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|Table of Contents|
|List of Illustrations|
|The castle of gold|
|The raids of the buccaneers|
|Capture of Porto Bello, 1668|
|The fall of Old Panama, 1671|
|The fall of Old Panama (poem)|
|The founding of New Panama|
|The Isthmian bubble of 1698|
|Trouble with Indians, 1710-179...|
|Independence from Spain, 1821|
|The Isthmus in the days of '49|
|Lola Montez "of Paris and...|
|Oceans linked by steel ribbons,...|
|Night of horror in April, 1856|
|Attempts to pierce Isthmus|
|De Lesseps--his great scheme|
|Mutterings of separation|
|In the throes of revolution|
|"Ringing the belles"|
|Story of the youngest Republic|
|The Canal in American hands|
|Not by a dam site|
|Taking no chances|
|How about it today?|
|The king pin of the Canal|
|Panama’s morals in the '70s|
|Beyond the Chagres (poem)|
|Uncle Sam's Isthmian domain|
|Teaching Canal Zone youth|
|The Isthmian water supply|
|Revenue end of the Zone|
|The guardians of the Zone|
|The pearl industry of Panama|
|The new palace and theatre|
|The Pan-American Railroad|
|Panama's diplomatic corps|
|Coins from Old Panama|
|Official band of the I. C. C.|
|The club houses of the Zone|
|Piping oil across Isthmus|
|Panama of the present day|
|Churches, societies and clubs|
|Officials of Republic of Panama,...|
|Classified business directory of...|
|Classified business directory of...|
|Directory of the Canal Zone|
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
This item has the following downloads:
|Table of Contents|
Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Title Page 1
Title Page 2
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
The castle of gold
The raids of the buccaneers
Capture of Porto Bello, 1668
The fall of Old Panama, 1671
The fall of Old Panama (poem)
The founding of New Panama
The Isthmian bubble of 1698
Trouble with Indians, 1710-1790
Independence from Spain, 1821
The Isthmus in the days of '49
Lola Montez "of Paris and Panama"
Oceans linked by steel ribbons, 1855
Night of horror in April, 1856
Attempts to pierce Isthmus
De Lesseps--his great scheme
Mutterings of separation
In the throes of revolution
"Ringing the belles"
Story of the youngest Republic
The Canal in American hands
Not by a dam site
Taking no chances
How about it today?
The king pin of the Canal
Panama’s morals in the '70s
Beyond the Chagres (poem)
Uncle Sam's Isthmian domain
Teaching Canal Zone youth
The Isthmian water supply
Revenue end of the Zone
The guardians of the Zone
The pearl industry of Panama
The new palace and theatre
The Pan-American Railroad
Panama's diplomatic corps
Coins from Old Panama
Official band of the I. C. C.
The club houses of the Zone
Piping oil across Isthmus
Panama of the present day
Churches, societies and clubs
Officials of Republic of Panama, I. C. C., and P. R. R.
Classified business directory of Panama
Classified business directory of Colon
Directory of the Canal Zone
Back Cover 1
Back Cover 2
THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN
BY THE UNIVERSITY OF
Digitized by the Internet Archive
CANAL ZONE PILO
GUIDE TO THE
REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
CLASSIFIED BUSINESS DIRECTORY
WILLIAM C. HASKINS
Ancon, Canal Zone and Panama, R. P.
THE STAR & HERALD Co.
COPYRIGHTED 1907 IN THE
REPUBLIC OF PANAMA
Published, February, 1908.
PRESENT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION, UNDER WHOSE DIRECTION THE ECLIPSING OF ALL RECORDS FOR
EARTH AND ROCK EXCAVATION OCCURRED IN DECEMBER, 1907, AND AGAIN IN JANUARY, 1908.
WHAT THIS BOOK CONTAINS.
1. The Castle of Gold................................................. ...... 1.
2. The Raids of the Buccaneers.. ............V............................ 17.
3. Capture.of Porto ello......................................... ......... 25.
4. The Fall of Old Panama ............. ............................. 38.
5. The Fall of Old Panama. (Poem..).................................. ... 110.
6. The Founding of New Panama ................ ........................ 116.
7. The Isthmian Bubble of 16b8...................... ................ 121.
8. Trouble with Indians, 1710-1790.......................................... 124.
9. Independence -from Spain, 1821........ .................................. 125.
10. The Isthmus in the Days of '49.............. ................ 128.
11. Lola Montez "of Paris and Panama.".................................. 132.
12. Oceans Linked by Steel Ribbons, 1855................................... 135.
13. Night of Horror in April, 1856. ........................................ 158.
14. Attempts to Pierce Isthmus............................................... 170.
15. DeLesseps-His Great Scheme............................................ 172.
16. Mutteringsof Separation....... ...... .......................... 204.
17. In the Throes of Revolution............ ............................. 207.
18. "jRinging the'Belles.".................................... ............. 215.
19. Polyglot Panama................................ ........................... 221.
20. Story of the Youngest Republic........... ............................. 223.
21. The Canal in American Hands......................... .............. 261.
22. Not by a Dam Site................................... 276.
23.ITaking No Chances ............ .................................. 284.
24. How:Aboutit To-day?........... ............ 293.
25. The King Pin of the Canal ........... ............... :33.
26. Panama's Morals in the '70s.................... .... ................... 340.
27. -Beyond the Chaigres (Poem)..... ......................................... 3.
28. Uncle Sam's Isthmian Domain....................................... 344.
29. Teaching Canal Zone Youth...... ............................. ...... 350.
30. The Isthmian Water Supply............... ........................... 353.
31. Revenue- End of the Zone .............................................. 358.
32. The Guardians of the Zone............. .... ...................... 362.
33. The Pearl Industry of Panama........... ...... ..................... 366.
II Pilot and Guide.
S34. The: New Palace and Theat. ...... .............................. .. 30.
'a35. The Pan-American Railroad......... ......... .......... ............... J3.
31. Panama's Diplomalltc Iorp .... ... ........ ....... .................. 37.
87. Coln, from Old Panama ...... ......... ..................... .........
38. Official Band or tb I. 4.'. I.' .............................................. -.W.
39. TheClub Houss of the Zone ..................... .... ............. :2.
40. Rondel IPoem. I..... ............ ..................... .............. ... .
41. Piping Oil Across lthmus. ...................................... ..... 310.
S42. Panama of Lhe Present Day......... .......... ..... ...... ......
i i-Public Land Laws......... .... ............ ........... ... 414.
(b--Mining Laws.......... .................................... 41l
43. TourIsts' Department. .......... ... ................. ..... ... 4.
44. Churbs, FaOertitm and C'lubs .............................. ...... 44l.
45. Officials of Rep. of Panama, I. C. C'., and P. R. R............ ......... 417.
46. ('lailfled Business Directory or Panau. ...................... ....... 477.
S47. Clasallled Business Directory of Colon .................. ............... 0W.
S44. irertory lf the Canal Zone.......................................... 518.
49. Lamjp EILott.............................. .... ........... ...... ... 1i.
T. Addenda .. ................................... ........................... &W .
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Froutlspteee-Present Isthmlan Canal Commission.
L Ruins of lanto Domingo Church............ ... .............. '1.
2. The Bells of Cruces ................. ................ ..... ...... 27.
3. Group of Native Belle............................................. ..- ..84.
4. Market Street, Panama ............. ..... ............. ............... 41.
&. Entrance to Panama Cemeteries...... ................................ 47.
6. Country Scene in Panama Republic.................. ................ a.
7. Cathedral Park. Panama. .. ...... ................... .... 67.
& Santa Ana Park, Panama ....................................... 7
9. Soene on Beach, Colon.................................................... 80.
10. Panorama of Panama Ctly..... ................................ ...... 91.
11. Taboga Village .................... ....................... 94.
12. Chinese Vegetable Garden, Panama....................... ........ ..... I.
13. Palm Trees at Ancon................................................... 100.
II. Early Scene on Seawall, PRnama ....................................... liki.
15. View ofShlpplng, Colon............................................... 133.
I. Panama Policemen.............................................. 130.
17. Ancon Hosptal............... ..... ................................... 187.
11 Sblpplng Bananas at Bohlo ....................................... ..... 144.
1. 1. C. C. Sanitarium, Taboga Island...... .............................. .
20. Towerat David, R. P .......... ............ .................. 1I6.
21 Birds-eye View of Culebra (I ............ ........................... 10.
ieneon Panama Railroad In '5................ ................... .....
kijaon Hospltal Entrance ................ ..........................
,. oal ........................... ............. ................ ..........
i eye AView of Culehmr i2 ................................... ..........
j ierlc Quarters, I'ulphb ........................................
SAtlantic Entrance to Canal ...................................... ....
cEntrance to Canal .................................................
of Gorgona ................. .. .................................. .
j V .C'. Hospital. 'olon ...................................................
the Trenches In Panama ................... ........................
of the Lautaro ................... .............. ................
Alban Enterlne C'olon ...... ........ ................... ...
m Perdomo......... ..... .... ..........................
& R Station at Empire................................................
Sin Colon in '55 .......................................................
ila DBolivar, David, Chlriqui ........... ........ ............. .....
izdentand Mrs. Amador ....................................... .......
Domingo de Obaldla .................................................
on the Fiquene River, Darien............ ......................
of the lathmus.......................................................
nt Roosevelt and Hotel Tivull.................. ...............
Administration Building, Panama.... .............................
ration Building, ('ulehra............ ........... ............
Hauling Excavations ................................ ...........
| Obispo Cut. .................................. ........ ..............
Eng neers..... ........ ... .. .......... ......................
iDra D e.......... .................................... .......
Shovel Loading Train ...... ....................................
u on the Chagres River................................ ........
ration of Water Works System, Panama ........................
Zone Poetoffice, Cristobal.............................. .............
Palaceand Theatre .................................................
te Corps ................................ .......
ro Dutary................ .....................................
Sde la .O a ................ .................... .......................
Sof Nations............ ....................... ......... ......
M Velasco, Author, "The Waron the Isthmus".... ...... ....
J .tonndo Mutts Durau..................................... ..........
tell StMats Marines at Camp Elliott ...............................
t AHerald Building.................. ........... ...................
Pilot and Guide.
-= ~ ~f~inf
THE PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT,
In submitting this. the first edition of the Pilot and
Guide, the publisher does so, with the firm belief that
it will meet with the approbation of its readers. He
has departed somewhat from the beaten path of this class
of books for the express purpose of meeting an insistent
public demand, that of a work that will enable people in-
terested in Panama and the Isthmian Canal to gain a clear
and adequate conception of what has occurred, and is now
taking place. Books have been published, and some of
them very good ones. on various phases of Isthmian his-
tory and events, but the publisher has tried and believes
that he has succeeded in massing more "meatt of the Isth-
mian cocoanut," than has ever before been printed between
the covers of a book whose title page hears the well
known name of "Panama."
To accomplish this end has leen no small task. It
has been a case of book-building from the ground up.
Information and facts had to be hunted out of musty
nooks and corners, and as much of the information could
be obtained only from Spanish books and documents, care-
ful translation was necessary. Where possible, the workers
on this book have gone back to the times when the histor-
ical incidents were in the making, and in the case of later
events, to see and talk with people who were on the spot
and knew personally of the occurrences related. Mistakes
may have crept in; a book covering a scope of four hun-
dred years would be a positive wonder without any, yet
the publisher believes that the authenticity in general of
the information herein contained will stand the test.
The workers on this volume realized that its readers
will embrace many different classes, therefore anecdotes
and incidents. all strictly true. have been introduced to
illustrate a little of the humorous, and also, of the tragic
side of Isthmiian history. Another earnest effort was made
to bring the book down to the year of Our Lord, 1908,
and the work in this respect speaks for itself. It is the
only publication now in print that covers the recent and
very important change in plans at the Pacific end of the
canal, and of the decision to widen the canal locks; it is
the onlyv work tlat contains a continuous narrative of the
Great Isthmian waterway since it has been in American
hands, and it is the only book that gives the story of the
circumstances leading up to. and culminating in the seces-
sion of Pan.ana from the Republic of Colombia from every
point of view. There has been no attempt to "throw cold
water," or disparage. but rather to present the information
in a wholly dispassionate and matter-of-fact way. The
publisher and his assistants however, believe that in re-
viewing the past three years of canal history, supported
by facts and figures. and by a personal knowledge of the
general situation, the book will serve a purpose in dispell-
ing and dismissing many a doubtt and delusion that may have
existed, or may still exist in the minds of some. regarding
the extent and progress of the canal undertaking.
A work of this kind necessarily involves considerable
outside assistance. The publisher takes this occasion to
thank the many who have contributed to the book by af-
fording all information that lay iii their power. He is
especially indebted to the members of the Isthliian Canal
Commission, Panama Railroad officials. Mr. W. G. Tubby,
Mr. H. G. Prescott, Don Jose Augustin Aranlgo, Don R.i-
cardo Arango, Don Ricardo Arias, Don Melchor Lasso
de la Vega, Don E. T. Lefevre, Don Samuel Boyd, Senor
Donaldo Velasco and others. He is also indebted to The
Star & Herald Co., Mr. J. Gabriel Duque. its Director,
Mr. Carl von Lindeman, its Manager, and its staff of em-
ployes for the excellent typographical work on the book. as
well as to the management for the opportunity for research
afforded by the early files of the paper. Cordial thanks are
also extended to Senor Guillermo Andreve and Senor Don-
aldo Velasco for the loan of several half-tone illustrations
appearing on the pages of the Pilot and Guide.
Just a word to the advertisers. Your confidence was
invited, and although you made it known to the publisher
that you had often been fooled in the past, notwit.hstand-
ing the prospectus of the present work attracted your at-
tention. The publisher believes he has kept faith with you
in every respect. It is seldom that a work of this kind
opens its pages to advertisers, in fact, had such an oppor-
tunity been afforded in the United States, advertising
agencies would have taken every available inch of space.
The publisher thanks you for your patronage and trusts
that the 1909 edition will see you again represented.
67Ae Lu AlisAer.
THE CASTLE OF GOLD.
The famed Cathay of Columbus' dreams led that
daring, but disappointed navigator to make a fourth and
final attempt in the year 1502, to discover a short sea
route to the East. After being buffeted about for days
by contrary winds in the Caribbean Sea, his small and
Sleaky boats threatening to go to the bottom at any
moment, he at last sighted land in the vicinity of Cape
Gracias i Dios, Nicaragua. Doubling this cape on the
14th of September, in the year above-mentioned, he landed
and explored a region to which he gave the name of
Cerabora. Here he ran across numerous specimens of
gold ore, and by questioning the Indians, ascertained that
the precious metal existed in large quantities in a district
to the east of there called Veragua. He secured num-
erous ore samples, and obtained a rough description of
Continuing his voyage, he sailed along the coast of
what is now Costa Rica, and Panama. passing on his way
the famous Chiriqui Lagoon in the Province of Bocas del
.:. 111 i --------------_
2 Pilot and Guide
Toro, called by the Indians, Aburema, and which quite
deceived Columbus for a time into believing that he had
at last discovered the much sought for passage. While
voyaging down the coast lie encountered numerous storms
which imperiled his boats, and on one occasion forced him
to seek shelter at a small island. Here he found fruits,
fish and game in abundance, which led him to give the
place the name of Puerto de Bastimento, meaning a place
After a few days' rest at this point, Columbus or-
ganized a small expedition, and on the 23rd of November
left the haven, but was obliged to put in to the coast
again three days later owing to a tempest which narrowly
came to swamping his ships. This place he aptly termed
Retrete, meaning a place of retreat. Here he stayed until
the 5th of December, when he decided to turn back over
his course. He kept a westerly direction for fifteen days,
Which brought him on the 7th day of January, 1503, to
the mouth of a. river called in the Indian tongue Quiebra,
.but to which Columbus gave the name of Belen. This
.river to-day forms the natural boundary line between- the
Province of Colon, and that of Veraguas. Towards the
interior could be seen a broken mountain range which
Columbus named San Cristobal. Near this spot, a short
while later, the Adelantado D. Bartolome Colon, founded
the. first establishment on Isthmian soil, but it did not
endure long, being destroyed by the Indians under a chief
At this point Columbus again changed his ,plans
and sailed back toward the east, stopping at the present
site of Porto Bello (1), and going as far as the islands l4
the Mulatto Archipelago, which lie in the Gulf of Sail
Blas. After som r further journeyings back and forth, ever
on the look-out for a natural opening in the barrier before
(1) Variously spelled Puerto Belo, Portobelo, and Porto Bello.:
-- __________________"-"__ "____"__
Ccasle of Gold.
him, he decided to return, tile bad state of his ships,
making such action imperative.
