrd to pro cee d to their d estinatio n 11y th e first <\y<\ilabl e t ran spo rt atioll Any p e r sons o f tilE' proh ibit e d class w h o nrc 1I1lflbic t o t"pae h their iUld who would 1hc r eby h ecome I"rsidellt s of the I s thmus, wilinot he allowe d to I:tnu until : t satis f :lcto r y g ua rantee i s g iven th e steamsliip compan)" th:1t sai d perRon. Dr p ersons will 1101 become resident. ... oE th e J s tlnllu s or ;t public chnrge in Panama, or th e Calln l .:0011('1 :lnd if snid ineffective. within th e meaning of th ese I'cg ulati ons s uch p e r sons lllu s t b e dep orte d ;It the cx p ellse of the steamshi p c o mp nny th a t lJrDught th(,lIl. ('yen th ough th ey hnvC' hCf'1I allowed to Jall{1. Ht.r:lllls h i p cOlllp ani('s brin ging s u c h pel"SOliS. a n d refusing La flll'llis h [t guarantee, will b e 1"('lll1ir('(l to m;lin hlill them 011 bf)ard. :IIHI to deport nt their OWII exp e n sc The l etter o f ins tru ctions from Presi dent R O(Jsl' Yelt, iss u e d n IDOcl, prO\' i d ('s that th e Commission s h all Ii. nve p o w e r t o cxc l ude /'rolll tim e to tim e from the Canal Z o ne, and o t h e r places 011 th(' I sthmus m 'e r which th e l'nite d States has jurisdiction. p ('r!'ions o f th e (ollowin g clnsscs who w e r e not act uall y domi-

    PAGE 455

    cilctl with i n tho Z OllO all the d ay o f F c l J lll ary, 1904. yiz .. idiot s : beggfit'S) p e r sons nfAictc-d with loathsom e or dang e ro u s con ta giolls diseases; tlIOS: who ha\'o !Joen cOllyi c t e d of felnny: a.lll1l'chi!-lts: those whose pUl'pose it i s to incite insurrC'ction, rtlld othe r s w h ose presence is believed would t end to c r eate public disorder C'lldangel' the pnhli c brallh. 01' ill allY manli e r impede th e prosecutio n {If til e work of op e n ing t.he ca nal. [lnd llln,Y cause !Illy and all sHch newl y :ll'rived p e r sons. o r th ost' alien to the Z o ne, to b e ('xpcllc d allti d e p orte d from t h e t e rrit o r y {'ontl' ollf'd b y the FnitcLl Stales. DI' 1. P. PC'l'ry is th e Chief Officer Oil th e l st hlllll S bis ass i s tant s heing Dr. Olaucio C. l:lierco at ColoJ1. and Dr. :Fleetwood Grurf'I'
    PAGE 456

