The greatest engineering feat in the world at Panama

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The greatest engineering feat in the world at Panama authentic and complete story of the building and operation of the great waterway ... with a graphic description of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, the official celebration of the completion of America's triumph at Panama ...
Added title page title:
America's triumph at Panama
Physical Description:
384 p., 9 leaves of plates (1 folded) : ill. (some col.), 2 maps (1 col.), plan, ports. (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Avery, Ralph Emmett
Haskins, William C
Conference:
Panama-California Exposition, (1915-1916
Panama-Pacific International Exposition, (1915
Publisher:
Leslie-Judge Co.
Place of Publication:
New York

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Panama   ( lcsh )
Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Panama

Notes

General Note:
Earlier ed. has title: America's triumph at Panama.
General Note:
Includes essay on the Panama-California Exposition (p. 343-346) and the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (p. 347-384).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ralph Emmett Avery ; edited by William C. Haskins.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 43008819
ocm43008819
Classification:
lcc - TC774 .A95 1915
System ID:
AA00014526:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text






^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^i zi^^^^^^^^^H~o^^^B^^^^^^^I^B^^^^^^^^^^^^l^Bi^^^^^^^^l^^^^^^^^^




a2^ T3ul^ I 10V9
S e &iat<- UUn


Sox o0
Sc >o o ic0 ,
cC( v^I^ z- ov- N




Q& -a7- Sj
o?5t


Gift of the Panama Canal Museum

















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013











http://archive.org/details/engineer00aver



























12


Copyright, Inarl i & wing, Washington, D. C.
COLONEL GEORGE WASHINGTON GOETHALS,
THE BUILDER OF THE PANAMA CANAL,
Who might be classed as the most absolute despot on earth, although a benevolent one, and the
squarest boss a man ever worked for. He is a thorough engineer, a righteous judge, and a stern
executioner rolled into one. He realizes that man is but human, and for simple infractions of
the rules, is always ready to give the offender another chance, but there will be no second time.
A man of prodigious memory, quick to grasp details be they trivial affairs of every day life, or
questions of moment; an ear for every one, and the friend of all. The American Nation owes
much to the men who rendered yeoman service on the Isthmus; they cannot be too highly re-
warded. It owes much to that peerless leader, George Washington Goethals, who, for over six
long years has kept the goal steadily in sight, who has never, for a single instant, permitted his de-
termination to waver, who has fought inch by inch until every obstacle has been overcome, and
who, through his forceful personality and sense of justice, has compelled the admiration of every-
one with whom he has come in contact. Col. Goethals was made a Major-General March 4, 1915.


"7:'








THE GREATEST ENGINEERING FEAT

IN THE WORLD
AT


PANAMA


Authentic and Complete Story of the Building and
Operation of the Great Waterway--the
Eighth Wonder of the World.
With a Graphic Description of the
Panama-Pacific International Exposition
the Official Celebration of the Completion of America's Triumph
at Panama, the Gigantic Undertaking Successfully
Carried Out under the Supervision of
COL. GEORGE W. GOETHALS, U. S. A.


By RALPH EMMETT AVERY
TRAVELER, AUTHOR AND LECTURER
Edited by WILLIAM C. HASKINS
of THE CANAL RECORD

Profusely Illustrated With Photographs in Half-tone and Color.

LESLIE JUDGE CONIPANY
NEW YORK



LATIN AMERICAN COLLECTION
UNi\I/FPQIT" nF Cr rv"min


































Special
Revised and Enlarged Edition
Copyright, 1915,
by Ralph E. Avery
COPYRIGHT, MCMXIII.
BY RALPH E. AVERY




























DEDICATED TO THE
MEN OF BRAIN AND BRA.WN OF OUR COUNTRY, WHOSF
MATCHLESS SKILL AND INSPIRING COURAGE
MADE THE DREAM OF AGES A REALITY
IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE
PANAMA CANAL
























AIf


~t-:~ -


Li


Si


~F-U


S .. i.: ,,


SUNRISE, SUNSET AND MOONLIGHT SCENES ON PANAMA BAY.
During February and March the moon is particularly bright, due to the clear atmosphere
which prevails in the height of the dry season. On certain brilliant evenings it is possible to
read in the moonlight. The cloud effects are perfect and the rainbows magnificent. One of the
prettiest effects, which happens but rarely, is a rainbow at night.


t
;


`;i rluriri~tag
ifii
;;?
'c;-~`
w


"?. -
* w ;"..


i.
'F''
r
















FOREWORD


achievement of 'man's greatest undertaking
is the construction of the Panama Canal by
l the Government of the United States.
Doubtless for centuries to come the world-wonders
of the Panama Canal will be told in story and in picture,
but the eloquence of the theme itself will never be ex-
hausted while reverence for mighty deeds finds lodg-
ment in the hearts of men.
Recognizing as much as one man could the magni-
tude and importance of the work being performed on
the Isthmus, the Author for almost two years dwelt
among the activities of this gigantic enterprise, and in
these pages authentically presents to the reader his
chronicles of the step-by-step progress of the construc-
tion from beginning to completion, as well as the suc-
cessful installation of the world's majestic waterway
from ocean to ocean.
The successful opening on February 20, 1915, of
the Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San
Francisco, in celebration of the completion of the world's
most stupendous achievement-the Panama Canal-has
called for and received in this work a graphically writ-
ten and illustrated detailed account of this great con-
temporaneous event.
Clothed as it is in a beauty of typography and art
illustrations in keeping with the grandeur of the subject
it treats, the publishers feel assured of the book's cordial
reception on the part of an appreciating public.






















TO THE PUBLISHERS.


I have taken much pleasure in looking over and
examining your handsomely illustrated book giving the
story of "THE GREATEST ENGINEERING FEAT IN THE WORLD AT
PANAMA."

The Panama Canal is indeed the greatest engineer-
ing work of modern times and is of tremendous interest to
the American people on account of it's commercial and military
value.

Commercially, it shortens the voyage between the
eastern and western coasts of our own country and brings us
in nearer contact with South America. This will have a
tendency to bind the two continents, North and South America,
into closer commercial.relations.

For the world at large, it will establish a new
trade route for all countries and make the Caribbean Sea a
new Mediterranean.

From the naval standpoint, it will prove to be a
great means of National Defense to us because it will prac-
tically double the efficiency of our fleet.

The history of such an important undertaking should
be familiar to every American, both young and old, and I
would commend the attractive and condensed form in which you
have placed the large amount of information in your illus-
trated book as well worthy of favorable consideration by the
public.


Yours very truly,

March 27th 1915.







FROM CONGRESSMAN GEORGE EDMUND FOSS,
FORMERLY CHAIRMAN OF FHE NAVAL COMMIT.
TEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, U. S. A.













CONTENTS
PAGE
FOREWORD .................................................

CHAPTER I. DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT .............. 9
Early Discoverers-The First Settlement-Discovery of the South Sea-Balboa's Unfortunate End-Se- t lenient
of Old Panama-Spain's Power Spreads-Period of the Great Trade-The Scotch Bubble.

CHAPTER II. RAIDS OF THE BUCCANEERS ................ 21
Drake's Expedition- Fall of Old Panama-Other Attempts.

CHAPTER III. PROPOSED CANAL ROUTES ................ 28
Tehuantepec-Atrato River and Tributaries-Calidonia-San Bli- s-Nicaragua--Panama.

CHAPTER IV. THE PANAMA RAILROAD................... 32
First Work on the Panama Railroad-Completion of the Enterprise-Early Rates Nearly Prohibitive-
Establishment of Steam Ship Service-Concessionary Rights and Privileges-Changes in Ownership-The
New Main Line-Busiest Short Line in the World.

CHAPTER V. THE FRENCH FAILURE...................... 45
DeLesseps, Promoter-Procuri ng the Concession-DeLesseps' Plan-Tnauigiur.tiiin the Work-French Labor
Force-LaFolie I)ingler-The Sick Poorly Cared for-The Crash-The Second or New Company-French
Aid to American Project.

CHAPTER VI. THE AMERICAN TRIUMPH................. 69
Organization of the Canal Commission-Taking Possession, Change in Chief Engineer-The New Com-
mission-Commission Again Reorganized-The Purchasing End.

CHAPTER VII. MAKING THE ISTHMUS HEALTHFUL ..... 80
The Fight on the Mosquito-Cleaning House-Results Have Justified the Cost-Rigid Quarantine Maaintain*:l I.

CHAPTER VIII. AN ARMY OF WORKERS ................. 95
Getting the Force Together-Keeping the American Employes Contented-Planit-Mmntily Cost of Allow-
ances-Feeling and Clothing the Canal Army-The Canal Zone-The Postal Service-Postal S.\ in% g Bank,
a Popular Institution-Zone Customs Service-The Zone "Dry"-Keeping Orh'r-CiGuardiili Against Fires-
Educational Facilities-The Law Department-Paying the Canal Force-Accounts-No Graft.

CHAPTER IX. CONSTRUCTING THE LOCK TYPE CANAL.. 135
The Canal a Water Bridge-The Dam at Gatun-Gatun Spill ay--Gailun Lake-Dams on the Pacific Side.-
The Loct k-CGuar ds Again.t A'cvilen ts -How the Locks \'ere Built -- making the Dirt FlI -Dredgin -Cutting
Through the Divide--.erns the Isthmus in a Hydrobiplane-70,000,000 Pounds of Dynamite-Slides,
Eloquent Argument Against Sea Level Project.

CHAPTER X. AUXILIARY PLANS AND PROJECTS .......... 213
Acquisiton of Private Lands-Tolls-Prolecting the Canal-Fort Grant Military Reservation-Fort Amador
Military Reservation-Fort Sherman Military Reenralion--Forl Randolph Military Reservation-Fort De
Lesseps Military Reservation- Breaknatler,-Lighting the Canal-Port Facilities-Dry Docks-Permanent
Repair Shops-Government Coal and Fuel Oil Business-Private Coal and Fuel Oil Storage-Bonded
Warehouses-New Float ing Eq luilmrnent -Permanent Villages and Buildings-Permanent Organization-Wire-
less Communication-Beautifying the Canal-Permanent Administration Building, Balboa-Cost of the Canal.


FUTURE CANAL TRAFFIC ................... 247


CHAPTER XI.







CONTENTS- (Continued)
PAGE
CHAPTER XII. REPUBLIC OF PANAMA .................... 258
The Panama Flag-National Hymn of the Republic of Panama-The Reconstruction Period-"The Land of
the Cocoanut Tree"-Government is Progressive-Revenues-National Currency-Public Improvements--Free
Public School System-Panama Richly Endowed by Nature-The People-The Indians of Panama-The
Guaymies-The Chocoes-Ancient Civilization of Chiriqui-Sightseeing-Bathing-Panama Hats-Canal
Zone Souvenir Stones-The Panama Lottery-Panama to Hold National Exposition.

CHAPTER XIII. THE LAND DIVIDED-THE WORLD
UNITED ...................... .............................. 313
Destruction of the Dikes-Letting Water Into Culebra Cut-"Gamboa is Busted"-Gatun Locks, the First in
Actual Operation-The First Practical Lockage-First Lockage at Pacific End-From the Sea to Culebra
Cut--Earthquakes-Making a Passage Through Cucaracha Slide-Secretary Garrison's Visit-The Official
Opening-First Boat Through the Canal.

CHAPTER XIV. THE MONUMENTAL TASK COMPLETED 336

CHAPTER XV. PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION.... 343

CHAPTER XVI. PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL
EX POSITION .............................................. 347






ILLUSTRATIONS IN FOUR COLORS
Colonel George Washington Goethals ................... Facing Title Page

The Famous Flat Arch in the Ruins of Santo Domingo Church, Panama
C ity ...................................................... ..
One of the Driveways in Ancon Hospital Grounds ......................
Culebra Cut, Looking North From Gold and Contractor's Hills.........
One of the Great Locks of the Canal Under Construction ...............
A Typical Street in the Native Village at Chorrera, Panama............
A Group of Cuna Cuna Indians, Panama..........................
Tug Gatun, First Boat Passing Through Gatun Locks, Sept. 26, 1913...
Map of the Canal and the Canal Zone and Interesting Facts and Figures...

























HE history of the Panama Canal begins with the search for a wvcstern
waterway to the Indies, and for fame and gold, by those hardy
adventurers who followed in the wake of Columbus. These men,
fresh from the Moorish wars, and equipped for a struggle with Italy
which did not come to pass, looked for new fields to conquer. Nothing suited
them better than the discovery of a New World peopled by heathens waiting
to be converted by the sword to the Christian faith, after their gold, of which
they seemed to have plenty, was stripped from them to fill the empty coffers
of Spain.
This search by the followers of Columbus was fairly successful, so far as
fame and gold were concerned and, although no direct water route was found
to the Indies to the west, it naturally led to the settlement of the Isthmus of
Panama, the narrow strip of land separating the two great oceans and forming
the connecting link between North and South America. The establishment
of settlements on both coasts and the short distance between them, led to the
building.of crude roads and trails for the early mule trains. These trails led
to the construction of a railroad, and the railroad to a ship canal, for trade
follows settlers, and water is the natural highway between nations. The story
of the Isthmus is, therefore, in a measure, the evolution of transportation routes.
EARLY DISCOV EH F.HS
The first European to sail along the coast of Panama was Rodrigo de
Bastidas, who sailed from Cadiz in October, 1500, and first touched the
continent near the island of Trinidad, and from there went west as far as
Nombre de Dios. With him on that voyage was Vasco Nuifiez de Balboa, who,
later, was to discover the great South Sea, and Juan de la Cosa, who had sailed
with Columbus on his second voyage and was considered one of the most able
mariners of his day.
Columbus sailed from Cadiz on his fourth and last voyage in search of a
passageway to the Indies in May, 1502. On this voyage he skirted the shores
of Honduras and Costa Rica, to Almirante Bay and Chiriqui Lagoon on the
coast of Panama. At the latter place he was told by the Indians that, if he
[9







TiEl D DIVIDED -- rHE -WOQIJ, TTNITED

would continue his course to the east, he would soon come to a narrow place
between the two seas, and this led him to believe that his search for a strait was
nearing success; that he would soon pass into the Indian Ocean and thence
around the Cape of Good Hope to Spain, surpassing the achievement of Vasco
de Gama, the Portuguese, who had
already sailed around Africa (1497-
1498) in his search for a water route to
the Indies. Columbus continued on his
way and passed the site of the present
city of Colon at the Atlantic entrance to
the Canal, and on November C2, 1502,
arrived at a harbor 18 miles northeast,
which he named Porto Bello, signifying
beautiful port. He stayed there a week
stormbound, and then continued on
past Nombre de Dios, thus overlapping
the voyage of Bastidas. He gave up
his unsuccessful search for a strait
eventually, and took to the more prac-
tical work of hunting for gold. His
attempt to found a colony at the mouth
of the Rio Belen, southwest of Colon,
failed, and on May 1, 1503, he sailed
S from the shores of the Isthmus. He
t. died on May 20, 1506, still believing
Sd a that he had discovered the eastern
.: shores of Asia. This belief was shared
by all the early voyagers until the dis-
Statue of Columbus and Indian Girl. Pre- cover of the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
sented to General Mosquera of Colombia in
1868, by the Empress Eugenie, and afterwards THE FIRST SETTLEMENT
turned over to Count DeLesseps. Now occu-
pies a commanding position on Cristobal Point. After the unsuccessful attempt of
Columbus to found a settlement in
Castilla del Oro (Golden Castile), as the Isthmus was termed, two colonizers
were sent out by King Ferdinand. One of these, Diego de Nicuesa, a Spanish
nobleman, more fitted for the court than for a command in the wilderness, was
given control of all the land between Cape Gracias A Dios, Nicaragua, and the
Gulf of Urabda, or Darien, the eastern limit of the present Republic of Panama.
The other was Alonso de Ojeda, who accompanied Columbus on his second
voyage, and in addition had made two trips to the continent independently.
Ojeda was placed in charge of the land east and south of the Gulf of Urabi
called Nueva Andalucia. Both of these expeditions outfitted and sailed from
Santo Domingo in November, 1509.
A,-ociated with Ojeda were Juan de la Cosa, as lieutenant in the future
government, and a lawyer named Bachelleer Enciso, who furnished most of
the money to equip the expedition. It was arranged that Enciso should remain
at Santo Domingo to collect recruits and supplies, procure another ship, and join
Ojeda later at the proposed colony.
Ojeda landed near the present city of Cartagena, Colombia, founded in
1531. Here he attacked and overcame the Indians with a part of his force,
[ 10 1







M h-AN DVIDED --- WOPr3LrD TNITIED

but in following up his victory, his men became scattered, and all those who had
landed were killed, with the exception of himself and one other. Among the
killed was the veteran Juan de la Cosa. Ojeda then entered the Gulf of
Uraba and founded the town of San Sebastian on the eastern shore, but was
soon compelled to return to Santo Domingo to obtain men and supplies. He
left the new colony in charge of his lieutenant, Francisco Pizarro, famous in his-
tory as the conqueror and despoiler of Peru, with the understanding that if he did
not return within 50 days the colonists should decide among themselves the best
course to follow. He finally reached Santo Domingo, after suffering ship-
wreck and many hardships on the island of Cuba, and found that Enciso had
departed long before with abundant supplies for the colony, but he was unable
to recruit another force to follow.
Pizarro and his men, suffering for lack of food, waited anxiously and in
vain for the return of Ojeda, and then abandoned the colony and sailed for
Cartagena. Here they found Enciso with reinforcements and provisions.
With Enciso was a stowaway in the person of Vasco Nuiiez de Balboa. Enciso
insisted on Pizarro and his men returning with him to San Sebastian. On their
arrival, they found the settlement destroyed by Indians. They were without
food, and at the suggestion of Balboa, who had sailed along these shores with
Bastidas, they crossed the Gulf of Uraba, where it was reported the Indians
were less warlike and provisions could be obtained. It was necessary, however,
for them to defeat a band of Indians under a powerful chief named Cemaco,
who disputed their landing, but they obtained the much needed supplies and
founded the settlement of Santa Maria de la Antigua, the first on the Isthmus.
They were now in the territory which had been assigned by the King to Nicuesa
and, consequently, had no right there. The ambitious Balboa took advantage


Columbus Island where Christopher Columbus stopped to repair and scrape the
bottom of his ships before proceeding on to Spain.
[ 11 1







RE NIA- DIVIDED --- HEZ *JQDU ___ITED

of this circumstance and the fact that Enciso was disliked by his men, for the
reason that he allowed no private trading with the Indians, to depose him, and
asked Nietuesa to come and take charge of the colony.
















November 2, 1502, Columbus arrived at this harbor, 18 miles northeast of Colon, which he
named Porto Bello, signifying beautiful port. Rock for the concrete used in the locks at Gatun
was obtained at this point.
Nicuce-s had already sailed from Santo Domingo, taking along with him
about 700 colonists. During the voyage, a terrific storm arose, wrecking some
of his ships and causing the loss of 400 lives. In the tempest the ships became
separated; some of them reached the coast at the mouth of the Belen River,
and others the mouth of the Chagres River. After collecting his men. Nicuesa
left the Belen River, and after doubling Manzanillo Point shortly landed,
saying: "We will remain here in the name of God." This was the site of the
town of Nombre de Dios, the oldest existing settlement on the Isthmus. During
American canal times, the sand for the concrete in Gatun Locks was obtained
here, and in 1910 and 1911, the sand dredge cut through the hulks of two old
ships, believed to be relics of the days of Nicuesa. The dredge pumps also
drew up bullets and other small articles.
Nicuesa's situation was desperate, as he was without arms or provisions,
but fortunately there arrived shortly his lieutenant Colmenares, who brought
supplies, as well as information concerning the new settlement at Antigua.
Nicuesa declared his intention of going there and taking all the gold found by
Ojeda's men as rightfully belonging to him. News of his intention reached
Antigua before he did and, on his arrival, he was met by an armed mob,
secretly urged on by Balboa, which cast him adrift in a leaky brigantine along
with 17 followers who had remained faithful to him. They were never heard
of again. Of the two expeditions, one was now left at Antigua, and of the two
men sent by the King of Spain to colonize the mainland, both were gone.
Balboa the stowaway ruled in Darien, March 1, 1511.
DISCOVERY OF THE SOUTH SEA
The first move Balboa made on finding himself in charge of the colony was
to secure his position by persuading Enciso and those who had led the mob in
[12 ]







tD- DIVIDED --C-HE WOB UNITED

the attack on Nicuesa to return to Spain. Knowing that they would immedi-
ately go to the King and ask that he be dispossessed, he started in to obtain the
gold which he knew the King thought more of than all else, and to make new
discoveries which would help his cause. The gold he obtained from the
Indian chiefs of the Darien. It was made the price of peace, and Balboa
showed his shrewdness by making allies of the Indians after he had obtained
their treasure. Such an alliance he made with Careta, the cacique of Coyiba,
who after his village had been sacked by the Spaniards, left with Balboa one of
his daughters as a hostage. Balboa accepted the Indian maiden, of whom
he became very fond and, although they were never married according to the
Christian rites, she considered herself his wife.
Balboa started from Antigua on September 6, 1513, to cross the Isthmus
and find the great sea to the south, of which the Indians, knowing the cupidity
of the Spaniards, had told him glowing tales of the riches of the great race of
people which inhabited its shores. Fighting the different tribes which he met
on the way, subduing and making friends with them, on September 25, he
reached a hill in Darien from which it was said the South Sea could be seen.
Halting his men, Balboa made the ascent alone, and was the first European to
gaze upon this heretofore unknown ocean. Six days later, September L2), 1513,
four hundred years ago, he waded into the ocean and took possession in the
name of the sovereigns of Spain. This was in the Gulf of San Migiel. so named
for the reason that it was discovered on St. MIichael's Day. He also performed
a similar ceremony when he reached a point of land at the entrance to the gulf.
Balboa subdued the local Indian chiefs, who gave him presents of gold and also
many pearls from the Pearl Islands a few miles off the shore, and confirmed
the rumors of a powerful and rich nation to the south. The Pearl Islands, so








4-4
t I '
.' I


A family of Indians, Darien.
[ 13 ]







CJj T-A-D ,)DIVIDED --' E WOJU D, TNJIITED

named by Balboa, could be plainly seen, but he did not visit them at that time
on account of the roughness of the sea and the frailty of the available Indian
canoes. He named the largest of the islands, Isla Rica, which is now known
as San Miguel, or Rey Island.













Nombre de Dios, the oldest existing settlement on the Isthmus. Sand was obtained
here for the cement used in the Gatun Locks.

Balboa returned triumphant to Antigua after an absence of about four
months. His messenger telling of his great discovery did not reach the King,
unfortunately, until after that monarch, listening to Enciso's complaints, had
sent out a new governor to take charge of the colony.
BALBOA'S UNFORTUNATE END
The new governor was named Pedro Arias de Avila, commonly called
"Pedrarias the Cruel," which nickname he won in the New World by his
method of extorting gold from the Indians. With Pedrarias was Hernando de
Soto, who was later to discover the Mississippi River, and Diego de Almagro,
who was to become the partner of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru. Unlike
Balboa, Pedrarias did not try to make friends with the Indians, but in many
instances repaid the hospitality which they extended to him as a friend of
Balboa with the utmost treachery,
destroying their villages, killing
women and children, and selling
those who survived into slavery.
te e n He undid what Balboa had been in
a fair way of accomplishing, that is,
the settlement of Darien, for the In-
dians were everywhere aroused and
repaid cruelty with cruelty as often
as an opportunity was presented.
Pedrarias strove to establish
a line of posts for communication
between the two oceans in accord-
ance with the ideas of Balboa, but
Shrines are common along the waysides and at without success. The first of these
the entrance to villages, but this one has been was located on the Atlantic coast
placed in a hollow tree. The photographer dis- a
covered it near Gorgona. at a place named Santa Cruz.
[14 i







J 1T DIVIDED -- < --H ES OIJ T ITE

In the meantime, the King had recognized Balboa's discovery with a
commission as Adelantado of the South Seas and Viceroy of the Pacific coast,
an empty title, as he was subject to the orders of Pedrarias. Pedrarias, jealous
of Balboa's achievement, held up this commission
and kept Balboa fighting for his liberty in the court
of Antigua on trumped up charges. Finally Balboa
made an alliance with Pedrarias by promising to
marry one of his daughters, who was at that time
in Spain. and went a few miles up the coast to a
place called Acla, between Antigua and Santa Cruz, _.
where he established a settlement and had timbers i
cut and shaped which could be readily built into
ships with which to explore the new sea which he 'X
had discovered. These timbers were carried across
the Isthmus by Indian slaves and were set up in
San Miguel Bay.
While at the Pearl Islands, from where he made
several short cruises, Balboa heard of the coming
of a new governor to supersede Pedrarias. Think-
ing this governor might be hostile to his plans, he
sent messengers to Antigua to see whether or not he
had arrived. If he had, he instructed the messengers
to return without allowing their presence to become
known, and he would then leave on his voyage of
discovery before orders for his recall could be
delivered. His messengers went to Antigua and
found Pedrarias still in charge, for the new governor A wayside cross, or shrine.
Some of these are very old.
had died on his arrival. 6ne of them, however,
told Pedrarias that Balboa was contemplating treachery and the founding of
an independent colony on the Pacific coast. The bitterness and jealousy


Village of San Miguel on Rey Island, one of the larger of the Pearl Island Group.
[ 15 ]







rTRE IAD I .DIVIDE D -cB W ORD, TUITED

of Pedraria for Balboa again came to life, and he sent Francisco Pizarro,
who w\as later to finish the work Balboa had planned to do, to bring him back
to Acla. At Ada. Balboa was given a mockery of a trial for treason, and was
beheaded with four companions in the latter part of 1517. Second only to
the discovery' of the South Sea was the demonstration of the practicability of
an I-tlllmlian transit.
SETTLEMENT OF OLD PANAMA
Pedraria, seeing the advantage of a settlement on the new ocean as an
outfitting station for future exploring expeditions, crossed the Isthmus and, on
Aiiugult 1.. 1.51), founded Pananma, sitluated about five miles east from the new
city. ThI(e nare "nam Palnam" is supposed to have come from an Indian word
meaning a place laboundling in fish, and tradition relates that the town was built
on the site of an Indian fishing village. In the same year the Atlantic port was
transferred to Nomlre de tDios, directly north of old Panama, and a few years
later Antiiga' and Ada were abandoned to the Indians.

















Some of the interior villages have no jails stout enough to hold a prisoner,
so the stocks are resorted to.
On Septeimler 15, 1.51. tile settlement at Panama was made a city by
ra l decree. and the first bishopric in the Americas was removed there from
Antigat. rThe new governor sent out, opportunely for Pedrarias. died on his
arrival. s ldidi several others wlio followed, and Pedrarias ruled until the arrival
(of Pe, dro dle Ilo Ritis,. w\vo took charge on July 3SO. 1596. Before his arrival,
'Pcdrariws tok refuge in Nicaragua where le had already established a settle-
Illent. .
-P'AIN POWER SPREADS
Follotwilng tllis period in I.thhniin history many parties set out inland to
iexplotre tile (collunlt r, and outposts were located in the provinces of Chiriqui and
\'era,.n1a. The e explorations were made in accordance with the desires of
('Ch1rle \'., who Iook a great interest in the exploration of the South Sea and the
di 'sovery a .rait con(l nesting it with the Atlantic Ocean. After he came to,
lthl Iloni, oflt Spalin ill I.516, Ie charged the governors of his American colonies
ito \;.l11illt' ilt c(o .,t line from I)arien to Mexico for a possible waterway.
In avccorilaince will this policy. (Gil (G.onzales de Avila was sent out from
[ In I







-.DIVI DE D -- WQID UNITED

Spain in 1,521, with instructions to make a search along the coast for the western
opening of a strait. Gonzales dismantled and transported his -hips across the
Isthmus and rebuilt them on the Pacific side. In January. 1.35' hie ailedl from
Panama bay and went as far as the Bay of Fonseca, where lie landed andt
discovered Lake Nicaragua. On this voyage (;onzales met men sent iit on
similar service bv Cortez, who, later, established a transit route aencrs) the Isth-
mus of Tehuantepec in MIexico. following pretty closely the present railroad.
This route was started in much the same manner as tlhe one across Darien.
through the necessity of transporting suital.le lumber from the Atlantic coat of
the Isthmus to build ships with which to explore the Pacific coast. When
Pedrarias learned of the discovery of Lake Nicaragua, he immediately laid
claim to it, and as the country was rich in gold, estal)li.,hed a city at (Granala


Old Fort at Porto Bello.
near the shores of the lake after subduing the Indians. In 1359, Captain
Diego MIachuca thoroughly explored the lake and discovered its eastern outlet,
the San Juan River. Sailing down this stream he finally reached the Atlantic
Ocean, and sailed along the coast until he arrived at Nombre de Dios, thus
opening up another route across the American Isthmus.
The first extensive explorations to the south were the voyages of Pizarro
and Almagro in 1524, which ended in the conquest of Peru. In 1527, an
expedition sailed up the Rio Grande, carried their canoes across the divide
at Culebra to a tributary of the Chagres, down which they sailed to its mouth,
thus going over the present Canal route.
PERIOD OF THE GREAT TRADE
Permanent settlements were now located at Nombre de Dios and at
Panama, and between these two points was established a paved trail or "royal
I 17 1







1 T N-_ _DIVIDED ----TC-HE OIIgU TKITED

highway," for the commerce across the Isthmus at that time was steadily on
the increase. making Panama a place of mercantile importance. In 1534, a
route by water for boats and light draft vessels was established from Nombre
de Dios along the coast and up the Chagres River to the head of navigation at
Cruces. From Cruces there was another trail to the city of Panama. Over
these trails pack trains carried on the trade, the river being used in the wet
seasons, and when the attacks of the Indians and Cimaroons, (negro slaves,
who rebelled and were outlawed), became too frequent on the overland trail.
This trade consisted of gold and ornaments stripped from the temples of the
Incas, gold from the mines of Darien and Veraguas on the Isthmus, silver from
Bolivia, pearls. and also wool, indigo, mahogany, dye woods, cocoa, and
tobacco. all bound for Spain, for which the colonists received clothing and food-





















The three ancient bells of Cruces. This town was one of the oldest on the Isthmus, and was
the head of navigation on the Rio Chagres before the days of the railroad. Abandoned in 1913
on account of its being in the lake area.

stuffs in return. For nearly two hundred years the trails from Panama to the
towns of Nombre de Dios and Porto Bello were the richest, trade routes in the
world. Some of this trade even originated across the Pacific in the Philippines
and the Indies. Later, after the period of the great trade, 1550-1750, and up
to the time of the Panama railroad, the part water and part overland trail from
the mouth of the Chagres to Cruces, 34 miles, and thence to Panama, 18 miles,
was used by the colonists when California and Oregon were opened to settle-
ment, and by the gold seekers in California in the days of '49.
After Nombre de Dios was destroyed in 1597 by Sir Francis Drake, the
royal port was changed to Porto Bello, 17 miles to the southwest. This change
was beneficial, as Nombre de Dios was always unhealthful, while Porto Bello
lhad a better harbor and was nearer to the mouth of the Chagres and Panama.
[ 18 i







kr bADJlWI IVIDE D T T NWTEQ

Porto Bello became one of the strongest fortified of the Spanish settlements in
the New World. Here, came the Spanish galleons once a year to collect the
King's treasure, and to bring supplies for the colonists, and here, each year, on
the arrival of the ships, the merchants would congregate to take part in a big
fair which was held during the annual visit of the fleet.
The town is situated on a bay about a mile and a half long Iby .500 feet
wide, and the ruins of five of the six forts which guarded it. as well as an old
custom house, can still be seen, although partly covered with jungle growth.
One of the six forts was on the side of the hill on the opposite side of the bay
from the old town and where the Isthmian Canal Commission has been quarry-
ing rock for the past four years for (anal work. and it was dlug away by steam-
shovels. After Porto Bello became the royal port on the Atlantic. tihe Clagre.


,: k..





Mouth of the Chagres River. The old fort on the left and one of the turrets on the right.

River and the Cruces trail came into general use as a highway, although there
was also an overland road, and to protect this route from pirates who were
becoming bold enough to attack fortified towns, Fort San Lorenzo 'was built in
1601 at the river mouth.
THE SCOTCH BUBBLE
England lost its opportunity in 1698-1700 to gain a foothold ill the Istlimian
trade by failing to lend its aid to the colonization scheme of William Patterson,
a Scotch financier, who had already founded the Bank of England. Patterson's
plan, which eventually cost about 2,000 lives and $100,001) in money, was
designed to break up the monopoly of the British East India Company in the
Oriental trade by founding a colony on the shores of Darien, and opening up a
free trade route across the Isthmus from Alda to the Gulf of San Miguel, over
the same route taken by Balboa nearly t200 years before. Permission for the
[ 1" ]







DIVIDED ---GT1E WOI2uD, TTINITED


formation of the company with this end in view was obtained from King William.
His approval, however, was later withdrawn at the instigation of the East India
Company, when it realized that its monopoly was in jeopardy, and instructions
were issued to the governors of the British colonies in the West Indies and
North America to withhold any aid to the Scots who had already departed for
Darien. The opposition of the East India Company forced the new project
to return all the money subscribed for stock in England, and to raise the
necessary funds in Scotland only.
On November 1, 1698, three ships and two tenders containing 1.200 men
reached the Darien from Leith, and founded the town of New Edinburgh on
the Gulf of Calidonia, near Acla. Here they were welcomed by the San Bias
Indians who saw in them future allies against the Spaniards. But the Scots
had no intention of fighting, much to the disappointment of the Indians, although
they must have known that their invasion would be resisted by the Spaniards.
The first expedition managed to stay eight months, during which time their
numbers were sadly reduced by sickness and famine. On June 20, 1699,
two hundred and fifty survivors, with Patterson who had gone out to the colony
as a volunteer, and whose wife and son had died there, left for New York, which
place they reached on August 13. Meanwhile, the company at home, not
knowing of the abandonment of the colony, sent out a second band of 300
recruits. This party arrived at New Edinburgh on August 13, the same day
that their predecessors reached New York. Finding the half-completed Fort
St. Andrew deserted, they immediately left for Jamaica with the exception of
a few men who insisted upon remaining. A third expedition consisting of
four ships and 1,300 men was sent out from Scotland, and reached New Edin-
burgh on November 30, although rumors of the failure of the first attempt had
been received.
At last the Spaniards determined to oust the invaders who, unable to
accomplish much on account of internal bickering, the opposition of England,
and a high death rate, sent out a fleet of ships from Cartagena on February
25, 1700, to invest the port by sea, while a land force blockaded it in the rear.
On March 31, after many sorties against the Spanish forces, the colonists
surrendered and were allowed to depart with honors. The colony had been
reduced to about 360 persons, and these were so sick and feeble that it is said
the Spaniards had to help them aboard their ships and set the sails for them.




"A Nation given to the world,
A giant's task begun,
Show what our Uncle Sam can do
In an orbit of the sun.
O great indeed is our Uncle Sam
And his greatness ne'er shall cease!
For greatest of all his conquests won,
Are his victories of peace!"
-Gilbert.


[ 20 ]


CHE TLAN-D

























-PAIN monopolized the early trade with its colonies and this policy
eventually lost its control of the countries of Central and South
America. The first direct result was the entering of English, French
and Dutch free traders and later, buccaneers and pirates, all of whom
ranged up and down the coast of the Spanish Main preying upon commerce
and even attacking the fortified towns.
Up to the time Sir Henry IMorgan became Governor of Jamaica, after the
sack of Panama in 1671, there was very little difference between free traders,
privateers, buccaneers and pirates, their object being the tame,--the easy
acquisition of gold and otler, loot by preying upon the commerce of Spain.
From 1550 to 175q, the Isthmian trade route was open to such attacks. After
the sack of Panama, however, England endeavored to put a stop to piracy in.
the West Indies (Jamaica was the outfitting station for many ships sailing under
commissionS granted by the governor who received a share in the spoils), and
after that time the pirates were hunted as a common enemy, and they in turn
preyed upon the shipping of all nations.
The result of the depredations of these freebooters finally forced Spanish
shipping to give the waters of the Indies a wide berth, and to take the longer
route through the Straits of Magellan to the colonies on the Pacific, although
this trade was already beginning to decline, partly through the failure of the
colonies to develop after the easily won treasures of the Incas began to give out,
and partly through the decadence of Spain as a sea power.
The free traders, who finally developed into pirates, were generally
welcomed by the colonists, unofficially, as Spain was not a manufacturing
country and was unable to supply their needs, and because it was greatly to their
benefit to obtain goods of a better quality upon which no taxes had been paid
to the King. The traders were forbidden entry into the ports, and were com-
pelled to smuggle their goods in at convenient points along the coast and in
secret harbors. The custom of treating these men as pirates when caught,
naturally led them to protect themselves and, when the opportunity offered,
to retaliate in kind, and they finally became buccaneers or pirates in name as
well as in fact. The name buccaneer was given to the free traders by the
[ 21]







J D _,)APDIVI DED ----clE WOEJ U TNWITED

boucaniers, men engaged in supplying them with smoke-cured meat for their
voyages.
DRAKE S EXPEDITION
The first Englishman to make his name feared by the Spanish in the
West Indies was Sir Francis Drake. In 1568, Sir John Hawkins, with
an English fleet, entered the harbor
of Vera Cruz, Mexico, to trade
e S with the Spaniards. He was re-
-- 7._ -;Z _: .? -
d w t s ceived by the officials of the port
smal in a friendly manner and invited to
anchor. As soon as his ships were
S- anchored under the guns of the
tie- ...-, locatd forts, he was attacked and all his
ships destroyed, with the exception
of two which managed to escape,
Sone belonging to himself and the
other to his cousin Francis Drake.
S- i Drake returned to England and
endeavored to obtain satisfaction
-t for his losses through his govern-
ment, but was unable to do so. He
then decided to collect his own
Sf indemnity by attacking Spanish
t shipping as he had been attacked.
He obtained Letters of Ma rque from
Queen Elizabeth, and, in 1571-157'2,
made two preliminary voyages to
Sir Henry Morgan. the West Indies, principally to pre-
pare for future raids and to learn
how the Spaniards handled the golden harvest from Peru. In 157'2, he re-
turned with two ships, in the holds of which were stored the, parts of three
small sailing boats, and on July a9, having put the boats together, he attacked
and captured Nombre de Dios where the King's treasure house was at that
time located. He would have made a rich haul of the gold waiting for the
arrival of the fleet from Spain had he not been wounded n the assault on the
town.
Drake then made his headquarters on the coast, and made many forays
on shipping, even taking ships from under the guns of Cartagena. With the
help of the Indians, who since the days of Pedrarias were always ready to help
the enemies of Spain, and of the Cimaroons (as escaped negro slaves who had
banded together in the jungle and waged continual war on the Spanish pack
trains were called), he crossed the Isthmus to the Pacific, in time to see a Peru-
vian plate fleet riding at anchor in the bay of Panama. He planned to ambush
the pack train carrying the treasure from this fleet near Venta Cruz, or Cruces,
but failed to obtain any gold, the Spaniards aware of his presence, sending a
train of mules hearing provisions in advance. He captured and sacked
Cruces but, as this was merely a stopping place for the pack trains, he procured
very little booty. Another ambush outside of Nombre de Dios was more
suiiccV4ful, his men taking away all the gold they could carry and burying
[ 22]






97E TAnJ I)DIVIDED _--2TKI 1OI2R NTITE_

several tons of silver in the vicinity. In 1573, he returned to England and
started to organize a fleet to go to the Pacific, but John Oxenham who had been
with him when he crossed the Isthmus, forestalled him in his desire to be the
first Englishman to sail upon those waters.
John Oxenham crossed the Isthmus in 1575, with the help of the Indians,
over the same route traversed by Balboa, and launched a small boat on the
Pacific. He stayed in the vicinity of the Pearl Islands taking several small
Spanish prizes, and finally captured one of the treasure galleons from Peru.
Oxenham and his crew were finally captured by the Spaniards and put to death.
Drake returned to the West Indies on November 15, 1577, sailed through
the Straits of Magellan, swept the west coast of South America as far north as
California, without attacking the city of Panama, crossed the Pacific, passed
around the Cape of Good Ifope and landed in England in 1580, having gone
completely around the world. In 1595, he again returned to the Isthmus, and,
with Sir John Hawkins, captured and burned Nombre de Dios, and started
across the Isthmus to attack the city of Panama, but the Spaniards had barri-
caded the royal road so effectively that the English gave up the attempt. They
went to Porto Bello instead, and just previous to the attack on that place,
January 28, 1596, Drake died and was buried at the mouth of the bay.
Drake's example was followed by William Parker, who attacked and sacked
Porto Bello in 1602. From the time of Drake, Porto Bello had little rest from
attack; its forts were rebuilt only to be again destroyed.
FALL OF OLD P.ANAMA.
Henry Morgan was one of the first of the pirates to attack the mainland.
In June, 1668, he plundered Porto Bello, and at that time sent a message to


Section of wall and Spanish cannon, with embrasure, in old fort at Porto Bello.
[ 23 ]






E -DIVIIDED IT--- BE =WPO PTUED

the Governor of Panama that he would return in a short time to take that city.
As he promised, he returned to the Isthmus two years later, sent an advance
force, which attacked and captured Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the
Cliagres, pl;ce(l a garrison there and at Porto Bello, and started up the Chagres
and overland with 1,200 men, the Spaniards retreating before him. It took the
Englishmen nine days to make the journey, and they suffered greatly for want
of food as the Spaniards in their retreat on Panama laid waste to the country.
Panama was captured on January 28, 1671. Before the city fell fire broke out
and the place was entirely ruined. MoIrgan was accused of having set fire to
the town, but it was more likely that it was caused by a spark blown into an
open powder magazine, which had been ordered destroyed by the Governor,
Don Juan Perez de Guzman. However, Morgan stayed in the ruins nearly a
month, collecting booty, and also plundered the neighboring islands and the
surrounding country. He then returned to San Lorenzo, and sailed to Jamaica
with the largest share of the booty, leaving his companions to leave the Isthmus
as best they could. The attack on Panama was made when England was at
peace with Spain, and the British Government was forced to suppress buccan-
eering in Jamniica on account of the storm of protest aroused. Morgan was
made Lieuttenant-Governor of Jamaica, was later knighted and became
governor of the island, in which capacity he did good work in suppressing
piracy. His appointment would appear to have been made by the King on the
theory that it takes a thief to catch a thief.
OTH -R ATTEMPTS
Although Drake and Morgan were no longer feared, the Isthmus was not
yet free from the raids of numerous other pirates, French and English, who


Wall of the old fort at Porto Bello, showing entrance, and watch tower.
[ 24]







J _N-D DIVIDEDD c -E WO)DIID JJNITED

attacked Porto Bello, crossed the Isthmus, and raided up and down the coast
of the Pacific. Captain John Coxon plundered Porto Bello in 1679, and in
the following year crossed the Isthmus to the Pacific in company with Captain
Richard Sawkins, Bartholomew Sharp, Peter Harris and Edmund Cook,



















Scene in the village of Chagres at the mouth of the river of that name.
accompanied by over 300 men. They crossed the Isthmus of Darien, guided
by the Indians, in April. 1680, and attacked Santa Maria, an outpost on the
Tuyra River. Not finding the expected gold at Santa Maria, they voyaged
in canoes and in two barks, captured by Captains Sharp and Cook, to Panama.
Arriving off Panama, they were attacked by three Spanish ships near the
island of Perico. In the fight which ensued on April 23, 1680, the English
were victorious, but they failed to attack the city owing to a disagreement
between themselves as to who should be leader, although they stayed in the
vicinity many days picking up prizes. Captain Sawkins was killed later in an
attack on the mining town of Pueblo Nuevo, in the Province of Veraguas.
Captain Coxon had already left with his men to recross the Isthmus to the boats
left on the Atlantic, and Captain Harris died from wounds received in the
battle of Perico, leaving Captains Sharp and Cook to continue their voyages
in the South Sea. Captain Sharp returned to England where he was tried for
piracy, but escaped hanging on account of lack of evidence. From 1680 to 1688,
pirate raids wiped out every settlement on the Pacific coast of Darien. In 1688,
England became the ally of Spain, and the pirates ceased operations for the
time being.
War broke out between England and Spain in 1738, and in 1739 Porto
Bello was again captured and destroyed by Admiral Edward Vernon of the
British Navy. In 1740, Vernon captured Fort San Lorenzo, and in 174P. he
again took Porto Bello and prepared an assault on the new city of Panama
against which a fleet was going around the Horn under common nd of Captain
Anson. However, Vernon's men began to fall sick, so he gave up the attempt
[ 2- ]












































NO1


.a*-


S i
.^: '.i


~f
N -


'cvs -.. ".


4%


The tower is the most important remaining evidence of the greatness of the first city of
Panama, destroyed by Morgan in 1671. It is located about six miles southeast of Panama City.
The wealth of Peru was transported over the old masonry bridges centuries ago.


[ 26 ]


L:::l L~' *;;;
i; "


.R .
y


. .1'


L, **f.)
AM


,O' N
-." ,'.^^
'i .^ ',







E L I _. JpIVID E D D- G- 1 E Nr .&_ U _NTED

on Panama and went to Cartagena instead, at which place he met with a decisive
defeat. Anson learning of this event, left to attack Manila and the new city of
Panama was again saved.
The last of the Spanish galleons from Peru during the latter part of 1739


Pile of cannonballs at Fort San Lorenzo, used by the early Spaniards in resisting
the attacks of the buccaneers.

found upon its arrival at Panama that Porto Bello was being attacked by
Admiral Vernon, so it returned to Guayaquil and sent its treasure to Cartagena
over the trail from Quito to Bogota. Thus the commerce of the Spanish
galleons across the Isthmus ceased, and the gradual decay of the towns on the
Isthmus wherein lived the merchants and traders set in.

"From sacked Porto Bello redhanded they came,
All bloodstained from conquest unworthy the name,
To the mouth of the Chagres, where, high on the hill,
San Lorenzo kept guard, to plunder and kill
Its devoted defenders, who courageously fought
For homes, wives and children, accounting as naught
Their lives held so precious, so cherished before,
Could they drive the fierce pirates away from their shore.
Three days they repulsed them, but to find every night
The foe still upon them in ne'er-ending fight.
Their arms could not conquer the powers of hell!
San Lorenzo surrendered-ingloriously fell!
Burned, famished and bleeding from many a wound,
They lay while their stronghold was razed to the ground."
--Gilbert.


[ 27 ]











11


t ..


HE project of connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific has attracted the
attention of the civilized world since the discovery of the Isthmus.
In the years 1534 to 1536, studies were made under the direction of
the then governor of Panama, Pascual Andagoya, in compliance with
a royal decree, dated February 20, 13:34, for a ship canal across the Isthmus by
cutting from the Chagres River to the headwaters of the Rio Grande, but the
idea was abandoned on account of the excessive cost.
With a revival of interest in the subject, many routes were suggested and
many surveys were made at different points where the width of the American
Isthmus was found to be favorable, or where rivers and lakes were found that
might be utilized as a possible passageway. Of the many routes proposed, it
has been found that the one across Nicaragua, utilizing the San Juan River and
Lake Nicaragua, and that at Panama along the line of the Panama railroad,
utilizing the valley of the Chagres River and the Rio Grande, are the only
practicable ones. Of the others, those which gained the most attention and
which were given the most study were across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in
Mexico, and three in Panama, the Darien, or Atrato River, the San Bias, and
the Calidonia Bay routes,
TEHIT.NTEPEC'
The Tehuantepec route, where the Spaniards under Cortez, after the
conquest of Mexico, built a road across the Isthmus, is the best location, geo-
graphically, for a canal, it being so much closer to the Pacific and Gulf ports of
the United States, while the distance from New York is practically the same as
from Panama. However, the summit level at this point was found to be in the
neighborhood of 700 feet and very broad, and it is doubtful if a sufficient supply
of water could be obtained for it even if it could be materially lowered by exca-
atiion. When the French were at work on the Panama project, Captain James
B. Eads selected this place for the location of a ship railway with large cars to
transport ships from one ocean to the other. This never got beyond the
"scheme" stage, although at that time it was considered practicable by engineers.
[ 28







C~mIjEj hAt~rD


DIVIDED --'--G~mC0IE WQL NJITED


There is now an ordinary standard-gage railroad engaged at this point in
carrying transcontinental freight.
ATRATO RIVER AND TRIBUTARI ES
Various projects have been proposed to utilize the Atrato river, which flows
almost directly north about 200 miles into the Gulf of Darien, at the point where
the Isthmus joins the continent of South America, and several of its tributaries,
which approach the Pacific coast very closely. There is an Indian legend that
canoes can be carried for a short distance from the headwaters of the Atrato to
another river flowing into the Pacific. The Atrato is a silt-bearing river and has
a considerable fall, and is not in itself adapted to the use of ocean-going ships.
It would necessitate continual dredging for a hundred miles to canalize it, and a
cut through the continental divide much greater than the Cut at Culebra. The
streams flowing into the Pacific are little more than mountain torrents. On
this account this route has not been considered with as much favor as the more
northerly -ones. There is a widely circulated story that King Philip III, in the
period 1616 to 1619, issued an edict at the request of Pere Acosta forbidding
further consideration of the project on the ground that the will of God was made
manifest by the fact that He had created an isthmus instead of a strait, and that
it would be impiety for man to put asunder what God had joined. Probably
a more reasonable objection was that a ship canal would make the Spanish
colonies too easily accessible to their enemies. The policy of King Philip was
adhered to for over 200 years after his death in 1698.
CALIDONIA
The Calidonia route is where Balboa crossed to the Pacific in 1513, and is
the one which William Patterson chose in 1698 for a line of transit across the
Isthmus to control the trade of the Pacific with the east. This route starts
from Calidonia Bay on the Atlantic where Patterson's colony of New Edinburgh
was located, to San Miguel Bay on the Pacific. At first this appears to be an
ideal location for a ship canal on account of the short distance, 35 miles, between
the two oceans. It was advocated by Dr. Edward Cullen of Dublin in 1830.
He claimed that the summit level on this line was not over 150 feet. It was
partly explored by Mr. Lionel Grisborne, an English engineer, in 1852, and he
reaffirmed the claim of Dr. Cullen. Later explorations, among them those of
Lieutenant Isaac G. Strain, U. S. N., in 1854. and by the United States Darien
expedition in 1870, failed to confirm this low altitude. It was found that the
summit level is at least 1,000 feet above the sea. Although the Isthmus is very
narrow at this point, the excavation required is so great that it was proposed to
build a tunnel 4.2 miles long through the mountains through which ships might
pass. This project has long been considered impossible.
SAN BLAS
The San Bias route from the Gulf of San Bias to the Bayano River, which
flows into the Pacific about 15 miles from the Pacific entrance of the present
canal, is across the narrowest part of the Isthmus. the distance being about 30
miles from shore to shore. The distance from the Atlantic tidewater to tide-
water in the Baynno River is about two-thirds of that distance. This route was
explored under the direction of Mr. Frederick M. Kelley in 1857, and subse-
quently by an expedition under Commander Thomas Oliver Selfridge, Jr.,
[ 29 ]


cri-M T UANl)


L







AT~iE TjA DIVIDED --C6TIE/ WOJ -D, U UNITED

U. S. N., in 1870. The difficulty here, as on the Calidonia route, lies in the
height of the summit, to cross which tunnels from eight to ten miles long were
also proposed.
The result of all these explorations and surveys resulted in the conviction
that no other route compared in practicability with that of Panama and Nica-
ragua.
NICARAGUA.
This route, utilizing Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan River, which flows
out of it into the Atlantic, was used as an isthmian transit by the Spaniards as
early as 1529. It became the subject of investigation as a possible Canal route
in 1825, when the newly federated state of Central America advised the United
States that it would encourage any such project by Americans. Several
surveys were made, but no construction work was attempted. In 1850-1852
an American, O. W. Childs, organized a company under an agreement with
Nicaragua, and established a transit route, partly by water and partly by stage
road. This transit company also made surveys for a ship canal along this route.
It forfeited its concession in 1858 without doing any work on the proposed canal.
Later surveys ~ere made by the United States under Commander E. P. Lull,
and in 1889 canal construction was begun when the Maritime Canal Company
of Nicaragua, composed of Americans, was formed under a concession from
Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Financial difficulties, however, stopped the work
and the company failed in 1893. For some years after efforts were made to
induce the United States Government to finance the project, with the result
that, in 1895, Congress provided for a board of engineers to ascertain the
feasibility and cost of a canal at this point. This board, appointed by President
Cleveland, consisted of Colonel William Ludlow, U. S. A., Civil Engineer M.


Swinging bridge, Chame.
[ 30 ]







E LAN DIVIDE D 1 OI--, JOgj[TED

T. Endicott, U. S. N., and Civil Engineer Alfred Noble. They reported that
the Canal was feasible, but recommended further surveys and investigations.
Accordingly a commission was appointed by President McKinley, which con-
sisted of Rear Admiral J. G. Walker, Colonel Peter C. Hains, and Lewis M.
Haupt. Before the work of this commission was completed Congress provided,
in 1899, for increasing it for the purpose of making surveys, comparisons and a
thorough examination of all possible routes from Tehuantepec to the Atrato
River. The Commission, which became known as the Isthmian Canal
Commission, was now reinforced by the appointment of Colonel O. H. Ernst,
Alfred Noble, Geo. S. Morrison, and William H. Burr, engineers, and Professor
Emory R. Johnson and Samuel Pasco as experts, respectively, on the com-
mercial and political aspects of the problem. Explorations were made of the
entire Isthmus, but no favorable route was found other than that at Nicaragua
and that at Panama. The Commission reported on November 16, 1901, in
favor of the construction of a canal across Nicaragua, provided the property of
the New- French Canal Company on the Isthmus of Panama could not be
purchased for $40,000,000, nearly one-third of the price asked.
The total length of the canal proposed at Nicaragua was about 187 miles, 47
miles of which was in deep water in Lake Nicaragua, 17 miles in the river not
requiring improvement, leaving 121 miles of river to be canalized. It was to
have nine locks. The difficulties which would have to be overcome are about
the same as at Panama. However, the longer distance at Nicaragua and the
proximity to active volcanoes made it less desirable than the Panama route.
The latter was more advantageous because of the Panama railroad and the
extensive plant and work of the French.
PANAMA
The Panama Canal project, like the others, was the subject of many
studies and surveys, the first, as stated above, being made in 1534. None of
the surveys however were thorough prior to the one made by the Isthmian Canal
Commission in 1890. Simon Bolivar, in 1827, caused a survey to be made of
the route by an English surveyor, and in 1835 the United States sent Charles
Biddle to investigate possible water or railroad routes across the Isthmus.
He obtained a concession from New Granada (Colombia) for a railroad, but
nothing further was done at that time. A few years later, 1838, a company of
Frenchmen obtained a similar concession, and a report that a summit pass of
37 feet above sea level caused the French Government to send out Napoleon
Garella to make a survey which corrected this error. He recommended a lock
canal with a summit level of about 160 feet above sea level, a tunnel of 3 miles
through the divide, and 18 locks to make the required lift. It was not until
May, 1876, that the Government of Colombia gave to the French Canal Com-
pany the concession under which the first canal work was done, although the
Panama railroad was built in 1850-5, and other surveys had been made under
the direction of the United States Government in 1854 and 1866. While the
French were at work on the Canal many studies were made of the project by
officers of the United States Navy.


[ 31]









,he ANAMA IAbllAD














'ROM 1750 to 1849, trade across the Isthmus was at a standstill, and
the old pack trails from Porto Bello and from Cruces on the Chagres
became nearly obliterated through disuse. Spain's belated change of
policy, the granting of free trade to the colonies, came too late to be
of much benefit to Panama. A few ships discharged their cargoes at the mouth
of the Chagres for transportation over the Cruces trail, but there were no ade-
quate facilities for handling any great amount of trade had there been any.
What little trade there was went around Cape Horn or via the Cape of Good
Hope. The Isthmus became a place of so little importance that it was reduced
from a viceregen(c in 1718, when it became a province of New Granada (the
old name for Colombia). It obtained its independence from Spain on Sep-
tember 26, 1821.
In 1849, however, the Isthmus again came to life with the steady flow of
emigrants bound for California, where gold had been discovered during the
previous year. California and Oregon had also been thrown open to settle-
ment, and the Isthmian transit became almost a necessity, for the only other
means of communication with those states were the long overland journey by
wagon train across the American continent, and the long voyage around South
America. Thus the Isthmus as a trade route again came to the front.
The advantages of an Isthmian railroad as a means of developing the trade
of the United States with the growing republics of Central and South America
was realized as early as 1835, when President Andrew Jackson appointed Mr.
Charles Biddle as a commissioner to visit the different routes best adapted for
interoceanic communication by rail or by water between the two oceans. Mr.
Biddle visited the Isthmus, went to Bogota, and obtained from the Government
of New Granada a concession for constructing a railroad across the American
Isthmus. He returned to the United States in 1837 with this document, but
died before he was able to prepare a report, so nothing further was done at
that time. In 1847, a French syndicate, headed by Mateo Kline obtained a
similar concesion, but was unable to raise the money necessary to carry out the
work. In December, 1848, three far-sighted Americans, William H. Aspinwall,
Henry Chauncey, and John L. Stephens, entered into a contract with New
[ 32 ]







CrIHE JNPD DIVIDED MCrP WfOR, TUTTNTED

Granada to build the road, and the Panama Railroad Company, with a capital-
ization of $1,000,000, was incorporated under a charter granted in the state of
New York. Aspinwall, in the same year, obtained from Congress a contract
for carrying United States mail by steamer from Panama to California and
Oreaon, as a part of his railroad scheme. A similar mail contract authorized
by Congress on the Atlantic side, New York and New Orleans to Chagres,
was obtained at the same time Ib Mr. George Law.
As soon as the concession was obtained from New Granada, Mir. Stephens,
accompanied by Mr. J. L. Baldwin, an engineer, went over the proposed route
for the road and, finding a summit pass of a little less than :300 feet, decided that


High trestle for embankment fill. The new line was built on a 95-foot level and across the
lowlands of the Gatun Lake region a number of long and high trestles for embankment fills, some
of them 90 feet high, had to be built.
[ 33







FiE ANP DIVIDED HE OrLagTNITED

it was feasible. In the early part of 1849, a party of engineers in charge of
Colonel G. H. Hughes of the United States Topographical Corps, was sent to
locate the line. Finding a summit ridge of 287 feet, a line was laid out not
exceeding 50 miles in length from ocean to ocean, with the Atlantic terminus
on Navy Bay, as Limon Bay was formerly called, and with the Pacific terminus
in Panama City.
A contract was then entered into with two experienced contractors, Colonel
Geo. MI. Totten and John C. Trautwine. for the construction of the line.
These men decided upon Gorgona, on the Chagres river, 31 miles from Colon,
as the base of operations toward Panama, thinking that material could be easily
landed there by boat. However, the river was so low in the dry season and so
swift in the rainy season that light draft steamers were found out of the question


Loading dirt train for trestle fill.


for the transportation of railroad material. At the same time the increasing
rush to the California gold fields by way of the Isthmus, made river transporta-
tion and the cost of labor prohibitive, and the contractors begged the company
to release them from their obligation. This the company did, and, deciding
to undertake the construction work itself, retained Messrs. Totten and Traut-
wine in its service.
FIRST WORK ON THE PANAMA RAILROAD
Clearing on Manzanillo Island began in May, 1850. This was a low
swampy plot of land of about 600 acres separated from the mainland by a
narrow arm of the sea, and is the site of the present city of Colon. Although
clearings had been made, residence upon the island was impossible and for the
[ 34]







31ME IbA, DIVIDED <- OREW DP MWNJW2TED

first few months the men engaged in making the surveys, and the laborers
brought from Cartagena, Colombia, were obliged to live on board an old brig
anchored in the bay. When this became overcrowded, as additions were made
to the force, it was supplemented by the hull of a conldenned steamlboat. The
village of Aspinwall was founded on February 9, 185.3. but on account of
Colombia's refusal to recognize the name, it was later rechristened Colon, in
honor of Columbus.
The first seven miles of the road was through an extensive swamp. covered
with jungle, and the surveyors were compelled to work in water and slime up
to their waists. In a short time the entire force suffered with malarial fever. and
great difficulty was experienced in obtaining sufficient laborers. Irishmen
were brought from the United States, negros from Jamaica. and natives from
the adjacent tropical countries, and fever made inroads on all of them. The
importation of Chinese coolies was tried, and nearly 1,000( of that race were





Ai













Scene on the Panama railroad, near El Diablo, Ancon Hill in the distance.
Corozal-Ancon wagon road on the left.

brought from China. Native hill rice, tea, and opium were supplied them.
but within a few weeks disease broke out among them. anand. may becoming
melancholy, are said to have committted suiicilde, so that inside of 6(l days scarcely
200 able-bodied remained. The high lmortalitv of these Chinese laborers,
probably helped develop the story that each of the ties on the original Panama
railroad represented the life of a laborer. The facts in the cae make the story
ridiculous. There were at least 15(0,000 cross-ties in the original road1. including
sidings and yards, while the largest number of employes at any one time was
not over 7,000, and the road was completed in four years. According to the
most authentic records, the total mortality during the construction period was
about 1,200. Added to the difficulties of maintaining a labor force, was the
necessity of brnining nearly all food and supplies from New York, a distance
of nearly 2,000 miles.
By the first of October, 18.31, the track had, been laid as far as Gatun, and
: 5 "







C~HLE T ,u_.)IVIDED -Tc-E WOJ~D UNITED





















The largest railroad bridge on the new line, spanning the Chagres River at Gamboa. It is 1,320
feet long. The Chagres River empties into the Canal at this point.
in the following month, 1,000 passengers were carried to that station from
Colon. These passengers had arrived at Chagres for the California transit in
two ships, but could not be landed there on account of a heavy storm, and were
disembarked at Colon. This happened most opportunely for the railroad, as
the original million dollars had been expended and things were beginning to
look dark to the stockholders. When the news reached New York that
passengers had been carried as far as Gatun, seven miles by rail, even though
they had been carried on flat cars, the company's stock immediately rose in
price. The work was pushed on with renewed vigor, for, from this time on,
there was a small and steady income which could be applied to the construction
expense. In July, 185.. the road had reached Barbacoas, a total distance of
'23 miles, where it was necessary to construct a bridge 300 feet long to span the
Ch agres.
On October 10, Mr. John L. Stephens, who was president of the company,
died in New York, and his successor, Mr. W\. C. Young, decided to have the
remainder of the work accomplished by contract. The contractor, however,
failed to fulfill his obligation and after a year's delay, the company again decided
to do the work.
COMPLETION N OF THE ENTERPRISE
On the 27th ,of January, 1855, at midnight and in rain, the last rail to the
summit ridge at Culebra. 37 miles from Colon and 11 miles from Panama, was
laid, and in the meantime, work had been advancing steadily from Panama
city, to which ipint material had been transported around Cape Horn. On
the following day, the first locomotive passed from ocean to ocean, nearly four
years after ground was first broken. The completed road was 47 miles 3.090
feet long, with a maximum grade of 60 feet to the mile, in order to surmount the
nsunmmit ridge at elevation 6 87 feet. The first president was Mr. David Hoadley.
I 36








E j}AD DIVIDE D f- CGr WORP ITNTWITED

Although track had been laid from ocean to ocean, the railroad was in poor
physical condition, and it was not until 1859 that its construction account was
finally closed, at a total expenditure up to that time of $8.000.0(0. The road
was properly ballasted, heavier rails were laid, using hardwood tie., bridges of
iron replaced flimsy wooden structures, and station buildings and wharves were
erected. To cross waterways, 170 bridges and culverts had been built and the
wooden bridge at Barbacoas was replaced by one of iron.
The road was a paying investment from the time when the first 11 miles were
opened in 1852, for, as new sections were built they were put into immediate ser-
vice for passengers and freight, and at the end of 1855, the year the entire road was
opened, its income from passengers and freight was $l2.1'25,36.31. When the
original construction account was closed in January, 185!), the gross earnings
amounted to $8,146,605.00, while operating expenses, together with deprecia-
tion amounted to $2,174,876.51, leaving a balance of $5,971,7 68.66, as legitimate
earnings for a period of seven years, during the last four of which the road was
open throughout its entire length. Dividends have been paid every year on the
stock, with the exception of a few years previous to the taking over of the road
from the French Canal Company by the United States. The average dividend
during the years 1852-1881 was 16 per cent., and since that period, five per cent;
the smallest dividend was two per cent. in 1885, and the largest 44 per cent. in
1868. In 1865, the capital stock was increased from $5,000,000 to $7.0((0,00(0.
In 1881, the year when the road was sold to the French Canal Company, a


The station of the Panama Railroad at Panama City always presents an active scene at train
time. A new first class station has taken the place of the old one shown here. All passenger
locomotives are oil-burning and the coaches are thoroughly up-to-date, having first and second
class accommodations. The tunnel at Miraflores is 736 feet long.
[ 37 ]









E ITAN-J DIVIDED --cT _OIE D, UNITD

dividend of" ), per cent. was declared. but this not only represented the earnings
for that Year. I)ut also included the assets and .urpllus on hand at that time.
F:.RJILY RATES NE\IRLY PROHIBITIVE
The following tal)le of rates, placed in effect when the road w'as first opened
in 1833.5. remained in force for )20 years. and following the company's policy,
were intelnded to lie )prohibitive at first. on the theory that they would be lowered
when the company hlad had an opportunity to improve its line, will explain in a
mea-,ure the large profits male on thi-, road which cost about $170,000 a mile
to build:


188.


Fare, Panama to Colon. I st-cla-s.
Fare. Panama to Colon, t d-(la ,.
Charge for bagga;e ..
Freight rate. Ist-class .... .....
Freight rate. dl-clas
Freighllt rate. :;l-cla-s .


$25.00
10.00
.10
3.00
2.00
1.00


per II).
per cwt.
per cwt.
per cwt.


1903
$5.00
12. 25
.02 per IIb.
.40 per cu. ft
1.0I per cwt.
.80 iper cwt.


1907
$2.40
1.45
.02 per Ib.
.50 per cwt.
.44 per cwt.
.3. per cwt.


At the present time the first-class passenger fare is $2.40, with 150 pounds of
bal-gage free; sectnd-clas.,, half of that rate.
ET.S''ABLISHIIMENT "OF STEAMSHIP SERVIC'F
In 18.36. the company established a steamship service between Panama
aind San Jo die (Guatemala. thus opening nip the rich coffee country of Central


SL


rAPI
S.. t -EaM
.^.;C."-Ift
l~!^:M:'


vs.
* Ct


The Panama Railroad operates a steamship service with a fleet of six vessels plying between
New York and Colon, two of which were purchased in 1908 for the carrying of cement. This
is the Panama, one of the passenger steamers.
[38]


I .


.


I


m AHIB







J JADI DIVIDED <-IE W-OJ-UD TTITED

America. This line continued until October, 1872, when it was taken over by
the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. At one time the road had a line of its
own between San Francisco and Panama, but this was withdrawn in 1902. In
1893, the present Panama Railroad Steamship Line was established between
New York and Colon, and there are now six ships in this service, the Ancon,
Cristobal, Panama, Colon, Alliatnca and Advancte, although the two former
vessels purchased in 1908 are owned by the Canal Commission, and have been
used mainly in transporting cement to the Isthmus.
CONCESSIONARY RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES
The terms of the original concession granted by the Government of New
Granada provided, among other things, the exclusive privilege of building a
railroad on the Isthmus of Panama; that no undertaking for the opening of a
canal to connect the two oceans would be permitted without the consent of the
railroad company; that the railroad company should have the exclusive privilege
of building wagon roads across the Isthmus and the use of the Chagres for
steamer travel, and the exclusive privilege of the use of the ports at the two
termini for the anchorage of vessels, and for the loading and unloading of cargo.
This concession was to remain in force 49 years from the day of the road's
completion, subject to the right of New Granada to take possession at the
expiration of 20 years upon the payment of $5,000,000, or at the expiration of
40 years upon the payment of $2,000,000. The provisions of the contract were
modified several times, but its exclusive features remained practically the same.
In 1867, it was renewed for 99 years on payment of $1,000,000 in cash, and an
annual payment of $250,000 guaranteed to New Granada. The railroad also
obligated itself to extend the road to the islands in the bay of Panama. This
extension of the contract for 99 years was secured 12 years after the opening of
the road by Colonel Totten, when it was realized that New Granada would
surely raise the necessary $5,000,000 to obtain the road after 20 years of opera-
tion, a road costing $8,000,000 to build and, at that time paying 24 per cent on a
capitalization of $7,000,000.
Two years later, 1869, the Union Pacific was completed across the
American continent, with a consequent decline of California trade across the
Isthmus. The loss of this trade would have been offset by the trade of Central
and South America, had the company seized the opportunity, but its policy,
apparently, was to make all it could there and then let the future take care
of itself. In 1868, the Pacific Steam Navigation Company withdrew its line of
steamers from the Isthmian transit, and sent its ships to England via the Strait
of Magellan, and transferred its repair shops and coaling station from the island
of Taboga to Callao, Peru. It was forced to do this by the shortsighted policy
of the railroad's directors who refused to ratify a traffic agreement profitable
to both, which had been tentatively drawn up, giving the company where
freight originated the right to make a through charge to be divided equally
between the three carriers, the railroad and the steamship lines on either side
of the Isthmus. The steamship company took most of its trade with it and an
idea of what was lost to the railroad can be obtained from the fact that, in 1874,
it had 54 steamers, with a total of 124,000 tons, in operation between Valparaiso
and Liverpool. Only its smaller boats were sent to Panama, and these merely
to act as feeders to t-he main line on their return south. This policy of offering
no encouragement to steamship lines also forced the Panama, New Zealand
[ 39]















I'






* .
' ^ .f


Y--i

I. .. .

;i .,
'"" ,; "'." "
:. ...... ., .'.
i;' "':" :' ': ',' '.."
;- -., t:, ,' .,' .
: ; ". ;.'. "
,, ,,,,., ,:: ][ |
*.,..- :II ": S


The headquarters of the Panama Railroad are located at Colon. The new line runs on the east side
of the canal and is 47.11 miles long. It was completed on May 25, 1912, at a cost of $8,984,922.18.


[ 40]


ji
... ,*, -. : :..*
." : ': :'.$..-00,
.:..'V~h'. ,., ry'' .. ..








c JE A- DIVI DE D ~gmTE WOPJDU TITNJTED

and Australian Steamship Company to give up its attempt to inaugurate a
monthly service via Wellington to Sydney, connecting with the Royal Mail
Steam Packet Company, operating between Southampton and Colon.
In spite of this policy of taking more than the trade could stand, the railroad
continued to pay dividends, but it would undoubtedly have done a much more
profitable business had it endeavored to help. instead of oppressing the growing
trade of Central and South America.
CHANGES IN OWNERSHIP
When the French operations were begun in 1881. the French Canal
Company found that in order to build a canal it would first have to gain the
consent of the railroad or to purchase it. The latter plan was followed, and in
June of that year, 68.888 of the 70,000 shares were obtained for a little over
$20,000,000 or two and one-half times what the road had originally cost to
build. In addition to the amount expended for shares, bonuses paid brought
the total cost to a little over $25,000,000. When the United States, on May 4,
1904, took over the affairs of the New French Canal Company, they came into
possession of these shares, and obtained the remainder, 1,112 shares, by private
purchase at a cost of $157,118.24, or an average price. of $140.00 per share.
The entire stock of the Panama Railroad and Steamship Company is now
owned by the United States, with the exception of one share transferred to each
of the directors to enable them to qualify under the articles of incorporation.
The Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission is also
President of the Panama Railroad Company.
Since it has become a government-owned corporation, the road lias become
secondary to the Canal work, although it is still a common carrier, and carries


The railroad station at Gatun, which is the only station of a permanent type so far
constructed, except at Colon and Panama City.
[41]







DDE~ DD cm ^Og03P_]ITED


Old Washington Hotel, showing statue of the Panama Railroad founders, Henry Chauncey, Wm.
H. Aspinwall and John L. Stephens. A new modern hotel has taken the place of the old one.

about 70,000 tons of commercial freight a month, which is about one-half of the
total amount, the balance being handled for the company and for the Canal
work.
When the road was turned over by the French it was found to be in a
neglected condition, with obsolete equipment and rolling stock. Since that
time terminal wharves, equipped with modern cargo cranes, have been con-
structed, terminal yards, warehouses and machine shops provided, new and
powerful locomotives, 12 of which are oil burners, larger cars for passengers
and freight put into service, heavier rails laid, bridges strengthened to enable
them to carry the heavier equipment, and the whole line double-tracked.
Permanent reinforced concrete stations have been built at Colon, Gatun and
Panama, and a modern concrete hotel, the Washington, costing upwards of
$650,000 has been constructed on Colon beach.
THE NEW MAIN LINE
The relocated, or new main line of the railroad runs on the east side of the
canal for its entire length of 47.11 miles. From Colon to Mindi, 4.17 miles,
and from Corozal to Panama, the old location was used, but the remaining
40 miles are new road. From Gatun, the line skirts the north shore of the lake
for about four miles, and then turns south, crossing the eastern arm of the lake
on a high trestle fill at an elevation of 95 feet above sea level. Near Caimito,
the road approaches the canal again, and parallels it to Gamboa. Originally,
it was planned to carry the road through Culebra Cut on a 40-foot berm, 10 feet
above the water level, but slides caused the abandonment of the project, and it
was built on a high level around Gold Hill instead. Its highest point is 9271
[ 42 ]







cE A -IIDED T -- O UITE

feet above sea level near LaPita, and where the continental divide is crossed,
opposite Culebra, the height is 241 feet. From the south end of Culebra Cut
at Paraiso, the railroad runs practically parallel with the canal to Panama.
Where the road crosses the Gatun River, near Monte Lirio, a steel girder bridge
with a lift span has been erected to permit native sailing craft to pass into the
east arm of the lake, and at Gamboa, the Chagres River is crossed with a steel
girder bridge one-quarter of a mile long. At Miraflores, the road passes through
a tunnel 736 feet long.
The new line was completed on May 25, 1912, at a cost of $8,984,922.18,
but passenger trains were not run over it for its entire length until September 2,
1913, when the former crossing at Gamboa dike was abandoned on account of
the rise of Gatun Lake. On that date a new schedule was placed in effect,
whereby the main line trains run all the way from Colon to Panama on the east
side of the canal, and the towns on the west bank are served with a shuttle train
service from Panama to Bas Obispo, the present terminus of the old double-
track line. The shuttle trains now cross the canal, near Paraiso on a trestle
bridge, but as this will have to be removed to permit the navigation of the canal,
a wooden pontoon bridge will be built in the same locality of sufficient width for
a single track and a roadway for vehicles. This is not intended for a permanent
crossing but only to such time as the villages on the west bank of the canal can
be abandoned. South of Corozal, a change will be made in the road which will
have the effect of placing the new town of Balboa on the main line, with its
terminus at Panama as at present. The railroad possesses modern passenger
terminals at both ends. The one in Colon is of concrete block construction,
and was opened on July 23, 1909. It is not particularly attractive from an
architectural standpoint. The new station in Panama, costing about $100,000,
was completed in the latter part of 1913. The only other station of a permanent
type so far constructed is at Gatun, built in 1909.


I~:LY'~nI IMIJ at- !n


The new Hotel Washington at Colon. Cost about $500,000.
Operated by the Panama Railroad.
[ 431








c[LTjE ANP J DIVIDED --G E WOPD&U ITTNIThED

The total mileage of the road, exclusive of sidings, is 58.79, as follows:
Main line. 47.11 miles; Pedro MIiguel to Bas Obispo, 9.12 miles, and Panama
to Ballboa 2.56 miles.
BUSIEST SHORT LINE IN THE WORLD
During the years 1911-1912 the road carried 777,121 first-class passengers,
and 1,980.5.35 second-class passengers, an increase of over 300,000 for the year.
During the fiscal year just closed, the passenger traffic is expected to show
material increase ldue in part to the increased tourist travel. Freight amounting
to 1,87l1,076 tons was transported over the railroad during 1911-1912, divided
as follows:
Per cent.
Through commercial freight ......................... 36.80
Local and I. C. C. freight. .. ... ............. ....49.93
Local conm merc;al freight ....... .................... 10.37
Panama Railroad Company's freight ................... 2.90

The net revenue from its operation was $1,997,280.80. The steamship
line, on the other hand, has not paid as an investment, except as a feeder for the
railroad, and for the benefit of the Isthmian Canal Commnission. It has had a
steady freight and passenger traffic, but the cargoes have consisted principally
of canal supplies, and the passengers have been mostly employes of the Canal
(Comminion and railroad, who are carried at a reduced rate. The net deficit
from the operation of the steamship line for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912,
was $30.3,74-2.85.
With the completion of the canal it is possible that the road will be electri-
fied, obtaining the necessary power froml the hydroelectric plant at Gatun spill-
way. and will be devoted almnist entirely to local traffic. This traffic will, no
doubt. ble considerable. for Colon and Panama will always be important cities.


It. .