History credits Columbus as having first set foot on
the soil of what is now the Republic of Panama, on
November 2nd., 1502, somewhere in the vicinity of the
Chiriqui Lagoon. Thus we have two important dates in
Isthmian history nearly coincidental as to the day and
month; the discovery, and the declaration of independence
of the Republic of Panama, Nov. 3rd., 1903.
"In the' Name of God."
Accounts of the newly discovered country, and the
samples of gold having in due time reached the court of
Spain, the fanciful name of Castilla del Oro, or Castle of
Gold was conferred upon all that region extending from
Cape Gracias i Dios, to the Gulf of Urabi, and ii; the
year 1510, Diego de Nicuesa was sent ovcr from Santo
Domingo to govern it. He took along with him colonists
to the number of 700, but during the voyage a tempest
arose, wrecked some of his ships, and caused the loss of
400 of his men, while the others were in desperate straits.
In the tempest the ships became separated and some of
them reached the coast near the mouth of the Belen
River, while others brought up at the mouth of the Chagres
River. After collecting his men, Nicuesa left the Belen
River and went to the port of Bastimento, and when he
had doubled Manzanillo Point, he shortly landed and said:
"We will remain here in the name of God." This was
the site of the town of Nombre de Dios, called into
prominence at the present time chiefly from its having
been one of the earliest settlements on the Isthmus, and
ono of the most unhealthful spots in Panama. In this
enterprise Nicuesa perished miserably along with the bulk
of his followers.
Before Nicuesa's time, two other hardy navigators
had added considerably to the store of knowledge concern-
4 Pilot and Guide.
ing Spain's new possessions. One of these, Rodrigo de
Bastida, headed an expedition th:it visited various parts of
the Spanish Main, and discovered in 1501, a year in ad-
vance of the arrival of Columbus, that part of the coast
lying between Cape Tiburon. on the Gulf of UTrab& and
the port of R-trete. The other, Alonso de Ojeda, ex-
plored the whole northern coast of South America, and
gave the country adjacent to the Gulf of Urabi, the name
of Nueva Andalusia. He founded a town in the eastern
part of the Gulf. naming it San Sebastian. He grew
tired uf the resistance offered by the neighboring tribes of
Indians and very soon abandoned the colony, leaving his
lieutenant, Francisco Pizarro, afterwards famous as the
conqueror of the Inca empire, in possession of the pl--ce.
Ojeda later distinguished himself as the founder of several
places in Venezuela.
The Story of Balboa.
Many a child at school has fallen down on a hard
history lesson, but rarely a dullard so great as to fail in
the recital of Balboa's exploit. History accords it but a
brief mention, albeit it is entitled to second place in the
New World discoveries. Balboa fared forth adventuring
at a comparatively early age. At 25 he voyaged with
Bastida to the Spanish Main, and on his return .to His-
paniola, the Hayti of the present day, he took up the
pursuit of agriculture. His bent did not at all lie in this
direction, and his principal harvest was a lot of baddebts.
To escape these, and an occupation distasteful to him, he
concealed himself one night in a cask, and bribed some of
the crew of a ship lying in the harbor to take the cask
on board. This ship happened to belong to an expedition
commanded by one Bachiller Enciso, then fitting out for
a voyage to the South Ame'rican coast. Balboa was at
this time a man of very pleasing appearance, and later,
when at sea, his presence on board became knownn, he
SThe Storyj of Balboa. 5
made such an earnest appeal to the Commander, that the
Slater reversed his earlier decision to throw him overboard.
,Balboa's representations of the richness of the country,
Sand the fact that he had bee.a there before in company
with Bastida, led Enciso to head his course for the Gulf
of Urabd, and the colony of San Sebastian. Before reach-
ing the mainland one of his ships became wrecked and
through this accident, lost all the horses and pigs he had
brought with him. Still greater misfortune awaited the
expedition, for on its arrival, the town of San Sebastian wP
found to have been burned by the Indians, and the
colonists that were there scattered.
Balboa, nothing daunted, promised Enciso that if he
would accompany him, he would take him to the western
shore of the gulf, where another town could easily be
founded, and where the Indians did not use poisoned
arrows. The offer was accepted, and together with their menc
they marched into the territory of an Indian chief named
Cemaco, whom they defeated and took prisoner. At the
town of this chieftain, they founded Santa Mari a laAn-
tigua del Darien, in honor of the celebrated image at
Seville, Spain. This place is noted for its having been the
site of the first Episcopal See, and the oldest church on
the American continent. Enciso was at the head of this
new colony, but it did not last long owing in a large measure
to an interdict received from the Crown of Spain pro-
hibiting the traffic of gold with the Indians. About this
time, too, Balboa and Enciso had a falling out, and the
former, gaining the ascendancy, sent his fellow-explorer
Back to Spain in irons.
Balboa Seeks the Temple of Gold.
The whole country of the Castilla del Oro was now
in Balboa's charge, and one of the first of his acts was to
despatch Pizarro to explore the interior. About the same
time he sent out a company of men. to collect the sur-
6 Pilot and Guide.
vivors of the ill-fated town of Nombre de Dies. He then
took the fiild against the Indians, first capturing and im-
prisoning the chieftain Cuareca along with his family, and
afterwards pillaging the lands.of an Indian chief named
Ponca. This brought him and his men to the territory of
another Iindian chieftain named Comagre, at that time
probably tie most powerful chief in the entire Darien
region. Comagre lived in a state of magnificence, andhad
the mummies of his ancestors enshroudcd in rich cloths,
adorned with pearls, precious stones, and ornaments of
gold. Although lie had 3.0UO warriors at his call, he re-
ceived Balboa peaceably, and gave him the freedom of
his domain. Comagre's eldest son named Panquiaco became
very friendly with Balboa, and besides presenting him with
4,000 ounces of gold, and 60 women slaves, taken prison-
ers in battle with neighboring tribes, gave him the in-
formation that back of the line of mountains that reared
their tops in the dim distance, was a nation very rich and
powerful, having ships with sails like the Spaniards, and
using vessels of solid gold. He also told him of a temple
of gold called Dabaibe, situated forty leagues from Darien,
on the banks of a great river, emptying into the Gulf of
UrabAi (1). In the aboriginal belief, Dabaibe was the
mother of the Deity, which dominated the elements, and
created the sun, moon, stars, and all things good.
Balboa's cupidity was greatly aroused by these tales,
and returning to Santa MLaria, prepared for an expedition
in search of the golden temple. It is evident that at this
period Balboa placed some credence in the Indian's tale
of ships with sails," but had more faith in the existence
of a temple of gold. It is quite likely that this temple
had reference to the treasure house of the Inca emperors
at Cuzco, an account of which, more or less distorted,
might easily have passed from tribe to tribe until it
reached the Darien.
(1) The Atrato River.
Balboa Seeks the Temple of Gold. 7
His expedition in trim, Balboa entered the mouth of
the Atrato, and passed up it until he reached the Rio
Negro, or Sucio, as it is commonly called on account of
the color of its waters. Ascending this tributary he finally
arrived at the lands of an Indian chief named Abibeiba,'"
without having seen any indication of the object of hi .
'quest. He left here a company of 30 men to guard the"
place, and then returned to Darien, On arriving he found
that the Indians under Cemaco, and five other chiefs, with
a force of 5,000 warriors, and 100 canoes, had planned
an attack on the colony, which plot was disclosed by one
of their number named Fulvia. Balboa at once took the
initiative, surprised and defeated the Indians, and left
Cemaco dead on the field.
In Quest of the South Sea.
About this time there were internal dissensions in
the colony, but Balboa succeeded in pacifying all parties,
so that by the time reinforcements arrived from Spain
bringing to him the title of Captain-General de lat
Antigua, he was ready to set out on an expeditioit in quest
of the South Sea. He sailed from Santa Malia- on the
Sfst. of September. 1513, taking with him 190 of his own
men, some Indians. and a number of dogs. A short dis-
tance on his way, the Indian chief, Cuareca, who had been
baptized by the Spaniards, gave him guides, some Indianl
auxiliaries, and on the 6th of September, after attending
mass to ask the blessing of God on his mission, he took
the road to the mountains.
On the 8th of September, Balboa arrived at the
home of the Indian chief, Ponca, mentioned in a previous
expedition. Here he was the recipient, of the first really
credible information concerning the great sea to the South.
Ponca informed him that the ocean would open to view
after passing certain mountains, which he would show
him. He also gave Balboa some curious, but handsomely
formed gold ornaments, which the Indian said came from
places on the ocean of which he spoke.
On the. 20th of September he continued his march.
The surface of the ground was so rough and broken, and
there were so many small streams to cross, that in four
days, he only covered thirty miles. At the end of this
march, he came to the territory of the belligerent chief-
tain, Cuaracua, who gave him a hard fight. The Indian
was finally overcome, anld perished in company with 600 of
his men. The town of Cuaracua where he now was, laid,
he was told, at the foot of the last mountain remaining
to be surmounted, before his eyes could rest on the object
of his long and tedious march.
Balboa Discovers the Pacific.
On the 26th of September, a little after ten o'clock
in the morning. the Spaniards discovered from the top of
the mountain, the mighty waters of the Pacific. The priest
of the expedition, Andres de Vara, intoned the Te Deun,
and all those in the company fell on their knees around
him. They afterwards raised at this point a cross made
of the trunk of a tree, braced up by rocks, and .upon
which they wrote, as well as on various trees in the vicinity,
the names of the rulers of Spain. On his descent to the
beach, Balboa and his men had to pass through the lands
of an Indian warrior named Cheapes, who treated them
kindly, and made them a present of 500 pounds of gold.
Reaching the water-side, Balboa waded out knee-deep into
the sea, and with the banner of Spain waving in his hands,
proLlaimed the vast ocean, and the coasts adjoining it, the
property of his King.
Find Pearls of Fabulous Size.
Shortly after the discovery of the South Sea, as the
Pacific was for a long time afterwards called, Balboa set
Pilot and Guide.
ESTABLISHED IN 1868.
78 ard 340 Cerqtial lveiue,
about making arrangements to explore the vicinity. The
ocean at this point on the coast forms a gulf to which
Balboa gave the name of San Miguel in honor of his
having arrived there on the day the Catholic church cele-
brates this saint, which name it bears at the present time. .
He despatched one of his men named Alonso Martin at-
the head of a small company of Spaniards and Indian a,
to explore the coast in a canoe, while he himself embarked-
and went to an island inhabited by a chief named Tumaco.
Martin, leaving first, has the credit of being the first-
European to navigate the waters of the Pacific. The-
island Balboa landed on was one of many, and to' the
group, he gave the name of the :- Archiepelago de las
Perlas, or the Pear] Archipelago. To the largest island
in the group he gave the name of Isla Rica, or Rich
Island, on account of the quantities of pearls he found
there, some of which were of great size. Balboa's papers
relate how that the canoes of Chief Tumaco had their
oars incrusted with pearls, so plentiful were they at this
period. Some time after this, an expedition under Pizarro:'
and Morales, two of Balboa's lieutenants, was sent-against
the Pearl Islands. They crossed the Isthmus by a less 3
difficult route than Balboa had done, and arrived at the
islands without incident. After four different battles with
the chief whom they found in possession of Isla Rica, the
latter finally surrendered, and as peace offering presented-
Pizarro and Morales with a basket full of very fine pearls,
one of which weighed 25 carats, and afterwards sold. for
4,000 ducats, equivalent to $9,120.00, veritably a prince's
Origin of the "Bloody Shirt." .
After collecting all the gold and pearls he could lay ;
hands on, Balboa returned to Darien, the only notable-
incident of the backward journey being the execution of a
native chief named Ponera, together with three of his as-
Pilot and Guide.
Origin of the "Bloody Shirt". II
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sociates, accused of certain vicious practices. These men,
Balboa caused to be devoured alive by the savage dogs
which he carried with him.
The year following, 1514, there arrived at Antigua,
a colonel of infantry named Pedro Arias Davila, commonly
called Pedrarias, who had been named by the Spanish
Crown as Governor of Darien. It is related that Pedrarias
was the father-in-law of Balboa, but history does not ap-
pear to be fully clear on this point. He commanded a
brilliant expedition consisting of 2,000 picked men, which
had originally been raised and equipped for war in Italy,
under the orders of Grand Captain Gonzalo de Cordova,
Cavalier of Spain. About this time La Antigua had
been elevated to a metropolitan city of Castilla del Oro,
and Friar Juan de Quevedo was named as the first
bishop, while Gaspar de Espinosa was chosen as the first
Alcalde. Shortly after the arrival of Pedrarias, Balboa
made another and last quest for the mythical temple of
gold, resulting in the usual failure. Then followed several
months of Indian fighting. Tumanama, one of the most
powerful chiefs of the mountains had long been at enmity
with the Spanish invaders, and securing allies in a num-
ber of other tribes commenced a war of extermination
against the Conquistadores. The Indians carried a flag in
their fights made out of the bloody shirts of the Spaniards
they had killed, which is the first mention History
S\2 .- Pilot and Guide.
! akes of that since famous tocsin. The victories gained
Sby the Indians tiased great alarm at La Antigua, and thle
mint and other "public buildings wereclosed. However, after
se\&taldesperate engagements, Tumanama and his warriors
wbr6 utit to rout, and a peace pact was entered into.
Balboa's Last Expedition.
U-pon the cessation of Indian hostilities, Pedrarias
consented to an expedition planned by Balboa, tto-xplore
the South Sea. This involved the construction of the ships
necessary for navigating the Pacific, on the Atlantic side
of ..the divide, and their transportation, knocked-down, acrose-
the Coidillera to some point on the south coast The
work of cutting .trees and preparing the parts of the ships
was performed after several months of arduous toil, and
then commenced. the long and wearisome journey across.
thle Isthmlus. The native Indians were utilized as carriers,,
anid History records that upwards of two thousand of then.
weaiikeed and died under their heavy burdens. In making
the passage, Balboa showed poor judgment. Instead of
journeying by. a known route, he started across an unexplored.
p)art of the Irthmus, discovering the Rio Balsas on his way,.
which stream he utilized as far as lie was able. Reaching "
th-s'buth coast, he put his ships together, and after visiting
the Pearl Ai-chipelago, navigated across the Gulf of San M-i-
Sguel. and to a poilit about two leagues farther on. Here the -
crews of his ships .became alarmed at a school of whales,
Swhom they took to.,be reefs. in the ocean, and induced Balboa..
Sto put about. Reaching the coast again the entire expedition,
was Ibrought to a sudden stop, by orders received from Pedra-
rias, the Governor, authorizing Balboa's arrest and imprison-
lmeilt, under the charge of being a traitor to the Crown.
Balboa, a Victim of Jealousy and Hate.
S'p to the time of the last ill-planned expedition,
Fortune had .always smiled on Balboa's enterprises. At
Balboa, a victim of .Jcalous am! Hlate. "| i3
this period of his life, however, the fickle goddess turi.o[l
her back upon him forever. Pedrarias, the Governoi -of
Darien, had long been jealous of Balboa's successes, and
this feeling culminated into one of intense hate. While
fearing to withhold his consent to the South Sea expedi-
tion. he was busy planning the while how to frustrate .it.
The news of a great Indian empire far to the south hai i
filtered through to the Spanish camp, and stirred Balboa
to accomplish what his able but unIricipi.ed "lieutenant,
Francisco Pizarro, later earned out. Pedrarias was well
aware of Balboa's ambitious plans, and this ki owledge
did but serve to put an edge to his jealousy anl hafe,
With but a farce of a trial, and coIed.Slne, pf.lbeing
a traitor to the Crown on evidence of purely an .e. pat'
character, Balboa, in the year 1517, in the fortyrsco.nd
year of his age, met death .by the headsman's xe, ..an.
thus ended the life of one of the, greatest explorersi. :-.
tge New World. Balboa maintained his innocence to .t4p
very last, defying his accuser and .nir.4,erer, Pedr ,-ja ,
who occupied a window only ten feet distant from,.the1
scaffold where the execution took place. .. .,-
In view of Balboa's great achievement, history has
passed lightly over his faults, amlo.ug.p)hi.ch avax.icq.. :: 4
cruelty were the most prominent; bu.t taking into, accP.qnt
.the general customs of the age in which he lived, the
difficult and exasperating circumstances and emergeccis
.... : '
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he had to contend with and overcome, it cannot be gain-
said hut that he was an exceptional man; an intrepid,
cunning and resourceful warrior whose ultimate success
and wonderful discovery conquered for him a lasting place
in the world's history. Besides, his latter sufferings, im-
prisonment and death on the scaffold on an unjust charge;
were, no doubt, ample atonement for his sins.
Founding of Old Panama.
Pedrarias, incompetent, treacherous, and cruel, con-
tinned in high favor with the king whose coffers he kept
well supplied with gold and treasure wrung from the en-
slaved and oppressed natives who died by the thousands
on accoumt of not being physically adapted to the work.