    ) I COLox 'rhC' lTOUi'C Ilnd VCtl( :1i PI' O IlH'IHt(i('. ('nlnn H o !spital. Colon wil'<-' !ei''' station. eli r S'fOB. \ L Hoose\-t,IL V(>llue n lid Cd "tobal Poi Ilt. Stat IIC or (;(.iI' ll1uus :lnti Indiall gil'l. 'rhi!'; bl"Qn"e was Pl'c!' lllp(i 10 C;f>It. or Colombia. by t he Etnlwess Eugctdc ill eomm C IllOI'uli()1I or till' , the fitntue was tUl'lleu OWl' t o Count df' who had it r('mo ved (I'om Colon .tllli ,,1rued at Cristobal Point. Othel' or into rest ill CI'i81ohai ,11'( t he new lit'.nlock. offices of the Dh'j"ioll of i\lalel'ia J an(1 olle of the old Of' 1I1:tIl"ioIl8, tl\(' Fl'ench ('Hlranoe to the (:uml, now ahfllldolJed in 1':.1.\'01' of th" wa,tcI'\\ ':lY fl' o m GlltulI, C'l'islol. :iI (iub hOll'] 1 ('O m mi:-:s:lI'Y, etc HOPE ,-Site of the ial'gt'st lilol'('hous' on tltt' 1.::jliUIIIl'i in eha rge of the U i vision of ) [atcl'ialn nd Suppl ies. part I)' de:.t I'OYC d 1)), lir e ill 190" bllt rehuilt aud n ow p,'actic'all,\' fil't 'pl'oof. Pum pi ng' Stalion, Sito o f lallks of Ulli oll Oil Company, J mmen!'O(' railroad yurtIs, hel'<' i s the :lfonkt'y lIill eemetcl'Y, :lrIND[-Honw of Go\', P odit'io Melendez of Cololl, UA'l'UN---Sitp of t h e g'I'Cl\I" dam, triple flig-ht oC lo('ksallll,..;pi!Jw:l,\', A I L O HCA LA G.\ R'J'O--(lHtllgi llg' alligatol') BOnrO---S i te or the pro pos ctl dam of the F"Cll('h ('onlpan,\'. .FRIJOLES (BenTls)---,,'llter from ('r e e k at this pl:\('C' J'Ol'll1Cl'l \ us et! dul'illg dl'), season t o supply ('01011. of oue of the great. cannl tlumps, BARBA COAS--'J'!tC' raill'(lflfl the ('hagrc!' at tlli1o: pnilli. B A lLA OS---( D1Lll<: i monkC':,>'!'O,) ,\I.\)I)I;f--I-'I'OI1I the fmit of this name, 00 Rnox, \--One of t ht> p,'c'tt il'M s{'ttiemcnts on the Ii nC', l\ (':\1' h e l t' is tlH' great machine s hop s wlU're I'cpair,:; to canal I\I'C made, 'l'hp maiu trail a C I'oss th ... T"titmIH, h;>fo\' c t)I/' da,"'" of the r aitl'oad passed t hl'ollgh h e re, )tA'l'. \.( J I T N---O\'igi 1\ of 1I:lll1e ill t! ispute, P opularly bpI i e \'e c l to lI1('a II II Kill Chinamen," [rom unu::; lt:Ll mOl't:tlity 301ll'lllg the CC'It,,,,tials at this point employed in the construction of the Pamlllta Raill'oad, BAR 0 BlSPO--Pt'ctty Sf'tt lemC'llt on the Das Obispo I'i \'("1', Hit (' of the 1:H'gest cutting in the canal. here is Camp

    PAGE 457

    440 P ilot all(l Guide. Elliott, where U S. Ma l'jnt'/! 3.1'e sta,t i olted. Tho fh'i't Amcl'ican flag on the Zone flonted at poi ut (,AS(' .. \ DAS--Sit<> of gl"t'at (:0:\1 chutt" et<:, largeRt 011 the SitC'ot E m p il't, shops, tilt" disbuJ"sing ami auditiug of tlH" ,'onllnisf:.ioll, }fa::. fine dull house, good hot,'ls o i (:. i '(' LEBH A---The eugi nccl'i ng of the ('lJlll lUi.;;sion. Sit" at tho gl't'flt C lIJebt'i1 ('u t. Adrnilli$tl'ation Building is ou thc hill, and (':111 be I'cached from the I'flill'oad station hy a. ShOl'I w i\lk, c i t h el' by l'Oau 01' (indel' path. tnt half mile from I'ail !'nud I'IlldiOll 0\'('1' the h ill. RIO nU, AKDE---S ite I)f the that. supplies with wat('l'. R,-en to l'il{ h l o( l'aill'oad Imc k ('oming t o wlH'U P !lIlIlW:1. Hit(' of ail, COIllP!'E'SSOl' phWl. (;l"< 'A RA crr. \ (Coe kroach )-Sil (' of gT{'al ];1h ol' (am p PARAI SO (l':m\disc)-Site of Il)l\chill(' .ncl mill:!' ('allal wOl'k;.:. P.EDHO 1\[[0 L 'ELSite of lal'ge l'aih'olul ynl'd:s, Al Ihis poiut. th(' :-:outhern <:Illting of the Gillebl'il Didsion t(>I'miu;ltes. Rite of one lork. ... ook fit th e tt ,-,wel's) Site o f Ihl' P:l('ifil' ,111Il1, :Illd I \\"0 :tIl Amel'i,,:tn r.ubm'h of Pnll:lmn. J:[('u,l '1IIndel'l; of Divisioll. Lock aUtI Dalll gOV('l'llmollt. fl\pital. Bi l l' of 7.01\(' ndrnini:sll':llioll l ho n u\.g-nificclll i(llIll'all('(' 10 ('ulla!. P. H H, t lnl'!.;". I 'll'.