New Panama railroad passenger terminal in Panama, just completed.
[44]
























HE French attempt to construct a waterway across the Isthmus was
foredoomed to failure because the project fell into the hands of
promoters and speculators. A contributory cause was the very high
sick and death rate among the French employes on the Isthmus. This
added greatly to the cost of administration and resulted in an unstable labor
force. Many of the best engineers left the Isthmus after short service, or died,
and these constant changes made it difficult to pursue any regular plan to keep
up an effective organization to carry on the work. The company had to pay
high wages and offer special inducements to persuade men to take the chance of
one in five of surviving an attack of yellow fever which they were liable to
contract. Had the work been in charge of a rich and powerful government,
public opinion would not have allowed the work to have been carried on at such
an appalling cost of life. When the enterprise was started the method of
transmission of malaria and yellow fever was unknown, and, even if the French
had taken the sanitary precautions prevailing at that time, they could not have
stamped out these two fevers which gave the Isthmus the reputation of being
the most unhealthy place in the world for a white man. As a private corpora-
tion, it could not enforce sanitary regulations had it desired to do so, for, unlike
the United States, it did not acquire absolute jurisdiction over the Canal strip,
but was at the mercy of the Colombian courts.
Other causes were extravagance, which naturally developed into graft,
for the supply of money which came flowing into the coffers of the company
from eager investors beguiled by the name of De Lesseps seemed inexhaustible;
the lack of suitable machinery, the want of preparation, and misguided leader-
ship. All these mistakes have served as warning signals to the Canal Com-
mission, so that the failure of the French has contributed, in a' large measure, to
the success of the Americans.
DE LE ISS PS- PROM. T IE:
The first French Canal Company, La Societe International du Canal
Interoceanique, inaugurated the undertaking with an exclusive concession from
Colombia, but with an incomplete survey of the proposed work, and an esti-
mate of cost and time placed much too low. The necessary money was
[ 45 1







cJAE ItNP DIVIDEDD ---crE W9OJl, TTUITED


Count Ferdinand de Lesseps. His name will
always be linked with the great enterprise
as it was under his direction and control
that the work first took definite form.


obtained from the French middle
classes, who were induced to part with
their savings through the magic name of
Ferdinand de Lesseps, who had just
brought to a successful close his great
work at Suez. and who was placed at the
head of the new enterprise. De Lesseps
was honest and sincere, but he was an
old man, somewhat blinded by his pre-
vious good fortune, and, therefore,
easily deluded. He was enthusiastic
over the idea of a canal connecting the
Atlantic with the Pacific, and made
himself and others believe that the work
could he accomplished more quickly
;nd much easier than the Suez. His
ability as a missionary made him valu-
able to the promoters, for the difficulties
of the work across the Isthmus, as com-
pared with the work at Suez should
have been apparent even to the layman.
He was not an expert engineer; it did
not require any engineering ability, but
merely imagination, to see the practica-
bility of cutting a sea level channel
through the low desert region of upper
Egypt, while at Panama, a hilly and


Former headquarters of De Lesseps, Cristobal, now used by the Canal Commission.
[46]







CITE TJ/P DIVIDED -c-tjHE7 1 OIEBTTNDITED

rock country had to be traversed, torrential streams diverted, and a tidal basin
constructed, problems which the world's foremost engineers have differed in
the solution. And yet De Lesseps sincerely believed that he was to achieve a
second triumph, and much easier than his first. (The Suez Canal was opened
in 1869, took ten years to build, and cost about $100,000,000, or a million
dollars a mile. This low cost was due to the fact that the cut was made through
a stretch of level sand, and Said Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt, a large stock-
holder in the enterprise, practically forced his subjects to work on the project
in much the same manner as Rameses of old).
PROCURING THE CONCESSION
The concession for the privilege of constructing the Canal wa, obtained
from Colombia in May, 1876, by General Stephen Tiirr; a Hungarian, who had
become acquainted with De Lesseps when the latter was planning his work at
Suez, and who was later incited by the Frenchman's success in an effort to
duplicate the feat at Panama. He organized a provisional company in France
and sent an engineering party to the Isthmus in November, 1876, to make
explorations and surveys. The party was in charge of Lieutenant Napoleon
Bonapart Wvse, of the French Navy, a brother-in-law of General Tiirr, and at
that time only e3 years of age. The first expedition was only partly successful,
several of its members falling victims to disease. Wyse was again sent out in
the spring of 1878 with Lieutenant Armand Reclus, also of the French Navy.
On this trip he obtained a new concession, approved May 18, 1878, in the name
of the association presided over by General Tirr, which modified and extended
the former one, so as to give the promoters the exclusive privilege of building a
canal across the Isthmus anywhere within the United States of Colombia.
This concession was to remain in force 99 years, provided the necessary per-
mission was obtained from the Panama Railroad Company which held a


The old port of Colon in 1884, during the early French days. This photograph
was taken with a wet plate, a relic of photography.
[47]







Ct1 AD IDD --cIE Or -D TINJTED




















Cristobal street scene in the French days. The scenes of the old French days have changed
with newer ideas. This section is now filled with roomy houses and quarters for the canal
employes and I. C. C. manufacturing plants.
monopoly of the Isthmian route. Work was to be begun not later than 1883,
and was to be completed within 12 years, with an extension of six years in case
the original term proved too short.
Although Wyse went over not more than two-thirds of the distance from
Panama to Colon, he submitted what were supposed to be complete plans and
a statement of cost for a sea level canal between the two points, following the
line of the Panama railroad. These plans and estimates were submitted to an
international engineering congress which was convened in Paris, May 14-29,
1879, in accordance with the terms of the concession, with Ferdinand de
Lesseps at its head. These plans were the basis of a decision by the congress in
favor of a sea level canal, following the route of the Panama railroad, by way
of the pass at Culebra, using the valley of the Chagres river on the Atlantic
side, and the valley of the Rio Grande on the Pacific side of the continental
divide. It is pertinent to note that in this congress, consisting of 136 delegates
from France, Germany, the United States and other countries, only 42 were
engineers, while the reniainder were promoters, politicians, speculators, and
personal friends of De Lesseps. The Wyse concession and plans were "shoved
through," approved, and turned over to La Societe International du Canal
Interoceanique, commonly known as the first French Canal Company, for a
consideration of $2,000,000. This was the first "step in the dark," taken by the
company.
DE LESSEPS' PLAN.
De Lesseps) made two visits to the Isthmus, the first in December, 1879, and
the second in 1886, remaining for about two months on each occasion. On
his first visit he was accompanied by his wife, three of his children, and an
international technical commission, consisting of nine members. At one of the
[ 48









I

d


The famous flat arch in the ruins of Santo Domingo Church, Panama City. It is an architectural curiosity of the early day Spanish masons and
has withstood the assault of fire and earthquakes. It has a span of over 40 feet, and a rise of two feet, and has stood in the ruins of the old church
for 206 years.







C=E LAN=, DIVIDED G-cfl WrOjD TUNWTED

numerous receptions and banquets tendered him, he said: "There are only
two great difficulties to be overcome, the Chagres River, and the deep cutting
at the summit. The first can be surmounted by turning the headwaters of the
river into another channel, and the second will disappear before the wells which
will be sunk and charged with explosives of sufficient force to remove vast
quantities at each discharge."
The engineering commission, after a superficial study of the route and
former incomplete surveys, in a report submitted February 14. 1880. estimated
the cost at $168,600,000. The engineering congress estimated the cost at
$214,00009000. On February 20, De Lesseps reduced this estimate ti, $131 .600,-
000, and again on March 1. without apparent reason, to $1L 2,00l0,000. The
proposed sea level canal was to have a uniform depth of '!9.5 feet, a bottom
width of 72 feet, and a width on the water line of about 90 feet. alnd involved
excavation estimated at 157.000,000 cubic vardsl. Thei engineering congress
estimated -seven or eight years as the time required to complete tle work.
De Lesseps, with his usual optimism, reduced the time to six years. To
control the floods of the Chagres River, various schemes were proposed, the
principal one being the construction of a dam at Camlboa, a little below Cruces.
and the construction of channels to the sea to carry the impounded water away
from the canal. On account of the great difference in the tides of the two
oceans, a maximum of two and one-half feet in the Atlantic and 21 feet in the
Pacific, a tidal basin or lock was to have been built at the Pacific entrance.
(The high tide on the Pacific side is due to the fact that the Bav of Panama is
funnel-shaped). No work was ever accomplished on either of these two


Front Street. Colon, during the flourishing French days, with the pay car
at the old depot.
[ 49 ]











71


im)


THE FIRST WHARF


?ANCE


. .


BALBOA IN THE
FRENCH DAYS

IU.6


A group of views of Balboa and the canal entrance and operations, during the days of both
the First and Second French Companies. The wharf was the first constructed by the French.
The one-sided dump cars shown in the top picture are now obsolete.

[ 50 ]


;-t '1S '."


U*d~
II


I a i_
'" `':


t*
h
4 ,







JiB T P DIVIDED -tHE _WOPJV ITTNIIED

projects. A dam at Gamboa was found later to be impracticable, and the
problem of the diversion of the Chagres River was left to some future time.
INAUGURATING THE WORK
On January 1, 1880, the ceremony of breaking the ground was to have
been performed by De Lesseps at the mouth of the Rio Grande, about three
miles west of Panama city. The boat bearing a party of ladies and gentlemen
who were to take part was delayed in starting, with the result that it could not
get within two or three miles of the shore on account of the ebbing tide. This,
however, did not dampen the ardor of the versatile Frenchman, as the arrival
of the steamer in the entrance of the river mouth was considered by him a
sufficient beginning. The first blow was thereupon struck with a pick in a box
of earth upon the deck of the steamer, while the oblerivers aided their imagina-


Limon Bay in the busy French days.


tion by copious draughts of champagne. On January 10, 1880, De Lesseps,
with another party of civil and church dignitarie went to Culebra to witness
the first blast. Accounts differ as to this event. Tracy Robinson, the oldest
American on the Isthmus, states in his book on Panama, that the blast never
came off, and as he was present, he ought to know. On the other hand, the
"Star and Herald" of the day following gives a circumstantial account of the
affair, ending with: "The mine had been carefully laid in an exceedingly hard
and compact formation of basalt at a few feet below the summit, and charged
with 30 kilograms of explosive. The operation was performed with complete
success, and immense amount of solid rock being hurled from its original
position." No photographs of the incident are extant.
Actual excavation work did not commence in Culebra Cut until sometime
[ 51]







CTM LAND


DIVIDED -m E WNOL D, TTITED


The pick and shovel brigade.


later. "The Bulletin du Canal Interoceanique," published by the company
for the benefit of the stockholders, of February 1, 1882, states: "The first
work in the great cut of the maritime canal was formally inaugurated today
(Jan. 20, 1882), at Empire in the presence of the dignitaries of the state, the
leading citizens of the city and a great assemblage of the people. The first
locomotive has arrived at the newly opened excavation. The city of Panama
is celebrating the event with a great fete."
De Lesseps left Colon for the United States on February 22, 1880, for the
purpose of interesting Americans in the undertaking. Although he was
received with a great deal of enthusiasm everywhere, he was unable to dispose
of the stock which he had thoughtfully reserved. Americans were interested
in a canal, but not in a canal under French control. He then proceeded on a
similar tour of Europe, where he was more successful from a pecuniary point of
view. The first issue of stock, 600,000 shares of $100 each, was subscribed twice
over, mostly taken in France. These shares were distributed among 100.000
persons, indicating the great Frenchman's popularity with the people of his
country. In 1888, when the company failed, the total subscriptions, stocks and
bond issues, had reached $393,505,100, and the shareholders numbered 20.00000.
Two years of feverish preparation followed which witnessed the making
of hasty surveys, the bringing together of machinery and a labor force, and the
erection of quarters and hospitals. The actual construction work was let to a
firm of French contractors, Couvreaux & Hersent, but they soon realized the
difficulties of the undertaking and withdrew from the last part of their contract.
FRENCH LABOR FORCE
There seems to have been little difficulty experienced in obtaining a labor
force, which in 1888, numbered about 20,000 men. Nine-tenths of these were
[ 52 ]


~L_ ___a DED _r DD UTED







CEnf1t TJ AP X DIVIDED ~ -cm WOBrOW TTNITED

negroes from the West Indies, and many of them held clerical and other similar
positions. The white employes, mainly from France, were treated with
extreme generosity. Economy was an unknown factor in the administration
of affairs of the first company. The average pay of a clerk was $125 per
month, and of a division chief from $200 to $300 per month. After two years'
service, five months vacation, with free traveling expenses to and from France,
were granted. The hours of labor for the clerical force was from 8 to 11 a. m.,
and 2 to 5 p. m., six hours a day. Free quarters, furniture, bedding, lamps,
kitchen utensils, etc., were provided. As there vwas no system of accounting
in vogue, many did quite a profitable business in the buying and selling of the
company's furniture. This was merely one of the petty forms of graft in
vogue, however. Enormous salaries were pail to the directors, engineers, and
other officers on the Isthmus. The director-generals lived in a house that cost
$100,000, now used as the American Legation in Panama City; they received
$50,000 a year, and when they went out on the work they were allowed $50 a
day additional. One of the private cars in which they rode cost $42,000.
LA FOLIE DINCLIEK
There formerly stood on an artificial terrace on the western slope of Ancon
Hill a building that commanded ready attention from passersby on the road
from Panama to La Boca, now Balboa. It was the prospective home of M.
Jules Dingier, proabl)ly the foremost director-general of the first French com-
pany, prospective, because he never occupied it. Work on the mansion was
begun shortly after he came to the Isthmus in February, 1883, and the cost
including the grounds is said to have been about $50,000. For iiaiy years





















La Folie Dingier, built for M. Julius Dingier in the first French Company's days, but never oc-
cupied by him. The experience of M. Dingler on the Isthmus constitutes one of the saddest
incidents in French canal history. His son, daughter and wife all contracted the dreaded yellow
fever and died.
[ 53 ]







IME TIAp-D .J)IVIDEDD -c-EB W OD, TTITED


The village of Empire in the old French days. The French began their first
excavation in the cut near this point in 1882.
it had been called La Folie Dingier, or Dingler's Folly. The experience of
M. Dingier on the Isthmus constitutes, perhaps, one of the saddest incidents
in French canal history. Stories of the fatal effect the climate of the Isthmus
was -aid to have on foreigners reached France, but Dingier scoffed at these
reports. "I am going to show them," he is credited with having aid, "that
only drunkards and the dissilpated contract yellow fever and die." In this
spirit he brought with him to the Isthmus, his wife, son, and daughter. His
son, who was made director of posts, shortly fell victim to yellow fever and died.
Dingier subsequently went to France on leave of absence, and upon the return
of himself and family to the Isthmus, his daughter met with the fate of his son.
On his return from a second trip to France, his wife also sickened and died from
the same fell disease. Dingier later relinquished his post and went back to Fra nce
a man broken in mind and body. At the time the American Government took
possession, La Folie Dingier had fallen into partial decay. Needed repairs


The French at work in the Canal at Cucaracha, 1885, just around
the point from Gold Hill.
[ 54 ]







^ANR IUFl) M1.IVIDED S --N 013LD> NUITED


Canal between Empire and Culebra, showing the French
method of excavation, in 1888.
were made and for several years the building was utilized as a detention station
for the quarantine service. It was sold in 1910 for $532.5, and removed to make
way for quarry work on the side of Ancon Hill.
During the period of grea test activity there were probably 2,000 Frenchmen
on the Isthmus, all non-immune to yellow fever. Life was a gamble and, with
no suitable social diversion, they naturally resorted to the only forms of amuse-
ment available, the saloons, gambling rooms, and houses of ill-repute. Colon
and Panarma became'the Mlecea of the parasites of society, the non-workers who
live on vice, with the result that an efficient labor force could not be kept long
under such conditions, and it was continually changing.


In the center of the Cut at the end of the first French Company's days, 1889.
The first French Company operated from 1881 to 1889.
[ 55 ]


I







qC p wN DIVIDE D --- EH WOlD UNITED


Culebra Cut in the earliest times of the second French Company, 1894.

TIII SICK POORLY CARED FOR


Two hospitals were built in 1883, which, with additions and alterations
have been in constant use Ib the Americans. Ancon hospital originally cost
$5,600.0m)(I. and Colon hospital cost $1,400,000, a total of $7,000,000.
The hospitals. although fairly well equipped, with excellent doctors and
surgeons a.nd sulplice with the best medicines and instruments of the time, were
poorly managed. They were handled under contract, and the administration


Looking South from Culebra in the second French Company's days, 1895.
The second French Company operated from 1894 to 1904.
[ .56 ]








GbJ T^A-BT ^DIVIDED --G-cE 1 O0 0D, ITED


The Cut as it appeared in 1904 when the Americans began the work. Contractor's Hill on
the right; Gold Hill on the left. Note the succession of benches, lying one above the other.
The Americans have followed this same method in excavating.

was left almost entirely to French Sisters of Charity, who, although they were
devoted and religious women, were not trained nurses. These worthy women
left the wards at night after prayer, closing the doors and windows tight to
keep out the night mists, which were supposed to bring malarial fever, leaving
the patients without any other care than that which was given by the less feeble
among themselves. When the wards were opened for morning prayer it was


The valley of the Rio Grande in the French days. The present canal is between the hills.
The old Panama Railroad bridge is shown at the south end of the Cut.
[57







tHE ^JfIVIDED Wc --GTH WSUrADD ITED

often found that some patient had died during the night, who might have been
saved with proper attention. The legs of the hospital beds were placed in tins
of water to keep insects from crawling up. These pans of stagnant water, and
also the many ornamental basins containing flowers and plants in the grounds
outside made ideal breeding places for mosquitoes; and it is quite probable
that many patients fell victim to fever while in the hospital suffering with some
minor illness, due to the unscreened windows and doors.

















The Cut in French times, showing their cableway plan of excavation. These cableways
carried the material out of the canal and deposited it to one side, but unfortunately not far enough,
for much of it has slid back into the Cut, causing extra excavation.
The hospital records show that during the construction period of the old
company-1881 to 1889-there were 5,618 deaths, 1,041 of which were from
yellow fever. The old yellow fever ward in Ancon hospital, now ward No. 16,
was called St. Charles, and it is believed that more people died from yellow fever
in it than in any other one building in the world. The West Indian negroes
were immune to yellow fever, and very few of them were admitted to the
hospitals. The victims, therefore, were nearly all white persons, and mostly
Frenchmen. A large proportion of the sick did not enter the hospitals, as the
contractors were charged one dollar a day for skilled medical treatment of
employes. Colonel Gorgas estimates the number of laborers who died from
1881 to 1889 at 22,189, or a rate of something over 240 per thousand per year.
He also estimates that as many died of yellow fever outside the hospitals as in,
and places the total number of deaths from that disease at 2,082. In September
1884, during an attack of yellow fever, the Canal Company lost 654 employes out
of a force of about 18,000. This is in part based on surmise, for the truth was
partly suppressed or minimized by the Canal Company in order not to destroy
the confidence of the people in the project, and outside of the hospital rolls, the
records were incomplete. A -virulent form of malaria, known as "Chagres
fever," caused a greater toll in lives than any other one disease. The negro
laborers, although immune from yellow fever, succumbed quickly to attacks
of this form of malaria.


[ 58 ]







E- ~ ,D DIVIDEDD ---<6TT1-E WOl-._I ITTITED

Under the new canal company, the hospitals were turned over to the Sisters
of Charity who took care of the few patients admitted at a fixed charge. As
the revenue from patients was small, they had a hard time to keep them open
at all, and were compelled to sell flowers, fruits, vegetables and other products
from the hospital grounds. When the Americans took charge these women
were replaced by trained nurses.
THE CRASH
The crash came in December, 1888. At this time $156,654,687.00 had
been expended on the Isthmus, and in Paris, $78,140,330.00, a total of $234,-
795,017.00. This vast sum is said to have been "one-third expended on the
canal work, one-third wasted, and one-third stolen." Of that spent at Panama,
salaries and expenses of management aggregated $16,540,883; rents and main-
tenance of leased property, $3,301,070; material and supplies, $29,722,856;
buildings, $15,397,282; construction and engineering expenses, $89,434,225;
land purchases. $950,655; and medical and religious attendance, $1,836,768.
In view of the various forms of graft, extravagance and waste, it is not sur-
prising that there was so little to show in actual work accomplished. At the
end of eight years the work was about two-fifths completed.



r .. .. i ."4















A French excavator opening a pioneer trench in the south end of the Cut. This was the
best known method of excavating in that day.

The work was let to contractors, very few of whom faithfully performed
the service for which they were paid. Many made small fortunes. Those
who were intrusted with the work of excavation were paid for the amount of
spoil which they took from the canal prism. As there was no data available
on the cost of such work, it was impossible to even estimate what the charge
should be. In many cases the contractors took out what was most easily
excavated, avoiding the hard spots. One notable exception to this was the
dredging work done by the American Dredging and Contracting Company,
which dredged the opening of the Canal from Colon to beyond Gatun.
[591



























First French Company's days. Dredges working in the canal at Mindi.


Two French ladder dredges working on the Chagres River, opposite Gorgona 20 years ago.


The French suction dredges with the carrying pipes, were effective in excavating, but like
their cableways, did not carry the spoil far enough.
[ 60 1







CTjpjE~I T^ DDE D r--7XE; PO U NgWOIED

Much worthless material was shipped to the Isthmus, due to ill advised
buying, the French manufacturers undoubtedly in many instances cleaning
house to their profit at the expense of the Canal stockholders: When the
Americans took over the property they found torch lights in one storehouse
apparently brought to the Isthmus to be used in the celebration of the opening
of the Canal. At another time a lot of wooden shovels, made from one piece,
were brought to light. They have been referred to as snow shovels, but were
evidently intended for handling sand or ashes. A ton or more of rusted pen
points found in the stationery store furnished additional proof as to where
some of the money went.
Early in 1885, it became apparent that the Canal could not be completed
under the sea level plan within the time or estimated cost. During the previous
year the promoters foresaw the end, and began to sell their stock. M. Leon
Boyer, who succeeded Dingiler as director had time to report before his death
from yellow fever a few months after his arrival on the Isthmus, that the canal
could not be completed by 1889, and to submit a plan for a lock canal. In May,













Old French dump cars. Steel cars, 18 feet long, were used exclusively. The cars dumped on one
side only, and were too small for economical use. Most of these were scrapped by the Americans.
1885, M. De Lesseps asked the French Government for authority to issue
lottery bonds for a loan of $120,000,000, to replenish the depleted treasury.
Before granting permission, the Government sent out M. Armand Rousseau,
an eminent engineer, to investigate conditions. He reported that the c;iial
could not be finished within the time and cost estimated unless changed to the
lock plan. Similar reports were made by an engineer sent out by the company,
and by the agent of the Colombian Government on the Isthmus, the latter
stating that the canal could not be completed before the expiration of the
concession in 1892. In February, 1885, Lieutenants Winslow and MrcLean of
the United States Navy, reported that there remained to be excavated 180,000,-
000 cubic yards; that the work would take 26 years at the then rate of progress,
and that the cost would total $50,000,000,000.
M. De Lesseps withdrew his request for permisionsi, to issue lottery bonds,
but would not consent to a change in plans. He obtained temporary financial
relief by the issue of bonds to the value of about $70,000,000, but as money
again began to get scarce, he consented to a change in plan, and in October,
1887, a temporary lock canal, with summit level above the flood line of the
[ 61 ]







DIVIDED --T.- HtE WOZrJD,. TPNITED


Chagres River, to be supplied with water by pumping, was decided upon.
Under the new plan, it was estimated that the cost would reach $351,000,000
and would require 20 years to build. There had already been spent at this time
nearly $'.50,000,000, and only about two-fifths of the work had been ac-
complished. The end was in sight.
Work was pushed forward under the new plan until May, 1889, when the
company became bankrupt and a liquidator was appointed to take charge.
Under the liquidator, the work gradually diminished and was finally suspended
on May 15, 1889. It was soon realized that the only way anything could be
saved to the stockholders was to continue the project. Late in 1889, the
receiver appointed a commission composed of French and foreign engineers,
eleven in number, to visit the Isthmus and determine whether or not the canal
could be completed. This commission reported on May 5, 1890, that a lock
canal might be completed within eight years at a cost of $174,600,000. It
rel)orted that the plant on hand was in good condition and would probably











Old French locomotives. One hundred and nineteen of these were rebuilt
and used by the Americans.

suffice for completing the canal. It also estimated the value of the plant and
the work already accomplished at $87,300,000, or one-half of the total cost.
Meanwhile, as a result of the exposure and investigation of the affairs of
the old company, M. De Lesseps and his son Charles were sentenced to five
years imprisonment, and similar sentences were imposed upon several others
of their associates. The French Court of Appeals annulled the sentence of
Charles de Le aeps, and that against his father was never executed for, at that
time, January 10, 1893, he was 88 years old and a physical and mental wreck;
he died in the month of December, following.
As the Wyse coiice.w'ion had nearly-expired, the receiver obtained from
Colombia an extension of ten years. It was stipulated that the new company
should be formed and work upon the canal resumed on or before February 28,
1893. As this condition was not fulfilled, a second extension of 10 years was
obtained, to run not later than October 31, 1894.
THE SECOND OR NEW COMPANY
The Comnpagnie Nouvelle du Canal de Panama, the New French Canal
Company, as it is generally known, was organized under a special law on
October 20, 1894, with a capital stock of $13,000,000, with shares valued at $20
each. Six hundred thousand shares were sold for cash, the greater part being
taken by the receiver, the contractors, and others, who had been interested in
[ 62 ]


= Jb1E_ J D,_,

































































The top picture shows Bas Obispo in the first French Company's days, at the northern end
of their proposed lock. The center picture shows French cranes at work. The French using
laborers to fill cars is shown in the lower picture. Cableways, in the distance, were also used for
handling spoil.
[ 63 ]







C=b_ J JA ,.DIVIDED --gTE RI WI.D, JITED

the old company and escaped criminal prosecution by taking the new stock;
and 50,000 shares given to the Colombian Government for the extension of the
concession. The new company took possession in 1894, and work was im-
mediately resumed in Culebra Cut with a force large enough to comply with
the terms of the concession. As excavation work at this point was necessary
under any plans that might be decided upon, it was continued, while elaborate
and extensive studies of the Canal project were begun by competent engineers.
The plan finally adopted by the new company involved two levels above
the sea. one an artificial lake to be created by a dam across the Chagres River at












A number of old French dredges, which were valueless except as junk,
when the United States acquired them.
Bohio, and another a high level canal through Culebra Cut at an elevation of
6S.08 feet above mean tide, to be fed by water by a channel leading from a
reservoir to be constructed at Alhajuela in the upper Chagres River valley.
The lake level was to be reached from the Atlantic by a flight of two locks, and
the summit level by a second flight of two locks. On the Pacific side four other
locks were provided for. the two middle ones at Pedro Miguel being combined
in one flight, and the others being located at Paraiso and Miraflores. On the
Atlantic side there was to be a sea level channel to Bohio, 17 miles inland, and
on the Pacific side at Miraflores, about 8 miles inland. The depth of the
canal was to be 29.5 feet, with a bottom width of 98 feet. The locks were to be
in duplicate, 738.22 feet long, 82.0"2 feet wide, with a normal depth of 29.5
feet. The lifts were to vary from '26 to 33 feet.
A second plan was also worked out in which the upper level was omitted,
the cut through the divide being deepened to 32 feet above sea level, making the
artificial lake created by the dam at Bohio the summit level. Under this plan
the feeder from Alhajuela was omitted, although the dam was to be retained to
control the Chagres. One flight of locks on the Atlantic side and one lock on
the Pacific side were also to be omitted. The estimated cost of completing the
canal under this plan was not much greater than the first, and all work on the
first plan for several years would be equally available under the second.
Although the first plan was adopted on December 30, 1899, no effort was
made to carry it out, on account of the interest being shown by the United States
in a canal across Nicaragua. It was realized that if the United States should
undmertake to construct such a waterway, the work accomplished and the plant
on the Isthmlius would be practically worthless. In 1895, there was a force of
[ 64















-* i ~~r ~-'" ~:
'd'
~ "i..
...
;


.

.


..





~-- .


One of the driveways in Ancon Hospital grounds. Ancon Hospital is world-famed, and the grounds are among the most beautiful in existence.
The site covers about 80 acres, on the slope of Ancon Hill, and the environment is decidedly pleasing to the eyes of both the sick and well. Over
250 varieties of trees and plants are grown in the grounds.


:: 2 ,, o. 0 iE : =o ... :- .:
.. .. ... ,^ ,.
S?.'
,:~_~A.
A .Q P_;-
Q-


Fie'- -" : .*.w ^ ^ -
-,j ,, -, .. ,


f


.; ..
-.

L-, 'n '


n :
''
"-. L :G

'*

LL
il
r
~
r


* ....








_.JWDIVI DED -- I --- _O I __ITE_

men numbering about 2,000 at work in Culebra Cut, and a year later this was
increased to 3,600. This was the largest number of men employed under the
new company, for only enough work was done to hold the concession and keep
the equipment, in a salable condition. The French at that time were beginning
to look for a purchaser; they wanted $100,000,000 for the work and equipment,
but the only likely buyer was the United States. The Isthmian Canal Com-
mission, appointed by the Spooner Act of 1899, reported in November, 1901,
in favor of the Nicaragua route unless the French company was willing to sell
out at $40,000,000. This recommendation became a law on June 28, 1902,
and the New Panama Canal Company was practically forced to sell for that
amount or get nothing.
Although the French on the Isthmus worked under difficulties which
eventually forced them to give up the Canal undertaking, they removed with
their clumsy side excavators, now obsolete dredges, small Decauville cars and
toy Belgium locomotives, a considerable amount of niterial from the
Canal prism, a large part of which has been found useful under the present
plan.
The old company excavated 66,743,551 cubic yards, from 1881 to 1889, and
the new company excavated 11,403,409 cubic yards up to 1904, a total of 78,-
146,960 cubic yards; 18,646,000 cubic yards of this total were taken from
Culebra Cut, the operation of the new company being practically confined to














A pile of old French dump cars. Many tons of this scrap material have been collected
along the line of the Canal.

that portion of the work. Of this total, it has been figu red that 29,908,000 cubic
yards have been useful to the Americans. The old company dredged a channel
from deep water in Panama bay to the wharves at Balboa which has been used
by ships docking at that port. On the Atlantic side, the channel dredged inland,
known as the French canal, was found useful upon deepening in bringing sand
and stone for the locks and spillway concrete at Gatun.
The French also turned over valuable surveys and studiess of the work,
together with plans that have been found of great value to the American or-
ganiza tion. The I)est of this class of work was (ldone under the new comilany.
[ 65 1







clEu TjAj DPJ DIVIDED ---cE 1WORDU. UNITED

This is especially true of the records kept of the flow and floods of the Chagres
River, together with rainfall records, so essential to the present plan.
FRENCH AID TO AMERICAN PROJECT
Much of the work of preparation during the first two years of American
occupation-1904-1905-would have been seriously delayed without the
French supplies and equipment. In the shops and storehouses were found a
plentiful supply of repair parts, shop tools, stationary engines, material and
supplies of all kinds of good quality. At Gorgona, where the principal shops
were located, known during the French times as Bus Matachin shops, were
found sheds filled with old locomotives, cranes and excavators. One hundred
car loads of foundry and machine shop material were removed from this point.
Repair shops were found at Empire, Paraiso, Gatun and Bohio. A small
machine shop was uncovered in the jungle at Caimito Mulato, when American


















Another view of a part of the old machinery, a legacy from the French. All of the junk
along the line of the Canal, both French and American, is being turned into dollars, having been
sold to a Chicago wrecking concern.

engineers were running the center line of the Canal. There was also a dry dock
at Cristobal, which was originally 190 feet long, 32 feet wide and 16 feet deep
over the sills at ordinary high tide. At Balboa on the Pacific side, there was
located a repair and marine shop for the floating equipment. The old French
shops in every case formed the nucleus of the larger and better equipped shops
maintained by the Americans during the period of construction.
During the first two years of American occupation, French locomotives
were the only ones available by the Isthmian Canal Commission. On June 30,
1906, there were 106 in service, and only 15 American locomotives. The same
is true of the French dump cars. In 1904, there were 308 in service, and in
1905, over 2,000 had been repaired and put in commission, as compared with
300 American-built cars. At the present time there are about 100 French
locomotives and 200 Decauville dump cars in servicealbc condition. In
December, 1904, there were six old French excavators working in Culebra Cut,
[66








DIVIDED ----- WOmD-, TNITED

which had been overhauled and placed in service. These were similar to ladder
dredges, and the excavation was accomplished by an endless chain of buckets
which carried earth and rock from one side and dropped it into a hopper from
which it fell into dump cars on the other side. These machines were effective
only when working in soft material. They remained at work 18 months before
they were replaced by modern steam shovels.
The floating equipment on hand was considerable, and many dredges,
clapets or self-propelling hopper barges, tugs, launches, etc., were found in the
marine graveyards at Folks River, Cristobal, and in the mouth of the Rio
Grande at the Pacific entrance to the Canal, as well as along the banks of the
Chagres River. Many of these were floated, rebuilt and placed in commiuiion.
On account of the excellent material used in the construction of this equipment,
most of which was Scotch-built, the Americans found it highly profitable to
repair them. Heavy coats of paint and oil, which 20 or more rainy seasons
















A laborer looking for his belongings after a flood. The damage and loss of property
caused by the floods during the rainy season is clearly pictured here.

could not penetrate, had been given the machinery when it was retired, so that
when the hulls were not worth repairing, the valuable parts were used elsewhere.
Several dredges were reconstructed from parts of others. A Scotch ladder dredge
with a capacity of about 130,000 cubic yards per month was repaired at a cost
of about $30,000, which, when new, cost about S2(0O),000. At the present time
there are several French dredges doing excellent work on the Canal.
Two thousand, one hundred and forty-nine buildings scattered along the line
of the Panama Railroad were included in the turn-over. These were generally
small and ill-suited for use, other than as laborers' barracks or storehouses, but
it was found profitable to repair some 1,500 of them even after they had stood
unused for ten years or more. The large piles of French scrap, old locomotives,
boilers, dump cars, parts of machines, etc., which used to be one of the sights
along the line of the Panama railroad have slowly disappeared. Much of it
has been sold as junk to contractors, while the copper, bra ss, white metal, rails,
and cast iron have been used in the foundry at Gokrgona. Old French rails
[ 67 1








DIVIDED -c-B Imq1D WJ __O RN4ITED


have been used in the reinforcement of concrete in the lock walls, for the repair
of dump cars, and for telephone and telegraph poles.
Seven years after the Canal was taken over from the French, May, 1911,
the present Isthmian Canal Commission made a careful official estimate of
the value to the Commission of the franchises, equipment, material, work done,
and property of various kinds for which the United States paid the French Canal
Company $40,000,000. It places the total value at over $42,000,000 divided
as follows:


Excavation, useful to the Canial, 29,708,000 cubic yards.
Panama Railroad Stock .... ........
Plant and material. used, and .sold for scrap...........
B buildings, used ................................
Surveys, plain., nalp,. and records ...................
L a n d . .. ... .
Clearings, roads, etc ............................
Ship channel in Panama Bay, four years' use .........


Total


. .... 825,389,240.00
9,644,320.00
..,112,063.00
.... 2.054,203.00
,000,000.00
..... 1,000,000.00
..... 100,000.00
00,000.00

..... $42,799,826.00


A mechanical oddity-tree grown through an old French dump car.


r 68 1


-qrTM =16 -D,

























N Isthmian Canal Commission organized for the construction of the
Canal was appointed under the provisions of An Act of Congress
approved June 28, 1902. called the Spooner Act. This Act author-
ized the President to acquire, in behalf of the United States, at a cost
not exceeding $40,000,000, the rights, franchises, property, etc., including the
shares of the Panama railroad, owned by the New French Canal Company,
and to obtain from the Republic of Colombia perpetual control of the necessary
strip of land across the Isthmus, which control should also include the right to
perpetually maintain and operate the Panama railroad, and jurisdiction over
the ports at either end.
If the President should be unable to obtain a satisfactory title to the prop-
erty, and the control of the necessary territory, within a reasonable time and
upon reasonable terms, then the Commission was authorized to construct a
waterway across Nicaragua, using Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan River,
after the President had first obtained perpetual control, by treaty with Costa
Rica and Nicaragua. The impossibility of the United States to come to a
satisfactory agreement with Colombia, who thought that the United States was
now committed to construct a canal across Panama and, therefore, could be
made topay a larger amount than first offered, led to the revolution of November
3, 1903, by which Panama, a state of Colombia became the Republic of Panama,
and the signing of a treaty by the new Republic by which the United States was
granted in perpetuity the necessary territory. This strip of land, known as
the Canal Zone, containing about 436 square miles, extends from deep water in
the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific (three miles from the low water mark
on either side), and five miles on either side of the center line of the canal.
Included in this grant are the Islands of Naos, Perico, Flamenco and Culebra
in the Bay of Panama, which are now connected with the mainland by a break-
water, and upon which fortifications are being placed. The cities of Panama
and Colon are excluded from the limits of the Canal Zone, but the United States
exercises sanitary control over them, and also has the right to maintain public
order in them in case the Republic of Panama should not be able in the judg-
ment of the United States to do so.


[ 69 1


















































































MEMBERS OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


COL. GEO. W. GOETHALS, U. S. A.,
Chairman and Chief Engineer.
COL. HARRY F. HODGES, U. S. A.,
Assistant Chief Engineer.


COL. WILLIAM C. GORCAS, U. S. A.,
Chief Sanitary Officer.
H. H. ROUSSEAU. CIVIL ENGINEER. U. S. NAVY,
Assistant to the Chief Engineer.


Copyright, Harris & Ewing, Wa.1lilcjgll I '

[ 70]

















































































MEMBERS OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


COL. WILLIAM L. SIBERT, U. S. A.,
Division Engineer of the Atlantic Division.
HON. RICHARD LEE METCALFE,
Head of Department of Civil Administration.


COL. D. D. GAILLARD,
Division Engineer of the Central Division.
JOSEPH BUCKLIN BISHOP,
Secretary.


Copyright, Harris & Ewing, and Clinedinst, Washington, D. C.

[ 71]






DIVIDE D 0cr71ES NPJJQEUNWD

As compensation to the Republic of Panama, the United States paid
$10,000,000, and agreed to make an annual payment of $250,000, to begin nine
years after the date of the treaty. These annual payments commenced in
February, 1913.
ORGANIZATION OF THE CANAL COMMISSION
The first meeting of the Isthmian Canal Commission was held in Washing-
ton, D. C., on March 22, 1904, with the following members appointed by the
President: Rear-Admiral John G. Walker, Chairman; Major-General George
W. Davis, U. S. A., William Barclay Parsons, C. E., William H. Burr, C. E.,
Benjamin H. Harrod, C. E., Ewald Grunsky, C. E., and Frank J. Hecker.
On May 9, 1904 Ex-President Roosevelt, by Executive Order, placed the
immediate supervision of its work, both in the construction of the canal and in
the exercise of such governmental powers deemed necessary under the treaty
with Panama in the Canal Zone, in the hands of the Secretary of War, William
H. Taft.
The full Commission first arrived on the Isthmus on April 5, and estab-
lished temporary headquarters in the old De Lesseps residence in Cristobal.
A thorough study was made of the plans and methods of work as carried on by
the French, in which work it was assisted by Maj. William M. Black and
Lieutenant Mark Brooke, U. S. Corps of Engineers, and by M. Renaudin, the
resident representative of the New Panama Canal Company. From this
examination it was found that new and extended surveys would be necessary
before any of the problems of location and construction could be settled, so the
first step of the Commission on its return to the United States on April 29, was
the organization of engineering parties. Five of these were organized, the first
leaving for the Isthmus about the middle of May, and the others shortly after.
Surveys and investigations were made by these parties of the proposed harbor
improvements of Colon, the proposed dams for the control of the Chagres River
at Gatun, Bohio and Gamboa, and the design of water works and sewers for
the cities of Colon and Panama.
TAKING POSSESSION-CHANGE IN CHIEF ENGINEER
The United States represented by Lieutenant Brooke, U. S. A., took
possession of the French canal property on May 4, 1904, and operations were
continued with the same employes and laborers, about 700, that had been left
by the French company, for work had been continuous in Culebra Cut from
the beginning in 1881, except for a few years, in order to hold the franchise.
Although neither the equipment nor the organization of this force was adequate,
it was considered advisable to maintain it for the time being and to gradually
introduce necessary changes in the organization and in the equipment.
Lieutenant Brooke remained in charge of this work until the arrival of
Major-General Davis, who was appointed Governor of the Isthmus on May 8,
1904, and arrived on May 17. On the day of his arrival it was announced to
the inhabitants of the Canal Zone that the territory had been occupied by the
United States of America. This was a little bit too precipitate for the Pana-
manians who had been accustomed under the French regime to much speech-
making, feasting, and champagne drinking when any undertaking was put into
operation, so they protested to the State Department, to the end that, to their
minds, more fitting ceremonies were later indulged in. Governor Davis was
also placed in temporary charge of the construction work until the Chief
[ 72 ]















Ex-Presicdnt
Th dore Rssevelt















1,




























The chroniclers of history for all time will associate the names of Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson
with the world's greatest undertaking,-the construction of the Panama Canal. Students of the
subject will doubtless concede that to Theodore Roosevelt should be accorded the distinction of
inaugurating the enterprise, to his successor, former President Taft should belong the honor of
four years of faithful service in carrying forward the stupendous work so encouragingly begun,
and to President Woodrow Wilson falls the duty of installing the splendid success which the re-
sources, perseverance and indomitable courage of American citizenship have rendered possible.
[ 73










[ 743 .






I-jA~J D ,DIDED --G- E WOP KU~JTED

Engineer, Mr. John F. Wallace, entered upon his duties on June 1, 1904. Mr.
Wallace resigned as Chief Engineer on June 25, 1905, after serving one year,
and was succeeded by Mr. John F. Stevens on July 20, 1905.
Mr. Wallace, who had become dissatisfied with the working methods of
the first Commission was made a member of the Commission under an Executive
Order dated April 1, 1905, which reorganized it, and gave to him full control
in the department of construction and engineering. This reorganization was
brought about by the Secretary of War who, by direction of the President in
March, 1905, requested the resignations of the commissioners, which were at
once tendered. It was believed that this change would make a more effective
force for doing the required work, and do away with the long delays occasioned
in purchasing material and supplies and in the accomplishment of work by
government "red tape" which had become so irksome to Mr. Wallace. His
resignation shortly after this change, six days after his return to the Isthmus
from Washington, was hard to understand, but it is possible that the question of
health entered considerably into his decision, for it was at this time that the
first outbreak of yellow fever among the Americans had occurred and the first
victim was Mrs. Frank Seager, the wife of Mr. Wallace's private secretary.
THE NEW COMMISSION
The new Commission created under the above mentioned Order consisted
of the same number of members, seven, but full power was practically vested in
three members who were placed in charge of the three executive departments
created. One department was under the direction of the Chairman of the
Commission, Theodore P. Shionts, and took charge of the fiscal affairs, the
purchase and delivery of material and supplies, the accounts, bookkeeping.
and audits, and the commercial operations in the United States of the Panama
railroad and steamship lines, with headquarters in Washington; another, under
the Governor of the Zone, Charles E. Magoon, which looked after the ad-
ministration and enforcement of law in the Zone, the sanitation of the Canal
Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, and the custody of all supplies and
construction necessary for sanitary purposes, and the third, under the Chief
Engineer, John F. Wallace, which had charge of the work of construction, the
custody of all supplies and plant on the Isthmus and the practical operation of
the railroad on the Isthmus with special view to its utilization in the Canal
construction work.
An executive committee of not less than three members, a majority of
whom constituted a quorum was also created to act in place of the full com-
mission, which had heretofore only met quarterly, during the intervals between
meetings, in order to secure the uninterrupted course of the work. This
executive committee met twice a week in the office of the Governor on the
Isthmus until it was abolished on November 17, 1906.
The new department of Government and Sanitation was placed in charge
of Mr. Charles E. Magoon, as a member of the Commission, vice Major-Gen-
eral Geo. W. Davis, who returned to the United States on May 9, 1905, in ac-
cordance with instructions received from the Secretary of War, on account of
failing health. When General Davis left the Isthmus he turned the work over to
Col. W. C. Gorga. the Chief Sanitary Officer, who acted as Governor until
May 25, when Governor Magoon assumed the duties of his office.
The new Commission now consisted of seven members, as follows: Chair-
[ 74 ]






























































SOME OF THE MEN ON THE BIG JOB.
(1.) Hezekiah A. Gudger, Chief Justice of the Canal Zone Supreme Court. (2.) Frank
Feuille, Counsel and Chicf Attorney of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Rail-
road. (3.) H. A. A. Smith, Examiner of Accounts. (4.) A. S. Zinn, Resident Engineer in the
Central Division, who has been identified with the work in Culebra Cut since 1906. (5.) Henry
Goldmark, designing engineer, in charge of the lock gates of the Canal. (6.) T. B. Monniche,
designing engineer, in charge of the emergency dams of the locks. (7.) John H. McLean,
Disbursing Officer of the Isthmian Canal Commission. (8.) Capt. Robert E. Wood, U. S. A.,
Chief Quartermaster of the Isthmian Canal Commission. (9.) W. G. Comber, Resident Engineer
of the Sixth (Dredging) Division. (10.) Capt. Charles W. Barber, Chief of Canal Zone Police.
(11.) C. E. Weidman, Chief of the Fire Department. (12.) Tom M. Cooke, Chief, Division of
Posts, Customs, and Revenues. (13.) Lieut. Col. Eugene T. Wilson, Subsistence Officer. (14.)
George M. Wells, Resident Engineer, Department of Municipal Engineering. (15.) Harry O.
Cole, Resident Engineer, Fifth Division.

[ 75]







cijE TDAN .1 IVI DE D--DE WOIDE, JNJTEDP

man, Theodore P. Shonts, Charles E. Magoon, also Governor of the Canal
Zone, Rear-Admiral Mordecai T. Endicott, Brigadier-General Peter C. Hains,
U. S. A. (retired), Col. Oswald H. Ernst, U. S. A., Benjamin M. Harrod, and
John F. Wallace, also Chief Engineer.
COMMISSION AGAIN REORGANIZED
On November 17, 1906, the commission was again reorganized by Execu-
tive Order in order to promote harmony and to secure results by more direct
methods and a centralization of power. In order to do this, the following
departments were created under the new organization: Chairman, Chief
Engineer, General Counsel, who took over the duties of the Governor, Chief
Sanitary Officer, General Purchasing Officer, General Auditor, Disbursing
Officer, and Manager of Labor and Quarters.
On September 25, 1906, Gov. Charles E. Magoon, was transferred to
administer affairs in Cuba, and was succeeded by Richard Reid Rogers the
General Counsel in Washington on November 19, 1906. While Mr. Rogers
was in Washington, Mr. H. D. Reed acted as head of the department on the
Isthmus until the arrival of Mr. Jo. C. S. Blackburn who was appointed as
Head of the Department of Civil Administration on April 1, 1907. On April
2, 1907, the authority of the Governor, or Chief Executive of the Canal Zone,
was transferred by order of the Secretary of War to the Chairman's office, so
from that time the Chairman and Chief Engineer has in reality been Governor
of the Canal Zone also.
Mr. Shonts resigned effective March 4, 1907, and the resignation of
General Hains, Major Harrod, and Rear-Admiral Endicott, were accepted on
March 16, 1907. Finally, Mr. Stevens resigned effective April 1, 1907. The
resignation of Mr. Stevens was as great a surprise as that of Mr. Wallace.
According to the report current at the time, the chief engineer became alarmed
over the possibility of awarding the contract for the construction of the canal
to the Oliver-Bangs combination, and wrote a letter to the President, setting
forth that the canal organization had been pretty well perfected; that more dirt
had been taken out during the previous 30 days than had ever been taken out
before in the same length of time; that he did not care to share the work of
building the canal with anyone, nor be hampered with men less familiar with the
subject than himself. He intimated that if his wishes were not complied with
he would quit. The letter is said to have caused ex-President Roosevelt
something of a shock, but with j is characteristic spontaneity of action, he cabled
acceptance of the "resignation."
In order to get competent men who were used to working under Govern-
ment regulations and orders, and who would "stick," ex-President Roosevelt
resorted to the Army, with the result that three officers of the Corps of Engineers,
U. S. A., the Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, U. S. N., an officer of the
Medical Corps, U. S. A., and two civilians were appointed in their places, thus
practically abandoning the plan of carrying on the work under civilian direction.
Under this new organization a combination of the positions of Chairman and
Chief Engineer.was effected, and the creation of the Department of Sanitation,
distinct from Civil Administration was made. It was also required that the
commissioners take their station on the Isthmus and thus be in direct touch
[ 76 ]













ri, 7 r
FILT
iii i '


A feature of the Fourth of July celebration at Cristobal, in 1911, when Colonel Goethals delivered an address. A flag chorus of school children is
seated back of him. The Fourth has been religiously observed by the Americans on the Isthmus every year since 1904.


rl


~C~ 'n







jH-D DIVIDED 0-- c1 U ONI DI~NITED

with the work under their charge. This new commission assumed its duties
on April 1, 1907, and consisted of the following:
Col. Geo. W. Goethals, U. S. A., Chairman and Chief Engineer; Col. D. D.
Gaillard, U. S. A., Head of Department of Excavation and Dredging; Lieut.-
Col. Wm. L. Sibert, U. S. A., Head of Department of Lock and Dam Construc-
tion; Col. W. C. Gorgas, U. S. A., Chief Sanitary Officer; Civil Engineer H. H.
Rousseau, U. S. N., Head of Department of Municipal Engineering, Motive
Power and Machinery and Building Construction; Jackson Smith, Manager,
Labor, Quarters and Siubistence; Jo. C. S. Blackburn, Head of Department of
Civil Administration; Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Secretary.
The personnel of the above coinmmis.ion has remained uInchanged with three
exceptions. Jackson Smith re.,igned on September 15, 1908, and the depart-
ment of labor and quarters is now a part of the Qulrtermaster's Department
under direction of Captain R. E. Wood, U. S. A., and the Subsistence Depart-
















John F. Wallace, first Chief Engineer of the John F. Stevens, second Chief Engineer. He
Panama Canal. He entered upon his duties June was appointed July 20, 1905, and resigned April
1, 1904, and resigned June 25, 1905. 1, 1907, Col. Geo. W. Goethals, taking his place.
Copyright, Cliuedinst, Washington, D. C.
ment under direction of Major Eugene T. Wilson, U. S. A., as a sepa rate depart-
ment. Mr. Jo. C. S. Blackburn resigned, effective December 4, 1909, and was
succeeded on May 13, 1910, by Mr. Maurice H. Thatcher, Mr. Rousseau acting
as Head of the Department during the interval. Mr. Thatcher resigned, effective
on June 14, 1913, and was succeeded by Mr. Richard L. Metcalfe, the present
head of the department.
The Departments of Excavation and Dredging and Lock and Dam
Construction were abolished and, on July 1, 1908, became the Atlantic Division,
under Colonel Sibert, having charge of the dredging operations in the Atlantic
entrance, and the lock, dam and spillway work at Gatun, and the General
Division, under Colonel D. D. Gaillard, which has charge 'of the excavation in
the Culebra Cut section. On July 15, 1908, the Pacific Division was organized
and charged with the lock, (lam and spillway work at Pedro Miguel and Mira-
flores, a1nd the dredging work in the Pacific entran ce under Mr. S. B. William-
son, Division Enginier. Upon the resignat ion of Mr. Willioi n on n December
[ 78 3







JGAN DjIVIDE D ---ct WIOJIDTNJITED

12, 1912, the Pacific Division was abolished and its work was placed under the
immediate charge of the Chief Engineer, as the Fifth Division of the Department
of Construction and Engineering. On May 1, 1913, the dredging work of the
Atlantic and Pacific Divisions was consolidated under Mr. W. G. Comber,
Resident Engineer, forming the sixth Division of the Chief Engineer's office.
The Department of Municipal Engineering, Motive Power and Machinery, and
Building Construction, was abolished on August 1, 1908, and became a part of
the Department of Construction and Engineering with Mr. Rousseau, Assistant
to the Chief Engineer in charge. The present conunision consists of the
following members:
Colonel Geo. W. Goethals, U. S. A., Chairman and Chief Engineer;
Colonel H. F. Hodges, U. S. A., Assistant Chief Engineer (Appointed July 14,
1908, vice Jackson Smith); Civil Engineer H. H. Rousseaii, U. S. N., Assistant
to the Chief Engineer; Colonel D. D. Gaillard, U. S. A., Division Engineer,
Central Division; Lieutenant-Col. Wm. L. Sibert, U. S. A., Division Engineer,
Atlantic Division; Colonel W. C. Gorgas, U. S. A., Chief Sanitary Officer;
Richard L. Metcalfe, Head of Department of Civil Administration; Joseph
Bucklin Bishop, Secretary.
Of these eight men, Colonel Gorgas is the only one who has been in the
service since the inauguration of the work. Colonel Gaillard left the Isthmus
on August 9, 1913, on special leave of absence, suffering from a nervous break-
down, due to his long service on the Isthmus, and it is probable that he will not
return.
THE P'URCHIASING END
The Commission maintains an office in Washington in charge of Major
F. C. Boggs, U. S. A., who fills the positions of Chief of Office, and General
Purchasing Officer. The work is apportioned among the following divisions:
General Office, Disbursing Office, Office of Assistant Examiner of Accounts,
Appointment Division, Correspondence and Record Division, and Purchasing
Department. The Appointment Division has to do with filling requisitions
for American employes, and during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, 2,065
persons were tendered employment on the Isthlmus in grades above that of
laborer. Of this number, 1,183 accepted and were appointed, covering 59
different positions. The purchasing branch was organized on August 15, 1907,
and placed under the supervision of the Chief of Engineers, U. S. A., with an
officer of the Corps of Engineers in charge. Additional offices for the Ipurchase
of materials are maintained at New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco.
Medical and hospital supplies are )purchased through the Medical Supply
Depot of the Army in New York. Nearly all supplies are purchased under
contract by means of advertising for bids and making awards thereon, and all
material is carefully inspected before shipment, although the right is reserved
of making final inspection on the Isthmus. As an illustration of the work of
this department, a total of 7,087 orders were placed during the last fiscal year
to the value of $12,335,973.12.


[ 79 ]









,f.AKINTEISHMS. EALTHFUL













HE high mortality among employes encountered by the builders of the
Panama railroad and by the French during their operations indicated
that, to kee a suitable working force on the Isthmus, the Canal
Zone, and the cities of Panama and Colon would have to be made
healthy. Realizing this, one of the first divisions of the canal work to be
established was that of sanitation under Col. W. C. Gorgas, who, prior to his
arrival on the Isthmus, had successfully stamped out yellow fever and sub-
stantially reduced the high malaria rate in Havana, Cuba. This division was
at first a part of the Department of Government of the Canal Zone, but, on
account of the importance of the sanitary work it was later made a distinct and
separate department. That its work under the direction of Colonel Gorgas
has been entirely successful, may at this day, be readily seen. Instead of a
pest hole with an unsavory reputation as "a white man's graveyard," the
Isthmus has become a winter resort for an increasing number of tourists each
year. Not only was it necessary to free the Isthmus from pestilence in order
that the canal work might be accomplished, but it was just as necessary that it
be kept in that condition for all time.
Dr. Ronald Ross of the British Army in India is credited with the discovery,
through successive experiments in 1898, that the Anoplihels mosquito is the
germ-carrier for malaria. This mosquito bites an infected person and carries
the germ to other persons. In the same way another species of mosquito, the
Siteyowyia, was found to be responsible for yellow fever. The theory of yellow
fever transmission by mosquitoes was exploited as early as 1883, by Dr. Carlos
Finlay of Havana. The definite and indisputable test was made in July, 1900,
at Quemados, Cuba, by four members of the United States Army Medical
Corps,. who had been appointed as a commission for the study of the disease.
These four men were Doctors Walter Reed, Jesse W. Lazear, James Carroll,
and Aristides Agramonte. One of these men, Dr. Lazear who allowed himself
to be bitten by an infected mosquito, died from the resulting attack of yellow
fever. Dr. Carroll also contracted yellow fever during the experiments, but
recovered. A reward of $200 was offered to encourage volunteers, and of the
many enlisted men who took part in the experiments, the first to present them-
selves were John R. Ki inger and( John J. Moran, both of whom stated that
[so]


































































I, I
'1,


.-e ~.


Every square foot of swamp was a breeding place for mosquitoes. Draining swamps, sub-
soiling and burning grass, are some of the methods used in the prevention of mosquito breed-
ing. The man in the upper picture is shown burning grass which grows along the open ditches
and drains. In the lower picture he is shown spraying larvacide on the grass.


[ s8i


* ^ --R ^ y!


I;Pl~k~:8'


''' `S-?1
'.-
'tT
3i


.. i'


*: ,







C HB A DIVIDEDD '--C-RB WORID, NJUIITED
they would undergo the experiment only
on condition that they should receive no
reward for such service. They both
contracted the fever and recovered;
Moran is now in the employ of the
Comnmisioin on the Isthmus. After ex-
tensive experiments, the mosquito trans-
mission theory came to be fully accepted
by experts on tropic diseases.
By this knowledge the work on the
Isthmus was greatly simplified. The
prophylactic method of fighting yellow
fever and reducing malaria Twas found to
be in the extermination of the mosquito
as far as possible, and screening dwel-
lings against them. As soon as wire
netting could be bro ought to the Isthmus
all buildings in the Canal Zone were
properly screened. The destructive
methods consist in the draining of low
places, removal of vegetation, in the
damp shade of which mosquitoes breed, A mosquito disguise, which took first prize in the
and the killing of larvae by oiling pools masquerade contest in Panama Carnival of 1904.
and streams that could not be drained.
At the outset, Colonel Gorgas was hampered by the failure of the Com-
mission in Washington to realize the immediate necessity for large expenditures












/ I





The genus Stegomyia mosquito, male and female. The female on the left, the male in the


[ '2 ]1



































q -'-


,, It: i* J7';


S- STREET


ti- il l 1
N _N
HAVING'


JU L


It took months of labor, and sortie after sortie, before the mosquito horde began to thin. A
gang of about 900 natives was at one time engaged with ladders and paste, sealing all the crevices
in the houses in Panama, prior to fumigation. Streets were paved, a water system installed, and
a general clean-up was made.

( 1


'" ra;~i;:~~l* r-`i;*
~'j~; i.9g'p~.. ;iji;g. ,







CTTE vL _DIVIDED -IHE WO-D_ TTT_ ED


-,

.7 4

The quarantine station on Culebra Island in Panama Bay. Owing to the fact that the Isthmus
is hemmed in on both sides, by plague-infected ports, the most rigid precautions are observed, and
steamers from these ports are held in quarantine, unless they have been seven days at sea.

for the purpose of exterminating the mosquito. This was later remedied, and
the purse strings were loosened. An outbreak of yellow fever among the
recently unaccliminted Americans began in December, 1904, and lasted until
December, 1905. During the epidemic there were in all 246 cases and 34 deaths.
Of this number, 134 of the cases and all of the deaths were among canal
employes. The constantly increasing headway made by the disease in the
early months of 1905 caused a panic among the employes. A great many of
them left the Isthmus as soon as they could obtain accommodations on the
overcrowded steamships. This was an object lesson, and resulted in a partial
suspension of actual canal construction work until the eradication of yellow
fever was effected. In addition to a rigid quarantine, a relentless fight was
waged against the mosquito, with the result that the last case of yellow fever
occurred in May, 1906, two years after the work started.
THE FIGHT ON THE MOSQUITO
When a case of yellow fever was reported or found by one of the corps of


Colon Hospital, on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus. It stands on the sea beach, and some
of the wards are built over the water.
r 84 1


























































VIi


The above comparison of-before and after paving-is not exaggerated. When the Ameri-
cans took charge of the work many of the streets in Colon and Panama City were veritable bogs
in the rainy season. Now, both cities compare favorably in clean, well paved streets, with others
of their size.
[85


*;. ____ ^"*'^*'"' _45^


MX:: r:: -* 3


.,;_~ *
.~r. 2' E;, ..
~- i i ,.. *


Ir~J






ITH b D DIVI DEE D O-C[ E WO -PUIT

inspector's in the course of a house-to-house search for cases, the patient was
imllmediately taken to the Ihospital amnl placed in a room protected by screening.
The next step was, the thorough fumigation of the house from which the patient
had been removed, in order to kill any infected mosquitoes that might remain.
Finally an endeavor was made to locate and fumigate the source of infection.
When the elpidlemic of 19!1. was at its height, the plan of fimiigating ever\ house
in the cities of Panama and C(, olon, whether or not there hlad been cases ot yellow
fever in them. was carried out. The native residents at first submitted to the
fumigati on with 1oor grace. as they are immunneand could not see the necessity


The Dispensary at Ancon. Dispensaries and Field Hospitals are maintained at all the
important Canal Zone settlements for first aid treatment.
for it. Later. they became more reconciled, but complaints were numerous.
There is now pending in Congress a claim for $50,000 to cover damages due
to a fire in the Malanlmo district of Panama in the spring of 1905, which is
claimed to have been started by the overturning of a fumigating oven.
The fight against the Anopheles, the malaria-carrying mosquito, has been
continuous, for it is next to impossible to eliminate it entirely. This species,
unlike the Stcyominya. is strong on the wing and is, therefore, able to enter the
cities and villages after breeding in the swamps and stagnant pools in the out-
skirts. To coulnteract this as much as possible, miles of drainage ditches have
been constructed in the vicinity of the canal towns; small streams are kept
cleaned out to facilitate the flow of water; swamps have been filled in and grass
and rank vegetation n kept cut. Regulations are also enforced against allowing
[ 'E]









*~*-~---.


; i.... .




i :
*1.
.4.


mu+


*


.......b
.AND 1,


~5~11A
~jIII~41I


The Government operates two main hospitals. One at Ancon and the other at Colon. The
Ancon Hospital is the larger and best equipped, with a reputation in the Tropics second to none.
It was begun by the French in 1883, but many improvements have been made by the Americans.


[ S7 i






.- T. .


DIVIDED --TH-1E WOi~R TI ITED


There are 47 wards in the Ancon Hospital, and this is the interior of one of them. The white
American employes, European laborers and the negroes, are cared for in separate wards. There
are private wards also, and one for charity cases. The Canal Commission furnishes free medical
treatment to all of its employes.

any water receptacles, like tin cans, etc., being thrown into the bush where they
might fill during a rainstorm and make ideal breeding places for the mosquito
larvae. Such possible breeding places as cannot be eliminated by draining
and filling are sprayed with a form of oil, called larvaecide, which destroys
the mosquito larvae as they come to the surface of the water to breathe. In
spite of all these efforts there are many cases of malaria, but the number has
been rapidly reduced, and the type of disease has been reduced from a virulent
to a comparatively mild type. While the mortality from malaria was never so
high as other forms of tropic disease, Colonel Gorgas always considered it one
of the most important on account of the heavy sick rate. Medicinally, the
disease is treated by quinine, many thousands of pounds of which have been
used in the hospitals and issued from the dispensaries maintained in each canal
zone village. CLEANING HOUSE

While a war of extermination was being waged against the mosquito, it
was also absolutely necessary to clean house, especially in the cities of Panama
and Colon. The latter place, the site of which was partly a tidal swamp, had
to be filled in. Proper sewer systems were installed in both cities, where none
existed before, unless the open drains in the streets, filled with refuse and other
filth, could be called sewers. Suitable water systems also had to be introduced,
for up to July 4, 1905, the supply of water was drawn from the cisterns which
were allowed to fill during the rainy seasons, or from wells, and afterward
peddled from door to door by the aguadorcs or water cartmen. When the
water w\\ turned on, all cisterns were closed. Likewise the streets which
became virtually mud holes in the rainy season were properly paved with brick
or graleil. A method of garbage disposal was also provided, for up to this time
[ 88 J


CrHV~ LAN-fl


-------r~ __-;r;=-c-------u







CJIE 9JE .D IcVIDED c-'1E WOrD2 E UNITED

buzzards were the only scavengers. Now, the streets are kept swept and the
garbage is collected every night from especially designed containers which every
householder is supposed to have. It is then transported to low swampy places
in the outskirts of the cities where it is burned, the ashes being used as a fill.
In the Canal Zone, garbage is usually destroyed at incinerating plants. In
Panama and Colon the collection is made by the health department of the Canal
Commission. All the street, sewer and water improvements in these cities
done by the engineering department of the Canal Commission will be paid for
by the Republic of Panama from its water rates, on the amortization plan.
The money advanced by the United States, about $3,500,000, is to be repaid in
50 years from July 1, 1907, but at the present rate of payment, settlement will
have been made much sooner.
The villages in the Canal Zone along the line of the Canal were not so
filthy as Panama and Colon, but were without sewer and water systems. Since
then several reservoirs have been constructed, and all houses are connected with
sewer systems. Macadam roads have gradually replaced trails; garbage is
collected daily and properly disposed of; grass and other tropic vegetation is
kept cut down in the vicinity of dwellings, and well-kept gardens and hedges
make the construction villages appear like model towns. Strict sanitary
regulations are enforced in all the Canal Zone towns, as well as in the cities of
Panama and Colon, and each place has its sanitary inspectors, or inspector.
RESULTS HAVE JUSTIFIED THE COST
With cleanliness alone, however, the high sick and death rate could not be
materially reduced. The successful war on the mosquito, which was started


Along the coast a few miles from Panama City, is a Leper colony of 24 persons, called Palo
Seco. This is the colony house and surroundings. The lepers are well treated, and have all the
creature comforts furnished free by the Government, and spend a part of their time growing veg-
etables for their own consumption.
[ 89]






CTHrE TAND DIVIDEDD _- AGT_ WORLD _NJTE

by Colonel Gorgas when the engineers were busy constructing water works and
sewers, has freed the Isthmus of its reputation as a pest hole, and has made its
sick and mortality rate compare favorably with cities in the United States, or
any other parts o4 the civilized world. The following tables indicate the effec-
tiveness of the preventive work of sanitation on the Isthmus:
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF DEATH RATES AMONG CANAL EMPLOYES ON
THE ISTHMI'S OF P.ANAMA UNDER THE ORIGINAL FRENCH COMPANY
FOR 1884, Till.E YEAR THE lMAXIMUMS NUMBER OF EMhPLOYES
WERE WORKING, AND THE AMERICAN COMMISSION.
1904 TO 1912, INCLUSIVE.


Year.


1884. .


Average No. of
Emploves.


17 .436


1904. ...... 6.9,13
19 15. ...... 16,5192
1906. ... 26,547
1907 ...... I 39.38
19)08. .43,891
1909 .. 47.167
1910. 50,8092
1911... 48.876
1919. 5(0.893
Total for nine ears. .......


No. of Deaths,
Disease Only.


1,198

55
4192
1.046
964
381
356
381
374
39.5


Death Rate per
1,000
Disease Only.

68.69

8.84
94.96
39.40
-94.57
8.68
7.55
7.50
7.65
6 37


Lives Saved.


422
7-2
778
1,731
2,634
2,884
3,109
2,983
3,172


. .. . 18 .4 3 5


TOTAL POPULATION OF PANAMA., COLON AND CANAL ZONE AND DEATH
RATES IN SAME.


Yea r.


!904.- ...
1906 .........
1907 .........
1908 ......
19)09 ........
1910 ........
19 11 ........
1919 .........
1913 (June 30)


Population.


35.000
56,6924
73.9264
102.133
120,097
135.180
151,591
156.936
146,510
130.456


Annual Average
Death Rate per 1000


59.45
49.94
49.10
33.63
24.83
18.19
91. 18
21.46
920.49
91 10*


Total for nine and a half years .
C('ompult-i on .six rionthli' figures, but averaged for a year.


Lives Saved.


142
299
1,922
3,317
4,631
4,740
4,863
4,682
4,090


........... I`L28,686


Only two cases of Ibubonic plague have developed on the Isthmus since
American eoceupation. These occurred in Balboa, the first in June, 1905.
1 w() 1































...... .. .... ......
+, ?:. *,4


m1


i--^
,-i-


*
rr
1
1,
*


9


Panama, Colon, and the towns in the Canal Zone were without water mains or sewers in 1904.
Eight reservoirs have been built, and now water is plentiful; sewers ramify the cities, and the gar-
bage is collected daily and burned. Many good roads have also been built, and the Las Sabanas
road is much used by automobile and horseback riders. The United States advanced the money
for this work, but Panama is to pay it back inside of 50 years.

[ 91


:--Y 7:Lo




*"'I r,:e
,; *' *** ..*'i;~ .- .. "



F' .. .. ;" ,
^l^^.."






b_. TAN DIVIDED Ct-T'HE OR DPL L UNITED


On the Mount Hope Road between Cristobal and Gatun, is Mount Hope Cemetery, once
known as Monkey Hill, where thousands of French Canal employes, victims of yellow fever, lie
buried. Under American supervision the cemetery has been greatly beautified. Each of its aven-
ues is lined with a different kind of fruit tree.

The village was immediately cleaned and disinfected, and a crusade against
rats, the fleas of which are the carriers of buboinc, was started. A "rat"
brigade was set at work in Panama; rat traps were issued free to all persons who
wished them, and a bounty was placed on each rat delivered to the health
department.
In addition to the preventive work done by the Department of Sanitation,
it maintains two large hospitals, one at Colon and the other at Ancon, and each
settlement has a dispensary with a physician in charge. There is also main-
tained a large asylum for the insane at Ancon, while at Palo Seco, a few miles
east of Panama, there is an asylum for lepers. There is also a sanitarium on
Taboga Island, about 12 miles out in the Bay of Panama, where convalescent
white patients are given a week or more to renew fever and work-worn tissues.
One of the most important things shown by the success of sanitary work on
the Isthmus has been expressed by Colonel Gorgas many times, as follows:
"Natives in the tropics, with the same sanitary precautions that are taken in the
temperate zones, can be just as healthy and have just as small a death rate as
inhabitants in the temperate zones. To bring this about no elaborate ma-
chinery is necessary. The result can be attained by any community, no matter
how poor, if it is willing to spend sufficient labor in cleaning, and to observe
well-known rules with regard to disease. The Anglo-Saxon can lead just as
healthy a life, and live just as long in the tropics as he can in his native climate."
The total cost of the work of the Department of Sanitation up to the first
of July, 1913, was $16,250,164.93. This seems to be an excessive cost until it is
considered that this amount includes the maintenance of modern hospitals,
[92]







97 TJID I)IVIDED ~-3MImE= WOJ 1 UNTNITED

dispensaries, and quarantine stations at Colon and Panama, costing more than
half of the total amount. To this is added the cost of street cleaning and
garbage collecting, draining and reclaiming swamp land, the salaries of some
15 chaplains, the care of cemeteries and the carrying on of a general under-
taking and embalming business. Colonel Gorgas when he said that it is within
the power of the people of tropic countries to be just as healthy as those in the
temperate zones, figures the actual cost of sanitary work on the Isthmus to the
American Government will be a little more than a cent a day per capital, based
on a population of 140,000.
RIGID QUARANTINE MAINTAINED
Since May, 1904, the quarantine on the Isthmus has been under American
control with stations at Colon, and on Culebra Island near the Pacific entrance
to the canal In spite of the fact that ports on both sides of the Isthmus, north
and south of Colon and Panama, have been infected with bubonic plague,
cholera, smallpox and yellow fever, the quarantine has been successfully main-
tained. All employes of the Commission arriving on the Isthmus have to
submit to vaccination unless they can show a good scar. Ships arriving at the
Isthmus from infected ports are required to fulfill seven days of quarantine from
the time of their departure. Guayaquil, Ecuador, where yellow fever has been
endemic since the first white man landed on the west coast of South America,
and where bubonic plague has recently gained a foothold, is about four days
steaming for fast ships. As ships stopping at Guayaquil load and unload cargo
where they are in danger of infection, it is necessary for them to be fumigated
before they sail for Panama, and it is also necessary that the 7-day period of
quarantine be fulfilled from the time of such fumigation. Ships making the
trip in four days would, therefore, have to lay in quarantine at Culebra Island
three da'y before they could unload their cargo and discharge passengers at


Ancon Cemetery.
[ 93 ]




Full Text

PAGE 2

Q .:s. or",eJDI' Coc.o So\a, C \ Z o"""e.,..

PAGE 3

Gift oflhe Panama Canal Museum

PAGE 5

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http:// arch ive .org/detai lsi eng i neerOOaver

PAGE 6

Copyright, Rllrris & Ewing, Wllshington, U. G COLONEL GEORGE WASHINGTON GOETHALS, THE BUILDER OF THE PANAMA CANAL, Who might be cia sed as the most absolute despot on earth, although a benevolent one, and the sQuar t bos a man ev r worked for. He is a thorough ngineer, a righteous judge, and a stern cutioner rolled into one. He realizes that man is but human, and for simple infractions of the rul i a lways ready to give the offender another chance, but there will be no second time. A man of prodigious memory, quick to gra p details be they trivial affairs of every day life, or que tion of moment; an ear for everyone, and the fri nd of all. The American Nation owes much to the men who rendered yeom a n service on the Isthmus; they cannot be too highly re" ard d. It owes mu h to that peerless leader, George Washington Goethals, who, for over six long y ar h a k pt th goal teadily in ight, who h a never, for a ingle instant, permitted his det rmination to waver, who ha fought inch by inch until every obstacle has been overcome, and who, through his for ful personality and sen e of justice, has compelled the admiration of everyone with whom he ha orne in ontact. Col. Goethals was made a Major-General March 4, 1915.

PAGE 7

THE GREATEST ENGINEERING FEAT IN THE WORLD AT PANAMA Authentic and Complete Story of the Building and Operation of the Great Waterway -the Eighth Wonder of the W orId. With a Graphic Description of the Panama -Pacific International Exposition the Official Celebration of the Completion of America's Triumph at Panama, the Gigantic Undertaking Successfully Carried Out under the Supervision of COL. GEORGE W. GOETHALS, U. S. A. By RALPH EMMETT AVERY TRAVELER. AUTHOR AND LECTURER Edited by WILLIAM C. HASKINS of THE CANAL RECORD Profusely Illustrated With Photographs in Half-tone and Color LESLIE -JUDGE COMPANY NEW YORK A RiCAN CO IT I 1= C" n

PAGE 8

Special Revised and Enlarged Edition Copyright, 1915, by Ralph E. Avery COPYRIGHT. MCMXIII. BY RALPH E AVERY

PAGE 9

DEDICATED TO THE MEN OF BRAIN AND BRAWN OF OUR Co TRY, WHOSE l\1ATCHLESS SKILL AND INSPIRING l\lADE THE DRE1UI OF AGES A REALITY IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE PANAlIIA CANAL

PAGE 10

ef t SUNRISE, SUNSET AND MOONLIGHT SCENES ON PANAMA BAY. During February and March the moon is particularly bright, due to the clear atmosphere which prevails in the height of the dry season. On certain brilliant evenings it is possible to read in the moonlight. The cloud effects are perfect and the rainbows magnificent. One of the prettiest effects, which happens but rarely, is a rainbow at night.

PAGE 11

FORE" ORD III lIRE eighth wonder of the world the crowning achie,Tement of 'man 's greatest undertaking is the construction of the Panama Canal by the Gm ernment of the United States. Doubtless for centurie to come the world-wonder of the Panama Canal will be told in tory and in picture, but the eloquence of the theme it elf will neyer be exhau ted while reverence for might} deeds finds lodgment in the hearts of men. R ecognizing as much as one man could the maO'nitude and importance of the work being performed on the Isthmus, the Author for almost two 'ears dwelt among the activities of this gigantic enterp'rise, and in these pages authentically presents to the reader hi chronicles of the step-by-step progre s of the con truction from beginning to completion, a well a the suc cessful installation of the world's maje tic from ocean to ocean. The succes ful opening on February 20, 1915, of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco, in celebration of the completion of the world's most tupendous achie, ement-the Panama Canal-has called for and received in this work a graphically written and illustrated detailed account of thi great con temporaneous event. Clothed as it is in a beauty of typography and art illustrations in keeping with the grandeur of the subject it treats, the publishers feel assured of the book 's cordial reception on the-part of an appreciating public.

PAGE 12

r TO THE PUBLISHERS. I have taken muoh pleasure in looking over and examining your handsomely illustrated book giving the story o f liTHE GREATEST ENGINEERING FEAT IN THE WORLD AT PAN AJIJ.A The Panama Canal is indeed the greatest engineering work of modern times and is of interest to the American people on account of it's commercial and military value. Commercially. it sho.rtens the voyage between the eastern and western coasts of our own country and brings us in nearer contact with South Ame:rica.This will have a tendency to bind the two continents, North and South America, into closer commercial. relations. For the world at large, it will establish a new trad e route for all countries make the Caribbean Sea a new Mediterranean. From the naval standpoint. it will prove to be a great means o f National Defense to us because it will practically double the efficiency of our fleet. The history of such an important undertaking should be familiar to every American. both young and old, and I would commend the attractive and condensed form in which you have placed the large amount of information in your illuBtrated book as well worthy of favorable consideration by the public. Yours very truly, March 27th 1915. __ F R O M CONGRESSMAN GEORGE EDMUND FOSS. F ORMERLY C H AIRMAN OF [HE NAVAL COMMIT. TEE l"l THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES U S A.