It was this terrible decimation of the Indians that prompt-
ed some time later a prominent Catholic bishop to suggest
the importation of negroes from Africa, thus saving the
Indian from complete extermination, but at the same time
inaugurating the system of slavery that afterwards spread
over the greatest part of two continents.
In 1515, Diego de Albites and Tello de Guzman
formed part of an expedition that crossed to the Pacific
side of the Isthmus and arrived at a hut of a poor fisher,
at a point called by the Indians Panama, from the abun-
dance of fish and sea shells found there. Here in 1519,
Pedrarias founded the city of Old Panama, giving it the
Indian name. In 1521, by order of Emperor Charles V.,
the title of "Muy noble y muy leal" was bestowed on the
place, and the government, bishopric and colonists of Santa
Maria la Antigua del Darien removed thereto. This was
only accomplished after great privation and suffering, it
being estimated that no fewer than 40,000 Spaniards per-
ished in this trans-Isthmian hegira during the ensuing
thirty years. The court-of-arms given to the new city
consisted of a yoke, a bunch of arrows oil a gilded field,
with two ships underneath, a star, castle and lions. The
Pilot and Guide.
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FIRST.---We have always stood, and shall always stand, with-
out a single deviation, behind our ironclad guarantee
based upon RELIABLE GOODS, MODERATE PRICES and
OUR OWN CONFIDENCE IN THEIR WORTH.
S. SECOND.--We constantly endeavor to provide our customers
with the VERY BEST MERCHANDISE MANUFACTURED,
using special care in the selection of our stock.
THIRD.--We have in our Ladies' Department, the latest, best
and most extensive variety of DRESS GOODS, SHIRT
WAISTS, SKIRTS, UNDERWEAR, HOSIERY, LACES, EM-
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BON TON and W. B.
FOURTH.---We cater to the most correct tastes in gentlemen's
wear, and we can truthfully say that there are no bet-
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those that HAVE BEEN OUTFITTED IN OUR GENTS' DE-
PARTMENT. They are advertising us every time they
appear on the street.
FIFTH.---We have won and now hold the most discriminat-
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_ __ ___
16 Pilot and Guide.
cOMI SION ITH.
Avenida Norte, No. 70. Apartado de Correo No. 70.
SPA N AM A.
city became the seat of the first court of the Real Au-
dieincia. which obtained in the, Spanish possessions in
America from 1535 to 1752.
In 1525, a C-itholic priest named Hernando Luque
celebrated solemn mass in the Cathedral at Old Panama,
taking communion with two Spanish explorers and men-at-
arms, Francisco Pizarro and Diego Alinagro. He broke
the holy bread into three pieces, taking one, and giving
the other pieces to the two men. The significance of this
act was no other than the solemnization of a contract
between all three to conquer the countries to the South.
They shortly afterwards manned several vessels and sailed
(down\ tlhe coast, reaching at last the "golden" Peru.
Pizarrro's flag used ill his conquest is a treasured relic to-
(lay in tle ai chives at Bogota.
Early Trans-Isthmian Routes.
Some time after the settlement of Old Panama, an
attempt was made to establish land communication from
Nombre de Iios, at that time the principal port on the
Atlantic, to the new city on the Pacific. A road was
finally constructed between the two places, which crossed
the C'hagres River at Cruces. For a part of the way the
road was paved, evidences of which remain to this day.
Later small vessels commenced to sail from Nombre, de
E'arbl TJrints-Istl.lmigaidti ln t,'.
Dios to the mouth of the Cllagres, then up tihat stre: in to
Cruces, where the cargoes were Iranstfered to the Itcks
of mules. Nombre de Dios was :labaindoned at the end ,f
the sixteenth century in faior (,f Porto Hello, kInowl to Ibe oIKe
of the best havens on the entire Isthniaini coast, south o(f Chi-
riqui Lagoon, to which even tle. steamers of thie present d(lay
resort when an unusually strong northern is blowing at Colai.
Nombre de Dios hld long been known as ;a graveyard ',f
the Spaniards, and its decay was of little wpoienit.
After the conquest of Peru. and the development (of
the gold mines in the Darien, Old Panama slprang rap idly
into prominence, All the golden treasure of t he West
Cost was poured into her lap to be sorted for shipment
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41 Parque de la CateJral. Apariad3 72.
FPA 11T A. M A.
Porto Bello likewise became an im-
portant post, and was the scene of great fairs up to the tiune
of its capture by the Pirates under Henry Morgan.
------ >* <-<- --
THE RAIDS OF THE BUCCANEERS.
The attack a(nd pillage of -Porto Bello. the capture
of Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the Chagres River,
Pilot (ind Guide.
and lastly and chief of all, the sack and burning of Old
Panama, perhaps at the time the most opulent city in all
New Spain, by Henry Morgan and his band of seven-
teenth century buccaneers, pirates and sea rovers, furnishes
one of the most thrilling chapters in the early history of
the Spanish Main, and some of the most notable events in
the piratical record of the West Indies, not only from the
boldness and intrepidity of the attack, hut for the gallant
defence as well.
To-day, nearly three hundred and fifty years after,
crumbling ruins mark the spots where these occurrences
took place, though as the late Mr. James Stanley Gilbert
has written in his famous work, "Panama Patchwork":
Cloud-crested San Lorenzo guards
The Chagres' entrance still,
Tho' o'er each stone dense moss has grown,
And earth his moat doth fill.
His bastions, feeble with decay,
Steadfastly view the sea,
And sternly wait the certain fate
The ages shall decree."
To the Americans employed on the Isthmus and the
tourists that are coming in ever increasing numbers, the
sites of these early Spanish centers of Western civilization
have a considerable charm, as is evidenced by the numer-
ous excursions made thereto, especially during the dry
season. Of them all Old Panama, perhaps, possesses the
greatest attraction. It is easily accessible from the present
city, and really interesting, although unfortunately many
visitors merely ride over, take a look at the tower and
the old bridge, and then come back with the idea that
they have seen everything worth while. The tower and
bridge are near to the beach, and easily seen, but the dense
vegetation with which the greater part of Old Panama is
overgrown makes sight-seeing farther in more difficult.
Thllere is the old Cathedral, the roof of which has fallen
The Raidfs of Ithe Buccancer.'. I 9
in, but the walls of which are still standing. This church
is mentioned in Esquemeling's narrative of tlhe sack and
burning of Old Panama, written in 1678, and reprinted
herewith, as the only one left standing after the fire. the
which was used for a hospital for the wounded (if the
buccaneers. The interior of this church has been used in
recent times, and is still being used. I understand. by the
natives living in the vicinity for a burying place for their
dead. Nearby to the church is the Catacumbas, or tombs,
upon the roofs of which great trees are now growing vigor-
ously. As one proceeds farther landwards, sections of the
ancient city's walls may be seen in various directions, some
being only held up by the gigantic roots of trees which
have twined and intertwined in and about the stones il.
such a manner that now it would be difficult even for a
pry to dislodge them. Large open wells curbed with stone
are scattered about the place, and in these, numerous relics
have recently been found, such as parts of copper kettles,
pieces of firearms, money, articles used in the churches,
etc. If all were cleaned out, no doubt many interesting
and perhaps valuable relics could be recovered, inasmuch
as the tradition has been handed down, and history in a
measure supports it, that the inhabitants of the place in
their fright and excitement sought to hide their valuables,
and as a last resort threw them into the wells of the
city. Be that as it may, the site of Old Panama furnishes
a point of interest well worth visiting.
The tower at Old Panama, which figures so promi-
nently among Isthmian photographs, and which may be
seen on a clear day from high elevations in the new city,
formed a part of the castle of St. Jerome. In the papers
of a Spanish engineer of that time occurs the following
description of it: "This fortification was an excellent piece
of workmanship, very strong, being raised in the middle of
the port, of quadrangular form, and of very hard stone.
Its elevation or height is 88 geometrical feet, its walls
being fourteen, and its curtains, seventy-five feet in diameter.
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It was built at the expense of several private persons, the
Governor of the city furnishing the principal part of the
money, so that it did not cost His Majesty any sum at all."
The fragmentary and often inaccurate accounts of
Old Panama has not tended to give readers a clear con-
ception of this and attendant events. Nothing has ever
appeared in print more truthful and interesting concerning
the capture of Porto Bello, and the burning of Panama,
than is to be found in John Esquemeling's narrative pub-
lished in 1678, seven years after the events actually oc-
curred. Esquemeling was a member of the pirate band,
and therefore an eye witness of the incidents related.
Although not definitely known, the author of this narrative
is thought to have been a Hollander, inasmuch as his ac-
count first appeared in the Dutch language. It was after-
wards translated into Spanish, and in recent years into
English, the latter translation appearing as a part of the
~ __~___________________ ~
Pilot and Guide.
R &ins of
.' .Santo .ingo c-urch.-.
I '.'-,. ..-
I IM m lan -se'ca S P R
t ~t A-
C tl F -, srb-r J'4 ,-t..~ P ..au~o s
3 ~ ~ K4. kmur~~vri~8ra
S-a.. ...A. .
.. .." ....
22 __ t
book called '-The Buccaneers of America," published by
Swan Soniienschein & Co.. of London. The author's
account is both graphic and picturesque, in which he in-
variably figures in the third person. With the exception
of a few instances where he speaks of the extraordinary
exploits of the English under Morgan, as matters of course,
lie has taken no sides, and is as prone to criticize his
leader, as any individual on the opposite side. The worst
criticism to be Inade of his narrative is his tendency to
magnify the importance of certain places and things.
Hence. from his description of Old Panama, one would be
led to believe it a much larger and important place than
it really was. He refers to there having been five thousand
houses in the llace at the time of its fall. This wouli
indicate a population of 40,000, or 50,000 souls. Even in
a much more extensive area than the site of Old Panama,
it would have been impossible to comprehend so many
Frente al N ercado Pflblico.
APARTADO No. 75. AVENIDA NORTE No. 127.
CONSTANTE y RENOVADO SURTIDO de ABARROTES y LICORES
('OM'PRA Y VENTA DE PRODUCTS DEL PAIS.
(OMISIONES EN GENERAL.
VENTA DE SOMBREROS DE PANAMA.
Store, front of Public 1vlarket.
F.mIdm SMlik of Grocerirs andt Liquors Always on Hand.
'Coiitry Products Bought and Sold.
(General Counummlission Merch ants.
Flume Absortnmeut of Panama Hats.
P. O. Box: 75. PANAMA, R. P. No. 127 North Avenue.
lot and Gitide.
The Raid.s nf the BnIcchmacr. 2y3
buildings, and there is nothing to-day to indicate it. I
have thoroughly explored the site, and cannot see possibly
where more than 10,000 or 15,000 souls could have been
gathered together. Ringrose, a member of the pirate band
of Capt. Sharp, says in his narrative of their expediti on
which visited New Panama in 1680, that the latter place
then was larger than Old Panama ever was.
The expedition against Old Panama was Henry
Morgan's crowning achievement, and his action toward his
men after their return to the Fort of Chagre, as Esque-
meling terms San Lorenzo, marked the beginning of the
end of his career as the greatest pirate of his time. He
was a man of quick impulse, one good act being almost
invariably offset by an evil one. He cared not for con-
quest for conquest's sake, but he was out for the coin of
the realm, which in his time was figured in pieces of
eight. One of the most astonishing moves in his whole
career was his attitude towards piracy after his ascendancy
to the post of Governor of Jamaica, not long after his
return from the Panama expedition. To him, more than
to any one man, is probably due the ridding of the pirates
from the waters and islands of the West Indies.
The Panama expedition was not as successful as
Morgan had figured on iln the matter of booty. The
escape of the Spanish galleon with the plate and church
valuables robbed him of the best of his expected treasure.
Local tradition has it that he left with as high as 1,200
mule loads of loot, while a biography of Morgan puts it
at thirty-seven. Esquemeliug gives it at 175 mule loads,
which is probably about the correct figure.
We are giving the reader Esquemeling's account of
the capture of Porto Bello, and the fall of Old Panama
in the writer's own picturesque language, which cannot
fail but to add spice to the narrative-Editor.
24 Pilot and Guide.
Panama Banking Company.
Panama, Colon, Empire, Gorpona, New York.
Central Banking Business.
Loans made and Notes discounted.
Foreign Exchange bought and sold.
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I)rafts issued on Nc
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Interest at 40/o per annun paid on sav-
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Special attention paid to collections, both
local and foreign, at lowest rates.
Captrec of Porto Bello, 1668. 25
Capture of Porto Bllo, 1668.
-- -- ---- + -~
Capt. Morgan, always communicated vigor with his
words, and infused such spirits into his men as were able
to put every one of them instantly upon new designs; they
being all persuaded by his reasons, that the sole execution
of his orders would be a certain means of obtaining great
riches. This persuasion had such influence upon their
minds, that with inimitable courage they all resolved to
follow him. The same likewise did a certain pirate of
Campeche, who on this occasion joined with Capt. Morgan,
to seek new fortunes under his conduct, and greater ad-
vantages than he had found before. Thus Captain Morgan
inja few days gathered a fleet of nine sail, between ships
and great boats, wherein he had four hundred and three-
score military men.
After that all things were in a good posture of
readiness, they put forth to sea, Capt. Morgan imparting
the design he had in his mind to nobody for that present.
He only told them on several occasions, that he held as
indubitable he should make a good fortune by that voyage,
if strange occurrences altered not the course of his designs.
They directed their course towards the continent, where
they arrived in a few days upon the coast of Costa Rica,
with all their fleet entire. No sooner had they discovered
land than Capt. Morgan declared his intentions to the
Captains, and presently after to all the rest of the com-
pany. He told them he intended in that expedition to
plunder Porto Bello. and that he would perform it by
night, being resolved to put the whole city to the sack,
not the least corner escaping his diligence. Moreover, to
encourage them he added: This enterprise could not fail to
succeed well, seeing he had kept it secret in his mind
without revealing it to anybody; whereby they could not
26 iPilot tand Guide.
have notice of his coming. To this proposition some made
answer: They had not a sufficient number of men where-
with to assault so strong and great a city. But Captain
Morgan replied: If our number is small our hearts are
fgre t. A nil the fer'er persIons ice are the more union, and
better sha res wre shall har e in the spoil. Hereupon, being
stimulated with the ambition of those vast riches they
promised themselves from their good success, they unani-
cmously concluded to venture upon that design. But, now,
to the intent my reader may better comprehend the in-
colmparable holdnless of this exploit. it may be necessary
to say something beforehand of the city of Porto Bello.
'The city which bears this name in America is seated
in the Pro\vince of Costa Rica (1). under the latitude of
ten degrees North, at the distance of fourteen leagues from
the Gulf of Darien. and eight westwards from the port
called Nombre de Dies. It is judged to be the strongest
place that the King of Spain possesses in all the West
Indili(es. excepting two. that is to say, Havana and Carta-
gena;. Here are two castles, almost inexpugnable, that
defend the city. ieiig situated at the entry of the port;
so that no ship or hoat can pass without permission. The
garrison consists of three hundred soldiers, and the town
con(stanitly inllhaited by four hundred families, more or
less. The merchants dwell not here, but only reside for
awhile. when tlie galleons come or go from Spain; by
reason of the unlhealthiness of the air, occasioned by certain
vnipours. tliat exhale from the mountains Notwithstanding,
theii.r chief warelouses are at Porto Bello. howbeit their
h;abitA tions be all the year long at Panama, whence they
hnI tlhe plate ),upon mules at such times as the fair
igins and when tlhe ships. belonging to the Company of
Negroes, a,'rrive liern to sell slaves.
(1) T1'i. 1nmi gen',rally applied to the' C(arihhean coast. at that
i in- frii Cnpi (rniis s Iios to the Chngres River.- Editor.
She.rSll of Cruces --Panama.
mal.an-n.Mer.w 4 .,.J .. ag/fllaq4fddeea.wlw*ieuM t .ienkowski.
28 Pilot and Guide.
GRAN FABRIC NACIINAL DE TABAClB
La Flor doel tiamo
lk mrjor y la mas grande qlue hasth ioy se ha psiablecido en PaamJ.
Los Ciga iros, Picaduras y Cigarrillos elaborados en esta FAbrica, son del
ME.mO MIATErIAL que se coseeha en las vegas de. Chiriqui y Bubi.
Todos deben probar el tabaco de PrNnamA que es tan bueno
como el extraujero que viene i la Repiblica.
Protejer a las Industrias Nacionales, es protejerse uno a si mismo.
E. MORRIS y Cia.
T-L.EFONO 20. AVENIDA CENTRAL, NUMERO 307
fUMEN NUESTROS PRODIUCTOS d NO FUMEN.
Arrival of the Buccaneers.