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    '" --...... IJ('llrtl'llllult. 441 t Iln1 n' MANICURING PARLORS. AnClin neor Fourlh 01 July Sireel YOfllJmo, Republic cl Ponomo, --I h i s E s t a blishment is Open Every Day from B a m. to 1 0 p. m 1'\"a1U :w,1 Yapvr nalh"')-.'-all' Tr"UHIWO' Hllil II:lLlI\ (HId 1',, dlll E],."lric .\.tr'I1 : IIIIS ful' .\':l1li, uling: :ltI.1 n",I, 1 .\Iu"";'l-!' PHYSI C I A N IN :..TTENCANCE_ O n l y Place in t b e C I t y D e l'old 1 0 ,'It,ssale Treatme n t a n d Manic u r inJ -'. 51,' > f ollowin g trips are full of interest. Side r will ella ) I e to get a good idea of th o count ry: T r i p down t h e Chagtcs Hh'el' t u 1:'01'( San LOl'cnw hy hUllh'h. I'dI' llY boat fl'om l'oluu to the hi:=;tol'ic ruius of P ol'to H ('lIo. T I'i ) J by easy tlll 'ough the Culebm culo 'fI i p to OhI PanamH, fin' mill'S from the til.". TIIi" t all be IlHHle I:'ither by boat, 01' by conch. ']'he hUer tllkes om, through tlH' Sa.balla", a \' e1"y iJmtty ,.tl'etch of COlllltl'Y doltetl with 5nllllllt't' home-f;. Before v isiting Olt l J 'i\uamll., lran:\ers shonld rend it:;; dN'('ription ill nnoth('1" part or this work. Hill e t hrongh _-\ !leon Ilo:;;pi tal grounds :lI'ouud A 111.:011 11 ill to 1 m BO(,1I, and hack via the old road La. Boca. TI'ip I() the islaml of 'l'llboga .Arrangements 1'01" trau."'llodftti()u cau be llHHle with P inel Trip l)Oat t o the PIll'itle e-ntl"RlleC of the cllJllll Ileal' La H Oell, Trip to W e:'t C ')H:,;t point." of the Republic loy boats of the Xational Company. Pinel Bl'os :lgents_ '1'0 h'l\\'t !l'r" ltblt! to a few wetoks Oil the TstlllllU:;; this trip j;o; esp<'I.."ially 1'l'(:ollllllenl \ etl It \\' i II atrol"ll u. splelld ill apport 1111 i I Y of :sel.'i 11;t Olll' of the l'idll'st "c(,tiou.s of the ('ollllli"y, anll uf ha,itlg' SUIllt: guod :.pOI't wit h the 1'0(1 ulld gUll, 'l'he N'atioual Xa\"iga.iioll ('ompRIlY ;l pm'ely lo<.-a.\ alUl in addition to ilb oliJe l to tatel' to the (>xclll""ion tmll(," Tt will han> :L j'ouple of new twin-sere\\" stNl.mfl'S in 8l!l"vit'l' in the Pildy }lnl'l of l!JO". cspf:'cially IjUed up for excursi()u /J'tl.ffi(,_ 'fhe company bas receutly issued un intere"ting pa.mphlet

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    442 Pilot 011(1 Guide. desc]'i pli o n or points lomht-.J by On 'ii-lille of s team C I 's, from wh ich we m u ke lilt.' followiug cxt ml"t : CholTe m has a goo d C'tltrancp, sp l e n di d l'irf'l's {,1I0HI:t;ltA. I 'Ill I I I aile cxtCIISIVC pI