PAGE 13

CONTENTS PAGE FOREWORD ........................... CHAPTER I. DISCOYERY AND SETTLEl\1ENT .............. 9 Earlv Discover er -The Fir t Settlement-Di covery of the outh ea-Balboa's Unfortunate End-Settlement of Old Panamapain' Power preads-Period of the Great Trade-The cotch Bubble. CHAPTER II. RAIDS OF THE BUCCANEER 21 Drake's Expedition-Fall of Old Panama-Other Attempt CHAPTER III. PROPOSED CANAL ROUTES 28 Tehuantepec-trato River and Tributarie -Calidonia-San BIas-r icaragua-Panama. CHAPTER I'. THE PANAl\1A RAILROAD .... ........ 32 Fir t Work on th e Panama Railroad-Completion of the Enterprise-Early Rates ::">learly ProhibitiveE tabli shment of team hip ionary Right and Privilege hange in Ownership-The New l\Iain Line-Bu ie t hort Line in the World. CHAPTER ,. THE FREN H FAILURE .... 45 DeLe ep, Promoter-ProcurinO" the ion-DeLes ep Plan-Inaugurating the Work-French Labor Force-LaFolie Dingler-The Sick Poorly Cared for-The rash-Th econd or New Company-French Aid to merican Project. CHAPTER YI. THE Al\lERI AN TRIUl\1PH. . . .. 69 ommi ion-Taking Po e ion, hange in Chief Engineer-The New om gain Reorganized-The Purcha ing End CHAPTER YII. l\lAKING THE ISTHl\lUS HEALTHFUL 80 The Fight on the :\10 quito-leaninCT Hou e-Re ult Have J u tified the 0 t-Rigid Quarantine 1aintained. CHAPTER YIII. 95 Getting the Force Together-KeepinO" the American Employe Contented -Plant-:\lonthly 0 t of Allow ance -F edinO" and l othing the anal rmy-The anal Zone-The Po tal en-ice-Po tal avings Bank, a Popular In titution-Zone u tom en'ice-The Zone "Dry"-Keeping Order Guarding Against FiresEducational Facilitie -The Law the Canal Force-ccount 0 Graft. CHAPTER IX. CONSTRUCTIKG THE LOCK TYPE CANAL .. 135 The ana l a '" ater BriJO"e-The Dam at Gatun-Gatun pillway-Gatun Lake-Dam on the Pacific ide.The Locks-Guard AO"ain t Accident How the Lock Were Built-l\Iaking the Dirt Fly-DredginO"-Cutting Through the Divide-Aero the I thmu in a Hydrobiplane-70,OOO,OOO Pounds of Dynamite-Slides, Eloquent Argument AO"ain t ea Level Project. CHAPTER X AUXILIARY PLANS AND PROJECTS ........... 213 cqui iton of Private Land -Toll -Protecting the Canal-Fort Grant l\Iilitary Re ervation-Fort Amador lilitary Re ervation-Fort herman :\Iilit ary Re ervation-Fort Randolph Military Re ervation-Fort De Le ep l\Iilitary Re ervation-Breakwater Lighting the anal-Port Facilitie -Dry Do ksPermanent Repair hop -Government oal and Fuel Oil Bu ine s-Private Coal and Fu I Oil torage-Bonded Warehouse -New Floating Equipment-Permanent iUage and Building Permanent Organization-WireI e ommunication-Beautifying the anal P ermanent Administration BuildinO", Balboa-Cost of the Canal. CHAPTER XI. Fl Tl RE CANAL TRAFFI .. .............. 247

PAGE 14

CONTENTS-(Continued) PAGE CHAPTER XII. REPUBLIC OF PANAMA ................... 258 The P a nama Flag-Nation a l H ymn of th e R e publi c of Panama-The Reconstruction Period-"The Land.of th e Cocoa nut Tree"-Gov e rnm e nt i ProO"ressive--R e v e nues N a tional Curr e ncy -Public Improvements-Free Publi c Sc hool System-P a nama Ri chly End o w e d by Nature-The People-The Indians of Panama-The Guaym ies-The C hocoes-Anci e nt C ivili zatio n of hiriqui-ightse eing-Bathing-Panama Hats-Canal Z o n e So uvenir S t o nes-The P a n a m a L o tt e ry-Panama to Hold National Expo s ition. CHAPTER XIII. THE LAND DIVIDED-THE 'VORLD UNITED .................................................... 313 Destru ctio n o f th e Dikes-L e ttin g W a t e r Into Cule bra C ut -"Gamboa i Bu t ed"-Gatun Locks, the First in Actu a l Ope r ation-The F ir s t Pract i ca l L oc kage-Firs t Loc kage a t Pacific End-From the Sea to Cu l ebra C ut-Earth q u a kes-l\Iakino-a P assage Throug h C u ca ra c h a Ii de-Secr e t a r y Garri on's Visit-The Official O pe ning-Fir s t B oa t Thro u g h th e Can al. CHAPTER XIV. THE 336 CI-IAPTER XV. PAN IFORNIA EXPOSITION .... 343 CHAPTER XVI. INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION ............................................... 347 ILLUSTRATIONS IN FOUR COLORS Colonel George Was hin g ton Goeth a l s ..... .... ....... .. Facing Title Page The Famous Flat Arch in the Ruins of Santo Domingo Church, Panama Cit y ...... ............................... ... .............. One of the Drivewa y s in Ancon Hospital Ground ..... ............... Cul ebra Cut, Looking North From Gold and Contractor's Hills ........ One of the Great Locks of the Canal Under Construction .............. A T y pical Street in the Native Village at Chorrera, Panama ........... A Group of Cuna Cuna Indians, Panama ............ ............. Tug Gatun, Firs t Boat Passing Through Gatun Locks, Sept. 26, 1913 ... Map of the Canal and the Canal Zone and Interes ting Facts and Figures ..

PAGE 15

, -III/HE history of the Panama Canal begin with the search for a western waterway to the Indie and for fame and gold, by tho e hardy adventurers who followed in the wake of Columbus. The e men, fresh from the l\100rish war, and equipped for a truggle with Italy which did not come to pass, looked for new fields to conquer. Nothing suited them better than the di covery of aNew World peopled by heathens waiting to be converted by the sword to the Christian faith, after their gold, of which they seemed to have plenty, was tripped from them to fill the empty coffers of Spain. This search by the follower of Columbu wa fairly succes ful, 0 far as fame and go ld were concerned and, although no direct water route was found to the Indies to the west, it naturally led to the settlement of the I thmu of Panama, the narrow strip of land separating the two great ocean s and forming the connecting link between North and South America. The e tablishment of sett lem ents on both coasts and the short di tance between them, led to the building of crude road and trails for the early mule trains. These trails led to the construction of a railroad, and the railroad to a hip canal, for trade follows sett lers, and water i the natural highway b tween nation. The story of the Isthmus is, therefore, in a measure, the evolution of transportation routes. EARLY DIS OVERERS The first European to sail along the coa t of Panama was Rodrigo de Bastidas, who sai led from Cadiz in October, 1500, and fir s t touched the continent near the island of Trinidad, and from there went west a far a Nombre de Dios. With him on that voyage was Vasco Nufiez de Balboa, who, later was to discover the great South Sea, and Juan de la Co a, who had sailed with Columbu on his second voyage and was con idered one of the most able mariner of his day. Columbus sailed from Cadiz on his fourth and last voyage in search of a pa ageway to the Indies in May, 1502. On this voyage he skirted the shores of Honduras and Costa Rica, to Almirante Bay and Chiriqui Lagoon on the coast of Panama. At the latter place he wa told b y the Indians that, if he [ 9 ]

PAGE 16

would continue his course to the east, he would soon come to a narrow place between the two eas, and thi led 'him to believe that his search for a strait was nearing succe s; that he would soon pa s into the Indian Ocean and thence around the Cape of Good Hope to Spain, urpas ing the achievement of Vasco Statue of Columbus and Indian Girl. Presented to General Mosquera of Colombia in 1868, by the Empress Eugenie, and afterwards turned over to Count DeLesseps. Now occupies a commanding position on Cristobal Poin-t. de Gama, the Portuguese, who had already sailed around Africa (14971498) in his search for a water route to the Indies. Columbus continued on his way and passed the site of the present city of Colon at the Atlantic entrance to the Canal, and on November 2, 1502, arrived at a harbor 18 miles northeast, which he named Porto Bello, signifying beautiful port. He stayed there a week tormbound, and then continued on past Nombre de Dios, thus overlapping the voyage of Bastidas. He gave up his unsuccessful search for a strait eventually, and took to the more prac tical work of hunting for gold. His attempt to found a colony at the mouth of the Rio Belen, southwest of Colon, failed, and on May 1, 1503, he sailed from the shores of the Isthmus. He died on May 20, 1506, still believing that he had discovered the eastern hores of Asia. This belief was shared by all the early voyager until the dis covery of the Pacific Ocean in 1513. THE FIRST SETTLEMENT After the unsuccessful attempt of Columbus to found a settlement in Castilla del Oro (Go ld en Castile), as the I thmus was termed, two colonizers were ent out by King Ferdinand. One of these, Diego de Nicuesa, a Spanish nobleman, more fitted for the court than for a command in the wilderness, was given control of all the land between Cape Gracias a Dios, Nicaragua, and the Gulf of Uraba, or Darien, the eastern limit of the present Republic of Panama. The other was Alonso de Ojeda, who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage, and in addition had made two trips to the continent independently. Ojeda wa placed in charge of the land ea t and outh of the Gulf of Uraba called Nueva Andalucia. Both of these expeditions outfitted and sailed from Santo Domingo in November, 1509. A ociated with Ojeda were Juan de la Cosa, as lieutenant in the future government, and a lawyer named Bachelleer Enciso, who furnished most of the money to equip the expedition. It was arranged that Enci 0 should remain at Santo Domin '0 to collect recruits and supplies, procure another ship, and join Ojeda later at the proposed colony. Ojeda land d near the present city of Cartagena, Colombia, founded in 1531. H I' he attack d and overcam th Indian with a part of hi force, [ 10 ]

PAGE 17

but in following up his victor y, hi m en became scattered, and all those who had landed were killed, with the exception of himself and one other. Among the killed was the veteran Juan de l a Cosa. Ojeda then entered the Gulf of Uraba and founded the town of San Seba tian on the ea tern hore, but wa oon compelled to return to Santo Domingo t o obtain men and upplie. He left the new colon y in charge of hi lieutenant, Francisco Pizarro, famous in hi -tor as the conqueror and d e poiler of P eru, w ith the under tanding that if he did not return within 50 day the coloni ts hould decide among them e l ves the be t course to follow. H e finall reached Santo D omingo, after uffering hip wreck and many hard hips on the i land of Cuba, and found that Enciso had departed long before with abundant uppli e the colony, but he wa unable to recruit another force to follow. Pizarro and hi s men, s uff e rin g for l ac k of food, waited anxiou l y and in vain for the return of Ojeda, and then abandoned the colony and ailed for Cartagena. Here they found Enc i 0 w ith reinforcements and provi ions. 'Vith Enciso was a tow away in the person of Va co de Balboa. Enci 0 insisted on Pizarro and hi m en returning with him to San Seba tian. On their arrival, they found the ettlement de tr yed by Indian. The) were without food, and at the ug ge of B a lbo a, "ho had ailed a l ong the e hore with Ba tidas, the, cro ed the Gulf of Uraba, where it ,ya reported the Indian were less warlike and provi ion cou ld be btained. It wa neces ary, however, for them to defeat a band of Indian under a powerful chief named Cemaco, who di puted the ir landino', but the: obtained the much needed upplie, and founded the ettlement of ant a l\Iaria de l a Antigua, the fir t on the I thmu They" e re now in the territory which had been a io'ned by the King to Nicue a and, con equently, had no right there. The ambitiou Balboa took advantage Columbus Island where Christopher Columbus stopped to repair and scrape the bottom of his ships before proceeding on to Spain. [ 11 ]

PAGE 18

of this circumstance and the fact that Enciso was disliked by his men, for the reason that he allowed no private trading with the Indians, to depose him, and asked Nicuesa to come and take charge of the colony. November 2, 1502, Columbus arrived at this harbor, 18 miles northeast of Colon, which he named Porto Bello, signifying beautiful port. Rock for the concrete used in the locks at Gatun was obtained at this point. Nicuesa had already sai led from Santo Domingo, taking along with him about 700 colonists. During the voyage, a terrific storm arose, wrecking some of his ships and causing the loss of 400 lives. In the tempest the ships became separated; some of them reached the coast at the mouth of the Belen River, and others the mouth of the Chagres River. After collecting his men, Nicuesa left the Belen River, and after doubling Manzanillo Point shortly landed, saying: "We will remain here in the name of God." This was the site of the town of Nombre de Dios, the oldest existing sett lement on the Isthmus. During American canal times, the sand for the concrete in Gatun Locks was obtained here, and in 1910 and 1911, the sand dredge cut through the hulks of two old ships, believed to be relics of the days of Nicuesa. The dredge pumps also drew up bullets and other small articles. Nicuesa's situation was desperate, as he was without arms or provisions, but fortunately there arrived shortly his lieutenant Colmenares, who brought supplies, as well as information concerning the new settlement at Antigua. Nicuesa declared his intention of going there and taking all the gold found by Ojeda's men as rightfully belonging to him. News of his intention reached Antigua before he did and, on his arrival, he was met by an armed mob, secretly urged on by Balboa, which cast him adrift in a leaky brigantine along with 17 followers who had remained faithful to him. They were never heard of again. Of the two expeditions, one was now left at Antigua, and of the two men ent by the King of Spain to colonize the mainland, both were gone. Balboa the stowaway ruled in Darien, March 1, 1511. DISCOVERY OF THE SOUTH SEA The fir s t move Balboa made on finding himself in charge of the colony was to secure hi position by persuading Enciso and those who had led the mob in [ 12 ]

PAGE 19

the attack on Nicuesa to return to Spain. Knowing that the) would immedi ately go to the King and a k that he be dispo e ed, he started in to obtain the gold which he knew the King thought more of than all e l se, and to make new discoveries which would help hi cau e. The go ld he obtained from the Indian chiefs of the Darien. It wa made the price of peace, and Balboa showed his hrewdne by making a lli e of the Indian after he had obtained their treasure. Such an alliance he made with Careta, the cacique of Coyba, who after hi village had been acked b the Spaniard, l eft with Balboa one of his daughters a a ho tage. Balboa accepted the Indian maiden, of whom he became vel' fond and, although they were never married accordin o to the Christian rite, he con id ered her elf hi wife Balboa tarted from Antio'ua on Septenlber 6, 1513 t cro the I thmu and find the gr at ea to the outh, of ,,hich the Indian, kno"' ing the cupidity of the paniard, had told him glo"' in o tale of the riches of the great race of people which inhabited it hore. Fighting the different tribe which he met on the wa', ubduing 2 ,nd making friend ,,ith them, on September 25, he reached a hill in Dari n fr m ,,hich it a aid the South Sea could be een. Halting hi men, Balboa made the a cent a l n and ,,' a the fir t European to gaze upon thi heretofore unkno"'n oc an. ix day l ater, September 29 1513, four hundred year ago, h e waded into the ocean and took po e i on in the name of the overeign of Spain. Thi wa in the Gulf of San l\Iiguel, 0 named for the rea on that it wa di coy red on :\Iichael' Day. H e a l 0 performed a imilar ceremony when h l' a h d a point of land at the entrance to the gulf. Balboa ubdued the local Indian chief, who O'av him present of go ld and a l 0 man pearl from th Pearl I land a fe\y mile off the hore, and confirmed the rumor f a p werful and rich nati n to th outh. The Pari I land, 0 A family of Indians, Darien. [ 13 ]

PAGE 20

named by Balboa, cou ld be plainly seen, but he did not visit them at that time on account of the roughness of the sea and the frailty of the available Indian canoes. He named the largest of the islands, Isla Rica, which is now known as San 1\tliguel, or Rey Island. Nombre de Dios, the existing settlement on the Isthmus. Sand was obtained here for the cement used in the Gatun Locks. Balboa returned triumphant to Antigua after an absence of about four months. His messenger telling of his great discovery did not reach the King, unfortunately, until after that monarch, listening to Enciso's complaints, had sent out a new governor to take charge of the colony. BALBOA'S UNFORTUNATE E D The new governor was named Pedro Arias de A vila, commonly called "Pedrarias the Cruel," which nickname he won in the New World by his method of extorting gold from the Indians. With Pedrarias was Hernando de Soto, who was later to discover the Mississippi River, and Diego de Almagro, who was to become the partner of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru. Unlike Balboa, Pedrarias did not try to make friends with the Indians, but in many instances repaid the hospitality which they extended to him as a friend of Balboa with the utmost treachery, destroying their villages, killing women and children, and selling those who survived into slavery. He undid what Balboa had been in a fair way of accomplishing, that is, the settlement of Darien, for the Indians were everywhere aroused and repaid cruelty with cruelty as often a an opportunity was presented. Shrines are common along the waysides and at the entrance to villages, but this one has been placed in a hollow tree. The photographer discovered it near Gorgona. [ 14 ) Pedrarias strove to establish a line of posts for communication between the two oceans in accord ance with the ideas of Balboa, but without success. The first of these was located on the Atlantic coast at a place named Santa Cruz.

PAGE 21

In the meantime, the King had recognized Balboa' discover y with a commis ion as Adelantado of the South Sea and' iceroy of the Pacific coa t, an empty title, as he was subject to the order of Pedrarias. Pedraria, jealou of Balboa' achievement, held up thi commi ion and kept Balboa fighting for his lib erty in the court of Antigua on trumped up char ge Finall B a lboa made an alliance with Pedrarias by promising t marry one of hi daughters, who was at that tinl in Spain; and went a few mile up the coa t to a place called Acla, between Antigua and anta Cruz where he established a ettlement and had timber' cut and haped which cou ld be readily built into hip with which to explore the new ea which he had discovered. The e timber were carried acro the Isthmu by Indian l ave and were et up in San l\Iiguel Bay. hile at the Pearl I land ,from where he mad several short cruise Balboa hard of the coming of a new governor to super ede Pedraria. Thinking this governor might be hostile to hi plan, h sent me enger to Antigua to ee whether or not he had arrived. If he had, he in tructed the me engel' to return without allowing their pre ence to becom known, and he would then leav e on hi voyao'e of discovery before orders for hi recall could be delivered. Hi me enger went to Antio'ua and found Pedraria till in charge, for the new go ern r had died on hi arrival. On of them, how ever, A wayside cross, or shrine. Some of these are very old. told Pedraria that Balboa wa contemplatin' treachery and the founding of an independent colony on the Pacific coast. The bitterne and j a lou y Village of San Miguel on Rey I land, one of the larger of the Pearl I land Group. [ 11) ]

PAGE 22

of Pedrarias for Balboa again came to life, and he sent Francisco Pizarro, who was later to finish the work 'Balboa had planned to do, to bring him back to Acla. At Acla, Balboa was given a mockery of a trial for treason, and was beheaded with four companion in the latter part of 1517. Second only to the di covery of the South Sea was the demonstration of the practicability of an Isthmian transit. SETTLEMENT OF OLD PANA fA Pedrarias see ing the advantage of a sett lement on the new ocean as an outfitting station for future exp lorin g expeditions, cros ed the I thmus and, on August 15 1519, founded Panama, ituated about five miles ea t from the new city. The name "Panama" i supposed to have come from an Indian word meaning a place abounding in fis h, and tradition relates that the town was built on the s ite of an Indian fishing village. In the same year the Atlantic port was transfer r e d to N ombre de Dio directly north of old Panama, and a few years late r Antigua and Acla were abandoned to the Indians. Some of the interior villages have no jails stout enough to hold a prisoner, so the stocks are resorted to. On Sep tember 15 1521, the sett lement at Panama was made a city by r oya l decree, and the fir s t bishopric in the Americas was removed there from Antigua. The new governor sent out, opportunely for Pedraria died on his arri va l as did veral others who followed, and Pedraria ruled until the arrival of Pedro de lo s Rio, who took charge on July 30, 1526. Before his arrival, P edraria took refuge in Nicaragua where he had already established a settle ment. PAl POWER SPREADS Following thi. period in I thmian hi s tory many parties set out inland to l' the country, and t were in the of Chiriqui and eraguas. Th xp loratlOn were made III accordance WIth the desIres of C harl es Y, w ho took a great int re o t in the exploration of the South Sea and the discov ry of a strait onnecting it with the Atlantic Ocean. After he came to, the lhrone of Spain in 1516, h har' d the O'ov rnor' of hi American colonies to examin the 'oast lin from Darien to for a pos ible waterway. In a '('ordan w ith thi policy, Gil Gonzale de Avila wa ent out from fl6 ]

PAGE 23

Spain in with instructions to make a earch along the coast for the we tern opening of a strait. Gonzales dismantled and transported his ships across the Isthmus and rebuilt them on the Pacific side. In January, he sailed from Panama bay and went as far a the Bay of Fonseca, where he landed and discovered Lake Nicaragua. On this voyage Gonzale met men sent out on similar service by Cortez, who, later, establi hed a transit route across the I thmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico, following pretty closely the present railroad. This route was started in much the arne manner a the one across Darien, through the n ecessity of transporting suitable lumber frOlll the Atlantic coa t of the Isthmus to build ships with which to explore the Pacific coast. When Pedrarias learned of the discovery of Lake Nicaragua, he immediately laid claim to it, and as the country was rich in gold, e tablished a city at Granada Old Fort at Porto Bello. near the hores of the lake after ubduing the Indian. In Captain Diego Machuca thoroughly explored the lake and di covered its ea tern outle t, the San Juan River. ailing down thi stream he finally r ached the Atlantic Ocean, and ailed al ng the coast until he arrived at Nombre de Dio thus opening up another route acro the American Isthmu The first ext n. ive e)..rploration to the uth were the voyage of Pizarro and Almagro in which ended in the conque t of P ru. In an expediti n ailed up the Rio Grande, carried their canoe acro s the divide at Culebra to a tributary of the ChaoTes, down which they sailed to its mouth, thus going over the pre ent Canal route. PERIOD OF THE GREAT TRADE Permanent ettlem nts w re now' located at Nombre d Dios and at Panama, and between the e two point was established a paved trail or "royal t 17 )

PAGE 24

highway," for the commerce across the Isthmus at that time was steadily on the increase, making Papama a place of mercantile importance. In 1534, a route by water for boats and light draft vessels was established from N ombre de Dios along the coast and up the Chagres River to the head of navigation at Cruces. From Cruces there was another trail to the city of Panama. Over these trails pack train carried on the trade, the river being used in the wet seasons, and when the attacks of the Indians and Cimaroons, (negro slaves, who rebelled and were ou tl awed), became too frequent on the trail. This trade consisted of go ld and ornaments stripped from the temples of the Incas, gold from the mines of D a ri en and Veraguas on the I sthmu silver from Bolivia, pearls, and a l 0 woo l indigo mahogany, d ye woods; cocoa, and tobacco, all bound for Spain, for which the colonists re ce ived clothing and The three ancient bells of Cruces. This town was one of the oldest on the Isthmus, and was the head of navigation on the Rio Chagres before the days of the railroad. Abandoned in 1913 on account of its being in the,lake area. s tuffs in return. For nearly two hundred years the trails from Panama to the towns of N ombre de Dios and Porto Bello were the riche s t trade routes in the world. Some of this trade even ori ginated acro ss the Pacific in the Philippines and the Indies. Later, after the period of the great trade, 1550-1750, and up to the time of the Panama railroad, the part water and part overland trail from the mouth of the Chagre to Cruces, 34 miles, and thence to Panama, 18 miles, was used by the colonists when Californi a and Oregon were opened to settle ment, and by the gold eekers in California in the days of '49. After N ombre de Dios was de troyed in 1597 by Sir Francis Drake, the royal port was changed to Porto B ello, 17 miles to the southwes t. Thi change was ben ficial, as Nombre de Dios was a l way unhealthful, while Porto Bello had a b tter harbor and was nearer to the mouth of the Chagre and Panama. [1 ]

PAGE 25

Porto Bello became one of the stronge t fortified of the Spanish sett lement in the New T orld. Here, came the Spani h galleons once a year to collect the King's treasure, and to bring supplies for the coloni t and here, each ear, on the arrival of the ship, the merchants would congregate to take part in a big, fair which was held during the annual visit of the fleet. The town is situated on a bay about a mile and a half long by 2,500 feet wide, and the ruins of five of the six forts which guarded it, a well a an old custom hou e, can still be een, although partly covered with jungle growth. One of the six forts was on the ide of the hill on the oppo ite s ide of the bay from the old town and where the I thmian Canal Commi ion ha been quarrying rock for the past four year for Canal work, and it wa dug awa by teamhovels. After Porto Bello became the ro T al port on the Atlantic, the Chagre Mouth of the Chagres River. The old fort on the left and one of the turrets on the right. Riv rand th Cruce trail cam into general u e a a highwa 1 although there wa al 0 an overland road, and to protect thi route from pirat who were becoming b ld en ugh to attack fortifi d town ,Fort an Lorenzo wa built in 1601 at the river mouth. THE OT H B BBLE England 10 tit opportunit in 1698-1700 to gain a foothold in the I thmian trade b, T failing to lend it aid to the colonization cherne of 'Villiam Patterso n, a Scotch financier, who had already founded the Bank of England. Patterson's plan, which ventually co t about 2,000 live and $100,000 in money, was de io'ned to break up the monopol of the Briti h Ea t India Company in the Oriental trade by foundino a colony on the hore of Darien, and opening up a fre trad r ute acro the I thmu from Aela to the Gulf of an l Vfiguel over the am rout taken b Balboa n arly 200 year before. Permi ion for the [ 19 ]

PAGE 26

formation of the company with this end in view was obtained from King William. His approval however, was later withdrawn at the instigation of the East India Company, when it realized that its monopoly was in jeopardy, and instructions were issued to the governor of the BrIti sh colonies in the West Indies and North America to withho ld any a id to the Scots who had already departed for Darien. The opposition of the East India Company forced the new project to return all the money subscribed for stoc k in England, and to raise the necessary funds in Scot land on ly. On November 1, 1698, three ships and two tenders containing 1 200 men reached the Darien from Leith, and founded the town of New Edinburgh on the Gulf of Cali donia, near Acla. Here they were welcomed by the San BIas Indians who saw in them future a lli es again s t the Spaniards But the Scots had no intention of fighting, much to the disappointment of the Indians, although they must have known that their invasion would be resisted by the Spaniards. The first expedition managed to stay e ight months, during which time their numbers were sadly reduced by sickne s and famine. On June 20, 1699, two hundred and fifty survivors, with Patterson who had gone out to the colony as a volunteer, and whose wife and son had died there, lef t for New York, which place they reached on August 1 3 Meanwhile, the company at home, not knowing of the abandonment of the co l ony, sent out a second band of 300 recruits. This party arrived at New Edinburgh on August 13, the same day that their predece ors reached New York. Finding the half-completed Fort St. Andrew deserted, they immediately left for Jamaica with the exception of a few men who insisted upon remaining. A third exped ition consisting of four ships and 1,300 Inen was sent out from Scotland, and reached New Edinburgh on November 30, a lth ough rumor of the failure of the first attempt had been received. At last the Spaniards determined to oust the invaders who, unable to accomp li sh much on account of internal b ickering, the oppo ition of England, and a high death rate, ent out a fleet of sh ip s from Cartagena on February 25, 1700, to invest the port by sea, while a land force blockaded it in the rear. On March 31, after many sorti es again s t the Spanish forces the colonists surrendered and were allowed to depart with honors. The colony had been reduced to about 360 person and these we r e so s ick and feeble that it is said the Spaniards had to help them aboard their s hip s and se t the sails for them. "A Nation given to the world, A giant's task begun, Show what our Uncle Sam can do In an orbit of the sun. o great indeed i our Uncle Sam And his greatness ne'er shall cease! For greate t of all hi con que ts won, Are his victories of peace! Gilbert. [ 20 ]

PAGE 27

1 1t1.iP, :u g liP AIN monopolized the early trade with it. colonie and thi policy til ,I. J] eventually 1 0 t it contI' I of the countries of Central and South I America: The fir t direct re uIt was the entering of Engli h, French and Dutch free traders and later, buccaneer and pirate, all of whom ranged up and down the coa. t f the Spani h l\Iain pr ying upon commerce and even attacking the fortified t wn Up to the time Sir Henry l\Iorgan became Governor of Jamaica, after the sack of Panama in 1671, there wa very littl difference between free trader, privateer, buccaneer and pirates, their object bing the same,-th ea y acqui ition of 'old and other l oot by preying upon the commerce of Spain. From 1550 to 175Q the I thmian trade route wa open to uch attacks. After the ack of Panama, how v 1', England endeavor d to put a top to piracy in the West Indie ( Jamaica wa th outfitting tation for many hip ai lin g under commis ion granted b the governor who received a hare in the poils), and after that time the pirate were hunted a a common enemy, and they in turn preyed upon the hipping of all nation. The result of the depredation of these freebooter finall y forced Spanish shipping to give the water of the Indie a wide b rth and to take the longer route through the Strait of l\Iao'ellan to the co l onie on the Pacific, a lthough this trade wa already beo'innino' to decline, partly through the failure of the coloni s to develop after the ea ily won trea ure of the Incas began to give out, and partly through the d cadenc of Spain as a ea power. The free trader, who finally developed into pirate, were generally welcomed by the colonist, unofficially, as Spain wa not a manufacturing country and wa unable to upply their need, and because it was greatl y to their benefit to obtain good of a better quality upon which no taxes had been paid to the King. The trader were forbidden entry into the ports, and were com pell d to muggle their good in at convenient points along the coast and in cret harbor. The cu tom of treatino the e men as pirates when caught, naturally led them to protect them e l ve and, when the opportunity offered, to retaliate in kind, and the, T finally became buccaneers or pirate in name as well a in fact. The name buccaneer wa given to the free trader by the r 2 ] ]

PAGE 28

boucanie1's, men engaged in suppl y ing them with smoke-cured meat for their voyages. DRAKE'S EXPEDITION The first Engli hman to make hi s name feared by the Spanish in the West Indies was Sir Franci Drake. In 1568 Sir John Hawkins, with an Engli s h flee t entered the harbor of Y era Cruz, Mexico, to trade with the Spaniards. He was re ce ived by the official of the port in a friendly manner and invited to anchor. As soon as his s hips were anchored unde r the guns of the forts, he was attacked and all his s hip s de s tro ye d, with the exception of two which manage d to escape, one belonging to himse lf and the other to hi s cousin Francis Drake. Drake returned to England and endeavored to obtain satisfaction for his lo sses throug h his government, but was unable to do so. He then decided to collect his own indemnity py attacking Spanish s hippin g as he had been attacked. He obtained Letters of Marque from Queen Elizabeth, and, in 1571-1572, made two preliminary voyages to Sir Henry Morgan. the West Indies, principally to pre-pare for future raids and to learn how the Spaniards handled the go ld en harves t from Peru. In 1572, he returned with two sh ips, in the hold s of which were stored the parts of three small sai lin g boats, and on July 29, having put the boats together, he attacked and captured Nombre de Dios where the King's treasure house was at that time l ocated He wou ld have made a rich haul of the gold waiting for the arrival of the fleet from Spain had he not been wounded in the assault on the town. Drake then made his headquarters on the coast, and 'made many forays on shipping, even taking ships from under the guns of Cartagena. With the help of the Indians, who since the days of Pedrarias were always ready to help the enemies of Spain, and of the Cimaroons (as escaped negro slaves who had banded together in the jungle and waged continual war on the Spanish pack train were called), he crossed the Isthmus to the Pacific, in time to see a Peruvian p late fleet riding at anchor in the bay of Panama. He planned to ambush the pack train carrying the treasure from this fleet near Venta Cruz, or Cruces, but failed to obtain any go ld the Spaniards aware of his presence, sending a train of mul es bearing provi ions in advance. He captured and sacked ru e but, a thi s w as mere l y a topping place for the pack trains, he procured v e r y littl e boot y Another ambush outside of N ombre de Dio was more s u s ful hi s m e n t aking away a ll the go ld they co uld carry and burying [ 2 2 ]

PAGE 29

several tons of silver in the vicinity. In 1573, he returned to England and started to organize a fleet to go to the Pacific, but John Oxenham who had been with him when he crossed the Isthmus, forestalled him in his desire to be the first Englishman to sail upon those waters. John Oxenham crossed the Isthmus in 1575, with the help of the Indians, over the same route traversed bv Balboa, and launched a small boat on the Pacific. He stayed in the vicinIty of the Pearl Islands taking everal small Spani h prizes, and finally captured one of the treasure galleons from Peru. Oxenhamand hi crew were finally captured by the Spaniards and put to death. Drake returned to the vVest Indie on November 15, 1577, ailed through the Straits of Magellan, swept the west coast of South America as far north as California, without attacking the city of Panama, crossed the Pacific, pas ed around the Cape of Good Hope and landed in England in 1580, having gone completel y around the world. In 1595, he again returned to the I thmus, and, with Sir John Hawkins, captured and burned Nombre de Dios, and started across the Isthmu to attack the city of Panama, but the Spaniards had barricaded the royal road so effectively that the English gave up the attempt. They went to Porto B e llo in stead, and ju t previous to the attack on that place, January 28, 1596 Drake died and was buried at the mouth of the bay. Drake's example was followed by \Villiam Parker, who attacked and acked Porto Bello in 1602. From the time of Drake, Porto Bello had little rest from attack; it s forts were rebuilt only to be again destroyed. FALL OF OLD PANAMA Henry Morgan was one of the fir t of the pirate to attack the mainland. In June, 1668 he plundered Porto Bello, and at that time sent a mes age to Section of wall and Spanish cannon, with embrasure, in old fort at Porto Bello. [ 23 ]

PAGE 30

the Governor of Panama that he would return in a hort time to take that city. As he promi ed, he returned to the Isthmus two yea r later, sent an advance force, which attacked and captured Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the Chagres, p l aced a garri on there and at Porto Bello and started up the Chagres and over land with 1,200 men, the Spaniards retreating before him. It took the Englishmen nine day to make the journey, and they uffered greatly for want of food as the Spaniard in their retreat on Panama laid was te to the country. Panama was captured on January 28, 1671. Before the city fell fire broke out and the place was entirel y ruined. l\10rgan was accu ed of having set fire to the town, but it was lTIOre lik e l y that it wa caused by a spark blown into an open powder magazine, which had been ordered de troye d by the Governor, Don Juan Perez de Guzman. Howeve r, 1VIorgan stayed in the ruins nearly a month, collectin g booty, and a l so plundered the n e ighboring islands and the surroundino' country. H e then r eturned to San Lorenzo, and ailed to Jamaica w ith the largest share of the booty, leavin g hi s companions to leave the I thmus as best they cou ld The attack on Panama was made when England was at peace with Spain, and the Briti h Government was forced to uppress buccaneering in Jamaica on account of the storm of prote t arou ed. Morgan was made Lieutenant-Governor of Jamai ca, was later knighted and became governor of the i land, in w hi c h capacity h e did good work in suppressing piracy. His appointment would appear to have been made by the IGng on the theory that it take a thief to catch a thief. OTHER A TTEl\IPTS Although Drake and Morgan were no longer feared, the Isthmus was not yet free from the raids of numerou other pirate, French and Engli h, who Wall of the old fort at Porto Bello, showing entrance, and watch tower. [ 24 ]

PAGE 31

attacked Porto Bello, cro ed the I thmu and raided up and down the coast of the Pacific. Captain John Coxon plundered Porto B e llo in 1679, and in the following year cro ed the I thmus to the Pacific in company ,yith Captain Richard Saw kin Bartholomew Sharp, Peter Harri and Edmund Cook, Scene in the village of Chagres at the mouth of the river of that name. accompanied by over 300 men. The' cro ed the I thmu of Darien, 'uided by the Indian, in April 1680, and attacked anta ]\Iaria, an outpo t on the Tu ora Riv r. K ot finding the expected gold at Santa nIaria, the voyaged in canoe and in byo bark ,captured b -Captain harp and Cook, to Panama. Arriving off Panama, the, were attacked by three pani h hip near the i land of Perico. In the fight ,,hich en ued on April 23, 16 0, the Engli h were victorious, but they failed to attack the cit owing to a di agreement between them elve a to who hould be leader, although they tayed in the vicinity man day picking up prize. Captain awkin was killed later in an attack on the mining town of Pueblo K uevo, in the Province of Yeragua Captain Coxon had alread left with hi men to recro the I thmu to the boat left on the Atlantic, and Captain Harri died from wound received in the battle of P rico, 1 aving Captain Sharp and Cook to continue their voyage in the South Sea. Captain Sharp returned to England ,, here he wa tri d for piracy, but e caped hanging on account of lack of evidence. From 1680 to 1688, pirate raid iped out ever ettlement on the Pacific coa t of Darien. In 16 8, En land b came the ally of Spain and the pirate cea ed operations for the time being. 'Yar broke out between England and pain in 1738, and in 1739 Porto Bello wa again captured and de troyed by Admiral Edward Yernon of the Briti h Xavy. In 1740, Yernon captured Fort San Lorenzo, and in he again took Port B 110 and prepared an a sault on th new city of Panama again t which a fleet "'a going around the Horn under command of aptain An on. However Yernon' men began to fall ick, 0 he gav up th attempt [ 2-]

PAGE 32

The tower is the most important remaining evidence of the greatness of the first city of Panama, destroyed by Morgan in 1671. It is located about six miles southeast of Panama City. The wealth of Peru was transported over the old masonry bridges centuries ago. [ 26 ]

PAGE 33

on Panama and went to Cartagena instead, at which place he met with a decisive defeat. Anson learning of this event, left to attack Manila and the new city of Panama was again saved. The last of the Spanish galleon from Peru during the latter part of 1739 Pile of cannonballs at Fort San Lorenzo, used by the early Spaniards in resisting the attacks of the buccaneers. found upon its arrival at Panama that Porto B llo wa being attacked by Admiral Vernon, so it returned to Guayaquil and ent it trea ure to artagena over the trail from Quito to ,Bogota. Thus the commerce of the Spani h galleons acro the Isthmu ceased, and the oTadua l decay of the town on the Isthmus wherein lived the merchant and trader et in. "From acked Porto Bello r edhanded they came, All blood stained from conquest unworthy the name, To the mouth of the Chagre where, high on the hill, an Lorenzo kept guard, to plunder and kill It devoted defenders, who courao'eously fought For home, wives and children, accounting as naught Their live s h e ld 0 preciou, 0 cherished before, Could they drive the fierce pirate away from their hore. Three days they repul sed them, but to find every night The foe till upon them in ne'er-ending fight. Their arm could not conquer the power of hell! an Lorenzo url' enderedingloriou s l y fell! Burned, fami hed and bleeding from many a wound, They l ay while their stron 'hold was razed to the ground." Gilbert. [ 27 ]

PAGE 34

project of connecting th Atl antic with the P acific h as attracte d the attention of the civilized world ince the d i scove r y of the I sthmus In the year 1534 to 1536, tudie we r e lTIade under t h e direc tion of the then governor of Panama, Pa cual Andagoya, in co m p li a n ce with a royal decree, dated February 20, 1534, for a sh i p canal acr oss the I sthmus b y cutting from the Chagre River to the headwaters of t h e Rio G r ande, but the idea was abandoned on account of the excessive cost. With a revival of intere t in the ubject, many ro u tes we r e s u gges t e d and many surveys were made at different points where t h e w i dth of the Ame ric a n Isthmus was found to be favorable, or where r i ve r s and l akes we r e found that might be utilized as a possible passageway. Of the m a n y r outes proposed it has been found that the one across Nicaragua, utili z i ng the San Jua n Rive r and Lake Nicaragua, and that at Panama a l ong the l i n e of t h e P a n a m a r a ilroad utilizing the valley of the Chagre River and t h e Rio G r ande, a r e the onl y practicable ones. Of the others, those which gained t h e m os t atte ntion and which were given the most study were across the Isthmus o f T ehuante pec in Mexico, and three in Panama, the Dari en, or Atrato Rive r the San BI as, and the Calidonia Bay routes, TEHU ANTEPEC The Tehuantepec route, where the Spaniards under Corte z a fter the conque t of lVlexico, built a road across the I sthmus, i s t h e be t l oca tion geo graphically, for a canal, it being so lTIuch closer to the P acific and Gulf ports of the United State, while the distance from New Yo r k i s p ractically the same a s from Panama. However, the summit leve l at t h i s po i n t was f ound t o b e in the neighborhood of 700 feet and very broad, and it is do u b tful i f a s uffi c i ent s uppl y of water could be obtained for it even if i t cou l d be mat e ri ally l owe r e d b y e xc a vation. When the French were at work on the Panama p r o j ec t Capta in J a mes B. Ead Ie ted thi place for the location of a ship railway with l a r ge c a r s to tran port hip from one ocean to th other. Thi neve r go t b eyond the "cherne" tao' ,although at that tim it wa considered practicable by e n g ine e rs. [ 2 1

PAGE 35

There is n"ow an ordinary standardgage railroad engaged at this point in carr ing transcontinental freight. ATRATO RIVER AND TRIB 'TARIES 'ariou project have been proposed to utiliz e the Atrato river, which flows almost directly north about 200 mile into the Gulf of Darien, at the point where the I thmus joins the continent of South America and several of it tributaries, which approach the Pacific coa t very cIo ely. There i an Indian legend that canoe can be carried for a short di tance from the headwater of the Atrato to another river flowing into the Pacific. The Atrato is a ilt-bearing river and has a cOJ;lsiderable fall, and is not in itself adapted to the u e of ocean-going ship. It would neces itate continual dredging for a hundred mile to canalize it, and a cut through the continental divide much greater than the Cut at Culebra. The streams flowing into the Pacific are little more than mountain torrent. On this account thIs route ha not been con idered with as much favor as the more northerly ones. There is a widely circulated story that King Philip III, in the period 1616 to 1619 i ued an edict at the reque t of Pere Aco ta forbidding further con ideration of the project on the ground that the will of God wa made manifest by the fact that He had created an i thmu in tead of a trait, and that it would be impiet y for man to put a under what God had joined. Probably a more rea onable objection wa that a hip canal would make the Spanish colonies too ea ily acce ible to their enemie. The policy of King Philip was adhered to for over 200 ears after his death in 1698. CALIDOXIA The Calidonia route i where Balboa cros ed to the Pacific in 1513, and is the one which" illiam Patter on chose in 1698 for a line of tran it across the I thmus to control the trade of the Pacific with the east. Thi route tart from Calidonia Bay on the Atlantic where Patter on' colon of New Edinburgh was located, to San 1\1iguel Bay on the Pacific. At fir t thi appear to be an ideal location for a hip canal on account of the hort di tance, 35 miles, between the two ocean. It" a advocated by Dr. Edward Cullen of Dublin in 1850. He claimed that th summit level on' thi line wa not over 150 feet. It wa partl y explored by Lionel Gri borne, an Engli h engineer, in 1852, and he reaffirmed the claim of Dr. Cull n. Later exploration, among them tho e of Lieutenant I aac G. Strain, U. N., in 1854, and by the United tate Darien expedition in 1870 failed to confirm thi low altitude. It wa found that the summit level i at lea t 1,000 feet above the ea. Although the I thmu i ver narrow at thi point, the excavation required i 0 great that it wa propo ed to build a tunnel 4.2 mile long through the mountain through which ship might pa Thi project ha long been con idered impo ible. SAl BLAS The San Bl a route from the Gulf of San Bla to the Bayano River, which flow into the Pacific about 15 mile from the Pacific entrance of the present canal, i acro the narrowe t part of the I thmu the di tance being about 30 mile from hore to hore. The di tance from the Atlantic tidewater to tidewater in the Ba T ano River i about two-third of that di tance. Thi r ute wa explored under the dir cti n of 1\11'. Frederick 1\1. Kelle r in 1857, and ub e quentl y by an expedition under Commander Thoma Oliver Selfridge, Jr., [ 29 ]

PAGE 36

U. S. N." in 1870. The difficulty here, as on the Calidonia route, lies in the height of the summit; to cross which tunnels from eight to ten miles long were a l so proposed. The result of all these exploration and urvey resulted in the conviction that no other route compared in practicability with that of Panama and Nica ragua. NICARAGUA Thi route, utilizing Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan River, which flows out of it into the Atlantic, was u 'ed as an isthmian tran it by the Spaniards as early a 1529. It became the subject of investigation as a possible Canal route in 1825, when the newly federated state of Central America advised the United States that it would encourage any uch project by Americans. Several surveys were made, but no con truction work was attempted. In 1850-1852 an American, O. W. Childs, organized a company under an agreement with Nicaragua, and e tablished a tran it route, partly by water and partly by stage road. This transit company also made s urv ey for a hip canal along this route. It forfeited it conce ion in 1858 without doing any work on the proposed canal. Later surveys were Inade by the United State under Commander E. P. Lull, and in 1889 canal con truction was begun when the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua, composed of Americans, wa formed under a concession from Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Financial difficulties, however, stopped the work and the company failed in 1893. For some yea rs after efforts were made to induce the United State Government to finance the project, with the result that, in 1895, Congress provided for a board of engineers to ascertain the feasibility and cost of a canal at thi point. Thi' board, appointed by President Cleveland, consisted of Co lon el 'Villiam Ludlow, U. S. A., Civil Engineer M. Swinging bridge, Chame. r 30 ]

PAGE 37

T. Endicott, U. S. N., and Civil Engineer Alfred Noble. They reported that the Canal was feasible, but recommended further surveys and inve tigations. Accordingly a commission was appointed by President McKinley, which con sisted of Rear Admiral J. G. Walker, Colonel Peter C. Hains, and Lewis M. Haupt. Before the work of this commission was completed Congress provided, in 1899, for increa ing it for the purpose of making surveys, compari ons and a thorough examination of all possible routes from Tehuantepec to the Atrato River. The Commission, which became known a the Isthmian Canal Commi sibn, was now reinforced by the appointment of Colonel O. H. Ern t, Alfred Noble, Geo. S. 1\Iorri on, and" illiam H. Burr, engineers, and Professor Emory R. Johnson and Samuel Pa co a expert, respectively, on the com mercial and political aspect of the problem. Explorations were made of the entire Isthmu but no favorable route was found other than that at Nicaragua and that at Panama. The Commi sion reported on November 16, 1901, in favor of the construction of a canal acros Nicaragua, provided the property of the N ew -French Canal Company on the Isthmus of Panama could not be purcha ed for $40,000,000, nearly one-third of the price asked. The total length of the canal proposed at Nicaragua wa about 187 miles, 47 miles of which was in deep water in Lake Nicaragua, 17 mile in the river not requiring improvement, leaving 121 miles of river to be canalized. It was to have nine l ocks. The difficultie which would have to be overcome are about the same as at Panama. However, the longer di tance at Nicaragua and the proximity to active volcanoes made it less desirable than the Panama route. The latter was more advantageou because of the Panama railroad and the extensive plant and work of the French. PAKAMA The Panama Canal project, like the other, was the subject of many studies and surve) the fir t, a tated above, being made in 1534. None of the surveys however were thorough prior to the one nlade by the Isthmian Canal Commission in 1890. Simon Bolivar, in 1827, caused a survey to be made of the route by an English urveyor, and in 1835 the United States sent Charles Biddl e to investigate po sible water or railroad routes across the Isthmus. He obtained a conce ion from New Granada (Colombia) for a railroad, but nothing further was done at that time. A few year later, 1838, a company of Frenchmen obtained a similar concession, and a report that a summit pass of 37 feet above a level cau ed the French Government to end out Napoleon Garella to make a survey which corrected this error. He recommended a lock canal with a ummit I vel of about 160 feet above ea level, a tunnel of miles through the divid and 18 lock to make the required lift. It was not until May, 1876, that the Gov rnment of Colombia gave to the French Canal Company the concession under which the fir t canal work wa done, although the Panama railroad wa built in 1850-5, and other surveys had been made under the direction of the United State Government in 1854 and 1866. While the French were at work on the Canal many studies were made of the project by officers of the United States Navy. [ 31 ]

PAGE 38

_ the o ld p ack trail s from P orto B ello and from C ruc es o n the Chagres I IIIIROM 1750 to 1849, trad e across the I sthmus was a t a stands till and I II b eca m e nearl y obl it erated t h ro u g h di s u se S p a in's b e l a t e d change of p olicy, the granting of free trad e to the co l o ni es, cam e to o late to be of much b e n e fit to Panama. A few s h ips di sc h a r ged the ir car goes at the mouth of the Chagr es f o r transportati on ove r the C ru ces trail, but the re w e r e no adequate f ac iliti es for handling any g reat a m ount o f trade had the r e b ee n any. What littl e tra d e the r e was went arou n d Cap e H o rn or v i a the C a p e of Good Hope. The I thmus b ecame a p l ace of so littl e importa n ce tha t it was reduced from a vi ce r e g ency in 1718 when it becam e a p r o vin ce o f New Granada (the o i d name f o r Co lomb i a). It obt a ined its inde p ende n ce from Sp a in on Septembe r 2 6 182l. In 1849, how e ver, the Isth m u s agai n cam e to life with the steady flow of emigrants bound for Californ i a, w h e r e go ld h a d b ee n dis cov e r e d during the pre viou s ye ar. C a l iforn i a and Oregon h a d a l so b ee n thrown op e n to settle m ent, and the I sthmian tran i t beca m e a lm os t a n ecessity f o r the only other m eans of communication w i t h those s t a t es we r e the lon g ov e rl and journey by wa go n train a c ro ss the American co n t in ent, and the lon g voyag e around South Ame ri c a. Thus the I sthmu s as a trade r oute again came to the front. The a dvantages of an I sthmian railroad as a m eans of dev e loping the trade o f the U nit e d Sta t es w ith the g r ow ing r epub li cs o f C entral and South America w as realiz e d a s earl y a s 1 835 w h en P res id ent Andre w Jacks on appointed Mr. Cha rl es Biddle as a commiss ioner t o vis it the diff e r ent routes b es t adapted for inte r ocea ni c communicati on by rail o r by wat e r be t wee n the tw o oc e ans. Mr. Biddl e vi site d the I sthmus wen t to B ogota, and obt a in e d fro m the Government o f New Grana d a a c once ss ion for constructin g a r a ilroad a c ro ss the American Isthmus H e r eturne d to the United States i n 1837 with this document, but d i e d befo r e h e w a a bl e to prepare a report so n o thin g furthe r w as done at t h a t time. In 1 8 47 a French synd i cate, headed by M a t e o Klin e obtained a s imil a r co n cess i o n but was unable to rai se the m o n ey n eces a r y t o carry out the work. In D ece m be r 18 48 three fars ighted A m e rican Willi a m H. A s pinwall, l-Ien r y C h auncey, and John L. Step h ens, entere d in to a contract with New [ 32 ]

PAGE 39

Granada to build the road, and the Panama Railroad Company, with a capitalization of $1,000,000, was incorporated under a charter granted in the state of New York. Aspinwall, in the same year, obtained from Congress a contract for carrying United States mail by steamer from Panama to California and Oregon, as a part of his railroad scheme. A similar mail contract authorized by Congress on the Atlantic side, New York and New Orleans to Chagres, was obtained at the same time by Mr. George Law. A soon as the concession was obtained from New Granada, Mr. Stephens, accompanied by Mr. J. L. Baldwin, an engineer, went over the proposed route for the road and, finding a summit pass of a little Ie s than 300 feet decided that High trestle for embankment fill. The new line was built on a 95-foot level and across the lowlands of the Gatun Lake region a number of long and high trestles for embankment fills, some of them 90 feet high, had to be built. [ 33 ]

PAGE 40

it was feasible. In the early part of 1849, a party of engineers in charge of Colonel G. H. Hughes of the United States Topographical Corps, was sent to locate the line. Finding a summit ridge of feet, a line was laid out not exceeding 50 miles in length from ocean to ocean, with the Atlantic terminus on Navy Bay, as Limon Bay was formerly called, and with the Pacific terminus in Panama City. A contract was then entered into with two experienced contractors, Colonel Geo. M. Totten and John C. Trautwine, for the construction of the line. These men decided upon Gorgona, on the Chagre river, 31 miles from Colon, as the base of operations toward Panama, thinking that material could be easily landed there by boat. However, the river was so low in the dry season and so swift in the rainy season that light draft steamers were found out of the question Loading dirt train for trestle fill. for the transportation of railroad material. At the same time the increasing rush to the California gold fields by way of the Isthmu made river transportation and the cost of labor prohibitive, and the contractors begged the company to release them from their obligation. This the company did, and, deciding to undertake the construction work itself, retained Messrs. Totten and Trautwine in its service. FIRST WORK ON THE PANAMA RAILROAD Clearing on Manzanillo Island began in May, 1850. This was a low swampy plot of land of about 600 acre eparated from the mainland by a narrow ann of the sea, and i the ite of the pre ent city of Colon. Although clearings had been made, residence upon the island wa impossible and for the [ 34 )

PAGE 41

fir t few month the men engaged in making the urvey, and the laborer brought from Cartagena, Colombia, were obliged to live on board an old brig anchored in the bay. 'Vhen this became overcrowded, a addition were made to the force, it was supplemented by the hull of a condemned steamboat. The village of Aspinwall wa founded on Februar) 2, 1852, but on account of Colombia' refu al to recognize the name, it wa later rechri tened Colon, in honor of Columbu The fir t seven mile of the road \yas through an extensive wamp, covered with jungle, and the surveyor were compelled to work in water and lime up to their waists. In a short time the entire force uffered with malarial fever, and great difficulty wa experienced in obtaining ufficient laborer. Iri hmen were brought from the United States, negro frOlll Jamaica, and natives from the adjacent tropical countrie and fever made inroad on all of them. The importation of Chine e coolie wa tri d, and nearly 1,000 of that race were Scene on the Panama railroad, near El Diablo, Ancon Hill in the distance. Corozal-Ancon wagon road on the left. brought from China. Native hill ric tea, and opium were upi)lied them, but within a f w week di a e broke out amono' them and, mal!Y becoming melancholy, ar aid to have committed uicid 0 that in ide of 60 day carce l y 200 abl e-b died r mained. The high lllortality of the e Chine e laborer, probably h lped d velop the tory that each of the tie on the orio'inal Panama railroad I' pre ented the life of a laborer. The fact. in the ca make the story ridiculous. Th re were at lea t 150,000 cro -ti in the original I' ad, including idin g and yard, while the large t number f employe at anyone time wa not over 7,000, and the road wa completed in four year. According to the mo t authenti c record, the total mortality during the construction period wa about 1,200. Added to the difficultie of maintain in a labor force, was the nece it: of nearly all food and uppli from New York, a di tance of nearly 2,000 mIle. B 'the fir t of tober 1851, th track had been laid a far a atun, and r 35 ]

PAGE 42

The largest railroad bridge on the new line, spanning the Chagres River at Gamboa. It is 1,320 feet long. The Chagres River empties into the Canal at this point. in the f ollo win g month, 1 000 pass engers were carried to that station .from Colon. These p assengers had arrived at Chagres for the California transit in two ships, but could not be landed there on account of a heavy storm, and were di sembarked a t Colon. This happened most opportunely for the railroad, as the ori g in a l million dollar s had been expended and things were beginning to look dark to the s tockholders. When the news reached New York that passenger h a d b ee n carried a s far as Gatun, seven miles by rail, even though they h a d b ee n carried on Bat cars, the company's stock immediately rose in pric e The work was pushed on with renewed vigor, for, from this time on, the re w as a s m all and steady income which could be applied to tJ:.!e construction ex p e n se In July, 1852 the road had reached Barbacoas, a total distance of 23 mile, w h e r e it was n e ce ssary to construct a bridge 300 feet long to span the C h agr es On O ctobe r 10 Mr. John L Stephens, who was president of the company, di ed in New Y ork, and hi ucce or, Mr. W. C. Young, decided to have the r e m a ind e r o f the work accompli shed by contract. The contractor, however, faile d t o fulfill hi s o blig a tion and after a year's delay, the company again decided t o d o the w o rk. C O MPLETION OF THE ENTERPRISE On the 2 7th o f J anuary, 1855 at midnight and in rain, the last rail to the summit rid ge a t Culebra, 37 mile s from Colon and 11 miles from Panama, was l a i d, and i n the meantime, work had been advancing steadily from Panama c ity, t o whi e h p oint m a t e ri a l h a d been transported around Cape Horn. On t h e f ollow in g d ay, the fir t locomotive passed from ocean to ocean, nearly four yea r a ft e r g r o un d w as fir t broken. The completed road was 47 miles 3.020 feet l o n g, w ith a m aximum grade of 60 feet to the mile, in order to surmount the summi t rid ge at e l eva tion 2 87 f ee t. The fir s t president was Mr. David Hoadley. [ J

PAGE 43

Although track had been laid from ocean to ocean, the railroad wa in poor physical condition, and it was not until 1859 that its construction account wa finally clo ed, at a total expenditure up to that time of $8,000,000. The road was properly ballasted, heavier rails were laid u in g hardwood ties, bridge of iron replaced lim y wooden structure and statiGn building and wharves were erected. To cros waterwa s, 170 bridge and culvert had been built and the wooden bridge at Barbacoas was replaced by one of iron. The road was a pa ing inve tment from the time when the fir t 11 mile were opened in 1852, for, as new sections were built they were put into immediate er vice for passengers and freight, and at the end of 1855, the year the entire road wa opened, it income from pa enger and freight wa $2, 1 25,232.31. 'Yhen the original construction account wa closed in January, 1859 the gro earnings amounted to $8,146,605.00, while operating expen e together with deprecia tion amounted to $2,174,876.51, leaving a balance of $5,971,728.66 a legitimate earnings for a period of seven years, during the last four of which the road was open throughout it entire length. Dividend have be n paid every 'ear on the tock, with the exception of a few year previou to the taking over of the road from the French Canal Compan b the United State. The average dividend during the years 1852-1881 wa 16 per cent., and ince that period, five per cent; the smallest dividend wa two per cent. in 1885 and the largest 44 per cent. in 1868. In 1865, the capital tock wa increa ed from $5,000,000 to $7 000,000. In 1881, the year when the road as sold to the French Canal Company a The station of the Panama Railroad at Panama City always presents an active scene at train time. A new first class station has taken the place of the old one shown here. All passenger locomotives are oil-burning and the coaches are thoroughly up-to-date, having first and second cia a commodations. The tunnel at Miraflores is 736 feet long. [ 37 ]

PAGE 44

divid end of p e r ce nt. was declared, but this not only represented the earnings for tha t year but a l s o include d the a ssets and surplus on hand at that time. EARLY RATES EARLY PROHIBITIVE The f ollo win g t a bl e of rate 'placed in effect when the road was first opened in 1855 r e m a in e d in f o rc e for 20 years and following the company's policy, w e r e intende d t o be prohibitive at fir t, on the theory that they would be lowered whe n the compa n y h a d h a d an opportunity to improve its line, will explain in a measure the l a r ge profit s made on this road which co t about $170 000 a mile to build: -1885 1903 1907 F a r e P a n a m a t o Col o n 1 tc la $25.00 $5.00 $2.40 Fare Pana m a to C o lon 2 d-cla ss 10.00 2.25 1.45 Charg e f o r b aggage ............ 10 perlb. .02 per lb. .02 per lb Fre i ght r a t e, 1 s t-cl ass ........ 3.00 per cwt. .40 per cu. ft. .50 per cwt. Fre i ght r a t e, 2 d-cl as ......... 2.00 per cwt. 1.20 per cwt. .44 per cwt. Fre i ght r a t e, 3 d-cl a s ........... 1.00 per cwt. .80 per cwt. .32 per cwt. At the p r e ent time the fir t-cl ass passenger fare i s $2.40, with 150 pounds of b a g g a ge fr ee; seco nd-cl a s, h a lf of that rate. ESTABLIS HMENT 'OF S TEAM SHIP SERVIC E In 1 85 6 the compa n y e s t a bli shed a steamship service between Panama and S a n J o e d e Gua t emala, thus opening up the rich coffee country of Central The P anama Railroa d operates a steamship service with a fleet of six vessels plying between New York and Colon, two of which were purchased in 1908 for the carrying of cement. This i s the Panama, one of the passenger steamers. [ 38 ]

PAGE 45

America. This line continued until October, 1872, when it was taken over by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. At one time the road had a line of its own between San Francisco and Panama, but this was withdrawn in 1902. In 1893, the present Panama Railroad Steamship Line was established between New York and Colon, and there are now six ships in this service, the Ancon, Oristobal, Panama, Colon, Allianca and Advance, although the two former vessels purchased in 1908 are owned by the Canal Commission, and have been used mainly in transporting cement to the Isthmus. CONCESSIONARY RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES The term of the original concession granted by the Government of New Granada provided, among other things, the exclusive privilege of building a railroad on the Isthmus of Panama; that no undertaking for the opening of a canal to connect the two oceans would be permitted without the consent of the railroad company; that the railroad company should have the exclusive privilege of building wagon roads across the Isthmus and the use of the Chagres for steamer travel, and the exclusive privilege of the u e of the ports at the two termini for the anchorage of vessels, and for the loading and unloading of cargo. This conces ion was to remain in force 49 years from the day of the road's completion, subject to the right of New Granada to take po ession at the expiration of 20 years upon the payment of $5,000,000, or at the expiration of 40 years upon the payment of $2,000,000. The provi ions of the contract were modified several times, but it exclu ive features remained practically the same. In 1867, it was renewed for 99 year on payment of $1,000,000 in cash, and an annual payment of $250,000 guaranteed to New Granada. The railroad also obligated itself to extend the road to the islands in the ba) of Panama. This extension of the contract for 99 year wa secured 12 years after the opening of the road by Colonel Totten, when it wa realized that New Granada would surely rai e the nece sary $5,000,000 to obtain the road after 20 years of opera tion, a road costing $8,000,000 to build and, at that time paying 24 per cent on a capitalization of $7,000,000. Two years later, 1869, the Union Pacific was completed across the American continent, with a consequent decline of California trade across the I thmus. The 10 s of this trade would have been offset by the trade of Central and South America, had the company seized the opportunity, but its policy, apparently, was to make all it could there and then let the future take care of itself. In 1868, the Pacific Steam Navigation Company withdrew its line of steamer from the I thmian transit, and sent its ships to England via the Strait of Magellan, and tran ferred it repair hop and coaling station from the island of Taboga to Callao, Peru. It was forced to do this by the shortsighted policy of the railroad' dir ctor who refused to ratify a traffic agreement profitable to both, which had been tentatively drawn up, giving the company where freight originated the right to make a through charge to be divided equally between the three carri r the railroad and the steamship lines on either ide of the Isthmu. The steamship company took mo t of it trade with it and an idea of what wa lost to the railroad can be obtained from the fact that, in 1874, it had 54 teamer, with a total of 124,000 tons, in operation between Valparaiso and Liverpool. Only its smaller boats were sent to Panama, and these merely to act as feeders to the main line on their return south. Thi policy of offering no encouragement to steam hip lines also forced the Panama, New Zealand [ 39 ]

PAGE 46

o o The headquarters of the P anama Railroad are located at Colon. The new line runs on the east side of the canal and is 4 7 .11 mile s long. It was completed on May 25, 1912, at a cost of $8,984,922.18. [ 40 ]

PAGE 47

and Australian Steamship Company to give up its attempt to inaugurate a monthly service via Wellington to Sydney, connecting with the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, operating between Southampton and Colon. In spite of this policy of taking more than the trade could stand, the railroad continued to pay dividends, but it would undoubtedly have done a much more profitable business had it endeavored to help, instead of oppressing the growing trade of Central and South America. CHANGES IN OWNERSHIP When the French operations were begun in 1881, the French Canal Company found that in order to build a canal it would first have to gain the consent of the railroad or to purchase it. The latter plan was followed, and in June of that year, 68,888 of the 70,000 shares were obtained for a little over or two and one-half times what the road had originally cost to build. In addition to the amount expended for shares, bonuses paid brought the to tar cost to a little over When the United States, on l\Iay 4, 1904, took over the affairs of the New French Canal Company, they came into possession of the e shares, and obtained the remainder, shares, by private purchase at a cost of or an average price. of $140.00 per share. The entire stock of the Panama Railroad and Steamship Company is now owned by the United States, with the exception of one share tran ferred to each of the directors to enable them to qualify under the articles of incorporation. The Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commi ion is also President of the Panama Railroad Company. Since it has become a government-owned corporation, the road ha become secondary to the Canal work, although it i still a common carrier, and carries The railroad station at Gatun, which is the only station of a permanent type so far constructed. except at Colon and Panama City. [ 41 ]

PAGE 48

Old Washington Hotel, showing statue of the Panama Railroad founders, Henry Chauncey, Wm. H. Aspinwall and John L. Stephens. A new modern hotel has taken the place of the old one. about 70,000 tons of commercial freight a month, which is about one-half of the total amount, the balance being handled for the company and for the Canal work. When the road was turned over by the French it was found to be in a neglected condition, with obsolete equipment and rolling stock. Since that time terminal wharves, equipped with modern cargo cranes, have been con structed, terminal yards, warehouses and machine shops provided, new and powerful locomotives, 12 of which are oil burners, larger cars for passengers and freight put into service, heavier rails laid, bridges strengthened to enable them to carry the heavier equipment, and the whole line double-tracked. Permanent reinforced concrete stations have been built at Colon, Gatun and Panama, and a modern concrete hotel, the Washington, costing upwards of $650,000 has been constructed on Colon beach. THE NEW MAIN LINE The relocated, or new main line of the railroad runs on the east ide of the canal for its entire length of 47.11 miles. From Colon to l\1indi, 4.17 miles, and from Corozal to Panama, the old location was used, but the remaining 40 miles are new road. From Gatun, the line skirts the north shore of the lake for about four mile, and then turn south, crossing the eastern arm of the lake on a high tre tIe fill at an elevation of 95 feet above sea l evel. Near Caimito, the road approaches the canal again, and parallels it to Gamboa. Originally, it wa planned to carry the road through Culebra Cut on a 40-foot berm, 10 feet above the water level, but slides caused the abandonment of the project, and it wa built on a high level around Gold Hill instead. Its highest point is 271 r 42 ]

PAGE 49

feet above ea level near LaPita, and where the continental divide i cro s ed, opposite Culebra, the height is 241 feet. From the south end of Culebra Cut at Parai 0, the railroad runs practically parallel with the canal to Panama. 'Vhere the road cro se the Gatun River, near Monte Lirio, a steel girder bridge with a lift span ha be n erected to permit native ailing craft to pass into the ea t arm of the lake, and at Gamboa, the Chagre River i cro sed with a steel girder bridge one-quarter of a mile long. At l\Iiraflore the road passes through a tunnel 73-6 feet long. The new line 'wa completed on l\la 25, 1912 at a co t of $8,984,922.18, but pas engertrain were not run over it for its entire length until September 2, 1913, when the former cro ing at Gamboa dike was abandoned on account of the rise of Gatun Lake. On that date a new schedule wa placed in effect whereby the main line train run all the way from Colon to Panama on the east side of the canal, and the town on the we t bank are sen ed with a shuttle train ervice from Panama to Ba Obispo, the pre ent terminu of the old track line. The huttle train now cro the canal, near Parai 0 on a tre tIe bridge, but a thi will have to be removed to permit the navigation of the canal, a wooden pontoon bridge will be built in th arne locality of ufficient width for a ingle track and a roadway for vehicle. Thi i not intended for a permanent cro sing but only to uch time a the village on the we t bank of the canal can be abandoned. South of Corozal, a change will be made in the road which will haye the effect of placing the new town of Balboa on the main line, with it terminus at Panama a at present. The railroad po e e modern pas engel' terminal at both end. The one in Colon i of concrete block con truction and wa opened on July 23, 1909. It i not particularly attractive from an archit ctural tandpoint. The new tation in Panama, co ting about $100,000, wa completed in the latter part of 1913. The onl) other tation of a permanent type 0 far con tructed i at Gatun, built in 1909. The new Hotel Washington at Colon. Cost about $500,000. Operated by the Panama Railroad. [ 43 ]

PAGE 50

The total mileage of the road, excl u s iv e of s idings, is 58.79, as follows: Main line, 47.11 miles; Pedro Miguel to B as Obispo, 9.12 miles, and Panama to Balboa 2 56 miles. BUSIEST SHORT LI E I THE WORLD During the years 1911-1912 the road carried 777,121 first-class passengers, and 1 ,980,550 second -cla ss passengers, an increase of over 300,000 for the year. During the fiscal year just closed, the passenger traffic is expected to show mate:r;ial i ncrease due in part to the increase d touris t travel. Freight amounting to 1,871,076 tons was transported over the railroad during 191!-1912, divided as follows: Percent. Through commercial fr. eight .................... ...... 36.80 Local and I C. C. freight .......... ....... ......... 49.93 Local commercial freight ................. .......... .. 10.37 Panama Railroad Company' s freight ................... 2.90 The net revenue from it s operation was $1,997,280.80. The steamship lin e, on the other hand, h as not paid as an investment, except as a feeder .for the railroad, and for the benefit of the Isthmian Canal Commission. It has had a steady freight and passe nger traffic, but the cargoes have consisted principally of canal upplies, and the passengers have been mos tl y employes of the Canal Commis s ion and railroad, who are carried at a reduced rate. The net deficit fr0m the operation of the steamship lin e for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, was $305,742.85. Witll the compl etion of the canal it is possible that the road will be electri fied, obtainin g the necessary power from the h y droel ec tric plant at Gatun sp ill way, and w ill be devoted almost entire l y to local traffic. This traffic will, no doubt, b e consid erabl e, for Co l on and Panama will always be important c iti es. ... ....... ".:--New Panama railroad passenger terminal in Panama, just completed. [ 44 ]

PAGE 51

IIIIHE Freneh attempt to eon truet a waterway aero the I thmu wa' foredoomed to failure because the project fell into the hand of promoters and peculators. A contributory cau e was the very high s ick and death rate among the French employe on the I thmus. Thi added greatl to the co t of admini tration and re ulted in an un table labor force. Many of the be t engineer left the Isthmu after short service, or died, and the e con tant change made it difficult to pur ue any regular plan to keep up an effective organization to carryon the work. The company had to pay high wages and offer pecial inducem nt to per uade men to take the chance of one in five of surviv inO' an attack of yellow fever which the were liable to contract. Had the work been in charge of a rich and powerful government, public opinion would n t have allowed the work to have been carried on at uch an appallin g co t of life. Wh n the enterpri e wa tarted the method of tran mi sion of malaria and yellow fever wa and, even if the French had taken the anitary precaution prevailing at'that time, they could not have stamped out the e two fever which gave the I thmus the reputation of being the mo t unhealthy place in th world for a white man. A, a private corporation, it could not enforce anitar r 'ulation had it d ired to do o ? for, unlike the United State, it did not acquire ab olute juri dicti n over the Canal trip, but wa at the m rcy of the Colombian court. Other cause were extravao'anc which naturally developed into graft, for the upply of mone which came flowing into the coffer of the compan, from eager inve tor beguiled by the name of De Le ep eemed in xhaustible; the lack of s uitable machinery, the want of preparation, and misO'uided leader ship. All the e mi tak hav rved a warning. ignal to th Canal Com mission, 0 that the failure of the French ha contributed, in a 'larg mea ure, to the succes of the Americans. DE "'BPS-PROMOTER The fir t French anal Company, La ociete International du Canal Interoceanique, inaugurated the undertaking with an exclu ive conce ion from olombia, but with an incompl te urvey of the propo ed work, and an e timat of 0 t and time plac d mu h too low. The nece ary money wa [ 45 ]

PAGE 52

Count Ferdinand de Lesseps. His name will always be linked with the great enterprise as it was under his direction and control that the work first took definite form. r I J obtained from the French middle classes, who were induced to part with their savings through the magic name of Ferdinand de Lesseps, who had just brought to a successful clo e his great work at Suez, and who was placed at the head of the new enterprise. De Lesseps was honest and sincere, but he was an old man, somewhat blinded by his pre vious good fortune, and, therefore, easily deluded. He wa enthusia tic over the idea of a canal connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific, and made hinlself and other believe that the work could be accompli hed more quickly and much easier than the Suez. His ability a a mi ionary made him valu able to the promoters, for the difficulties of the work acros the Isthmus, as compared with the work at Suez should have been apparent even to the layman. He was not an expert engineer; it did not require any engineering ability, but merely imagination, to the practica bility of cutting a sea level channel through the low desert region of upper Egypt, while at Panama, a hilly and Former headquarters of De Lesseps, Cristobal, now used by the Canal Commission. [ 46 ]

PAGE 53

rock country had to be traversed, torrential treams diverted, and a tidal basin constructed, problems which the world's foremo t engineers have differed in the solution. And yet De Lesseps sincerely believed that he was to achieve a second triumph, and much easier than his first. (The Suez Canal was opened in 1869, took ten years to build, and co t about $100,000,000, or a million dollars a mile. This low cost was due to the fact that the cut was made through a stretch of level sand, and Said Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt, a large stockholder in the enterprise, practically forced his subjects to work on the project in much the same manner as Rameses of old). PROCURING THE CO CESSION The concession for the privilege of constructing the Canal was obtained from Colombia in May, 1876, by General Stephen TUrr; a Hungarian, who had become acquainted with De Lesseps when the latter was planning his work at Suez, and who was later incited by the Frenchman's success in an effort to duplicate the feat at Panama. He organized a provi ional company in France and sent an engineering party to the Isthmu in November, 1876, to make explorations and survey The party was in charge of Lieutenant Napoleon Bonapart Wyse, of the French Navy, a brother-in-law of General TUrr, and at that time only 23 year of age. The fir t expedition was only partly uccessful, several of its members falling victims to disea e. Wyse was again sent out in the spring of 1878 with Lieutenant Armand Reclus, aloof the French Navy. On this trip he obtained a new concession, approved Nlay 18, 1878, in the name of the association pre ided over by General TUrr, which modified and extended the former one, so as to 'ive the promoters the exclu ive privilege of building a canal acro the Isthmus anywhere within the United States of Colombia. This concession wa to remain in force 99 years, provided the necessary per mi s ion 'wa obtained from the Panama Railroad Company which held a The old port of Colon in 1884, during the early French days. This photograph was taken with a wet plate, a relic of photography. [ 47 ]

PAGE 54

Cristobal street scene in the French days. The scenes of the old French days have changed with newer ideas. This section is now filled with roomy houses and quarters for the canal employes and I. C. C. manufacturing plants. monopoly of the Isthmian route. Work was to be begun not later than 1883, 'and was to be. completed within 12 years, with an extension of six years in case the original term proved too short. Although Wyse went over not more than two-thirds of the distance from Panama to Colon, he submitted what were supposed to be complete plans and a statement of cost for a sea level canal between the two points, following the line of the Panama railroad. These plans and estimates were submitted to an international engineering congress which was convened in Paris, May 14-29, 1879, in accordance with the terms of the concession, with Ferdinand de Lesseps at its head. These plans were the basis of a decision by the congress in favor of a sea level canal, following the route of the Panama railroad, by way of the pass at Culebra, using the valley of the Chagres river on the Atlantic s id e, and the valley of the Rio Grande on the Pacific side of the continental divide. It i s pertinent to note that in this congress, consisting of 136 delegates from France, Germany, the United States and other countric only 42 were engineers, while the remainder were promoters, politicians, speculators, and personal friends of De Lesseps. The Wyse concession and plans were" hoved through," approved, and turned over to La Societe International du Canal Interoceanique, commonly known as the first French Canal Company, for a consideration of $2,000,000. This was the first' 'step in the da.rk," taken by the company. DE L*SSEPS' PLAN. De Lesseps made two visits to the I thmus, the first in December, 1879, and the second in 1886, remaining for about two months on each occasion. On hi fir t vi it he was accompanied by wife, three of his children, and an international t chnical commis ion, consisting of nine members. At one of the r 48 J

PAGE 56

The famous flat arch in the ruins of Santo Domingo Church, Panama City. It is an architectural curiosity of the early day Spanish masons and has withstood the assault of fire and earthquakes. It has a span of over 40 feet, and a rise of two feet, and has stood in the ruins of the old church for 206 years.