Capt. Morgan, who knew very well all the avenues
of this city, as also all the neighlborilg coasts arrived in
the dusk of the evening at the place called Puerto de
Nac; distant ten leagues toward the west of Porto Bello.
licii-g coice to this place, they mounted the river ill their
sh1ilps. as far as another harbour called Puerto Pontin;
where they came to an anchor. Here they put themselves
ininiediately into boats and canoes, leaving only a few
inint to keep them and conduct them the next day to the
port. About midnight they came to :1 certain place called
E.,tira long Lemos. where they all went on shore, and
111:1' c(led by land to the first posts (if the city. They had
inl tdhe oinmpny a certain Englislhmani. who had been
it'nlinerl a prisoner ill those parts, aitil who now served
them fr 1 guide. To him, and three or four more, they
gav'q euinmission to take the sentry, if possible or kill him
Jrrival (o the Buccaneers. 29
upon the place. But they laid hands on him and appre-
hended him with such cunning, that he had no time to
give wan ing with his musket, or make any other noise.
Thus they brought him. with his hands bound, to Captain
Morgan. who asked him: How things went in the city. andt
what forces they had: with many other circumstances, which
he was desirous to know. After every question, they made
him a thousand menaces to kill him, in case he declared
not the truth. Thus they began to advance towards the city,
carrying always the said sentry bound before them. Having
marched about one-quarter of a league, they came to the
castle that is near the city,which presently they surrounded.
so that no person could get either iu or out of the said
Being thus posted under the walls of the castle,
Capt. Morgan commanded the sentry whom they had taken
prisoner, to speak to those that were within, charging
them to surrender, and give themselves up to his discre-
tion; otherwise they should be all cut to pieces. without
giving quarter to any one. But they would hearken to
none of these threats, beginning instantly to fire; which
gave notice to the city and this was suddenly alarmed.
Yet, notwithstanding, although the Governor and soldiers
of the said castle made as great resistance as could be
performed, they were constrained to surrender to the
Pirates. These no sooner had taken the castle, than they
resolved to be as good as their words, in putting the
Spaniards to the sword. thereby to strike a terror into the
rest of the city. Hereupon, having shut up all the soldiers
and officers as prisoners into one room, they instantly set
fire to the powder (whereof they found great quantity), and
blew up the whole castle into the air. with all the Span-
iards that were within. This being done, they pursued
the course of their victory, falling upon the city. which as
yet was not in order to receive them. Many of the in-
habitants cast their precious jewels and moneys into wells
and cisterns, or hid them in other places underground, to
30 Pilot andl CGuide.
excuse, as much as were possible, their being totally robbed..
One party of the Pirates being assigned to this purpose, i
ran immediately to the cloisters, and took as many re-:
ligious men and women as they could find. The Governor
of the city not being able to rally the citizens, through
the huge confusion of the town retired to one of the cas-!
ties remaining, and thence began to fire incessantly at the
Pirates. But these were not in the least negligent either
to assault him or defend themselves with all the courage
imaginable. Thus it was observable that, amidst the horror
of the assault, they made very few shots in vain. For
aiming with great dexterity at the mouths of the guns, the:
Spaniards were certain to lose oiin or two men every time
they charged eacl gun anew.
Assault on the Castle.
The assault of this castle where the Governor was, con-
tinned very furious on both sides, from break of day until
noon. Yea, about this time of the day the case was very
dubious which party should conquer or le conquered. At
last the Pirates, perceivi:ig they had lost many men and
as yet advanced but little towards the gaining either this,
or the other castles remaining, thought to make use of
fireballs, which they threw with their hands, designing, if
possible, to burn the doors of the castle. But going
about to put this into execution, the Spaniards from the
wall let fall great quanttities of stones and earthen pots'
full of powder and other combustible matter, which forced
them to desist from that attempt. Capt. Morgan seeing
this generous defence made by the Spaniards. began to
despair of the whole success of the enterprise. Hereupon,
many faint and calm meditations came into his mind;
neither could lie determine which way to turn himself in
that straitness of affairs. Being involved in these thoughts,
he was suddenly animated to continue the assault by seeing
the English colours put forth at one of the lesser castles,
..lault on the Casxlr. '3
D 1 MAfCEL QUTJtlB %Z L.
-- --.r &<.. -._
License to The University of the State of New York,
The State Board of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
The State Board of the Commonwealth of New Jersey.
OF=F=ICE HOU SREF
8 a. m. to 11 a. n 1 p. in. to 5) p. m.
9o. 44, JFflft. Stzcct, aboue tiic "Pcfiio6iico Cafe"
fzaltfiin Oi on CatrficrZa faCtfi.
then entered by his meii. of whom lie presently after spied,
a troop that came to him, proclaiming victory with loud
shouts of joy. This instantly put him upon new resolu-
tions of making new efforts to take the rest of the castles
that stood out against him: especially seeing the chlief..citi-
zens were fled to them, and had conveyed thitler- great
part of their riches, with all the plate belonging to the:
churches, and other things dedicated to liivi\ne service.
To this effect, therefore, lie ordered ten or twelve
ladders to be made in all possible haste. so broad that.
three or four men at once might ascend by them. These
being finished, he commanded all the religious men and
women whom he had taken prisoners to fix them against
the walls of the castle. This much he h'ad beforehand
threatened the Governor to perform, in case lie delivered
not the castle. But his answer was: He would necer su'r-:
render himself alive. Capt. Morgan was much persuaded;
that the Governor would not employ his utmost forces,
32 Pilot and Guide.
seeing religious women and ecclesiastical persons, exposed
in the front of the soldiers to the greatest dangers. Thus
the ladders, as I have said. were put into the hands of
religious persons of both sexes; and these were forced, at
the head of the companies, to raise and apply them to the
walls. But Capt. Morgan was fully deceived in his judg-
ment of this design. For the Governor, who acted like a
brave and courageous soldier, refused not, in performance
of his duty, to use his utmost endeavours to destroy who-
ever came near the walls The religious men and women
ceased not to cry to him and to beg of him by all the
Saints of Heaven that he would deliver the castle, and
hereby spare both his and their own lives. But nothing
could prevail with the obstinacy and fierceness that had
possessed the Governor's mind. Thus many of the religious
men and nuns were killed before they could fix the ladders.
Which at last being done, though with great loss of the
said religious people, the Pirates mounted them in great
numbers, and with no less valour; having fireballs in their
hands, and earthen pots full of powder. All which things,
being now at the top of the walls, they kindled and cast
in among the Spaniards.
Refused Quarter Despite Wife's Tears.
This effort of the Pirates was very great; insomuch
as the Spaniards could no longer resist nor defend the
castle, which was now entered. Hereupon they all threw
down their arms. and craved quarter for their lives. Only
the Governor of the city would admit or crave no mercy;
but rather killed miany of the Pirates with his own hands,
and not a few of his own soldiers, because they did not
stand to their arms. And although the Pirates asked him
if he would have quarter, yet he constantly answered:
By no means: I had( rather (lie a valiant soldier than be
hanged an a coward. They endeavoured, as much as they
could, to take him prisoner. But he defended himself so
Refused Quarter Despite Wife's Tears. 33
obstinately that they were forced to kill him; notwithstand-
ing all the cries and tears of his own wife and daughter,
who begged of him upon their knees he would demand
quarter and save his life. When the Pirates had possessed
themselves of the castle, which was about night, they en-
closed therein all the prisoners they had taken, placing the
women and men by themselves, with some guards upon
them. All the wounded were put into a certain apartment
by itself, to the intent their own complaints might be the
cure of their own diseases; for no other was afforded them.
This being done, they fell to eating and drinking after
their usual manner; that is to say, committing in both
these things all manner of debauchery and excess. After
such manner they delivered themselves up to all sort of
debauchery, that if there had been found only fifty cou-
rageous men, they might easily have retaken the city, and
killed all the Pirates. The next day, having plundered all
they could find, they began to examine some of the prison-
ers (who had been persuaded by their companions to say
they were the richest of the town), charging them severely
to discover where they had hidden their riches and goods.
But not being able to extort anything out of them, as they
were not the right persons who possessed any wealth, they
at last resolved to torture them. This they performed with
such cruelty that many of them died upon the rack, or
presently after. Soon after, the President of Panama had
news brought him of the pillage and ruin of Porto Bello.
This intelligence caused him to employ all his care and in-
dustry to raise forces, with design to pursue and cast out
the Pirates thence. But these cared little for what extra-
ordinary means the President used, as having their ships
near at hand, and being determined to set fire to the city,
and retreat. They had now been at Porto Bello fifteen
days, in which space of time they had lost many of their
men, both by the unhealthiness of the country and the ex-
travagant debaucheries they had committed.
N r H .. ........
-A group of % -
'atfive .elles in the,
native dress-. anama.
3shmanaM-.-Amirnai OF*.AiAjm /
alrriy am ave.rfing .Pwau.
~l~cl~l ~CC 1 -11~-3~~ 1---~~CY-II- C-~VL-
Ransom Placed on Prisoner.. 3I 5
Ransom Placed on Prisoners.
Hereupon they prepared for a departure, carrying on
board their ships all the pillage they had got. But, before
all. they provided the fleet with sufficient victuals for the
voyage. While these things were getting ready. Captain
Morgan sent an injunction to the prisoners that they should
pay him a ransojn for the city, or else lie would by fire
consume it to ashes, and blow up all the castles into the
air. Withal, he commanded them to send speedily two
persons to seek and procure the sum he demanded, which
amounted to one hundred thousand pieces of eight. To this
effect, two men were sent to the President of Panama. wiho
gave him an account of all these tragedies. The President
having now a body of men in readiness, set forth imme-
diately towards Porto Bello to encounter the Pirates before
their retreat. But these people, hearing of his coming.
instead of flying away, went out to meet him at a narrow
passage through which of necessity lie must pass. Here
they placed an hundred men very well armed; who, at the
first encounter, put to flight a good party of those of,
Panama. This accident obliged the President to retire for
that time, as not being yet in a posture of strength to
proceed any farther. Presently after this encounter he sent
a message to Capt Morgan to tell him: That in case he
departed not suddenly with all his forces from Porto Bello,
he ought to expect no quarter for himself nor his companions,
when he should take them, as he hoped soon to do. Captain
Morgan who feared not his threats, knowing he had a
secure retreat in his ships which were near at hand, made
him answer: He would not deliver the castles, before he had
received the contribution-money he had demanded. TWhich
in case it were not paid down, he would certainly burn the
whole city, and then leave it; demolishing beforehand the
castles, and killing the prisoners.
Pilot and Guidc.
Opposite the P. R. R. Passenger Station.
9&o Cooler place in the City. Large and Well-ventilated pooms.
FIRST CLASS RESTAURANT IN CONNECTION.
Hotel electric lighted throughout. c4ll cModern arrangements.
'Baggage Transported Free to and from WCailroad Station.
Prices 0Moderate. Special 9ates for Families.
Superior SerVice. 'Principal Languages Spoken.
CONVENIENT FOR TOURISTS.
UEst Cge18dint, *rpprietor.
tiotel finue ini.
Frente Ai la Estaci6n Nueva del Ferrocarril.
Un de los punlos ms venilo os de lo ciudad. Cuorlos Espociosos y Blen Ynllodos.
RESTAURANT DE PRIMER ORDEN.
Luz Elecirico en lodos s CAuoros y Tronsporle Grolis d Eiu ie del Hotele 6 to Estocn y ilcev ersa.
PRECIOUS MODICOS Y CONVENCIONALES PARA FAMILIES.
servii: E:amni-rc^:_. Se- Hsalan los Prin2ipales Idiomas.
|31 C gA #ini, |ropietaria.
organ'ss Threat against Old Parma, -37
Morgan's Threat Against Old Panama.
The Governor of Panama perceived by this answer
that no means would serve to mollify the hearts of the
Pirates, nor reduce them to reason. Hereupon he deter-
mined to leave them; as also those of the city, whom he
came to relieve, involved in the difficulties of making the
best agreement they could with their enemies. Thus, in
few days more, the miserable citizens gathered the contri-
bution wherein thev were fined, and brought the entire
sum of one hundred thousand pieces of eight to the Pirates,
for a ransom of the cruel captivity they were fallen into.
But the President of Panama. by these transactions, was
brought into an extreme admiration, considering that four
hundred men had been able to take such a great city, with
so many strong castles; especially seeing that they had no
pieces of cannon. nor other great guns. wherewith to raise
batteries against them. And what was more, knowing that
the citizens of Porto Bello had always great repute of
being good soldiers themselves, and who had never wanted
courage in their own defence. This astonishment was so
great, that it occasioned him, for to be satisfied herein, to
send a messenger to Capt. Morgan, desiring him to send
him some small pattern of those arms wherewith he had
taken with such violence so great a city. Capt. Morgan
received this messenger very kindly, and treated him with
civility. Which being done, he gave him a pistol and a
few small bullets of lead, to carry back to the President,
his Master, telling him withal: He desired him. to accept
that slender pattern of the arms wherewith he had
taken Porto Bello. and keep them for a twelvemonth;
after which time he promised to come to Panama and
fetch them away. The Governor of Panama returned the
present very soon to Capt. Morgan giving him thanks for
the favour of lending him such weapons as he needed not,
and withal sent him a ring of gold with this message:
That he destrfd him not to give himself the 7abour of
coming to Panama as he had done to Porto Bello; for
38 Pilot and Guide.
he did not certify to him, he should not speed so well
here as he had done there.
Departure of the Pirates.
After these transactions. Capt. Morgan (having pro-
vided his fleet with all necessaries, and taken with him
the best guns of the castles, nailing the rest which he
could inot carry amwav) set sail from Porto Bello with all
his ships With these he arrived in few days at the
Island of Cul,;. where lie sought out a place wherein with
all quiet and repose he might make the dividend of the
spoil they had got. They found in ready morey two hun-
dred and fifty thousand pieces of eight, (1) besides all
other ,ierchn;i dizcs. as cloth, linen, silks, and other goods.
With this rich iootyt tiey sailed again thence to their
coinmmon plalIce of rendezvous, Jamaica. Being arrived, they
passed hiee soiiie time in all sorts of vices and debauchery,
:cording to their cominion manner of doing, spending with
huge1. prodig:,ility wlhat others had gained with no small
,labour and t'i!.
THE ALL OF OLD PANAM, 1671.
Upon the conclusion of a treaty of peace in 1670
between Ingl;i(Id and Spain, which confinred the former
in her possessions in the West IIndies, but forbade her
subijects to trate to any Spanish port without a license;
"a Irnoclimlation wais issued in purstuance of such arrange-
ment Ahlich greattly exasperated the freebooting community,
Iand th, (direct result ot which was an assemblage of the
l:,irgest fleet ever brought together by the buccaneers,
amounting to :f. ships of all sizes, ianIned by more than
(1) rTim coin Ipiee oIf eight had tih value of eight Spanish
rvuls. Eiluivnal-tit to 4(1 cents gold.--Editor.
SThe F1ll of O1h! i nfam, j '71. f39C
a r 'k T ''lT I
Venta de Pieles de Venado, de Tigre, de Culebra
y de rnuchas otras classes.
Ca r-tC>n.xx y Cal. clo rrizmaaera.-
EXISTENCIA DE FRUTAS CONSTANTEMENTE. VERDURAS DE TODAS CI.ASES.
VENIDA NORR E Hip6lito de la Oliva.
?,000 pirates. They met in Decembler. 1670, at Cape
Tibur6i, Gulf of Ural)i. and id lt a council to decide
Whether their forces should be directed upon CO;rtaigenla,
Vera Cruz, or Paianai. The last was chosen as being the
richest, and Morgain was elected Admiral.
S Capt. Morgan perceived that Flotune favored his arms.
by giving good success to all his celterprizes. which occa-
sioned him, as it is usual in human affairs. to aspire to
greater things, trusting she would alwayss be constant to
him. Such was the burning of Panama; wherein fortune
failed not to assist him. in like manner as she had (dopne
before, crowning the event of his actions with victory, how-
beit she had led him thereto through thousands of difficul-
ties.- The history hereof. I shall now begin to relate, as
being so very remarkable in 1;i! its circumstances tliat per-
adventure nothing more deserving nmcmoly n;m occur to be
read by future ages.
Not long after Capt. Morgan arrived at Jamaica. he
found many of his chief officers and soldiers reduced to
their former state of indigence through their immoderate
vices and debauchery. Hence they ceased not to importune
him for new invasions and exploits, thereby to get some-
thing to expend anew in wine, as they had already wasted
what was secured so little before. Capt. Morgan being
willing to follow fortune while she called him, hereupon
stopped the mouths of many of the inhabitants of Jamaica,
who were creditors to his men for large sums of money,
with the hopes and promises lie gave them, of greater
achievements than ever, by a new expedition he was going
about. This being, done, he needed not give himself much
trouble to levy men for this or any other enterprise, his
name being nuw so famous through all those islands, that
that alone would readily bring him in more men than he
could well employ. He undertook therefore to equip a
new fleet of ships: for which purpose he assigned the south
side of the isle of Tortuga, as a place of rendezvous.