  • PAGE 460

    443 _. t hr ough ;t l'itiJ counLry of f o rests. t C ll1p c l'ai\lJ' c in this section is 11I(lsi ;lgI'CC;1hlc, tlt e d < l)'S beillg lind the l1ight"\ so cool th :li it i s necessary L a u sc blanket s 1'01' a corc rillg. 'rhe soi l is rich :tlld f e rt ile' an d w oll adap t e d for th e c ult i"a tioll o f s ugar can c A concessioll h as n'telltly b ee n gra.nted b y th e Panama Gorernment to cortain cnpitalists o[ the H c puhli c (ot' the planting o[ a a s1. sectio n of thi s hllld for the plIl'posr of ra ising' s ugar (':1n('. an d within a f ew y ears thi s will be It "cr)' i1l1portallt il:<.illstry in thal sec tion. '11110 H ilyano River L umber ConqJallY. ;111 organizatlOll o f .\meritlln ( 'a pitali s ts, 11:18 c1r:lI'e d a yast tract o f timber land h ordering 011 the B ayallo H i\'cl'. th e land commenci n g at
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    ,------------------------------444 .. "La Guerra en el Is.tmo" pOf Don'ld., Velasco 10:' 'lUI' tPlILfWI'r lUll ;"'TIm,[,,. :1<:"11-It'dud.u\"" IWIII" j 'i.["" ,-1\ \ bltllU ,-II i i hitllllll ,h!J'I ;1 ... ,,11 pallllr", .1.. ,"t:l ,,1.1":1 11"1111 .1.. Xu. 11. t:wi"I1"" ", ... 1'il'd ... III"'n":l1Il,,., :0-;" 1 ,lIa ,t. "'lila "11 I"" !'rindl,allll"I1 II In mlln'rlla ,1"1 Nit. I{ Jle:I,111 \ "lIi,IH :-;111'. X", IIS "II la 1IlII n-lI,,, '":-::1111;1 .-\ml". 1':111.-17( 1""1, 1',. ,', ) L a ll1'a. l'a. .Ia "'111" \'ah',:f.I.:,'1j II ,Ida II 1'01: lal" "" 11;,0-"1l 1:",11,,, I'I\m,,. P ilot al/d (;"idc. DONALDO VELASCO .. --. "The War on the I sthmus" by DOl"aldo Velasco 10 ..-tlll .\,"i,.,-1/) kliO W Ttlt> i)II'OIlTA:-.'T IL\l'l'ElriISO.l' ul1 IIII' l!i thHlII;{ ,ll1r ing II", 1'11;11 fn" n"r" ... 10'11101 I,, ... "mJlllni"'1 Illl' "IM)n' q,hm hI. ami in:.,: \\'Il'k \\ hkh j" 11111 \,If U01ahl, Ii ... h ,I, .. "I'iI JIi\' )iulkr, [HI' 1I1l11l,'Nm" iI JII,.II'llicIIPI. Tili" t,'M.k i".1n ", .. it, til u ll 11'0 1",,,1: ... I.W .. ": H "'. :\ 1 ,11" ""Q /' oJ! /I tr aM Offi r .. "ml in 1111' :-;Ia An: l J'l'intin,l: 11(\11,.". );11. ,-,I 17lh :-;1"", '1. I' :i ... :1';), "i h .. r aho ut i,,"o mil e s distlnt fr oll! tiJe P Olt o f Pf'scal l r rin" and g{jotl facil i t ies f o r th e raising of c :lttl e an d o th cl' ll:1ti\"c pro duct s o f th c H l'puhlic, r p to ;t few ago A IltOIl \\W, th e princip!ll ratll c ccnt('l' o f th e HC'Jluhlic. hut tli(' htfc \\:1]" of t h e r ciJl.'lIioll Llcstro),t'd the i ndustry 'l'his section is HOW reCIIIll'I':ltil1g :111d t o h e all important piac,t'. ''I'lli!'. Jlort is (lllC of ihr princip;:\ p orts on tho \('I'.\1 /l'I.('t;. en;lst; it i s ('a 'w of a('(,C'f-lS :lilt! i s ill ti l(' ('cllwrClf -the 1'1'0\ illco o f ('oc!t: A good 11!:lcnlinlll road I l';lds frolll 'tIl.l<.;.t up tn the t(IWII. and is made C(>l1Yl' ltient b y th e means of c;lni:lgl'!'. w lui{' there i'i a sufficient o f call:; for th o trafli c. The rO:1(L ux-1c'l1lb furthc r W('!"It frU1l1 Agllaliukc to Santiago, a nt" ahout f or t y mil('s. Tho latl c r lC1\r1l loca t e d in tiH' P rO\ illee of \'( r: l gu:.t"i, iS;t1l illlpOl'ta l l l t'Clltl'l'. l'hi<:t "1,(tiol1 III' thr H(,II1Jlir is tic-still e d i o u (,(,UIll(, \'t' I'j' illl-p fllLUll within till' Ileal' futur e, as it i s through tit is regiun ,-----------------------------,