PAGE 57

numerous receptions and banquets tendered him, he said: "There are only two great difficulties to be overcome, the Chagres River, and the deep cutting at the summit. The fir s t can be surmounted by turning the headwaters of the river into another channel, and the second will disappear before the wells which will be sunk and charged with explosives of s uffi c ient force to remove vast quantities at each discharge." The engineering commission, after a superficia l study of the route and former incomplete s urveys, in a report submitted February 14 1880, estimated the cost at $168,600,000. The e ngine ering congress estimated the cost at $214,000,000. On February 20, De Lesseps reduced thi e timate to $131,600, 000, "and again on l\1arch 1 without apparent r eason, t o $ 120 ,000,000. The proposed sea level canal wa to have a uniform depth of 29.5 feet, a bottom width of 72 feet and a width on the water lin e of about 90 feet, and involved excavation estimated at 157,000,000 cubic yard. The engineering congress estimatedseven or eight years as the time required t o compl e te the work. De Lesseps, with hi s usual optimism, reduced the time to six years To control the flood of the Chagres River, various sc h e m es were proposed, the principal one being the construction of a dam at Gamboa, a littl e below Cru ces, and the construction of channels to the sea to carry the impounded water away from the canal. On account of the great differ ence in the tides of the two oceans, a maximum of two and one-half feet in the Atlantic and 2 1 feet in the Pacific, a tidal basin or lock was to h ave been built a t the Pacific entrance. (The high tide on the Pacific s ide i due to the fact that the Bay of Panama is funnel-shaped). No work was ever accomplished on either of these two Front Street, Colon, during the flourishing French days, with the pay car at the old depot. [ 49 ]

PAGE 58

A group of views of Balboa and the canal entrance and operations, during the days of both the First and Second French Companies. The wharf was the first constructed by the French. The one-sided dump cars shown in the top picture are now obsolete. [ 50 J

PAGE 59

project. A dam at Gamboa was found later to be impracticable, and the problem of the diversion of the Chagres River was left to some future time. IXAuG -RATIXG THE WORK On January 1, 1880, the ceremony of breaking the ground was to have been performed by De Le sep at the mouth of the Rio Grande, about three miles we t of Panama cit, '. The boat bearing a party of ladies and gentlemen who were to take part was delayed in starting, with the result that it could not get ,yithin two or three miles of the hore on account of the ebbing tide. Thi, however, did not dampen the ardor of the vel' atile Frenchman, a the arrival of teamer in the entrance of the river mouth ,yas con sidered by him a ufficient beginning. The first blow wa thereupon struck ,,ith a pick in a box of earth up n the deck of the teamer, while the ob s erver aided their imagina-Limon Bay in the busy French days. tion by copiou draught of chalupaone. On January 10, 1880, De Lesseps, with another party of civil and church dignitari w nt t ulebra to witne the fir t bla' t. Account diff r as to thi event. Trac Robin on, the oldest American on th I thmu, tat in hi book n Panam:a, that the blast never came off, and a he ,ya pre ent, he ought to know. On the other hand, the 'Star and Herald" of the da) following give a circum tantial account of the affair, ending ,yith: Th mine had been carefully laid in an exceedingly hard and compact formation of ba alt at a few feet below the summit, and charged with 30 kilooTam of explo ive. The operation wa performed with complete succe and immen e amount of olid rock beino' hurled from its original po ition." No photograph of the incident are extant. Actual excavation work did not commence in Culebra Cut until some time [ 51 ]

PAGE 60

The pick and shovel brigade. later. "The Bulletin du Canal Interoceanique," published by the company for the benefit of the stockholders, of February 1, 1882, states: "The first work in the great cut of the maritime canal was formally inaugurated today (Jan. 20, 1882), at Empire in the presence of the dignitaries of the state, the leading citizens of the city and a great assemblage of the people. The first locomotive has arrived at the newly opened excavation. The city of Panama is celebrating the event with a great fete." De Lesseps left Colon for the United States on February 22, 1880, for the purpose of interesting Americans in the undertaking. Although he was received with a great deal of enthusiasm everywhere, he was unable to dispose of the stock which he had thoughtfully reserved. Americans were interested in a canal but not in a canal under French control. He then proceeded on a imilar tour of Europe, where he was more successful from a pecuniary point of view. The first issue of stock, 600,000 shares of $100 each, was subscribed twice over, mostly taken in France. These shares were distributed among 100,000 persons, indicating the great Frenchman's popularity with the people of hi country. In 1888, when the company failed, the total subscriptions, stock. and bond issues, had reached $393,505,100, and the shareholders numbered 200,000. Two year of feverish preparation followed which witnessed the making of hasty survey the bringing together of machinery and a labor force, and the erection of quarter and hospitals. The actual construction work wa let to a firm of French contractors, Couvreaux & Hersent, but they soon realized the difficultie of the undertaking and withdrew from the last part of their contract. FRENCH LABOR FORCE There seem to have been little difficulty experienced in obtaining a labor force, which in 1888 numbered about 20,000 men. Nine-tenth of these were ( 52 ]

PAGE 61

negroes from the 'Ve t Indies, and many of them held clerical and other imilar position. The white employe, mainly from France, were treated with extreme generosity. Economy wa an unknown factor in the admini tration of affair of the fir t company The average pay of a clerk wa $125 per month, and of a diyi ion chief from $200 to $300 per luonth. After two year' ervice, five month vacation, with free travelino' expen e t o and fr In France, were granted. The hour of labor for the clerical force wa from 8 to 11 a. m., and 2 to Q p. nl., ix hour a day. Free quarter, furniture, beddino', lamp, kitchen utensil, etc., were provided. A there was no y teln of accountin g in vogue, many did quite a profitable bu ine in the buyino and e llin g of th company' furniture. Thi was merely one of the petty form of graft in vogue, however. Enormou alarie were paid to the director engineer and other officer on the Isthmus. The director-general li v d in a hou e that co t $100,000, now u ed as the American Legation in Panama C ity; received $50,000 a year, and when they went out on the work they were allowed $50 a day additional. One of the private car in which they rode co t $42,000 L _-\.. FOLIE Th re formerly tood on an artificial terrace on the ,ve tern lope of Ancon Hill a Luildino' that commanded read: attention from pa er by on the road from Panama to La Boca, now Balboa. It wa the pro. pective home of 1\I. Jule Dingler, probabl ,th f remo t ir ctor-general of the fir t Fr nch company, pro pective, becau e he n vel' ccupied it. ork n the man. ion ,va begllll hortly after he came to the I thmu in February, 188 3, and the cost including the ground i aid to have been about $50,00. For many year La Folie Dingler, built for M. Julius Dingler in the first French Company's days, but never ocupied by him. The experience of M. Dingler on the Isthmus constitutes one of the saddest incidents in French canal history. His son, daughter and wife all contracted the dreaded yellow f ver and died. [ 53 ]

PAGE 62

The village of Empire in the old French days. The French began their first excavation in the cut near this point in 1882. it had been called La Folie Dingler, or Dingler' Folly. The experience of 1\1:. Dingler on the IstllllluS con titute perhaps, one of the sadde t incident in French canal history. Storie of the fatal effect the climate of the Isthmus was aid to have on foreigners reached France, but Dingler scoff d at the. e reports. "I am going to how them," he is credited with having said, "that only drunkard and the dis ipated contract yellow fever and die." In thi spirit he brought with him to the Isthmu his wife, son, and daughter. fIi. son, who wa made director of post., shortly fell victim to yellow fever and died. Dingler ubsequently went to France on leave of ab ence, and upon the return of himself and family to the Isthmu his daughter met with the fate of his son. On his return from a second trip to France, hi wife also sickened and died from the same fell di ea e. Dingler later relinquished his post and went back to France a man broken in mind and body. At the time the American Government took possession, La Folie Dingler had fallen into partial decay. Needed repairs The French at work in the Canal at Cucaracha, 1885, just around the point from Gold Hill. r ,154 ]

PAGE 63

. Canal between Empire and Culebra, showing the French method of excavation, in 1888 were made and for e\ eral year the building wa utilized a a detention tation for the quarantine eryice. It wa old in 1910 for $525, and rem v d to make wa T for quan',' ,York on the ide of Ancon Hill. Durin' the period of Teate t activity there were probably 2 000 Frenchmen on the I thmu all non-immune to yellow fever. Life wa a gamble and, with no uitable ocial diYer ion, they naturall T re orted t the only form of a mu. ement available, the, aloon gamblin' room, and hou e of lll-repute. Colon and Panama became 'the of th para ite of ociet the non-worker who live on vice, with the re ult that an efficient labor force could not b kept long under uch condition and it wa continuall r changin '. In the center of the Cut at the end of the first French Company's days, 1889. The first French Company operated from 1881 to 1889. [ 55 ]

PAGE 64

Culebra Cut in the earliest times of the second French Company, 1894. THE S I C K POORLY CAR E D FOR T wo h ospita l s we r e b uilt in 1883 which with addition and alterations h ave been i n co n s t ant u se b y the Ame ric an. An c on ho pita l ori ginally cost $5, 600 000 and Co l o n h ospita l c o s t $ 1 400 000 a tota l of $7 000 000. The h o pita ls, altho u g h f a irl y well equipped, with ex c ellent doctors and surgeo n s and supplie d with the b e t m e dicin es and in truments o f the time, were p oorly m a n age d. They w e r e h a ndl e d under contract, and the administration Looking South from Culebra in the second French Company' s days, 1895. T h e second French Company operated from 1894 to 1904. [ 56 ]

PAGE 65

The Cut as it appeared in 1904 when the Americans began the work. Contractor's Hill on the right; Gold Hill on the left. Note the succession of benches, lying one above the other. The Americans have followed this same method in excavating. wa left almo t ntirel y to French Sister of Charity, who although the y w e re devoted and religiou women, were not trained nurses. These worthy women l eft the wards at night after prayer, closing the door and window tight to keep out the night mists, which were supposed to bring malarial fever leaving the patient without any other care than that which was given b y the les feeble among themselve "hen the ward were opened for morning prayer it wa The valley of the Rio Grande in the French days. The present canal is between the hills. The old Panama Railroad bridge is shown at the south end of the Cut. [ 57 ]

PAGE 66

often fo,!nd that some patient had died during the nigl,tt, who might have been saved wIth proper attention. The leg s of the ho s pital beds were placed in tins of water to keep in ects from crawling up. The e pans of stagnant water, and a l so the many ornamental basins containing Bowers and plants in the grounds out ide made id a l breeding places for mosquitoe and it is quite probable that many pati nt fell v ictim to fever while in the hospital uffering with some minor illne due to the un cree ned windows and door. The Cut in French times, showing their cableway plan of excavation. These cableways carrie d the materia l out of the canal and deposited it to one side, but unfortunately not far enough, for much of it has s lid back into the Cut, causing extra excavation. The hospital record how that during the con truction period of the old company-1881 to 1889-th e re were 5,618 deaths, 1,041 of which were from yellow fever. The old ye llow fever ward in Ancon hospital, now ward No. 16, was called St. Charles, and it i s believed that more people died from yellow fever in it than in any oth e r one building in the world. The West Indian negroes were immune to ye llow fever, and very few of them were admitted to the ho pital. The vict ims, therefore, were nearl y all white per ons, and mostly Frenchmen. A l arge proportion of the s ick did not enter the hospitals, as the contractors were char ged one dollar a day for skilled medical treatment of employe. Co l one l Gorga estimates the number of laborers who died from 1 881 to 1889 at 22, 1 89, or a rate of omething over 240 per thou and per year. He a loe timates that as many died of ye llow fever outside the hospitals as in, and places the total number of deaths from that disea eat 2,082. In September 1884, during an attack of ye llow f eve r the Canal Company 10 t 654 employe out of a force of about 18,000. Thi i s in part ba e d on urmi e, for the truth was partly uppre, d or minimized by the Canal Company order not to de troy the confidence of the peop le in the project, and outside of the ho pital rolls, the records were incomplete. A 'v irulent form of malaria, known as "Chagres fever," cau ed a greater toll in live than a n y other one di sea e. The negro la or r althou h immun from yellow fever, uccumbed quickly to attacks of this form of mal aria. [ .58 ]

PAGE 67

Under the new canal compan. the ho pital were turned over to the Si tel'S of Charit who took care of the few patient admitted at a fixed charge. A the revenue from patient wa small, they had a hard time to keep them open at all, and were compelled to ell flower, fruit, vegetable and other products from the ho pital ground. "hen the American took charge the e women were replaced by trained nurses. THE eRA H The era h came in December, 18 8. At thi time $156,654,687.00 had been expended on the I thmu and in Pari, $78,140,330.00, a total of $234, 795,017.00. Thi va t urn i aid to have been "one-third expended on the canaJ work one-third wa ted, and one-third tolen." Of that pent at Panama, salaries and expen e of management a gregated $16,540,883; rent and maintenance of lea ed property, $3,301,070; material and upplie, $29,722,856; building, $IJ,397,282; con truction and eno'ineerino' expen e $89,434,225; land pur-eha e $950,655; and medical and religiou attendance, $1,836,768. In view of the various forms of graft, extravagance and waste, it i not urpri ing that there was 0 little to show in actual work accomplished. At the end of eight year the work wa al out two-fifth completed. A French excavator opening a pioneer trench in the south end of the Cut. This was the best known method of excavating in that day. The work wa 1 t to contractor, ver,' few of whom faithfully p rformed the ervice for which they were paid. made mall fortune. Tho e who were intru ted with the work of excavation were paid for the am unt of poil which the took from the canal pri m. A there wa no data availabl e on the co t of uch work, it wa impo ible to even e timate what the charge hould-b. In many ca e the contractor took out what wa rno t ea ily excavated, avoiding the hard pot. One notable exception to thi wa th dredging work d ne b the American Dredging and ontracting ompany which dredged th op ninO' of the anal from Colon to beyond Gatun. [ ,1)9 ]

PAGE 68

First French Company's days. Dredges working in the canal at Mindi. Two French ladder dredges working on the Chagres River, opposite Gorgona 20 years ago. The French suction dredges with the carrying pipes, were effective in excavating, but like their cableways, did not carry the spoil far enough. r 60 1

PAGE 69

Much worthless material was shipped to the Isthmus, due to ill advi ed buying, the French manufacture r s undoubtedly in many instances cleaning house to their profit at the expense of the Canal stockholders: When the Americans took over the property they found torch light in one storehouse apparently brought to the Isthmu to be used in the celebration of the opening of the Canal. At another time a lot of wooden shove l s, made from one piece, were brought to light. They have been referred to as snow shovel, but were evidently intended for handling sand or ashes. A ton or more of ru ted pen points found in the stationery sto r e furni hed additional proof as to where some of the money went. Early in 1885, it became apparent that the Canal could not be completed unde r the sea level plan within the time or estimated cost. During the previou year the promoters foresaw the end, and began to sell their stock. 1\1. Leon Boyer, who succeeded Dingler as director had time to report before hi death from yellow fever a few months after hi arrival on the I thmus, that the canal could not be completed by 1889 and to Ilbmit a plan for a lock canal. In 2\lay, Old French dump cars. Steel cars, 18 feet long, were used exclusively. The cars dumped on one side only, and were too small for economical use. Most of these were scrapped by the Americans. 1885, M. De Le ep asked the French Government for authority to i ue lottery bond for a loan of $120,000,000, to repleni h the depleted treasury. Before granting permi ion the Government nt out 1\1. Armand Rou eau, an eminent engineer, to investigate condition. H reported that the canal could not be finished within the time and co t estimated unless changed to the lock plan. imilar report were made by an engineer ent out by the company, and by the agent of the Colombian Gov rnment on the I thmu the latter stating that the canal could not be completed before the expiration of the concession in 1892. In F bruary, 1885, Lieutenant Win low and McLean of the United tate Navy, reported that there remained to be excavated 180,000,000 cubic yard ; that the work would take 26 year at the then rate of progre s, and that the co t would total $350,000,000. 1\1. De Les eps withdrew hi reque t for permi ion to i sue lottery bond, but would not con ent to a change in plan. H e obtained temporary financial r lief by the i ue of bond' to the value of about $70,000,000, but a money again began to get scarce, he consented to a change in plan, and in October, l887, a temporary lock canal, with ummit l eve l above the flood line of the [ 61 ]

PAGE 70

Chagres River, to be s upplied with water by pumping, was decided upon. Under the new plan, it was estimated that the cost would reach $351,000,000 and wou ld require 20 years to build. There had already been spent at this time nearly $250,000,000, and only about two-fifths of the work had been ac complished. The end was in s i g ht. Work was pushed forward unde r the new plan until May, 1889 when the company became bankrupt and a liquidator was appointed to take charge. Under the liquidator, the work gradually dimini h e d and was finally suspended on .l\lay 1 5, 1889. It was soo n realiz e d that the only way anything could be saved to the stockholders was to continue the project. Late in 1889, the receiver appointed a commi s ion com po sed of French and foreign engineers, e l even in number, to visit the I thmu and determine whether or not the canal could be completed. This commi s ion r eported on l\fay 5, 1890, that a lock canal nlight be comp leted within e i ght yea r s at a cost of $17 i 600,000. It reported that the plant on hand was in good condition and would probably Old French locomotives. One hundred and nineteen of these were rebuilt and used by the Americans. suffice for compl e tin g the canal. It a l so estimated the value of the plant and the work already at $8 7 ,3 00,000, or one-half of the total cost. Meanwhile, as a result of the expos ure and investigation of the affa ir s of the o ld company, M D e L esseps and his so n Charles were se ntenced to five years impri onment, and s imilar sente nces were imposed upon severa l others of their associates. The French Court of Appeals annulled the sentence of Charles de Le ep, and that again t hi s father was never executed for, at that time, January 10 1 893, he wa' 88 year old and a phys ical and mental wreck; he d ied in the month of December, following. As the Wyse concess i on had nearly expired, the rec e iver obtained from Co l Olnhia an extension of ten years It was stipulated that the new company should be formed and work upon the canal re sumed on or before February 28, 1893. As thi condition was not fulfilled, a second extension of 10 years was obtained, to run not later than October 3 1, 1894. THE SECOND OR N EW COMPANY The Compagnie Nouvelle du Canal d e Panama, the New French Canal Company, a it i generally known, was organized under a spec i al law on Octob r 20, 1894, with a capital stock of $ 13 ,00 0 000, with shares valu ed at $20 each. Six hundred thousand hare were old for cash, the greater part being taken by the receiver, the contractors, and others, who had been interested in [ 62 ]

PAGE 71

The top picture shows Bas Obispo in the first French Company' s days, at the northern end of their -proposed lock. The center picture shows French cranes at work. The French using laborers to fill cars is shown in the lower picture. Cableways, in the distance, were also used for handling spoil. [ 6 3 ]

PAGE 72

the old company and escaped criminal prosecution by taking the new stock; and 50,000 shares given to the Colombian Government for th,e extension of the concess ion. The new company took possession in 1894, and work was im mediately resumed in Culebra Cut with a force large enough to comply with the terms of the concess ion. As excavation work at this point was necessary under any plans that might be decided upon, it was continued, while elaborate and extensive studi es of the Canal project were begun by competent engineers. The p lan finally adopted by the new company involved two levels above the sea, one an artificial lake to be created by a dam across the Chagres -River at A number of old French dredges, which were valueless except as junk, when the United States acquired them. Bohio, and another a high level canal through Culebra Cut at an elevation of 68.08 feet above mean tide, to be fed by water by a channel leading from a reservoir to be constructed at Alhajuela in the upper Chagres River valley. The lake level was to be reached from the Atlantic by a flight of two locks, and the summit l eve l by a second flight of two locks. On the Pacific side four other locks were provided for the two middle ones at Pedro I Vliguel b e ing combined in one flight, and the others heing located at Paraiso and Miraflores. On the Atlantic side there was to be a sea level channel to Bohio, 17 miles inland, and on the Pacific id e at l\1iraflores, about 8 miles inland. The depth of the canal was to be 29 .5 feet, with a bottom width of 98 feet. The locks were to be in duplicate, 738.22 feet long, 82.02 feet wide, with a normal depth of 29.5 feet. The lifts were to vary from 26 to 33 feet. A second plan was also worked out in which the upper level was omitted, the cut through the divide being deepened to 32 feet above sea level, making the artific i al lake created by the dam at Bohio the summit level. Under this plan the feeder from Alhajuela wa omitted, although the dam was to be retained to control the C h agres. One flight of locks on the Atlantic side and one lock on the Pacific id e were also to be omitted. The estimated cost of completing the canal under this plan was not much greater than the first, and all work on the first plan for evera l years would be equally available under the second. Although the first plan was adopted on December 30, 1899 no effort was made to carry it out, on account of the interest being shown by the United States in a canal acro s N icaragua. It was realized that if the United States should undertake to construct such a waterway, the work accompli hed and the plant on the I thlnu wou ld be practically worthie s In 1895, there was a force of [ 64 ]

PAGE 73

One of the in Ancon Hospital grounds. Ancon Hospital is world-famed, and the grounds are among the most beautiful in existence. The site covers about 80 acres, on the slope of Ancon Hill, and the environment is decidedly pleasing to the eyes of both the sick and well. Over 250 varieties of trees and plants are grown in the grounds.

PAGE 74

I

PAGE 75

men numbering about 2,000 a t work in Culebra Cut, and a year later this was increased to 3,600. This was the large s t number of men employed under the new company, for only enough work was done to hold the concession and keep the equipment in a salable condition. The French at that time were beginning to look for a purchaser; they wanted $100,000,000 for the work and equipment, but the only likely buyer was the United States. The Isthmian Canal Commission, appointed by the Spooner Act of 1899, reported in November, 1901, in favor of the Nicaragua route unl e s the French company was willing to sell out at $40,000,000. This recommendation became a Jaw on June 28, 1902, and the New Panama Canal Company was practically forced to sell for that amount or get nothing. Although the French on th Isthmu s worked under difficulties which eventually forced them to give up the Canal undertaking, they removed with their clum_ sy ide excavator, now ob olete dredges, small D ecauville car and toy Belgium locomotive a con iderable amount of material from the Canal prism, a large part of which has been found u efu l under the present plan. The old company excavated 66,743,551 cubi c yard, from 1881 to 1889, and the new company excavated 11,403,409 cubic yards up to 1904 a total of 7 146,960 cubic yard; 18,646 ,000 cubic yards of this total were taken from Culebra Cut, the operation of the new company being practically confined to A pile of old French dump cars. Many tons of this scrap material have been collected along the line of the Canal. that portion of the work. Of thi total, it ha be n figured that 29,908,000 cubic yards have been u seful to th American. The old company dredged a channel from deep water in Panama bay to the wharve at Balboa which has been u ed by ship dockino' at that port. On the Atlantic id e, the channel dredged inland, known a the French canal, wa found u sef ul upon deepening in bringing sand and tone for the lock s and. pill way concrete at Gatun. The French also turned over valuable surveys and tudie of the work, together with plan. that have b een founo of OTeat value to the American 01'ganization. The best of thi class of' work done under the new company. [ G.S ]

PAGE 76

This is especially true of the r ecords kept of the flow and flood s of the Chagres River, together with rainfall records, so essential to the pre ent plan. FRENCH AID TO AMERICAN PROJECT Much of the work of preparation during the fir t two year of American occupation-1904-1905-would have been se riou s l y delayed without the French supplies and equipmen t. In the shops and storehou es were found a p lentiful s upply of repair parts, shop tools, stationary engin es, material and s uppli e of all kinds of o'ood quality. At Gorgona, w h ere the principal shops were locat ed, known during the Frenc h times as B a Matachin s hop were found heds filled with o ld locomotives, cranes and excavator. One hundred car load of foundry and machin hop material were r moved from this point. Repair s hop were found at Empire, Para i so, Gatun and B o hi o A small machine s hop wa uncovered in the jungle at Caimito l\lulato, when American Another view of a part of the old machinery, a legacy from the All of the junk along the line of the Canal, both French and American, is being turned into dollars, having been sold to a Chicago wrecking concern. engin eers were running the center lin e of the Canal. There wa a l so a dry dock at Cri tobal which was originally 190 feet lon g, 32 feet wide and 16 f ee t deep over the s ill a t ordinary high tid e At Balboa on the Pacific s id e, there was located a rep a ir and marine s hop for the floa ting equipment. The old French shops in every case formed the nucleus of the l a rger and better equipped s hops maintained by the Americans during the period of con truction. During the fir s t two yea r s of American occupation, French locomotives were the only one available by the I sthmian Canal Commission. On June 30, 1906, there were 106 in serv ic e, and only 15 American locomotive. The same is true of the French dump cars. In 1904 there were 308 in e rvice, and in 1905 over 2,000 had b ee n repaired and put in commission, as compared with 300 American-bui l t cars. At the present time there are about 100 French l ocomot i ves and 2 00 Decauvil\{' dump car s in servi cea bl e condition. In Decemher, 1!)04, there were six o ld Fren h excavato r s wo rking in Culebra Cut! [ 66 ]

PAGE 77

which had been overhauled and placed in service. These were imilar to ladder dredges, and the excavation was accomplished by an endl ess chain of buckets which carried earth and rock from one s ide and dropped it into a hopper from which it fell into dump cars on the other side. These machines were effective only when working in soft material. They remained at work 18 months before they were replaced by modern steam shovels. The Boating equipment on hand was considerable, and many dredge, clapets or seif-propelling barge, tug, l aunches, etc., were found in the marine graveyard at Folk River, Cri tobal, and in the mouth of the Rio Grande at the Pacific entrance to the Canal, a well as along the banks of the Chagres River. l\lany of these were Boated rebuilt and placed in commission. On account of the excellent material used in the con truction of thi equipment, most of which wa Scotch-built, the Alnericans found it highly profitable to repair Heavy coat of paint and oil, which 20 or more rainy ea on A laborer looking for his belongings after a flood. The damage and loss of property caused by the floods during the rainy season is clearly pictured here. could not penetrate, had been given the machinery when it wa' I' tired, so that when the hulls were not worth repairing, the valuable part ,vere u ed e l sewhere. everal dredges were reconstructed from part of others. A cotch ladder dredge with a capacity of about 130,000 cubic yards per month wa repaired at a co t of about $30,000, which, when new, cost about $200,000. At the pre ent time there are everal French dredges doing excellent work on the Canal. Two thousand, one hundred and forty-nine buildings scattered along the line of the Panama Railroad were included in the turn-over. The e were generally mall and ill-suited for u e, other than as labor rs' barrack or torehou e but it was found profitable to repair some 1,500 of them even after they had stood unu ed for ten year or more. The large pile of French c rap, old locomotives, boilers, dump cars, part of machine, etc., which u ed to be one of the ights along the line of the Panama railroad have lowl y di appeared. l\1:uch of it has been. old a junk to contractors, while the copper, brass, white metal, rails, and ca t iron hav been u cd in the foundry at Gorgona. 01 1 French rail r 67 1

PAGE 78

have been u se d in the reinforcement of concrete in the lock walls, for the repair of dump cars, and for telephone and telegraph poles. S e v e n y e a r s after the Canal was taken over from the French, May, 1911, the present I thmia n Canal Commission made a careful official e timate of the valu e to the Commission of the franchises, equipment, material, work done, and property of v a riou s kinds for which the United State paid the French Canal Compa n y $ 40 000 000. It place the total value at over $42 000,000 divided a s foll ows : E x cavati o n u e ful t o the a n a l 2 9 708 000 cubic yard ..... Panama R a ilroad Stoc k ............................ Plant and m a t ria l u se d and s old for scrap ............... Buildings, u se d ....................................... Surveys, pl a n s, m a ps, and r ecords ... ................... Land ............................................ ... Cl earing roads, c t c .................................. Ship c h anne l in P a n a m a Bay, four years u se ............. $25 389,240.00 9 644,320.00 2,112,063.00 2,054,203.00 2,000,000.00 1,000,000.00 100,000.00 500,000.00 T o t a l ................................. ..... $42,799,826.00 A m echanical oddity-tree grown through an old French dump car. r 6 8 1

PAGE 79

II_liN I thmian Canal Commi ion organized for the con truction of the Canal was appointed under the provi ion of An Act of Congre s ., approved June 28 1902, called the pooner Act. Thi Act author-ized the Pre ident to acquire, in behalf of the United tate, at a co t not exceeding $40,000,000, the right, franchise, propert), etc., including the share of the Panama railroad, owned by the New French Canal Company, and to obtain from the Republic of Colombia perpetual control of th nece ary strip of land acro the Isthmu which control hould al 0 include the right to perpetually maintain and operate th Panama railroad, and jurisdiction over the ports at either end. If th Pre ident hould be unable to obtain a ati factory title to the property, and the control of the nec ary territor within a rea onable time and upon reasonable terms, then the Commi ion wa authorized to con truct a waterwa acro Nicaragua, u ing Lake Nicaragua and the an Juan River, after the Pre ident had fir t obtained perpetual control, by treaty with Co ta Rica and Nicara 'ua. The impo ibility of the United States to come to a ati factory agreement with Colom ia, who thought that the United State wa now committed to con truct a canal acro Panama and therefor, could be made to pay a larger amount than fir t offered I d to the revolution of November 3, 1903, b which Panama, a tate of Colombia became the Republic of Panama, and the signing of a treaty by the new Republic by which the United State wa granted in perpetuity the nece ar. territory. Thi trip of land, known as the Canal Zone, containing about 436 quare mile extend from deep water in the Atlantic to de p water in the Pacific (three mile from the low water mark on either ide), and five miles on either ide of the center line of the canal. Included in thi grant are the I s land of Nao Perico, Flamenco and Culebra in the Bay of Panama, which are now connected with the mainland by a break water, and upon which fortification are being placed. The cities of Panama and Colon are excluded from the limit s of the Canal Zone, but th United States exerci e anitary control over them, and a l so has the right to maintain public ord p in them in ca e the Republic of Panama hould not be able in the judgment of the United tate to do o. [ 69 ]

PAGE 80

MEMBERS OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. COL. GEO. W. GOETHALS. U. S A. Chairman and C hief Engineer. COL. HARRY F. HODGES, U. S. A., Assistant Chief Engineer. COL. WILLIAM C GORGAS, U S. A., Chief Sanitary Officer. H. H ROUSSEAU. CIVIL ENGINEER, U. S. NAVY, Assistant to the Chief Engineer. oprright, Harri & Ewiog, Washiogton, n [ 70 ]

PAGE 81

MEMBERS OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. COL. WILLIAM L. SIBERT, U. S. A., Division Engineer of the Atlantic Division. HON. RICHARD LEE METCALFE, Head of Department of Civil Administration. COL. D. D. GAILLARD, Division Engineer of the Central Division. JOSEPH BUCKLIN BISHOP, Secretary. Cop y ri ght. Banis & Ewing, and Clinedins t Washing t o n D C [ 71 ]

PAGE 82

As compensation to the Republic of Panama, the United States paid $10,000,000, and agreed to make an annual payment of $250,000, to begin nine years after the date of the treaty. These annual payments commenced in February, 1913. ORGANIZATION OF THE CANAL COMMISSION The first meeting of the Isthmian Canal Commis ion was held in Washing ton, D. C., on March 22, 1904, with the following members appointed by the President: Rear-Admiral John G. Walker, Chairman; Major-General George W. Davis, U. S. A., William Barclay Parsons, C. E., William H. Burr, C. E., Benjamin H. Harrod, C. E., Ewald Grunsky, C. E., and Frank J. Hecker. On May 9, 1904 Ex-President Roosevelt, by Executive Order, placed the immediate supervision of its work, both in the construction of the canal and in the exercise of uch governmental powers deemed necessary under the treaty with Panama in the Canal Zone, in the hands of the Secretary of War, William H. Taft. The full Commission fir t arrived on the Isthmus on April 5, and estab lished temporary headquarters in the old De Lesseps residence in Cristobal. A thorough study was made of the plans and methods of work as carried on by the French, in which work it was assi ted by Maj. William M. Black and Lieutenant Mark Brooke, U. S. Corps of Engineers, and by M. Renaudin, the re ident representative of the New Panama Canal Company. From this examination it was found that new and extended urveys would be necessary before any of the problems of location and construction could be settled, so the first step of the Commi ion on its return to the United States on April 29, was the organization of engineering partie. Five of the e were organized, the first leaving for the Isthmus about the middle of May, and the others shortly after. Surveys and investigations were made by these parties of the proposed harbor improvements of Colon, the proposed dams for the control of the Chagres River at Gatun, Bohio and Gamboa, and the design of water works and sewers for the cities of Colon and Panama. TAKING POSSESSION-CHANGE IN CHIEF ENGINEER The United States represented by Lieutenant Brooke, U. S. A., took possession of the French canal property on May 4, 1904, and operations were continued with the same employes and laborers, about 700, that had been left by the French company, for work had been continuous in Culebra Cut from the beginning in 1881, except for a few years, in order to hold the franchise. Although neither the equipment nor the organization of this force was adequate, it was considered advisable to maintain it for the time being and to gradually introduce necessary changes in the organization and in the equipment. Lieutenant Brooke remained in charge of this work until the arrival of Major-General Davis, who was appointed Governor of the Isthmus on May 8, 1904, and arrived on May 17. On the day of his arrival it was announced to the inhabitants of the Canal Zone that the territory had been occupied by the United tate of America. This was a little bit too precipitate for the Panamanians who had been accustomed under the French regime to much speech making, feasting, and champagne drinking when any undertaking was put into operation, so they protested to the State Department, to the end that, to their mind, more fitting ceremonies were later indulged in. Governor Davis was also placed in temporary charge of the construction work until the Chief [ 72 ]

PAGE 83

Ex-President William H.Taft Ex-President Theodore Roo sevelt President Woodrow Wilson The chroniclers of history for all time will associate the names of Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson with the world's greatest undertaking,-the construction of the Panama Canal. Students of the subject will doubtless concede that to Theodore Roosevelt should be accorded the distinction of inaugurating the enterprise, to his successor, former President Taft should belong the honor of four years of faithful service in carrying forward the stupendous work so encouragingly begun, and to President Woodrow Wilson falls the duty of installing the splendid success which the resources, perseverance and indomitable courage of American citizenship have rendered possible. r 7 3 ]

PAGE 84

Engineer, Mr. John F. Wallace, entered upon his dutie s on June 1, 1904. Mr. Wallace r e igned as Chief Engineer on June 25, 1905, after serving one year, and was s u cceeded by Mr. John F. Stevens on July 20, 1905. Mr. vVallace, who had become di ssa tisfied with the working methods of the first Commi i on wa made a member of the Commission under an Executive Order dated April 1 190 5, which reorganized it, and gave to him full control in the department of co n truction and engineering. This reorganization was brought about by the Secretary of War who, by direction of the President in March, 1905, requested the resignations of the commissioners, which were at once tendered. It was believed that this change would make a more effective force for doing the required work, and do away with the long delays occasioned in purchasing material and uppli e and in the accom pli hment of work by government "red tape" which had become so irk so m e to Mr. Wallace. His res ignati on shortl y afte r thi change, i x days after his return to the Isthmus from Washington, was hard to understand, but it i s possible that the question of health entered con iderably into hi decision, for it wa at this time that the fir t outbreak of yellow fever among the Americans had occurred and the first vict im was Mrs. Frank Seager, the wife of Mr. Wallace private secretary. THE NEW Ol\Il\IISSION The new Commission created under the above mentioned Order consisted of the same number of members, seven, but full power was practically vested in three member who were placed in charge of the three exec utive departments created. One department was unde r the direction of the Chairman of. the Commi ion, Theodore P. Shonts, ann took charge of the fi cal affairs, the purchase and delivery of material and upplies, the account, bookkeeping, and audits, and the commerc i a l operations in the United States of the Panama railroad and teamship lin es, with headquarters in Washington; another, under the Governor of the Zon e, Charles E. Magoon, which looked after the administrati on and enfo rc emen t of law in the Zone, the sanitation of the Canal Zone and the cit i e of P a nama and Colon, and the custody of all supplies and con truction necessary for san itary purposes, and the third, under the Chief Engineer, John F. Wallace, which had charge of the work of construction, the cu tody of all supplies and plant on the Isthmus and the practical operation of the railroad on the I thmu w ith pecial view to it s utilization in the Canal con truction work. An executive committee of not less tha n three members, a majority of whom constituted a quorum was al 0 created to act in place of the full com mi sion, which had heretofore only met quarterly, during the intervals between meetings, in order to secure the uninterrupted course of the work. This executive committ ee met twice a week in the office of the Governor on the Isthmu until it was abolished o n November 17 1906. The new department of Government and Sanitation was placed in charge of Mr. Charles E. Magoon as a member of the Commission, vice Major-General Geo. W. Davi w h o returned to the United States on May 9 1905, in ac cordance with instructions received from the Secretary of War, on account of failing health. When General Dav i s left the I thmu he turne d the work over to Col. W. C. Gorga the Chi ef Sanitary Offic er, who acted as Governor until May 25, when Governor Magoon as umed the duties of his office. The n w Commi ion now con i ted of seven member as follows: Chair-[ 74 ]

PAGE 85

SOME OF THE MEN ON THE BIG JOB. (1.) Hezekiah A. Gudger, Chief Justice of the Canal Zone Supreme Court. (2.) Frank Feuille, Counsel and Chief Attorney of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad. (3.) H. A. A. Smith, Examiner of Accounts. (4.) A. S. Zinn, Resident Engineer in the Central Division, who has been identified with the work in Culebra Cut since 1906. (5,) Henry Goldmark, designing engineer, in charge of the lock gates of the Canal. (6.) T. B. Monniche, designing engineer, in charge of the emergency dams of the locks. (7.) John H. McLean, Disbursing Officer of the Isthmian Canal Commission. (8.) Capt. Robert E. Wood, U. S. A., Chief Quartermaster of the Isthmian Canal Commission. (9.) W. G. Comber, Resident Engineer of the Sixth (Dredging) Division. (10,) Capt. Charles W. Barber, Chief of Canal Zone Police. (11.) C. E. Weidman, Chief of the Fire Department. (12.) Tom M. Cooke, Chief, Division of Posts, Customs, and Revenues. (13,) Lieut. Col. Eugene T. Wilson, Subsistence Officer. (14,) George M. Wells, Resident Engineer, Department of Municipal Engineering. (15.) Harry O Cole, Resident Engineer, Fifth Division. [ 75 ]

PAGE 86

man, Theodore P Shonts, Charles E. Magoon, also Governor of the Canal Zone, Rear-Admiral Mordecai T. Endicott, Brigadier-General Peter C. Hains, U. S. A. (retired), Col. Oswald H Ern t, U. S. A., Benjamin M. Harrod, and John F. Wallace, also Chief Engineer. COMMISSION AGAIN REORGANIZED On November 17, 1906 the commi s i on was again reorganized by Executive Order in order to promote harmony and to sec ure results by more direct methods and a centralizati on of power. In order to do this, the following department were created under the new organization: Chairman, Chief Engineer, General Counse l who took over the duties of the Governor, Chief Sanitary Officer, General Purchasing Offi cer, General Auditor, Dis bursing Officer, and Manager of Labor and Quarters. On September 25, 1906 Gov. Charles E. Magoon, was transferred to administer affairs in Cuba, and was s ucc eeded by Richard Reid Rogers the General Counsel in Washington on November 19 ]906. While Mr. Rogers was in Washington, Mr. H. D R eed acted as head of the department on the Isthmus until the arrival of Mr. Jo. C. S. Blackburn who was appointed as Head of the Department of Civil Administration on April 1, 1907. On April 2, 1907, the authority of the Governor, or Chief Executive of the Canal Zone, was transferred by order of the Secretary of War to the Chairman's office, so from that time the Chairman and Chief Engineer h as in reality been Governor of the Canal Zone a l so. Mr. Shonts resigned effective March 4, 1907 and the resignation of General Hains, Major Harrod, and Rear-Admiral Endicott, were accepted on March 16 1907. Finally, Mr. Stevens r es i gned effective April 1, 1907. The resignation of Mr. Stevens was as great a surprise as that of 1\1r. Wallace. According to the report current at the time, the chief engineer became alarmed over the possibility of awarding the contract for the construction of the canal to the Oliver-Bangs combination, and wrote a letter to the President, setting forth that the canal organization had been pretty well perfected; that more dirt had been taken out during the previous 30 days than had ever been taken out before in the same length of time; that he did not care to share the work of building the canal with anyone, nor be hampered with men less familiar with the subject than himself. H e intimated that if his wishes were not complied with he would quit. The l ette r i s said to have caused ex-President Roosevelt someth in g of a shock, but with .his characteristic spontaneity of action, he cabled acceptance of the "resignation. In order to get competent men who were u sed to working under Government regulations and order, and who would "stick," ex-President Roosevelt resorted to the Army, with the result that three officers of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. A the Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, U. S. N., an officer of the Medical Corps, U. S. A., and two civ ilian s were appointed in their places, thus practically abandoning the plan of carryin g on the work under civilian direction. Under this new organization a combination of the positions of Chairman and Chief Engineer was effected, and the creation of the Department of Sanitation, distinct from Civil Administration was made. It was also required that the commissioners take their station on the Isthmus and thus be in direct touch [ 76 ]

PAGE 87

A feature of the Fourth of July celebration at Cristobal, in 1911, when Colonel Goethals delivered an address. A flag chorus of school children is seated back of him. The Fourth has been religiously observed by the Americans on the Isthmus every year since 1904

PAGE 88

with the work under their charge. This new commission assumed its duties on April 1, 1907, and consisted of the following: Col. Geo. W. Goethal U. S. A., Chairman and Chief Engineer; Col. D. D. Gaillard, U. S. A., Head of Department of Excavation and Dredging; Lieut. Col. Wm. L. Sibert, U. S. A., Head of Department of Lock and Dam Construction; Col. W. C. Gorgas, U. S. A., Chief Sanitary Officer; Civil Engineer H. H. Rousseau, U. S. N., Head of Department of Municipal Engineering, Motive Power and l\1achinery and Building Construction; Jackson Smith, Manager, Labor, Quarter and Sub i stence; Jo. C. S. Blackburn, Head of Department of Civil Admini tration; Jo eph Bucklin Bi s hop, Secretary. The personnel of the above commission has remained unchanged with three exceptions. Jack on Smith re igned on September 15, 1908, and the department of labor and quarters i s now a part of the Quarterma ter's Department under direction of Captain R. E. Wood, U. S. A., and the Sub i tence Depart-John F. Wallace, first Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal. He entered upon his duties June 1, 1904, and resigned June 25, 1905. John F. Stevens, second Chief Engineer. He was appointed July 10, 1905, and resigned April 1, 1907, Col. Geo. W. Goethals, taking his place. 'OPYl'i gilt, iinedillst, WasiJingto n D. ment under dir ction of l\Iajor Eugene T. Wil on, U. S. A., as a separate department. Mr. Jo. C. S. Blackburn resigned, effective December 4, 1909, and was succeeded on May 13, 1910, by Mr. Maurice H. Thatcher, Mr. Rousseau acting as Head of the Department during the interval. l\1r. Thatcher re igned, effective on June 14, 1913, and was succeeded by Mr. Richard L. Metcalfe, the pre ent head of the department. The Departments of Excavation and Dredging and Lock and Dam Construction were abolished and, on July 1, 1908 became the Atlantic Division, under Colonel Sibert, having charge of the dredging operations in the Atlantic entrance, and the lock, dam and spillway work at Gatun, and the General Divi ion, under Colonel D. D. Gaillard, which has charge of the excavation in the Culebra Cut. sect ion. On July 15,1908, the Pacific Division was organized and charg d with the lock, dam and, pillway work at Pedro l\1iguel and Miraflore and the dr dging work in the Pacific entrance under .l\fr. S. B. William on Divi ion Engineer. Upon th re:ignation of l\fr. 'ViIJiam on on D cember [ 7 ]

PAGE 89

12, 1912, the Pacific Divi sion was abolished and its work was placed under the immediate charge of the Chief Engineer, as the Fifth Division of the Department of Con truction and Engineering. On 1, 1913 the dredging work of the Atlantic and Pacific Divi s ion s was consolidated under 1\1r. ,V. G. Comber, Resident Engineer, forming the s i xth Divi ion of the Chief Engineer' office. The Department of Municipal Engineering, l\Iotive Power and l\Iachinery, and Building Construction, wa aboli hed on Augu t 1 1908, and became a part of the Department of Con truction and Engineering with 1\1r. Rou eau, A si tant to the Chief Engineer in chara-e. The pre ent commi ion con i t of the following member : Colonel Ge ". Go tha I S. A., Chairman and Chief Engineer; Colonel H. F. Hodge, U. S. A., A i tant Chi f Engineer (Appointed July 14, 1908 vice Jack on Smith); Civil Engineer H. H. Rou eau, U. S. N., A sistant to the Chief Engineer; Colonel D. D. Gaillard, U. S. A., Divi ion Engineer, Central Diyi ion; Lieutenant-Col. Wm. L. Sibert, U. S. A., Divi i on Engineer, Atlantic Divi ion; Colonel 'V. C. Gorga ,U. A., Chief Sanitar T Officer; Richard L. l\letcalfe, Head of Department of Civil Administration; Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Secretary. Of the e eight men Colonel Gorga i the only one who ha been in the service ince the inauguration of the work. Colon I Gaillard left the I thmu on August 9, 1913, on spec ial leave of ab ence, s uffering from a nervou break down, due to his long er ice on the I thmu and it i probable that he will not return. THE P RCH. \ ING END The Commi ion maintain an office in 'Va hina-ton in charge of l\Iajor F. C. Bogg U. S. A., \\ ho fill the po ition s of Chief of Offic e, and General Purcha ing Officer. The work i apportioned among the following divi ion : General Office, Di bur ing Office, Office of A istant Examiner of Account, Appointment Divi ion, Corre pondence and Record Divi ion and Purcha ing Department. The Appointment Divi ion ha to do with filling r qui ition for American emplo ,and during th fi cal year endin g June 30, 1913 2,065 persons were tendered employment on the I thmu in grade above that of laborer. Of thi number, 1 ,183 accepted and were appointed, covering 59 different po ition. The purcha ing branch wa organiz don Augu t 1;:>, 1907, and placed under th upervi ion of the Chief of Engin er' U. S. A., with an offic r of the Corp f Engineer in charge. Additional office for th purcha e f material are maintain d at New York, ew Orlean, and an Franci co. l\1edical and h pital upplie are purcha ed through the l\ledical Supply Depot of the Army in N ew York. N earl T all upplie are purcha ed under contract by mean of adv rti in g for bid and making award thereon, and all material i carefull. in pected before hipment, although the right i re erved of making final in pection on the I thmu. A an illu tration of the work of this department, a total of 7,087 order were placed during the last fi cal year to the value of $12,335,973.12. [ 70 ]

PAGE 90

_.-. -'----:., high mortality among employes encountered by the builders of the Panama railroad and b y the French during their operations indicated that, to keep a suitable working force on the Isthmus, the Canal Zone, and the cities of Panama and Colon would have to be made healthy Realizing this, one of the fir s t divisions of the canal work to be establi shed wa that of anitation under Col. W. C. Gorgas, who, prior to his arrival on the I sthmus, had successfully stamped out ye llow fever and sub stantially reduced the high malaria rate in Havana, Cuba. This division was at first a part of the Department of Government of the Canal Zone, but, on account of the importance of the sanitary work it was later made a distinct and separate department. That it work under the direction of Colonel Gorgas has been entirely successful, may at this day, be readily seen. Instead of a pest hole with an unsavory reputation a "a white man's graveyard," the Isthmus has become a winter resort for an increa s in g number of tourists each year. Not onl y was it necessar y to free the Isthmus from pe tilence in order that the canal work might be accomplished, but it was just as necessary that it be kept in that condition for all time. Dr. Ronald Ross of the British Army in India i cred ited ,ith the di covery, through succes ive experim ents in 1898, that the 1noph e l e s mosquito is the germ-carrier for malaria. This mo quito bites an inf ected per on and carries the germ to other person s In the same way another species of mo quito, the Stegomyia, wa found to be responsible for ye llow fever. The theory of yellow fever tran mis s ion by mosquitoe was ex ploited as earl y as 1883 by Dr. Carlos Finlay of Havana. The definite and indi sputable test was made in July, 1900, at Quemados, Cuba, by four members of the United States Army lVledical Corps, who had been appointed as a commission for the study of the disea e. These four men were Doctor Walter R eed, Jesse W. Lazear, James Carroll, and Aristide Agramonte. One of these men, Dr. Lazear who allowed him elf to be bitten by an inf ected mosquito, died from the r e ulting attack of ye llow fever. Dr. Carroll a l so contracted yellow fever during the experime nts but recovered. A reward of $200 was offered to encourage volunteers, and of the many enli. ted men who took part i n the (,,'pel'im ents, the fir s t to present them. e l ves wcr' John R. Ki 'singer and John .J. 1\10ra11, both of whonl slat d that [ so ]

PAGE 91

Every square foot of swamp was a breeding place for mosquitoes. Draining swamps, subsoiling and burning grass, are some of the methods used in the prevention of mosquito breeding. The man in the upper picture is shown burning grass which grows along the open ditches and drains. In the lower picture he is shown spraying larvacide on the grass. [ 1 ]

PAGE 92

they wou ld undergo the experiment only on cond iti on that they should receive no reward for such se rvice, They both contracted the fever and recovered; Moran i s now in the e mplo y of the Commission on the I sthmu, After ex tensive experiment, the mo sq uito trans mi sion theory came to befully accepted by experts on tropic di eases By this knowledge the work on the I thmus was greatl y simp lifi ed, The prophylactic method of fighting ye llow fever and reducing malaria wa found to be in the exterm inati on of the mo quito as far as possible, and creen ing dwel lin gs against them, A soon a wire netting cou ld be brought to the I thmus all buildin g in the Canal Z one were properly screened, The de truc tive methods con ist in the draining of low places, removal of vegetation, in ,the damp shade of which mosquitoes breed, d h k 'll' fib 'I' 1 A mosquito disguise, which took first prize in the an tel Ing 0 arvae y 01 Ing poo S masquerade contest in Panama Carnival of 1904. and streams that could not be drained. At the outset, Colonel Gorgas wa hampered by the failure of the Commission in Wa hington to realize the immediate necessity for large expenditures / \ / I I J The genus Stegomyia mosquito, male and female. The female on the left, the male in the center and the larva o n the right, The species has distinctive markings, and the harp-shaped design near the head is found on no other mosquito. The male does not bite, and is, therefore, harmless; it i s the female that causes all the trouble. [ H2 ]

PAGE 93

It took months of labor, and sortie after sortie, before the mosquito horde began to thin. A gang of about 900 natives was at one time engaged with ladders and paste, sealing all the crevices in the house in Panama, prior to fumigation. treets were paved, a water system installed, and a general lean-up was made.

PAGE 94

The quarantine station on Culebra Island in Panama Bay. Owing to the fact that the Isthmus is hemmed in on both sides, by plague-infected ports, the most rigid precautions are observed, and steamers from these ports are held in quarantine, unless they have been seven days at sea. for the purpose of exterminating the mosquito. This was later remedied, and the pur e string were loosened. An outbreak of yellow fever among the recently unacclimated Americans began in December, 1904, and la ted until December, 1905. During the epidemic there were in all 246 cases and 34 deaths. Of this number, 134 of the cases and all of the deaths were among canal employes. The constantly increasing headway made by the disease in the early months of 1905 caused a panic among the employes. A great many of them left the I thmus as soon as they could obtain accommodations on the overcrowded steamships. This was an object lesson, and resulted in a partial uspension of actual canal construction work until the eradication of yellow fever was effected. In addition to a rigid quarantine, a relentless fight was waged against the mo quito, with the result that the last case of yellow fever occurred in May, 1906, two years after the work started. THE FIGHT ON THE l\IOSQUITO vVhen a case of yellow fever was reported or found by one of the corps of Colon Hospital, on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus. It stands on the sea beach, and some of the wards are built over the water. r R4 1

PAGE 95

The above comparison of-before and after pavingis not exaggerated. When the Americans took charge of the work many of the streets in Colon and Panama City were veritable bogs in the rainy season. Now, both cities compare favorably in clean, well paved streets, with others of their size. 5 ]

PAGE 96

inspectors in the course of a house-to-house sea rch for cases, the patient was immediately taken to the hospital ann placed in a room protected by screening. The next step was the thorough fumigation of the house from which the patient had been removed, in order to kill any infect e d mosquitoes that might remain. Finally an endeavor was made to locate and fumigate the so urce of infection. When the epid e mic of 1 905 was at it h eight, the plan of fumigating every house in the cities of Panama and Co l on, whether or not the re had been cases of yellow fever in them, was carried out. The native residents a t first submitted to the fumigation with poor grace, as they are ilnmune and could not ee the necessity The Dispensary a t Ancon. Dispensaries and Field Hospitals are maintained at all the important Canal Zone settlements for first aid treatment. for it. Later, they became more r eco nciled, but complaints were numerous. There i s now pending in Congress a claim for $50,000 to cover damages due to a fire in the Malambo district of Panama in the spring of 1905, which is claimed to have been started by the overturning of a fumigating oven. The fight against the Anophe les, the malaria-carrying mosquito, has been continuous, for it i s next to imposs ible to eliminate it entirely. This species, unlike the Stegomyia, is strong on the wing and is, therefore, able to enter the c iti es and villages after b r eed ing in the swamps and stagnant pools in the out. kirts. To counteract this a much as poss ible mile s of drainage ditches have been con tructed in the vic init y of the can a l town s; small streams are kept cleaned out to facilitate the flow of water; wamps have been filled in and grass and rank vegetation kept c ut. Regulation are a l so e nforced again s t allowing [ 6 ]

PAGE 97

.. The Government operates two main hospitals. One at Ancon and the other at Colon. The Ancon Ho pital i the larger and best equipped, with a reputation in the Tropics second to none. It wa begun by the French in 18 3, but many improvements have been made by the Americans. [ 7 ]

PAGE 98

There are 47 wards in the Ancon Hospital, and this is the interior of one of them. The whit, e American employes, European laborers and the negroes, are cared for in separate wards. There are private wards also, and one for charity cases. The Canal Commission furnishes free medical treatment to all of its employes. any water receptacles, lik e tin cans, etc., be in g thrown into the bush where they might fill during a rainstorm and make ideal breeding places for the mosquito larvae. Such possib le breed in g places as cannot be eliminated by draining and fillin g are sprayed with a form of oil, called l arvaec id e, which destroys the mo qui to larvae as they come to the surface of the water to breathe. In spite of all these efforts there are many cases of malaria, but the number has been rapidl y reduced, and the type of disease h as been redu ce d from a virulent to a comparativel y mild type. While the mortality from malaria was never so high as other forms of tropic disease, Co lon e l Gorgas a lwa ys considered it one of the most important on account of the heavy s ick rate. Medicinally, the disease i s treated by quinine, many thousands of pounds of which have been used in the ho sp itals and i ssued from the dispensaries maintained in each canal zone village. CLEANING HOUSE While a war of exterminati on was being waged against the mosquito; it was a l so abso lu te l y necessary to clean hou e, espec iall y in the cities of Panama and Colon. The latter place, the s it e of which was partly a tidal swamp, had to be filled in. Proper sewer systems were installed in both cities, where none ex i ted before, unle s the open drains in the street filled w ith r ef use and other filth, could be called ewers. Su itable water sy terns a l so had to be introduced, for up to July 4, 1905, the upply of water wa drawn from the ci tern which were a llowed to fill during the rainy sea ons, or from well, and afterward peddled from door to door by the aguadores or wate r cartmen. When the water was turn d on, all cisterns were clo ed. Likewise the s treet s which b came virtually mud hole in the rainy sea on wer properly paved with brick or grad d. A m thod of garbage disposa l wa a l so provided, for up to this time [ 8 J

PAGE 99

buzzards were the only scavenger. Now, the streets are kept swept and the garbage is collected every night from especially designed containers which every householder is supposed to have. It i then transported to low wampy places in the outskirts of the cities where it is burned, the ashes being used a a fill. In the Canal Zone, garbage is usually destroyed at incinerating plants. In Panama and Colon the collection is made by the health department of the Canal Commis ion. All the street, sewer and water improvements in these cities done by the engineering department of the Canal Commission will be paid for by the Republic of Panama from its water rates, on the amortization plan. The money advanced by the United State, about $3,500,000, i to be repaid in 50 year from July 1, 1907, but at the pre ent rate of payment, settlement will have been made much. ooner. The villages in the Canal Zone along the line of the Canal were not so filthy as Panama and Colon, but were without sewer and water ystems. Since then several reservoir have been con tructed, and all houses are connected with sewer systems. Macadam roads have gradually replaced trail ; garbage is collected daily and properly di posed of; gra s and other tropic vegetation is kept cut down in the vicinity of dwelling, and well-kept Q'ardens and hedges make the con truction villages appear like model towns. Strict sanitary regulations are enforced in all the Canal Zone town, as well as in the cities of Panama and olon, and each place has it anitary inspector, or inspector. With cleanline materially reduced. RESULTS HAVE JUSTIFIED THE COST a l one, however, the high ick and death rate could not be The ucce sful war on the mo quito, which was started Along the coast a few miles from Panama City, is a Leper colony of 24 persons, called Palo Seco. This is the colony house and surroundings. The lepers are well treated, and have all the creature comforts furnished free by the Government, and spend a part of their time growing veg-etables for their own consumption. [ 89 ]

PAGE 100

by Colonel Gorgas when the engineers were bu y constructing water works and ewers, has freed the Isthmus of its reputation as a pest hole, and has made its s ick and mortality rate compare favorably with cities in the United States, or any other parts of the civ ili zed world. The following tables indicate the effec tiv eness of the preventive work of anitation on the Isthmus: COMPARATIVE TATEMENT OF DEATH R ATES AMONG CANAL EMPLOYES ON THE ISTHMUS OF P A AMA UNDER THE ORIGINA L FRENCH COMPANY FOR 1884 THE YEAR THE J.\rlAXIMUM NUMBER OF EMPLOYES WERE r ORKI G, AND THE AMERICAN COMMISSION, 1904 TO I C LUSIVE. Average No. of No. of Deaths, Death Rate per 1 ,000 Year. Employes Disease Only. Disease Only. Liv es Saved. 1884 ...... 17 ,43 6 1 198 68 69 ..... 1904 ...... 55 8 84 1905 ...... 1906 ..... 1 046 39.40 778 1907 ...... 964 1 ,73 1 190 8 ... 43,891 38 1 8 68 1909 .... 47,167 356 7 55 1910 .... 38 1 7.50 3,109 1911 ... 48,876 374 7-.65 ... 50,893 6.37 Total for nine yea rs. .......................... _..... I 18,435 TOTAL POPU LATION OF PANAMA, COLON AND CANAL ZONE AND DEATH R A TES Ii. SA IE. Annual Average Year. Population. Liv es Saved. Death Rate per 1000 190 4 ....... 35,000 ..... 190 5 ......... 49 94 1906 ........ 49.10 1907 ......... 33 63 1908 ..... .... 3,317 1909 ......... 135,180 18.19 4,631 1910 ........ 151,591 4,740 1911 ........ 156 936 4,863 ... ..... 146 ,5 10 1913 (June 30) 130 ,45 6 10* 4,090 Total for nine and a half yea rs. . . I *C ompuled on six months' figures but averaged for a yea r Only two ca s of bubonic plague have deve lop ed on the I thmus s ince American occupati o n These occurred in Balboa, the fir t in June, 1905. r 90 ]

PAGE 101

-LA GAMACHO RESERVOIR 10 .... ----------Panama, Colon, and the towns in the Canal Zone were without water mains or sewers in 1904. Eight reservoirs have been built, and now water is plentiful; sewers ramify the cities, and the garbage i collected daily and burned. Many good roads have also been built, and -the Las Sabanas road is much used by automobile and horseback riders. The United States advanced the money for thi work, but Panama i to pay it back inside of 50 years. [ 91 ]

PAGE 102

_______________________________ On the Mount Hope Road between Cristobal and Gatun, is Mount Hope Cemetery, once known as Monkey Hill, where thousands of French Canal employes, victims of yellow fever, lie buried. Under American supervision the cemetery has been greatly beautified. Each of its avenues is lined with a different kind of fruit tree, The village was immediately cleaned and disinfected, and a crusade against rats, the fleas of which are the carriers of buboinc, was started. A "rat" brigade was set at work in Panama; rat traps were issued free to all persons who wished them, and a bounty was placed on each rat delivered to the health department. In addition to the preventive work done by the Department of Sanitation, it maintains two large hospitals, one at Colon and the other at Ancon, and each settlement has a dispensary with a physician in charge. There i s also maintained a large asylum for the insane at Ancon, while at Palo Seco, a few miles east of Panama, there is an asylum for l epers. There i s also a sanitarium on Taboga Island, about 12 miles out in the Bay of Panama, where convalescent white patients are given a week or more to renew fever and work-worn tissues. One of the most important things shown by the s uccess of sanitary work on the Isthmus has been expressed by Colone l Gorgas many times, as follows: "N atives in the tropics, with the same sanitary precautions that are taken in the temperate zones, can be just as healthy and have just as small a death rate as inhabitants in the temperate zones. To bring this about no elaborate machinery is necessary. The result can be attained by any community, no matter how poor, if it is willing to spend sufficient labor in cleaning, and to observe well-known rules with regard to disease. The Anglo-Saxon can lead just as healthy a life and live just as long in the tropics as he can in his native climate." The total co s t of the work of the Department of Sanitation up to the first of July 1913 was $16,250,164.93. This seems to be an excessive cost until it i s con s idered that thi s amount includes the maintenance of modern hospital [ 92 ]

PAGE 103

dispensaries, and quarantine stations at Colon and Panama, costing more than half of the total amount. To this is added the cost of street cleaning and garbage collecting, draining and reclaiming swamp land, the sal aries of some 15 chaplains, the care of cemeteries and the carryin g on of a general undertaking and embalming business. Colonel Gorgas when he said that it is within the power of the people of tropic countries to be just as healthy as those in the temperate zones, figures the actual cost of sanitary work on the Isthmus to the American Government will be a littl e more than a cent a day per capita, based on a population of 140 000. RIGID QUARANTINE iAINTAIl ED Since May, 1904, the quarantine on the Isthmus ha been under American control with stations at Colon, and on Culebra I land near the Pacific entrance to the canat. In sp ite of the fact that ports on both sides of the Isthmus, north and south of Colon and Panama, have been inf ected with bubonic plague, cholera, smallpox and ye llow fever, the quarantine ha been successfully maintained. All employes of the Commission arrivin g on the Isthmu have to submit to vaccination unl ess they can show a good scar. Ship s arriving at the Isthmus from infected ports are required to fulfill even day of quarantine from the time of their departure. Guayaquil, Ecuador, where yellow fever has been endemic since the fir t white man landed on the west coast of South America, and where bubonic plague has recently gained a foothold, i about four day teaming for fa t hip. As hips topping at Guayaquil load and unload cargo where they are in danger of inf ection, it i nece sary for them to be fumigated before they sail for Panama, and it i a l so nece ary that the 7-day period of quarantine be fulfilled from the time of uch fumigation. Ship making the. trip in four day would, therefore, have to lay in quarantine at Culebra Island 1 hree day before they could unload their cargo and di charge pa engel' at Ancon Cemetery. r 0:-{ ]

PAGE 104

Taboga Island, 12 miles out from the main land, in Panama Bay. It is noted for its sea bathing, and its pineapples. The native section is primitive and picturesque and contains one of the oldest churc hes in this section. Balboa. In ca ea. hip arrive which cannot show a certificate that all regu l ations have been properly complied w ith before leav in g Guayaquil, then it is necessary that the ve se l be fumigated on it arrival at Panama, and pass through the 7 -d ay detention period at that port. On the Atlantic s id e, at the present time, ships sai lin g from La Guaira, Venezuela, are compelled to consume seven day, and from Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, they are compelled to consume six days from the time of a iling. With a ri g id quarantine at the two ports of the Canal and with the effec tive work of the sanitary in specto r s kept up as it ha been in the past, it seems improbable that a se riou s epidemic of yellow fever w ill ever break out on the I sthmus again. The Canal Commission's Sanitarium on Taboga Island, where all sick white employes are sent to convalesce. The employes are given 30 days vacation each year, with full pay, and 30 days sick leave each year, when necessary. r 94 1

PAGE 105

N the month of September, 1904, the Canal force wa at its lowest point, numbering about 500. In November, 1905, the force had been increased to approximately 17,000, and in November, 1906, it wa practically the same. The following table show the highe t monthly record for each year ince 1906: 1907-0ctober ... ... 31,967 1911-December ...... 37,826 1908-April.. ... .. ... 33,170 1909-0ctober ... ... 35,405 1912-November ...... 40,159 1913-1\iarch .......... 44,733 ........ 38,676 The Canal force reacheo' it t point in 1913, with 44,733 men, divided as follows: Panama railroad, 5,248; Panama railroad commi sary, 1,274; Isthmian Canal Commi ion, 32,567; contractors, 5,644; total, 44,733. Of the above, the "gold" force, compo ed almo t entirely of Americans, numbered 4,487; We t Indian laborers employed by the Commi sion, 10,406; We t Indian arti ans employed by the Commi sion, 13,065; European laborer employed by the Commis ion, 4,609. The balance was in the employ of the Panama railroad and of the contractor. 1\lost of the "Vest Indian laborers received 10 and 13 cents an hour, while a few received a high a 20 cent an hour. The European laborer received 16 and 20 cent. an hour. The West Indian arti an were for the O'reater part paid on a monthly basis, the balance receiving from 16 to 44 cent an hour. GETTING THE FORCE TOGETHER As the work of making the Isthmus a healthful place in which to live progres ed and better living conoitions were inaugurated, th work of recruiting and maintaining a labor force became ea, ier. However, it wa never po ible to k p a table foree and, under the best on
PAGE 106

The old French Administration Building in Panama City, used by the American engineers as their office headquarters during the first two years of Canal construction. The Administration Building at Culebra, the present engineering headquarters, containing the office of Colonel Goethals. The headquarters will be changed to Balboa as soon as the new administration building, which is now being erected there, is completed. [ 06 ]

PAGE 107

considerably, the skilled mechanics about 80 per cent. during the year 1910, and that of the administrative employes about 45 per cent. During the early years, recruiting offices were opened in Europe, the V{ e t Indies and in the United States, and men representing nearly every nationality were brought to the Isthmus under contract with the Commi ion. Nearly all the supervi ory positions, and the positions requiring skilled labor, are filled by Americans. These include the mechanic, carpenters, plumbers, steam shovel engineers and cranemen, locomotive engineers, railroad conductors, firemen, policemen, civil engineers, clerks, doctors, nul' es, school teachers, etc. The clerical force, draftsmen, doctors and nurses are included in the classified civil service, but all other po itions are excepted from civil service requirement. The common and unskilled laborer represent nearly every nationality. The greater part, Colonel Goethal's motor car, commonly known as the "Yellow Peril" from its color; also as the "Brain Wagon." Several of these cars have been shipped to the Isthmus, and are used by the officials in inspecting the different parts of the work. however, are negroe from the 'Vest Indie ; the Spaniards, Italian and Greeks form the greater part of the European labor force. During the year 1906-7-8, there were recruited in Europe 11,300 laborers, 8,200 of which were Spaniard, 2,000 Italians and 1,100 Greek.. The e men were obtained under contract, and were promised free quarter and employment 3:t 20 cents an hour for as long as the canal work should la t. Their pa age money wa advanced to them, and was deducted from their monthly pay, so that out of a total cost of $508,770.83 for recruiting European, all but $100,000 wa returned from the laborers' wages. Recruiting ceased in Europe in 1908, a the upply of labor became con tant through the arrival of those on th Isthmus who, having learned of th favorable working condition, came eking employm nt of their own volition. Tho e who did not come under r 97 ]

PAGE 108

The Administration Building at Ancon, containing various offices, including those of the Secretary of t h e Commission, and the heads of the Departments of Civil Administration, Sanitation and Law. The Division Engineer's o ffice a t Gatun. G atun i s the engineering headquarters for the Atlanti Division, w hi h e mbraces the con struction fro m deep water in the Caribbean Sea to include the Gatun Locks and Dum. r $) .I

PAGE 109

contract were paid 16 cents an hour for three months, and were then raised to 20 cent an hour if their work had been sati factory. Laborer obtained under contract will be repatriated at the expense of the Commi s ion, but their number will not be large as, undoubtedly, m a n y of them will find work e l ewhere. The recruiting of laborers in the W est Indie was carried on everal years after it had ceased in Europe, the la s t importati on of negroes from Barbados having taken place in January and February of 191 3. The total number of Wes t Indians recruited r eached 30,619 a t the nd of 191 2. Of this total, 1 9,444 were brought from Barbado 5,542 from l\Iartinique, 2,053 from Guadel oupe, 1,42 7 from Trinidad, and the balance di tributed among the other i lands of the We s t Indies. R ec ruitin g of labore r s was not allowed in Jamaica after 1905 in which year 47 h a d been brought t o the thmus unde r contract. Al-Colonel Goethals' residence at Culebra. though thi cla of laborer was not recruited, he was well represented 011 the Isthmu in the labor forc for the Jamaican came of his own volition althouo' h he was I' quired to deposit the amount of hi return fare b fore he could l eave that i s land. In Octob e r, ] 913, about 10,000 'Vest Indians were laid off a the dry ex cavation in Culebra Cut callle to an end. bout ;'5,000 of these men went into the e mploy of the United Fruit Company, and the balance, unable to find work elsewhere, mostly went back to their island homes. KEEPIXG THE AMERI AN El\IPLOYE COXTENTED In addition to much higher wage tha n tho e prevailing in the U.r;tited tat s, many induc m nt were offered to per uade \.mericans to go to the J. thmu. to fill th supe rvi so r y po s ition Fr e quarters, free medical, urgical, and ho s pital aU ndanc and s ix we ks' annllal leaY<.' of abo en e with pay a r e [9 ]

PAGE 110

The Y. M. C. A. Clubhouse at Gatun. The Governme-nt early discovered that to keep the employes contented, they must be given amusement; accordingly seven clubhouses were erected which are now self-sustaining. They are conducted under the auspices of the Y. M. C. A., but along broader lines than e lsewhere. They furnish attractive places for the men to congregate, and the social work consists of entertainments brought from the States, as well as local dramatic, musical, minstrel and vaudeville productions. [ ] 00 ]

PAGE 111

provided. Free transportation i s also furni hed new employes from the United States and also on their return after having completed two years of satisfactory service on the Isthmus. On their vacation l eave, the employes are granted a reduced rate on the various steamship lin es running between the Isthmus and the United States. On the Pana m a railroad steamships the employes' rate i s $20 one way for those appointed prior to January 1, 1909; for empl oyes appointed after that date, the rate i s $30; the regular rate i from $75 to $90 from Colon to New York. 'The problem of maintaining a constant force of Americans was not so lv ed, however, until means were found to keep it a nearly contented as poss i b le. To do this, it was thought nec essary to encourage employes to bring their Owing to the necessity of building on the side of the hill at Ancon, many steps are required at some of the quarters, as shown in the above picture. Usually more level sites were utilized for quarters. The houses, with the surrounding shrubbery, make a beautiful scene. families to the Isthmu and to thi end, furni hed family quarters were provided, with free fuel, water, and light. It is o'enerally agreed that the com fortable married quarters s upplied by the Canal Commission ha led a good many to forsake the state of sing l e bles edne s, but nearly all are wi e enough to wait for an a s ignm en t before "poppin g the question." The demand for family quarter has a lwa y been greater than the upply, and one has to take his turn on the waiting Ii t. If h e i s an old-timer and has not been out of the service ince 1908 he i s on what i known a the No.1 list, and stand a fair show of getting quarters quickly. One who ha been empl oyed since 1908 goes on the No.2 Ii t, and there i s generally everal months' weary wait before his turn comes, as the total number of applicants up to the latter part of 1913 had been rarely les than 600. Some in i t on bringing their families anyway, in [ 10] ]

PAGE 112

Canal medal awarded white employes on the "Gold Roll" for long service. The medal is for two years' continuous I>ervice, and for each additional two years a bar is earned. The idea was suggested by ex-President Roosevelt during his visit to the I sthmus in 1906. which ca e, they are compelled to r ent outsid rooms, which are expens i ve and in n o way compare w ith the comfortable Commi s i o n quarter. Family quart rs are grad d according to the i ze of an employ's a lary, o much floor pace to each $100 he earns, or fraction thereof. Employes r ece ivin g $200, or over, are a i g n ed, where po ibl e, to one -family hou es; tho e receiving I e s are quartered in two and four-famil y houses The quarters, both family and bachelor, inc lud e a numbe r of diff e r ent t y p es designate d a Type 1 7, 01' Type 1 8, a the ca e may be, and were built from s pecial dc ign to make theln su itabl e for reo idenc in the tropic. The roonl are uniformly well ve ntil ated, and th re is plenty of veranda s pace. Chairs, table, beds, cook s tov e, refri ge rator, bureau, chiffonier, ideboard, mattresse mats, etc. are supplied free; bed lin e n and kitchen ute n sils mu t be obtained b y the occupant. The bachelor employe has a l ways contended, and possibly with some g r ounds, that h e has b en hown le ss considerati on than the married e mploye. The Nurses have this building to themselves, called the Nurses' Home, at Ancon Hospital. [ 102 ]

PAGE 113

Each Zone settlement has buildings for bachelors commensurate with the force quartered there, furnished free by the Government. This type of quarters contains 24 rooms, with two men assigned to each. Frankly, the bachelor employe does not have the privileges his married friend has, still he manages to get along pretty well, as evidenced by the interior of his quarters. r 10:3 ]

PAGE 114

In most cases, he must share his room with another, and there has been times, whe n w e re placed in one small room. On the other hand, although he probably will not admit it, the bachelor employe has been greatly benefited by the pres ence of women and children in the various construction camps. It has been figured that bachelor labor costs less than that of married labor, taking into con sideration the quarters assigned, allowance for fuel, light, water, c a re of grounds, and janitor service. A comparison follows: Quarte r s Furniture Tota l PLANT Married $1,800.00 140.00 $1,940.00 MONTHLY C O S T OF ALLOWANCES Single $500.00 25.00 $525.00 Fuel (coal and kindling) ........ ............. $4 30 4 20 1.80 50 1.20 Light .......... ... ..... ................... W ater ..................................... Dis tilled Wate r ...... ............ ........... of g rol!nd s, removal of garbage .... ...... J anitor se r V I ce .... ....... ........... ... ..... Total .... ........................ $12.00 ---.30 .45 10 .1.5 1.25 $2.25 A ssuming a s ix years s ervic e a married man may be said to represent an ex p enditure of $3 000 and a single employe $750. In addition to the above, the married man also receives the benefit for hi children of an excellent school system. This increased cost, however, is supposed to be offset by the stability of the married force. The visitor to the Isthmus is quick to note that he is in a new atmosphere. The bringing together of people from every part of the United States, and the consequent interchange of ideas has given birth to a spirit of tolerance, of a broadening of the mind, and has led to the abandonment in a large measure of narrow-minded prejudices embodied in the selfish thought that "lVly way is right, yours is bound to be wrong," a rut that people in small communities in the States are so prone to fall into. To further the feeling of contentment and to make of the Canal Zone a transplanted American community, churches and schools were organized. Church work wa authorized by the Commission on October 4, 1905. There M embers of the Ancon Study Club. are about 40 church buildings in the [ 10 4 ]

PAGE 115

A Cozy Home in the Canal Zone. Married quarters are furnished free by the Government, and fuel, light and water supplied without charge. Assignments for quarters are made by the district quartermaster, based on date of application, rate of salary, and date of entry in the service. [ 105 ]

PAGE 116

Zone, r e presenting nearly every Christian denomination. The greater part of the e churche are owned by the Isthmian Canal Commission, which ha in its e mplo y ten chaplain, repre enting six differ nt denomination It ha been the polic y of the Comm. i sion to encourage church work, and it granted land and s old building material at cost for church building. Religiou service a r e al. 0 h e ld in the ommi s sion club-houses and lodge halls. The r e a r e ix Commi' ion clubhouse one each at Corozal, Culebra, Empire, Cri tobal Gatun, and Porto Bello. The one which was at Gorgona will b e r e e r ecte d at Pedro Miguel, and a clubhou e of a permanent type i propo e d f o r the n e w town of Balboa. These clubhou. e s were con tructed and equippe d b y the Commi ion and are conducted by trained secretaries appointe d b y the International Committ e of the Y. 1\1. C. A. The work wa Mealtime at a Government kitchen for negro laborers. The negroes are served three rations a day at a total cost of 27 cents. planne d to m e t the n e ed of the men morally, educationally, and physically, and to thi end reading rooms, bowling, pool and billiard rooms, gymna ium clas e educa tional cla s es, chess, checker, dramatic clubs, etc., are main t a in e d b y them. All white employe are eligible to membership upon the p ay m ent of the r egular membership due of $10 per annum. The d es ir e for music wa al 0 recognized by the Commission and until M a r c h 1 1913 it maintained a first-class band of 35 pieces. The member we r e all e mploye, and they received additional pay for their services. The b and was fir t o r g aniz d in September, 1905, as a private organization, and the ommi i o n took ov r it s maint nance on 1\Iarch 27, 1907. Concert were g i v n w ee kl y in th different town s in the Canal Zone. a rl y v r y co n truction villa 'e in the Zone has a Comlni ion buildino' whi c h i s d ev ot e d to th u e of fraternal organization and a dozen ecl' t organiza ti o n as we'll a labor organization, arc 1'epre ented on tll Isthmqs. [ 106 ]

PAGE 117

Typical camp for European laborers. There are separate camps for each class of employes, and the American section of a Canal Zone town is entirely by itself. Interior of a bunk hou e for negro laborers. The men sleep on Standee berths, arranged in parallel rows, in three tiers. ( 107 1

PAGE 118

The lodge halls are assigned free of charge for weekly meetings, and are also used for entertainments, club meetings, and dances. The Commission has encouraged baseball, tennis, rifle, and pistol club. A dancing club holds fortnightly ball in the Hotel Tivoli at which Isthmian society is seen at its best. This social organization recently passed through a crisis over the que tion of "turkey-trotting" and kindred dances. In addition to the many clubs in the Canal Zone which are more or less under the sway of the Com mission, the employes wishing a little more freedom founded the Strangers' Club in Colon, and the University Club in Panama. The e two club do not confine their membership to Commission employes. The" mokers" and "hops" Mess hall for European laborers. Three rations are served European silver employes for 40 cents a day. given by these two clubs are popular both in the Canal Zone and in the cities in which they are located. Following up its policy of encouraging employe to bring their families to the Isthmus, Ex-president Taft authorized the employment by the Commission of Miss Helen Varick Bo well to undertake the task of tarting a social movement among the women in the Canal Zone. Mis Boswell arrived early in September, 1907, and when she left in October, she had organized nine women's club in the larger villages. The purpose of these clubs was to provide recrea tion and social intercourse for the wives and daughters of the American em ploye just as the clubhouses were established as centers of recreation for the men. These nine club were finally affiliated with the General Federation of Women's Clubs in the United States. On April 19, 1913, the Canal Zone Federation completed six years of activity, and on that date it disbanded on account of the approaching completion of the Canal work. Several societies, designed to perpetuate the canal work, have been organ ized. The fir t one of these, the Society of the Inca ,limit it membership to r 10 ]

PAGE 119

Lodge hall at Las Cascadas. All the leading secret societies are represented in the Canal Zone, and lodge halls have been erected for their use by the Government. No rental is exacted. The Zone has also a federation of women's clubs. Reading room in the University Club, Panama City. The University Club and the Strangers' Club in Colon, do not confine their membership to Government employes. [ 109 ]