With this resolution, he wrote divers letters to all the
ancient and expert Pirates there inhabiting, as also to the
Governor of said isle, and to the planters and hunters of
Hispaniola (Hayti), giving them to understand his inten-
tiois, and desiring their appearance at the said place, in
case they intended to go with him. All these people had
no sooner understood his designs than they flocked to the
place assigned, in huge numbers, with ships, canoes and
boats. being desirous to obey his commands. Many, who
had not the cor venience of coming to him by sea, traversed
the woods of Hispaniola, and with no small difficulties ar-
rived there by land. Thus all were present at the place
assigned and ii n readiness, against the 24th day of Octo-
Pirates Go A-Foraging.
Capt. Morgan was not wanting to be there accord-
ing to his punctual custom, who came in his ship to the
same side of the island, to a port called by the French,
Port Couillon, over against the island, De la Vaca, this
being a place which he had assigned to others. Having
Pilot and Guide,
.Markat Sitret approaching the Jdarket-l9anamra.
Sarath la Aufrla I..RS.IAl 4gnarya diAwd(iag biwwe. of..uiukeawM.
42 Pilot and Guide.
now gathered the greatest part of his fleet, he called a
council, to deliberate about the means of finding provisions
sufficient for so many people. Here they concluded to
send four ships and one boat, manned with four hundred
men, over to the continent, to the intent they should rifle
some country towns and villages, and in these get all the
corn or maize they could gather. They set sail for the
continent, towards the river, De la Hacha, with design to
assault a small village called La Rancheri., where is usually
to be found the greatest quantity of maize of all these
parts thereabouts. In the meanwhile Capt. Morgan sent
another party of his men to hunt in the woods, who killed
there a huge number of beasts, and salted them. The rest
of his companions remained in the ships, to clean, fit and
rig them out to sea, so that at the return of those who
were sent abroad, all things might be in readiness to wieght
anchor, and follow the course of their designs.
The four ships above mentioned, after they had set
sail from Hispaniola, steered their course till they came
within sight (f t' i i'.er, De la Hacha, where they were
suddenly overtaken with a tedious calm. Being thus within
sight of land becalmed for some (ays, the Spaniards in-
habiting along the co:ist, who had perceived them to be
llenemies. had sufficient time to prep;;re th:inselves for the
assault, at least to hide the best part of their goods, to
the end that, without any care of pirs-t-rvlng them, they
I might lIe iIn re;iitlness to retire, when they found them-
selves unable to resist the force of the Pi-rates, by whose
fr-equent attempts uponi tihe coasts they had already
leavrn t what they had to do in such cases. There was in
the river at that present a good ship. which was come
from C'artagena to lade maize, and was now when the
Pirates came almost ready to depart. The men belonging
to this ship endeavoured to escape, but not being able
to do it; both they and the vessel fell into their hands.
Tllis was a fit booty for their mind, as being good part of
what they came to seek for with so much care and toil.
Pirates Go A-Foraging.
The next morning about break of day they came with
their ships toward the shore, and landed their men, although
the Spaniards made huge resistance from a battery which
they had raised on that side, where of necessity they had
to land; but notwithstanding what defence they could make,
they were forced to retire towards a village, to which the
Pirates followed them. Here the Spaniards, rallying again,
fell upon them with great fury, and maintained a strong
combat, which lasted till.night was come; but then, per-
ceiving they had lost a great number of men, which was
no smaller on the Pirates, side, they retired to places
more occult in the woods.
The next day when the Pirates saw they were all
fled, and the town left totally empty of people, they pur-
sued them as far as they could possibly. In this pursuit
they overtook a party of Spaniards, whom they made all
prisoners and exercised the most cruel torments, to dis-
cover where they had hidden their goods; some were found
who by the force of intolerable tortures confessed; but
others who would not do the same were used more bar-
barously than the former. Thus, in the space of fifteen
days that they remained there, they took many prisoners,
much plate and movable goods, with all other things they
could rob, with which booty they resolved to return to
Hispaniola. Yet not content with what they had already
got, they dispatched some prisoners into the woods to
seek for the rest of the inhabitants, and to demand of
them a ransom for not burning the town. To this they
answered, they had no money or plate, but in case. they
would be satisfied with a certain quantity of maize, they
would give as much as they could afford. The Pirates
accepted this proffer, as being more useful to them at
that occasion than ready money, and agreed they should
pay four thousand hanegs, or bushels, of maize. These
were brought in three days after, the Spaniards being
desirous to rid themselves as soon as possible of that in-
human sort of people. Having laded them on board their
Pilot n(11 G ale.
Comisariato del Pueblo
RAMON ARIAS F., Jr,
Esqulna de IS coNles 13 Esle y Avenido Nonle.
Almacen de Mercancias en
Ferreteria y Herramnientas
RAMON ARIAS F., Jr.
Corner 01 Thirleenli Slreet od oM~i W venue.
Groceries and General
All classes of Hardware
and Tools for artisans,
ships, together with all the rest of their lboot, they returned
to tihe Island of Hispaniola, to give account to their leader,
Capt. Morgan, of all they had performed.
Preparations for Departure.
They had now been absent five entire weeks, about
the commission aforemelntioned, which long delay occasioned
Capt. M gorgain almost to despair of their return, fearing
lest they had fallen into the hands of the Spaniards, es-
pecially considering that, the place whereto they went
could easily be relieved from Cartagena and Santa Marta,
if tim inhabitants were at all careful to alarm the country;
on the other side lie feared lest they should have made
some great fortune in that voyage, and with it escaped to
some, other place. But at last seeing his ships return, and
in greater number than they had departed, lie resumed
new courage, this siglt causing both in him and his com-
paniois infinite joy. This was much increased when, being
arrived, they found t hem full laden with maize, whereof
tl.ey stood in great need for the maintenance of so many
p'Iople(, by whose help they expected great matters through
thil conduct of their conlllander.
After Capt. Morgan had divided the sa:,l maize. as
also tlhe fltsh which the hunters brought in, among all the
shilps. cCO 'rdiig to thile 11number of Imen that were in every
.. -- I
P'reprIfitioJn .for D1pal,-11r. 45
vessel, he concluded upon the departure. having viewed
beforehand every ship, andi observed their being well
equipped and clean. Thus he set sail. andi directed his
course towards Cape Tibur6n, where lie determined to
take his measures and resolution, of what enterprise lie
should take in hand. No sooner were they arrived there
than they met with some other ships that came newly to
join them from Jamaica. So that now the whole fleet
consisted of thirty-seven ships, wherein were two thousand
fighting men, besides mariners and boys; the Admiral hereof
was mounted with twenty-two great guns, and six small
ones, of brass; the rest carried some twenty, some sixteen,
some eighteen, and the smallest vessel at least four, bcs:des
which they had great quantity of ammunition and fire-
balls, with other inventions of powder.
Proposed Division of Spoils.
Capt. Morgan finding himself with such a great num-
ber of ships, divided the whole fleet into two squadrons,
constituting a Vice-Admiral, and other officers and com-
manders of the second squadron, distinct from the former.
To every one of these he gave letters patent, or commis-
sions, to act all manner of hostility against the Spanish
nation, and take of them what ships they could, either
abroad at sea, or in the harbours, in like manner as if
they were open and declared enemies (as he termed it) of
the King of England, his pretended master. This being
done, he called all his captains and other officers together,
and caused them to sign some articles of common agree-
ment between them, and in the name of all. Herein it
was stipulated that he should have the hundredth part of
all that was gotten, to himself alone. That every captain
should draw the shares of eight men, for the expenses of
his ship, besides his own: That the surgeon, besides his
ordinary pay, should have two hundred pieces of eight. for
his chest of medicamnets: And every carpenter, above his
common salary, should draw one hundred pieces of eight.
As to 'ecompences.they were regulated in this voyage much
more than usual. Thus. for the loss of both legs, they
assigned one thousand five hundred pieces of eight or
fifteen slaves; for one leg. whether the right or left, six
lludri'd liecrs of eight or six slaves; for a hand, as much
as for a leg. :and for the loss of an eye. one hundred
pieces of eight or one slave. Lastly, unto him that in any
la:ttl( should signillize himself. either by entering the first
any castle, or taking down the Spanish colours and setting
up the English, they constituted fifty pieces of eight for a
reward. In tile head of thlse articles it was stipulated
that all these extraordinary salaries, recompences and re-
w:1rds should ie paid out of the first spoil or purchase
they should take, according as every one should then
occiiur to be either rewarded or paid.
This (contract wiing signed. Capt. Morgan commanded
his Vice-Admirals and Captains to put all things in order,
to go and attempt one of three places, either Cartagena,
Panama or Vera Cruz; ibut the lot fell upon Panama as
,einig believed to lbe the richest of all three; notwithstand-
ing tinls city (eing situated at such distance from the
Northern sea, as they knew not well the avenues and
entries necessary to approach it, they judged it necessary
to go beforelland to the isle of St. Catharine, there to find
and provide themselves with some persons who might serve
them lfor guides in this elterprize; for in the garrison of
tlit island are commonly employed many banditti and
outlaws belongiig to _Panaima and the neighboring places,
who ;are very expert in the knowledge of all that country.
liit be'fre tihe proceeded any farther, they caused an
:act tio ble llpblished through tile whole fleet, containing
iat in ca.se they met with any Spanish vessel, the first
c:ilptiiin \\lio with his men should enter iand take the said
sin. should liavle frl his reward the tenth part of whatso-
,.,r s ldho ldh Ie' found it.hin her.
Pilot aml Guide.
Street showing entrance to .9anama Cemeteries.
.AjdAul J.*rise&AFA.Aim Osuisdwrfliishy.meii -o.SfsiMakomikll.
48~ Pilo (11( Guide,__
Attack Isle of St. Catharine.
Capt. Morgan and his companions weighed anchor
from the Cape of Tiburon, the 16th day of December in
the year 1670. Four days after they arrived within sight
of the Isle of St. Catharine, (1) which was now in pos-
session of the Spaniards again, and to which they commonly
banished the malefactors of the Spanish dominions in the
West Indies. In this island are found huge quantities of
pigeons at certain seasons of the year; it is watered con-
tinually by four rivulets or brooks, whereof two are always
dry in the summer season. Here is no manner of trade
nor commerce exercised by the inhabitants, neither do they
give themselves the trouble to plant more fruits than what
is necessary for the sustentation of human life; howbeit,
the country would be sufficient to make very good planta-
tions of tobacco, which might render considerable profit
were it cultivated for that use.
As soon as Capt. Morgan came near the island with
his fleet, he sent before one of his best sailing vessels to
view the entry of the river and see if any other ships were
there who might hinder him from landing; as also fearing
lest they should give intelligence of his arrival to the in-
habitants of the island, and they by this means prevent
The next day before sunrise, all the fleet came to
anchor near the island, in a certain bay called Aguada
(Grande: upon this bay the Spaniards had lately built a
battery, mounted with four pieces of cannon. Captain
Morlgan landed with a thousand men, more or less, and
disposed then into squadrons, beginning his march through
the woods, although they had no other guides than some
few of lis own men who had been there before when
(1) Also koiiwn nii Santa Kaitalina or Old Providence, an island
in tihe ('n rilibii Sen, (100 miles trom thlie Mosquito Coast, now belong-
jig to VW 'ii izu'l;t.
Pilot and Guide,
Attack Isl. of St. (C'it l h 9-i
Mansvelt took and ransacked the island. The some day
they came to a certain place where the ( governorr at other
times kept his ordinary residence: here thel found a bat-
tery called The PlaUft;t i' but inolbodyv in it: the Spanliards
having retired to the lesser island. W ich. as was said
before, is so near the great one that a short !bridge only
may conjoin them.
Pirates in Serious Straits.
This lesser island aforesaid was so iwell fortified w-ith
forts and batteries around it as might s'ee n impregnable.
Hereupon, as soon as the Spaniards perceived the pirates
to approach, they began to tire upon them so furiously
that they could advance nothing that day. but wNere con-
tented to retreat a little, and take up their rest upon the
grass in the open fields, which afforded no strange beds to
these people, as being sufficiently used to such kind of
J. B. COEROL1 & Co.
We manufacture all classes
of Soda waters and Syrups.
We have engaged the ser-
vices of a graduate distiller for
the manufacture of all classes of
Prompt attention given to
orders from private liiust..
FACTORY, Nlo. 54,
WEST IOT: STREET.
B. (OEIRI y 'Cia.
Se flabrieain tol i elase die Aguas
(Gascosas y ,Siril)es.
Prxiia ncutI lle an i un lico-
rista gra;inl do ipara l;aeer today
clase de licorcs Ile.infcvtados.
Si: .\TIENI;~:N P'EDITI )S A DO-
M i' LI S..
CALLE 10 OESTE,
50 Piot iand Guide.
repose; what most afflicted them was hunger, having not
eaten the least, thing that whole day. About midnight it
began to rain so hard that those miserable people had
much ado to resist so much hardship, the greatest part of
them having no other clothes than a pair of seaman's
trousers or breeches. and a shirt, without either shoes or
stockings. Thus finding themselves in great extremity,
they began to pull down a few thatched houses to make
fires withal; in a word, they were in such condition that
one hundred mcen, indifferently well armed, might easily
that night have torn them all to pieces. The next morning
about break of day the rain ceased, at which time they
began to dry their arms, which were entirely wet, and pro-
ceed on their march. But not long after, the rain com-
menced anew. rather harder than before, as if the skies
were melted into waters. which caused them to cease from
advancing towards the forts, whence the Spaniards con-
tinually fired at the Pirates, seeing them to approach.
Tlhe Pirates were now reduced to great affliction and
danger of their lives through the hardness of the weather,
their own nakedness and the great hunger they sustained.
For a small relief hereof, they happened to find in the
fields an old horse. which was both lean and full of scabs
;~1nd blotches, with galled back and sides. This horrid
animal they instantly killed and flayed, and. divided into
small pieces among themselves as far as it would reach,
for many could not obtain one morsel, which they roasted
:and devoured without either salt or bread, more like raven-
s wo.lves th1In mlleln.
A Threat and the Answer.
Thie 'rain, as yet ceased not to fall, and Capt. Morgan
perceived tlic'i mi ndi s to relent, hearing many of them say
they would return )on ho.Ind( the ships. Amongst these
fatigues both of mind and a body, he thought it convenient
In use some sudden and almost unexpected remedy; to this
A Threat and the Answer. 5I
effect he commanded a canoe to be rigged in all haste,
and the colours of truce to be hanged out of it. This
canoe he sent to the Spanish governor of the island with
this message: That if within a few hours he delivered not
himself and all his men into his hands, he did by that mes-
senger swear to him, and all those that were in his company,
he would almost certainly put them all to the sword, without
granting quarter to any.
After noon the canoe returned with this answer:
That the Governor desired two hours time to deliberate with
his officers in a full council about that affair; which being
past, he would give his positive answer to the message.
The time now being elapsed, the said Governor sent
two canoes with white colours, and two persons, to treat
with Capt. Morgan, but before they landed, they demanded
of the Pirates two persons as hostages of their security.
These were readily granted by Capt. Morgan, who de-
livered to them two of his captains, for a mutual pledge
of the security required. With this the Spaniards pro-
pounded to Capt. Morgan, that their Governor in a full
assembly had resolved to deliver up the island, not being
provided with sufficient forces to defend it against such
an armada or fleet. But withal he desired that Captain
Morgan would be pleased to use a certain stratagem of
war, for the better saving of his own credit, and the repu-
tation of his officers both abroad and at home, which
should be as follows: That Capt. Morgan would come with
his troops by night, near the bridge that joined the lesser
island to the great one, and there attack the fort of St.
SJerome; that at the same time all the ships of his fleet
would draw near the castle of Santa Teresa. and attack
it by sea, landing in the meanwhile some more troops,
near the battery called St. Matthew; that these troops
which were newly landed should by this means intercept
the Governor by the way, as he endeavoured to pass to
St. Jerome's fort, and then take him prisoner, using the
formality, as if they forced him to deliver the said castle;
52 Pilot and Guide.
and that he would lead the English into it, under the
fraud of being his own troops: that on one side and the
other there should be continual firing at one another, but
without bullets, or at. least into the air, so that no side
might receive any harm Ib this device; that thus having
obtained two such considerable forts. the chief of the isle,
lie need not care for the rest, which of necessity must
fall by course into his hands.
A Mock Surrender.
These propositions, every one. were granted by Capt.