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    I that the pr oposed Pan-Am e r ican rail r oa d will cx t plld. A proposition WaS presellted to t h e P anama Go\'C'rnmollt ut thr. la s t f o r the purpose o f bu i lding :l. 1':lil r oad from Dayid t o Aguadulce exten d ing thl' ough SHutlaga. but th e c (.nditi olls wCle n ot yrt r i p e f o r the tnkillg up o f this enterpris(>. 110 contract WfiS c ff ertc d 'll h o GOW'!'JIIllcnt has. instC'aci, l'('cclItiy giY'1I n COi l trac t t o certain parties f o r estnblis h ing .. Ill automohil e paSSf'll g(>1' !'ystem to run from the port of Aglladulcp to Santiago 'I'his will a ff o rd m o denl llH'allS of r a pid cOlllmUllicHtioll. 'rh e soil of th o country is rich and productive, and n cOII!!.ii.le rabl c amount o f p r oduc ts are s hipped t o P anama, such us hides, corn rice, b e ans s t oc k and salt. 'rhc t own of Chitre has b ecn growing ,"pry LOS S'\xTOS II I I f 'TI rapl{ y \\"It 1111 t 1 0 pa s t ew ,Years, 1 0 nall\ 'es are nil industrious dass llnd ther a i H C seve r a l owners of s m nll \'es.sels which mak e f r rquen t trips t o Pan:1lllfl. ']'his p ort is olle of th e ] raders ill frrightillg o pp o rtuniti es. und it i.:.; U le cent er of ,111 traffic t o aIHI from La. Y illa P m'ita OCll, Los POZOg. am i Las Min as ':J.1her e are s mall f ac tori es in the Ilcighborhood f o r t.he Il1tlking o f hri cks an d t i l es '1'he soil espec iall y good f o r thi s purpose>, and if it w{'re conduct r d 011 a l arger sca le, a consid erab l e industry could b e b uilt up. This 10\\,11 is w it hin a s h ort distancc of Chitn\ LA ARE:-.\.
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    I '.-a \ c r'y l'(,CCl l t we mig ht S:lj' that "jilt a litt l e sL:iclIe'(' a nd t h o of mod cl'n i d f'as a gTCb(,1" i s ma de. Thc l 'e :tn' abo l illle d rposits i n ,h(\ Ilc i ghhor h ood w h ich arc sca r ce l y u tilir.('tl. ""-i tl l th e t l'ti ll s p orta t io fncil itics which tile' ?\,l\igaflon ( 'D. will aHo rd l hese dc>posits will h(' pl'f)du(, t iH" 'I'll<.' tcmpC'l' ;ltul"(-' ill the mOllllta i n l"Pgion is cool <.IlId ti l Jjglttflll :UlIl wuul d :d 'fOld ;) d('sil';lh l c pla ce for \:ltatiollil)l s rrolll 'he o f P a.Ilf1ma. 'I' hcrc 18 :t :4uod pastur:lt!.c f or l':dll{'. ;tllti lhi.:;. ____ ______ ._. _L

    PAGE 464

    D 'pal'tmcllt. 447 -GOMPAGNIR GRNRRAh 'I'RAN8A'I'hANfIQUR. (FRKNCH J.nm OF ERS.) w ........... \('(' hel Wef'n 11.\ I'll F llnd );' } ; W YORK by t heir fASt ;tnd luxUI'\nlls 1 win :flllH' I'S L.l PROI I:.VC F of j,j,(lOO 1..1)11<::. I.A SA VO//;; 1\ nd L A LOR R,U tV Ii of I:!.OOO tOI1<: 1':l(' II' LA 'FOeIlA IS onl,roJ lOllS, LA l;A SCOGXE lIml 1 .. -1 DR T A GXE on />00 Ivn,. ('ad.. Sa !UuStS from U", \'11 t! Saturduy. Ilnd from :S. ; w YOUK ('v('I T Thlll.,.dll,Y. :\I nnt h I ,\' ....:n k t hd \\'1'('11 i-i. I Il\T X I?.I I II F ('OHI' F;.,\ ] r A I' A 1" I Illld )1.'1" 1('0 h y tlld I' L_ I ell..! ,111'..1 G, \'/-." 1111(,1 LA ,\' rl /'..1 lU\E on ,000 tons C'd-eh. from i-i..ll1"T XAZA IIII :un 1I)(1 ..:l .. and I,'om "I';lt.l elll,;? the I Zlh. Bi'lllo nthIY:, lIud ,,'hlte 'Ville FI'(>e. slng, ;:lll d has a great futuro Its mill('ral weallh 1'1'0111 tIl(' tim e of the Conquf'5.t ha s bf>ell f amous There is ho\\'\'E:'I': ollly o n e milling com]mny opera l ing at the present time ilie R o mance althoug h th e milll'ra l s of Caiiacilla, San A ntonin. and o th e r places ill the Pl'o\'i l lceha"e been prospected wit h goo d l'('suits. ,Fue llR somew h a t scaI'Cf', hut. power ca n he transmittcd from th e Santa R i,'cl', which is with i n a f e w miles, 'F or sOllle t ime past tIll' Y enlguas 001(1 )I"ining Company har e hC'ell t a king out arC', am I we UUdCl'J.,land has exporled cOIIsidl'r;lblc quanti tiC's (If bullion, C UiRI Qt:I '\'0 now gu un to the PI'O\'inc(' o f Chiriqui, tlw l as t all the west coast o f P nnamll lJOl'uC'l'- ing o n Costa H.ica-. rrhc port of R emedios on th e Santa Lucia. B i ,'C'1' is \\'('11 kilO" n ar-; n p l ace for h orse amI IHulC' breedin g Th e soil is rich and produces "alious ill'licie.s. I I