PAGE 120

employes who entered the service in the year 1904. Another is called the Society of the Chagres, and is composed of men who have seen six years of ervice. A third soc iet y has recently been organized, known as the Association of Panama Canal Builders, to which any gold employe may belong. A lunch hour scene at Gorgona shops, before they were destroyed to avoid inundation by the rise of Gatun lake. All go ld employes who have se rved two yea r under the Canal Commission are entitl ed to a medal. This souvenir is the outcome of the thoughtfulness of ex-Pre id ent Rooseve lt, who, just before he sailed from the Isthmus on November 17 1906, aid: I shall see if it is not possible to provide for some littl e memorial, orne mark, some badge, which will always di s tinguish the man who, for a certain pace of time, has done his work well on the Isthmu ju t as the button of the Grand Army distingui hes the man who did his work well in the Civil War." The medal is of bronze,. one and one-half inches in diameter, and i s made from bra copper, and tin taken from old French scrap. On the reverse ide i s a bu t portrait of ex-president Roosevelt, with Labor train arriving at dry dock, Cristobal. A great many employes live at a distance from thcir work, and are transported to and from their homc. in labor trains. [ J1 0 ]

PAGE 121

space underneath for the service record, and around the rim the words "For two years' continuous service on the Panama Canal." On the obverse is a picture of Culebra Cut with ships passing through, the Seal of the Canal Zone, a name plate, and the words "pre en ted by the President of the United State ," Interior of Mount Hope printing plant. The majority of the Canal Commission's printing, including The Canal Record, is done here. cut into the rim. A bar i awarde 1 for each hvo year" additional service, and there are employe who have earned not only the m cIal, but three bars a well. The medal are made at the Philacl lphia mint, and are di tributed yearly. No duplicate are i ued. The Canal RecQ?'d, publi hed weekly under the upervi ion of the Canal Commi ion, contain a 1'6 ume of the p1'ogre of canal work, official circular, ocial and church note, etc. It is di tributed free to all gold employe of th ommi ion and th Panama railroad; in fact, 0 widely has it bec me known that its circulation, between 16,000 and 17,000 weekly, extend to people inter-General storehou e at Mount Hope, near Colon, from which supplies are drawn by smaller store houses cstahli hed in all the principal Canal Zonc scttl mcnts. A largc amount of material i rcquired to be kcpt onstantly on hand. r ] I 1 I

PAGE 122

The Hotel Tivoli at Ancon, a picture familiar to anyone who has been on the Isthmus. It is the principal stopping place for tourists, and is owned and managed by the United States Government. Lobby of the Hotel Tivoli. One of the hotel's first guests was ex-President Roosevelt, and the suite he occupied is known as the President's suite. [ 112 ]

PAGE 123

ested in the construction of the canal in all parts of the globe. It i printed at the Canal Commission's printing plant at Mount Hope, and is under the direction of the Secretary of the Commission, Mr. Joseph Bucklin Bishop. FEEDING AND CLOTHING THE CANAL ARMY It is estimated that with employes and their dependents there were about 65,000 persons depending upon the Canal and Panama railroad work for their source of income during the height of activity, and the e people had to be supplied' daily with food, clothing and other necessaries. It was early realized that the demand for food and clothing could not be satisfactorily filled from local ources, for price advanced teadily as the demand increased, so the Subsistence Department was created. This department is divided into two branches, cOlnmi sary Commissary at Cristobal, oldest and largest on the Isthmus. This was operated by the Panama railroad for the benefit of its employes before the United States acquired the road. A commissary train makes an early morning daily run across the Isthmus distributing supplies to the branch commissaries. and hotel. The first commis ary tore was at Colon and was maintained by the Panama Railroad Company' for the ben fit of its employes. The com mis ary divi ion does a o'eneral merchandi ing business, while the subsistence end has in charge the hotel or mess halls for the American employes and messes for the laborer. It al 0 maintains the Hotel Tivoli at Ancon, patronized chiefly by transient. About 85 per cent. of the supplies for the commissary and ub i tence departments are purchased in the United States, 10 per cent. in Europe, and five per cent. in Panama. In addition to the tore at Cristobal each canal village has a branch com mi sary. Everything that an employe or his family usually requires, such as hou ehold good men'. and women' clotllinD', groceries, meat, veD'etables and fruit are suppli d. In addition to the retail tores, cold torage, ice making, coffee [ ] ]

PAGE 124

Public market at Culebra. These markets are located in many of the Zone towns, where the tropical fruits and vegetables may be obtained. Ice and cold storage plant, Cristobal. Ice is sold at 40 cents per 100 pounds, and cold storage articles are c heaper, in many instances, than they are in this country hom which they are imported. This i s largely due to the system of buying in bulk and, in the case of meats, te the placing of contracts. [ 11 -I: ]

PAGE 125

ctHE J2IVIDED -Sr1::!E Y!l,O-BJdp) IlNJTED roa ting, ice cream and laundry plants, and a bakery are operated at Cristobal. From thi point a suppl y train, partly composed of refrigerator cars, ero se the Isthmus each morning, stopping at the different station along the line where ice, meat, and other peri hable article are delivered. The e goods are then di tributed to the hou e of employe and to the me hall and branch commi arie by the Quartermaster's Department. No ca h ale are made, all payment being made by the employe in the form of coupon ranging in value from one cent to 25 cents from books i ued ranging in value from $2.50 to $15. The arne method of payment is u ed in the hotel. The e books are obtained b the employe for ca h at tated place, or are upplied by the timekeeper, and the amount deducted from the employe' alar at the end of the Inonth. They are n?t tran ferable, and in order that the privilege will not be The Government hotel at Corozal. the first one erected by the Americans. These Government hotels are establi hed in all of the Zone settlements. In them a white employe is served a better meal for 30 cents than he can usually procure for that price In this country. In one part of the dining room, employes are permitted to eat without their coats; in the other they must keep them on. abu ed, infraction of this rul is pUl1i:habl h;' confi:cation of the book and ten day. :u pension f l' the fir .t offense, and eli 'charge for a second offen e. Du to the fact that the ommi:. arie are n t run for a profit, xcept to co er in th co t of th variou I lant improvem nt etc., and to the fact that the Government buy in larO'e quantitie under favorable contract, the con-umer n the I thmu have not felt th high co t of livino' to the extent of people e l ewh reo Thi i e p cially true of beef, the price of "hich during 1912 reached a point never before quaIled in the United State. 'Vith but a few exc ption th price f be f at the coml1lis arie during thi period wa kept down to the previou price. During a ingl year, 6,453 138 pound f fre h [1];)1

PAGE 126

The Commission laundry at Cristobal. It is equipped with up-to-date machinery and presents a busy appearance at all times. The Commis ion bakery at Cristobal. During a single year the bakery used 20,233 barrels of flour, producing 6,014,667 loaves of bread, 651,844 rolls and 114,134 pounds of cake. Each loaf of bread weighs 16 ounce and costs the consumer three cents. [ 11 G ]

PAGE 127

meat and 976,445 pound of cured and pickled meat were brought to the I thmu By printing 333,658 pound of a total of 427,6 3 pound of butter bought, the commi ary wa able to aye in the price and al. 0 pre ent it for a l e in a much better condition than ,,-hen purcha ed in the enited State alread printed. The price of coffee wa al 0 aved by the commi ary operating its wn roa tino' plant. In thi plant 341 780 pound of OTeen coffee, producing 280,909 pound of roa ted coffee have been turneu out in a year. The i ce plant, with a capacity of 100 t n a day, deliver ice for 40 c nt a hundredweight, or 20 pound of ice delivered at th employe' door for eight c nt. Another in tance of effective manufacture and di tribution ,,-a the operati n of the bakery ,,-hich durin' a ingle year u ed ",,0,233 barr 1 of flour producing 6,014,-The principal street in Gorgona. Thi was one of the largest towns in the Canal Zone, but the buildings have all been removed as the waters of Gatun Lake will cover the original site. 667 loav of br ad, 651, 44 roll and 114 ,134 pound of cake. Each loaf of br ad weio'h 16 unce and co t the con umer three cent. In addition, the baker, enabl the employ t purcha e trictly fr h bread cake and rolls which he would therwi e not be able to obtain. The American on the Zone are great ice cr am eater, for a total of 138 551 o'alIon valued at $1 10 ,993. 68 ,,-ere con umed in a ingle, T ear. The ic e cream which i o ld for 25 cent a quart i a good a can be obtain d, fr h milk and cream beinO' imported from th "Gnited State, in I' frigeration, for it manufacture. In the indu trial and experimental laboratory maintained by the com mi ary, e:A-tract talcum powder oap, witch hazel, hydroo'en p roxide, ba rum t oth po" del' and toilet preparation of variou kind are manufactured and ld to the empl :e at a con iderabl e a ing in co t. The xperimental [ 117 ]

PAGE 128

Tennis court, Ancon. Tennis is a favorite pastime and tournaments are held frequently. Opening game Athletic Park, Empire. The national game has held sway each dry season with at least one league m ade up of four or more clubs. Field meets are also held occasionally. T here a r e sever a l excellent bathing places on each side of the Isthmus. A large pavilion has recentl y been e rected f ronting the beach Pena Prieta, Panama Bay, to which the street cars run. Sea bathing is enjoyed a t 'Xmas t i m e the same as on the Fourth of July. I J 1/oS 1

PAGE 129

department i s mainta in e d to in sure the quality of all t h e goods so l d i n t h e stores There are thre e classes of hote l s and m es es m ainta ined w h e r e the labor force is fed, on e for the white Ame rican e mpl oyes w h e r e meal s are served a t 30 cents each, one in whi c h Spa ni h l a b o r e r s a r e se rved three meal s fo r 40 cen ts, and one where n e gro labore r are serv e d three meal s f o r 2 7 cents The food in all three cases i s g ood and who l eso m e The meal s se r ve d in the American hotels, or me halls, are subs t antia l r athe r tha n d ainty, b u t co ul d h a rdl y be duplicated in the Unite d Sta t es f o r d o ubl e the price c h a r ge d. Altho u g h t h e laborers' mes s e s s erv e whol esome food v e r y c heapl y, the g reat e r part of the Spaniards prefe r to eat at the littl e r e taurant m ainta in e d near the co n s t r ucti o n camps by their f e llow country m e n. The arne h a b ee n true of the n eg r oes The residence section at Gatun. The three great twin locks near the Atlantic entrance of the Canal are locate d here. who had much r athe r liv e in th "hu, h o r in the c iti e of P a nama a n d Col o n where they are l ess r e tJict e d. During in g l e year the t o t a l numbe r o f meal s e r ve d i n t h e h ote l s was 2 075 ,335; the total numbe r of ratio n s e rv e d in Euro pean laborer s' m es es was 1 10 17 5 and the t o t a l numbe r o f r a ti o n s se rv e d in the negr o messes was 584 457. THE C \ N .'\L ZONE The Canal Zon e do(' n o t co m e und e r the Co n s tituti o n of t h e United Sta te., but i s go v e rn e d b y orde r s m a d e b y the Pre id ent o r the Sec r e t a r y of \tv aI' and l a w p ec i ally e n acte d b y Co n g r e It offic i a l sea l bear the m otto, "The L ancl Div id e I -Th VVorlel Unite d," and co n i s t s of a hie ld show in g i n b a e a p a ni .. h galleo n of th fift eenth century unde r full sail co min g head o n b t wee n t w o hi g h b ank', all purpure, the s k y yellow w ith the g l ow of s un se t ; r 119 1

PAGE 130

A view of the town of Culebra from Mount Zion as it appeared several years ago. T h e buildings to the right along the edge of the Canal, have all been removed on accou n t of the slides at this point. A group of four-family houses for American married employes, Empire. Large verandas are built on each side of the houses and all are screened. [ 120 ]

PAGE 131

in the chief are the colors of the arms of the United States. Under the shield is the motto. It was adopted in 1906 after a design of Tiffany & Co. Up to September 1, 1904, the ix municipal districts in which the Canal Zone was divided were governed under the laws of Panama. On the latter date, the Canal Commission by law created five municipal districts, each with a mayor, municipal council, ecretary, and treasurer. The e five municipal districts were abolished April 15, 1907, and four admini trative di trict were created. On November 17, 1906, the Department of Sanitation wa eparated from the Government of the Canal Zone, and the latter then became the Department of Law and Government of the Canal Zone under 1\11'. Richard The Isthmian Canal Commission Chapel, Ancon. Nearly all the principal religious denominations are represented in the Canal Zone, and there are upwards of 40 places of .worship. The Commission employs several Chaplains. Reid Rodgers, General Counsel. This department was abolished on April 2, 1907, and the authority of the chief executive of the Canal Zone was ve ted in the Chairman of the I thmian C!1nal Commi sion. The Chairman, on May 9, 1907, delegated that authority to a member of the Commis ion, and the Pre ident, by an Executive Ord r dated .January 6, 1906, created the Department of Civil Admini. tration. The work of the Department of Civil Administration, in addition to the diplomatic correspondenc b twe n the Commi ion and the Republic of Panama and the repre entative of foreign governments in Panama, is partitioned, a follows: Post, cu toms and revenue; police and pri ons; fire protection, chools and the office of the treasurer of the Canal Zone. The [ 121 ]

PAGE 132

School for white children at Empire. Twelve white and fifteen colored schools are maintained. The white schools are in charge of women teachers from the United States; the colored schools are taught by male West Indians. An on high school c1as term of 1912-13. There are two high schools for advanced scholars. r ]

PAGE 133

judicial branch includes a Supreme Court, three Circuit Court, and four District Courts. Up to July 16, 1913, the Divi ion of Public '''orks, which had in charge the maintenance of streets, road. trails, water works and sewer in the Canal Zone and in the cities of Panama and Co lon, and a l so the public markets in the Zone, was Inade a part of thi department. On the latter date, it became merged with the newly created Divi s ion of l\funicipal Engineering, under the office of the Chief Engineer. THE POST.\'L ERVICE The Division of Po ts, Cu tom. and R even ue s, a it s name implies, has charge of all post-offices in the Canal Zone, the cu toms se rvi ce at the port of Post Office at Ancon. Seventeen Post Offices handle the Canal Zone mail. Postal Savings Banks are established in all but one of them. Anc nand Cri tobal, and the coIl ction of taxe and lic n e fees. It a l so look after the administration of the estate of decea ed and insane employe of the Commi sion and Panama Railroad Company. The po tal rvice was inaugurated on June 24, 1904, under the sup r vision of the Trea urer of the Zone, with Panama railroad tation agents acting a po tma tel'S in nine offices. There are now 20 office in charge of regular po tmaster appointed by the Director of Po. ts. From June 24, until July 17 1904 Panama po tage stamps (which were olombian tamp urcharged "Panama"), having the word anal Zone" overprinted with a ru bel' tamp were u ed. The use of thi rubber tamp kept tamp coil ctors on th lookout for mistakes in th surcharging which would tend to mak th stamp' valuabl. On July 17 a suppl y of United Stat s stamps, s llrcharo'ed anal Zone," was put into u se and, on De mber 3, [ 123 ]

PAGE 134

1904, these were replaced by the Panamanian stamp surcharged "Canal Zone," in u se at the present time. Domestic rates of postage have always applied between the Canal Zone and the United States, and for this reason the postage stamps are purchased from Panama at 40 per cent of their face value Zone penitentiary. This formerly located at Culebra, but was removed, along with many other buildings, on account of the slides. The offenders in the Canal Zone are kept busy building roads. to make up the difference in the rates of the two countri es, those in Panama being s lightly higher. POST AL SAVINGS BANK A POPULAR INSTITUTION A postal savings bank was authorized by E xecutive Orde r on September 8, 1911, and became effecti ve on November 8, 1911. At the beginning of the fiscal year there were 2,402 open accounts with deposits aggregating $356,947. The depositors include c itizens or subjects of 45 different nations and dependenci es. The total amount of the deposits during this period was $1,601,616, and the total amount of withdrawal s $1,312,873, an increase during the year of $288,743, which, together with the amount of deposits on July 1, 1912, of $356,947, shows a total savings deposit at the close of the fiscal year of $645,690, an approximate average of $203.1 1 for each of the 3,179 depositors. These accounts are practically held by employes of the Commission, the Panama Railroad Company, and the various contractors. In addition to the postal savings accounts, the money orders issued and drawn on Canal Zone postoffices payable to the remitter aggregated on June 30, 191q, $156,916.20, so that the total saving deposit during the fiscal year was really $802,606.20. In August, 1905, a registry system wa' established and, in June, 1906 a money order sy tem was inaugurated. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, 238,316 money orders were i ued for a total of $4,883,624. 13. The average amount of each order was $20.49. Of the total amount of orders sold, [ 124 ]

PAGE 135

$3,917,899.30 was payable in the United State and foreign countries, and orders amounting to $965,724.83 were payable in the Canal Zone. Parcels po t ha not yet been introduced, and there areno letter carrier and, in these respect only, i the Canal Zone sy tern behind the ervice in the United States. A count of the mail matter received and dispatched or handled in transit on the Canal Zon e during the month of Augu t, 1912, showed that 30 per cent of the total wa official matter. zo I E C T TOMS ER\ I E The cu tom ervice of the Zone include the entry and clearance of hips at the two port, Anc n and Cristobal, th igning on and di charge of eamen, the enforcement of the Panama Chine e, Syrian and Turki h exclusion law. No custom dutie are collected, a no goods are allowed to be imported at Ancon and Cri tobal, xcept tho nece ary and convenient for the con truction of the Canal and for the u e of emplo ye of the Commis ion, fuel for ale to ve el, and good in tran it. During the fi cal year ending June 30, 1913 281 ve el entered the port of Ancon, repre enting a total tonnage of 553,767, and 283 ve se l s cleared with a total tonnage of 556,306. At Cri tobal, 280 vessel entered repre entino a tonna' of 849,702 and 283 ve el' cleared with a total tonnage of 85 ,703. THE ZONE "DRY" Up to Jul. T 1, 1913, aloon licen e formed a large part of the internal revenue of the Zone. On that date the Canal Zone went' 'dry" in accordance with an ord r of th Commi ion, and 35 aloon w nt out of bu ine s The A squad of Zone poli emen. The officers and first class policemen are Americans, most of whom have een service in the pani h-American war. The ordinary policemen are West Indians. [ 1215 ]

PAGE 136

Central fire station at Cristobal. Fire stations are maintained at all important points, their_size and equipment depending on the amount of property to be protected. Can a l Zone automobile fire engine. The department i equipped with two, one stationed at Cristobal, and the other at Ancon. [ 1 2 6 ]

PAGE 137

licen e fee was $1,200. On January 1, 1913, the distillation of liquor and the manufacture of rum upon which taxes had been levied was prohibited in the Canal Zone by Executive Order. The taxe now include a real e tate rental tax, and miscellaneou lic ense fee. Fines and costs also con titute a ource of revenue. Duri.ng the year, all lease for agricultural land and building lots not covered by revocable licenses were cancelled. As the depopulation of the Canal Zone has been carried on during the past year, the amount derived from licen se fee ha naturally decreased. The total revenues for the year ending June 30, 1913, amounted to $283,846.31. All fund thus collected are expended for local purpo es. The revenue received from the po tal service are applied to the maintenance of that service, and other fund are used for the support of A typical pay day scene. Pay days occur once a month and the dates range from first to the twelfth. White American employes are known as Gold Employes, and all others as Silver Employes. All are identified by the numbers on their metal checks. the public school ystem, and for the con truction and maintenance of public work. KEEPING ORDER The Divi ion of Police and Pri on wa organized on June 2, 1904. It work ha been entirel y ucce ful and the anal Zone in which repre entatiyc of nearl) every nation Ii e and are mployed i remarkably free from crime. One thing which ha' helped to make it a moral community i the trict enforcement of the liquor l aw and regulation, the prohibition of gambling, and public prostitution. All of th e vice, howev r, exi t in the neighboring citie f C Ion and Panama, with one exception of gambling. In addition to the di trict jail. ,ther is a l so maintain d a penitentiary. Polic tation. are located in mo t of the anal Zone villag and th force i mad up of white ex-army and navy m n and colored police officer who have seen ervice in the Jamaican con tabulary. All convicts a well as district prisoner work on the public road. The work performed by the convict in the penitentiary nearly paid the co t f guardino-, ubsi ting and clothing them. G RDING AGAINST FIRES Th Divi ion f Fir Protection wa. organized in Octoo r, 1905, and on De emh r 1, a fir chief wa' appointed. His work eOllsistcd in organizing [ 1:l,7 J

PAGE 138

volunteer compani es composed of Commission and Panama railroad employes. In November, 1906 the fir s t paid company, composed of experienced firemen from the States, was established at Cristobal. The organization consists of 37 firemen in addition to a chief, assistant chief, s ix captains, s ix lieutenants, First United States Court held on the Canal Zone at Ancon. and 15 volunteer companies with a total membership of 252. The equipment includes two modern automobile fire engines, one stationed at Cristobal, and the other at Ancon. The department answers alarms in Panama and Colon when property belonging to the Panama railroad or to the United States Government i s in danger, or upon the reques t of the Panama authorities. The Canal Zone has been r emarkably free from fires, but a well organized fire system is necessary, as the Government and the Panama Railroad Company do not carry insurance on their property. The l argest and mos t expensive fire in the Canal Zone was that when the storehouse at Mount Hope burned in 1907, with a total l oss of $4 17 ,548 .09 EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES The Zone publi c schoo l syste m was organized in 1904 but no action was taken until December, 1905 when a census of children of school age, s ix years and over, was taken. The first sc hool was opened at Corozal on June 2, 1906. There were 29 chool s on June 30, 1913, fourteen for white children and 15 for co lored children. The schoo l year covers the period Octobe r 1 to June 30. A total of 1,369 whit e children and 1,580 colored children were enrolled in the school s at the close of the 1913 term. In the high sc hool maintained for white pupil there were 93 student s, seven of whom graduated. Children living in towns where there are no sc hool are provided with free railroad or wagon transportation to the nearest sc hool town. At the close of the sc hool year there [ 128 ]

PAGE 139

were 47 teachers employed in the chools for white children and 32 in the chools for colored children. The e teachers received monthly salaries of either $90 or $110, according to their length of service. THE LAW DEPARTl\IENT The of Law of the Canal Commi ion ha charge of all of it civil case, a well as the government of the Canal Zone. It attend to the pro ecution of all crime and misdemeanors in the Supreme and Circuit Court of the Zone, and it head and his a i tants furni h opinion when called upon to the Chairman and Chief Engineer and the variou departmental chief. Land matter of the Commi i on and the Panama railroad are under the juri diction of the department, managed by a land agent, and in addition, the department head look afte r the legal affair of the railroad. Since the organi zation of the Joint Land Commi ion, the department ha repre ent d th interests of the United State in the adju of claim. Judge Frank Feuille, who ha held a number of important po t in the legal department of Porto Rico, and who wa connected with the Department of State and Ju tice in Cuba during the admini tration of the affair of that i land by C. E. l\1agoon, i Coun el and Chi f Attorne for the Commi ion and l"anama railroad. Hi a i tant are ,V. K. Jack on, Pro ecuting Attorney, and C. R. William, A i tant Pro ecuting Attorne P YING THE CA J AL F R E The Department of Di bursement ha of the di bur ement of all fund in connection with the Canal work on the I thmu Present Court Hou e at Empire. The United States possesses all authority over the Canal Zone, policing the territory and holding complete judicial power. [ 129 ]

PAGE 140

In 1904, when only the fluctuating Colombian silver currency was available for the of silver employes, it was customary to advertise for this money in such sums as were required. The bid which gave the best return was accepted. The premuim paid varied from 117 on May 23, 1904, the date of the first sale, to 110 in August, 1904, and rose from then to 115 in January, 1905, the time the last sale was made under this plan. This made the old Colombian peso vary from $.4606 (expressed in United States values), to $.4755, it being worth $.464 at the time of the last sale. The requirements of the Dis bursing Office at that time were much more limited than now, a total of $523,000 sufficing for expenditure from May 23, 1904, up to the time Panama money was introduced in March, 1905, an amount less than one-third of the total of one month's pay roll in 1913. During this period American employes exchanged a part of their gold for Colombian currency and paid their local obligations in that money, in that way netting a profit of about $7.50 gold on each $100 in gold exchanged. In other words he would get $215 silver for $100 in gold, and as local prices, board, etc., were based on silver, he was the gainer in the transac tion. The situation was much simplified when the United States minted the money for the national currency of Panama, by fixing the value of the Panama peso at the ratio of two for one, but the profits on exchange were at once lost, for local prices immediately reverted to the gold basis, and employes who were formerly paying $50 silver for board, less the profit on exchange, then paid $25 gold flat. The gold payments were first made in United States paper, but this was found to be both expensive and inconvenient, for the reason that the local merchants and others shipped these bills out of the country as fast as they were brought in, as they made a cheap means of exchange. On May I, 1905, an agreement, which had previously been made by the Secretary of War with bankers in Panama City, commonly spoken of as the "Bankers' Agreement," became effective. Under this arrangement, the Commission secured from four banking firms in Panama all the United States money necessary for the work on the Isthmus upon the payment of a premium of 1 of one per cent. This agreement expired by limitation on April 30, 1906, and was not renewed. Shipment of gold coin from the United States was then begun. On account of the export Offices of the Disbursing Officer, and of the Examiner of Accounts, Empire. r 130 1

PAGE 141

tax impo ed by the Republic of Panama on coin e ith e r go l d o r ilver thi s money could not be shipped out to advantage as w a d o n e in the case of bills The bankers finally announced their willin g n e t o r ece i ve di sbur ing office r 's check on the New York sub-treasury at p a r in exc h a n ge f o r go ld a n d silve r, so A Commission brake, used in carrying children to and from school. The Canal Commission lends every aid to the cause of education in the Canal Zone. Whe n n e cessary to use the r ailroad, passes are given the pupils. that hipment of g old from the Unite d t a t e t o the I thmu g r w I e and I e s and for a time c e a e d alto ge ther. For a lon g tim e Ame rican empl oye we r e p a id their salari e s olel y in gold but with the in c r e a e in c ir c ul a ti o n of paper o n the I thmus due in p art to the in c rea e in t o uri t tra d and in p a r t t o the r esumption of pape r hipm nt fr o m the Unite d S t a te, they a r e n o w f r q u ntl)' p a id in bill Silver e mplo y w r e p a id mi-m o nthl y up t o and in c ludin g Sep t e m be r 1907 a they were un a bl e to get c r edit from the Chin e e m e r c hants, f r o m w h o m they mad their purcha e for more tha n two w ee k a t a time. 'Yith the o p e n ing of the commi arie and labor e r kitc h e n and the pri yilege ac o rded l abo rer of procuring commi a r y book s and m a l ti c k t t o be c h a ro'ed ao'a in t the ir time, the nece it y for a doubl e p ay d ay each m onth cea e d t o ex i s t and incc then there ha b ee n but on e p ay day monthl y Two p ay office a r e m ainta in e d one at Ancon, and the othe r a t Cri tob a l and, in a dditi o n a pay car v i it all part of the work e ach month. The p ay d ay peri o d r a n ge fro m the 1 s t t o the 12th. At the out et s om e c ritici m d e v e l o p e d ov e r the l a p of tim b t wee n the cIo of the month and the pay day for e mplo yes Thi l e d t o a n inve tigati o n of practice in vog ue in making pay m nt b y l a r ge e m p l oye r of l abo r The pay env e lop m ethod wa found impra cticabl lik ew i e th i g n ature p ay r oll m ethod, althou g h thi y t ern v. a tri d for a m onth i n 1 905. The s s t e m [ 1 3 1 ]

PAGE 142

finally adopted and s till in u e, con s i t of cer ti ficates made out for e ac h indi vidu a l payment, dul y c h ec k e d and authen t i cated This ce rtificat e w h e n prope rl y s i g n e d by the p ayee and w i tne ed b y an empl oye w h o i s b onde d for th a t purpose, and presente d b y the pay ee on the pay car, or a t o n e o f the pay office, i immedi a t e l y paid the amount c alled for thereon. During the fi cal yea r e ndin g J un e 30 1 9 1 3, a total of $2 0 ,524,7 0 5. 75 was di bur ed o n the I sthmus f o r sal a ri es and wages $9,228,633.99 t o go ld e mplo yes o f the Commi s i o n and $11,2 96 071.76 to the silver e Inpl o y es, a n ave r age o f $1,710 ,392.14 a lnonth. Publ i c bills and re imbursement vo u c h e r s paid on the I s thI n u aggreo a t e d $ 9 0 35, 6 3 0.18 m a k ing a gran d to t a l of $29 ,5 60 ,33 5.93 di bur 'ed. Durino' th e saIn e p e riod, lni s c ellaneou s collection were de p os it e d with t h e Treasure r o f the U n i t e u States at Wa h ington to t h e amount of $3, 940 -102.82. The valu e o f the h o t e l book i s s ued by thi s department during the fisca l year 1 9 1 2-13, wa $ 1 30 5, 405 in $4.80 and $ 1 5 denomin a ti o n s The fir s t d i bur in g office r was Lieut. Mark B rooke, w h o temyora ril y di burse d fund fro m a n a m ount borrowed frOln the d i recto r ge nera of the Fre n c h Can a l Compa n y, a whe n the Americans t ook charge on May 4 1904 the r e was n o t a cent w ith w hi c h t o p ay b ill s He was s uccee d e d b y Euge n e C T obey o f the Unite d S tates Navy who was later re li eve d b y Pay rn a t el' Geor ge C Sc h a f e r a l o of the Navy. On November 23, 190 5, Mr. Edwa r d J. Willi a m was appointe d to the pos i t i on and under hi m the present org a nizati o n wa l a r ge l y p e rf ecte d. Mr. Williams res i gned on A u g u s t 3 0 1913, and was s u ccee d e d b y Mr. J a m es H. McLe an. ACCO UN T The Departme n t o f Examin a tion of Account s i s charged w it h the h a ndling o f the ge n e r a l acco u n tin g, pay rolls, voucher s co u pon books and meal ti ckets, files and bonds, injury cla ims, contract laborers t i me i nspec ti o n time k ee ping, C a n a l Z o n e account ", and in s p e ction of accountabl e officers The m ajor portion o f the funds o f the Canal Zon e are on depos i t i n Washin g t o n with the ex c e pti o n of $ 100 000 d e po site d with a local bank, and o n June 3 0 1913, amounted to $2, 16 8,339. 6 2 C on siderati on of injury cla im s i s o n e o f the most important item o f the d e p artment's work. A total of 7,270 cl a im s f o r compens ation for death or injury w e r e h andled from A ugust 1 1 908 t o June 3 0 1913 Of the 1 ,85 0 ca e di po se d of during the l a t fisca l year ( 1 9 1 2-13), 1 4 52 cl aims for injury, a n d 2 1 d eath cl a im w e r e granted. T h e to t a l valu e o f these claims, i nclu s i ve of g r ants m a d e o n of m e r i torio u s sick leaye, agg re gated $224, 071. 72 T he ave r age dura tion of di sability of ca e for w hich injury compe n 'a ti o n cla iln h a v e b ee n fil ed i s 58 day a n d the ave r age estima ted dura ti o n o f ca es in whic h m e r itori ou s s ick l e ave ha been g r an t e d i s five days During the peri o d f rom Aug u s t 1 1908 to June 3 0 1 9 1 3, a total o f $915, 8 2 4.79 h as bee n pai d o n account of injuries received by empl oyes in course of e mploy m ent. N O G R AFT One of the fir s t q u e ti o n s a vis itor to the Isth m u s asks i H ow much g r aft h as there been?" A goo d m a n y are incl ined to be skeptical w h e n t o ld tha t there have been no ca e o f g r a ft on this job, and thatth e wo ul d be g r afte r h as had but littl e opportuni ty t o exe r c i e h i s gift during the greater part of t h e can a l p eriod. It i to be suppose d tha t the word i s refer r ed to i n i ts l arge r se nse [ 132 ]

PAGE 143

.--------' Balboa Hill is three hours' journey from Gorgona over a well-marked trail. From its top, a height of about 1,000 feet, both oceans may be seen on a clear day. The author is standing on The Trail which leads up the hill. [ 133 ]

PAGE 144

when it is said there has been no graft. There have been instances where silver foremen were charged with u ing their power of place by discharging some laborer who refused to give him money. In Inany of these cases, the charges proved to be unfounded, and, as it developed, were actuated by spite. There is no authenticated ca e, however, in the nearly ten years of canal work, where a ca e of graft with the hope of great gain in view, has been disclosed. The work is too open and above board. It would not be accurate to ay that in the early days of the work, when there were no time inspectors on the job, or other safeguards imposed, there were no opportunities. But a far a' the Commission employes then were concerned, they, for the greater part, regarded themselves as being placed on their honor, and the idea held. As the force was enlarged, it became more diversified in character and temperament, and element were introduced that required watching, not for any big forms of graft, but for the milder forms, such as malingering, or more plainly speaking, loafing on the Government's time. Thus was u hered in the era of the "gumshoes," as the Commission time inspectors are generally known. The American visitor, however, when he allude to graft refers to the pulling off of some big deal in which the Government has been "worked" to a frazzle. The Government, represented on the Isthmus by the Canal CommlS lOn, has never been successf ully "worked," or have there been any big "rake-offs." Of cour e, there have been plenty of ca e of plain thievery, and other forms of petty crime aimed at cheating or robbing the Government, but these have been dealt with by the law, and usually the offenders have been puni hed evere l y, for to steal from Uncle Sam is almost equivalent to murder in the second degr e. Stories have been told, although the writer does not vouch for their authenticity, how some collector on the Panama railroad during the beginning of canal construction made immense sums and were able to retire to a life of independence and ease, a state that their length of service and previous salary would scarcely warrant. The strings have been drawn much closer since then, and the opportunities for mulcting the railroad have grown beautifully less. As concerns the canal work, however, the amount of grafting has always been a negligible quantity, and this fact will forever be one of the biggest things about this big undertaking. [ 134 ]

PAGE 145

id a f a lock and lake level canal wa not a new one, for it wa fir t ugo'e ted in the eno'ineerino' congre conv ned in Pari in 1879, at which the French adopt d the a level plan. At thi congre Godin de Lepinay outlined the e ential features of the canal a it is today, a lake level with a dam aero the Cha Te at Gatun. Again, when it became evident in 1887 that the ea level canal could not be completed by the old French Canal Compan a temporary lock plan wa adopted. 'Vhen the United State took ov l' the work in 1904 no plan had been determined upon. To decide thi que ti n, ex-Pre ident Roo evelt, under date of June 24, 1905, creat d an International Board of Con ulting Engineer, con i ting of 13 member. a follow : G n. GeorO'e 'V. Davi Chairman, Alfred Noble, one of the con tructing engineer of the 00 canal; William Barclay Par on engineer of the New lork underground y tern; 'Yilliam H. Burr, profe or of engineering in Columbia college; Gen. Henr L. Abbott, army engineer, whose ob ervation on the topography and characteri tic of the canal territory were valuable; Fr d ric P. Stearn, hydraulic engin er of Bo ton; Jo eph Ripley, at one time chief engineer of the Soo canal, and afterward employed by the Isthmian anal Commi ion a l ock expert; Herman ler, I ham Randolph of Chicago Drainage anal fame; 'V. Henr Hunter, chief engineer of the ter hip canal, repr enting th Briti h Government; Eugen Tincauz r, chief eno'ineer of the canal at Kiel, representing the German Government; Adolphe Guerard, civil engineer, repre en tin the French Govern m nt; Edouard Quellennec, con ulting engineer of the uez Canal, and J. W. VVelcker, engine r and con tructor of the North Sea canal, repre enting the Holland Government. Thi board, on January 10, 1906, submitted two report, a majorit T report, signed by eight members of whom five were the repre entative of foreign government, favoring a sea level canal, and a minorit report, igned by five all of whom were American, and in [13 ]

PAGE 146

One of the impressive features of the work is Gatun Dam, which impounds the water required for the operation of the Canal from Gatun to Pedro Miguel. It is so constructed as to form the connecting link in the range of hills, which, excepting at this one point, encircle the low-lying valley of the Chagres River. The Dam is one-half mile wide at the base. 400 feet wide at the 85-foot lake level. and 100 feet wide at the top. It is one and one-half miles long, -but only one-fifteenth of its length is subjected to the full head of 85 feet of water. The top of the Dam is 105 feet above sea level, or 20 feet above the normal lake level.

PAGE 147

favor of a lock canal. These reports were submitted to the Isthmian Canal Commission for con ideration and the latter made a report to the Secretary of War on February 5, 1906, in which all of its members with the exception of Civil Engineer Endicott, U. S. N., favored the lock plan. Mr. Stevens, at that time chief engineer, submitted a statement in favor of the lock plan, and the Secretary of War in hi letter of transmittal of the reports to the Pre ident also favored it. On February 19, 1906, President Roosevelt submitted these various report to ConO'ress, together with a letter of recommendation in which he said: The hydraulic core, or water-tight portion of the Dam, together with the two outer walls, or toes. The toes are 1,200 feet apart at the base, and the space between is filled with an impervious mixture of sand and clay sucked up and pumped in by dredges from the old bed of the Chagres River. The toes were brought together at the top where they cap the fill. The entire Dam contains about 21,000,000 cubic yards of material, equally divided between dry and wet fill. The upstream side is riprapped above the water level to minimize wave action. "A careful study of the report seem to e tabli. h a strong probability that the following are the fact s : The. ea lev e l canal would be slightly Ie exposed to dalnage in the event of war, the running expen es, apart from the heavy co t of intere t on th amount employed to build it, would be Ie. ,and for mall hip s the time of transit would probably be l ess On the other hand, the lock canal at a level of 80 feet, or thereabout, would not co t much more than half as much to build and could be built in about half the time, while there would be very much Ie s risk connected with building it, and for large ship the tran it would b quicker; while, taking into account the intere t on the amount saved in building, the actual cost of maintenance would be less. After being built it would b ea ier to enlarO'e the lock canal than the sea l evel canal. Moreover, [ 117 ]

PAGE 148

what has been actually d emonstrated in making and operating the great lock canal the Soo, a more important artery of traffic than the great sea level canal, the Suez, goe to support the opinion of the minorit y of the Con ulting Board of Engineers and of the majority of the I sthmian Canal Commission as to the superior safety, feasibility, and d es irabilit y of bui ldin g a lock canal at Panama." Congre on June 29, 1906 decided upon a lock canal at an elevation of 85 feet. That t hi was the best plan to pur u e has been proved by expe rience with s lid es wh ich added greatl y to the es tilu a t e d aluount of excava tion necessary under either p l an. THE CA AL A WATER BRIDGE The comp l eted canal i s virtually a water bridge over which s hip s will pass from ocean to ocean There wa no mating of the Atlantic with the Pacific when the d ik e at Gamboa was de troyed on Friday, Octobe r 10, 1913, and the water of Gatun Lake were allowed to flow into Culebra Cut, for lake and Cut are, at the lll'face of the wat er, 86 feet above the lev e l of the. a. From deep Early subsidence in Gatun Dam. This occurrence caused the sensational stories in the newspapers in the United States in 1908, to the effect that the Dam had sunk and that the foundation was unsuitable for such a massive structure. The completed Dam demonstrates that the statements were entirely unfounded, and that it is as effective a water barrier as the age-old hills upon which it abuts. water in the Atlanti c to deep water in the P ac ific the Canal i about 50 miles long; frOlu shore lin e to h ore lin e it i s about 40 mile long. It does not, as is quite generally thought, e ros. the 1 thmus from eas t to we t. Its general direction is from northwest to southeas t and the c it y of P a nama at the Pacific entrance i about 22! mile southeast of Cri tobal at the Atl a ntic e ntrance. Starting in the Atlantic, a vessel en t e r s a sea leve l channel 500 feet wide to Gatun, a distance of even mile, where it will be lift e d by a flight of three locks, or immovable water e levato r h av in g a combined lift of 85 f eet, to the level of Gatun Lake. The lake proper to B as Obispo, the beginning of Culebra Cut, the man-made pass throuo,h the continental divide, i s about 24 mil es long, and the channel through it varie from 1 000 to 500 feet in width, with a water depth [13 ]

PAGE 149

Experimental spillway at Gatun Dam. Like all other important features of the Canal work, experiments were made to ascertain the proper method of constructing the work. Gatun spillway, looking from the lake. The spillway is a concrete lined opening, 1,200 feet long, 285 feet wide and is situated about midway of Gatun Dam. [ 1 9 ]

PAGE 150

from 85 to 45 fe t. While in the lake a vesselluay steam at full speed. The c hannel through Culebra Cut as far as Pedro Miguel, nine mil es, narrows to 300 feet, the minimum bottom width of the Canal. At Pedro Miguel, the vessel is ready to begin the descent to the Pacific. There i s a s ingle lock here, which l owers the ve e l 301 feet to a s m all a rtifi c ial body of water called Miraflores Lake, which i about miles l ong and 541 f eet above sea l e vel. The final descent to sea l eve l i made at l\firaflores by a flight of two locks. The ves e l has now pa ed over the bridge, and i s ready to proceed through a sea le ve l channel miles to deep water in the P ac ific. This channel, like the one o n the Atlantic ide, ha a bottom width of 500 feet, but it s depth i s 45 feet at mean tide, in tead of 41 feet. This difference in the depth of the two sea leve l approaches i s due to the fact that it i s necessary to partl y counteract a maximum tidal osc ill ation in the Pacific of 2 1 feet; that in the Atlantic is but feet; the mean sea level i the same in both oceans. THE DAM \'T GATUN When p l ans for a ea l eve l canal we r e under co n s id e r a ti on, one of the harde t problems to o l ve wa the diversion of the C h agres River. Now, Water from the lake flowing over the spillway, during the rainy season, before it was completed. The spillway will control the rise and fall of Gatun Lake. however, with a lock canal the Chagres i s the key to the s itu atio n. B y placing a dam across the l ower end of it s valley, it s water and that of it s tributaries have been impounded to form Gatun Lake. The dam is, in realit y, a low ridg:e of earth connecting the hills on either s ide of the valley, and look s as though It had been placed there by nature rather than by the effo rts of man. It i mil long, 105 feet above mean sea l eve l or 20 feet above the normal level of the lake, and taper from nearly! a mile wide at it s base, to about 100 feet wide [ 140 ]

PAGE 151

The spillway from the down stream side. A concrete dam, emi-circular in form, has been built across the head of the spillway channel, and on its crest at 69 feet above sea level, concrete piers, spaced 45 feet apart have been built, between which there are steel gates which may be opened or closed to control the lake level.

PAGE 152

a t the top. It w as con structe d of mate rial take n fr m the Canal amounting t o a b out 2 1 000 000 c ubic yards The m ethod of c on s truction consi s ted in b uil d in g u p t wo par alle l rid ges or to es of earth riprappe d with rock. Between t h ese two ri dges, s u c ti o n dre d ges pumpe d and and clay mi xed with water from the be d o f the C hagr es riv er. A s the w a t e r dra in e d out of this interior fill, the cl ay mi xture drie d and harde n e d and f orme d a n imp e rviou s core. I n Novem be r 1908 a p o rti o n of on e o f the r oc k t oes sank into the sil t and so ft mud d epos it e d in the bottom o f the o ld Fre n c h Can a l Channe l whic h passe d thro u g h the i te of the d a m. This had b ee n anticipate d b y the engin eers o n the I sthmus, but a t the time it l e d t o se n a ti o n a l s tori es in the n e w s pap ers i n t h e U ni te d S t a t es, t o the effec t tha t the d a m h a d sunk and that the The overflow from the spillway passing out through the old bed of the Chagres River into t h e Atlantic O cean. With the lake at its maximum elevation of 87 feet, the regulating gates in the spillway w ill permit of the discharge of a greater volume of water than the known maximu m discharge of the Chagres River during a flood. foundati o n was unsuitable f o r s u c h a m ass i ve s tructure. To alla y the fea r s arou sed, Pres id ent R oose v elt sent a s p ec i a l bo ard o f con s u l ting engi neers to the I thm u s t o m a k e a n examin a tion of the work in progress, and particularly of Gatun D a m. This e n g in ee rin g board, co n i ting o f Fre deric P. Stearns, Arthur P D av is, H enry A. All e n J a m es D Schuy l e r I h a m Randolph, J ohn R. Freeman, an d Alle n H a z e n r eporte d o n F ebrua r y 16, 1909 that: "The de ign upon w hi c h work o n the d a m i s n ow b e in g prosecute d abundantl y fu lfills the requi red degree o f s t a bilit y and goes f a r beyond the limit s of what wou l d be regarded a suffic i ent and saf e in a n y l ess important structure." It al s o recom mended t h a t the h e i g h t o f t h e d a m as ori g in ally propose d be reduced 20 feet. [ 142 ]

PAGE 153

Miraflores spillway, completed September 1, 1913. Lies between Miraflores Locks and rising ground to the east, and forms Miraflores Lake. It also regulates the level of the lake. Hydroelectric station, Gatun spillway, under construction, showing location of penstocks. [ 143 ]

PAGE 154

The completed dam ha demonstrated the fact that it is as effective a water barrier as the age old hill upon which it abuts. GATU SPILLWAY In order that the lake will not rise above 87 feet and reach the point where it would flow over the crest and endanger the dam, a spillway has been constructed through a rock hill nearly in it center. This i s a concrete-lined channel 1,200 feet long and 285 feet wide, 10 feet above ea level at the lake end and slopino to ea leve l at the foot. At the lake end a concrete dam has been built in the form of a cre cent 808 f et lon g, closing the 285-foot channel. This danl i 69 feet above ea level, or 16 feet below the normal level of the lake, and at its top there are 13 concrete pier between which there are mounted 14 electrically operated gate to control the flow of water. The pier and the gate bring the height of the pillway dam to 115.5 feet above sea level, or 30.5 feet above the lake lev 1. With the e
PAGE 155

View of Gatun Lake. The lake is formed by Gatun Dam, and receives the flow of the Chagres River, and several smaller streams. At its maximum height of 87 feet, it will inundate 167.4 square miles of territory, part of which lies in the Canal Zone, and part in the Republic of Panama. It will have a coast line of 1,016 miles, and will be the largest artificial body of water in the world. It covers a broad expanse from Gatun to Bas Obispo, thence is confined to the 300-foot channel in the Culebra Cut section to Pedro Miguel. During the dry season-December to May-the lake will remain about stationary, while in the rainy season, there will be a surplus. Thousands of acres of trees and jungle growth are being inundated by the rising waters of the lake. Floating islands in Gatun Lake. These are really masses of vegetation detached from the swamps by the rising waters and carried out by winds into the open water. Some of them cover half an acre in extent, and have given considerable trouble by obstructing the lock entrance. [ 145 ]

PAGE 156

of it s tota l area is within the Canal Zone. In the rainy se asons the lake will be allowed to rise t o 87 feet above sea level, and thu provide a slirplus for the three or four months of the dry sea on when the run-off of water in the Chagres basin is low. A llo wance has also been made for evaporation, see page, leakage at the lock gate, and power con umption. With the lake at 87 feet there wIll be tored a littl e over five feet of water. That i the lake could be lowered five feet without reducing the depth through Culebra Cut below that in the approach channel on the Atlantic s id e Exte n iv e studies over a period of many year of the rainf all and the amount of water that will flow into the lake from the Chagres River and it s tributarie s during the rainy seasons indicate that there will a lw ays be a s uffi c ient s uppl y for navigation of the Canal. The Chagres River rises in the mountains eas t of the Canal, i s about 160 miles l ong, and drain a water hed 1 ,32 0 sq uare miles in extent. Above Bas Obispo its rise is very rapid and, as it a cends, it flow s through deep and narrow gorges cau in g a very rapid run-off of the rains, and the river has been known to rise a littl e over 25 feet in 24 hours. As it wind in and out of the hills in its upper reache rapid become more numerous and difficult for the passage of the native cayucos or canoe, the on l y me a n of navigation. Going up the The spillway Gatun with the sluice gates closed. Locks and village of Gatun in the distance. river only the native boatmen, adept from long practice in poling their boats, can uccessfully negot i ate the rapids. Above Alhajuela, the river is bordered by limestone cliff into which the water h a for ages been eating its way, forming cav and underground water courses The towering cliff s are covered with a ma of vin s and creeper wound about the tree, which h av in so me way found room for their root, a ll covered with bright and vari-colored blossoms. r 146 ]

PAGE 157

One of the-bends in the upper Chagres River. The Chagres is the principal feeder of Gatun Lake. It rises in the mountains of interior Panama and drains 1 300 square miles of territory. During the dry season it is a quietly flowing stream, but in the rainy months it is subject to sudden freshets, bringing down a great volume of water, which, during the year 1910, equaled one and one-half the volume of water that will be contained in Gatun Lake. To the right of this picture is shown a gauging station, one of three maintained on the river. Accurate records are kept of the river stages as well as of the rain fall. The Isthmus has two seasons; wet and dry. The greatest recorded rain fall on the Isthmus for 24 hours is 10 .86 inches; for one hour 5.86 inches and for 3 minutes 2.46 inches. The small picture above shows the river during one of the floods. [ 147 )

PAGE 158

Excavating for lock site, Gatun. Excavating for lock site, Pedro Miguel. Excavating for lock site, Miraflores. Millions of cubic yards of material had to be excavated before the locks were built. [ 14

PAGE 159

The sw ift moving river, the brilliant tropic foliage, and the towering cliffs, all tend to belie the Isthmian poet Gil bert's line s that: "Beyond the Chagres River 'Tis said (the story's old), Are paths that lead to mountain Of purest virgin gold; But 'ti s my firm conv icti on, Whate' er the tale they tell, That beyond the Chagres River, All paths lead stra ight to hell." The Chagres has two principal branches, one (t he l arger), known as the Pequeni, ri s ing in the San Bl a mountains, very clo e to the Atlantic coa t, and It was necessary to go 17 miles along the Atlantic coast to get the proper grade of rock for the concrete used in Gatun locks. Large rock for the Colon breakwater was also obtained here. This shows the rock quarry, crushing plant, and the American settlement established there on account of quarry operations. The crushed rock was loaded in barges and towed to Gatun. Sand for the concrete used at Gatun locks was obtained at Nombre de Dios, about 35 miles along the coast from Colon, and was also towed to Gatun in barges. Porto Bello, signifying "Beautiful Port," is the best haven on the Atlantic Coast of Panama. the other the Indio River. B etween B a Obi po and Gatun, it ha 26 branche, the large s t of which are th Gatun and Trinidad rivers. In the dry ea on these tributarie may be regarded a negligible but during the rainy month they like the main river, become tropic torrents, with a volume not to be i g nored. However, s uch flood or freshet, which are of frequent occurrence in the r a in y eason, would have but slight apparent effect on the l ake, for it would take the greate t known flood of the Chagr nine hour to rai se the l eve l of the lake one f t. The mall t run-off of water in the ba in during the pa t 22 yea rs, as [ 1 49 ]

PAGE 160

measured at Gatun, was that of the fiscal year 1912, which was about 132 billion cubic feet. In 1910, the run-off was 360 billion cubic feet, or a sufficient quantity to fill the lake one and a half times. The rainy season i from l\1ay to December, and during that time showers are of frequent occurrence. The average yearly rainfall on the Atlantic coast at Cristobal during 40 yea rs of record, has been about 118 inches and at Porto B e llo during four years' record, about 149 inche ; at Culebra, during 20 years of record, about 83 inche and at Ancon on the Pacific coast during a period of 13 years, about 66 inches. The maximum rainfall for 24 hours was 10.86 inche s; for one hour .5.86 inches, and for three minutes, 2.46 inches. DAMS ON THE PACIFIC SIDE Pedro Miguel and Miraflore lock occupy the ancient valley of the Rio Grande. Here it was nece sary to construct two small earth dams, one on the .at The concrete operations at Gatun locks required modern handling machinery. These are the unloading cableways at Gatun docks. Rock and sand are picked up from the barges by clamshell buckets and conveyed to storage piles. we t side of Pedro Miguel lock, about 1,700 feet long and 10.5 feet high at its cre t; and the other, west of Miraflores locks, about 2,700 feet long, and 70 feet high at it s crest. The Miraflores barrier consists of earth and rock toe, with an impervious core fill, and dams the Cocoli River, forming Cocoli Lake, now a part of Panama's water upply system. To the east, both Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks approach close to the hills, so it was only neces ary to join locks and hills by concrete walls. THE LOCKS Under the o riginal plans, the flight of two locks at Miraflore was to have been located at Sosa Hill near the Pacific entrance. The change was made upon th recommendation of the I thmian Canal Commi sion, approved on December 20, 1907, by the President, becau e suitable lock and dam founda tion could not be found. In addition, the it at Miraflore. i six mile r 1.50 1

PAGE 161

Sand bins and unloading cranes at Balboa. Sand for the concrete used in the Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks was obtained from Punta Chame, about 25 miles along the Pacific coast from Balboa. It was towed to Balboa in barges, lifted into the bins by the unloading cranes and when needed was dumped from the bins into cars and hauled to the lock storage piles. Ancon rock crusher plant and quarry, between Panama City and Balboa, where the crushed rock was obtained for the concrete used in the Pacific locks. The side of the hill has been literally eaten away to secure the large amount of rock required. r ]1)1 ]

PAGE 162

A general view of the main concrete mlxmg plant at Gatun Locks, which houses a battery of eight 2-cubic yard mixers. Rock and sand were carried to the mixers by an electric railroad running underground to a point beneath the storage piles. The finished product was carried to the lock site by a surface electric railroad. A closer view of the same plant, which has produced as high as 3,434 cubic yards of concrete in a day of 12 hours, working 6-hour shifts. [ 152 ]

PAGE 163

inland behind hill s which will effective l y protect them from the fire of a hostile fleet. The locks under the original plans were to have a u able length of 900 feet, width of 95 feet, and a depth over the gate s ill s of 41i feet. These dimen i on were increased on January 15, 1908, in compliance with the wishes of the Navy Department, to a u abl e length of 1,000 feet and a width of 110 feet in order to allow the passage of larger battleships at that time contemplated. The height of the lock walls i s about the arne a that of a ixstory building. The l a r gest of the.present-day hips, the l1np era lor, 919 feet lon g, can be locked through the canal. However, most of the ships that will u se the I sthmian trade route, o r Eight of these cableways, four on each bank, were used to place the concrete in the lock walls. They consisted of steel towers, 85 feet high, operating on their own tracks, and supported cables, which carried the concrete buckets back and forth. that are likely to use it for many year s to come are Ie than 600 feet long. In fact, 95 per cent. of the vessels navigating the high sea a r e I e than 600 feet long. For this rea on, each lock is divided by intermediate gates into two chambers 400 and 600 feet long, re pectively. T1;li do e not mean that the full length of 1,000 fe t cannot be u ed if nece ssa r y, but with thi division a aving in both water and time can be made in the locking of mall hips. Ther are six double locks in the anal, three flight of twin lock on each ide of the I thmu to lift hip from ea level to the lake lev e l, and vice ve rsa. They are made in pair, in order that hips can be locked both up and down a t the arne tim, and, in ca e of accident to one et, the re will be no delay to traffic a the duplicate flight can be used. The u able dimension of all are the arne. Each lock i a concrete chamber with steel mitering gate at eac h end, and with the gates closed, ship are raised and lowered by simply admitting or withdrawing wat r. The side wall are 45 to 50 feet wide at th surface of the floor, [ ]

PAGE 164

This view shows the dumping of concrete at Gatun Locks. Every move of the bucket is at the will of the man stationed in the cableway tower, who, in dumping, follows the signals of the man supervising the operation. As fast as the concrete is deposited, men, standing knee deep in the mixture, spread it out evenly. [ 154 ]

PAGE 165

perpendicular to the face, and narrow from a point Q4! feet above the floor until they are eight feet wide at the top. The center walls are 60 feet wide, approximately 81 feet high, and each face is vertical. In the six pairs of locks there have been placed approximately 4,500,000 cubic yards of concrete, requiring about the same number of barrels of cement. In the center wall of each set of locks, feet above the floor, there is a space 19 feet wide at the bottom and 44 feet wide at the top in which there is a tunnel divided into three gall erie The lowest gallery is for drainage; the middle, for the wires for the electric current to operate the lock machinery Sunday scene on south approach wall at Gatun Locks. In order to finish a piece of work within a given time, it was frequently necessary to work the men the full seven days. installed in the center wall, and the upper is a pas ageway for the operators. To fill and empty the locks there are culverts extending the entire length of the center and ide wall. The e culvert are 18 feet in diameter and are large enough to permit the pa sage of a railroad train. From the e large culverts there are several malleI' culvert, 33 to 44 square feet in area, which extend laterally under the floor of the locks and open into them through wells. The e smaller culverts would permit of the passage of a two-hor e cart. The water is conveyed from the lake level through the large culvert, and thence through the small lateral culvert to the lock chamber, thu insuri1lg an even distribution of the water over the entire area of the chamber. This reduces the disturbanc when the lock i bing filled or emptied, 0 that ship are lifted or lowered without undergoing any strain or violent pitching. The flow of water through the culverts is controlled by valves. The large culvert in the center wall communicates with th chamber of each of the twin locks, 0 that water may be pas ed from one lock to th other of the pair, thereby effecting a saving. The ave rag time required to fill and empty a loek is about 15 minute. and the time r 151': ]

PAGE 166

The beginning of concrete work at Gatun Locks. Laying the floor and installing the lateral culverts. The circular holes in the floor are to admit the water to the locks, and to empty them. The floor varies in thickness from 13 to 20 feet of solid concrete, according to the character of material underlying it, and is anchored by steel rail to a depth of 10 feet. Installing the cylindrical valves for the control of the flow of water in and out of the locks. The water control system of the locks consists of rising stem or Stony gate valves, and cylindrical valves. The rising stem valves govern the flow of water in the side wall culverts, and the cylindrical valves govern the flow of water in the center wall culverts. [ 1.56 ]

PAGE 167

of pa age of aves el through the entire canal range from 10 to 12 hours, according to the size of the hip, and the rate of speed at which it can travel. The lock gates are of the miter type, built of steel frame covered with teel p l ate, 65 feet long and from 47 to 82 feet high, according to their po ition in the lock. In all there are 41 gate of two leaves each. These gate weigh from 390 to 730 ton each, and, in order to reduce this weight a much a poss ible from the bearing and hinges upon which they swing, they are divided horizontally into two separate compartments. The lower compartment is watertight, sufficiently buoyant to practically float in the water. The upper half, however, ha an opening and, as the water rises in the chamber it flows into the upper half and add sufficiently to the weight of the gate to offset the increased pressure of the water in the lock chamber. The machinery for opening and closing the gate, operated by electricity, was invented by 1\1r. Edward Schildhauer, Electrical and Mechanical Engineer of the canal commission. It con ists of a large "bull" "heel, mounted in a horizontal po ition on the lock wall, to the rim of which i fa tened a steel strut or arm; thi arm i al 0 attached to the top of each gate leaf. The wheel rotates through an arc of 197 degree, and closes or open the gate leaf, according to the direction in which it is turned. This operation can be performed in two minutes, and it is imilar to the action of a per on who reache out an arm to open or close a door. G ARDS GAINST .\ IDENTS To guard again t accident, the gat at the entran e to all the locks and at the lower end of the upper lock in each flight are placed in pair, thu eliminating the chance of a ship ramming the gate which i holding back the water of the level above. The e guard gate mit I' outward to give them added power to resi t any blow which might be O'iven to them. The are al 0 available for u e in case the ate proper become damaged, or for an l'ea on cannot be operated. Steel forms in position for side and center wall construction. They are made of sheet steel carried on movable towers and operated on tracks. Each tower and form weighs almost fou; and one-half million pounds. r 157 1

PAGE 168

Ships will not be allowed to enter the lock under their own steam, but will be towed through by electric locomotives operating on the lock walls. A ship about to enter the locks will first come to a stand till alongside the approach walls where the towing locomotive, two on each wall, two forward and two aft, can attach their lines. Before the ship can enter a lock chamber it encounters a Method of constructing the 1S-foot side wall culverts. Collapsible steel forms were used and after the concrete had set, were taken down in sections. fender chain which has been placed on the upstream side of all the gates of the upper locks, and in front of the guard gates at the lower end of each Bight of locks, to prevent the gates from being rammed by a ship eparated from the towing locomotives, or approaching the gates under its own steam. In opera tion the chain is stretched across the lock chamber from the top of the opposing walls; when it is desired to allow a ship to pass, the chain is lowered into a groove in the lock Boor, and is raised again after the ship pas e. It is worked by a hydraulically operated system of cylinders, and is capable of bringing to a stop a lO,OOO-ton s hip, running at four knots an hour, within 73 feet, which is Ie than the distance between the chain and the gat In ca e these precaution to prevent accident to the gate fail, or in case it should be neces ary to make repairs which would nece itate the shutting off of all water from the lake levels, an emergency dam of the movable type has been placed above each Bight of lock. This dam i a teel tru s bridge of the canti lever typ pivoted on the ide wall of the lock approach. When not in u e it rests upon the id wall parallel to the chann 1. When required for u e it is [15 J

PAGE 169

The handling equipment used at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks was entirely different from that at Gatun. At Pedro Miguel, Berm cranes, containing the mixing machinery, were stationed at the head of the lock, with arms extending on either side, from which grab buckets were lowered to pick up sand and rock, as the case might be. The finished product'was carried by these trains into the lock chambers. Many of the old French locomotives were repaired and used for this work. [ J 59 ]

PAGE 170

The Chamber cranes, shown here, lifted the buckets of cement from the train and transported them to the point desired. The method of dumping by the Chamber cranes is very similar to that of the Gatun cableways, the operation being controlled by a man stationed in the cage on the trolley arm. These cranes operated on tracks, were self-propelling, and were used to advantage also in handling heavy pieces of lock machinery. Berm cranes at Miraflores Locks. With the completion of the heavy masonry work at Pedro Miguel, the cranes were moved to Miraflores Locks. The mixing cranes were slightly modified, and were stationed on the banks of the locks, instead of at the head, dumping directly into the side walls, while the chamber cranes were used solely for center wall construction. This method eliminated the necessity of concrete carrying trains to a large extent. [ 160 ]

PAGE 171

swung across the channel, with its end resting on the center wall of the lock. A series of wicket girders hinged to it are then lowered with their ends resting in pockets embedded in the lock floor. The action of these girders might be compared to the dropping of the tines on a sulky rake, with the exception that the girders are hung on individual pivots. After these girders have been lowered into place, they afford runways for gates which are let down one at a time, closing the space between them. The first row of plates lowered clo e the channel to a height of 10 feet; another series of panels lowered brings thi height to 20 feet, and so on until the channel i completely closed. 'iVith the main flow of water checked, the remainder, due to the clearance the plate is checked by driving teel pipes between the side of the adjacent panels. This gives an idea of the height of a side wall of the locks, as compared wi th a six-story building. The main operating culverts will permit of the passage of a standard size locomotive and train of cars, while a team and wagon could travel through the lateral culverts. When it is desired to gain access in the dry to the sills of these emergency dams, or to repair the lower guard gate of th locks, and the gates of the pillway dam, floating cais on gate of the molded ship type are available. When their u e i required they are towed into po ition in the forebay of the upper lock, above the emergency dam, or between the piers of the spillway, and sunk. They are equipped with el ctric motor driven pump for the purpo e of pumping out the cai on and for unwatering the lock. The gates, fender chain, emergency dam, towin locomotives, and culvert valve are operated by electricity, and all but the towing locomotive will be controlled by operator tationed in a control hou e on the cent r wall from which all parts of the locks can be een. The e hou e are equipped with a double control board duplicated to conform to the duplication in locks. It contains a representation, part model and part diagrammatic of the flight of lock controlled by the re pective eries of switches. As the operator throws the switche he can see before him, in model or diagram, the progre s of the fender chains, the movement of the gates, the opening and clo ing of the gate I' I' I' I' ,.. F CROSS SECTION OF LOCK CHAMBERS AND WALLS OF LOCKS A-Passageway for operators. B-Gallery for electric wires. C-Drainage gallery. D-Culvert in center walls. E-These culverts run under the F -Walls opening from lateral lock floor and alternate with culverts into lock chamber. those from side walls. G-Culverts in sidewalls. H-Lateral culverts. [ 161 ]

PAGE 172

The upper picture shows the intakes in the walls where water is let in and out of the culverts. The center picture gives a view of Gatun locks under construction. In the lower picture the square concrete building in the distance is the control house from which all of the lock operating machinery will be manipulated. l 162 1

PAGE 173

valves, and the rise and fall of the water in the lock chambers. The system i interlocking 0 that certain motors can not be started in a certain direction until other motors are operated in a proper manner. HOW THE LOCKS WERE BUILT One of. the most intere ting ights to the canal visitor during the time construction work wa in progres on the lock wa the working of the concrete mixers and the cableway and cranes, now di Inantled, which carried the material to the point where it was to be poured. At Gatun locks, where 2,043,763 cubic yard of concrete were placed, the assembling and the di triblltion of th material was done by means of industrial The first monolith completed at Gatun Locks early in 1910. ThE"se monoliths are huge blocks of concrete, which joined together, make a continuous wall almost a mile long. This is one of the outside walls, and the space has been filled in with earth and rock level with the top, where you now see the steps. [ 163 ]

PAGE 174

T h e upper picture s hows a v i e w looking north from Miraflores Locks. Pedro Miguel Lock in the distance, site of Miraflores Lake in b etween. Spillway to the right, temporary bridge for the gate contractors to t h e l eft of picture. The center picture shows a view looking south from the same lock, Ancon H ill i n the distance. The lower picture presents a busy scene at the locks when the gates were under construction. [ 164 ]

PAGE 175

electric railways and overhead cableway. From the docks in Cri toba l the cement was carried in barges up the old French canal, which had been deepened for the purpose, to a cement storage dock at Gatun. Rock quarried and crushed at Porto Bello, about 17 mile east of Colon, and sand dredged at N ombre de Dios, about 35 miles east of Colon, was towed in barges to Gatun dock. Thi material was unloaded by overhead cableways, upon which grab bucket were hung, and carried to storage piles. The material was then assembled in the mixers by cars operated under the cement shed and under the sand and rock torage piles. Another electric railway carried the buckets of concrete to the bank above the lock ites. At this point the full bucket were lifted from the cars by cableways stretched aero s the lock ite and lowered into the lock chamber where de ired. There were eight of the cableways arrano'ed in pairs, The lock walls as a whole give the visitor an idea of massive construction only. The arched sections, shown in the picture, connecting the main walls with the wing and guide walls, effect a saving in concrete and also give a symmetrical touch to the structures. each pair b'etching frOln a teel tower 85 feet high to a imilar tower on the oppo ite ide of the lock a di tanc of 800 feet. The e tower were placed on truck on which they could be moved alono' track parall I to the lock to th point desired. Be id e the concrete, the cableway a l 0 handled heavy con struction material, uch a te I form and lumber. Theil' capacity was ix ton. each, and the great t lift 170 feet for a di tance of 670 feet. For the lock at the Pacific end a distinctly different y tern wa mployed. Placement at Pedro Miguel wa made by means of foul' cantilev I' cranes, two re ting on tracks on the floor of each lock chamber, and two berm crane equipped with two 2-cubic yard mixer in the upper forebay Each of the chamber cran wa 95 feet high with cantilever arms, which extended to both ide s from the cent r. Placement in the approach and wing walls wa made by means of [ 165 ]

PAGE 176

A general view of Gatun Locks as they appeared October 1, 1912. All heavy masonry work, with the exception of the north approach wall was completed, and this view gives an idea of their magnitude. Each lock contains two parallel chambers separated by a center wall. The' side walls are 45 to 50 feet wide at the floor level, and narrow to a width of 8 feet at the top. The middle wall is 60 feet wide and 81 feet high.

PAGE 177

View inside the lower lock, west chamber, Miraflores Locks. The lock chambers are the largest concrete troughs in the world, having usable dimensions of 1 ,000 feet in length and 110 feet in width, and at the present time will accommodate the largest ships afloat. A striking comparison is obtained by looking at the man standing on the lock floor.

PAGE 178

derricks, which lifted the buckets from concrete tI :a ins which ran between the mixer and chamber cranes. When the heavy masonry work at Pedro Miguel was finished the chamber cranes were transferred to Miraflores, and operated in the same manner. The berm cranes were modified in order that they might be operated on the sides of the l ocks, instead of at the head. The crushed stone for the concrete of both P edro Miguel and Miraflores locks was supplied by rail from a large quarry and crusher plant on the west side of Ancon hill near Panama. Sand was dredged a t Punta Chame, on Panama Bay, 23 mile west of Panama. It was hauled in barges to Balboa and there unloaded by specia l machinery and hauled by rail to the storage piles at the l ocks. MAKI J G THE DIRT FLY The work of excavati on in the canal pri m was divided into two classes, "wet" and "dry," that taken out by means of dredges, and that by steam hovel, respectively. The wet excavation up to October 5, 1913, when water was admitted into Culebra Cut, was practically confined to the sea level Section of the north guide wall at Gatun Locks under construction. This was one of the most difficult pieces of masonry work in the whole job. The greater part of its length of 1,000 feet rests upon piles driven to solid rock. To the right is seen the east wing wall of the locks. approaches to the Canal that at the Atlantic entrance sev n miles to the locks at Gatun, and that at the Pacific entrance lnil to the lock s at MiraBores. The large t part of the excavati on, how ever, was accomplished by steam shove l in Culebra Cut prior to the lettin g in of the water of Gatun Lake and in the Chagres section There remained on September 1, about 9,153,000 cubic yard of spoil in Culebra Cut, out of a total of 95,869,000 cubic yards. The total excavation, "wet" and "dry" for the entire canal, as originally estimated by the minority member of the Board of Con ulting Engineer, wa 103 795,000 cubic yard, in addition to the amount excavated by the French companies, [16 1

PAGE 179

Entrance to Gatun Locks from the lake. Gatun Dam on the left and approach wall in the foreground. Approach walls 1,000 feet long, have been built at each end of all the locks, and as the name indicates, they serve as a guide to ships coming up the approach channel. Ships must come to a stop at these walls, until the locomotives which tow them through the locks m ake fast their lines. View of the upper gates at Miraflores Locks under construction. The first of these is completed and partly swung open to full view giving an idea of their thickness. The g ates are operated by electricity and may be opened or closed in one minute and 47 seconds. [ 169 ]

PAGE 180

who accomplished 29,708,000 cubic yards useful under the present plans. This estimate has been increased several times on account of changes in the canal p lan s, to s iltin g in the canal entrances and in the Chagres section, to slides in Culebra Cut, for the terminals at both entrances, and for the dry docks at B a l boa. The las t estimate made on July 1, 1913 places the grand total at 232,353,000 cubic yard, con iderabl y more than double the amount originally estimated. When the canal i s entirely completed, the excavated material wou ld make a line of 63 pyramids, each equal in ize to the Great Pyramid of Egypt. DREDGING Most of the work in the Atlantic entrance, about 53,167,000 cubic yards, was accomplis hed by two elevator dredges left by the French, and overhauled by the Americans, a dipper dredge of American make, and a sea-going 20-inch Completed sills from the lock gates. These sills, built of steel and concrete, form foundations on which the gates rest. sucti on dredge, a l so made in the United States. Where the channel ran inside the hore line two s m all hill s were duo> out by steam shovel to a depth of 41 feet, and the remaind e r then accomplished by the dredges. In the Pacific entrance about 61,48 9 000 cubic yards was accomplished by two elevator dredges of the Belgian type and two Scotch elevator dredges left by the French and overhauled by the Americans, a modern elevator dredge built in Scotland in 1911 and a sea -going 20-inch suction dredge. This latter dredge wa floated into Culebra Cut in October, 1913 and i s now at work taking out the remaining s poil in that section. In the Pacific entrance a large quantity of rock was encountered which was too hard for the dredge to handle. [ 170 ]

PAGE 181

The gates under construction at Pedro Miguel. The lock gates, 46 in number, two leaves to each gate, constitute one of the spectacular features of Canal construction. They are 7 feet thick, from 47 to 82 feet high, and each leaf or half gate weighs from 300 to 700 tons. They are built up of great horizontal girders weighing from 12 to 18 tons each, with vertical frame work in between, sheathed with steel plates on each side. Near view of the massive lock gates showing riveting gang on scaffold. The lower part of each gate is an air chamber, so that in using it, the gate is buoyed up by the surrounding water, reducing the weight on its hinges, and making it easier to move. To overcome the lifting effect when the lock chamber is full of water, the upper half has openings on the up-stream side which allows it to automatically fill or empty, thus equalizing the weight. [ 171 ]

PAGE 182

To break up this material, in addition to subaqueous blasting, a Lobnitz subaqueous rock breaker wa used. CUrrTING THROUGH THE DIVIDE The part of the canal on which the most work has been done, and which was the last to be completed, is Culebra Cut, the 9-mile section through the continental divide. Work ha been nearly continuous in thi section since the French tarted operations in 1882. It is also one of the most important and in teresting portion of the Canal project on account of the deep cutting necessary, and the difficulties encountered on account of slides and the disposal of spoil. When the American took over the work in May, 1904, they found the French engaged in taking out just ufficient material to hold their conces ion. This Close view of completed gates at Gatun Locks. There are 46 gates in the locks which aggregate 58,000 tons in weight, and if placed end on end would make a tower about one and one-fifth miles high. The author was standing on the lock floor between the partly closed gates when this photograph was taken. they were doing with a few ob olete side excavators, served by small Decauville dump cars and Belgian engine "Vork wa continued with the equipment left by the French until it could be gradually replaced with modern team hovel, car and engines. The first steam shovel wa placed in operation on November 11, 1904, and the last of the French excavators wa discontinued on June 16, 1905. On. August 1, 1905, there were 11 t am shovels at work, but they were greatly handicapp d in their output a they were served by old French cars operated on lines which, as Chief Engineer Steven aid: "By the utmost stretch of the imagination could not be called railroad track Work was practically stopped until proper preparations could be made for handling the spoil and effecting an organization which would obtain the greatest po ible results from the use of modern method of [ 172 1

PAGE 183

This illustrates the size to which even the smaller features of gate construction attain, as well as the care taken in their manufacture. This steel yoke, made of vanadium, is used to connect the tops of the gates with the anchors in the walls. It weighs 14,000 pounds, and was subjected to a stress of 3,300,000 pounds before it broke. The operating mech'anism of a lock gate. The whee l is a bull wheel, which, in operating, turns through an are, giving the connecting rod the movement of an arm in opening and shutting a door. It is 19 feet in diameter, and weighs over 35,000 pounds. [ 173 ]

PAGE 184

excavation. Tracks were properly laid, a proper transportation system inaugurated, and proper dumping places located before the work was resumed on a large scale in 1907. In that year 9,177,130 cubic yards were taken out, and from that time to when the maximum of 16,596,891 cubic yards was reached in ] 911, there wa a steady increase in the amount of material excavated as new Side view of emergency dam on east wall at Gatun Locks. In case an accident occurred to the gates, allowing a free passage of water from the 85-foot lake level, to the sea level, the dam would be swung across the lock chamber and a series of wicket girders hinged to it would be lowered with their ends resting in pockets in the lock floor. Steel gates would then be let down, one at a time, which would close the lock chamber and check the flow of water. equipment was installed. Trains of flat and dump cars, 20 to a train, drawn by 100-ton locomotives carried the spoil to be used in the dam at Gatun, the breakwater at the Pacific entrance, fills, or to dumps where it was merely wasted. As the Cut neared completion, the work became concentrated in a short ection at Culebra where the deepest cutting, 272 feet, was necessary, and the number of steam shovel had to be gradually reduced. To prevent the flooding of the Cut, the canal channel was paralleled on each side from Gold Hill north to Bas Obispo, a distance of five mile, by small canals or diversions, which carried into the Chagres River the water from streams that otherwise would have flowed into the Cut and interrupted the work. To prevent the water in Gatun Lake from backing up into the cut the earthen dike which was blown up on October 10, 1913, was built. To the south of Gold Hill the water which would have flooded the Cut was carried off by the Rio Grande and an old French diver ion channel. Rain water that collected in the Cut flowed north and outh. At Gamboa, on the north, it was pumped through the dike, and at Pedro Miguel, to the outh, it drained off through the lock wall culvert.. All steam shove l work in the Cut was discontinued on Sept mber 15, and between that date, and October 5, 1913, when water wa admitted, all equipment and other material, including over 36 mile of construction track, was 7emoved. At that time there were about 30 steam shovels at work. The following table of material excavated in the Cut and for the whole canal, indicate the period of preparatory work, the time when the highest point of effi-[ 174 ]

PAGE 185

Section of lock wall showing the rack rail over which the towing locomotives travel. Towing locomotive in operation at Gatun Locks. These machines are designed to tow vessels through the locks. There will be two locomotives ahead towing, and two astern to retard the vessel's progress if required. In towing, they will not move faster than two miles an hour, but a second or return track, permits them to go back at greater speed. [ 175 ]

PAGE 186

ciency was reached, and when the work became concentrated in the short section of Culebra Cut a the other sections neared completion: CULEBRA T. Year Cubic Yards 1904 . . 243,472 1905 . . .. 1,167,628 1906 .................. 2,702,991 1907 .............. ... 9,177,130 1908 ................ ... 13,912,453 1909 .................. 14 557,034 1910 ......... ..... .... 15,398,599 1911 .... ............... 16,596,891 191 2 ... .............. 15,028,413 1913 ( to ept. 10 ) ......... 8 ,3 48,190 T o t a l s ......... 97,132 801 ENTIRE AN AL. Year Cubic .Yards 1904 . . 243,472 1905. . .. 1,799,227 1906. . . 4,948,497 1907 . . .. 15,765,290 1908 .... .............. 37,116,735 1909 .... ......... ..... 35,096,166 1910 .................. 31,437,677 1911 .................. 31,603,899 1912 . . .. 30,269,349 1913 (to Sept. 1) .... ... 20,937,718 209,218,030 Two m a k es of team s hovel were u ed in the excavation work, the Bucyrus and Marion, of 45, 66, 70, 90 and 105 tons, equipped with dippers ranging in capacity from 1 1 cubic yards to 5 cubic yard. In Culebra Cut, shovel with These models of Pedro Miguel Lock give a good idea of how ships will enter and pass through the locks. [ 176 ]

PAGE 188

A comprehensive view of one of the great locks of the Canal under construction, where the largest concrete monoliths in the world have been built. One is almost bewildered by the tremendous machinery of the work-the enormous Berm and Chamber cranes with their almost uncanny air of intelligence towering over the scene with their interlaced-ironwork arms extended above the cement walls which they are constructing.