Morgan. upon condition they) should see them faithfully
observed, for otherwise they should be used with a'.
rigour imanrinlable: this they promised to do, and hereupon
took their leave, and returned to give account of their
negotiation to the Governor. Presently after, Capt. Morgan
commanded the whole fleet to enter the port, and his men
to be in readiness to assault that night the castle of St.
Jerome. Thus the false alarm or battle began with in-
cessanit firing of great guns from both the castles against
the ships, but without bullets, as was said before. Then
the Pirates landed, and assaulted by night the lesser
island, which they took, as also possession of both the
fortresses, forcing all the Spaniards, in appearance, to fly
to the church. Before this assault, Capt. Morgan had sent
Tienda de "San Jose" "San Jose" Store.
Al coslado de la Iglesia del misme nombre Adjacent the Church of the same name.
(lvcnida A, Nos. 13) v 1.1.
lla.vin' rI.t.l1-ly restocked my stora,
ose 04ngel ?ivfera, Prop. i ,,,w i .I-ir 1, t. Public a complete
J-os c nge .vera, irop. II st*i itss ,.rllt int of Provisions,
---__- Winus anl Li|inrs. Preserves. Canned
.' l, -t.il, 'iiIliii ,.lit,, i 't i.'llli ll 'll- '.tla ii .t. J11161'.i i aS' osr ae (.' lies.( i ,
i iii.i. i -',i ,i tn, in .,i Iuni I li,, I'It i i. It.. t.. it moer te priesop .
I', .i.-. .,,,;. i I ,,..lN ..., ... Nos. 133-141 fl VENL U E
I'm ii.1.. riUi;Iai1:t Oic. t Nos. M)5-141 CIVENLJU L
A Mock Surrender. 53
word to the Governor he should keep all his min together
in a body, otherwise if the Pirates met any straggling
Spaniards in the streets, they should certainly shoot them.
The island being taken by this unusual stratagem.
and all things put in due order, the Pirates began to
make a new war against the poultry, cattle and all sort of
victuals they cold find. This was their whole employ for
some days, scarce thinking of anything else than to kill
those animals, roast and eat, and imake good cheer, aS
much as they could possibly attain unto. If woodl was
wanting, they presently fell upon the houses, and pultling
them down, made fires with the timber, as had been done
before in the field. The next day they numbered all tlhe
prisoners they had taken upon the whole island, which
were found to be in all four hundred and fifty persons,
between men, women and children, viz., o1ne hundred and
ninety soldiers belonging to the garrison; forty inhabitants
who were married; forty-three children; thirty-four slaves
belonging to the King. with eight children; eight banditti;
thirty-nine negroes belonging to private persons, wit- twen-
ty-seven female blacks, and thirty-four children. The
Pirates disarmed all the Spaniards. and sent them out im-
mediately to the plantations, to seek for provisions, leaving
the women in the church, there to exercise their devotions.
Fortifications of St. Catherine.
Soon after they took a. review of the whnle island,
and all the fortresses belonging thereunto, which they found
to be nine in all, as follows: the fort of St. ,lerome, nearest
to the bridge, had eight great guns of 12, 6i and S) pound
carriage, together with six pipes of muskets. every pipe
containing ten muskets. Here they found still sixty muskets.
with sufficient quantity of powder and all other sorts of
ammunition. The second fortress, called St. Matthew, had
three guns, of 8 pound carriage each. The third and
chief among all the rest, named Santa Teresa, had twenty
54 Pilot and Guide.
.......~ ~-.-.---- ---
great guns, of 1S. 12. S and 6 pound carriage, with ten
pipes of muslkets. like thosee e said before, and ninety
muskets reinining. besides all other warlike ammunition.
This castle was built with stone ;id mortar, with very
thirk walls on all sides, and a hlrge ditch around about
it of twenty foot (clpth,. which although it was dry was
very hard t, get over. Here was no entry lut through
one door. which correslproleii to the middle oi' the castle.
Within it Nwas ;a tioiint. onrill. alw st in iceessible, with
four pieces ',f canrioll ;t thlr t)p. whence they could shoot
directly into the prt. On tlhe :et side this castle was im-
pregn'able. by reason of tlih rocks wliich surrounded it and
the sea lheatin fllioiusly up1)on them. In like manner, on
the side of tlie land. it was s. (co.)iinodiously seated on a
mountain that tlii e was inT ncces tot it. but by a path of
three or f our f(iot broad. Thi' fou rth fortress was named
St. Augustine. having three ins. of S alnd pound car-
riage. The fifth. nam 'd La; P.:,ttaforini de la Concepcion,
hAd only two gutn. of eillt pourtl c:lrriage. The sixth,
by miame Sati Sld\;iva(l. haid like ise to more than two
guns. The sevieth. heing c:illd Pl;ttaforinn de Iis Ar-
tilleros, had also two gutns. 'hie eighth. called Santa Cruz,
had three guns. The nintl. which wa:s called St. Joseph's
Fort, had six guns, of 12 ;nid S pound c r a ;e, besides
two pipes of muslkets ; ind sifticietit aiIuni Lltion.
In tle storehouse were found db)ove thirty thousand
pounds of powiler, witl all other sorts of ;L111mmunition,
which were tN ransportiLd by lthe Pirate is on hoardl the ships.
All the guns were stopped and nailed, and th- fortresses
demolished, excepting t hat of St. Jeromen where the Pirates
kept their guard andt r'eid l ce..
Pirates Start for San Lorenzo.
(Calpt. Morgan ci lquired if -)any :anditti were there
fromi l Panai a (o P.'rto .Hllo, and hereupon three were
brought before hitli, who pretentded to be very expert in
Piratex Start for San Lorei:o. 55
all the avenues of those parts. He asked them if they
would be his guides, and show him the securest ways and
passages to Panama; which, if they performed, he promised
them equal shares in all they should pillage and rob in
that expedition, and that afterwards lie would set them at
liberty, by transporting them to Jamaica. These proposi-
tions pleased the banditti very well, and they readily ac-
cepted his proffers, promising to serve him very faithfully
in all he should desire, especially one of these three, who
was the greatest rogue, thief and assassin among them,
and who had deserved for his crimes rather to be broken
alive upon the wheel than punished with serving in a gar-
rison. This wicked fellow had a great ascendancy over
the other two banditti, and could domineer and command
over them as he pleased, they not daring to refuse
obedience to his orders.
Hereupon Capt. Morgan commanded four ships and
one boat to be equipped and provided with all things
necessary, to go and take the castle of Chagre, seated
upon a river of that name. Neither would he go himself
with his whole fleet, fearing less the Spaniards should be
jealous of his farther designs upon Panama. In these
vessels he caused to embark four hundred men, who went
to put in execution the orders of their chief commander
Capt. Morgan, while he himself remained behind in the
Island of St. Catharine, with the rest of the fleet, expecting
to hear the success of their arms.
The Castle of Chagre (San Lorenzo).
Capt. Morgan sending these four ships and a boat
to the river of Chagre, chose for Vice-Admiral thereof a
certain person named Capt. Brodely. This man had been
a long time in those quarters, and committed many rob-
beries upon the Spaniards when Mansvelt took the Isle of
St. Catharine. He, being therefore well acquainted with
those coasts, was thought a fit person for this exploit, his
a country scene in the .Panama .~ipublic.
fl4mian Ajrimcar, 4 P*j .Abw' j.4y *m ldmwriw Ag.6fifbv .AlnkeoklM
-----rrrru~iiiil~i~;;rii~*i;*. .1... .................
.- .. .-.. .. .- .-. J r. a
Castle of Chagre. (Sun Loren:o). 57
actions likewise having rendered him famous among the
Pirates, and their enemies the Spaniards. Capt. Brodely
being chosen chief commander of these forces, in three
days after he departed from the presence of Captain
Morgan, arrived within sight of the said castle of Chagre,
which by the English is called St. Lawrence. (1) This
castle is built upon a high mountain, at the entry of the
liver, and surrounded on all sides with strong palisades or
wooden walls, being very well terrepleined, and filled with
earth, which renders them as secure as the best walls
made of stone or brick. The top of this mountain is in a
manner divided into two parts. between which lies a ditch.
of the depth of thirty foot. The castle itself has but one
entry, and that by a drawbridge whicl passes over the
ditch aforementioned. On the iand side it has four bas-
tions, that on the sea containing only two more. That part
thereof that looks towards the south is totally inaccessible
and impossible to be climbed, through the infinite asperity
of the mountain. The north side is surrounded by the
river, which hereabouts runs very broad. At the foot of
the said castle, or rather mountain, is seated a strong fort,
with eight great guns, which commands and impedes the
entry of the river. Not much lower are to be seen two
other batteries, whereof each hath six pieces of cannon, to
defend likewise the mouth of the said river. At one side
of the castle are built two great store-houses, in which are
deposited all sorts of warlike ammunition. and merchandise,
which are brought thither from the inner parts of the
country. Near these houses is a high pair of stairs, hewn
out of the rock, which serves to mount to the top of the
castle. On the west side of the said fortress lies a small
port, which is not above seven or eight fathoms deep, being
very fit for small vessels and of very good anchorage.
Besides this, there lies before the castle, at the entry of
(1) English rendition of the Spanish, "San Lorenzo."
the river, a great rock. scarce to be perceived above water,
unless at low tide.
Attack on the Castle.
No sooner had the Spaniards perceived the Pirates
to come than they began to fire incessantly at them with
the biggest of their guns. They came to an anchor in a
small port, at the distance of a league more or less from
the castle. The next morning very early they went on
shore and marched through the woods to attack the castle
on that side. This march continued until two o'clock in
the afternoon, before they could reach the castle, by reason
of the difficulties of the way, and its mire and dirt. And
although their guides served them exactly, notwithstanding
they came so near the castle at first that they lost many
of their men with the shot from the guns, they being in an
open place where nothing could cover nor defend them.
This much perplexed the Pirates in their minds, they not
knowing what to do, nor what course to take, for on that
side, of necessity they must make the assault, and being
uncovered from head to foot, they could not advance one
step without great danger. Besides that, the castle, both
for its situation alnd strength. caused them much to fear
the success of their enterprise. But to give it over they
dared not, lest they should be reproached and scorned by
Doomed by a Burning Arrow.
At last, after many doubts and disputes among
themselves, they resolved to hazard tile assault and their
lives after Ia most desperate 11;manner. Thus they advanced
towards the castle, witli their swords in one hand and fire-
balls in the other. The Slpaniatrds defended themselves
very briskly. ceasing not to fire at them with their great
guns and muskets continually crying withal: Come on, ye
I'ilot atnd Giide.
Fabrica de Baules
Guillermo Leblanc (HUj0)
ea fe 16 Oeate, Sto. 55.
Dispone de maquinarias
para today clase de trabajos
Se fabrican catres. me-
sas, lavados, sillas, etc., etc.
Entre las falles B v 14 Oeste.
GUILLERMO LEBLANC, (hijo.)
ENTIERROS COMPLETOS A PRE-
ELEGANTES CARROZAS DE PRI-
MERA, SEGUNDA Y TERCERA.
ATAUDES AMERICANOS, ALEMA-
NES, FRANCESES Y DEL PAfS.
Serbicio Diurno y Nocurno.
I Guide. 59
We turn out at our factory all
classes of work in wood, trunks,
cots, tables, washstands, chairs,
etc., etc. We have a complete
equipment of machines for this
purpose, operated by STEAM
It will pay you to get prices
from us before investing in ready
made articles of this kind.
Guillermo Leblanc, (SON.)
91o. 55 -VA.16tf Street.
COMPLETE SERVICE FOR FUNER-
ALS AT MODERATE PRICES.
ELEGANT HEARSES of the FIRST,
SECOND AND THIRD CLASS.
AMERICAN, GERMA.N, FRENCH and
PANAMANIAN COFFINS AND
DAY AND NIGHT SERVICE.
GUILLERMO LEBLANC, (son.)
Between B St. and W. 14th.
60 1'dot ad GuiIe
Englisulh dogs, enemies to God and our King; let your com-
pJnions tfat are behind come on too; ye shall not go to
Panam t lis bout. After the Pirates had made some trial
to climb up the walls, they were forced to retreat, which
they accordingly did. resting themselves until night. This
being collmc, they returned to the assault, to try if by the
help of their tire-balls they could overcome and pull down
the pales before the wall. This they attempted to do, and
while they were about it. there happened a very remarkable
accident, which gave them the opportunity of the victory.
S)ne of the Pirates was wounded with an arrow in his
back. which pierced his body to the other side. This in-
stantly he pulled out with great valour at the side of his
breast, then taking a little cotton that he had about him,
he wound it abl.ut tlh said arrow, and putting it into his
musket, shot it back into the castle. But the cotton being
kindled by the pw wder, occasioned two or three houses
that were within tlie castle. being thatched with palm
Leaves, to take fire. which tle Spaniards perceived not so
soon a;s was uleCOt'ssr. FUr this fire meeting with a parcel
of powder, blew it iup, and thereby caused great ruin, and
1n less consternation to the Spaniards, who were not able
to account for this accident, not having seen the beginning
Brave Resistance by Defenders.
''Thus the lira:tes. perceiving the good effect of the
ar1,row 11nd llie beuILiiiiiin of the misfortune of the Spaniards
\\wer inftiit(ely gladl ,ii.ed threat. And while they were
1tsied in extinguishiiig thle fire. which caused great con-
fui.sil iI tlihe whole caNstle. having not. sufficient water
witerewithal to do it. tle Pliraite made use of this oppor-
tinil y. setting ire likewise to Ihe palisades. Thus the fire
wais seen at, the Sa,;ie time, in several parts about the
ca;st lh, %vlwich gave them huge advantage against the
Spaniarids. For ill:iny breaches were made at once by the
Pilot oand Guide.
Brare Re.isifanerl by Drefrudcrs.
fire among the pales, great heaps of earth falling down
into the ditch. Upon these the Pirates climbed up, and
got over into the castle, notwithstanding that some Spaniards
who were not busied about the fire. cast down-l upon them
many flaming pots, full of combustible matter and odious
smells, which occasioned the loss of many of the English.
The Spaniards, notwithstanding tlle great resistance
they made, could not hinder the palisades from being en-
tirely burnt before midnight. Meanwhile the Pirates ceased
not to persist in their intention of making the castle. To
which effect, although the fire was great, they would creep
upon the ground, as nigh unto it as they could, and shoot
amidst the flames against the Spaniards they could per-
ceive on the other side, and thus caused many to fall dead
from the walls. When day was come, they observed all
the movable earth that lay between the pales to be fallen
into the ditch in huge quantity. So that now those within
the castle did in a manner lie equally exposed to them
without, as had been on the contrary before. Whereupon
the Pirates continued shooting very furiously against them,
and killed great numbers of Spaniards. For the Governor
had given them orders not to retire from those posts
which corresponded to the heaps of earth fallen into the
ditch, and caused the artillery to be transported to the
Castle Surrenders-Heavy Losses.
Notwithstanding, the fire within the castle still con-
tinued, and now the Pirates from without used what means
they could to hinder its progress, by shooting incessantly
against it. One party of the Pirates was employed only
to this purpose, and another to watch all tie motions (of
the Spaniards, and take all opportunities against. them.
About noon the English happened to gain a breach, which
the Governor himself defended with twenty-five soldiers.
Here was performed a very courageous and warlike re-
62 Pilot and Guide.
distance by the Spaniards, both with muskets, pikes, stones
and swords. Yet notwithstanding, through all these arms
the Pirates forced and fought their way, till at last they
gained the castle. The Spaniards who remained alive cast
themselves down from the castle into the sea, choosing
rather to die precipitated by their own selves (few or none
surviving the fall) than ask any quarter for their lives.
The Governor himself retreated to the corps du garde,before
which were placed two pieces of cannon. Here he intended
still to defend himself, neither would he demand any
quarter. But at last he was killed with a musket shot,
which pierced his skull into the brain.
The Governor being dead, and the corps du garde
surrendered, they found still remaining in it alive to the
number of thirty men, whereof scarce ten were not wound-
ed. These informed the Pirates that eight or nine of
their soldiers had deserted their colours, and were gone to
Panama to carry news of their arrival and invasion. These
thirty men alone were remaining of three hundred and
fourteen, wherewith the castle was garrisoned, among which
number not one officer was found alive. They were all
made prisoners, and compelled to tell whatever they knew
of their designs and enterprises. Among other things they
declared that the Governor of Panama had notice sent him
three weeks ago from Cartagena, how that the English
were equipping a fleet at Hispaniola, with design to come
and take the said city of Panama. Moreover, that this
their intention had been known by a person, who had run
:;way from the Pirates at the river De la Hacha, where
they provided their fleet with corn. That, upon this news,
the s;id (l governor liad sent, one hundred dand sixty-four
lnien to strengthen the garrison of that castle, together
with much provisions alnd warlike ammunition; the ordinary
garrison whereof did only consist of one hundred and fifty
mien. So that in all they made the number aforementioned
of three hundred and fourteen men being all very well
armed. Besides this they liad declared that the Governor
Castle ,S'urre,,,'.r..- Fban"'r L.,r.q. 6 3
Pablo Tenotfti Pablo Ieiotti
Sucesor le 10 onliguo cosa Menill Hnos. SUCCESSOR TO MENOTTI BROTHERS.