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    , ---------' --' ----448 ---T o u ; ICCO is n i sn r ; l isefl to n (''i:trl1t. It heJ'C' l h nt th r f:llllons g old lllil1C ,. L01':l111:}''' (d' d lt' nllt'i"llt Spani s h time'''' ,,'ork-ed with grrat !o\i.\('('/'ss. lIlll1{' like 1I11l1l\' o f lht' ;IIWicllt mint's 01' ) lpxil;tl. )'P('OIl1(' lost. a s it ",('In'. r lunule timu el's lire a h tll1l1allL :llld tl!{,1'C is :l goo d I lf'ld for s mos t pruspC'I'OW, ill th o H cpu hi ie; it is I he of 311 ill c altl e 1';lising fLlld in the gCIl C'nti p rodllc t s of the cOl1l1tr)'. as i\'o1')" !luts Ct)l'I1, b e:llls: I'i c<' cle plailHi H1'e (''X"t ensiw', :lnd the temp e raturc mild :lnd :lgn'('a hl e \Vithill a sltort di!->tancr o f L hf' tOWI1 of "I);I\ill til<' villag e of B o quct r. cololl), of \mel'i<'au::, P:-;tahli s hCfl plnlltatiolls til' (off ec. :lnd (,o(,oa !)l'\ crnl j'<'aJ'!) ; f:! B oth of tlJl' s(' IH'olluds :In .. l':tisc d i ll cOllsi(\C'1'i d J i .. quallli: llll! the qua l ity 1)( jhc tOn);\. is :-"U1)(,l'iol' to th:lt of m:1D}' ot hrr sccti( lIs ill C'cnlr:lI .1.1llC'ri{,;t pricl's ill the' L(III(lol! I)wl' k e t. I n the PI'O\';II('O of Chiri(l ui. the Alllk-:-; i\lo1111tail1'" ;tU:tin tllC' nltillldl' (If :III)' p oi lIt 011 the hll 1111 liS. \\'/, !1:\\C tlte 1lI01111l:tilt"l 0 1 (\'I'm d e b H OI'f) Uptlix is illltl1t ')ts(': the i s \\on(\cl'fulJy fCI'I ; I .. :1l1d PI") -I ducti\'l'. T he ('() II11tr r I);)s ;)It l'xtc lt 'ij \ 'C :-.,(-':t "0;("'1. and t'r;t\ i lllP lJl'l;lll t I'i,ol':-O. o f tltr:-sc C'Jllptyillg into Ihl' I'a .. cifie :lr c th o f l';n WiIU' ,', FOil"""":). I >a\'id. Hin Chi('o. ( : uanah;titO, ;tlld (:olfito. f illip lIIil1illg n f thl' pl'{n-ill(,t! produt'P go ld. salt. :111<1 SOlllP. (t1plH'r. TI ll' p ro\ inc(' of C h iriqui j i!), witho ut cXc<.'plioll. Lllo h l':I 1thic..,t part of the' 1 !' lhl1lll.... I --. \ U(,lItioll is also ealle d l e i tim affor<1rd u r the now clI l c q lrisc f ntiliLics recently ,,\t i ch "III h e I o rp;;'111 i 1.('(1. j h (' -------, -, ---------------,

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