PAGE 189

Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks are about one and one-half miles' apart. The Pacific entrance to the Canal and Ancon Hill may be seen in the distance. the town of Pedro Miguel into two parts, is visible in the foreground at the filled with the water of Miraflores Lake. This birdseye view gives an idea of their relation to each other. The newly relocated line of the Panama Railroad, which divides left of the locks. The space between the two locks is now

PAGE 190

5-yard dippers were used almost entirely, and a shovel thus equipped averaged about 1,800 cubic yards per 8-hour day. A cubic yard of earth and rock weighs about 3,600 pounds, and represents about a two-horse cart load. The work done by the steam shovels would dig a canal 55 feet wide and 10 feet deep from Maine to Oregon. In transporting material to the dumping grounds three classes of cars were used-Lidgerwood flat cars with one high side with a capacity of 19 cubic yards, and Oliver and Western side dump cars, large and small, having a capacity of 17 and 10 cubic yards, respectively. To haul trains composed of 20 flat cars, 27 large dump car, or 35 small dump cars, American locomotives were used. These trains would make an average of Ii trips daily to the dumps, an average distance one way of 11 miles. The average time consumed in unloading a train of flat cars at the dumps was from seven to 15 minutes. This Boat landing at Gatun. The structure on concrete piles to the right is a wharf where small boats that ply the lake may land their cargoes, when the lake is to its full height. was accomplished by the use of what was known as an unloading plow. The large dump cars were operated by compressed air from the locomotive, while the small dump cars were operated by hand, and the time consumed in unloading was from 6 to 55 minutes. The constant arrival of spoil trains on the dumping grounds made necessary a quick method of changing the construction tracks. This necessity led to the invention by W. G. Bierd, formerly superintendent of the Panama Railroad, of a track shifting machine. This machine consists of a boom, extending from a flat car out over the track in advance of the car, to which a block and tackle is attached by which the track is lifted from its bed. Another boom extending from the car at an angle with the main boom pulls the track to one side or the other. In this way track may be thrown nine feet from its original position in one operation. In addition to the unloading plow and the track shifter for the rapid handling of s poil, there was also u ed a machine to pread the material on the dump [ 178 ]

PAGE 191

and keep them in a uniformly level condition. This spreader consists of a car on which has been placed a machine with steel wings, and it works exactly like an electric snow plow on the city stree t in the United States, with the exception that the wing are operated with compressed air obtained from the locom otive which hauls the car over the dump. 'ith a perfect organization, modern equipment,. a well planned sy tern of transportation, and the rapid di posal of the spoils on the dumps, the maximum pos ible output of the team shove l wa obtained and maintained, and many world records were made on the Isthmus in excavation work. ACROS THE I THllI I A HYDROBIPLANE Several attempt have been made the pa t few year to cros the Isthmu in a heavier than air fly ing machine, but none were ucce sful until April 27, 1913, when Robert G. Fowler, the aviator, accompanied by R. A. Duhem, photographer left the Pacific entrance to the Canal at 10 a. m., and arrived at Cri tobal Point on the Atlantic ide at 10 :57 a. m. The route of the canal was followed closely, the aviator making a circle at Culebra, in order to obtain views of all parts of Culebra Cut. The highest altitude attained during the flight was 1,800 feet; the lowe t height at which the machine flew was 400 feet. The Pre ident ha ince igned an Executive Order prohibiting further flights over the Canal, or to take photograph from a flying machine, without written authority of the Chief Executive of the Canal Zone. Robert G. Fowler's hydro biplane passing over Culebra Cut. Empire suspension bridge in foreground. A rare picture. [ 179 ] Crossing the Locks at Gatun on a bucket operated by the cableways.

PAGE 192

"On they struggl ed, ever onward, Blasting stone, and earth and men; Filling rivers with r azed mountains; Filling graves with parts of men. Blood and bone are mixed with conc rete, Sweat of brow and grim e of toil l\1":ark the rough-neck as he swelters, Weary 'mid the grease and oil. Weary flesh, nor fever's terrors Halt them as they onward go. Forward! Forward! Ever Forward! I the on l y cry they know." -John Hall. EVENTY MILLION POUNDS OF DYNAMITE The greater part of the material excavated by the Americans in Culebra Cut before the dredges were introduced consisted of hard rock, and it was necessary to drill and blast it before it cou ld be handled by the steam s hovel s About 50,000,000 pound, out of a total of about 70,0 00 ,000 pounds for the entire Canal was u ed. When it icon idered that nearly three cubic yards o f The scene of a premature explosion of nearly 22,000 pounds of dynamite at Bas Obispo, December 12, 1908. About 50 men were injured and 26 were killed, among them being three Americans. Blasting operations are conducted with great care, and the heavy shots are usually fired off after the men have quit work for the day, although several of these premature explosions have occurred. ( 180 ]

PAGE 193

Laborers loading well-drill holes with dynamite near Contractor's Hill. A small charge is first exploded, enlarging the hole at the bottom. Then the main charge, usually consisting of from 75 to 200 pounds is placed, and exploded by means of an electric light wire. A group of tripod drills at work. Churn drills are used also. All drills are operated by compressed air supplied through mains, and an average of 75 miles of drill holes is sunk each month. [ 1 1 1

PAGE 194

material are blasted for each pound of explosive used, the important part dyna mite has played in canal construction can be readily seen. Blasting powder was not used to a great extent due to exce sive moisture and water in the holes. In order to keep the steam shovels going at capacity, it was necessary to blast large areas at a time and as much a 26 tons of dynamite was used at one time. In the use of such large quantities of high explosive there have naturally Twelve of these magazines for storing dynamite are located at convenient points along the Canal. been many serious accidents although extreme care was taken in the handling. The most serious accident occurred in the Cut at Bas Obispo on December 12, 1908, when there was a premature explosion of nearly 22,000 pounds placed in 52 of the 53 holes it was intended to explode. The powder gang was working on the last hole when the entire charge for some unknown reason went off. The result was appalling. Twenty-six men were killed, among them being three Americans, and some 50 injured, many of them seriou ly. There had been a premature explosion of 26 tons a few months previous, l\1ay 22, 1908, in the Chagres sect ion of the Canal, which is supposed to have been caused by lightning. There were few casualties, however, although there were many narrow escapes as several hundred men were in the immediate vicinity. The thing most dreaded by the steam shovel men, with the possible exception of a sudden slide of rock, was the chance of the shovel digging into a charge of dynamite which had failed to explode. An accident of this nature occurred in the Cut on October 8, 1908, with the result that five of the shovel crew were killed and several injured. A few days later another premature of over 24,000 pounds in 154 hole caused the death of eight men. This latter accident was also attributed to the action of lightning upon the wire which, although con nected with the holes, were not carry ing any electric current at the time. To prevent such accidents as much as possible, many lectures and dis cussions were held from time to time among the employes engaged in the handling, storage, etc., of explosive. Representatives of the Nemours-DuPont Powder Company, which sup plied a large part of the blasting material, explained the making of d y namite, the right method of handling, and it action under certain known conditions. A are ult of these [ 1 2 ] A giant blast in Culebra Cut.

PAGE 195

discussions, it was decided to use a high amperage current from an electric light plant in exploding charges of more than a dozen holes, instead of by the use of storage batteries. Under the latter method, with the holes wired in series, in stead of in parallel, there was no certainty that all the holes had exploded after the current was turned on. In addition to the use of a strong current, the holes were placed closer together, in order that the detonation from a nearby hole would explode those which would otherwise have failed to go off. Stringent rules and regulations for the handling, storage and use of dynamite were also introduced and enforced to minimize the danger. But no rules or regulations could prevent all accidents without cooperation of the men engaged on the work. Thi impossibility was forcibly demonstrated in the ca e of a Spanish laborer who, becoming impatient at the IQwness of a negro helper, started to knock the_ cover off of a box of blasting caps with a machete. It is hardly necessary to say that he did not complete the work assigned to him. In dredging operations, subaqueous or under water blasting is employed. Drill boats, like the one in the picture, sink the holes in connection with this work. In making the nece ar hole for the charges, tripod and well drills, ob taining their power from a compressed air main, were used. At one time there were a man a 377 of the e drills at work in the Cut, and they were operated in batteries of from four to 12 drills. The u ual depth of the hole drilled was about 27 feet, placed about 14 feet apart, and if all the drill hole necessary for the work were placed end to end, they would equal the length of the earth's diameter from pole to pole with 1,500 miles added. After the holes had been drilled they were widened at the bottom, or "sprung," b a small charge being exploded in them. After sufficient time had elapsed to allow the holes to cool, they were charged and wired. All bla ting took place after the men had left the work for lunch or in the evening and at tho e times a naval engagement could be easily imagined by tho e living anywhere in the vicinity. At Porto Bello, where much powder wa u ed in the quarrying of rock a series of blast took place at one time when a British war vessel was passing close to the entrance of the harbor. Hearing what was thought to be the discharge of an Admiral's salute, the cruiser returned the suppo ed courtesy by dipping its flag. [ ] 3 ]

PAGE 196

In the Pacific entrance dynamite was emplo yed in subaqueous blasting, two drill barges being used to make the n ecessa r y h o l es In a ddition to break ing up hard material for the dredges in this sect i o n the use of d ynamite under water kept many of those employed in the vicinity suppli e d with fresh fis h for some time. Tho e whose employment neces itated their going out in boats con idered themselve particularl y fortunate. On one occasion, a private me ss of Canal employe was kept supplied with fi h as lon g as suc h a di e t could be endured by it members. SLIDE -ELOQU E I T ARGUMENT AGAINST SEA LEVEL PROJECT The greatest difficu lt y in the excavat ion of Culebra Cut has been caused by slides which have from time to time precipitated great rna ses of earth and rock into the Canal pri m burying steam shove l s and dirt trains, tearing up dirt train tracks, and closing up the drainage ditch. There h ave been 22 slides and break at different times covering from one to 75 acres. These have added Towing dynamite to the drill boat Teredo. about 25,000,000 cubic yard, o r about one-quarter of the estimated total of excavation necessary in the Cut. The l arges t and most tro uble so me of these is the Cucaracha s lid e on the east bank of the Cut at Culebra, which started in 1887 when the French were at work. When the Americans s t arted operations in 1 905, this s lid e again became acti ve and, as the Cut deepened at this point, it continued to develop. Gold Hill presents a solid rock face 482 feet above the Canal bottom between Cucaracha s lid e and a s lide imme diatel y north. These two slides have broken so far back that the s lope on their outer edges is away from the Canal. This has led to the introduction of h y draulic monitors which are engaged in s lui cing the material from the top of the s lides into the valley in the rear of Gold Hill, in order to reduce the pres ure from above. Another serious slide occurred on the west bank of the Canal at Culebra covering an area of 75 acre, and necessitating the removal of about 10 000 000 cubic yard of material. This s lid e made necessary the removal of many buildings of the village of Culebra which were situated near the edge of the Cut. The re are two classe of lid es One, s imilar to Cucaracha, is caused by the s lipping of clay and earth on a mooth l oping urface of a h arder material. The othe r, c ommonly called a "break," imilar to the one which involved the [ 1 4 ]

PAGE 197

village at Culebra, is caused by the steepness of the s lope and the great pre sure of the superincumbent material upon the underlying layers of softer material. Besides luicing, steam shovels excavated a great amount of material from the tops to relieve the pressure, and the Cut was terraced to prevent a part of the material in the slides from going over into the Canal pri m. Many schemes were proposed to prevent slides, one, the use of a cement gun to spray the sides of the Cut where tIle mass of stone became brittle and crumbled on exposure to the air, but, as Colonel Gaillard said in November, 1912: "The only succe ful method of treatino' the lides or breaks, once the material i s in motion, i to dig A subaqueous blast in progress in the Pacific entrance to the Canal. As high as 10,000 pounds of dynamite are shot off in a single blast of this kind. it out and haul it away until the slide comes to rest upon r aching the angle of repo e for the particular material then in motion." No difficulty is anticipated with slide now that water ha been let into the Cut a the back pressure of the water i expected to result in greater tability. "\rVhat material remains in the slides in the prism will be handled by the dredge, which will continue their work until the "angle of repose" ha been reached. The lides have caused an immense amount of extra excavation and many delay in the work, but they have demonstrated the fact that a sea l eve l Canal requiring a Cut 85 feet deeper than it now i would be nearly impo sib l e to accompli h. It i believed that the slides would have prevented the carrying out of a ea level project, except at an enormou expense. [ 1 5 ]

PAGE 198

0'---_____ ..... The sea going suction dredge Culebra, shown above, with its sister vessel, the Caribbean, constitute the most expensive units in the Commission's dredging fleet. These vessels move up and down the channel, sucking up the mud and loose material, conveying it into their own hoppers. When the hoppers are filled, the vessels go out to sea and empty. The suction dredges were used to advantage in the fill at Gatun Dam. Several of the old French dredges were repaired and used by the Americans. [ 1 6 ]

PAGE 199

:-... Suction dredge No. 82, removing silt from the channel north of Gamboa dike. This was the first dredge put to work in the Gatun Lake section -.. A dipper dredge at work in the Canal. The material is dumped into the barge along side the dredge, and when full the barge is towed out to sea and emptied. The Corozal, the newest and most modern ladder dredge in the Canal service. It is equipped with five yard buckets and can dig to 45 feet below mean sea level. [ 1 7 ]

PAGE 200

Part of Miraflores lock site and the Canal channel to the south of it were excavated hydraulically. This view shows one of the hydraulic pumps forcing the water through pipes, fitted with monitors, with a pressure of 130 pounds per square inch at the nozzle, which washes the material into pits or sumps. After the material has been loosened and washed into the sumps, centrifugal dredging pumps, shown here, force the material to the desired destination. Many acres have been reclaimed near Corozal by utilizing this excavated material. [1 ]

PAGE 201

The upper picture shows a view of the Canal looking north from Paraiso bridge toward Gold Hill, showing work progressing in the Canal, August, 1908. The center picture is a view looking south from the same point, 1908, Ancon Hill in the distance. In the lower picture taken the same year, the Canal i shown near Empire. The suspension bridge near Empire may be seen in the distance. [ 1 9 ]

PAGE 202

Paraiso in the French days. This was the site of one of the locks in the 10-lock Canal scheme when the French were at work. On April 23, 1904, the United States made the memorable purchase at $40,000,000, and on May 4, 1904, the property was turned over to the Americans. Paraiso in the days of American occupancy, showing Ancon Hill in the distance. The cranes which are also visible, show the beginning of the work at Pedro Miguel Lock. The French had none of the big tools, up-to-date machinery, steam shovels, cranes, etc., but with the equipment which they had they took out 78,000,000 cubic yards of spoil, of which 30,000,000 cubic yards was useful to the Americans. [ 190 ]

PAGE 203

The Cut at Bas Obispo looking south June 30, 1910. The greater part of the excavating in this section had to be done through solid rock, and thousands of pounds of dynamite were used. It was in this section that the premature explosion occurred in 1908. Steam shovel 218 buried under fall of rock, west side of Canal, near Las Cascadas. This shovel was working on the bottom of the canal when destroyed, May 31, 1912. Several steam shovels have been destroyed in this manner and a number of men injured and killed. [ 191 J

PAGE 204

A close view of the suspension bridge across the Canal near Empire. This bridge is used for vehicles and foot passengers, but will be taken down when the Canal is completed. There will be no bridge aross the Canal, except the pontoon bridge near Paraiso, which will be swung over against the east side of the Canal when not in use. Ninety-five ton steam shovel at work in Culebra Cut. One hundred steam shovels have been used in the Canal work. Culebra Cut is a term officially applied to that part of the Canal between Bas Obispo on the north and Pedro Miguel on the south, a distance of about nine miles. The width of the Cut is 300 feet at the bottom. [ 192 ]

PAGE 205

.. A typical street scene in the native village at Chorera, Panama. On account of the mild climate, which prevails the entire year, the only protection needed is from the suo and torrential rains. The thatched roofs give ample protection to the natives who inhabit them.

PAGE 207

[] "I CANAL FLOODED AT BAS OBISPO r .... I L_ J IT j r L.J A great many difficulties have been encountered and overcome in building the Canal. The greatest difficulty in the excavating, was due to slides and breaks, which closed the drainage ditches, upset the steam shovels, and covered the tracks. The water that was not carried off by the diversion channels, entered the Cut, necessitating pumping.

PAGE 208

The side of the Cut at Gold Hill, where the deepest cutting was done. When this photograph was taken the steam shovels had 30 feet further to go at this point. [ 104 )

PAGE 209

Culebra Cut near Culebra village, as it appeared October I, 1912. You will note in the picture the manner of terracing the sides of the Cut. This was done as a preventive measure against the slides.

PAGE 210

In the rainy season, two streams of considerable size originally crossed the route of the Canal in the Culebra Cut section, one of which was the Camacho River, now called the Camacho diversion. To prevent these streams from flooding the Cut, new channels were dug, paralleling the banks of the Canal, through which their flows were diverted. In this case it was necessary to dig a tunnel, which is shown above, to conduct the water through the hill. Culebra Cut looking south from Gold and Contractor's Hills taken at a time when the Cut was practically free of material brought in by Cucaracha slide. If)()

PAGE 211

Loaded work train crossing the high trestle over the Canal at Paraiso. This bridge, known as No. is to be taken down as soon as the pontoon bridge a little above this point is constructed, as it obstructs navigation of the Canal. Section of Culebra Cut in the vicinity of Las Cascadas after completion. V arious small slides have occurred all along the banks in this part of the Canal. [ ] 97 )

PAGE 212

Completed section of Culebra Cut looking north from Cunette. Steam shovels are excavating in slide material. Bottom is to grade. Culebra Cut between Gold and Contractor's Hills after the removal of construction tracks. (19 ]

PAGE 213

Culebra Cut, south of Cucaracha slide, after the channel began to fill Railroad crossing at Paraiso in the distance. lose view of high rock bank of Culebra Cut after the water was let in. The thin white line about midway up the bank to the right marks the ultimate water level. [ 199 ]

PAGE 214

General view of engine house and yard at Paraiso in 1906. This yard was dismantled several years ago, and yards were established at Pedro Miguel and Las Cascadas. Engine house and yard at Las Cascadas. A very busy scene was presented in the morning when a hundred or more of the engines were leaving the yard to begin their daily work of pulling dirt trains out of the Cut to the dumping grounds. [ 200 ]

PAGE 215

.,J o The most modern machinery that brains could invent, or money buy, has been used on the Canal work. In many cases the practical knowledge of the Canal engineers has been applied to various machines after purchase, with the result that a higher degree of efficiency has been obtained from them than their manufacturers guaranteed. Among the several inventions induced by the Canal work, is the track shifting machine, hown above, which lifts a section of the track, including the ties, with one motion, and by another, throws it from three to nine feet to one side. This machine does the work of several hundred men.

PAGE 216

Men shifting track. The old way before the track shifting machine was invented, and put into use. Revolving steam shovel. A few of these machines were used to advantage, but larger ones were used for the heavy work. Rock channeler at work. These machines were used in Pedro Miguel Lock, where the natural foundation was hard trap rock. They cut grooves into this rock to the required depth for the installation of the floor culverts, after which the material was blasted loose, the aim being not to disturb the rock between the culvert trenches. They were also used in the Canal near Bas Obispo where the excavation was through solid rock. [ 2 0 2 ]

PAGE 217

Locomotive cranes were a useful adjunct to the Canal work. This one is operating a clamshell bucket, so named from its resemblance to the bivalve. The American machine which moves mountains. One of the 100 steam shovels engaged in the Canal work, holding in its dipper a rock of many tons' weight. With the advent of these machines King Yardage became a household word in the Canal Zone. The American operators take a personal pride in their work, and the world's record for steam shovel excavation is said to be held on the Isthmus. [ 2 0 3 )

PAGE 218

Excavated material is transported in several kinds of cars, one of which is the Western Dump Car, shown in the picture. In some of the cars, the body is held upright by a chain grip, which, when released, allows the body to tip, emptying the contents. Others are dumped by air. An unloading machine at work on a train of Lidgerwood flat cars. The unloader, actuated by steam from the locomotive, pulls the plow by a steel cable which coils around a drum. A man rides the plow, and signals the movements with a flag. [ 204 ]

PAGE 219

An earth spreader at work. After the cars have been unloaded, an earth spreader comes along and levels off the ground. In order to dispose of the material from the Cut, large dump.> had to be established. The site of this one, known as Miraflores dump, was formerly a swamp, but it has now been built up to a height of more than 40 feet. A large amount of the excavated material was used in building the Dam at Gatun and the Nao I land breakwater on the Pa ific side. The spoil from Culebra Cut ha been carried all the wa from fi e to twenty-four miles. [ 205 ]

PAGE 220

A loaded train of Lidgerwood flat cars coming out of the Cut at Pedro Miguel. During the latter part of the excavation, the Cut was at such a depth below the surrounding levels that long inclines had to be built, up which the dirt trains were pulled by two and three locomotives. Two wrecking cranes picking up a steam shovel. These machines range in capacity from 15 to 100 tons, and are kept under steam day and night, ready for any emergency in the transportation ser vice. [ 2 06 ]

PAGE 221

Power stations are situated at various points along the Canal to furnish power to the electrically-operated machinery, as well as to light the Canal Zone settlements. The building shown in the picture is the Miraflores station which supplied powe r to the construction machinery at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks. It is an oil-burning plant but can be converted to a steam plant at any time. Many of the industrial plants and all passenger locomotives are equipped with oil burners. The corral at Ancon. Corrals are located at all of the Zone settle m ents, and the r e are about 650 animals in the Canal service, including 377 mule. The majority of the m w e r e brought from the United States, and all hay and feed comes from the States. [ 207 J

PAGE 222

The immense amount of machinery used on the Canal work required exceptionally complete repair facilities. This is the Gorgona shops, the largest on the Canal, where repairs were made to every kind of equipment, except steam shovels, from clocks to locomotives. These shops have been dismantled and moved as the waters of the Gatun Lake will cover this site. The permanent repair shops will be located at Balboa. Repair shops at Empire, showing the native village in the background. All major repairs to steam shovels were made at these shops. Steam shovels were inspected daily and the minor repairs were done in the field. r ]

PAGE 223

Many slides have developed during the latter part of the Canal work which have caused a great deal of damage and the excavation of much more material than was formerly estimated. This view shows a break on the west bank at Culebra which encroached on the village of Culebra to such an extent that it was necessary to move a large number of buildings, including the hotel and Y. M. C. A. Clubhouse. A break in the east bank of the Canal near Bas Obispo. This was caused by high water in the diversion channel, which broke through the separation wall, carrying into the Canal over lilO,OOO cubic yards of material, and flooding it for some distance. The disastrous effect on the railroad is clearly shown. r 209

PAGE 224

This shows where the slides on either bank have encroached upon the prism of the Canal to such an extent as to almost effect a closure. Telling e ffect s of the slide in the west bank at Culebra. Most of this has now been cleared away, and the d a nger of similar trouble at this point has largely passed, because of the method adopted o f terracing the upper levels to relieve the weight on the banks.

PAGE 225

Cucaracha slide before the destruction of Gamboa dike. Some of these movements of material into the Cut are designated slides; others are called breaks. The one at Cucaracha typifies the normal or gravity slide.

PAGE 226

Steam shovels working in the slide at Cucaracha. This slide showed evidence of activity as far back as 1887, when the French were at work on the Canal, and has been a source of trouble ever since. This graphica ll y portrays the result of a slide which has nearly buried a steam shovel. Colonel Gaillard, the Division Engineer, in charge of operations in Culebra Cut said: "I know of no single thing that has done so much to complicate the engineering problems of our work or to hinder and curtail the yardage output as the slides." Colonel George W. Goethals, Chairman and Chief Engineer, said: "Th e only way to overcome the slides is by unremitting excavation." [ 212 J

PAGE 227

J Panama anal Act, which" a igned b ex-President Taft on Augu t provide for the opening, maintenance, protection, and operation of the Canal, and th anitation and o'overnment of the Canal Zone. Authority i inve ted in th Pre ident to carry out its provi ion at uch time a condition warrant. "'hile the law provide for the future of the Canal in ofar a it need are now apparent, it i probable that situation will eventually ari e requiring it modification in orne re pect but the main object, that of tran fen-ina the O'reat enterpri e from the con truction to the operating, tage will be attained. ACQ"CI OF PRIVATE L ND Ex-Pre ident Taft, by Executive Order dated December 5, declared that all land and land und r water within the limit of the Canal Zone were nec ar. for the construction, maintenance, operation, protection and sanita tion of the Panama Canal, and authorized Colonel Goethal to take po e ion of uch land on behalf of the United tate. In the hearing befor the Senate ommitte on Interoceanic Canals, prior to the pa sage, by the, enate, of the Act of Augu t Colonel Goethal. went on record in favor of the depopulation of the anal Zone, and the acqui it ion of all private land therein, a follow: Senator Bri 'to,,: "'Vhat "'ould y u do with the peopl you have got there (meaning Canal Z ne), now?" Colon I Goethal : "I would drive them all out of there." enator Bri tow: "Drive them off ?" Colonel Goethal: "Ye, ir; the bulk of the people that are there now ar incident to the anal, and as the Canal work i compI t d I would return them to their native i land, r to Europe, wh r y I' th Y cam from originally." enator Bri tow: "Now, would 'ou let thi lO-mile strip TOW up into jungle ?" Col nel Goethals: "Ye, iI', it i the greate t afeguard the Canal can have." Senat enemy t r Bri tow: "You think that it would not b practicabl for an crete him elf in the jungle and approach the vital part f th anal r 213 ]

PAGE 228

through the jungle more easily than through an inhabited country." Colonel Goethal s: "I am assumin g that the Canal i s properly defended by the American troops, and that the nece a r y saf eguards have been provided to prevent any such attack; under those conditi ons it would be impo ss ibl e." Senator Bri tow: "'VeIl, if that i s impo ss ibl e, then why s hould the inhabitants on the Zone be a menace ?" Colonel Goethals: "In that they can give information. They will clear the land and leave open spaces and enable larger force to concentrate against us than i s possible with the jungle." Article 6 of the Canal Treat y of February 26, 1904, provides that all damage caused to the owner of private l ands or property of any kind shall be apprai s d and ettl ed by a joint comlni ss ion appointed by the Governments Joint Land Commission as organized on March 1 1913. Left to right-Hon. Samuel Lewis, Dr. Roland P. Falkner, Mr. J. C. Luitwieler, Secretary (standing), Dr. Federico Boyd, Dr. Leo S. Rowe. of the United States and 'Panama, whose decisions as to s u c h damages shall be final, and whose awards s h all be paid so le l y by the United States. Under this prov i sion there have been four different commiss ions, but the mo s t important is the last to which was delegated the d e licat e task of adjudicating the remainder of the private lands in the Canal Zon e in accordance with the Executive Order of December 5, 1912. The American members of this commission, Dr. Roland P. Falkner of Washington, D. C., and Dr. L. S Rowe of the Univer it y of Penn y lvania, were appointed by ex-Pres ident Taft on J anua r y 24, 1913. The Panamanian members, appointed by Pre ident Porras of Panama, were Mr. Samuel Lewis, and Dr. Federico Boyd, both prominent in local affairs. The commission met on March 1, 1913, adopted rul of procedui'e, and began its hearings, whi 11 will probably not be concluded until some time in 1914 r 214 ]

PAGE 229

Visitors inspecting the work on the locks at Pedro Miguel. Thousands of tourists have visited the Canal during the last few years, including people in every walk of life from the States, as well as committees from almost every nation on the globe. "Big Tree," a well-known landmark formerly on the banks of the Chagres River at Gorgona. Was dynamited in August, 1913, so as not to become an obstruction to navigation. r 215 ]

PAGE 230

At the outset, the commission was confronted with the precedent establi shed by former commi ion s, which did not recognize the rights of occupiers on lands, but dealt only with the owners. This position wa abandoned by the present commi ss i on, which has made award to the occupiers as well as to the owners. The award appear to be uniformly-satisfactory to claimant, although there has been orne complaint of the delay in making settl ement. Opinions have been handed down from time to time and in the main have been favorable to the claimants. The ri se of Gatun Lake made it nece ssary to take up the claims of private r esident in that sect ion fir t. Thi part of the work was practically compl eted in August, 1913, although payments of some of the awards have heen held up, due to prote t from the Counsel of the United States, who A group of East Indian laborers in the Canal service. Those sitting, are directly in front of an elbow in one of the great lock wall culverts. claimed that in these particular cases the commission acted without jurisdiction. The point at i ss ue has been referred to the Attorney General of the United States for decision. It i s impos ible to arrive at a close e timate of the total amount to be awarded in damages, but it may be as much as severa l million dollars in case all private land i purcha ed. The work of the commis ion a l so covers the adjudication of land inundate d by Gatun Lake outside the boundaries of the Canal Zone within the 100-foot contour line. Dr. Rowe re igned in September, 1913, to re ume his work at the Univer it y of Pennsy lvani a TOLL In accordance with the power conferred upon him b y the Canal Act of Augu. t 24, 1912, Pre id ent Taft, on November 14 1912 anticipating the [ 2 16 ]

PAGE 231

A sightseeing, or "rubber neck" train, which is taken over the Canal work three times each week. Every facility has been given tourists to view the operations. About 75,000 people have visited the Canal since January 1, 1910. Isthmian Elks taking a trip through the Canal April 20, 1913. Note the striking background. [ 217 ]

PAGE 232

earl y opening of the Canal proclaimed the following rates of tolls to be paid by vesse l s using it: 1. On lnerchant vessels carrying passengers or cargo, $1.20 per net vessel ton-each 100 cubic feet-of actual earning capacity. 2. On vessels in ballast, without passengers or cargo, 40 per cent. less than the rate of tolls for vessels with passengers or cargo. 3. Upon naval vesse ls, other than transpo rts, colliers, ho s pital ships and supply ships, 50 cents per displacement ton 4. Upon Army and Navy transports, colliers, hospital ships and supply ships, $1.20 per net ton, the vessels to be measured by the same rules as are employed in determining the net tonnage of merchant ve sse ls. The provi ion exemptin g American vessels in the coastwise trade from the payment of tolls brought forth a protest from the British Government on the ground that it was a violation of the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, which provides "That the Canal shall be free and open to the ves se ls of commerce and of war of all nations on terms of entire equality, so that there shall be no discrimination against any nation in respect to the condition or charges of traffic." To many, the granting of free t olls to American ships in the coastwise trade would not seem to be discriminating against s hip s of foreign nations, which are not allowed by l aw to engage in that trade. Great Britian, however points out that cargo intended for United States ports beyond the Canal, either from east or west, shipped on a foreign vessel, could be sent to its destination more cheaply, through the operation of this exemp tion, by landing it at a United States port before reaching the Canal and then sending it on as coastwise traffic. Then, too, goods might be shipped from a port in the United States, either from east Showing group of Hindoos in khaki, puttees, and turbans, waiting to greet the visiting Shriners from the United States. [ 2 1 ]

PAGE 233

or west, through the Canal, and then re-shipped to a foreign port. The British view, therefore, is that if it were po sible to regulate the coastwise traffic so that cases similar to the above might be avoided; in other words, that only bonafide coastwise trade be benefited by the exemption, the objection would be removed. Procession of Nobles of Mystic Shrine after disembarking at Colon. A delegation of about 150 Shriners from the United States visited the Isthmus and on Sept. I, 1913, initiated a class of 170 candidates in the locks at Miraflores. On l\1arch 5, 1914, President ,;Vilson in a special message to congress demanded the repeal of the objectionable clause and a bill for repeal wa imme diately introduced. After one of the hardest fought battles, noted for its lively and often acrimonious debates, the repeal act "vas finally passed on June 12, 1914, the text being as follows: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of" Representative of the United States of America, in congress assembled, That the second sentence, jn section 5 of the act entitl ed, "An act to provide for the opening, maintenance, protec tion and operation of the Panama Canal and the sanitation and government of the Canal zone," approved August 24, 1912, which reads as follows: "No tolls shall be levied upon vessels engaged in the coastwise trade of the United States," be and the same is hereby repealed. Sec. 2. That the third sentence of the third paragraph of said section of said act, be so amended as to read as follows: "When based upon net registered tonnage for ships of commerce, the tolls shall not exceed $1.25 per net regis tered ton, nor be less than 75 cents per net registered ton, subject, however, to the provision of article 19 of the convention between the United States and the republic of Panama, entered into November 18, 1903." Provided, That the passage of this act not be construed or held as a [219 ]

PAGE 234

The Author at Slifer Park, Colon. waiver of any right the United States may have under the treaty with Great Britain, ratified February 21, 1902, or the treaty with the republic of Panama, ratified February 26, 1904, or otherwise to discriminate in favor of its yes els by exempting the vessels of the I T nited States or its citizens from the parment of tolls for passage through said Canal, or as in any way impairing or affecting any l'ight of the U i:lited States under said trea ty, or otherwi e with respect to the overeignty over or the ownership, control and management of said canal and the regulation of the conditions or charges of traffic through the same. (Approved June 15,1914.) PROTECT! G THE CAN"\L One of the principal objection to Canal fortification when Congre first took action was that the United tate might be violating it treaties with Great Britain. The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 gave the United States the right to con truct the Canal, but provided that the completed waterway should be Cristobal Point looking out over the Atlantic entrance to the Canal. The building to the left is one of the old DeLesseps houses, now used for offices by the Canal Commission. [ 220 ]

PAGE 235

unfortified and forever remain neutral, free and open to vessels of commerce and of war of all nation on terms of equality. This treaty was abrogated in 1901 by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, now in force. This treaty also provides for the neutralization of the Canal, but no word is said as to fortifying it. The objection, if there wa any, i no longer ustainable, masmuch a Great Britain, the only nation that had any right to object, has acquiesced in the erection of forts. The other great power have constantly recognized the right and neces s it y of the United States to fortify Under the exi ting treaty it i neces ary that the Canal be kept neutral and open on term of equality to ve el of all nations. It has been contended that this could be accomplished much more effectively by means of an international treaty between the nation intere ted who would guarantee it safety in time of war a in time of peace. Such a treaty, backed by England' enormous naval power and her control of the l\lediterranean and Red Seas, is the protection of the Suez Canal. A similar treaty might avail for the United States under condition of univer al peace, but univer al peace ha not yet been attained. Nations continue to go to war in pite of tt'eatie and, in the heat of conflict, frequently ignore all law both of u age and humanity. Treaties are effective when there is power to enforce them. To maintain neutrality then, it i argued that the United State must have the power to do 0, and in no better place can that power b exerci ed than in fort on the Canal. One of the greatest benefit the United States expects to get from the Canal i s increa ed naval effectivene The Canal would naturally be the fir t place an enemy would endeavor to control, treaty or no treaty; and the other power to a treaty, if there were any, would ither tand aloof, or take id in the internationa l struggle which mi ht result. The Canal is being built by American with American money and kill. If it i to remain to America, it must be protected; streno'th to re i tithe best form of protection. To maintain neutrality is the first object of the fortifications; the second is to retain to the United State what has been accompli hed by its citizen Keeping the Canal neutral doe not mean that the United State will be COffi-Wall scaling contest between men of the U. S. Marine Corps and the Tenth Infantry, U. S. A. A Fourth of July event. [ 221 ]

PAGE 236

pelled to keep it open to a foe in pursuit of her own ships, or allow hostile ships to pass through on their way to blockade or bombard an American city. These que tions have been settled to the extent that Congress has appropriated, up to June 23, 1913, a total of $10,676,950 for the protection of the Canal. The Government has already constructed two immense forts-one at each end of the Canal. On each of these forts is mounted one 16-inch gun-the ,largest guns ever built in the world-and they were made in America. In addition there are 14-inch guns and a substantiai battery of 12-inch howitzers. The 16inch guns throw a shell weighing 2400 pounds a distance of 17 miles and will pierce any armor plate at a distance of over 11 miles. On the Pacific side the islands of N ao Culebra, Perico, and Flamenco ar being fortified and form one re ervation, while, on the mainland at Balboa, a second reservation will be A military force has been maintained in the Canal Zone ever since American occupancy. This is Camp Elliott, which occupies a commanding site near Bas Obispo, the headquarters for the local detachment of the United States Marine Corps. e tablished. On the Atlantic side there will be a fort on l\1argarita Point, about a mile north of Manzanillo Island, on which Colon is situated; another on Toro Point across the bay from Colon, and one on the mainland at Colon. In the neighborhood of the locks, those at Gatun, seven miles inland, and those at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel, inland nine and eleven miles, respectively, there will be located field defenses to provide again t attack by landing forces. This work is being done under the direction of Lieut. George R. Goethals, the elder son of Col. George W. Goethals, the builder of the Canal. It is planned to keep on the I thmu 12 companies of coa t artillery, one battery of field artillery, four regiment of infantry, on squadron of cavalry, and on batallion of marine. The forts, and hatterie comprising them, have be n named, as follow. : A t the terminus-Fort Grant and Fort Amador, thc first located on [ 222 ]

PAGE 237

the group of i land in the bay, in honor of Gen. Uly ses S Grant, U. S. A., who died on July 23, 1885, and the econd, located on the mainland at Balboa, in honor of Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero, first president of the Republic of Panama, who died on l\lay 2, 1909. At the Atlantic t erminus-Fort Sherman, Fort Randolph, and Fort De Lessep the first, in honor of Gen. William T. Sherman, U. S. A., who died on February 14, 1881, the second, in honor of Maj. Gen. Geo. Wallace F.Randolph, U. S. A., who died September 9, 1910, and the third, in honor of Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, promoter of the Panama Canal, who died December 7, 1894. A street in the marine camp showing the barracks. Much work has been done by the men in beautifying the grounds, and this picture shows the result of their efforts. Fort herman will be locat d on Toro Point, Fort Randolph on l\largarita Point, and Fort De Le sep on the mainland at olon. FORT GR.\.NT l\IILIT.\'RY RE 'ERVATION Battery Newton, in honor of l\laj. Gen. John Newton, U. Volunteer (Brigadier General, hief of Engin r, U. S. A.), who died l\lay 1, 1895. Battc1'Y in hon r f l\faj. Gen. '" e ley l\Ierritt, U. A., who di d December 3, 1910. Battery a?"?", in h n r of Brevt. l\laj. G n. Jo Bradford Carr, ( Brig. G n. U. Y L .), who died Feb. 24, 1895. Batte 'ry P'J"ince, in honor of Brig. Gen. Harry Prince, U. S. Yol (Lieut. Col. U. S. A.), who died AuO'ust 19, 1892. Battc1'Y Wa'r1'en, in honor of l\faj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, U. S. Vol.. (Lieut nant olonel, orp. of EnginC' r 1. A.), who di d Augu t 8, lRR2. [ 223 ]

PAGE 238

In 1911 the War Department decided to send a regiment of infantry to the Isthmus. This is their camp, known as Camp Otis, near Las Cascadas. Camp life at Camp Otis. [ 224 ]

PAGE 239

Battery Buell, in honor of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, U. S. Vol. (Colonel Assistant Adjutant General, U. S. A.), who died November 19 1898. B attery BUTnside, in honor of Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burns ide, U. S. Vols. (Fir t Lieutenant, Third U. S. Artillery), who died September 13 1881. Batte1'Y PaTke, in honor of Maj. Gen. John G. Parke, U. S. Vol. (Colonel, Corps of U. S. A.), who died December 16, 1900. FORT AMADOR l\IILITARY RESERVATION Batte ry mith, in honor of l Vlaj. Gen, Charles F. Smith, U. S, \ 01 (Colonel, Third U. Infantry), who died April 25, 1862, FORT SHERl\I N l\lILITARY RESERVATION Howa?'d, in honor of l\Iaj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, U. A" who died October 26, 1909. Naos Island, one of the islands in Panama Bay belonging to the United States, which is being fortified. The island is connected to the mainland by a breakwater. Batte?'y Baird, in honor of Brig Gen. Ab a lom Baird, who di d June 14, 190 5. Batte1'y Stanley, in honor of l\laj. Gen. David Stanley, U. Yol ( Bri gadier General, U. A.), who died l\Iarch 13, 1902. Batte?'y ]lowe1', in honor of l\Iaj. Gen. Jo eph A. Mower, U. S. Yol (Colonel; Twenty -fifth Infantry), who died January 6, 1870. Batte?'y K ilpatTiclt in honor of l\Iaj. Gen. Jud on Kilpatrick U. S. Yol (Captain, Fir t Artiller)), who died December 2, 1881. FORT RANDOLPH l\lILITARY RESERVATION BatteTY Tidball, in honor of Brig. G n. John C. Tidball, U. S. A., who died May 15 1906. Batte?'y Zalinski, in honor of Maj. Gen. Edward Lewis Zalinski, (5th U. S. Artiller ), who died l\iarch 10, 1909. Battery Webb, in honor of Br vet l\iaj. Gen. Alexander S. vVebb, U. A. (Li ut nant Ion I 44th S. Infantry), who died February 12, 1911. [ 2..,.5 ]

PAGE 240

Battery Weed, in honor of Brig. Gen. Stephen H. Weed, U. S. Volunteers (Captain 5th U. S. Artillery), who was killed in action, July 2, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. FORT D E LESSEPS MILITARY RESERVATION Battery Morgan, in honor of Brig. Gen. Charles H. Morgan, U. S. Volun teers (Major, 4th Artillery), who died December 20, 1875. BREAKW ATERS To protect Co l on h arbol' from the violent northers which occasionally occur during the winter months, and which often made it un safe for vessels to lie at anchor while they were in progress, and also to reduce to a minimum the amount of s ilt that may be washed into the Canal channel, a breakwater extending in a northeasterly direction from Toro Point has been built out into the bay. Including its shore connections it is 11,700 feet, or a little over two miles lon g It i s a tres tle fill, and contains about 2,840,000 cubic yards Toro Point, at the Atlantic entrance to the Canal, which is being fortified. of rock. An embankment was first built up to within 15 feet of the surface of the water and the piles for the trestle were driven through this fill. From the trestle, which was double tracked for nearly its entire length, rock quarried at Toro Point and excavated from the Canal prism was dumped to form a core. This core was then armored with hard rock brought from the quarries at Porto Bello. The breakwater is 15 feet wide on the top, and is about 10 feet above mean sea l evel. It i s proposed to build an east breakwater, about 7,000 feet long, on the opposite side of Limon Bay extending out from Coco Solo Point. On the Pacific side, a breakwater extends from Balboa to Naos Island, nearly parallel to the Canal channel, for a distance of about 17,000 feet, or a little more than three miles. Like the Toro Point breakwater, it i s a trestle fill. It is practically a continuati on o f the B a lboa dump, and contains about 18, 000 000 cu bic yard of earth and rock taken fr om Culebra Cut. It varies from 20 to 40 [ 226 ]

PAGE 241

Naos Island breakwater, showing fill extending out from the mainland. A total of 474 acres had been reclaimed from the ocean at this point up to June, 19l3. Practically all the material for the fill came from Culebra Cut. It is designed to cut off a cross current, which has carried a large amount of mud and silt into the Canal channel. In addition, it will serve as a causeway connecting the islands, and the fortifications thereon with the mainland.

PAGE 242

feet in height above Inean ea level, and i from 50 to 3,000 feet wide at the top. A breakwater is not nece ary at this point a a protection against storms to the harbor at Balboa, but it erves to divert a w ift cross -current that would carry oft material from the shallow harbor of Panama into the Canal channel. It Toro Point breakwater. In order to protect the Cristobal docks and the Atlantic entrance to the Canal from heavy seas, a breakwater has been built out from Toro Point, on the opposite side of Limon Bay. It is over two miles long, and is armored with large rock brought from Porto Bello. also forms a rail connection between the mainland and the i s land where work on the fortification required the trans fer of much construction material. Under the conce ion from Co lombia under wh i c h the Panama R a ilroad oper ated, and which wa tran ferred to the Republic of Panama, it was stipulated that the group of i l ands, of which N aos is one, should be connected by rail with the mainland, and the completion of the breakwater has se r ved to fulfill thi condition. LIGHTING THE CANAL Due to the compl ete system of aids to navigation which i s being in s talled throughout its entire length s hip s will be abl e to pass through the Canal as well by night as by day. In the whole Canal there are 22 angles, e i ght of which are in Culebra Cut, and in order that hips can make the proper turns at thes e tangent, range lights, beacon and li ghted buoys a re being placed. The range light towers are l ocated on the l onger tangents, and consi t of two lights p l aced one behind the other, in order to prolong the a iling lin e until the proper moment for making the turn. They are ituated on l and, and it i necessary to keep t1'ochas cleared of jungl e grow th, which, if left alone, wo uld oon obscure the lights. The towers are of reinforced concrete and of everal different de s igns; the more elaborate tructures will be u ed on the Gatun locks, and in the Atlantic and Pacific sections, wher they are cIo er to the ailing lin es of the vessels. In ('ttlebl'a Cut, wlH'r range li ghts ('annot he lIsed to advantage on account of thc height of Lh banks, hca ons h ave b ee n placed thl' e at eac h angle; between [ 228 ]

PAGE 243

One of the lighting towers under construction. These towers will be equipped with powerful Jigh ts. Lighthouse at Toro Point which is maintained by the Panamanian Government. [ 22 9 ]

PAGE 244

An avenue of lamp posts on Locks. Lighting tower in the distance. Close view of lighthouse on Gatun Locks. The Locks will be brilliantly lighted at night. The signal tower at Colon, by moonlight. [ ]

PAGE 245

these there are intermediate beacons in pairs, one on each s id e of the Canal. The beacons are also built of concrete. Throughout the Canal entrances, and Gatun and l\1iraflores Lakes, lighted buoys are placed about one mile apart to mark each side of the channel. At the Atlantic entrance there i s a light and fog signal station at the end of the west breakwater, and there will be another lighthouse on the east breakwater when that is completed. Acetylene gas and electricity are u ed in all lights, the latter where the light.s are conveniently acce sible. The candlepower of the range li ghts will vary, according to the length of the range, from about 12,000 to 300,000 candl e power. The mo t powerful lights will be those marking the Atlantic and Pacific entrances, visible from 12 to 18 statute miles. Mr. W. F. Beyer, ass is-The site of the proposed harbor and terminal works at Balboa. Here, immense sQ.ops, and a dry dock capable of accommodating any ship that can use the Canal locks will be built. The work on shops and harbor has been begun. tant engineer in the office of the A i stant Chief Engineer, i in charge of the work of the Lighthouse ubdivi ion PORT FACILITIES The amount of traffic that will require terminal facilities after the opening of the anal i problematical. The Canal Commis ion howev er, ha based it s plan on a liberal e timate, and work is in progress on new docks at Cristobal and Balboa. The facilitie at Cristobal con i st of three new pi r Nos. 15, 16 and 17, with a total water frontage of 3,890 feet, in addition to 378 feet frontage at the h ad of the slip for small boat, and are of s ufficient s ize to pro vide b rthag for five vessels of 10,000 ton each at one time. Dock 15 426 feet long, i the mallest of the three, and i virtually an exten ion of Dock 11, built everal y ar ago. Dock 16 1,073 feet in length parallel the water front [ 2:31 ]

PAGE 246

at Cristobal and i s now u se d when the old wharves at Colon are crowded. Dock 17, 1,042 feet long i s the only one to have water frontage on both sides. Room has been left for two additional piers, but their construction will be deferred until the nece ssity therefor develop s All the docks are protected by a Dredges excavating in the Pacific Channel from Miraflores to the sea. mole or breakwater extend in g out from shore on the seaward s ide, marking the boundary line between Canal Zon e and P anamanian waters. In Colon, the Panama railroad owns seve r a l old wharves, while the RoyallVlail Steam Packet Company has its ow n w harf which it plans to enlarge. In addition, there are Docks 1 3 and 1 4 on the Fre nch Canal midw ay between Cri stoba l and Mount Hope, now used principally in unloading Canal s uppli es, and which will probably be continued in serv i ce. At B a l boa, the piers for commerc i a l u se will be pl ace d at right angles to the axis of the Canal with t h eir ends about 2, 650 feet from the center of the 500 foot channel. They will be about 1 000 feet long and 200 feet wide, with 300 foot Excavation in the immediate foreground is for the new Balboa dry dock. Buildings under construction are the permanent shops. Beyond where the dredge is working will be the Balboa ship basin. [ 232 ]

PAGE 247

slips between. The of one pier only will be undertaken at first, but room has been provided for four more. The old French steel wharf, 1,000 feet in length, and from 2,000 to 3,000 feet of berthing space in front of the permanent shop will be available when required. The super tructure of the piers at Cristobal and Balboa will consist of one story steel. shed, having a clear height of 25 feet. They will cover the entire space, with the exception of about 18 feet along each side and the outer ends. The wharves adjacent to the repair shops at Balboa will not be provided with any sheds. The total enclosed floor space at the new Cristobal docks is about 2 1 8,700 square feet. The track arrangement consists of a track along each Handling cargo at Balboa. Balboa is a busy place and promises to be busier, as the perrranen( administration headquarters, dry docks, repair shops, coaling station, etc., will be located here. edge of the piers, and two d pre ed track through the center of the sheds, bringing the car floor level with the floor of the hed. In view of the uncertainty as to the amount of freight that may be handled, it was decided to forego the installation of expensive cargo-handling machinery at the dock. At Cristobal, with a range of tide of carcely a foot, freight requiring tran fer can be handled by hip' boom, supplemented by blocks attached to e levated gird rs along the side of the pier hed. At Balboa, where the average range of tide is clo e to 13 feet, electric crane will be used, in addition to a floating crane for heavy cargo. DRY DOCKS The main dry dock will be at Balboa, in accordance with the wish of the Navy Department. It will be able to accommodate any ves el that i able to [ 233 ]

PAGE 248

pass through the Canal lock with a usable length of 1,000 feet, an entrance width of 110 feet, and a depth over the keel block s of 35 feet. The entrance will be clo ed by miter gates s imilar to tho e used on the locks. The dock will be erved by a 40 ton traveling cran e with a travel along both ides. For smaller ve I an auxiliary dry dock will be provided, with a u sab l e length of 350 feet, an entrance width of 71 feet, and a depth over the ke e l blocks of feet. On the Atlantic i de, the o ld French dry do c k, which has a usable length of 300 feet, width of 50 feet, and a depth ove r the s ill of 13 fe e t, will be continued in use. PERMA ENT REPAIR SHOP The permanent repair shops will be at Balboa, situated in the area between the dry dock and repair berth, and are de ign e d to maintain the following Heavy repairs to the Canal marine equipment have been handled in this dry dock on the Atlantic side, and by shipways on the Pacific side at Balboa. A large dry dock is being built which will accommodate any vessel that may use the Canal. equipment: Lock, sp ill way, and power plant machinery; water and land equipment retained for the maintenance and operation of the Canal; rolling stock and equipment of the P a n a m a railroad; mechanical apparatus connected with the coaling plant ; fortification ; cold torage plant; wireless tations, etc.; making of repair requir d by indi vidua l and companie on the Isthmus; making of I' pair required by commercial vessels, and making of such repairs a may be r quired by v e l of the Unite d State Navy and ves el belonging to oth I' government. Work on the n ew shops was begun early in 1913, and will be compl ted about January 1, 1914. The transfe r of the Gorgona shop [ 234 ]

PAGE 249

work and equipment to Balboa and other point, made nece s ary on account of the abandonment of the town of Gorgona consequent upon the ri e in Gatun Lake, wa effected and the old shop demoli hed during July and Augu t, 1913. The new hop building are con tructed of teel frames with roof of heavy tile, made on the I thmus The ide and ends were l ef t open for ventilation and light, protection from un and rain being afforded by ,,-ide, overhanging eaves. All hop machinery will be electrically driven. until future requirement a re know.n, the maline hop at Hope will be continued in en ice and a Parai 0 ha been made dredo'ing headquarters for the next few year the old Floor of the new concrete lumber dock at Balboa. hop buildino' at that point will be fitted up and u ed in making repairs to dredging quipment only. O.-\L AXD FeEL OIL BUSINE The nlain O'overnment coaling plant ,,ill be ituated on the north end of an i land, oppo ite Dock 11, at Cri tobal, near th Atlantic ntrance to th Canal. It will be from 1,700 to 2,000 feet in I ngth, 300 feet ,,-ide and will be capable of handling and toring 300 000 ton of coal. ubaqueou s sto rage will be pro ided a it ha. been determined that coal di inteo'!'ate Ie rapidly when under water than ,,hen lying exp d to the air. Thi plant will have railroad c nnection ,,ith the mainland by mean f a bridge of th v rtical lift type 1'0 ino th French anal at a point between Cri tobal and Hope. The coaling plant on the Pacific ide will b at Balboa, and will have a length of 500 feet, width of 340 f et and water fronta 'e of 1,300 feet. It will be capable of handlino' and torin' 210,000 ton of coal, including 100,000 ton ubaqueou ly. Th coal-handling quipm nt for both plant wa purcha ed in Augu t 1913 and at ri tobal con i t of a y tern of unloading tower tocking and re claiming brido' reloader and 10-ton automatic electric car for conveying. r ]

PAGE 250

At Balboa, the equipment i much the same, with the exception that four of the double cantilever crane u ed in building Pedro :lVliguel and l\firaBores Locks were ub tituted for the stocking and reclaiming bridges. The cost of thi equipment i $1,833,127, and deliveries are to be made in period ranging from ix to 30 month. Faciliti will also be provided at Cristobal and Balboa for supplying s hippin g and the Canal fuel oil. To this end two s teel tank have been erected at ach terminal with a combined toraO'e capacity of 160,000 barrel PHIY" \ TE COAL A J D FUEL OIL TORAGE The r e ha been a livel y intere s t hown on the part of dealers in coal and fuel oil in the United tate and Europe in the elling possibilities of two Oil storage tanks in the foreground. Ancon Hill in the distance. commodities on the I sthlnus after the completion of the Canal. This display of interest induced the Government to make known its policy toward these enterprise in the earl y part of 1913. The plan announced is to keep complete control of the terminals, water frontage, and tran portation b y land and water ac r os the Isthmus, and to that end, no l an d nor l and under wat r that may be needed l a ter by the United State will b I a ed. It will not be the policy of the Government, h oweve r to monopoliz the fuel bus ine and every mean will be taken to encourage the establi hmen t of private coal and fuel oil depot on the Isthmu unde r proper condition. It i s believed that the duplication of coal-handlino' lnac hin ery would be undes irable, and the Government, there fore, will in tall m dern mach in ry ample for private, as well a for its own purpo e Actino' under thi theory, the Canal Commi ion in July, 1913, announced it r adin e s to a s ign pace for fuel oil d pot at either end of the l 2:36 ]

PAGE 251

Canal under revocable lea e or licenses. Coal torage space will be s imilarly a i gned. Private dealers, both in the United State and abroad, made some ob jecti on against the revocable lea e plan, and in one or two instance expre ed a preference to attend to their own coal -handling, but as evidence that the Government's plan i not discouraging these enterpri e application had been r ece i ved up to September 1, 1913, for 169,000 tons of private coal torage space at Cri and 6,500 ton at Balboa. A number of applications had al 0 been r ece i ved for space for fuel oil tanks. BONDED 'YAREHO SE The Canal Commi .. ion ha' not yet taken up the matter of bonded ware-h o u ses, and i probably reluctant to do from the fact that the control of Tel p her plant, which has handled practically all of the coal used in the Canal work. custom at the anal Zone port of Ancon and Cri tobal i ve t d in the Panama Go ernment. Yith the approachino completion of th Canal, the que tion ha been agitated to 'om extent and in th 1913 e ion of the Panama National A embly a law wa" pa ed that would permit bonded ,yarehou e on Pana-manian territory. pp ition to allowing private per on to erect warehou e deve l oped, and Panama i now con id ring the advi abilit of building it own warehou e with a view f I a ing pac therein. I n order tin. UI' av ,wh n r pair: b XEW FLOATING EQ the exp clitiotls han lling of the rna .. ive lock gate Olll 11 a.' ,yell a for ommercial and other [ 2:37 j

PAGE 252

Canal needs and general wrecking purposes, the contract for the erection of two Boating cranes of the revolving type ha been made to the Deutsche Maschinenfabrik A. G. of Duisburg, Germany, satisfactory proposals not having been received from American firms. Each crane is of 250 tons capacity, and consists of a steel pontoon 150 feet long, 88 feet wide, and of a depth of 15 feet nine inches at the ides, and 16 feet eight inches at the center, supporting a superstructure in three part ; fir t, a fixed mast; econd, a revolving "bell," and third, an arm or jib, the latter provided with a main and an auxiliary hoist. The cranes will not be elf-propelling, but will contain a power generating installation for the operation of the crane mechanism. For handling ve els of the laro'e t size at Cristobal and Balboa two powerful harbor tugs will be purchased. Two colliers, to cost not to exceed $1,000,000 each, and to have a cargo capacity of 12,000 tons each, have been authorized by Congre s for use at the Canal termini. PERi\IANE T T VILL.\.GES .\.ND BUILDINGS Much tudy has been given the type of construction of the permanent buildings of the CanaL In view of the depopulation of the Canal Zone, the number of permanent towns will be limited. Balboa will be the seat of government, and the headquarter for most of the employes in the administrative branch of the permanent organization. The operating force at Gatun Locks will live in the present villages of Gatun and New Gatun, and the force at Pedro Miguel and MiraBores Locks will reside in the new town which will be laid out on the fill at Pedro lVliguel. ,The settlement at Ancon and Cristobal will be continued indefinitely. Ba Obi po, Las Ca cada Em'pire, Culebra, and Corozal, together with a few smaller villages still existent, will eventually be Permanent administration building on west side of Ancon Hill under construction. Overlooks the site on which the permanent town at Balboa will be laid out. [23 ]

PAGE 253

abandoned, leaving Pedro l\liguel, Paraiso (temporary dredging headquarter ), and Gatun as the only inland towns of the Zone. The villages in the lake area, Bohio, old Frijoles, Buenavi ta, Ahorca Lagarto, Tabernilla, San Pablo, and Mamei disappeared in 1911, when the lake first began to rise. 'Vith them Dredges at work removing the last barrier in Atlantic entrance. vani h d a number of old and familiar landmark, uch as tephen' Tree, which encroach d on the old Panama Railroad right-of-" ay n ar Ahorca Lagarto, and although not a fact, wa popularly suppo d to mark the grave of John L. Stephen one of the founder of the railroad. The village of Gorgona and l\latachin hared the arne fate in July and Augu t 1913 and l\liraflore wa razed in ept mb r, 1913. Gorgona wa one of the oldest and mo t populou settlement in the Zone, and a F. N. Oti narrate in hi Hi tory of the Panama Railroad, publi hed in 1867 wa "noted in the a rlier day of Chagre River travel a a plac wh r the ,,-et and jad d traveler ,,-a ac cu tomed to worry out the night on a raw hide expo ed to the in ects and the rain, and in the morning, if he wa fortunate, regale himself on jerked beef and plantain." Gen. U. Grant, then Captain Grant, p nt the night there while cro ing the I thmu prior to the advent of the railroad. For the purpo e of procuring a modern and permanent type of arch it ecture, special architect have been employed, and to them ha been committed the work of preparing de ign for all permanent tructure, including machinery control hou e at th lock, water works, hydroelectric tation, public building, and quarter for employe. A new administration buildino' to cost about $475,-000 i und r er ction on the we t id of Ancon Hill, overlooking from a knoll th n w Balboa town it e It will b e con true-t e d of strudura l st e l and hollow con r te blocks. Th remaind e r of th permanent buildings ",ill probably [ ]

PAGE 254

be of concrete construction. The Balboa townsite will be laid off in accordance with the most approved ideas, and with the view of making it a model town, includin g the beautification of its surroundings, as well as the grounds about the l ocks, the services of a fandscape architect were engaged in July, 1913. The Docks at Cristobal under construction. With the Canal practically completed, the attention of the Canal Commission is being concentrated on the permanent terminal facilities. The present plans include extensive plants at Balboa on the Pacific, and at Cristobal near the Atlantic entrance. Commission of Fine Arts was delegated by Congress to supe rvi se the permanent building work, and it has made s ugge s tion s from time to time. PERMANENT ORGANIZATION The Act of Congress of August 24, 1912 provides for the appointment of a governor of the Panama Canal, when in the judgment of the President, the work of construction s hall be s ufficientl y advanced toward completion as to render the further se rvice s of the I sthmian Canal Commission unnecessary. The appointment is to be made by the Pres ident, by and with the advice and consent of the Se n ate, and i s effective for a period of four yea rs. The salary is $ 10 ,000 per annum. President Taft, previous to the expiration of his tenn of office, a llowed the fact to become public that he intended to dissolve the Commiss ion and appoint a governor. Some lVlembers of Congress opposed the plan, one declaring that it was not the purpose of the Act to abolish the Commission until it had completed it s work. President Taft's term expired without any further move in this direction. With the advent of the Democratic administration, it was the general opinion that President Wilson would give the matter thorough study before taking any steps toward abolishing the Commission. This has proved to be the case, and it seems to be the common understanding that the President has formed the opinion t hat the statu s of th e Commis.'ion s hould r e main unchanged until the great work is ent ir e l y finished and the Can a l read y to be officially [ 240 ]

PAGE 255

opened. The health of one of the members of the Commission, Lieut.-Col. D. D. Gaillard became undermined in July, 1913, and he was obliged to return to the United States, at least temporarily. While no definite plans for the permanent organization have yet been announced, Colonel Goethals has stated in hearings before the Senate Committee on Interoceanic Canals that the estimated number of employes required for the operation of the Canal, exclusive of civil administration and sanitation, and of the military establishment, would be 2,500. The permanent organization of the Canal administration went into effect .April I, 1914; Col. George W. Goethals being appointed first governor. Colonel Goethals, as governor, will in connection with the operation of the Canal, have control and jurisdiction over the Canal Zone, and will perform all duties in connection with the civil government of the Zon e, which i s to be held, treated, and governed as an adjunct of the Canal. The law provides for one district court with two divisions, one including Balboa, and the other including Cristobal, each court to have jurisdiction in felony cases, and in all causes at equity, admiralty, and all cases at law involving sums exceeding $300. In addition to a di trict judge, there will be a mar hal and district attorney, each holding office for four years. The Circuit Court of Appeals of the Fifth Circuit of the United States at New Orleans, will have jurisdiction in all appeal cases. The provision of the law requiring trial by jury has already been made operative by the President's Executive Order of July 4, 191 3. WIRELESS COMMUNICATION The Darien naval radio tation to be built at Caimito, a point in the Canal Zone about midway between Colon and Panama, will be one of the most power-New dock No. 16 at Colon under construction. Part of the Cristobal terminal system. [ 241 ]

PAGE 256

ful in the world, and will establish direct communication between the Isthmus and Washington. In power it will be the same as the Government's station at Arlington, but in the s ize of its towers, it will exceed the latter. The sending and receiv in g radius will be nominally 3,000 miles, so that communication may be held direct with the Arlington s tation, instead of via Key West, as formerl y It will be abl e to send messages as far as Valdivia, Chile, 421 miles south of Valparaiso; to reach a vessel anywhere along the eastern coast of the United States, or midway between New York and Gibraltar; and to communicate with the island of St. Vincent, 500 miles west of Africa. There are three other wireless stations on the I sthmus, not including one at Bocas del Toro, maintained by the United Fruit Company. These are at Porto Bello, Colon, and Balboa, and all are in charge of the Navy Department. One, or more, of these plants will probabl y be dismantled when the new high power station becomes available. In 1912, President Taft signed an Executive Orde r prohibiting the establishment of wireless s tation s on the I sthmus by other parties within the radius of 15 miles of any Government s tation. BEAUTIFYING THE CANAL The Panama Canal Act of August 24, 1912 contained the following proVISIOn: "Before the comp letion of the Canal, the Commission of Fine Arts may make report to the President of their recommendation r egarding the artistic character of the structures of the Canal, s uch report to be transmitted to C ongress. In accordance with the above, the chairman of the commission, Mr. Along a country road. This picture vividly portrays the pretty scenery that greets the eye in traveling over some of the Canal Zone roads. [ 242 ]

PAGE 257

Daniel C. French, sculptor, and, the vice-chairman Mr. Frederick Law OIm ted, landscape architect, spent a part of the month of February, 1913, on the Isthmus. Their report submitted to Congre s on July 26, 1913, s tates in part: "The Canal itself, and all the structures connected with it impre one with A pretty scene in the outskirts of Culebra Village. a en e of their having been built with a view trictly to their utility. There i an entire ab ence of ornament and no evid nce that th ae thetic ha been considered, except in a few ca e a a econdary con ideration. Becau e of this very fact there i littl e to find fault with from the arti t' point of view. The Canal, lik e the pyramid, or some impo s ing object in natural cenery, i impre ive from it cal e and implicit y and dil:ectne On fe I that anything done mer l y for the purpo e of beautifying it would not only fail to ac compli h th purpo e, but would be an impertinence. In uch a work the mo t that the arti t cou ld hope to do would be to aid in selecting, as between alter native form of sub tantially equal valu e from the engineering point of view, those which are lik e l y to prove mo t agreeable and appropriate in appearance." The report, however, mad a number of ugo'estions calculated to improve the appearance at the anal entrance, at the locks, in the permanent town and the marine and army reservation. It al 0 trongly recommended that a memorial record of the building of the Canal be made in the form of an im pre ive in cription upon a great monumental surface on the ea t bank of ulebra Cut, at the point of deepe t cutting, 492 feet. It favored a pace 100 feet in h iO'ht and some", hat more in width everely imple in de ign, with lettering in Roman V. haped l etters l arge nough to b e easily read by normal [ 243 ]

PAGE 258

Model showing the Pacific entrance to the Canal and the docks and inner harbor at Balboa, as they will appear when completed.

PAGE 259

eyes across the Canal, and that the material should be concrete applied as a massive facing to the irregularly fractured trap rock of the cliff. It also suggested marking the highest point of Canal excavation on Gold Hill immedi ately over the proposed inscription with some form of monument. The Southern Commercial Congre made formal application of the Secretary of 'Var, in October, 1913 for permi s ion to place at orne prominent Model showing the Atlantic entrance to the Canal and the docks at Cristobal, as they will appear when completed. point along the Canal a bronze tablet, four by six feet in s ize, carrying a medal lion life ize bust of the late Senator John T. Morgan of Alabama, and legend reciting hi relations to the Canal idea. Permi ion wa accorded, and the tablet was placed near the north end of Culebra Cut in November, 1913. PERl\IANE T ADl\II I TRATION BUILD I G, BALBO. \ The permanent Admini tration Buildino of the Canal Zone now undel construction in accordance with the de ign made by Austin l. Lord of New York City, formerly architect to the COlnmi ion and l\1ario J. Schia voni, former a i tant archit ct, Culbera, under who direction the entire plans, elevations, detail, and pecifications have been d vel oped, is the re sult of many efforts to obtain a building uitable to the requirement a tipulated by the Chairman, and the very important requirement in providing protection against sun and rain. The architecture of Italian renaissance design, with a square column colonnade, and a second-story balcony treatment around the three exterior elevations of the building and surmounted by a somber red tile roof, will present a character very much to be desired in this climate; viz.: wide projecting eaves an.d de p recessed colonnade, affording excell nt protection against s un and ram. [ 245 ]

PAGE 260

The court ide, facing northeast, enclosed by the two side wings, will have plain wall surfaces, treated with pilasters and window openings of same pro portion as on the exterior elevations, and a central wing housing the main stair motive and porte cochere entrance, the entire plan having the form of the letter E with the fir t floor ituated 100 feet above sea level. The office areas are to be treated in a very imple manner with the walls and ceiling treated in white pIa ter, the floors in yellow pine, and mahogany for all woodwork. The rotunda motive, the focal point of interest, entered from both front and rear elevations, and situated between the front entrance and the main tair hall, facing the court, will be treated in a very dignified but somber renaissance style with a coffered dome, surmounting decorative paintings illu trating the various periods of canal construction in a continuous frieze and in four large panels. The rotunda will be illuminated by a dome light under a kylight, thereby producing on a minor scale the Pantheon at Rome. The walls, floor, and stairca e will be treated in a simple marble and Caen stone treatment in harmony with the balance of the work. The building will have an area of 60,000 square feet of clear office space for the three floor, plus the required areas for the rotunda motive, halls, staircase, toilet, exterior colonnades, and balconies. The basement, with an area of 32,000 square feet, will be used as a vault for the filing of records, maps, archives, etc. The total floor area in the building taken at grade will amount to 37,772 square feet, and th total (mean) cubic content of the entire building, 2,153,000 cubic feet. A very flexible system of electric lighting, telephone, and buzzer system has been provided for, including the permanent telephone exchange, which will be located on the thi.rd floor in one of the rear wings. Every convenience of reasonable necessity has been provided for in this building, such as fire protection, vacuum sy tern, etc., thereby setting an example for future buildings by making this the most extensive and up-to-date steel frame and hollow concrete tile block structure that is being built on the Isthmus as a keynote for future work. COST OF THE CANAL The estimate of October, 1908, placed the cost of the Canal at $375,201,000 divided, as follow: Con truction and engineering, $297,766,000; anitation, $20,053,000; civil administration, $7,382,000; paid to the New French Canal Company, $40,000,000; paid to the Republic of Panama, $10,000,000. The appropriations made by Congress to date aggregate $338,828,273.14 for the Canal work, and $10,767,950 for fortifications. The actual expenditures to June 30, 1913 were a follows: Construction and engineering, $185,316,095.75; sanitation, $16,250,164.93; civil administration, $6,393,308.73; law, $44,982.27; general items, $87,866,903.70; fortifications, $3,114,357.52. Total $298,985,812.90. Since 1908, the force has increased so much in efficiency, with a corre pondino' decrease in unit costs, that it seems probable that $360,000,000 will cover not only the cost of the Canal work, but of the fortifications as well. [ 246 ]

PAGE 261

IIIHE volume of traffic that will pass through the Panama Canal after it I' has been thrown open to commerce of the world is largely a matter of speculation. The importance of the new waterway from a military standpoint is easily recognizable, and in the minds of American Army and Navy expert, the probable fact that the efficiency of Uncle Sam' Navy will be about doubled, alone warrants the enormous co t which the project has entailed. In commercial circle, however, the que tion of the hour i "Can the Canal be made to pay?" To ascertain the probable amount of tonnage that will use the Canal during the next few) ear, the United States Government, on September 1, 1911, engaged the service of the highest American authority in this line, Dr. Emory R. John on, profes or of transportation and commerce in the Univ r it y of Pennsylvania. A pecial commissioner on traffic and tolls, Dr. John on has made an exhaustive investigation of the subject from all point of view the results of which have been incorporated in a printed volume of 500 pages. His conclusions may be briefly summed up, as follows: "The hipping u ing the Panama Canal annually during the first year or two of it operation, that i in 1915 and 1916, will amount to about 10 500,000 ton. At the end of 10 years, the tonnage will doubtless have reached 17,000,000 tons. The prospect is, therefore, that the Panama Canal will start with I e s than half the tonnage which will then be making use of the Suez Canal. Moreover, it will be a long time before the Panama Canal catches up with the Suez waterway in volume of traffic. Should the Suez tonnage continue to incr ase at the present rate, the volume of shipping served by the Suez route in will be double that pa sing through the Panama Canal. It is hardly probable that the Suez tonnage will increase at its present high rate, while it may well happen that the effect of the Panama Canal upon industry and trad ha been undere tImated. Eventually, at the end of two or three decade, let u ay, the traffic at Panama may equal or exceed that at Suez." [ 247 ]

PAGE 262

I I ..... ..--.. ..... '!" -------... -:---::.-::.... The United States Battleship Oregon. Undoubtedly, the famous trip of the Oregon around South America, in 1898, to join the squadron before Santiago, had much to do toward crystallizing public sentiment in favor of an American Canal, at least, it brought the matter into prominence from a military point of view. An effort is being made, and public sentiment may demand, that the Oregon be given first place for the official trip through the Canal.

PAGE 263

Dr. John on gave publicity to the above foreca t in 1912 and hi frank admis ion that his figure may be undere timated indicate that it is not in the power of man to cio ely foretell the volume of traffic the Canal will attract. It is only within the past twelvemonth that steamship companies, and firm engaged in the whole ale coal and fuel oil trade, have awakened to the possi bilitie evoked by the Canal. If report that are constantly noted in the daily press are true, nearl, eyery compan engaged in ocean tran portation in this part of the world i perfecting plan for building additional hips in anticipation of the increa ed bu ines the Canal will create. Since fuel oil and coal-handling facilitie at the Canal termini ,,'e re planned, and the policy of the Government in re pect to the ale of the e two commoditie b T individual s and companies, The tourist steamer Evangeline, the first vessel to dock at Pier 16, Cristobal, January, 1913. on the I thmu wa outlined, there has been an uneArpected amount of intere t hown in thi feature by firm in the United State and Europe. Application for coal torage pace had, prior to the awarding of the coal-handling machiner been 0 much great r than anticipated that enlargement of the pro posed layout in om of it e ential became imperative. Clo e ob ervers of the trend of th tim a r that Dr. John on' figures are ufficientl y con erva tive. Latin-America, particularly the west coa t of South America, i con fidently counted on to contribute to the tonnage of the Canal. Chile, Bolivi a, Peru, and Ecuador, all origmate a large freight traffic. The nitrate field of Northern Chile ield an annual product of more than 2,500,000 ton, four-fifth of which goe to Europe, and the remainder to the United State ; copper shipment from Peru and Bolivia are increasing annually in importance with the opening of additional mines and the construction of railroad. Rail-[ 249 ]

PAGE 264

Atlantic entrance to the Canal, showing shipping at the Panama Railroad Docks.