Plaza de Santa Ana, PANAMA No. 17 'clneral Ave., Panama
PLAZA SANTA ANA.
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nia y Estados Unidos. L'litir d Status.
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of Panama had placed several ambuscades all along the
river of Chagre, and that he waited for their coming, ill
the open fields of Panama, with three thousand six hun-
The taking of this castle of Chagre cost.the Pirates
excessively dear, in coniparisoni to the small numbers they
used to lose at others time and places. Yea, their toil
and labour here far exceeded what they sustained at the
conquest of the Isle of St. Catharine and its adjacent.
For coming to number their menl, they found that they
had lost above one hundred, besides those that were
wounded. whose number exceeded seventy. They com-
manded the Spaniards that were prisoners to cast all the
dead bodies of their own men (lown from the top of the
mountain to the seaside, and afterwards to bury them.
Such as were wounded were carried to the church belong-
ing to the castle, of which they made a hospital, and
where also they shut up the women.
Morgan Starts for San Lorenzo.
Capt. MIorgan remained not long time behind at the
Isle of St. Catharine. after taking the castle of Chagre of
which he had notice presently sent him. Yet notwith-
standing, before lie departed thence, he caused to be em-
barked all the provisions that could lie found, together
with great quantities *of maize or Indian wheat, and
cassava, whereof in like manner is made bread in those
parts. He commanded likewise great store of provisions
should be transported to the garrison of the aforesaid
castle of Chagre. from what parts soever they could be
got. At a certain place on the island they cast into the
sea all the guns belonging thereto, with a design to return
and leave that island well garrisoned, for the perpetual
possession of Pirates. Notwithstanding, lie ordered all the
houses and forts to be set on fire, excepting only the castle
of St. Teresn. which he judged to be the strongest and
securest wherein to secure himself at his return from
Panama. He carried with him all the prisoners of the
island, and thus set sail for the river of Chagre, where he
arrived in the space of eight days. Here the joy of the
whole fleet was so great, when they spied the English
colours upon the castle that they minded not their way
into the river, which occasioned them to lose four of their
ships at the entry thereof, that. wherein Capt. Morgan went
being one of the four. Yet their fortune was so good as
to 1be able to save all the men and goods that were in the
said vessels. Yea, the ships likewise had been preserved,
if a strong northerly vwiid had not risen on that occasion,
which cast the ships upon the rock above mentioned, that
lies at the entry of the said river.
Capt. Morgan was brought into the castle with great
acclamations of triumph and joy of all the Pirates, both of
tlose that were within, and also them that were newly
come. Having understood the whole transactions of the
conquest, lie commanded all the prisoners to begin to
v.ork and repair what was ie essary, especially in setting
up new palis;ads. or pales, round about the forls depend-
ing ,11 the castle. There were still inl the river some
Sp.jaisli vessels, called Iby them chatter, whicli serve for
tlie traislportItlill of mnier'llandlize p alid down~ the said
river, as also for going to Porto Bello and Nicaragua.
'Tliases are commonly mounted with two great guns of iron
and four othici small ones of brass. All these vessels they
Pilot and Guide
Morgan Starts ibr S an Loran:ro.
seized oni. together with four little slips they found tll'e,
and all the canoes. In the castle they left a g:arrison of
five hundred mien, and in the ships withlin ithe riveCr oiln
hundred and fifty more. These tling;: being done. Captain
Morgan departed toward Panama. at tlic head o(f one
thousand two hundred mnii. He carried very small pro-
visions with him, being in good hopes lie shoulni provide
himself sufficiently among the Spani;uds, whom lie knew
to lie in ambuscade at several places by the way.
Pirates Set Forth for Old Panama.
Capt. Morgan set forth from the castle of Chagre.
towards Panama, the 18th day of January in the year
1671. He had under his conduct one thousand two ihun-
dred men, five boats with artillery. and thirty-two canoes.
all of which were filled with the said people. Thus he
steered his course up the river towards Panama. That
day they sailed only six leagues, and came to a place called
De los Bracos. Here a party of his men went on shore.
only to sleep some few hours and stretch their limbs, they
being almost crippled with lying too much crowded in the
boats. After they had rested awhile, they went abroad.
to see if any victuals could be found in the neighboring
plantations. But they could find none, the Spaniards being
fled and carrying with them all the provisions they had.
This day, being the first of their journey. there was
amongst them such scarcity of victuals that the greatest
part were forced to pass with only a pipe of tobacco.
without any other refreshment.
The next day, very early in the morning, they con-
tinued their journey, and came about evening to a place
called Cruz de Juan Gallego. Here they were compelled
to leave their boats and canoes, by reason the river was
very dry for want of rain, and the many obstacles of trees
that were fallen into it.
The guides told them that about two leagues farther
on the country would be very good to continue the journey
~I_ __ ~
66 Pilot and Guide.
by land. Hereupon they left some companies, being in all
one hundred and sixty men, on board the boats to defend
them, with -intent they might serve for a place of refuge,
in case of necessity.
The next morning, being the third day of their
journey, they all went ashore, excepting those abovemen-
tioned who were to keep the boats. To these Capt. Morgan
gave very strict orders, under great penalties, that no man,
upon any pretext whatsoever, should dare to leave the
boats and go ashore. This he did, fearing lest they should
be surprised and cut off by an ambuscade of Spaniards,
that might chance to lie thereabouts in the neighboring
woods, which appeared so thick as to seem almost im-
Having this morning begun their march they found
the ways so dirty and irksome, that Capt. Morgan thought
it more convenient to transport some of the men in canoes
(though it could not be done without great labour) to a
place farther up the river called Cedro Bueno. Thus they
re-embarked, and the canoes returned for the rest that
were left behind. So that about night they found them-
selves altogether at the said place. The Pirates were ex-
tremnely desirous to meet any Spaniards, or Indians, hoping
to fill their bellies with what provisions they should take
from them. For now they were reduced almost to the very
extremity of hunger.
On the fourth day, the greatest )part of the Pirates
marched by land, being led by one of the guides. The
rest went by water, farther up with the canoes, being con-
(ucted by another guide, who always went before them
with two of the said canoes, to discover on both sides of
tihe river the aumbuscades of the Spaniards. These had
also spies, who were very dextrous, and could at any time
give notice of all accidents or of the arrival of the Pirates,
six hours at least before they came to any place.
Tl'lis day about noon they found themselves near a
post, called Torna Cavallos. Here the guide of the canoes
Cathedmrl A.rk, City. of Panama. _
Sk,1ar -Amdeirwca 4 .9.*.2.4mw .cy 4gjrsldvrfsy Sureau n, Sitenowski '
---- -- --
6S Pilot and (Guide.
bIlg.i n to cry aloud he .perc'icved an ambuscade. His voice
(c':use iinfinlite jy to :Ill tlw Pirates. as persuading them-
selves they shoullld lilld sle provisions wherewith to
satiate their hunger. which was very great.
Pirates Feast on Leather Bags.
Being come to the place, they found nobody in it,
the Spaniards who were there not long before being every
one fled. and leaving nothing behind unless it were a small
m11)ibHer of leather bags, all empty, and a few crumbs of
bread scattered upon the ground where they had eaten.
Being angry at this misfortune, they pulled down a few
little huts which the Spaniards had made, and afterwards
fell to eating the leather bags, as being desirous to afford
something to the ferment of their stomachs, which now was
grown so sharp that it did gnaw their very bowels, having
,nothing else to prey upon. Thus they made a huge banquet
upon those bags of leather, which doubtless had been more
grateful unto them, if divers quarrels had not risen con-
cerning who should have the greatest share.
By the circumference of the place, they conjectured
five hundred Spaniards, more or less, had been there. And
these, finding 1o victuals, they were now infinitely desirous
to meet, intending to devour some of them rather than
perlish. Whom they would certainly on that occasion have
roasted or boiled, to satisfy their famine, had they been
able to take them.
After they had feasted themselves with those pieces
of leather they quitted the place, and marched farther on,
till they (cae about. night to another post called Torna
Munni. Here they found another ambuscade but as barren
; and desert as the former. They searched the neighboring
woods, but could not find the least thing to eat, the
Spania;;Lrds having been so provident as not to leave behind
th1 ', a;lnywhere tie least crumb of sustenance, whereby the
Pirates were now brought to the extremity aforementioned
Pirates Feast on Leather Bags.
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Here again he was happy, that had reserved since
noon any small piece of leather whereof to make his sup-
per, drinking after it a good draught of water for his great-
est comfort. Some persons, who were never out of their
mothers' kitchens may ask how these Pirates could eat,
swallow and digest those pieces of leather, so hard and
dry. To whom I only answer: That could they once ex-
periment what hunger, or rather famine, is, they would
certainly find the manner, by their own necessity, as the
Pirates did. For these first took the leather, and sliced it
in pieces. Then did they beat it between two stones, and
rub it, often dipping it in the water of the river, to render
it by this means supple and tender. Lastly, they scraped
off the hair, and roasted or broiled it upon the fire. And
being thus cooked they cut it into small morsels, and ate
it, helping it down with frequent gulps of water, which by
good fortune they had near at hand.
"70 Pilot and Guide,
Food Continues Scarce.
They continued their march the fifth day, and about
noon came to a place called Barbacoa (1). Here likewise
they found traces of another ambuscade, but the place
totally as unprovided as the two preceding were. At a
small distance were to be seen several plantations, which
they searched very narrowly, but could not find any person,
animal or other thing that was capable of relieving their
extreme and ravenous hunger. Finally, having ranged up
and down and searched a long time, they found a certain
grotto which seemed to be but lately hewn out of a rock,
in which they found two sacks of meal, wheat and like
things, with two great jars of wine, and certain fruits
called Platanos (2). Capt. Morgan knowing that some of
his men were now, through hunger, reduced almost to the
extremity of their lives, and fearing lest the major part
should be brought into the same condition, caused all that
was found to be distributed amongst them who were in
Having refreshed themselves with these victuals, they
began to march anew with greater courage than ever.
Such as could not go well for weakness were put in the
canoes, and those commanded to land that were in them
before. Thus they prosecuted their journey till late at
night, at which time they came to a plantation where they
took up their rest. But without eating anything at all
for the Spaniards as before, had swept away all manner
of provisions, not leaving behind them the least sign of
On the sixth day they continued their march, part of
them by land through the woods and part by water in the
canoes. Howbeit they were constrained to rest themselves
(1). To-day known as Barbacoas, near where the P. R. 1R
crosses tle Cliagres.
(2). Plantains, one of the chief products of the Isthmus today;
Food Continues Scarce. 7 1
very frequently by the way, both for the ruggedness thereof
and the extreme weakness they were under. To this they
endeavoured to occur, by eating some leaves of trees and
green herbs, or grass, such as they could pick, for such
was the miserable condition they were in. This day, at
noon, they arrived at a plantation, where they found a barn
full of maize. Immediately they beat down the doors, and
fell to eating of it dry as much as they could devour.
Afterwards they distributed great quantity, giving to every
man a good allowance thereof.
Traces of Indian Ambuscades.
Being thus provided, they prosecuted their journey,
which having continued for the space of an hour, or there-
abouts, they met with an ambuscade of Indians. This they
no sooner had discovered, than they threw away their
maize, with the sudden hopes they conceived of finding all
things in abundance. But after all this haste, they found
themselves much deceived, they m eting neither Indians,
nor victuals, nor anything else of what they had imagined.
They saw notwithstanding on the other side of the river a
troop of a hundred Indians, more or less, who all escaped
away through the agility of their feet. Some few Pirates
there were who leapt into the river, the sooner to reach
the shore"to see if they could take any' of the said In-
dians prisoners. But all was in vain for being much
THE PILOT AND GUIDE
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:ull of racts and 1 Figures.
SPRECAL FrATURS,. SPfEIAL ILLUSTRATIONS,
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more nimble on their feet than the Pirates, they easily
baffled their endeavours. Neither did they only baffle
them, but killed also two or three of the Pirates with
their arrows, shouting at them at a distance and crying:
Ha; perros, a la savana, a la savana. Ha; ye dogs, go to
the plain, go to the plain.
This day they could advance no farther, by reason
they were necessitated to pass the river hereabouts to con-
tinue their march on the other side. Hereupon they took
up their repose for that night. Howbeit their sleep was
not heavy nor profound, for great murmurings were heard
that night in the camp, many complaining of Capt Morgan
and his conduct in that enterprise, and being desirous to
return home. On the contrary, others would rather die
there than go back one step from what they had under-
taken. But others who had greater courage than any of
these two parties did laugh and joke at all their discourses.
In the meanwhile they had a guide who much comforted
them, saying: It would not be long before ihey met with
people, from whom they should reap considerable ad-
Arrive at Cruces.
The seventh day, in the morning, they all made clean
their arms, and every one discharged his pistol or musket,
without bullet, to examine the security of their firelocks.
This being done, they passed to the other side of the
river in the canoes, leaving the post where they had rested
the night before, called Santa Cruz. Thus they proceeded
on their journey till noon, at which time they arrived at
a village called Cruz (1). Being at a great distance as
yet from the place, they perceived much smoke to arise out
of the chimneys.
(1) Now called Crucrs, head of navigation on the Chagres for
parties bound for Panama.
Pilot and Guide.
r*L 1 ~mlmrll~m(11*I rlF'"'"il IrPP'TI'II~II-P'I~I~~pllmmrr~~~r~ r--- -- b
Sanrta zua yrk..4m'rrcan &rclan geolelin the backgoround-anramna.
tmiaon-mrlcan J0 RA Admrrjs a~gncry A .Adrerharmg J.ureau za JZ*k*akraN
The sight flhreof afforded them great joy and hopes
of tilding, people inl the town. and afterwards what they
ninst descired w\liich was plenty of good cheer. Thus they
went on with as Ilmuch ia;,stC as they could, making several
argpimlents to ,oni arnolthler upon those external signs, though
all li ke c.stlcs I1uilt in the air. Fo~'. said they, tlere is
,mok coni'r in f ot f ,of et'r house, therefore they are
miiiini/ /,I ,.tiur.. /o ro ,,rt an boil what we are to eat.
WVithi otIle tliiiG t t h tlis purpose.
At length they n rived there in great haste, all
s,~wentini and p: ting. but found no person in the town,
,nor ;linytit il t;it w\\s .catille wherewith to refresh them-
solv\e. v111n- it we..Ire 'ood tires to warn themselves, which
thlov wa-inti.d nit. For the Spaniards before their depar-,
ture. Li1d every ,i n .et tire to his own house, excepting
only tltc. st 1'cI'h ll, s.- : tld stables belonging to the King.
Tl ny l ohd Int left behind them any beast whatsoever,
eithlie' :1liv\1 01 (dt. This occasioned much con-fusion in
their rnilim1,., they 1,,it finding tlih least thing to lay hold
on. uniloss it we c some few cats and dogs, which they
imnn'(.liiatelY killed iijil devoured with great appetite.
.At l:ist in time Klin's stables they found by good
f1',rtiiit' fifti. eit or sixt:ee, ja;iiCs of Peru wine, and a leather
s utk ill of l'real. i-IBt ino sooner had they begun to
drink of thie satid wine when they fell sick. almost every
lmn:I. TIis tillli diist..r made them the ink that the
1\\11 \evw; lsitil ,.1(i wlii ll c1Iscld n new consternation in
the wIho : cal![ p. 1. jidlgin, themselves now to be irrecov-
'1 i, i"t. t I nt ii e true irola o was. Ilieir huge want of
s Its 1t i l.I' III t lIi wI, i i v\.y;ge, and tle manifold sorts of
1i.I whl i tli. I l .-tlent i l)fhl i tlat occasion. Their
.I.i,,,s. \ s\;i. .rea.t linat day ;is to cause them to remain !
i111tic till II,. n ..\t iir iniig,. w\\itlioC t heitng- able to prosecute.i
t i'ii I'riii ('. Js tli.y iVisdtl to do, in the afternoon-.
T''hi viil.;l-. is senlted in the. latitude of 9 degrees
; 'l 2 intlites, notin. bi distant from thle :river- --'ofJ
Pilot arnd1 Cidic.