PAGE 265

road building in tho e countrie south of the Equator, has enjoyed a tremendou expansion in the last few years. Argentina has been brought in touch with Valparai 0 b the Andean tunnel, and the products of the we tern part of that republic will, in all probability, be shipped through the Canal. The port of alparai 0, which wa almo t de tro ed b an earthquake in ha. f.ully recovered from it effects, and has contracted for port works co tmg mIllIon of dollar in anticipation f the opening of th Canal. At pre ent, American commerce plays but a minor role in the west coa t trade, although, owing to the increa ing number of American investments, the trade i improving. Ge;.'many and Great Britain have long had the lion' The Polar Ship Fram, lying at anchor in Cristobal Harbor. This boat left Buenos Aires on August 14, 1913 and reached Colon on October 3, for the purpose of passing through the Canal on its way to San Francisco. It will be one of the first vessels to make the passage. hare, and it ,, ill be many year before their hold can be broken. The fault i our own. European emiOTant and repre entative of European firm, went to tho e countrie in an earl da ; the mtermarried with the native re ident and man became c itiz en who afterward ro e to prominence in public life. On th oth l' hand, prior to the Spani h-American War, the e countries knew few Am rican ,with the exception of touri t. 'Ve kept to our own border and e tabli hed neither ocial nor bu ine relation, and a for going there to live, it wa not to b thought of. J\ioreover, the American manufacturer ha in the pa. t hown cant de ire to cultivate bu ine relation with his Latin-American n iahb 1'; they have l ected to ignore hi requirement, and coffed at hi bu in cu t m. The European ne er commit thi faux pas. r _:-1 ]

PAGE 266

Moonlight on Limon Bay. When the rose and mauve and green have faded, the tropical moon appears, which is nowhere more effulgent than on the Isthmus. Roosevelt Avenue, the prettiest street in Cristobal, overlooking Limon Bay and the Atlantic entrance to the Canal. The beauty of this street and the outlook has been marred by the building of the docks at this point. [ 252 ]

PAGE 267

The Spanish-American War was the entering wedge; the Panama Canal a; d other large projects in Central and South America requiring American brai n and brawn has widened the opening, until today one will find plenty of Americans scattered all over LatinAmerica. A large percentage of those who Native town at Culebra. Negro village of Golden Green in middle distance. These villages will be abandoned in course of time. en li sted in the Philippine, Cuban, or Porto Rican campaign, tho e who have seen serv i ce on the Panama Canal, or those who have engaged in railroad and m ining work in Brazil, Peru, or Chile, never go back to the United States to re i de permanently. Some of them leave the tropic with the avowed intention of never returninO', but ooner or later, one will find them at a team hip office engaging pa' 'age 'outhward bound. The lure of the tropics is not ea ily overcome. The Americanizing of Latin-America has only just begun; it would not have be n begun yet but for tho e prim factor, the 'Var and the Canal. As Americans locate in Central and South America, the call grows more and more in istent for convenienc to which they have been accu tomed-American banks, club, new paper. tores, and merchandi e. The influence of the Latinized American i een in the gradual improvement of conditions, all of '\\ hich, while minute in detail in connection with the trade of the Canal, ha a d i rect bearing on its future so far a it concerns traffic with South America. Th Panama Canal ,yill place the United States and Europe about on a par so far as it concerns the commerce of Australia and New Zealand. The am is tru of Japan, hina and th Philippines. The hort route from [ ]

PAGE 268

Europe to the Orient is by way of Suez; the short course from the Atlantic coast of the United States to Japan and most of China will be by way of Panama. A 10-knot freight teamer will be able to make the voyage from New York to Yokohama by way of Panama in 15 days' less time than it now take by way of Suez. Hong Kong and Manila will be equally distant from New York by way of Panama or Suez. The tonnage through the Suez Canal has shown a steady growth. In 1910, it was 16,500,000 tons; in 1912, it had increased to 20,275,000 tons, representing the passage of 5,373 ve els. The Suez Company in commenting on the approaching opening of the Panama Canal said, "It does not eem likely that any considerable amount of freight between Europe and port beyond Suez will be diverted by the Panama Canal. It i to be feared, though, that one of the result of the opening of the new route will be the attendant competition, and possibly a newborn trade between the eastern states of America, and the Far East and Oceanica." The increase in Canal traffic is nbt confined to the Suez, for, in July, 1913, 3,670 vessels carrying 12,278,000 tons of freight passed through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, a larger volume than Dr. Johnson predicts for the Panama Canal during the first year or two of operation. While much has been printed to show how the freight business will be advantaged by the Panama Canal, there has been but little mention of the pas senger traffic. It i quite certain that travelers to South America, or to the Orient, will prefer the Panama route to the long and usually tempestuous voyage around South America, or to the terrific heat of the Red Sea. The passage A street in the American settlement at Empire, showing family quarters. The landscape in and about Empire is justly considered the most effective in the Canal Zone. The short palms grow here in great profusion. ( 254 )

PAGE 269

Main entrance to the new Hotel Washington, Colon. through the Panama Canal will afford an opportunity for the tired traveler to land, and if he so deires, to cro s the Isthm us by rail. The I thmus, therefore will be a sort of clearing house for pas senger traffic. People coming from Europe and ea tern or southern United State will change there for the Orient, western United State, and we tern outh America. The clo ing year of the con struction period of the Canal ha attracted a growing number of touri t until at the pre ent time, it i ju t a much a booking point for the tourist agencie as any other place of intere t the world ha to offer. Stati tics compiled to July 1, 1913, how that about 75,000 people have vi ited the Canal ince January 1, 1910, over one-half of that number within the past 18 month. The following table of comparative distances will how orne of th shortening of route the Panama Canal will effect: A typical street in Cristobal. There are cocoanut palms on every street in this pretty Canal Zone settlement, while banana trees and other tropic growth adorn the grass plots in front of the houses. [ 255 ]

PAGE 270

---Roate. (o r Steam VeOleI. .--------Route8 f o r Saili.o g V essell D lllances in Nau t ical Mile. -----.. ---------..... TRADE ROUTES DIS T ANCS BY EXISTING LINES ",,..0 Cl THE PANAMA CANAL DISTANCES FROM NEW YORK, NEW ORLEANS, AND LIVERPOOL TO VARIOUS PORTS. FROM NE"W YORK FROl\l NEW ORLEANS I FROl\I LIVERPOOL To V i a l\lagella n S uez Yia P a nama V i a l\l agella n Yia S uez V i a P a nama 'ia S uez V i a P anama Yia M agella n V i a San F r a n c i sco ... 5,262 1 3, 1 35 . 4,683 1 3,55 1 .............. 7,83 6 1 3,5 0 2 ............... P o r t T own end. 6, 0 32 1 3,9 0 5 .............. 5,453 14-,32 1 ............. 8,60 6 1 4,272 ............... H o n o l u l u ..... 6 ,7 0 2 1 3,3 1 2 .............. 6 1 23 1 3,728 .............. 9,276 1 3,679 ............... G u ayaq uil ... 2,8 10 10 ,2 1 5 .............. 2,23 1 1 0,63 1 .............. 5,38.J, 10 ,582 ............... Callao ......... 3,363 9,6 1 3 .............. 2,784 1 0,029 .............. 5,937 9,98 0 ............... Va l pa r a i 0 ..... 4, 6 33 8,38 0 ............. 4, 0 54 8,796 .............. 7,2 0 7 8,747 ..... ......... l\la nil a ...... .. 11,5 4 8 ............... 11, 547 10 ,8 0 8 . 1 2,9 4 7 1 3,96 1 .............. 9,701 H ong k o n g ...... 11, 1 9 0 ............... 11,628 10 611 .............. 1 3,03 1 1 3,76 4 .............. 9,785 y okohama ...... 9,7 9 8 .............. 1 3, 0 7 9 9 09 8 .............. U ,92.J, 1 2,25 1 .............. 11,678 S h a n g h a i ....... 10 645 ..... . 1 2, 3 84 10 07 0 ............... 1 3,833 1 3,2 74 ............... 10, 63 7 Melb o urn e ..... 9 945 . 1 3, 009 9 ,8 1 3 ..... ........ .............. 1 2,5 74 1 3,2 19 11, 6 5 4 W e llin g t o n ..... 8,85 1 1 2,852 1 4 ,38 7 8, 2 7 2 11,7 60 ............... 11, 4 25 11,711 1 2, 9 8 9 B om b ay ....... 14 98 2 .............. 8 186 .............. .............. ............. 17 610 ..... ......... 6 ,22 6 C o lomb o ...... 14 ,112 ........... ... 8,6 2 9 .............. .............. .............. 16 740 ............... 6 7 3 6 Singa p o r e ..... 1 2,522 ............... 10 177 ...... .............. .............. 15 1 5 1 ............ 8 3 2 9

PAGE 271

Dying jungle in the lake region. The new Hotel Washington and grounds. Atlantic entrance to the Canal to the right. Birdseye view of Colon from the Bay. Birdseye view of the Pacific entrance to the Canal. The fortified islands may be seen in the distance to the left.

PAGE 272

[liRE Panama of today affords a s triking contrast to the Panama of ye terday. Although only a decade has e lap sed s inc e it became a I republi c and self govern in g, the country has made a wonderful stride forward in progress and well-being. It cannot be suppose d that this change would have been wrought so rapidly. without the beneficent influence of its Northern mentor, for year s of tyranny, of bickerings, of petty jealousies, and of political dictation generally leave an impress not ea ily eradicated. The Panama of revolutionary times when lust for power ruled, and when brother rose up against brother for no reason on earth save to depo se an administration unpopular with some parti cu lar faction, i s no more Yet so me of the older citIzens sigh for the good o ld days, when, as the ay ing i s "A revolution was born every minute." Anewer ge n e ration i s sp ringing up, a generation that knows naught of war, and whose mission it will be to enter heartil y into the arts of peace and hu bandry, for the art of war i s one from which Panama is forever divorced, and "Pro Mundo B enefic io" (For the benefit of the World), is its adopted Inotto for the future. The history of Panama after the raids of the buccaneers i s a his tory of countless revolution, of plot and counterplot, of intolerabl e exactions on the part of the mother country, and of repeated attempts at indepe ndence. Like nearly all Latin-American countries, there were two main 1?arties, Liberal and Conservative. When not welded together for the moment III indignant protest against some specia l act of injus tice on the part of parent Colombia, these parties in Panama were continu ally fighting for control of s uch offices as Colombia permitted it to fill. A const itution a l e lection was unknown up to a year ago, and victory at the polls was u s uall y dependent on fraud, and by right of might. The Conservati ves, w ho in the past, repre sen ted the more prosper ous element, generally held the rein of power, and instead of using thls power [ 258 ]

PAGE 273

for the good of all the people, treated their political opponents as personal enemies entitled to no con ideration. The revolution of 1900-1902, one of the most sanguinary struggles in which the Isthmian partisans ever became engaged, was started in Colombia, the Jesuits, who constituted a dominant factor in affairs of church and state, had started a campaign against the Liberals. The fight invol ved every settled part of the Isthmu and the failure of the local Liberal army to win victory at that time was due to the generosity of Gen. Emiliano Herrera, who laid iege to Panama City, and who, willing to give the women and children a chance to e -cape the bombardment, postponed his attack, thereby giving the enemy opportunity to strengthen its defenses. Dr. Beli ario Porra, the present Chief Executive of Panama, wa one of the principal Liberal leader III thi campaign. iii DR. BELISARIO PORRAS, President of the Republic of Panama. National Palace and Theatre, Panama City. It cost $1,000,000 and is the finest edifice in the Republic of Panama. [ 259 ]

PAGE 274

The la t revolution, that of November 3, 1903, when Panama seceded from Colombia, was a bloodless affair, devoid of spectacular incident, but it gave birth to a new republic and made the Panama Canal an assured fact. The part that the United States took in the event has been discussed pro and con. It suffice to say that while the American Government did not actively interest itself in the cau e, it miled broadly at the plot, and prevented any chance that the Colombian troops might have had to avert the di a ter, by prohibiting their transport over the Panama Railroad on the pretext of keeping the transit clear, which was all the Panamefios wanted. The "handwriting on the wall" was seen when the Colombian Congress deliberately turned down President Roosevelt's generous proposal for the purchase of the Canal strip at $10,000,000. On their own admission they wanted more, for the reason they thought they could get it by asking for it. Roo evelt' hidden note of warning should have been enough, but Deputy Electioneering in the interior of Panama is done on horseback. The man in front, under the flags, was one of the candidates for President in the last election. Velez and hi followers thought they would call what they regarded a a bluffand they did, but with an unexpected result. The Isthmians knew the temper of their compatriots, so the action of the Colombian Congress wa no surprise to them. The treaty wa defeated by Colombia on August 1903; the flag of the new republic wa raised on November 3, three months later; Panama was [ 260 ]

PAGE 275

recognized by the United States on November 6, 1903; the Canal treaty with Panama wa s igned at Washington on November 18 1903; it was ratified by Panama on December 2, 1903, and by the United States Senate on February 24, 1904. Quick work all around. THE PANAMA FLAG Mis Maria Emilia d e la 0 sa, a niece of the first president of Panama, Dr. Man uel Amador Guerrero, is the designet of the flag of the republic, which was hung from the balcony of Dr. Amador's house on November 4, 1903, when the Declaration of Independence was signed in Cathedral Park. The flag was pre ented to Pre ident Roo evelt when the United States recognized the independence of Panama. The two stars that adorn the banner repre ent the two national partie Liberal and Conservative. The two stars in the flag are red and blue on white background; the opposite corners are red and blue, making the combination red, white and blue. NATION: \.L HYl\IN OF THE REPUBLI OF P .\.NAl\IA Chorus Panama! Land of all our Devotion! Hail to thee, Union true, Union grand! peed thy glory from ocean to ocean! To our Nation we pledge heart and hand! Speed thy glory -from ocean to ocean! To our Nation we pledge heart and hand. Like the urge on our hore ever ounding, In each heart rings the so n g of the Free; Peace and Love with the ir wings all urrounding, Loyal son give their live unto th e Onward till be the cour e four Nation, A th waves of the deep wiftly glide, Thro' the Age hall our land tak it stati on With the grand of the earth s id e by s ide. 'Ti to thee, Land of Love, we are plighted, And the din of the trife now i s o'er, Once again, broth r all, we're united, vVhile the Flag of the Free guard our shore Brightly gleams now the star of our Union till for Peace and for Fame may it sh in e, All our heart and our live in communion, Till the la t troke of Time hall be thine. THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD The period 1904-1912 may be termed one of recon truction. The blighting influ nc xercised by Colombia over Panama made the latter, in many respects, [ 261 ]

PAGE 276

The high land s offer a pleasant and cool climate where all vegetation peculiar to the tropical zone flourishes. The scenery along the streams is fine; ferns and orchids of many kinds abound and splendid hardwood trees tower over the evergreen underbrush. [ 2 6 2 ]

PAGE 277

100 years behind the times. The new government made a good start by di -banding its small army late in 1904. The army in nearly every Latin-American country is a bone of contention for the opposing political factions, for uccess is practically assured in case the aspirant for the presidency win over the troop. In the case of Panama, Gen. Esteban Huertas, the commander-in-chief of the army, who, by casting in hi lot with the Panamefio made the seces ion movement doubly assured, became discontented a year later, and framed a plan for unseating President Amador. The plot wa uncovered, Amador appealed to the American Legation, and Huerta was plainly advi ed that if 'he made one move the American marines would take the situation in hand. No move was made and this act marked the end of Panama's standing army. Panama needs Christening of the Panama Flag, November 3, 1903, the date of the last revolution in Panama. no internal sy tern of defen e, a peace is forever guaranteed by the United State. The American Government exerci es over Panama a mild form of guardiansh ip. It will prevent any intrusion by outsiders; it will afeguard it health, and, in ca e of nece ity, upervise it election. It will not, as many think, annex Panama. Form r Pre ident Taft, when Secretary of War, gave advance notice of what the policy of the United States toward Panama would be in December, 1904, when, speaking to an out-of-door as emblage from the balcony of the Hotel Central, in Panama, he said: "My gov rnm nt doe not covet one cent of Panama's money, or one acre of her land, but in the face of a probable outlay of $300,000,000, it is absolutely es ential that a thorough and close understanding be maintained between the two government ." Thi attitude has been religiou ly observed, and, barring the possibility of [ 263 ]

PAGE 278

, \ It I II \I \ ... V. \ It EI'VtlLlC OF 1 '.'\ .'11.\. \1.\ some rash act on the part of Panama, remote at best, will continue to be ob served. "THE L AND OF THE COCOANU T TREE" Crook your finger slightly, and you will have a fair idea of the American I sthmus practically the whole of which i s included within the limits of the Republic of Panama. The area of the country can only be estimated, as no actual urvey has ever been made; and is approximately 32,000 square miles, based upon the east and west boundaries, as claimed, for, to date, neither the frontier on the Costa Rica side, nor that bordering on Colombia, has been deter mined. The Panalna-Costa Rican boundary question was submitted for arbitration to former President Loubet of France, but the Costa Rican govern-MEMBERS OF PRESIDENT PORRAS' CABINET. DON GUILLERMO ANDREVE, Secretary of Public Instruction. DON RAMON F. ACEVEDO, Secretary of Public Works. [ 264 ] DON ERNESTO T. LEFEVRE, Secretary of Foreign Relations.

PAGE 279

ment refu eo to abide b.' hi deci ion, which, for the Ino t part, u tained Panama's contention, and the matter i now before another tribunal. A tripartite treat. was arranged by the United State in 1912, to be igned bit, Panama, and Colombia. The proposed convention defined the boundarie and gave Colombia a sum of money-conscience money, it has been called by some. Colombia rejected the term, and negotiation have ince been begun all over again with some prospect of succe s. The republic, while Ie than one-eighth the ize of the tate of Texa ha room for ten l\1ontenegro. The total land frontier will not exceed 350 The President's Residence, Panama City. mile, while the coa t line on both ocean aggregate 1,245 mile. It OTeate t length a t and we t i about 430 mile. The country i bi cted with hill and valle r ram if -in' from a cordillera, or backbone, running irregularly throughout it length, a ending in orne place to peak of con iderable height, and de cending in other t comparativ ly low eleyation like the pa at Culebra. Toward the ea n ither ide, the lopes end in wide, alluvial plains created b ucce ive depo it of ilt brouo,ht down by the river. Chiriqui volcano i the highe t peak in the republi 11,500 feet, which, according to 1\11'. D. F. l\1acDonald, geologi t of the Canal ommi ion, ha been extinct for 175,000 'ear. B th coa t are girt with i land and indented b 'numerou bay. The i land numb l' oyer 1,700, Coiba, off the south coa t, being the laro'e t. The Bay f Panama con titut th large t embayment, extending from ape Garachine n the ea t to Cape )1al on the we t a di tanc of 100 mile in a direct line. v r 15 tr am empty into the Caribbean Sea, and 300 into the Pacific cean. The large t i th Tu Ta in the Darien reO'ion; the Santa l\1aria, empty-[ 265 ]

PAGE 280

o I' ,---------_ .... NATIVE Bull fights are now prohibited, but cock fights are still a popular sport. Much money has been and i s b eing spent in the building of fine macadamized roads. The street traffic in Panama Cit y i s l a rgel y carrie d on by means of two-wheeled carts drawn by one of the small native horses or mules. In this p articular scene Panamanian silver money is being carted to the car to pay off laborers. [ 266 ]

PAGE 281

ing into Parita Bay, i beli ved to b 'econd in 'ize, with the Chagres River, feeder of Gatun Lake, third. The republic is divided into seven province, namely, Boca del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Lo Santo, Panama, and Yeragua. Panama province i much the large t embracing that region a ye t un reclaimed from the Indian tribes, known a the Darien. Panama City i the federal a well as provincial capital. After the ack of Old Panama by l\lorgan, the urvivor s moved to the s ite of the pre ent city, five miles to the west, its founding dating from January 21, 1673. In 1904, when the Americans came, the city had a little over 20,000 inhabitant; the government cen us of 1911 gave it 37,505, and in 1913 it wa estimated to have 50,000. Colon? the econd city in ize, situated on l\Ianzanillo Plaza de la Independencia, or Central Park, Panama City. The public parks are the favorite meeting places of the masses. Band concerts are held every Sunday and Thursday evenings. The natives assemble in their gala clothes, together with a cosmopolitan mixture of races. I land, wa a mi erable villao'e of 4, 00 oul in 1904, built over a bog, but ha ince grown to an enterpri ing well-ordered n of 25,000 or more, a gain of o er 600 per cent in the pa t ten ear. Panama City today enjoy mo t of the conv nience of any city of it ize includin o taxicab and an lectric treet railway, which were placed in ervice in Augu t, 1913. Colon, aI 0, ha. a tramway under con truction. The future appear bright for the e tw citie, wing to their proximity to the anal termini. David, the capital of Chiriqui province, i the third large t city, while Boca del Toro, built up by the banana intere t of the United Fruit Company, rank fourth. I PROGRE lYE The pre ent admini tration i headed b Dr. Beli ario Porra a leader of the Liberal, who took a prominent part in the revolution of 1900 and who i a [ 267 ]

PAGE 282

thorough progre s i ve He was inaugurated on Octobe r 1 191 2, after an ex ceeding l y hard fought campaign and i s called Panama's first co n stitutional president. In view of possible attempts at fraud, the United States was called upon to supervise the e lection and did so. In hi s pre-election speeche Dr. Porras promi ed the people of the country certain reforms, and many of these reforms are being brought about. When he took office, the national treasury was empty, and a con iderabl e amount was owing to the local banks on loans. In less than six months all debts were paid, and, in August, 1913 there was a balance in the treasury of over $350,000, not including the first of the annual payments of $250,000 made by the United States in 1913, under the Treaty. The national con titution, providing for a centralized republican form of government, went into ffect on February 24, 1904 The pre ident is elected by Pana m a City as it appears from Ancon Hill. This is the capital of the Republic of Panama and is situated close to the Pacific entrance to the Canal. It has about 40, 000 inhabitants, including almost every nationality on the globe. popular vote, for a term of four yea rs, and cannot s ucc ee d himse lf. The e l ections are held in July, and the s ucce s ful candidate takes the oath of office on the first of October, following. H e r ece ive s a salary of $9,000 per annum, with an allowance for hou ehold expen ses and extra official purpo es. He appoints all the higher official. includin g members of his cabinet, judges of the Supreme Court, diplomatic and consu l a r representatives, and the governors of province. He is assi ted in hi duti es by a cabinet of fiv e members, con isting of a ec r etary of finance, ecretary of foreign relations, secreta r y of government and ju tic e, secretary of public in truction, and sec r etary of public works. In ca e of death, the duties of the president devolve on the Primer D esi g nado There a r e three of th e d e signados, which correspond to the title s of first, second, and third vice-pre ident, re pective ly. The lawmaking branch of the g overnment i a [ 268 ]

PAGE 283

INTERNATIONAL o I o o 0 While Panama City as a whole, has quite an antiquated appearance, there are a number of up-to-date store which import the latest creations, direct from Paris. The Palm Garden in the Hotel Central is a popular place, especially on Sunday evenings after the band concert in the park. [ 269 ]

PAGE 284

single body known as the national assembl y, cons isting of deputies elected for a term of two year in much the same manner a United States Congressmen. The administration of justice i s vested in a uperior court, circuit courts, district courts, and such inferior tribunals as may be established by law. The superior holds court in Panama City, and cons i sts of five judges. In a general way, foreigners enjoy the same rights and privi l eges before the tribunals of the country a citizens do. REVE DES The national finance are in an excellent condition. The sum of $6,000,000, the balance of the $10,000,000 paid Panama by the United States for the canal strip, i s loan e d on fir s t-clas New York' mortgages, drawing per cent interest annually.. This interest, about $272,000, together with the following approximate amounts, form the fixed annual revenues of the republic: Canal Zone rental $250,000; intere t on the urn to guarantee the parity of money, $9,000; inte rest from fund in the National Bank of the Republic, $33,750; rents of public market and dock, $40,000; rents from lot s in Colon, $26,000; intere t on bonds of the National Navigation Company, $2,450. Total, $633,200. Added to this are the custom duties and consul a r fees, estimated at $4,189,986 for 1913; and internal revenue collection s estimated at $500,000 The budget of expenses for 191 3 i s estimated a t $3,84 1 ,2 14. The country has no national debt, and there i s no probability of its ever havin g one. All imports into the republic, with the exception of certain articl es on which a higher tax is imposed, are subject to a duty of 15 per cent. Liquors of all kinds, matches, salt, cigars, cigarette, and tobacco, coffee, etc., are subject to a spec ial tax. The Panama Bay at high tide. A part of Panama City and Ancon Hill in the background. l 270 ]

PAGE 285

importation of opium i now prohibited by law. marks may be registered upon application to the (Fomento), and the payment of the required fee. NATIONAL CURRENCY Foreign patents and trade Secretary of Public Works The monetary unit is the Balboa, having a fixed value of one dollar in O'old. Under the Treaty Panama agreed to maintain its at a parity of 2 to 1 Cayucos or small boats, shown in the picture, are hollowed out of a single log, and are used on the interior rivers to bring down bananas and other fruits; they are either poled or paddled from the stern. and accordingly there have been minted silver coin in 50 cent, 25-cent, 10-cent, and 5-cent denominations, and nickel coins in and denominations, known a peso, medio peso, dos reales, real, medio, and cuartillo, respective ly. In 1904 Colombian ilver currency was the only medium of exchange, with the exception of a mall amount of American currency then in circulation. The Colombian money was retired when the new coinage wa issued. The local currency would long ago have proved inadequate for the growing commercial tran action of the country had it not been for the enormous amount of American money in circulation. American go ld figures exclusively in all large business deals, and American sub idiary coin down to the copper cent pass current every where s id e by ide with the Panamanian coin. The Nati onal Assembly of 1913 authorized the e tabli hment of a national bank, with power to issue paper money, but constitutional objection has been made to the plan. PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS Early in 1904, the sum of $1,625,000 was set aside for public improve ments, and ince that time everal millions more have been pent. When [ 271 ]

PAGE 286

Some of the streets in Colon have queer names. This is a scene in Bottle Alley, one of the principal business thoroughfares. One of the newer type of concrete buildings. This structure is the property of the Panama Railroad, which owns most of the land in Colon. Front Street, Colon, as it appears to-day. Before the Americans started work on the Canal, many of the streets were in an unsightly and consequently unhealthy condition. In the past few years a large amount of street improvements have been made and much land has been filled in and reclaimed east of the city. All of the streets, both residential and business, are now macadamized. [ 272 )

PAGE 287

Panama became a republic there was not a road in the country that could be dignified by that name. Subsequently, a number of roads and bridges were built, connecting the principal towns in western Panama, but the work, in many cases, was let to irrespon ible contractors, and proved defective. It i officially admitted that the main trouble has been the failure to adopt a definite plan. This.mistake has been corrected, and works of a public nature are now carried out along uniform lines. The large t wagon bridge in the republic is that over the Santa Maria River on the border of Cocle and Los Santos prov inces It was built in 1907, under the supervision of Mr. J. G. Holcombe, at that time chief engineer of the republic, but who wa formerly in charge of all municipal engineering of the Canal Commission. Since 1904, municipal buildings, including schoolhouses, have been erected in all of the important A busy scene at the playa, or market beach, Panama City, where small coasting vessels laden with vegetables and fruit unload their cargoes. town. In Panama, a national palace and theatre was completed in 1908 at a co t of about $1,000,000; a city hall was erected in 1910; a national institute for boys, covering half an acre, wa fini hed in 1911 at a cost of about $800,000; a spaciou city market i now und r con truction, and plan have been prepared for an abattoir and co ld torage plant to cost $100,000. In Colon, a government building wa erected in 1906. Development of the country ha been greatly handicapped by the lack of suitable transportation facilitie from the interior districts to the ports. Produce i brought to the port by pack-pony, or by two-wheeled ox carts, over roads which, in the rainy sea on, oftentimes become impassable. It is then shipped to market by teamer or ailing ves el. On the Pacific coast, the National Navio'ation Company op rates teamers west as far as Ped regal the port of hiriqui province, touching at all intennediate port, and on the east to San [ 273 ]

PAGE 288

OX TEAM Ancient methods of agriculture are still in vogue, such as planting corn by punching holes in the ground with a sharp pointed stick, although a few farmers have made homes and laid out plantations in the interior provinces and the methods of farming are being gradually improved. Produce is brought to market by a pack-pony or by two-wheeled ox carts over roads, which, in the rainy season, often become impassable. [ 274 ]

PAGE 289

Miguel Bay. The Panama Steamship Company competes in this trade be tween Panama and Chiriqui, as do hundreds of small sailing vessels. On the Atlantic coast the traffic has to depend entirely on ailing ves els and l aunches. There is less than 100 miles of railroad in the country, and is confined to the Panama railroad main line, and its branches, and to a line about 40 miles in length operated by the United Fruit Company in connection with its banana plantations in the province of Bocas del Toro. In 1910, at the request of the Panama Government, a survey was made by the Panama Railroad Com pany, for a line from Panama to David in Chiriqui province a distance of Greetings from Panama about 4 miles. Several attempt to enact railroad legi lation in the National A embly, in order to proceed with the con truction of this line failed; it pa ed the A embly at one time, but was vetoed by a former president on con titutional grounds. The present administration has abandoned thi project, and i making a study of a series of short electric roads, with a view of connecting up Celebration of the opening of the Panama tramways. Picture taken at the company's car barn. [ 275 1

PAGE 290

the principal ports on the Pacific coast, west of Panama, with the interior districts, using the abundant waterpower for operating them. A number of other rai.road schemes have been launched during the past few years, notably, one in the Darien by a German syndicate, and another in Colon province, having its port terminus at the mouth of the Chagres River; the former project was abandoned, and the latter has been held up by the United States Govern ment. The Panamanian telegraph system i s government-owned. A line A corner on Central Avenue, Panama, showing a car of the tramway service. extends from Panama to David, with branch lines ramifying through the provmces. FREE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM The national con titution established a free public sc hool system, something unique in Latin-America, and the government has pursued the policy of always providing liberally for the cause of education. Attendance at the public schools i s cO!llpulsory, and ab ence without permission is punishable by small fines. Separate graded schoo l s for each sex are maintained. The curriculum embraces studies that will prepare the pupil for the local nonnal chools, and the institute. It include drawing, and in the case of the girls, instruction in needlework. Lesson in English are given in all the city schools, and some of the country schoo ls, twice a week. The government also maintains a manual training school for boys, and a natural con ervatory of mus ic to which children of poor families are given free instruction, and where boys are trained to qualify for employment in the national band. There are a number of private colleges for both sexes in the republic; the colleges for boys are generally conducted by the Chri tian Brother. The in stitute i open to Panamanian boys free of charge, but only two in a family are entitled to be admitted at the arne time on thi ba i. The director i an American but the talent of variou countries is [ 276 J

PAGE 291

I The splendid public buildings, worthy of any towns of their size, which have been erected in Panama City and Colon, are real monuments to Panamanian progress. The Panama government provides liberally for the education of its youth. The National Institute, Panama City, cost about $700,000 and has class room for 1 ,000 boys. Colon also has a school building for boys of much the same archi tectural type as the one shown in the picture for girls. [ 2 77 ]

PAGE 292

drawn on freely in the se lection of the remainder of the faculty. The scholars are classed as inte rnos, those who board and room at the schoo l and ext e rnos, those who liv e at home. Every pupil who liv es at the sc hool must be provided prior to admittance with clothes and bed lin en to the value of $100. On May 1, 1913, the number of public schoo l s in each province, number of teachers empl oyed, and sc holars enrolled, were, as follows: No No. of Schoo l s Mixed No. of Teach e r s No. Receiving PROYINC'E a nd Pupil s en-InstrucAlter-tion, Boy s Girl nate lYIal e Fema l e rolled oneh alf day Boca de l Toro ............ 3 9 5 Cocle .................. 11 9 35 18 53 1,682 Colon .................. 10 12 12 22 45 1 ,358 Cl" 44 36 76 4,111 llflQUl ................ Los Santos .............. I 42 34 2,942 Panama ............... 30 11 76 174 6,407 5,177 Veragua ................ 13 8 I 20 861 Totals ............. 107 104 165 1 89 419 19 ,54 1 13,618 Mix e d c hool are tho e wh e re pupi l s of both exes attend classes a t th e same tim e A lt e rn a t e sc hool s a r e those where the b o y a ttend choo l in the morning, and gir l s in th e afte rnoon vice versa. In additi on to the above, the re i s a normal institute for girls, with 161 pupils, and 19 professors; national conservatory of music and declamation, with 176 pupils and e ight professors; sc hool of arts and sc i ences with 136 scho lars and nine professors, and the National Institute for boys with 157 pupils, and professors, all located in P a nama City. Since May 1 seve ral other primary sc hool s have been ope n ed, and one profe ss ional schoo l for gir ls. The national Masonic Temple, Port Limon. [ 2 7 8 1

PAGE 293

-----__ -'0 ____________ Views of a Sugar Cane Plantation, located about seven miles east of Colon. The ralsmg of sugar cane i destined to become one of the future permanent sources of wealth of the country. The Isthmian cane contains a high per cent of saccharine and grows readily. r 279 1

PAGE 294

1 conservatory of music and declamation is one of the best of its kind, and many American children receive musical instruction there. Its head is Prof. Narciso Garay. PANAMA RICHLY ENDOWED BY NATURE Notwithstanding the fact that Panama has been wonderfully favored in the extent and variety of its natural resources, the value of its imports greatly exceed the value of its exports. The people of interior Panama are in the main agriculturists only so far as to supply their own simple wants. They lack initiative and ambition, looking only to the present, with no great desire to acquire wealth from cultivation of the soil. Hence, the future of Isthmian agriculture must depend upon immigrants, men of a hardier mold, and ex perienced in tilling the field. The Canal Commission ran up against this condition in 1904 and 1905. It was perfectly willing to buy produce in the local market, but the moment it attempted to do so, prices advanced to a prohibitive point. This brought the commi sary question into prominence. In 1904, but one commissary was in operation, that at Cristobal. The merchants of Panama protested against the establishment of government commi saries on a large cale, and appealed to Washington. In 1905, .Hon. Charles E. Magoon, then governor of the Canal Zone, wa directed to propo e to the committee of merchants having the matter in charge, that if a company was formed among them to establish commi saries at points along the Canal, where indicated, and if thi company would agree to sell goods at a reasonable price, the Canal Commission would desist from their plan. After a week of deliberation, the chairman of the committee announced Central Market, Panama City, where the larger number of Panamanian housewives do their marketing. [ 280 ]

PAGE 295

The Mango is the most common of the fruit bearing trees in Panama. Gourds, from the gourd or calabash trees, are much used for household utensils. An excellent grade of coffee is grown on the uplands. Tamarinds are a small pod-shaped fruit with an acid flavor, having medicinal propertie. Cocoanut plants take root and sprout on the surface of sandy soil, and the growing of cocoanuts is becoming a profitable industry. [ 2 1 J

PAGE 296

at a public meeting that it was too big an undertaking for the merchants to entertain. Thu Panama lost one of its greatest opportunities, and as a result of this shortsightednes the commissarie have been a thorn in the flesh of the local commercial body ever s ince. Until immigration i intelligently fo tered by the Panama Government there can be no great development of the country's vast re ources. Some Street venders are numerous and display their wares in the manner shown in the picture. attempts at settlement and colonization have been made on the part of foreign ers, and most have failed, partly on account of obstacles set up by the govern ment itself, such as inability to procure clear titles, and partly on account of ignorance of local conditions. The present administration has taken steps to remedy the ituation by the land laws. The public land of Panama consists of what are known as Tierras baldias," or unappropriated or wild lands, and "Indultadas," which were acquired by the early settlers under grants frOlll the Spani h crown as commons. A general land survey, and the preparation of maps and plats of all government land, has been ordered, under which all rights acquired by person unde r former laws will be re spec ted, while present occupants of government land, who have put up improvements, may acquire title upon the payment of 50 cents a hectare (about acres). Sales of public land, not exceeding 1,000 hectares to anyone person, may be made at a price of not l es than $1.50, nor more than $6 per hectare. If the purcha er of a 1 ,00 0-hectare tract places same under full cultivation he may acquire another tract of equal size under similar conditions. Not more than 10 hectare of public land may be homesteaded by either foreigner or native born. Agriculturally peaking, the s urface of the republic has not yet been cratched. Th r are probably 75,000 head of cattle in Chiriqui, but the extensive [ 282 ]

PAGE 297

Panamanian fire brigade. Both Panama and Colon in times past have been visited by terrible conflagrations, and up to a few years ago were compelled to fight fires with antiquated equipment. J. G. Duque is the good angel of the Panama department, and for years paid for its upkeep out of his personal funds. Automobile fire engine of the Panamanian fire department at Colon. The city of Panama is a lso provided with one of these modern machines. [ :2c3

PAGE 298

llanos of that province, and in Veraguas, are capable of s upportin g ten time that many. Cattle on the hoof in Chiriqui bring about $35 a head. There i s an abundance of feed, and the chief enemy of the animals i s the tick, which, under scientific handling, has been brought under control. It i s est imated that over 8 000,900 acre in the republic are covered by virgin fore ts, containing valuable hardwoods, such as mahogany, cocobolo, guayacum (lignum vitae), roble, dyewoods, and other varieti es. Trace of go ld are found in various parts of the country. A few quartz mines have been worked, but on account of the low grade ore they h ave not proved profitab le. Manganese mines were formerly worked on the Atlantic The Espiritu Santo or Holy Ghost Orchid, one of the most prized members of the Isthmanian orchid family The petals of the flowers enclose a faithful reproduction of doves, even to the eyes and bill. Row of young Royal palms, Slifer Park, Colon. These were shoots less than a foot high in 1909, when transplanted from the Botanical Gardens at Kingston, Jamaica. coa t, near Nombre de Dios. Indications of oil have been discovered in Chiriqui and Lo Santos provinces. No coal deposits of value have yet been found. A lignitic formation was encountered in the excavation of the Canal. Both the flora and the fauna cover a wide range, and r e m a in t o be made the subject of expert study. The orchid thrives and the re are hundre d s of varietie the Espiritu Santo, the Semana Santa, and La Doncella de la N ache being the most prized. Among wild animals are the jaguar, wild cat, puma, d ee r, armadillo, anteater, tapir, raccoon, sajino, a specie s of w ild boar, rabbit, squirre l monkey, marmoset, and s loth. Alligators are plentiful in the tidal riv r and the snak fami l y i represented from the boa con trictor t o the pite-[ 284 1

PAGE 299

An iguana, or huge lizard. Its flesh, as well as its eggs, are highly prized as articles of diet by the natives of Panama. Among the wild animals on the Isthmus, none are more unprepossessing than the sloth, shown in the picture. They are harmless and stick close to the trees. Two products of the Isthmus. The picture above shows "Buster" Brown seated on a 15 ft. S in. alligator, which was shot three miles from Porto Bello, in August, 1909. The rivers of Panama are the habitat of thousands of alligators. The Bayano river is especially adapted to their haunts, and parties of Canal employes often make trips up this river and enjoy the sport of hunting them. [ 2 5 1

PAGE 300

A bread seller. ful coral. Bird life i s particularly varied, the best known species being the parrot family, including the parroque t. The game birds consist of quail, currasow wild ducks, pigeons, dove, guans, (a kind of wild turkey) and various migratory s hore birds. The quetzal bird i s found in Chiriqui province. In the Canal Zone upward of 800 spec ies of birds have been noted, 300 of which h ave been classified. Among theln are more than 150 kind of humming birds, including a new spec i es which have been given the n a m e of Goethalae, in honor of Colonel Goethals. The I sthmus i s a veritable paradi e for the ports man. The kill in g of birds in the Canal Zone is restrict ed. D eer, formerly common in the Zon e, have been largely hunted off, but are plentiful a short distance away from the Canal. The largest s in g le item of export from the I thmus i s bananas, the annual hipments of the United Fruit Company from its plantations in Bocas del Toro province a l one amountin g to upward of 6,000,000 bunches. It is the econd l argest banana producing district in the world, and i s continually being extended. Banana are found in all parts of the r ep ublic, and, with the above except i on, no pain s are taken to cultivate them. The Chagres River valley is quite a producer, and furnishes the Canal Commission hote l s and messes. The Frijoles banana i s espec i ally noted for it s fine fla vor. There are seve ral varieties of bananas, most of them unknown to the outsider as they are not shipped. One is the manzana, so named, because of a s imilarit y in flavor to the apple, and the higo, so -called, because it approximate a fig in flavor. This last se ldom grows larger than a man's middle finger. Other fruit a r e the pineappl e, w hich grow to prodigious size on Taboga I land, the pineapple paradi e; mangoes of varying size and qualit y, in c ludin g a toothsome fruit known as the mango de calidad; nis pero, a mall, sweetish fruit; oranges, limes and l emons, guava, maranon, a fruit that will pucker lik e a choke cherry, having its seed at one end; rapefruit, papayas, breadfruit, ma meys of severa l kinds, cu tard appl es, cirijuelas, a native cherry, etc. Cocoa nut grow everywhere, but attain their gr atest production on the San Bl a coa t. Ther are many varieties of [ 2 6 ] Making cocoanut oil.

PAGE 301

LI;] The largest single item of export from the Isthmus is bananas. The annual shipment of the United Fruit Company from its plantation in Bocas del Toro Province alone amounting to upwards of 6,000 000 bunches. It is the second largest banana producing district in the world. [ 2 7 I

PAGE 302

the palm tree, including the royal palm (transplanted), wine palm, ivory nut palm, and fan palm. Pearl fishing h as been carried on for years in the Pearl Island archipelago, s ituated in Panama Bay about 45 miles from Panama City. It is conducted under conces ion from the P anama Government. Balboa makes mention of finding many pearls of s ize the re, and some have been disclosed in recent times to the valu e of $ 1,200. Native divers are u uall y e mplo ye d, although the diving bell has been used. Most of the fishing i s carried on in the rainy seaso n as the Outer view of one of the old forts at Porto A tropical tramp. A local character known Bello. It is so grown over with vegetation as "Old Aspinwall" who lived in Colon for that the walls are hardly visible. The turret many years. marks one of the corners. divers do not lik e to de cend in the dry seaso n, when an ocean current cools the temperature of the water. Some pearls a re also found along the coast of L os Santos province. Other native product are rubber, cocoa, plantains, corn, indigo, sarsaparilla, ipecac, suo'ar cane, and tobacco. The rai s ing of sugar cane i s destined to become one of the future permanent so urce s of wealth of the country. The I thmian cane contain s a hi g h percentage of accharine and grow readily. At the present time on l y one r efine r y i s in operation, the sap being mainly used in the producti on of molas e and native rum. It i to be feared that Nature ha been too lavi s h to the simple husbandman of the Isthmu. It furni hes the cane to build the wall s of his little hut; the palm leaves are ea ily gath ered to thatc h it ; the neighboring tree supply the mat ria l out of which he fa hion hi mortar and pestle for pulverizing hi s corn or hulling his ri e; the calabash tree found growing in every yard furni shes the [ :2H, ]

PAGE 304

Among the several tribes of Indians in the Republic of Panama, the San BIas or Cuna-Cunas, who inhabit the hundreds of islands and islets that fringe the Caribbean coast, are the most conspicuous. They are a small statured people, fond of ornaments and bright-hued raiment. They subsist on vegetables and fish, and, until recently, it has been a tribal law that no stranger should be permitted to remain after nightfall.

PAGE 305

L---_-J Primitive methods are still used in making molasses in the interior of Panama and the produce is principally used in the manufacture of native rum. Pineapple growing is quite an industry and some-of the most luscious pineapples in the world are grown on Taboga Island. A sample of the straw used in the manufacture of Panama hats is shown in one of the above pictures. A family group is also shown preparing the evening meal by hulling rice with mortar and pestle, after the native method. The household utensils of the people of the interior of Panama are crude affairs. [ 289 ]

PAGE 306

minor household utensils; his orange and papaya trees and banana stalks gives him all the fruit he wants; he goe a short di tance away and collects the wild plantain, which make an excellent substitute for potatoes; he pokes a stick in the ground near the house and inserts the seed of a yucca or yam, giving it no The usual type of house of the average interior Panamanian. They are constructed of bamboo, tied by means of withes and have a thatch roof. further attention; his wife collects the firewood that the wind has shook from the trees, and he lack what? Nothing, but a little coffee, sugar, salt, and candles. THE PEOPLE The native population of the Isthmus is composed of descendants of the early Spanish conquistadoTes, and of variou later mixtures. Prior to the intro duction of the negro slaves, the people could be divided into three general classes, the pure-blooded Spaniards, the native Indians, and the mestizos, a cross be tween the Spaniard and the Indian. With the advent of the negroes, mulattos became numerou and these mixing with the Indian produced another type called zambos. During the French canal days, many of the French employes intermarried with the Panamenas, resulting in a creole type. Since then, other mixtures have come into exi tence, such as the Chinese with the negro, and the Chinese with native women of the lower class. Thus may be seen many children, mOTeno, or brown in color, with Mongolian features. The mestizo, according to the national census of 1911, i largely in the majority, outnumbering the white three to one, .and the negroe two to one. Comparatively few negroes are seen in the back country; they generally live near the coast, or in the cities of Panama, Colon, and Bocas del Toro. The Canal work ha been responsible for the introduction of the greater part of the present day negroes with the exception of the province of Bocas del Toro, where [ 290 ]

PAGE 307

The children of the tropical zone love to playas ardently as do those in the cooler climes; they have the same childish joys and sorrows and look forward with some desire to the time when they are 'Grown Up." One of their games peculiar to the Isthmus resembles "shooting craps," and i played with the seeds of the maranon, a native fruit. [ 291 ]

PAGE 308

A wash day scene. Wash-boards are not in favor with the native laundry women. A flat stone and a wooden beater are effective in removing the dirt, but as a "button buster" .hey are hard to beat. Laundry is delivered and produce carried to market on the heads of the natives. A farmer living near Panama City makes a business of renting space to the washerwomen, on which to erect lines for drying their clothes. the United Fruit Company ha imported them in large numbers to work its banana plantations. Practically all of the negroe came from the i lands of the Antilles; many of them become naturalized, acquire property, and, in time, adopt the language and customs of the and intermix with the native inhabitants. The full-blooded negro immigrant ha no social tanding whatever with the Panamanians as long as he remains a West Indian in character and associa tions. He is termed a "chumbo" by them, equivalent of the shortening of the word "negro" a practiced in the United State. The color line, however, is Street scene in the village of Arraijan. [ 292 ]

PAGE 309

Rosario de la Rosa in her native holiday costume. The Martiniquan women are the most picturesque of the varied types attracted to Panama by the Canal work. Their dress tends wholly to gay colors. One of the belles of Panama, or a Panamanian "Queen of Hearts." A Panamanian family. Girls of the higher class Panamanian families are not allowed on the street after nightfall, without being accompanied by some member of their family. [ 293 ] ..

PAGE 310

not drawn so trictly a it is in the South, nor with th laxit y of the North. He i not admitted to the best hotels, cafes, or barber s hops, out he i s permitted to mingl e freely in places of public amusement. H e can it in the first-cla s co ache of a Panama railroad passenger train, provided he pays first-clas fare for the privil ge, which o nl y a few avail the m se lv es of, and there are no "Jim Crow" street cars He i s not, how e v r, admitted to th homes of the better class of Panamanian, except in the capacity of m enial. On the other hand if a per on i of mixed Panamanian and negro s tock wa born in the country, and i a c itiz en, the bar are lowered and the re are many of this t y pe who have ri en to public emin ence through superior intelligence. The Panamanian i eithe r fairly well-to-do or very poor. The middle class een in l\Iexico, and om other Latin-American countries, i s a negligible factor -Church of the Immaculate Conception at Colon, (Roman Catholic). The building to the right is the schoolhouse and hall, erected by the parish priest, Father Yolk, after years of labor, with his own hands and with his own money. in Panama. In the provinces, out id e of the towns, the poorer class predominate. The people are either squatters ettling on a piece of government land or are employes of orne landed proprietor, or cattle owner. The mestizo makes an excellen t vaquero and cowboy, because of hi liking for the work. The average interior farmhand, how eve r i s utterl y undependable as a laborer, -and, a a rule, can be counted on to work only when he mus t have mone y He has an a lm ost total la c k of ambition, and, therefore, i s mea urabl y free from worry. So l ong as h e has a roof over hi s head even if only of thatch, a hammock to leep in and a n amount of rice meat, and rum ufficient to stay the immediate cravin g of hi appetite h e care not a jot for the morrow. H revel in fiesta or religiou holida ys, and it i s then that the inte rior native is een at hi be t. The head of the family will don a boiled shirt and black trouser ; some timeS' h e w ill put on a pair of alpaTgatas, or ropeoled lippers, but gen rally h will go barefoot. The wife and d aughter will assume all the [ 294 ]

PAGE 311

Interior of the church at Arraijan. The parishioners-are poor as evidenced by the crude attempt at adornment. The village church at San Miguel, Pearl Islands. These islands are located in Panama Bay and are noted for their pearl beds. finery their simple abode possesses. This, on feast days, usually consists of the pollera, popularly called the national costume, which is worn with a grace and freedom of movement, which no woman not native born has been able to imitate. The hair i s bedecked with varicolored butterfly and flower ornaments, and native made bright colored s lipp ers adorn the feet. No hose are worn. A gold chain and a filmy scarf generally completes the attire. The poll e ra is not confined to the poorer clas es, but is much affected on religiou fe tivals by the wives and daughters of the rich. The costume is very carefully made frequently costing from $40 to $50. Panama i s essentially a Catholic country, and while all of its civilized inhabitants observe the forms of religion, there i surprisingly small interest in church attendance. The rite of bapti m and christening, however, are never Methodist Church and College, built by the Sea in Panama City. Both English and Spanish are taught in the college. The Sunday morning services are conducted in English and the evening services in Spanish. Christ Church, Colon. The oldest Protestant church on the Isthmus, built in 1865 by the Panama Railroad. It was consecrated by Bishop Potter and is now owned by the Episcopal Church. [ 295 ]

PAGE 312

overlooked. Many of the old hou ses contain niches for the burning of candles, a practice indulged in by eve ry good Catholic family on the near approach of ill fortune or s ickness. Wayside shrines are found along the roads on which some small offering may be seen. On all important religious anniversaries and saint days, proc essions are formed and march through the streets. The carnival or "Mardi Gras" has come to be the one great event in Panama, and is carried out on a larger sca le with each succeeding year. It is preceded by the election of a king and queen, the proceeds from the sale of votes being used to defray the expense of the affair. The carnival continues for three or four days, and Chorrera Falls. One of a number of pretty waterfalls in Panama, 20 miles from Panama City. during this period the "lid is off." It is estimated that in the 1913 celebration about 50 tons of confetti were used. The Panamanian of the better class represents the material progress of the country a lon g all line s His sons and daughters are educated abroad, and dress in as correct sty le as in New York or Paris. With the broadening of ideas, there has been an abandonment of some of the ancient customs which have hemmed in the lif e of the boy and girl. It is not as popular now as it was once for a gallant to stand for hours on the sidewalk gazing steadily up at the fair form of hi inamorada, wit hout indul g ing in a word of conversation, but the heads of some families still per i s t in inquiring the intentions of admirers of their daughter when they call more than once, and show them the door if the answer is not satisfacto r y In P anama, these customs have given way to a large extent the past ten yea rs, and, in time, will probably be a thing of the past. THE INDIANS OF PANAMA Indian, and persons of Indian descent, are found in every part of the I thmu but tho e who h ave preserved their tribal tate may be grouped under r 296 ]

PAGE 313

Carnival scenes, Panama City. The Annual "Carnival" or Mardi Gras, is the biggest event of the year in Panama. The upper picture shows the Queen of the Carnival riding in her royal chariot during the height of the festivities. Tons of confetti are thrown and everybody takes a week's holiday. [ 297 ]

PAGE 314

the foul' following classe: The Guaymies, who dwell in th mountain of Chiriqui and Veraguas provinces; the San BIas, or Cuna-Cunas, who people the islands and some parts of the mainland along the Caribbean coast, east of Colon; the Chucunaques, or Darien tribe, who live in the mountains of eastern Panama, and the Cho coes, who are found in the Sambu River valley in southeastern Darien, and whose territory laps over into Colombia. The national census of 1911 did not include a count of the Indians living in tribal state ;but estimated their number at 36,178, since shown to be entirely too low. MEMBERS OF PRESIDENT PORRAS' CABINET. Seventy five thousand DON ARISTIDES ARJONA, Secretary of Finance. DON FRANCISCO FILOS, will approximate their Secretary of Government and Justice. number more nearly. 1\1:r. Henry Pittier, who has given these tribes, with the exception of the Chucunaques, some personal study, contributed an excellent article on the Indians of Panama in the July, 1912, number of the National Geographic Maga zine He, however, classes the Chucunaques and the upper Bayano River Indians as a part of the Cuna-Cuna stock, which is open to question, as the two present distinct physical types. The San BIas are emi -dwarf, with abnormally developed heads, mansize bodies, and puny legs; the most of the men are bow-legged. Albinos are common among them. The Chucunaque Indian is of normal proportions, Beet of foot, and will compare to advantage in some respects with the North American Indian. The Cuna-Cuna is a fisher-Vaults in the Cemetery, Panama City. [ 298 ]

PAGE 315

man; the Chucunaque, a hunter, and between the two th I' i u ually deadl enmit.,. The Chucunaque are typical avage. while the San Bla although fearful of the coming of the white man, doe not dete t him, and ha adopted man of the white man' comfort. The territorie of th una-Cuna and the Chucunaque have Ion been nearl a book to th(! out ider, and until recently it ha been a tribal law with the an Bla that no iI'anger hould be permitted to remain after nightfall, due, it i aid, out of fear for their women. The San Bla inhabit the hundred of i land, and i let that fringe the Caribbean coa t, and ub i t on vegetables and h; fre h meat i rarely een in their village. Before Panama eparated from Colombia, the an Bla weI' ruled by one chieftain named Inanaquina. The latter died of f yer while on a mis ion to Bogota, the capital of Colombia, and wa ucceeded by hi nephew, Inapaquina. Owing to the new chief' lown e in recoo'nizino' the change in government, Panama tran ferred authority yer the San Bla to another Indian, who e Engli h name i Charley Robin on. Som of the San Bla refu ed to accept Robin on, and a plit followed, 0 today the tribe i divided. Robin on who pent e eral year in the United State, i a progre ive, while Inapaquina ha no de ire to cultivate the ,,,hite man' acquaintance. The capital of the former i at an Jose de Nar 'ana, near the mouth of the Rio Diablo, and there earl' in 1913, Miss Annie Coope, a "'oman mi ionary ucceeded in e tabli hing a mi ion school. lUi Coope made an attempt to enter the country everal year before, but at that tim wa not permitted to land. She per i ted in her effort and through the influence of Chief Robin on, he wa ucce ful; now th Indian are o-Iad he came. F w of the an Bla are able to count above 10, Peculiar rock formation seen at San Juan on the Pequeni River. Scene on the upper Chagres River. The river between Alhajuela and El Vigia flows between high rock banks. [ 299 ]

PAGE 316

and when o n e of the San Bl a boys of lVliss Coope' sc hool counted to 100 he wa the wonder of the village. It has b ee n the cu tom of this division of the tribe to permit the boys to come to Panama and Colon, and to even send them abro ad, to procure a rudimentary education, with the expectation that they San BIas Indian Chief. San BIas Indian Girls. would return to their home s later; ome have gone back, but most of them become enamored of the lif e of the citie and sever tribal relations. The girl, how eve r a re rarely a llow ed to leave the Indian villages. With the development o f Panama, there ha been an increa ingly insistent d emand that the valuabl e territory occupied by the Indian tribe s be opened for settlement. The Indians h ave opposed this, but at the sess ion of the Panama National A embl y in 1913, a bill was passe d, which permit peaceful exploita tion of the region, and alread y a number of trading companie have entered, or are preparing to enter the fie ld. The San BIas coa t y ield SOlne of the finest cocoanuts in the wor ld and a yet the production i only in its infancy. Tradin g i s a l so done in t orto i se s h ell, out of which combs and other hair ornament are made, balata, the gum of the nispe1'o tree, a kind of rubber that commands a better p ri ce than the Para articl e, and ivor y nut, from which the vegetable i vory of commerce i s produced. The mountain tream how evidence of go ld and both the coast and mountain Indians are well provided with gold ornaments, broad c uff s for the wri t worn by the men, and earrings and nose rings much affected by the women. The San Bla ar not at all warlike, and there are no proved instance of ill-treatment of vi itors within recent year. The stranger i politely, but firmly warned away, and no one ha been ra h enough to incur their a nimo ity. [ 300 ]

PAGE 317

Even officials of the Canal Commis ion received a rebuff at their hands a few year ago. It was when a hunt was being made for a good quality of sand to be used in the concrete for Gatun Locks. A tug wa ent along the San BIas coast, and when an attempt was made to investigate the sand on the hores of Caledonia Bay, the official were reque ted to desi t, which they did. The San BIas hold their mountain neighbors in dread, becau e in times past the latter were accustomed to levy tribute on them, and in ca e of non-payment to make raids on their village, destroying the hou e and carrying away property. The mountain Indian have al 0 occa ion ally re orted to poi oning the streams from which the San Bla procured their drinking water. The author has known Panamanian policemen lined up in front of the National Palace in Panama City, to form an escort at the funeral of a president. of the exodus of a whole village in anticipation of one of the e raids. Tbe Panama Government has only on po t in the San Bla country at the present time, that at Puerto Obaldia. THE G A Yl\IIES The Guaymi Indian ar partly civilized. The women copy the simple dre f the interior native women, and the men wear shirts and trousers. They are not prepo e sing, and fac painting is a common practice among both men and worn n. Pittier ay: "The children, e pecially th little girls, frequently have lovely face, with a warm, brown velvety skin, and beautiful eyes. When they r ach the age of puberty, their hair is cropped short, and is not allowed to grow again until th fir t bab, i born. Maidenhood, however, is a short stage of life for the Guaymi w men, who, not infrequently become mothers before [ 301 ]

PAGE 318

having reached their twelfth year. Polyga m y i s practiced, while the other Indian tribes of the Isthmu a r e, for the most part, monogamists!" With the Guaymi wives are regarded as a tangible asset. THE CHOCOES Of the Chocoe Pittier writes: Whil e the history of the Cuna-Cunas could be written, at least for the post-Colombian period, we know almost nothing of the Chocoes. They are se ldom referred t o in the anci ent record s Never in our 25 year of tropical exper ience have we met with s uch a sun -lovin g, bright, and tru ting people, li ving neare t to Nature, and i g noring the most e lementary wi l es of so -called c ivilizati on. Phy ically, the Chocoes are a fine and healthy race. The men have wiry lim b and faces that a r e at once kind and energet i c, whi le, as a rul e, the gir l s a r e plump, and full of mi sc hief. The women preserve their good l ooks and attractiveness much long e r than is generally the case in primitive peoples, in which their sex bears the heavie s t share of the day's work. Both males and females have unus uall y fine, white teeth, which they ometime dye b lack by chew in g the shoots of wild pepper. The skin is of a rich, o livebrown co lor and, as u s u a l a littl e li ghte r in the women and childreN. Though all go a lm os t naked, they look fairer than the CunaCunas, and some of the women would compar e advantageously w ith certain Mediterranean types of the white race." The Chocoes have an inordinate fondness for ornaments and body painting. On feast days, these paintings are very e laborate and arti s ti c, cons i s tin g of e l egan tl y drawn lin es and patterns-red Patio or Court of the National Prison of Panama, commonly called Chiriqui Prison. It is situated near the sea wall in Panama City. [ 302 ]

PAGE 319

and black, or black. The people are cleanly and very industriou During the dry season, their life is wholly out-of-doors, planting their crop, hunting, fi hing, and canoeing. When the heavy rains come they remain at Some of the gold ornaments found in the graves of an extinct race of Indians in the Province of Chiriqui. They are made of solid gold and each is supposed to represent some animal. home weaving ba kets of all kind, a work in which the women ar remarkably proficient, making rope and hammock, carving dishe out of tre trunk, etc. AN IE T CIVILIZATIO OF HIRIQ I In ancient tim ,a pow rful and aggre ive tribe ometime pok n of a the Dora que, probably an off hoot of the 1\Iaya inhabited the greater part of the province of Chiriqui. A a people they are now totally extinct, but they have left behind evidenc of a civilization that compares favorably with that of the Aztec of 1\Iexico, the l\Iaya of Central America, the Chibcha of the Colombian plateau, and the Inca of Peru. In the latter part of 1858, native of Bugaba, a mall village in Chiriqui province, about 15 miles from David, accidentally unearthed a gold image. Further earch led to the discovery, within an area of 12 acre, of gold ornaments and curiou pottery valued at $50,000. The place wa evidently a huacal, or burial ground for the ancient race. ince that tim other di coveries have been made, and thousands of huacas, or grave, hav been explored. In many, pottery only ha been found, th gold ornament having been .elaced olely in the grave of some chieftain, or prominent man of the tribe. The grave are invariably enclosed in rough tone lab forming a kind of a vault. 'isitor to Chiriqui rarely return without om of thi potter ,which can be obtained very cheaply, or if one cares to, [ 303 ]

PAGE 320

LA MERCEDES CHURCH r--------------------------, r CENTRAL AV.. OOKING SOU-ttt The upper picture shows the Panama Cathedral, Panama City, begun in 1673, and completed in 1760. A portion of the Plaza de la Independencia taken from the roof of the City Hall building, is also shown. The small building on the corner directly in front of the La Mercedes Church, is the chapel. This church is attended by many of the wealthier Panamanians. Many of the streets are so narrow that vehicles can hardly pass. [ 304 ]

PAGE 321

The preliminary object lesson in the Canal Zone Motto, "The Land Divided, the World United," finds its culmination in the striking illustration given above. The scene shows the first boat to pass through the Gatun locks on September 26, 1913, and pictures the enthusiastic throng of people who are manifesting their joy by cheers as the boat's progress is proceeding through the waterway. To the tugboat "Gatun" was accorded the privilege of making the first passage.

PAGE 323

he can dig them up himself. The gold ornament are of plendid workmanship, and show that the Indians were killed metal workers. They appear to have been cast in clay moulds, and the mo t favored forms are the frog, tortoise, tiger, armadillo, dog, eagle, and nake. The pottery i vari-colored, either plain, or glazed, and the decoration ranges from crude outline of animal hape to complex and regular geometrical d e igns. Some impl ements and household utensils have also been found. In 1913 graves containing orne of these gold ornaments were reported to have been found in the province of Los Santo, about 150 miles ea t of the graves of Chiriqui. Part of the Sea Wall, Panama City. The wall is said to have cost $8,000,000 and is the one which led King Philip to remark that the work ought to be visible from his palace in Spain. Another ornament that come from Chiriqui province, and i al 0 quite common in Co ta Rica, i s the cadena chata, a lon g go ld chain, made of thin plates, clo ely linked together. They are highly prized by the Panamena who wear them on fea t day, while the Americans have souO'ht them 0 eagerly that they have ri en Teatl y in price and caused numerou imit ations. A genuine cadena chata, worth now about $40, could have been bought in 1904 for half that urn. The piedras pintadas (painted tone) found in Chiriqui province are attributed by orne to th ancient Indian inhabitant. The l arge t pecimen of the e tands upon an open plain a few miles out of D av id, and con ist of a huge boulder on which a variety of hieroglyphic have been cut and painted. Smaller tone have been found in the vall y of the Cald ra River. 1\11'. D. F. MacDonald, an authority on the geolog, of western Panama, ay of them: "From [ 305 ]

PAGE 324

the weathering of these piedras pintadas, and from the pottery and other objects remnants of an ancient culture, it is known that they are at least 1,000 years old, and probably consIderably more." SIGHTSEEING The modernizing of Panama has necessarily robbed it of some of its historic charm, but there still remain many evidences of its earlier characteristics. The once fortified sea wall still stands, and the story of its cost, said to be $8,000,000, an sum in days, .will bear repeating. ".A sovereign of Spain was seen standmg at a wmdow of IllS palace one day, lookmg toward the west with a disturbed on his courtier. bold to inquire what he was lookmg at. I am lookmg, rephed the Kmg, hIS face relaxing into a A part of the Sea Wall, Panama City, at low tide. The Chiriqui prison is located within these walls. There is a promenade on top of the wall which overlooks the Pacific entrance to the Canal. On the Sea Wall there has recently been placed a bronze bust of Lucien Bonaparte Wyse, the Frenchman who was interested in the Canal work for many years. It was the gift of his son to the Republic of Panama. grim mile, 'for those costly walls at Panama.' They ought to be visible even from here." The cathedral, begun in 1673 and completed in 1760, the church of San Francisco, and the ruins of the convent adjacent thereto, the church of San Felipe Neri, founded in 1688, now the oldest in the city, the ruins of Santo Domingo church, with its flat arch, the ruins of the Jesuit college and convent on Avenue A, the remnant of the old city walls, are among the places that bring a sparkle to the eyes of visitors. Outside the city, the places well worth a vi it include Old Panama, with its sole surviving tower, ruined church, catacomb, wall, bridges, and call e s; Taboga I land, with its quaint village and excellent sea bathing; Pearl Islands, with it pearl fi heries; Chorrera, a large native village, [ 306 J

PAGE 325

Las Sabanas contains the summer homes of many of the wealthier people of Panama. Many beautiful houses have been erected in this suburb. It is tropical, because here is the sign-manual of the tropics, the palm, dainty ferns and other luxuriant growths. It is located about seve n mile s f om Pa.nama City and is reached by a good macadamized road. [ 307 ]

PAGE 326

20 miles from Panama, near which are pretty falls; the lower reaches of the Bayano River, haunt of the alligators; a bit of the old Cruces paved trail, which enters the Corozal road; the ruins of the Fort San Lorenzo, at the mouth of the Chagres River, and the ruin of the forts at Porto Bello. The oldest church in the republic i at Nata in the province of Cocle, but it is not ea ily visited unless one has the time. Nearly all the point of intere t in the Canal Zone, or in the vicinity of Panama or Colon, can be reached either by railroad train, carriages, automobiles, or launche. The highway from Panama through Las Saban as to the Rio Juan Diaz furnishes a plea ant trip by carriage or automobile. The road wind through a rolling prairie, where many of the wealthier Panamanians have summer home BATHING There are a number of excellent bathing place on both sides of the Isthmus. The bay at Porto Bello is a "swimmin' hole" for the residents of that village, and moonlight swimming parties are held frequently. There is a sand beach near Toro Point, while at Cristobal, the slips between the new docks, and at Colon, the swimming pool adjacent to the new Hotel Wa hington, are well patronized. On the Pacific side, the cove on Taboga Island, and the sand beach at Pena Prieta are the two most desirable places. A large pavilion has recently been erected fronting the beach at Pena Prieta to which the street cars run. At Gatun, the lake is used, and at Corozal, swimming in the canal i a great pa time. PANAl\lA HATS No one knows exactly how the word "Panama" came to be applied to the hat of that name. An old hat dealer once told the writer that he thought it was because in the early day of the hat's popularity, mo t of the hipments came through Panama. Only a few Panama have ever been made on the Isthmus, and these were of the crude variety. A few years ago the Panama Government opened a hat school at a little village called Arraijan, but it was not a success. Ecuador i the home of the true Panama, although in recent year, Colombia and other nearby countrie have come to be great producers of the cheaper Making Panama hats at Arraijan. A few Panama hats are made here, but the true Panama comes from Ecuador. [:iO ]

PAGE 327

grade The nlO t valuable make of a Panama hat i the Montecri 'ii, 0 named from a mall town in Ecuador where they are made. This hat ells in the local market at from $35 to $50, and", ould be worth from $75 to $100 in the United State. i itor to the I thmus accustomed to the cheap imitations handled by American or European importers are at a los to account for the prices asked for a ]\lontecri ti hat. All Panama hat look more or le s alike to them, and they are igno "rant of the fact that in fabricating a ]\ionteeri ti hat of the best grade the time of everal person for a period of everal month i required. They are wov n by hand labor on the piece-work plan. There are plenty of the cheaper grade handled on the I thmu ,and, ince the coming of the tourists, a bri k bu ine in them ha prun' up. The o-called' 'made under water" hat i a myth. C AL ZONE 0 VEl IR STONE In exca\ ating the Canal, a number of ,arietie of stone, agate, moon-tone, ja per, etc., were found, that, when properl cut and poli hed, made attractive mounting. Som of the be t of the e pecimen were uncovered when the hydraulic monitor were engaged in luicing material from the Canal channel near l\liraflore Lock, formerl y the ancient bed of the Rio Grande. THE PA. A::\IA LOTTERY The Panama lottery ha been in op ration for many yea r but until 1904 it had a formidable rival in roulette. The latter went out of exi tence by law on December 31, 1904, when the lottery at once came to the fore. The right to ell ticket in the Canal Zone came before the upreme Court of the United tate in the form of a te t ca e in 1904, and wa decided adversely to the lotter r company. The Canal emplo e population ha however, been its best eu tomer. The drawing are held each Sunday morning, and the grand prizes are $7,500 and $15,000, the larger drawing occurring once a month on the unday following the canal pay day. The lottery i operated under a eonces ion from the Panama Government and the drawing are upervi ed by the Crater of Chiriqui Volcano. This is the highest peak in Panama, 11,500 feet. The volcano has been extinct for many years. [ 309 ]

PAGE 328

fi"OT'ERIA" DE:"' PANAMA'-I Auto,hr.ada po, 1& Le, ...... Ina. i SORTEO NUMERO 1428 I -A=t\ o i' a x o c: n Q,UINTO I I o i vemtl,wbo 1 ue be hs d ( r 'D A.N AMA ... = I Jlu VItJI'Th d, C'CTL1DRl : !Ie 1'.)2 t< JflJJnLt..u. i T UJto> : e '-l.a:a. pOlliO JLj __ I r _t. f _II, .4tJ'. .. One piece of a Panama lottery ticket. The complete ticket contains five of these pieces which selI for fifty cents each for the regular drawings and a dolIar each for the special drawings. A view of one of the drawings which take place at ten o'clock every Sunday morning. 10,000 tickets are issued weekly and grand prizes run from $7,500 for the ordinary drawings to $15,000 for the special drawings. The lottery office is located in the Bishop's Palace, opposite the Central Park, Panama City. Tickets cannot be sold in the Canal Zone but the Canal employes are the best patrons. They must purchase their tickets, however, in Panama City or Colon. The drawings are supervised by the Panama government and a certain per cent of the profits must be devoted to educational and charitable purposes. o r 3 10 ]

PAGE 329

authorities. The proceeds derived by the government must by law be devoted to educational and charitable purpo es. PANAMA TO HOLD NATIONAL EXPOSITION The four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Vasco de Balboa occurred on September 25, 1913 (October 5, new style). I n commemoration of this event, Panama will hold a national exposition, open ing on November 1, 1914, and continuing six months, to which the United States, Spain; and the countries of LatinAmerica, including Cuba and the West Laying the corner stone of the Panama National Exposition, Sept. 26, 1913. The ceremony was performed by President Porras, assisted by the Bishop of Panama, Dr. William Rojas. Indie have been invited. A preliminary credit of $150,000 wa voted by the National A embly for the undertakino' in 1913. The site is on a natural plateau, ju t ea t of Panama City, on land purchased by the government for the purpo e. Half of this tract of 700 acre will be laid for the exposition ground with avenues 88 feet wide running east and we t, and h'eets 60 feet wide, running north and outh. The grounds front on La Saban as road, and will have one main and two maIler entrances, opening into a small park et out with tropic trees and plants. In another part of the ground will be an artificial lagoon. A gift of a plot of ground ha been made each to the United States and Spain for the erection of building, while two other plots have been reserved by Panama for its exhibits. These building ites are situated one on each of the four corners of the ground, and from them a pretty view of the bay, Ancon Hill, Ancon, Panama and environs may be obtained. [ 311 ]

PAGE 330

Tracy Robinson, of Colon, who has resided on the Isthmus longer than any other living American, celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his residence there in 1912. September 25, 1913 was declared a national holiday in Panama, and the d ay was made the occasion of the for m a l inauguration of work at the exposi tion grounds. The exercises were attended by government and Canal o fficials, and members of the diplomatic corp. They consisted princi pally of la y ing the corner stone of the Administration Building by President Porras, and a n address by Mr. Ramon F. Acevedo, who outlined the government' plans. The managing director i s Mr. Alejandro Bermudez, who was the Nicaraguan commissioner to the P a n-Am e ri can Expos ition at Buffalo, and the St. Louis Fair. Visitors pass in g through the Canal en route for the San Fra nci sco fair will be afforded an opportunity of see ing the Canal and the exposition at the same time. A movement was started by Pres id ent Porras in 1913 for the erection of a monument in honor of B a lboa near the P acific entrance to the Canal. King Alfonso of Spain has personally donated the sum of $10,000 for the purpose, and Panama a like amount. It i s expected to r a i se a fund of $75,000 or $100,000. Sunset on Panama Bay. In the evening with the advent of the splendid sunset, a panorama of radiant glory round the whole dome of the sky is spread out. r 312 ]

PAGE 331

lAND DMDED-. '&he WORLD UNITED IIIIHE last two steam shovels at work in bottom excavation in Culebra Cut were withdrawn on September 10, 1913. The e were hovel No. 204, manned by H. Hayes, engineer, and A. E. Alexander, craneman; and shovel No. 226, manned by AI. Geddes, engineer, and Vv. I. Hudson, craneman. The la t trainload of material wa drawn out of the Cut by engine No. 260, with E. C. Bean, a engine r, and E. A. Donnelly, as con ductor. It wa 10 :30 a. m. when the last dipper. ful were loaded. In the hurry to get one more dipperful on the car as the train g t under way the craneman of shovel No. 226 dumped it load on the coal tender of the locomotive, completely filling it. The train proceeded a hort di tance, but was forced to top until the dirt could be shoveled off the coal before continuing the trip. The very last shovel out of the Cut wa on the following day, ept mber 11, when shovel No. 210, manned by Frank Loulan, engineer, and S. H. Bryan, craneman, which had been working to keep the track around Cucaracha slide clear, was w ithdrawn. Thu the reign of King Yardage on the Canal, which had continued with but one interruption for a period of over 31 year, came to an end o far a excavation in the dry wa concerned. DE. TR CTIOr OF THE DIKES On May 1, 1913, there existed four dike in the Canal pri m, all u ed at one time or another in keeping water out of dry ection. Two of the e dike were situated south of lVIiraflore Locks, on north of Gatun Lock, and the last and most important wa known a Gamboa dike, which prevented the waters of Gatun Lake from entering Culebra Cut. The fir t dike to be dynamited wa that which kept the water of the Pacific from entering a section of the channel which had been partly excavated by hydraulic monitors. The event took place at 10:3 a. m., on Sunday, May 18, and'was witnessed by a large crowd of people. The charge con i ted of 32,750 pound of 60 per cent. dynamite, and wa.
PAGE 332

out one end of the dike but did not admit the water at once. The ladder dredge Corozal, the large t in the Canal service, wa put to work on the remainder of the dike and soon had a passage through. The blowing up of the sole remaining barrier between Miraflores Locks and the ea, which occurred at 9:30 o'clock on Sunday morning, August 31, was a much more intere ting spectacle. In this dike there had been placed 37,500 pounds of 45 and 60 per cent. d y namite, di stributed among 541 holes at an average depth of 30 feet, concentrated in about the center. The blast tore a gap in the barrier, but a the water in the channel outside was at low tide, it did not flow over. Gradually, however, the tide crept up until at 1 :35 p. m. it was n arly even with the top. At thi s moment, a man eized a shovel and made a trench across the top of the gap through which a rill began to flow. This soo n increased to a good-sized tream, then to a river, and la st ly to a raging torrent, carrying away sections of the dike each s ucceeding moment, until at 3 o'clock, when with the pit 5,000 feet long, 500 feet wide, and 46 feet deep completel y filled, the gap had widened to 400 feet. The end of this barrier s ignaliz e d the practical completion of a sea level channel deep enough for ocean go ing steam hip all the way from Miraflores Locks to the sea, a distance of mile s Gatun dike was a barrier that at one time kept the water in the Atlantic channel cutoff theforebay of Gatun Locks. It wa al 0 used as a crossing from the east to the west bank. Two pipe line uction dredges began the removal of this dike, which was eight feet above sea level, and 75 feet wide across the top, on September 1913, no dynamite being necessary. On October 1, ocean going steamships were able to navigate the Atlantic channel to Gatun Locks. The la s t and most momentous event of the kind was the destruction of Gamboa Dike on Friday, October 10, and while the waters of the two oceans did not join on that day, it presaged the near approach of that long looked for occasion. Gamboa Dike was built in 1908 to protect Culebra Cut from inundation by freshets in the Chagres River. During the flood of December, 1906, the river rose to 81.6 feet at Gamboa, but this was before the dike was built and before the Bas Obispo section of Culeb a Cut had been completed. During the flood of November, 1909, the water rose to a height of feet, and came so clo se to the top of the dike, which was then at 71 feet above ea level, that sluice gate were opened to fill the Cut with water to the level of the river to avoid heav y washing in case a break occurred. Since that year the safety of the dike has never been menaced. When Gatun Lake rose to over 50 feet in the latter part of the dike was widened to an average of 50 feet b y dumping clay on the s ide toward the Cut, and raise d to an elevation of feet above sea l evel. It contained about 90,000 cubic yards of material, and in mining for its complete de s truction, a total of drill holes were sunk, which if placed end to end would equal 41,166 lineal feet. Two hundred of the holes were made by tripod drills, the balance by well or churn drill s LETTING WATER INTO CULEBRA CUT Culebra Cut, between Cucaracha slide and Gamboa dik contained 7 feet of water when the dike was destroyed on October 10. It wa early decided that it would he unwise to allow the Cut to fill from the full head of the flow from I 314 1

PAGE 333

Gatun Lake, and October 1, therefore, the valves in five 24-inch pipes extending into the lake beneath Gamboa dike were opened. Subsequently a s ixth pipe was brought into service, and all were continued in u e up to the day of the explosion, filling the Cut to the depth above s tated. "GAl\IBOJ \' IS BU TED" is busted!" are the word President'" oodrow Wilson is credited with having used, when he pressed the button at the White Hou e in at 2 p. m., on Friday, October 10, setting off the blas t which destroyed the la t artificial barrier in the Canal. According to the local official timing it wa exactly 2 :02, when the thou ands who were watching an insignificant embankment on which the eyes of the world has been fa tened for weeks, with bated breath, a giant puff of moke, the hurtling of rock, mud, and other d bris high in air, and heard the mumed roar of the explo ion, always a few econd behind. Colonel Goethal had planned to blow up the dike at 9 a. m., on October 10, and had already announced the hour, but a me age was received from Washington shortly afterward, a king if it would be agreeable for th President to fire the charge, and if 0, if the change in time to 2 p. m. would be convenient. The Colonel replied that he would be plea ed to have the Pre ident fire the bla t. The park that mad the water bridge of the Canal practically c ntinuous was sent over 4,000 mile of telegraph and cable lin from Washington to Galveston, Texa by the W stern Union 'Yire, and from that point to Gamboa dike by way of the Central & South American Cable Company' cable. At the dike, it was connect d to a local circuit, which, in turn, operated the witch that fired the bla t. While not a holiday on the Isthmu yet everyone that cou ld get excu ed from his work was pres nt, and a crowd of p ople, probably 3,000 in numbe r, lined the bank of the Canal, or sought a more commanding po ition on the nearby hills. Only a portion of the dike wa dynamited, but the hot was a perfect one, making a comparativel y clean opening 125 feet in width, through which water from the lake flo\\ ed in ufficient volum a to bring the water already in the Cut to lake level within two hour' time. When th dik was de troyed the tage of water in the lake wa 67.7, and that in th Cut 61.7, a difference of only six feet. The explo ion wa not a large one, a compar d with orne of the other hot off in conn ction with the' anal work. Only eight ton of explosive were u ed, the charges being planted in 400 hole from 20 to 35 feet in depth. The remainder of the dike, which included a hard rock ection, wa blown up n October 17. Dredge No.5, which wa. pa. ed through Gatun Lock on October 9, began work soon after the Ila. t of October 10 removing the remainder of the obstruction. Gamboa Dike wa mainl y important from it position a it kept the water in Gatun Lake from entering the 9-mile ction of Culebra Cut, and wa the only remaining artificial bar to a continuous waterway from Gatun Locks to P dro Miguel Locks. Thi fact was heralded around the globe, and the interest of the world on October 10 centered on the small embankment of rock and earth. It d struction wa att nded with much rejoicing in all parts of the United tat ; I brations were held in a number of cities, and th press of Europe [ 315 ]