ArrieC at Cricr.. 75
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Chagre twenty-six Spanish leagues, (1), and eight from
Panama. Moreover, this is the last place to which boats
or canoes can come; for which reason they built here store-
houses, wherein to keep all sorts of nierchandize, which
hence to and from Panama arc transported upon the backs
Here, therefore, Capt. Morgan was constrained to
leave his canoes and land all his men, though never so
weak in their bodies. But lest the canoes should be sur-
plized, or take up too many men for their defence, he
resolved to send them all back to the place where the
boats were, excepting one, which lie cause, to be hidden,
to the intent it might serve to carry intelligence according
to the exigence of affairs. Many of the Spaniards and
Indians belonging to this village were fled to the planta-
Hereupon Capt. Morgan gave express orders that
none should dare to go out of the village, except in whole
companies of a hundred together. The occasion hereof
was his fear lest the enemies should tak? an advantage
upon his men, by any sudden assault. Notwithstanding,
one party of English soldiers, stickled not to contravene
these commands, being tempted with tlhe desire of finding
victuals. But these were soon glad to fly into the town
(1) Evidently refers to distance from mouth of river.
76 Pilot and Guide.
again being assaulted with great fury by some Spaniards
and Indians. who snatched up one of the Pirates, and
carried him away prisoner. Thus the vigilance and care
of Capt. Morgan was not sufficient to prevent every acci-
(lent that might happen.
Resistance Offered by Indians.
On the eighth day. in the morning. Capt. Morgan
sent two hundred men before the body of his army, to
discover the way to Panama, and see if they had laid any
ambuscades therein. especially considering that the places
by which they were to pass were very fit for that purpose,
tlhe paths being so narrow that only ten or twelve persons
could march iln a file and oftentimes not so many.
Having marched about the space of ten hours, they
came to a place called Quebrada Obscura. Here, all on
the sudden, three or four thousand arrows were shot at
then. without being able to perceive whence they came, or
\]whoi shot the. The place whence it was presumed they
were shot was a high locky mountain, excavated from one
i(lde to the other, wherein was a grotto that went through
it. only capable of admitting one horse, or other beast
laded. This multitude of arrows caused a huge alarm
;ilmong the Pirates, especially because they could not dis-
cover the place whence they were discharged.
At l;st seeing no more arrows to appear they
mlic(i d :u litIle frithler, ;ind entered into a wood. Here
i lh y p1'r.',ivd s, l1 I lndi;.ins to fly as ftst as they could.
hItibly II for tlheiii. to take tle a(vaIntage of another
p),st. ;1nd tlhence ,observe tlh 1marchl of the Pirates. There
IeinW.iined not vithst.a ending one troop of Indians upon the
pid., with fthll (esign to fight and defend themselves.
'.'si: coniiat. Ilhey pcfil'rm ed with Iluge courage. till such
tin I s their captain fell to tie ground wounded, who
although he wns now in despair of life, yet his valour
being gr'nter than his strength, would demand no quarter,
Resistance oOifred by! Ilnlili.. 77
but, endeavouring to raise himself, with undaunted mind
laid hold of his azagaya, or javelin, and struck at one of
the Pirates. But before he could second the blow, lie was
shot to death with a pistol. This was also the fate of
many of his companions, who like good and courageous
soldiers lost their lives with their captain, for the defence
of their country.
"A la Savana, Perros Ingleses."
The Pirates endeavoured, as much as possible, to lay
hold on some of the Indians and take them prisoners.
But they being infinitely swilter than the Pirates, every
one escaped, leaving eight Pirates dead upon the place.
and ten wounded. Yea, had the Indians been more dex-
trous in military affairs, they might have defended that
passage and not let one sole man to pass. Within a little
while after they came to a large campaign (champaign)
field open, and full of variegated meadows. From here
they could perceive at a distance before them a parcel of
Indians, who stood on top of a mountain, very near the
way by which the Pirates were to pass. They sent a
troop of fifty men. the nimblest they could pick out. to see
if they could catch any of them, and afterwards force
them to declare whereabouts their companions had their
mansions. But all their industry was in vain, for they
escaped through their nimbleness, and presently afterwards
showed themselves in another place, hallooing to the
English, and crying: A la sarana, A la sarcna, cornldos,
perros Ingleses; that is, To the plain, to the plain, ye cuck.
olds, ye English dogs. While these things passed, the ten
Pirates that were wounded a little before were dressed
and plastered up.
At this place there was a wood, and on each side
thereof a mountain. The Indians had immediately possessed
themselves of one, and the Pirates took possession of the
other that was opposite to it. Capt. Morgan was persuaded
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that in the wood the Spaniards had placed an ambuscade,
as lying so conveniently for that purpose. Hereupon he
sent before two hundred men to search it. The Spaniards
and Indians perceiving tlie Pirates to descend the moun-
tain. did so too, as if they designed to attack them. But
being got into the wood. out ot sight of the Pirates, they
disappeared, and were seeing no more, leaving the passage
open to them.
About night there fell a great rain, which caused
tlie Pirates to march the faster and seek everywhere for
houses wherein to preserve their arms from being wet.
But the Indians inad set fire to every one thereabouts, and
transpjorted :all their cattle to remote places, to the end
that the pirates, finding neither houses nor victuals, might
1b cI, nstrailiNed to return homnewards. Notwithstanding,
after diligent search, they found a few little huts belong-
ing to shepherds, but in them nothing to eat. These not
being capable of holding many men, they placed in them
Pilot and Guide.
4 la ,i'(a'an, J'v'rros In l /,ls.s. 7
out of every company a small :nu'nber; n ho kept the arm.i
of all the rest of the army. Those who irmaiined in tli
open field endured munch hardship tliht light. tle r;tin. not
ceasing to fall until the morning.
The End of the March.
Tho next morning about brc.ak of day beijg tle
ninth of this tedious journey. Capt. ,Morgan conltinuedl his
march while the .fresh air of the i moring lasted. For tli
clouds then hanging as yet over their heads were much
more favourable to them than the scorching rays of tlhe
sun, by reason-the way was now more difficult and labor-
ious than all the preceding. After two hours' march they
discovered a troop of about twenty Spaniards, who ob-
served the motions of the Pirates. They enideavoured to
catch some of them, but could lay hold oni none, they
suddenly disappearing, and absconding themselves in caves
among the rocks totally unknown to the Pirates.
At last they came to a high mountain, which, when
they ascended, they discovered from the top thereof the
South Sea. This happy sight, as if it were the end oif
their labours, caused infinite joy among all the Pirates.
Hence they could descry also one slil) andt six boats, whlichl
were set forth from Panama and sailed towards tlhe islands
of Tovago and Tovagilla, (Taboga and Taboguilla). Having
descended this mountain, they came to a vale (the Sabanas
of the present day), in which they found great quantity of
cattle, whereof they killed good store. Here while some.
were employed in killing and flaying of cows. horses. bulls.
and chiefly asses, of which there was a very large number,
others busied themselves in kindling of fires and getting
wood wherewith to roast them. Thus cutting the flesh of
these animals into convenient pieces, or gobbets. they threw
them into the tire, and half carbonadoed or roasted, they
devoured them with incredible haste and appetite. For
such was their hunger that they more resembled cannibals.
SI&pinwall. (Cokon) '-A ana u ....
. Mtanuian-.4metirvea EJ.9A ...wsu .U v IAidvsertisiny Breau. .af..JSienkoawski.
The End of the March. 8
than Europeans at this banquet, the blood many times
running down from their beards to the middle of their
Having satisfied their hunger with these delicious
meats, Capt. Morgan ordered them to continue the march.
Here again he sent before the main body fifty men,
with intent to take some prisoners, if possibly they could.
For he seemed now to be much concerned that in nine
days' line he could not meet one person who might inform
him of the condition and forces of the Spaniards.
About evening they discovered a troop of two hundred
Spaniards, more or less, who hallooed to the Pirates, but
these could not understand what they said. A little while
after they came the first time within sight of the highest
steeple of Panama. This steeple they no sooner had dis-
covered than they began to show signs of extreme joy,
casting up their hats into the air, leaping for mirth, and
shouting, even just as if they had already obtained the
victory and entire accomplishment of their designs. All
the trumpets were sounded and every drum beaten, in
token of this universal acclamation and huge alacrity of
Thus they pitched their camp for that night with
general content of the whole army, waiting with impatience
for the morning, at which time they intended to attack
the city. This evening there appeared fifty horses, who
came out of the city, hearing the noise of the drums and
trumpets of the Pirates, to observe, as it was thought,
their motions. They came almost within musket-shot of
the army, being preceded by a trumpet that sounded mar-
vellously well. Those on horseback hallooed aloud to the
Pirates, and threatened them, saying: Perros! nos veremos.
that is, Ye dogs! we shall meet ye. Having made this
menace, they returned into the city, excepting only seven
or eight horsemen who remained hovering thereabouts to
watch what motions the Pirates made.
Immediately after, the city began to fire and ceased
not to play with their biggest guns all night long against
the camp, but with little or no harm to the Pirates, whom
they could not conveniently reach. About this time also
the two hundred Spaniards whom the Pirates had seen in
the afternoon appeared again within sight, making re-
semblance as if they would block up the passages, to the
intent no Pirates might escape the hands of their forces.
But the Pirates, who were now in a manner besieged,
instead of conceiving any fear of their blockades, as soon
as they had placed sentries about their camp, began every
one to open their satchels, and without any preparation of
napkins or plates, fell to eating very heartily the remain-
ing pieces of bulls' and horses' flesh which they had reserved
since noon. This being done they laid themselves down to
sleep upon the grass with great repose and huge satisfac-
tion, expecting only with impatience the dawning of the
Preparations for Attack.
On the tenth day betimes in the morning, they put
all their men in convenient order, and with drums and
trumpets sounding, continued their march directly towards
the city. But one of the guides desired Capt. Morgan not
to take the common highway that led thither. fearing lest
they should find in it much resistance and many ambus-
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Pilot and Guide.
Preparations for Attack.
cades. He presently took his advice, and chose another
way that went through the wood, although very irksome
and difficult. Thus the Spaniards, perceiving the Pirates
had taken another way, which they scarce had thought on
or believed, were compelled to leave their stops and bat-
teries, and come out to meet them. The Governor of
Panama put his forces in order, consisting of two squad-
rons, four regiments of foot, and a huge number of wild
bulls, which were driven by a great number of Indians,
with some negroes and others, to help them.
The Pirates, being now upon their march, came to
the top of a little hill, whence they had a large prospect
of the city and campaign (champaign) country underneath.
Here they discovered the forces of the people of Panama,
extended in battle array and when they perceived them to be
so numerous, they were suddenly surprised with great fear,
much doubting the fortune of the day. Yea, few or none
there were but wished themselves at home, or at least free
from the obligation of that engagement, wherein they per-
ceived their lives must be so narrowly concerned.
Having been some time at a stand, in .a wavering
condition of mind, they at last reflected upon the straits
they had brought themselves into, and that now they ought
of necessity either to fight resolutely or die, for no quarter
could be expected from an enemy against whom they had
committed so many cruelties on all occasions. Hereupon
they encouraged oner another, and resolved either to con-
quer, or spend the very last drop of blood in their bodies.
Afterwards they divided themselves into three battalions,
or troops, sending before them one or two hundred buc-
caneers, which soit of people are infinitely dextrous at
shooting with guns. Thus the Pirates left the hill and
descended marching directly towards the Spaniards, who
were posted in a spacious field, waiting for their coming.
As soon as they drew near them, the Spaniards
began to shout, and cry, Viva el Rey God save the
King! and immediately their horse began to move against
________ T _____
84 Pilot and Guide.
the Pirates. But the field being full of quags and very
soft under foot. they could not ply to and fro and wheel
about, as they desired. The two hundred buccaneers who
went before, every one putting one knee to the ground,
gave them a full volley of shot, wherewith the battle was
instantly kindled very hot.
Wild Bulls Used in Battle.
The Spaniards defended themselves very courageously,
acting all they could possibly perform, to disorder the
Pirates. Their foot, in like manner, endeavoured to second
the horse, but were constrained by the Pirates to separate
from them. Thus finding themselves frustrated of their
designs, they attempted to drive the bulls against them at
their backs, and by this means put them into disorder,
but the greatest part of the wild cattle ran away, being
frightened with the noise of the battle, and some few
that broke through the English companies did no other
harm than to tear the colours in pieces, whereas the buc-
caneers shooting them dead, left not one to trouble them
The battle having now continued for the space of
two hours, at the end thereof the greatest part of the
Spanish horse was ruined and almost all killed. The rest
fled away, which being perceived by the foot, and that
they could not possibly prevail, they discharged the shot
they had in their muskets, and throwing them on the
ground, betook themselves to flight, every one which way
lie could run. The Pirates could not possibly follow them,
as being too much harassed and wearied with the long
journey they had lately made. Many of them, not being
able to fly whither they desired, hid themselves for that
present among the shrubs of the sea-side. But very un-
fortulnately, for most of them being found out by the
Pirates, were instantly killed, without giving quarter to any.
Somic religious men were brought prisoners before Captain
Wild Bdlls Used in Battles. 85.
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Morgan, but he being deaf to their cries and lamentations,
commanded them all to be immediately pistoled, which
was immediately done.
Soon after they brought a captain to his presence,
whom he examined very strictly about several things, par-
ticularly wherein consisted the forces of those of Panama.
To which he answered: Their whole strength did consist
in four hundred horse, twenty-four companies of foot, each
being of one hundred men compllete, sixty Indians and
some negroes, who were to drive two thousand wild bulls
and cause them to run over the English camp, and thus
by breaking their files put them into a total disorder and
confusion. He discovered more, that in the city they had
made trenches, and raised batteries in several places, in
which they had placed many guns, and that at the entry
So the highway which led to the city they had( built a
fort, which was mounted with eight great gtiun of brass,
and defended by fifty men.
Pilot and Guide.
Captain Moigan. having heard this information, gave
orders instantly they should march another way. But
before setting forth, he made a review of all his men,
wheroof he found both killed and wounded a considerable
number, and much greater than had been believed. Of
the Spaniards were found six hundred dead upon the
place, besides the woun-ded and prisoners. The Pirates
were nothing discouraged, seeing their number so much
diminished, but rather filled with greater pride than before,
perceiving what huge advantage they had obtained against
their enemies. Thus having rested themselves some while,
they prepared to march courageously towards the city,
plighting their oaths to one another in general they would
fight till never a man was left alive. With this courage
they recommended their march, either to conquer or be
conquered, carrying with them all the prisoners.
They found much difficulty in their approach to the
city. For within the town the Spaniards had placed
many great guns, at several quarters thereof, some of
which were charged with small pieces of iron, and others
with musket-bullets. With all these they saluted the
Pirates at their drawing nigh to the place, and gave them
full and frequent broadsides, firing at them incessantly.
Whence it came to pass that unavoidably they lost, at
every step they advanced, great numbers of men. But
:e their these manifest dangers to their lives, nor the sight
of so many of their own men dropping down continually at
their sides, could deter them from advancing farther and
gaining ground every moment upon the enemy. Thus,
although the Spaniards never ceased to fire and act the
best they could for their defence, yet notwithstanding they
were forced to deliver the city after the space of three
The Pirates having now possessed themselves thereof,
killed and destroyed as many as attempted to make the
least opposition against them. The inhabitants had caused
the best of their goods to be transported to more remote
---`-----~ .---- -- ---
Wild Bulls Used in Batfle.s.
and occult places. Howbeit they found within the city as
yet several warehouses, very well stocked with all sorts of
merchandize, as well as silks, cloths, linen, and other things
of considerable value.
As soon as the first fury of their entrance into the
city was over, Capt. Morgan assembled all his men at a
certain place which he assigned, and there commanded
them under very great penalties that none of them should
dare to drink or taste any wine. The reason he gave for
this injunction was, because he had received private intelli-
gence that it had been all poisoned by the Spaniards.
Howbeit it was the opinion of many that he gave these
prudent orders to prevent the debauchery of his people,
which he foresaw would be very great at the beginning,
after so much hunger sustained by the way, fearing withal
lest the Spaniards seeing them in wine, should rally their
forces and fall upon the city, and use them as inhumanly
as they had used the inhabitants before.
Morgan Sets Fire to the City.
Capt. Morgan, as soon as he had placed guards at
several quarters where he thought necessary, both within
and without the city of Panama, immediately commanded
twenty-five men to seize a great boat, which had stuck in
the port for want of water at a low tide, so that she
could not put out to sea. The same day, about noon, he
caused certain men privately to set fire to several great
edifices of the city, nobody knowing whence the fire pro-
ceeded nor who were the authors thereof, much less what
motives persuaded Capt. Morgan thereto, which are as yet
unknown to this day. The fire increased so fast that
before night the greatest part of the city was in flame.
Capt. Morgan endeavoured to make the public believe
the Spaniards had been the cause thereof, which suspicions
he surmised among his own people, perceiving they reflected
; upon him for that action. Many of the Spaniards, as also