PAGE 334

reflected the following sentiment expressed in the London Times, "The final stage today is an event in the history of mankind of which the whole human race has reason to be proud." GATUN LOCKS, THE FIRST IN ACTUAL OPERATION The first passage of a vesse l through a se t of the Canal lock s occurred on September 26, 1913, when the tug Gatun was lifted from the sea channel to the Gatun Lake level, u in g the west flig ht. This date was chosen, because of the departure from the Isthmus of Maj. James P Jervey, who had charge of the masonry con truction of Gatun Locks, and of Maj. George M. Hoffman, who had charge of the bui ldin g of Gatun Dam, as assistants to the ir chief, Lieut.Col. William L. Sibert. The filling of the lower lock was completed at 4 :45 p. m., when the sea gate was opened, and the Gatun with fla gs fly in g and whistle blowing steamed up the approach channel and past the entrance to the low e r lock amid the cheer of the a sembled pectators. The lower operating gates were then closed, and the tug came to a stop a l ongs id e the center wall. The process was repeate9. in the middle lock, and at 6:15, just as the short tropic dusk was falling, the vessel entered the upper lock for the last lift. This was accomplished at 6 :45 p. m., when the two last gates were swung open, and the tug passe d out on the gently heaving bosom of Gatun Lake, the entire passage occupying one hour and 51 minutes. In order to ave time on the ascent the short length of lock was used, bringing the intermediate gates into play. The total lift was approxi mately 64.70 feet, d i vided between the three locks, as follows: Lower Lock, 11.2 feet; Middle Lock, 23.7 feet; Upper Lock, 29 .8 feet. The Gatun, which possesses the honor of having been the first boat to pass any of the l ocks of the Canal, is a seago ing tug, with a length of 101 feet, beam 22 feet, and a draft of feet. It was built by the firm of Neafie & Levy of Philade lphi a, and was first named the H. B. Chamberlain. It was purchased by the Canal Commi ss i on and brought to the I sthmus in 1906. In its passage through the l ocks, it was commanded by Capt. F. F. Stewart, while Mr. W. G. Comber acted as chief navigator. It carried as pa sengers on this memorable trip, Col. H. F. H odges, Lie ut.-Col. W. L. Sibert and famil y, Maj. James P. J e r vey, and Mrs. J ervey, Maj. George M. Hoffman Lieut. Geo. R. Goethals, and Mrs. Geothals, Mr. H en r y Goldmark, ]\tlrs. Edward Schildhauer, Mrs. E. E. Lee, Capt. B. Corning of the s team ship Panama of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line, and Mr. Frank Thompson of the Panama Railroad. On the following day, Septembe r 27, the Gatun was returned to the At lantic channel the lo ckage occupy in g one hour and 37 minutes. THE FIRST PRACTICAL LOCKAGE On October 9, 1913 three groups of dredging vessels and a floating piledriver, in tow of tugs, a total of 1 3 vessels, were lifted at one time from the Atl antic entrance channel to the surface of Gatun Lake, u s ing the entire 1 000foot length of each chamber. This performance more nearl y demonstrated the utility of the locks in commerc i a l and naval u se than the passage of the lone tug on September 26. The first group entered the lower lock at 9 :50 a. m., and the rear group pas ed into Gatun Lake at 12 :40 p. m. The first group con' ist d of the tug Bohio, with a tow of one 600-ton barge loaded with piles a nd [ 316 J

PAGE 335

500 tons of coal, and two old cement barges loaded with 250 tons of coal each. The second group comprised the tug Gatun, with suction dredge No. 86, severa l pontoons, and a fuel oil barge in tow. The third group consisted of the tug Empire, with French ladder dredge No.5, two dump scows, and a floating piledriver. A motor launch and several native canoes followed in the rear. After entering upon the lake the dredges and auxiliary equipment were towed south to Gamboa dike, to begin dredging operations in the Culebra Cut section.. Probably the most practical illustration afforded by this lock age was the cheapness at which 1,000 tons of coal were conveyed to destination, as compared with the cost of getting it to the same point by rail. On October 22, fifteen more vessel of the Atlantic dredging fleet were passed through Gatun Locks, to be in readines to begin operations in Culebra Cut. FIRST LOCKAGE AT PACIFIC END On October 14, the tug MiraBores, with three barges, old French clapet No.6, and the steam launch Birdena, made the first locka ge at the Pacific end, and were raised together through the west flight at MiraBore Lock to the surface of MiraBores Lake, an elevation of 38.62 feet. As in the case of Gatun Locks, the gate and operating machinery worked perfectly, the operation last ing one hour and 30 minute. The lock s at Pedro Miguel were in readines to pa s the vessel s into the Cut, but owing to an insufficient depth of water south of Cucaracha slide, thi step was postponed to a later date. The tug, clapet, and launch returned to the Pacific entrance, and were pa ed through the lock on the downward trip in 45 minutes. While the blowing up of Gamboa dike was a feature that appealed to the popular mind, the fact that the lock s and their huge, but delicate mechanism, pa ed the te t with Bying color, was the so urce of greatest pleasure to the men on the job. FROM THE SEA TO CULEBRA CUT The pa age of both of the Pacific Lock was succes fully accomplished on October 24, when dredge No. 85, towed by the tug MiraBores, and accompanied by the steam launche Birdena and Louise, towin g a fuel oil lighter a lighter for repair part, and clapet No.9, and steam launch 26 towing discharge pipe for the dredge on pontoons, wa lifted through MiraBores Locks to MiraBores Lake, and through the east chamber of the sing le lock at Pedro Miguel for the lift to the urface level of the water in Culebra. The tows entered the lower lock chamber at MiraBores at 9 :04 a. m., the upper level a t 9:45, and Miraflore Lake at 10:20. Pass ing aero s MiraBores Lake, the fore most ve sels entered Pedro Miguel Lock at 11 :10 a. m., and pa sed into Culebra Cut at 11 :52. The dredge wa then towed to the foot of Cucaracha s lide, and began its work of excavation on October 26. EARTHQUAKES It was an extraordinary coincidence that the day water was admitted to Culebra Cut there should occur the hardest earthquake s hock that has been xp rienc d on the I thmus since September 7, 1882. That it was more than a coincidence n ne but the uper titious will allow, a lthough there are some that f 317 1

PAGE 336

have tried to establish a connection between it and the Canal enterprise, possibly having in mind the admonition of the Spanish friar d e livered when the project wa first g i ven eriou cons ideration which was "What God hath joined to gether, let no man put a under. To the more practical, however, it afforded an excellent test of the tability of the Canal l ocks and their equipment, and demonstrated that it will take a much greate r hock than any hitherto expe rienced on the Isthmus to make an impress ion on the lock structures The fir t tremor in the serie occurred at 1 :48 p. m., on October 1, 1913, and passed unnoticed, a lthough regi tered o n the in strumen t at the Ancon ei mograph station The h eavy s hock came at 11 :25 that night, and continued for the pace of about 25 seconds. It brought nearly out of their beds and into the treet, espec i ally in the c iti es of Panama and Colon and the interior town. The movement registered Force IV on the Rossi-Forel scale, I to X, and was the trongest shake experienced in the hi tory of the Ancon sei mograph tation. De pite a larming reports first ent out, no damage was done to any part of the Canal work, or to buildings in Panama, with the pxception of a few s light cracks whi c h developed in the co ncrete walls of hou es. The seismograph indicated the epicenter of the di sturbance as being 115 miles to the outhwe t, wh ich e tablished it at a point off the coast of Los Santo p r ovince. Report from t own in thi province on the day following the first severe hock indicated that th maximum forc e of the lnovement was felt there; evera l house. were damaged in the villages of Lo Santos, Las Tablas, Macaraca and Tono. i and in two or three towns church towers were overturned: At Tonosi, near the sea t of the trouble, lands lide s occurred in the nearby mountain and cracks ope n ed in the gro und. The Central and South Ameri can Cabl e Company's cabl e broke a t a point about 15 mile s off the coast of Los Santos province, and in repairing the break it wa ascertained that the bed of the ocean, formerly about 1 ,000 feet below the surface in that vicinity, is now 4,800 feet, indicating that the ocea n bottom had s unk. The cable was found buried beneath a huge ubmarine land lid e History of the earthquakes local to this part of the Isthmu s s how s tha t in nearly every ca e the maximum in tensity ha been felt in Lo. province. As proqf of this, it i s stated that the tower of the church in the village of L os an t os ha been overthrown three different time, and that thi i the third time the cabl e has broken ince it was first l aid. It was broken on the night of October 1 at the sp lice made after the break of September 7, 18 82. It wo uld a l so appear that the earthquake zone of the I thmus i separate and distinct from that of Costa Rica, for the great Cartago quake of 1910 was not felt in Panama, nor was the recent disturbance here felt in Costa Rica, a lth oug h there i s l ess than 400 miles of di tance between. A commi s i on, consist in g of Mr. D. F. McDonald, the Can a l geo logist, and Mr. W. C. Johnston, the a i tant ch i ef engin eer of the R ep ublic of Panama, was nt to the p r ovince of Los Santo a t the in tance of the Panama Government to make a complete investigation of the disturbanc s After the hard hock of October 1, the tremor continued at irregu lar inte rv a ls, and during the month of October upward of 40 were recorded, on l y four of which were pronounced. The report of the pecial board of e n g in eer con istin g 9f Me srs Frederic P. Stearns, Arthur P. Davi Henry A. Allen, Jam. D. chuyler, I sham Randolph, John R. Freeman, and All n Hazen, appointed by ex-PI' id en t Roose velt to investigat c rtain feature of Canal construction which wa ubmitted [ 318 J

PAGE 337

to Congress on February 16, 1909, has the following to say on the possibility of damage to the Canal by earthquakes: "It has been suggested that the Canal region is liable to earthquake shocks, and that a sea level canal would be le ss subject to injury by earthquakes than a lock Canal. "We have een in the city of Panama the ruins of an old church, said to have been de troyed by fire, containing a long and extremely flat arch of great age, which convinces us that there has been no earthquake shock on the Isthmus during the one-hundred and fifty years, more or le s that this structure ha been in existence, that would have injured the work proposed. "Dams and lock are structures of great stabi lit y and littl e subject to damage by earthquake shocks. The successfu l resi tance of the dams and reservoirs supplying San Franci co with water, even when those tructures were located near the lin e of fault of the earthquake, gives confidence in the ability of well-designed rna onry structures and earth embankment to re ist earthquake shocks. 'We do not regard such shock as a source of serious damage to any type of Canal at the Isthmu but if they were 0, their effort on the dams, locks, and regulating work proposed for the ea l evel Canal would be much the same as upon similar structure of the lock Canal." The hardest shock which the I thmu ha experienced ince it di covery is believed to have been that of Sept mber 7, 1882, but the famou flat arch passed through un cathed, although the fac;ade of the Cathedral fell in, and the old Cabildo, or town hall, was badly cracked. Fis ures also opened in the Interior of the meteorological station at Ancon which houses a set of seismograph instruments. [ 319 ]

PAGE 338

ground at that tilne at Colon, and along the bank of the Chagres River, and the stone church at Cruces was destroyed. The flat arch above a lluded to has stood in the ruins of Santo Domingo church for 206 years. This arch ha a span of over 40 feet, and a rise of two; and it would not require a terrific shock to bring it down. The church in which this arch is found was built by the brethren of St. Dominic. History relates that when the arch was first built it fell. It was rebuilt and fell again, and also a third time. The fourth time it was built its designer, one of the friars, stood beneath while the supports were being removed, aying that if it was well made he wou ld not be crushed. It did not fall. MAKING A PASSAGE THROUGH CUCARACHA SLIDE But for Cucaracha slide, Culebra Cut would have been navigable for boats drawing 25 feet of water all the way from Gamboa Dike to Pedro Miguel Locks, immediately after the blast of October 10. Thi lid e, which has proved the mo t troublesome of any on the Canal, entirely b l ocked the Cut on October 10 up to the 73-foot level, 0 that when the Cut between the dike and the slide was at lake level, the water was still about six feet below the top of the barrier at Cucaracha. An effort was at once made to pass the .water through to the section of the Cut between the slide and Pedro Miguel Locks by digging a trench with pick and shov I. The attempt proved futile as the material slid in and filled the ditch almost as fast as it was removed. S lui cing then resorted to, aided by blasting, did not give much better results, so that on October 20, dredge No. 86 was taken through the Cut from Gamboa and set at work pumping water over the slide. SECRETARY GARRISON'S VISIT Secretary of War, Lindley M. Garrison, paid his fir t visit to the Canal work on October 28, 1913, remaining on the Isthmus one week. On October 30 he was lifted through Gatun Locks from sea level to Gatun Lake level in French clapet No.4, continuing the trip through the lake section and Culebra Cut as far as Cucaracha lide in a tug. Before leaving the Isthmus, he gave out an official statement, which, in part, was as follows: "I think the canal i a work of magnificent import, magnificently done. I have seen everything susceptible to inspection, and, lit erally, it is an instance of one marvel succeeding to another. The peop l e of our country are justified in feeling the utmost pride in the successfu l accomplishment of this most remarkable work." THE OFFICIAL OPENING The Panama Canal will be formally opened to the commerce of the seven seas on July 4, 1915, although both commercial and naval vessels will probably have u ed it many time before then. A great naval display in cele bration of the event in which the fleets of foreign countries will be invited to participate. The fleets will probably as embl e at Hampton Road, Va., and after paying their respect to the Pre ident at Washington, will ail for the Isthmu to arrive in time for the open in 0' day. It i improbable that all the [ 320 1

PAGE 339

vessels taking part in the pageant can be locked through on the official day, but the repre entatives of different countries present may be taken through on specially selected vessels, and the remainder of the ships can follow later, pro ceeding to San Francisco, where they will take part in the festivities of the P anamaPacific Exposition. FIRST STEAMSHIP PASSAGE. The United States War Department steamship Ancon, on August 15, 1914, made the passage through the Canal, and transit through the waterway became officially open to the traffic of the world. The Ancon left its berth at Cristobal at 7 o'clock a. m. and made its way to the end of the deep water channel from the Atlantic to the Gatun locks. It went through these locks, which haye a lift of eighty-five feet in seventy minutes. It continued through the waterway, from deep water on the Atlantic to deep water on the Pacific, without incident. The decks of the Ancon were crowded with guests of the government and officials of the Canal administration and the republic of Panama. The party included Colonel Goethals, U. S. A builder of the Canal and governor of the Zone; President Porras of Panama, and Capt. Hugh Rodman, U. S. N., superintendent of tran portation. In conformity with a promise made by Colonel Goethals, the peace flag of the American Peace Society fluttered from the foremast of the Ancon. The passage of the Ancon and its company of ships permanently opened the Canal to the formal opening was arranged to take place later on. Tickets are now sold at the Isthmus to all vessels wishing to make the trip. The charge is $1.25 a ton, which is purely nominal in ,iew of the fact that it cuts about 10,000 miles and two months of almost continuous steaming from the time required for the ordinary freighter to go around South America to a position in the Pacific opposite the Canal. The volume of traffic is increasing steadily. During the first three months of operation the cargoe transported through the Canal amounted to 1,079,521 tons. The fees collected up to November 1, 1914, amounted to $746,793.01. SAVED BY THE CANAL. A ship going from New York to San Francisco will save 9,000 miles by going through the Canal, and Peru and Chile are brought nearer to N ew York than is San Francisco. The Canal will saye the e distance between New York and foreign coun tries: Ecuador, 7,400 miles; .J aran, 4,000 miles; Hawaii, 6,600 miles. Curi ou ly enough the distance from l\Ianila to N ew York is only 14 miles shorter than by way of the Suez Canal, while Hongkong is 18 mile farther. (See map of Trade Route on page 256.) EARNINGS AND COST OF OPERATION. The toll charge made is expected to return $12,500,000 to the Canal treasury in the first year of operation, which will cover the $4,000,000 a year cost of operation, and almo t cover the additional $11,000,000 interest on the money required to build the waterway. .Judging by the experiences of the Suez Canal, the Panama waterway will be carrying 20,000,000 ton of freight in a fe", r ear and on that ba is a reduction of the tolls would be possible. L 321 J

PAGE 340

Last dipperful of dirt taken out of Culebra Cut by Steam Shovel No. 226. I 322]

PAGE 341

Blowing up the first dike at Miraflores on May 18, 1913. This let wate r into a completed section of the Canal about 1 ,000 feet long. Miraflores dike before the blast of August 31, 1913 The dynamite blast at Miraflore dike on August 3 1 1913. L 323 J

PAGE 342

Views showing the water rushing into the channel after the dike was blown up. 1. Man making a trench to let the first water in. 2. The opening as it appeared 30 minutes later. 3. The dike crumbled away under the mighty rush of water. 4. The opening momentarily widens. I' 2 4 I

PAGE 343

While the water was surging into the pit, the phenomenon of the tide being held stationary for three-quarters of an hour was observed at Balboa eight miles away. 1. The rush of water continues. 2. The opening about one hour after the water first w ent through. 3 A steel cable hung across the fall, which the rush of water thrashed back and forth. 4. The pit is gradually filling. [325 ]

PAGE 344

Letting water through Gamboa Dike into Culebra Cut. Two of the 24-inch pipes are shown in this picture. Six of tnese pipes were opened ten days before the Dike was blown up, allowing the Cut to become partly filled, so there would not be such a rush of water when the Dike was destroyed. Gamboa Dike before it was dynamiteQ r 326]

PAGE 345

Blast that destroyed Gamboa Dike on October 10, 1913. The Cut had been filled to within a few feet of the level of the lake before the Dike was blown up. Water from Gatun Lake flowing into the Cut through the opening in the dike after the explosion. The first boat to pass into the Cut from the lake was a canoe containing two men. [327 ]

PAGE 346

, Lake entrance to Gatun Locks on morning of lockage, looking south. L a k e entrance to Gatun Locks on morning of lockage, looking north. Footwalks with handrails on each side have been placed on top of all the lock gates. r 3281

PAGE 347

Turning water into the lock chamber through culvert openings in the floor-partial flow. Turning water into the lock chamber through culvert openings in the floor-maximum flow. r 3291

PAGE 348

Water in the lower lock and sea level channel equalized. Opening the lower guard gate. Tug Gatun moving up the approach channel toward the lower lock. r 300 1

PAGE 349

Tug comes to a stop alongside the center wall in the lower lock chamber. Gate i clo ed preparatory to filling the lock for the lift to the middle chamber. r 331l

PAGE 350

Tugs, dredges and barges entering the lower lock from the sea channel. Closing the lower lock operating gate. [ 332 J

PAGE 351

Assembling the various craft inside the middle lock. Colonel Goethals on the lock wall to the right with his back turned. Tug Empire, with tow, passing out into Gatun Lake. Dark spots on the surface of the lake are floating islands, masses of swamp vegetation lossened by the lake rise, and blown across the lake by the wind.

PAGE 352

Waiting for the Lock to fill. The pipe on the barges was part of the outfit of dredge No. 85, for use at Cucaracha slide. The Lock filled. Ready to pass out into the Culebra Cut channel. [334 ]

PAGE 353

Close view of Cucaracha slide. The lagoon in the foreground was formed by another part of the slide blocking the Canal about where the picture ends. In the distance may be seen two points projecting into the Canal. These were the toes of the slides on the east and west banks at Culebra, which moved some distance after water was admitted to the Cut. Closer view of trenching operations at the slide. Workmen engaged in trying to keep a trench open in the spongy mass to let the water from filled section through. This proved to be a most discouraging task, for the material moved about as fast as dug out. Two workmen were drowned while these operations were in progress. [ 3 5 ]

PAGE 354

THE MONUMENTAL TASK COMPLETED NE hundred million cit i zens of the United States of America are ." ju tified in their d i sp l ay of pride over the consummation of the greate t engineering task ever ass igned to man-the construction of the Panama Canal. Not a lon e have the people of our country manifold reasons for rejoicing at the achievement so conspicuously won, but the inhabitant of the world lik ew i e have a living intere s t in the accomplishnlent of an undertaking which has united into a comme rcial pathway the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean'. IVlankind' dream of the ages has now become a reality, and the grateful homage of appreciation re 'ound with praises in recognition of the wonderful r ult which our killed arti an achieved and which our generous resources made possible. Noone can be indiff e rent to thi univer al cause for satis faction, since the succes obtained on the I sthmus i s omething which will benefit the entire human race. Such wars as have engaged the activitie s of American citizens, from colonial day to the present, have been waged for principle, but the warfare of our yeomanry on the Isthmus was prilnarily waged against disease, in order that the t of endurance might be more even-handed; secondarily the forces and impediments of nature were combated, and a victory was won in both particular that has a tonished the thoughtful everywhere. In these features there can be no controver y concern in g the fact that in the completion of the undertaking there is g l ory enough for all. In an effort of such transcendent and far-reaching consequence to the commerce of the wo rld as i the construction of the Panama Canal, it is appropriate that we sho uld in every way recognize the essential elements and factors that have contributed to the s uccess leading to the final chapter. In a sentence these have been embraced in the resourcefulness of our citizenshipone hundred milli on peopl e of a Republic, who willingly taxed themselves that the oceans which bounded their nation might be made one. This has now been done, and the w illin g co-operat i o n and intelligent disp lay of statesmanship by both hou e of Congress, a well as the efforts of our high-minded Executives, who have been enthusia tic supporter of the gigantic work, these should not for a moment be allowed to fade from v i ew, but s hould become signposts in that harmony of rejoicing which will animate our countrymen and stimulate effort to overcome obstacles whi l e time endures Briefly this is one of the inviting texts assoc iated with the proposition which cannot be too highly extolled, nor a feature in which the supe rlativ e of language is not needed to fittingly outline the great deed now finished. Th American people owe to the courageo u craftsmen engaged on the I tlllnu those who rendered such sp lendid se rvice to our country, a debt that is inextinguishable, and to the peerle s genius, Colonel George W. Goethals, there will always be re erved a niche in the Hall of Fame in which will be trea. ured lofty appre iation of hi. rna. terfulness as an engineer and his attra tive personality as a man a lt ogether too mode t to boa t of hi accomplish ments, he allowing the herculean effort to ac claim the tribute of that greatne'-1 I 336 ]

PAGE 355

which is his just due. His splendid capability, always in evidence, as time proceeds will grow brighter, while the cordial commendation of his countrymen will be his rich reward during life. It seems beyond the realm of doubt that a nation which displayed the marvelous resources and manifested the almo t illimitable power which for years were in evidence in the construction of the Panama Canal will be short sighted either in enterprise or lacking in initiative or invention in utilizing the pathway between the oceans, which now has been so adequately provided. Thus we may be permitted at the closing tage of our volume to hazard the prediction that American enterprise and American ambition will fulfill every responsibility and meet every expectation in utilizing the opportunity which the future may present in availing ourselves of the advantages at hand. In order to be able to grasp the possibilities of the trade which in the near future will be carried through the Panama Canal, there should be no subject more entertaining nor one more profitable that can engage the attention of the business associations of the country than to obtain a knowledge of the topic that is actively stirring the energies of other nations. Monument of ruins of old systems and ancient method may be observed on every hand on the Isthmus, but when the magic wand of American courage wa waved over the scene the-artisans of our country were equal to every call; obstacles disappeared and victory came into view to permanently re ide as a sentinel proclaiming their glory. Our people will surely not be low to seize the fruits of the victory now so completely won. In connection with the many gratifying words inseparably associated with the construction of the Panama Canal it is especially fitting to note the complete absence of suspicion and freedom from both scandal and graft from which those prosecuting the work from the beginning to the completion of the absorbmg task were relieved. In addition there has been but little to discourage or dishearten, frOln the standpoint of adverse criticism, the workmen who finally achieved the unexampled success, since the frankest manne r was observed in everything pertaining to the nterprise, and this polic y ha been kept prominently before the public. Daylight has been a factor in the accompli s hment of the greatest deeds in all history and candor and honest motives have alway been within the gaze and was revealed to any who sought information concerning the con truction work in hand. In this _particular the Panama Canal will long be a worthy example of sincerity and open-mindedness. The monumental ta k is over, and the enterpri e of the American people will doubtless be searching for new fields to conquer, new obstacles to overcome, but the eloquent theme of the construction of the Panama Canal will forever stand out in the chronicles of the world as a marvelous undertaking, executed in a manner to excite emulation and compel the admiration of tho e capable of appreciating the great things of this world. No work of consequence is ever brought to completion without effort, nor is anything of value secured without labor and sacrifice. The tremendous undertaking on the I thmu was colossal in many ways, involving danger, disea e, anxiety and uncertainty, as well as millions upon millions in expendi ture. These problems have been encountered and have all been mastered by superb skill, indomitable persistence and heroic courage. In a word, nothing mor can be said, and, in this connection, as a final leave-taking to the reader, nothing more is necessary to say. I : 3 : n I

PAGE 356

g:HE J2IVIDED ---9:BE IlN!.,TD FIRST HALF YEAR OF CANAL OPERATION. The first si x months of c omm e r c ial op e r ation of the Panama Cana l w e r e compl e t e d at the clos e of busin e ss on F ebruary 14, 1915, the canal having been op e n e d to com m e rcial traffic on August 15 19] 4. Four hundre d and nine ty-six v e ss e ls oth e r than canal v e ss e ls and launches, etc. which are not counte d pass e d through the canal during the p e riod. The y carrie d a total of 2 ,367,244 tons of cargo. Their distribution ove r the most important route s follow e d by v e ss e ls using the canal during this time is summariz e d h erewith: R ott l e U. S. coas twi e ea tbountl U S. c o astwise, westbound .... U. S. Pac ifi c c o ast to Europe .. Europe to U. S. Pacific c o as t ... South Americ a to U. S. and E u -N o vess e l s 97 109 66 16 rope ...................... 6 9 U. S. and Europe to South Am e r -ica . ... . 3 1 U S. Atlantic coa s t to F a r E a t. 48 F a r Eas t to U. S. Atlantic coast. 2 Misc ell a n e ous routings ........ B Vessels without c a r g o . 45 Tota l s .............. ...... 4 96 Car go t onna g e 499 4 3 9 49 3,272 44 4,855 59,51 6 3 7 8 38 6 1 28, 922 2 8 7, 7 82 14, 500 60,57 2 2,367,24 4 Official r eports show that slightly over .. U p r cent of th e cargo handled was in mov e m ent b etween ports of the United State s ; in what is classified as United States c oastwis e trade Over 21 per cent of all the cargo was in movement between the Pacific coast of North America, principally the Unite d State s and Europe; and approximately an equal proportion (21 per cent) mov e d on the route b e tween the west c oast of South Am e rica and the seaports on the Atlantic seaboard of the United State s and Europe. Traffic between the Atlantic s eaboard and the Far East amounted to over 12 per cent of the whole. All tog ether, the fore going routes were us e d for the transit of all but approximately two and one-half per cent of all cargo sent through the canal. TOLLS. 'rhe tolls l e vi e d during the six months' p e riod amounte d to $2,126 832.00. Adding to this the $11 610.69 of tolls collected on bal'g e s prior to August 15, the total levy to F ebruary 15 1915 was $2,138,442.69. The United States War Department Steamship Ancon was the first steamship to make the passage through the Panama Canal-on August 15,1914. Shown here in a filled lock on a level with Miraflores lake. [338 ]

PAGE 357

c j\ MAP SHOWING ISTHMUS WITH COMPLETED CANAL SCALE MUcs 0 INTERESTING FACTS AND F IGUR ES TIlt route tlf Iht' CaRllI i.! from Xortilwest to C43t or \"enu, tlit' A l llllllle entmntt htlnL: 'iii mllt3 \\ .... of L lle l 'Aclfic('nlmllC't' F i""t Ground brolwlI I", F rrnd. J an. 1 1 880 ExcnvntJOII hy Frt'IWh, u,dul to ("l1ml (cubic yu rd.'I) 'l!l.908,fKHI A mount by.';n.llt'h Uni1ri' ( ()LO('Wly for tli(,lf 1 0 000,000 Slate'! IU"VIlrt't1 the """111 Zon, '"'111 lilt Zunc ('alla l Zol\(' Bf'N mill' ), /lL,..lut LSo L"lUted 'lA te.. rt'litallulhc lIepuhli('of J' nuilUlfi for the ('annl wne, lOIS (pe r annum) l.lO,OOO Work ocf,run by t'mted S!(I,ICrI, 1S.$.i The P/.Inamn U{Ulroliti i .. III(' line alld the !lhorlesl in the world. n clocolion (.'Ompll.'tl"1 Mlly '!5, 1 012. Jelll{th. Ii II lI1ik'i: I8,OB-l,Ot-i! 1M (nnniaud PUllllmo H ailrollu \Iork, ;\Inrch, 101S.&-l,7:H Cnonl nnd I 'o.noma ll3.ilroad al work. nf'l'b, 1013, ., 1,4"17 01-1 n( th .... 1\ur1o: of th e D('llIlrlnll'nl of r lltAhlJJI toJul) 1.1913 1tl,'i,jO,lG4 9:1 rllf WI'l, 637 P opulation o f Pnnnmn ("Ily. {"olon Ilnd (',mnl/Alllt', tOl S. abnul P opulation of PlinnUlA. ("lly, nhoul of Col on. ahout Illilts), ahout Ti!leon AtllUltit' ide (fl'('t) A ,tf4,l:C rainfall al ("ulon (illcbt'S). A,'ertl,(.,>e rainfall a l Jlnnallln ( lIIcbe1) Avct1lf.,'"e rain f all lit Porto Ueil(1 (inches). Maxi mum rainfall ()r I't'COnllnr S (incllel) Muimum ra infnll o f r'Qni lur 1 hour (inches) M o.xilllurn rain fnll ('If n:('Oru for'tt bouf3 (ineiles) Ma:OtDum t empera t ure o f r'Ord fabr .) ISO,tWO Uj,OOO 3'l,UOO .0 ., 190 7. I," ... .HiO _, 1O.tlO .0

PAGE 359

PRONOUNCING GAZETTEER OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL NA1\IES MOST FREQUENTLY HEARD THE CAXAL ZOKE AND PANAJ\lA, TOGETHER "ITH THEIR APPLICATION, AND ALSO ETY1\10LOGY "HERE KNOWN Agua Clara (a.gwa lda'ra), meaning clear water. Name applied to everal streams on the Isthmus on account of the clearne s of their waters. I ame of tributary of Gatun RiYer, and also of the Zon e at Gatun village. Aguadulce (a-gwa-dool'sy), meaning sweet water. Tame applied to several stream and localities on the I thmu, on account of the potability of the water. ame of creek that upplies Toro Point settlement with water. A l so name of thriving port on west coa t in Cocle province. Agua Fria (agwa free'a), meaninO' coo l run ning water. eyeral tream bear this name. Agua Salud (a-gwa salood'). Refers to a number of mall tream who e water are cIa ed as health-giving, or at lea t drinkabl e. arne of stream in the Gatun Lake area. Ahorca Lagarto (iior' ka lii-gar'to), meaning literall y hanging lizard," probably inspired from the number of large lizard fOUllll on the limbs of tree in this locality. Former tation on the old line of t h e Panama railroad 12.6,1, miles from Co lon. 1. ow inundated by Gatun Lake. Alhajuela (iilawa/la), meaning "little jeweL" Place on the hagre RiYer 11 mile' from Gamboa, where a gaging station i maintained by the 1. C. C. Almirante (almeeran'tee), meaning "admiral." arne of town founded by the nited Fruit Company in Boca del Toro proYinee, as its permanent headquarters. Name aloof bay in the ame 10 ality, from the title giyen olul1lbu who di coyered it. Alto Obispo Oil-to o-bee 'p-), meaninO' "upper bishop." Called by the French "Haut Obi po N allle of nath' e yi \lage neal' Bas Obi po on the old line of the P. R. R. Abandoned on ac(!ount of Gatun Lake. Ancon (ankone'), meaning "open bay, or road tead." ame applied to Ancon Hill, overlooking Panama and Pana m a ometim s a l 0 call ed erro (le 10 Bucanero" (Hill of the Buccaneers), from the tra
PAGE 360

Chagres (chag'l'ess). Origin of word undetermined. Principal feeder of Gatun Lake. See description in text of the book under "Gatu n Lake. Chame (cham'a), meaning place of barter or trade_ Town on the west coast in Panama province. Also name of a peninsula in the same locality, at the end of which, called Punta Chame, was obtained all of the sand used in the construction of the Pacific Locks of the Canal. Chitre (chee-tray'). Most rapidly growing small town on the west coast, in Los Santos province. Center of the fruit-shipping interests for the Panama market. Chorrera (chO-ray'ra), meaning waterfall. N ative village in Panama province a little west of the Zone boundary. Chon'era Falls, four miles from the village, are quite picturesque. Chiriqui (chee-ree-kee'). Indian word. Province in western Panama, the richest, from an agricultural standpoint, in the republic. HoI' e and cattle are raised, and coffee, tobacco and rice are grown. Also name of an extinct vol cano in the same province, the highest peak in the country, 11,500 feet. Also name of the national prison in Panama City. Cocle (ko-klay'). Indian word. Name of Panama's smallest province; also of a tribe of I ndians that inhabit the mountain of this province. Several rivers, one of size, bear this name. Cocoli (ko-ko-Iee'). Formerly a lake in the Canal Zone, used as one of the reservoirs for the Panama water suppl y, now a part of Miraflores Lake. Also the name of the stream that fed the lake. Coiba, or Quibdo (ko-ee'ba, or keeb' do). Largest island in Panamanian waters, situated off the coast of the Province of Veraguas. The Panama Government plans to establish the national prison on this island. Colon (koIone', pronounced like the word Cologne). City at the Atlantic entrance of the Canal, second in size in the republic, and capital of Colon Province. Formerly called Aspinwall, but the Colombian Government refused to recognize the name, and it was changed to Colon, the Spanish for Columbus. Corozal (ko-ro-sal'). Said to be the name of a plant growth. American settlement three miles from Panama, one of the first to be established. In moving Gorgona, most of the' American type quarters were transferred to this place. Cristobal (krees-to'bal ) Spanish for the first name of Columbus. American settlement opposite Colon. Contains docks and the varied inrlustries of the commissary department of the P. R. R. Cruces (kroo'sase), meaning a crossing. Ancient town on the Chagres River, a few miles above Gamboa. Important stopping point on the overland trail in the early days. Now abandoned on account of the rise of Gatun Lake. Cucaracha (koo-ka-ra'cha), meaning cockroach. Name of former labor settlement on the banl{s of the canal, near Paraiso. Also name of the worst slide in Cu lebra Cut. Culebra (koo-Iay'bra), meaning a serpent. ame of American settlement on the bariks of the canal, 11 miles from Panama, the engineering headquartcrs of tIle T. C. C. and residence of olonel Go thals. Will ultimately be abandon 11. Also th namc of th famous ro('k cut-ting through the Isthmian cordillera, nine miles long. David (da-veed'). Corresponding to the proper name David. Capital of the province of Chiriqui. Also the name of a river near the city. Darien (da-ree-ane'). Name of a large and only partially explored territory in eastern Panama, heavily wooded and rich in minerals. Name of a tribe of Indians that inhabit the mountains of this region, better known as the Chucunaques. Name of one of the early proposed ship canals across the Isthmus. Name of the high-powe r radio station located near Caimito in the Canal Zone. El Diablo (6 1 dee-a'blo), meaning "The Devil." Name of a small hill outside of Corozal on the P. R. R. A few American type quarters have been maintained here. EI Vigia (el vee-hee'a), meaning watch tower. A point on the upper Chagres River about 17 miles from Gamboa, where a river gaging station is maintained by the 1. C. C Emperador (em-pay-ray-dore' ) The Spanish name of Empire, the largest town in the Canal Zone, 12 miles from Panama. It contains large repair s hop s, and the Disbursing and Examining of Accounts' offices. Will eventually be abandoned. Flamenco (flaw-mane'ko), meaning flamingo. One of the group of fortified islands in the Bay of Panama, owned by the United States. Frijoles (free-ho'les), meaning beans. The olJ town of Frijoles, 18.64 miles from Colon, was abandoned on the rise of Gatun Lake. The new town, located on the new main line, is a collection of a few native houses, 20 miles from Colon. Near here the Subsistence Department of the 1. C. C is growing fruit to supply the commissaries. Gamboa (gam-bo'a), meaning a kin
PAGE 361

Juan Mina (hoo-iin mee'na), III aning John Mine. Small settlement near the mouth of the Chilibre River on the Chagre Las Cascadas (las kiis-kii'das), meaning "The Cascade." American settlement on the old line of the P R R., 15 miles from Panama, the transportation headquarter of the Central Divi ion for everal years. Will be abandoned. Los Santos (10 san'toce), meaning I I The Saints." Name of province in sou thwe tern Panama, an 1 also of it capital, La Villa de Lo Santo, II The Village of the Saints." Town was formerly important, but ha been di. tanced by Chitre, it port. This province wa the center of the earthquake shocks in October, 1913. Majagual (mii-hii-gwal'). From SpaniRh majagua, a tree of the linden variety. Small native town in the anal Zone, acro Folks River from ri tobal. Mamei (mii-may'ee). arne of a nati,e fruit; also of a former ettlement in the Canal Zone on the old line of the P R R., in the Gatun Lake area. Mandingo (man-din'go). A mall tl'eam of the Canal Zone, which pa es the village of Ba. Obi po and enters into Gatun Lake. Mandinga (man-din'gii). A bay on the an BIas coast of the I thmus. Manzanillo (man-sii-neel'yo). So-called from the number of manchineel, or poi on tree, formerly found in the vicinity. These trees exude a juice, which, falling on a person, cause irritating ore. ame of island on which the city of olon stands, now conne ted with the main land by a broad fill, so that it is an island no more. Also name of a bay near Colon. Matachin (mii-tii-cheen'). Probably from the pani h word matar, to execute. Popularly uppo ed to be a word coined from matar, Idll, and chino, Chinaman, on account of the a lleged exce -ive number of uicides said to have occurrerl among the Chinamen at this point, at a time wheu Uhine e labor wa employed in the con truction of the Panama railroad. Thi word ha caused greater eli pute than any other local term. Opponents to the above definition say the word refers to II butc her_ ame of a former town on the old line of the P. R R, called rluring the (lay of the French, Bas 1atachin, but hortenerl hy the Am rican to Matachin. Place abanrloncrl \yith the ri of Gatun Lake. Mindi (min'(lc). Origin of word unknown. arne of a river near oIon, and also of a low range of hill cut throuah by the Atlantie entrance to the canal. Mirafiores (mee-rii-flo're ), meaning" Look at the flower.' Name given to Iiraflore Loc1(, lake, and a tation on the P R R., about 5 miles from Panama_ The town it elf ha been moverl on account of the lake. At thi point i located the new Panama waterwork. The only tunnel on th line of the railroad passes under a hill here. Monte Lirio (mon-tay lee-ree-o). J n English, fount Lily tation on the new line of the P. R R, 14 mile from olon. Th rc is a lift brirl
PAGE 362

situaterl tow II ill tile Pro\-incc of V'raguas, where c heap native straw hat are made. Rio Grande (ree-o gran'cUiy), meaning" Great river," a name misappl ied to a small stream in the Canal Zone now a tributary of Miraflores L a ke. Also the name of a reservoir, and a labor settlement in the Zone. Sabanas, or Las S a b a nas (sa-ba:na, or las sa-ba'nas). A part of the Canal Zone lying east of Panama City, so-called from the rolling charac t e r of the O'round, r esembling rolling praule. Occupied b y the wealthier citizens of Panama, who have their summer home here. S a mbu (sam-boo'). arne of a valley in south-eastern Panama, inhabited by a tribe of Indians of the same name. S a n BIas (san bla '). A name given to all of the north coast of Panama, east of Santa I sabe l in Colon Province, inhabited by a tribe of Indians of the same name San Lorenzo (san lo -rane'zo) St. Lawrence A ruined fort at the mouth of the Chagres. A town in Chiriqui Province. S a n Miguel (san mee-g h el'). St. Michael. Bay on south coast of Panama, where Balboa fir t discove ren the Pac ifi c Ocean. ame of largest Yillage in the Pearl Island Archipelago. S a n P ablo (san pab'lo). St. Paul. Name of a former settlement on th 01n line of the P R. R. in the Gatun Lake area. Aloof a large ri'e r of western Panama emptying into Montijo Bay. Santiago, or S antia go de Veraguas (san-teea'go, or san tee-a'go day yer-a'gwa). James. Capital of the province of V eraguas, connected with its port of Aguadulce by a modern road. Tabernilla (ta-ver -lleel'ya), Illealli ng "Little ta vern. Former town on the old l i n e o f the P. R. R. whi c h d isappeared with the r i se o f Gatun Lake. Near here was one of t h e l a rgest (lumping O'rounds for canal spoil. T aboga (ta-b5'ga). Island belongin g t o P a nama, 12 miles ou t in Panama Bay. Contain s quaint native village, o l d church 1. C C. san i tarium, and an excellent bathing beach. Noted for its fruit, especially pineappl es. Taboguilla (ta-bo-g h e l'yli), meanin g It Li ttle Taboga." Island lyin g near Taboga, sparsel y peopled. Tiburon (tee-boo-rone'). In E n glis h s hark. A cape at the entrance of t h e Gulf of Darien or Uraba, on the northeast coast of Panam a Tonosi (to-no-see'). A port on the c oast of Los Santos Provi nce, near t h e center o f t h e earthquake disturbances in O ctober, 1 913 Trinidad (tree-nee-darl'). The secon d l a rgest feeder of Gatun Lake. Tuyra (too-ee'ra). The largest river i n t h e republi, ]raining t h e mountai n wat e r s heds of Darien, and emptying into the G ulf of San Miguel. Ura b a (u-ra-ba/). Name given t o the gulf separating Co lombia from Panama on the north coast of t h e Isthmus, into w hich the Atrato Rh-er empties. Veraguas (ver-a'gwas). A n c ient Veragua, a transplanterl Spanish name. Once e mbracing a large part of t h e territory of t h e I sthmus, i t now refers to the province, which in p r o d u ctiveness, is second on l y to C hiriqu i. [342 ]

PAGE 363

l INlRANcrofSAN DI[(o llPosmoN J [II HE Panama-California Exposition, ground for which was first broken for work July 19, 1911, was formally opened at San Diego, January 1, 1915. .Thlillion of light fla hed into life and ca t a daylight radi ance over the thronged grounds of the City of the Hill' as Pre ident 'Vil on, sitting in his 'Vhite House bedroom tlu'ee thousand miles away, promptly at 3 :01 a. m., eastern time, pre ed the button that officiall} opened San Diego' s expo ition for the 305 days of 1915. The plea ant climate of San Diego and urrounding California makes it possible for the Expo ition to run an entire year without interruption from cold. The formal ceremony of thrm\ ing wide the gate of the Panama-California Exposition to the 'world began at 11 :30 a. m., we tern time. Lyman J. Gage, former Secretary of the Treasury and now a re ident of San Diego, presented Col. D. C. Collier, former pre ident of the Exposition. After giving an account of the inception of the Expo ition, Colonel Collier made "vay for President G. Aubrey Davi on, to whom were delivered the plans, the keys, and finally the Expo ition itself. Though much smaller than many exposition of recent times-it covers only 614 acres in all-the San Diego Exposition present an eye-filling picture. AU the Exposition structures except those on the "Isthmus," the Exposi tion midway, are of varying types of the Spani h colonial school of architecture. On pa ing through the entrance arches, the California State building with its cathedral-like architecture and high tower attract one s notice. Opposite is a Roman building which hou es exhibit of ethnology and archeology from the Smithsonian Institute at a hington. Eight other buildings each an exact replica of some hi toric palace of Spain or Spanish America, with rounded arches and connecting colonnades, are to be found on the tree-lined prado. These main Exposition edifice are devoted to home economy, arts and crafts, science and education, foreign arts, botany, commerce and industry, varied indu tries and food products. On the "Isthmu 'are located the amu ement concessions, comprising the large troller coa tel' in the world, Anfalulu Land, the joy wheel, the centrifugal aeroplane, and other novelties. r 3-1:3 ]

PAGE 364

PANAMA; CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION The site of the expo ition could not have bee n more happily chosen. Balboa Park, a magnificent fourteen hundred and fift y acre tract, lies on a high table land in the heart of the c it y T o the western gate of the s ite i s about fifteen minutes' walk from the busines center. From any portion of the Expos iti on grounds, the vi it o r en j oy a plendid view of the c it y and harbor. The easte rn boundary of the E x po s ition s it e i s marked b y another deep canyon, and the g r ounds are bi ected here and there by s mall ravines, all of wh ich lend themselves admirably t o the work of the landsca pe gardener and the expo ition engin eer, both of whom are taking full advantage of the fact to en hance and beautif y the plans for the Expos ition. From the end of Cabrillo brid ge to the eastern gateway, str e tch es the main thoroughfare of the Exposition, named the "Prado. Twice in the distance it i s enlarged b y pl a zas. The first / "\ l ), \ Southern California Counties' Building. of these is known as the Plaza de California, and the second almost midway betwee n the gates, as the Plaza d e P a n a m a At the eastern gat eway the visitor turn to the north, to what is named the Isthmus," a l ong which are situated the s ites of the amusement concessions, many of which h ave already been allotted. The offering has been so great, that the Departmen t of Concessions, under the director ship of H. O. Davis, a si tant to President D. C. Collier, h as been compelled in self defense, long since, to resort to a policy of e limination. The' Isthmus" will enclose, on its cour e to the northern gateway, the co nce ss ion the villages of the North American Indian tribe, the Little Land ers farm, the U. S. Reclamation Service, and its large acreage of demonstrating f arm l and, and the outdoor exhibit of the even Southern Calif ornia Counties. President D. C Co llier believes tha t th world has tirerl of the antiquated and obsolete m thod of ex hibiting "product" as s uch. He b e lieve s that these te-ach th beholder practically n o thin g b yond the fact that man's tran portation l 3-l-l 1

PAGE 365

PANAMA --CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION facilities are adequate to the task of collectin g them, and his means ampl e to defray the expense; otherwise there i nothing to be learned from such exhibits. In searching for a the m e for the San Diego .Expos iti on w hich wou ld teach the visitor something worth knowing, and therefore l eave a lastin g and useful impress ion, President Collier hit upon the plan of presenting a synops i s of man's evolution throug h a d emon tration of the myriad processes marking the present acme of civilization, and embod y in g the history of man. It was a brilliant conception, and it s great merits h ave been recognized by the countries of the world, in that a great many m ore than were expected to do so, have arranged to become partIcipant s in the San Diego celebration of the open in g of the Panama Canal. Under the plan of President Co lli e r products will be seen as adjuncts to the exhibition of proce ses which call them into being. Birdseye view of the Exposition grounds and the City of San Diego. [ 8-1;; J

PAGE 366

PANAMA" CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION After Sall Diego had sent her invitations to the various states of the Uni on, and to foreign countries, and these had responded in so much greater number than was at first de emed possible, it was found necessary to greatly en l arge the scope of the Expos ition. To this end the city has voted an ad d itional $850,000 bond i ss u e, making the third million dollars raised for Expo-ition purposes, by the c it y of San Diego a lone. As a matter of trict recognition and governmental approval, the San Diego Exposition i in exactly the same po ition as that at San Francisco; both Looking east along the Prado, San Diego Exposition. expositions have been "recognized" by the Federal Congress, the invitations to each have been transmitted to foreign chancellories by the Department of State, and the c u stoms and immigration law s are s u spended by act of Congress, with the usual restrictions and bonding privileges granted in sllch cases. The Smithsonian Institution and the N ational have co-operated with the Division of Exhibits to secure exhibits of ethnology and archaeology from a ll over the world, and Congressman Kettner introduced a bill authorizing the departments of the government to place their exhibits here as well as at San Francisco. Enough exhibits have been secured to make good on all the promises of the Exposition, presenting a complete exposition of the history and achievement of the human race in America, including the great govern'ment department exhibits Food prices on the Exposition grounds are regulated b y the management. The hotels of San Diego have agreed II pon a fixed price schedule. [346 1

PAGE 367

Ilur NOON on Saturday, February 20, 1913 the Panama-Pacific In-ternational Exposition wa formally opened at San Francisco, as ., the official, national and international celebration of a great con-temporaneous event-the opening of the Panama Canal, the history and construction of which are fully and faithfully described in the complete story of the great undertaking-eighth wonder of the worldwhich appears in this volume. The opening of the Exposition was a glorious succe Five years of devoted work on the part of the promoters and builders ended in a distin guished triumph for all. For the first time in the history of world exposi tion everything was ready on time-even the catalogue of exhibits was ready -and the splendid re ults were acclaimed by more than a quarter of a million people who thronged the ground on the opening day. Thu the records of all previous national and international expo ition held in the United States were completely eclipsed. In the White Hou e at a hington, President 'iVilson performed the act that set the machinery of the great Exposition in motion and crowned the efforts of California patriots with national approval. Unique in this as in 0 many other respects, the Exposition waS opened by wireless telegraphy. From a gold key in President 'iVilson's office, a wire led to the crreat government radio station at Tuckerton, from which the President s signal was flashed clear acros the United States, caught up by antennre stretched from the Tower of Jewels to the Column of Progre s at the Exposition, and carried to a delicate galvanometer on the grand stand in front of the expectant mul titude. Thi instrument in it turn tripped a relay that electrically started the huge Diese l engine in the Palace of which immediately began to supply electric current to all the moving exhibits in the great hall. At the same moment the fonntains began to play, the doors of the exhibit palaces were thrown open, flag rose everywhere a if by magic and President har! s oore formally declared the Exposition to he open to th e world. r

PAGE 368

PANAMA"PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Official Parade in the Avenue of Palms on the Opening Day. Left to Right-Lieut. C. H. Woolworth, naval aide; William H. Crocker, exposition director; Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, President Wilson's official representative; R. B. Hale, exposition director; C. C. Moore, President of the Exposition; Capt. Edwin Carpenter, U. S. A. Hon. Franklin Ie Lane, Secretary of the Interior, himself a Californian, represented President Wilson at the opening ceremonies and paid an eloquent tribute to the American pioneer and to the courage and enterprise that had created "this new city by the Golden Gate." In his telegraphic report to President Wilson, Secretary Lane said: "Two hundred and fifty thousand people at least had gathered for this moment. They waited in stillness and expectation for the flash of your wire less signal which opened the Exposition, and then broke into a triumphal cheer. "It was not only one of the most spectacular, but one of the most impres sive things I have ever seen. The fair itself is complete in all details. Exhibits are installed. Its architectural beauty has certainly never been excelled. I doubt if it has been equaled either in Europe or this country." In his opening address, as Chairman of the day, President lVloore said: "The wisdom of Congress in deciding that the great work of constructing the Panama Canal should be celebrated is obvious. Its wisdom in selecting California to act as host for the Nation is yet unproved, but we offer today an accounting of our stewardship and ask of our fellow-citizens the credit for con scientious earnestness, lofty ideals and high purpos. The pride that every [348 ]

PAGE 369

PANAMA"PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION citizen should, and does, feel in the completion of the Panama Canal has spurred us on for accomplishment. We have felt that bringing together here the best we could secure in this Nation and the world was none too good for the purposes of the great celebration in our charge. This work we have con sidered should be dedicated, by the very nature of the celebration, to contem poraneous achievement. Education, information, and human uplift have there fore been the prime factors that have nloved us. In our architecture, color, landscape, lighting effects, statuary, music, and all branches of art, and the material things of life as well, we have striven to produce a result that would benefit every visitor that comes within the Exposition gates, mindful always that the event we celebrate warrants superlatively the best effort of all." The opening ceremonies were preceded by a parade of directors, officials and visitors from the California building to the grand stand in front of the Tower of Jewels, and also by a public parade from the civic center of San Francisco, in which it was estimated that 150,000 persons participated. Under these promising auspices the great celebration of the union of the oceans was fittingly begun. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE EXPOSITION Even before its opening the Panama-Pacific International Exposition had already shattered many world exposition records. I ts history reflects the The Grand Stand on Opening Day. President C. C. Moore receiving President Wilson's Message of Congratulation. [ 3491

PAGE 370

PANAMA/PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION highest credit on the people of California, who have financed the great undertaking without government or other outside aid. As early as 1904 it had been suggested that San Francisco should hold an international exposition, but it was not until 1909 that the idea of a world celebration of the building of the Panama Canal began to take form and awake determination in the minds of public-spirited citizens of the rebuilt Coast city. On the afternoon of December 7,1909, over 500 citizens responded to a call for a mass meeting at the Merchants' Exchange, from which grew the organization of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. On January 6, Birdseye view of western half of Exposition grounds, as seen from Tower of Jewels. 1910, a board of thirty directors was chosen, and in the following April a second mass meeting was held in the }t[erchants' Exchange building, at which, in less than two hours, $4,089,000 was pledged by popular subscription to the Exposition fund. This sum shortly after was increased to $7,500,000, and was followed by a bond issue of $5,000,000 voted by the people of San Francisco and by a tax of another $5,000,000 voted by the State of California. The coun ties of California then volunteered an assessment amounting to $3,000,000 to add to this amount, making in all a fund of over $20,000,000 raised entirely by the citizens of California, to enable them properly to perform the duties entrusted to them by the Nation. It will be remembered that San Francisco was not alone in seeking the honor of holding the official National celebration of the triumph over nature at Panama. New Orleans was the principal competitor, but fourteen months r 350 J

PAGE 371

........................ : ............ .................. -................. ..... The Tower of Jewels, crowning architectural feature of the Exposition, with the Fountain of Energy in the foreground. The Tower was designed by Messrs. Carrere & Hastings of New York, rises to a height of 433 feet and fairly dominates the artistic groups of architecture that surround it. It is also called the Main Tower. Strikingly beautiful by day, its beauty is enhanced at night by the brilliant illumination of which it is the center. The .. jewels" of the Tower (over 100,000 in number) are prisms of handcut glass, hung tremulously so that they flash and scintillate in ever-changing colors as they sway in the slightest breeze or respond to the rays of the sun or the searchlight r 351]

PAGE 372

PANAMA--PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Colonnaded entranceway from the Marina upon San Francisco Bay. of strenuous work were required before Congress, on January 31, 1911, voted in favor of the Western city. Winning the exposition for San Francisco de veloped one of the most spectacular nation-wide contests the country has ever witnessed. In this battle the West was pitted against the South. The cham pions of San Francisco won victory at Washington only after a fight in which New Orleans proved herself no mean adversary. When the fight was over, the slogan, "San Francisco Invites the World," was already famous. In the organization of the Exposition Company, directed by the strongest body of citizens ever called to assume the leadership of public work in San Francisco, the success of the great task was assured. The ability of the thirty directors to manage the work was manifested in the remarkable facility with which the financial resources of San Francisco were enlisted to fill the Exposition treasury, as well as in the completion of the gigantic task on time. The first president of the Exposition, named on March 24, 1910, was Homer S. IGng. A year later, on May 10, 1911, Charles C. J\1oore, former president of the Chamber of Commerce, accepted the presidency of the Exposition Company and served until its labors reached a triumphant conclusion on the opening day. After the selection of the site at Harbor View actual construction work was publicly begun Octob e r 14, ] 91], Presiclent Taft turning the first spadeful of earth; and on F ebruary 2, 1912, he made official proclamation of the [352 ]

PAGE 373

PANAMA ... PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION celebration, inviting the nations of the earth to join therein. Two years later, in February, 1914, President Charles C. Moore announced to the world that the Exposition buildings were 75 per cent completed, and promised that months before the opening day every detail would be entirely finished. In June of 1914, eight months before the date set, this promise was already virtually fulfilled. All of the great exhibit palaces with the single exception of the classic Palace of Fine Arts, which was being constructed of steel and rein forced concrete, were completed and exhibits were being installed. HUGE COST OF THE EXPOSITION The total cost of the buildings and grounds, including the use of the site to January 1, 1917, is given as $15,000,000, but this figure represents only a portion of the total cost of the Exposition. The counties of California spent $3,000,000; the other states $8,000,000 and foreign governments $5,000,000, while $10,000,000 has been spent in the concessions and the exhibitors have spent something like $7,000,000; so that it is estimated that the total cost of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition is $50,000,000, exclusive of the value of the exhibits, which is said to be at least $250,000,000, although many of them are priceless. While other expositions, even with generous Government aid, have en countered financial difficulties, the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, without one cent of Federal aid, opened its gates with every financial obliga -Palace of Education, strikingly reflected in the limpid waters of the lagoon. The half-dome of Philosophy over main entrance, [353 ]

PAGE 374

PANAMA/PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION tion duly met and discharged. the declared ambition of the directors was fulfilled, while the confidence of the stockholders and public in the ability and wisdom of these leading representatives of the San Francisco spirit was fully justified by the wonderful result of their five years' labor. In still another particular the Panama-Pacific Internationa.l Exposition, in the latter half of 1914, made a distinguished record. Months before the formal opening, throngs of citizens and visitors paid admission to the grounds, so that the gate receipts for the pre-exposition period were $220,096, and the re ceipts from the concessions in the same period were $459,287, making a total income in these months before the official opening of $679,383. And this record was accomplished in spite of the fact that for nearly two months before the official opening the gates were closed to the public, to permit the uninterrupted distribution of the exhibits among the various palaces. FOUR YEARS OF CONSTRUCTION Two years-1911 and 1912-were devoted to the preliminary work on the great Exposition. While there was not much to arouse popular enthusiasm in this period, the foundations were laid in a manner which later made it possible to open the Exposition on time with all the palaces completed. In these two years the leading architects of San Francisco and the East perfected the wonderful architectural plan of the Exposition and the site was filled and graded. The last two years of the great work-1913 and 1914-were occupied with the actual work bf construction. One contract after another was let and .. ( I J ... C A -..... -U. S Troops entering Court of the Universe for exhibition drill. [354 ]

PAGE 375

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Festival Hall, from the South Gardens. completed on time. Arti ts added the touch of color. The land cape gardening was completed in it magnificence; the illumination scheme carried out; sculpture and nlural painting took their place in the poetic scheme of the com position; and long before the opening thousands had seen and admired the completed Expo ition. In magnificence and splendor, number of palaces, beauty of ground, number and quality of exhibits, diYersity of subjects, completeness of detail and hugeness of the whole thi i an Exposition adequate to the eyent it cele brates. It" ill have great and la ting effect upon the trade, relationship and commercial actiyitr of all countrie A ::\IAGXIFICEXT SITE The site of the Exposition, in its combination of scenic beauty and prac tical advantages, is probably unequaled in the world. It is a natural amphitheater covering 635 acres, backed by re idence-covered hills flanked by the wooded heights and fortifications of the Presidio reservation, fronting on the wonderful blue island-tudded Bay of San Francisco, just inside the portals of the famous "Golden Gate." The Exposition city, which covers these 635 acres, i the realized dream of the best architectural genius of America, supplemented by all that famous artists can do in color, all that modern sci ence can do in lighting effects and all that skilled gardeners and the California climat can do in flowers and tree. Its beauty will live in the luemory of beholder a long a memor itself endures. [355 ]

PAGE 376

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Avenue of Palms, showing Tower of Jewels on the left. One of the unique features of the Exposition site is that it lies in the very heart of the best residential district of San Francisco, within fifteen minutes' street-car ride frOln the City Hall. Thousands of visitors walk to its gates daily from their hotels or residences. The central portion of the site lies slightly above the sea and is encircled on three sides by gently sloping ground; within a short distance from the boundaries of the site these slopes change to steep hillsides and thus the site becomes the floor of a huge amphitheater from whose sides the Exposition is seen stretched out below. To the east and south the residence section of the city encircles the Exposition grounds and to the west and southwest the site is embraced by the wooded slopes of the Presidio, dark with cypress and eucalyptus and interspersed with occasional vistas of green valleys. Upon the north the site opens out as a crescent upon the harbor of San Francisco, just inside the Golden Gate. In the Bay before the site lies Alcatraz Island, the location of a naval prison, whose white walls are reflected in the waters of the lower harbor. Beyond are the hills of Marin County, rising up into hundre ds and in some instances into thousands of feet, with l\lount Tamalpais lofti st of all its summit often shrouded with a turban of fog upon which the sun shin e s as upon a vast bank of snow, as a background for the s etting. } rom the we t of the site one may look out to the rim of the Pacific [356 ]

PAGE 377

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Ocean through the straits of the Golden Gate, a mile and a quarter wide, guarded on each side by rugged cliffs and protected by forts. The Exposition buildings, built upon an axis east and west, face the Bay upon the north and parallel the streams of the great incoming traffic of the world through the western gate of the United States. Ships entering the great harbor pass before the Exposition grounds, and the harbor itself is part of the mammoth theater upon which this world celebration is fitly staged. Thus the site adapts itself to the carrying out of wonderful aquatic di plays. Carnivals, maneuyers by the fleets, international yacht racing, motorboat racing, exhibitions by submarines and hydroplanes-all can be carried on in the immediate foreground of the Exposition palaces. All the navies of the world could here assemble and land their crews right on the edge of the l\1arina, the beautiful waterfront pier and promenade. OF THE NATIONS Forty-one nations of the earth are represented at the great Exposition by exhibits showing some phase of national indu try, and forty-three states of the United States are also represented. The total amount appropriated by nations and states for participation is $10,000,000. l\Iany of the pavilions of the nations and states vie with the larger exposition palaces in beauty of design. "Today the world is here in epitome," said Director-in-Chief Frederick J. V. Skiff, on the opening day, and the remark truly summarized the Expo-Dominion of Canada building, Panama-Pacific Exposition. [ 3:)7 1

PAGE 378

PANAMA/PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION sition. Within the main exhibit palaces are found,in epitome, the varied re sults of the world's progress and knowledge in the applied sciences. The Exposition is intended to be truly contemporaneous, and for that reason no ex hibit will be considered for award by the international jury of awards that has not been produced during the past decade; that does not, in other words, represent an advance in the particular field it covers since the St. Louis Exposition of 1904. While the great war in Europe has deprived the Exposition of the participation of several of the belligerent nations, there is one department that has The beautiful Court of Abundance, with Tower of Jewels at left. been enriched above all others as an unexpected result of the war. This is the departInent of Fine Arts, which is housed in a mighty Greco-Roman palace, one-fifth of a mile in length. Art treasures of the Old World that otherwise never would have been removed from their places in famous galleries were shipped to San Francisco on the new United States Government collier, Jason (the "Christmas hip" of 1914) as a measure of protection in the event that opposing armies should happen to lay waste other cities famous for their art, as the cities of Belgium have been laid waste. In the matter of foreign participation, the directors of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition were severely handicapped by world conditions unprecedented and deplorable, in addition to the usual obstacles that confront r 8!)R 1

PAGE 379

A rear view of the great triumphal "Arch of the Rising Sun," surmounted by the symbolical sculptured group, "The Nations of the East." The howdah upon the elephant rises 186 feet above the floor level of the Court of the Universe. Both this arch and its companion, the "Arch of the Setting Sun," are larger than the famous Arc de Triomphe in Paris. [359 ]

PAGE 380

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION The Australian building, a splendid specimen of the foreign pavilions. such undertakings. The horrific war in Europe found echoes in San Francisco during the last six months of the construction period, and changed some important plans, but through all the trials of the directors, with the sympa thetic support of the United States Government, the states of the Union, and foreign countries as well, they steadfastly pursued their course, although their courage and perseverance were taxed at times to their full limit. "We are enjoying here today the fruits of peace," said President Charles C. Moore at the opening ceremonies of the Exposition. "Difficult it is for us to realize that in other civilized countries conditions are so vastly differentin countries, too, well loved by us, and to which by reason of our cosmopolitan population we are bound by ties of birth, of blood and of interest. President Wilson has spoken for us all the words of neutrality. Practically all coun tries are represented at this Exposition. Through our people our connections with and regard for all countries are most cordial and close. Since, however, the one cloud in the sky of our happiness today, at the opening of our great celebration, dedicated as it is to the glories of peace, is the fact that our fellowmen are in discord, I am sure it is strictly neutral, and not improper, for a heart prayer to go up that before the time rolls by to close these Exposition gates, consecrated to progress and to peace, the awful specter of war shall have vanished; and that on these grounds can be consummated the amity and good will among men that will guarantee human advancement." r 3601

PAGE 381

PANAMA,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION A BEAUTIFUL ARCHITECTUUAL SCHEME Standing on the brow of the hill just outside the main Exposition gate the architecture of the wonder city may be studied in perspective. Although the great palaces are of mammoth proportions it can readily be seen that they are not wholly separate. Into this scheme of architecture comes the added beauty and connecting link of five great courts, and it is evident that the ma sive structures were designed so that they might form the walls for courts of unparalleled magnificence and splendor The main exhibit palaces, eleven in number, contain, under a comprehen sive and representative classification, examples of the resources and achievements along all lines of human endeavor, which are divided into departments f 11 "A" F' A.... "B" Ed t' "e S 1 E D as 0 ows: 'me !l,S; uca IOn; ,OC1a conomy; Liberal Arts; "E", l)Ianufactures and Varied Industries; "F", l)lachinery; "G" T t t' "H" A It "I" F d P d t H t" ranspor a IOn; ,gncu ure; 00 1'0 uc s; or 1-culture; "L", l)lines and l\ietallurgy. These eleven great palaces, together with Festiyal Hall, form the central setting of a beautiful picture, flanked on the city side by the amusement section or concessions district (the Zone) and on the other end by the buildings of the various states and the pavilions of' the foreign nations. These latter join the aviation field, race track and live stock exhibit, terminating in the grounds of the great military reservation the Presidio, where the compe titive drills and army maneuvers will take place. Facade Palace of Food Products and Sunken Pool. r 361 ]

PAGE 382

PANAMA"PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Arch of the Rising Sun, Court of the Universe. In formation the eight main exhibit palaces-Education, Liberal Arts, l\1anufacturers, Varied Industries, Agriculture, Food Products, Transportation, and M;ines and Metallurgy-represent a quadrangle, being bisected by an avenue east and west and intersected by avenues north and south, the intersec tions marking the three great courts. The facades of the palaces are the walls of these courts and partake of the particular style of architecture dominating the court on which they front. These eight palaces are flanked on the east by the great Palace of Machinery and on the west by the Palace of Fine Arts. Passing through the main gate on the city side the visitor enters the great South Garden, 3,000 feet in length, on the right extremity of which can be seen the beautiful Festival Hall. To the extreme left is the Palace of HOl:ticulture. Immediately in front is the Main Tower or "Tower of Jewels." This great garden, itself a marvel of landscape engineering skill, is but one side of a magic carpet on which these beautiful palaces are set, the 300-foot wide "Marina" and its grand esplanade, with its floricultural splendors, forming the other side, the pattern threading its winding way through the various courts and recesses over the entire grounds, forming a correlated whole which, for wondrous beauty, has never been equaled. Passing from this great garden under the arch of the main tower the visitor enters the "Court of the Universe," the largest of the five courts of the Exposition. This is the meeting place of the Eastern and Western hemispheres, and the decorative scheme on each side is typical of this theme .. On the extreme right and left are two great triumphal arches, the one on the right, [362 ]

PAGE 383

PANAMA/PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION which leatls to the Court of AbulHlallce, being sunuounteu by a magnificent statuary group, "The Nations of the East," the figures symbolizing life in the Orient, while the arch on the left, leading to the Court of the Four Seasons has a group of the same proportions, "The Nations of the West," symbolical of life in the Occident. Straight ahead is the colossal Column of Progress, surmounted by the "Adventurous Bowman" shooting the arrow toward the vVest. To the right, under the "Arch of the Rising Sun," is the avenue leading to the "Court of Abundance," which terminates at its southern extremity in the "Court of Flowers," one of the minor courts; while to the left, under the "Arch of the Setting Sun," is the avenue leading to the beautiful "Court of the Four Seasons," which, at its southern extremity, enters the other minor court, the "Court of Palms." Continuing straight ahead one comes to the edge of the spacious Yacht Harbor, 'and the center of the Grand Esplanade or ":l\larina." Long after the Exposition is over-when it is only a fond and loving memory-this esplanade will remain to grace and enhance the natural beauties of San Francisco Bay. THE GREAT EXHIBIT BUILDINGS Palace of Fine Arts. This fireproof structure, designed by R. B. Maybeck, describes an arc of 1,100 feet, running north and south, and faces upon a great lagoon of placid water which reflects its beautiful architecture. In the center of the arc is a great dome, with steps leading down to the la goon in a beautiful setting of shrubbery, composed of :l\i{onterey cypress and Court of the Four Seasons,with Fountain of Ceres in center. [363 ]

PAGE 384

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Palace of Horticulture, the Dome Suggesting a Mosque in Stamboul. other evergreen trees, making perhaps the prettiest setting of the whole Exposition site. The painting and sculpture of every nation of artistic prominence is shown in this palace. The exhibits in the United States section consist not only of the work of contemporary artists, but of historic American paintings from the time of "rest, Copley and Stuart to the present, and a loan collection of canvases by foreign artists owned in the United States. The installation of the canvases and small bronzes permits close inspection, the color scheme of the galleries varying to serve as a sympathetic background for their contents. Palace of Horticulture. This palace is constructed almost entirely of glass and covers over five acres. It is surmounted by an immense glass dome 180 feet in height and 152 feet in diameter. The building is 672 feet long and its greatest width is 320 feet. An imposing nave 80 feet in height runs the length of the building and paralleling the central nave are (one on either side) two side aisles eac h 50 feet in height. All phases of practical horticulture are embraced in thi s exhibit. Among other things a fully equipped fruit-canning esta blishment is in operation, showing the sanitary way in which fruit is prepared and canned; there are a seed-packing establishment, an orange-packing house, and olive oil presses in operation; also tools used in the culture of fruits, trees and flowers. The frostless climate of California, which enables plant life to attain the highest perfection, gives the floricultural exhibit a distinction and beauty it has not been possible to attain a t other expositions where the seasons r 364 J

PAGE 385

PANAMA,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION have been short and the winters severe. The building was designed by Messrs. Bakewell & Brown, of San Francisco. Palace of Machinery. This palace, designed by lVlessrs. 'iV ard & Blohme of San Francisco, is the largest building erected on the Exposition site. It is 968 feet by 368 feet. One mile and a half of cornices was used in ornamenting the building, and four carloads of nails and 1,500 tons of bolts and washers were used in its construction. In this palace are assembled exhibits of ma chinery used in the generation, transmission and application of power. Several groups comprise examples of steam generators and motors utilizing steam, internal combustion motors, hydraulic motors, miscellaneous motors, general machinery apparatus and accessories, and tools for shaping wood and metals. Ten special electrical groups cover the gen ration, distribution and control of electrical energy in its application to mechanical and motor power, lighting and heating. The following eight palaces, comprising the central group, are composite in design, each facade partaking of the particular style of architecture dominating the court on which it fronts. Palace of Education and Social Econom, y. The exhibits in this palace show development along these lines since 1905, and by specializing on prominent movements and reforms seek to forecast the education of the future. There is a comparative exhibit of the educational systems of all nations participating and a comprehensive demonstration of educational work in the United Filipino Band Concert at the Philippine Islands pavilion. [365 ]

PAGE 386

PANAMA ... PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION States in all its phases from kindergarten to university. The Department of Social Economy has brought together a comprehensive collection of ex hibits illustrative of the conditions and necessities of man considered as a member of organized society and government, together with displays showing the agencies of mear1s employed for his well being. As far as possible, operating examples are given. Child welfare, and the work of organizations such as boy scouts, campfire girls, etc., charities, corrections, criminology, urban problems, park systems, public buildings, street improvements, method of disposing of sew age, etc., receive exhaustive treatment by ex hibit s Such matters as finance in its relation to the public welfare and in connection with such agencies as banks and provident associations, modern credit associations, etc., are illustrated. All matters pertaining to commerce in the way of distribution of goods, business standards and sys t ems; all labor problems involving working condi tions and standards, welfare and efficiency, and including domestic science and woman's vocations, may be exhaustive l y studied and compared by ex hibits. The latest discoveries in hygiene, methods of missionary work, international and universal peace institutions, diplomatic and consular systems-all these also receive a broad and sympathetic treatment by exhibitiona l studies. Palace of Libelal Arts. Liberal Arts rank high in the classification of exhibits because they embrace the applied sciences which indicate the result of man's education and culture, illustrate his tastes and demonstrate his inven-New York' beautiful building. typical of the Empire State. [366 ]

PAGE 387

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Dome of the Palace of Horticulture, 185 feet high, 152 feet in diameter. tive genius and scientific attainment and express his artistic nature. Thi splendid palace is directly opposite the main entrance to the Exposition grounds from the city side and is approximately 585 feet long, 470 feet wide and 65 feet high, and covers nearly six acres. Palaces of ltlanufactuTes and Varied Industries. The department of a universal Exposition which has the com bined interest of all nations is the ex hibition of finished products of manufacture and manual skin, the objects of utility, luxury and taste in which eac h country excels and which constitute the most valuable and profitable part of foreign trade. The art industries of the world are brilliantly displayed in the Palace of l\fanufactures and Varied Industries. Palace of 1'ransportation. The exhibits in this palace have been made, a far as possible, contemporaneous, not historical. The very latest achievements of human ingenuity, covering the entire field of transportation, are display d. On account of the great development of the motor-boat industry and aerial navigation these two groups are thoroughly represented, both in indoor and outdoor exhibits. In this palace are also shown the exhibits of all the great steamship companies, the water transportation of all countries, their navigation and commerce, characteristic boats and ships of all nations. Sail and steam yachts are generally shown by models. ElectriC' exhibits show the latest application of' electricity to the agency of transportation and the loco-[367 ]

PAGE 388

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION California's great building-largest state building ever erected at an Exposition. Reminiscent of Mission architecture, with its patios and cloisters, it contains an immense ballroom, a great reception room, roof garden, and offices for the president of the Exposition. The great tower is 70 feet square and 120 feet high. inotive exhibit illustrates the latest types. The car exhibits show the modern development of street car equipment, and there is a complete showing of railway supplies, including all the new inventions and appliances for the protec tion of life and property in this connection. Palace of Agriculture. The section of the Exposition devoted to the interests of agriculture embraces an area of more than forty acres. The Palace of Agriculture proper, covers seven and one-half acres. The exhibits deal with every phase of the agricultural industry. A very important group is devoted to farm implements and machinery. In this department also is shown all that pertains to forestry and forest products. Palace of Agriculture (food products). Under this same department, although in a separate palace, the multiform exhibits governing the food prod ucts of the entire world have been O'rouped. Vegetable and animal food products and the equipment and methods employed in the preparation of foods and beverages are extensively shown. Palace of ltlines and !letallurgy. The exhibits in this palace deal with the natural mineral resources of the world, their exploration and exploitation, their conversion into metal, and their manufacture into structural forms and into raw material for the various industries. Thev take in the ordinary metals such as gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, alun;inum, etc.; the rare metals ucll as tungsten, vanadium, uranium, radium, platinum, etc.; the non-metallic substances, such as clay, cement and their products; coal, oil and gas; the alines, fertilizers, etc. The object of the l\iines and IVletallurgy exhibit is two fold: first, to draw attention to the natural mineral resources of each country, state or community so that the public may learn of the mode of occurrence of the mctals of commerce and their di. tl'ihution, of the stage of development of th e various district, of p1" sent sources of supply and consllmption and of po sibl futur sourc s of supply and of extend d cond, to r 68 ]

PAGE 389

PANAMA,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION the public in a general way regarding the details of the industry, its problems and its needs. MISCELLANEOUS BUILDIKGS Live Stock Exhibit. In keeping with the general plan of the Exposition the Department of Live Stock has been presented in a better manner than ha s heretofore characterized such exhibitions. Competitions for the $175,000 in prize money appropriated by the Exposition, and for the supplemental pre miums offered by the breeders' associations, are announced for the months of October and November. In addition to this is a continuous live stock displa y from February 20 to December 4, 1915. In housing, classification and arrangements of the exhibits, the Department of Live stock at San Francisco demonstrates the adyancement that has been made since the last world exposi tion. Special events include universal polo, international cavalry contests, two harness horse racing meets, and the carrying on of a series of demonstrations intended to teach everything that is new in this important industry. The E xposition Auditorium. This building, designed by Messrs. John Galen Howard, Frederick H. Meyer and John Reid, Jr., is a four-story structure of steel and stone and graces the civic center of San Francisco. It will be a lasting and beautiful monument to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. The Exposition management paid over one million dollars for its erec tion and the City and County of San Francisco paid nearly a million dollars Oregon' characteristic building. with columns of huge native logs. [369 J

PAGE 390

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Indiana State building-a homelike structure in Queen Anne style, especially adapted for the hospitable entertainment of Hoosier visitors and guests. for the site. The main auditorium of this building accommodates twelve thousand persons. F estival Hall. This will be the scene of many of the great festivals and choral competitions entered into by the various singing organizations of the world. Festival Hall is built in the French theater style of architecture with one large dome and various minor domes and minarets, profusely decorated with statuary. The main hall contains seats for about three thousand persons, and here has been placed a huge pipe organ which is seventh in size in the world. The California Building. This building is in the old Mission style and covers approximately 350 feet by 675 feet. In form it consists of a towered main building, two stories in height and surrounded by an immense court. Its construction and furnishings represent an outlay of considerably over half a million dollars. This is the "Host Building" of the Exposition and contains the displays of the fifty-eight counties of California. This building, with its walled-in court and park, covers about seven acres. The Women's Board, an auxiliary of the Exposition, assumed the responsibility of furnishing and main tenance, and has entire charge of its social administration. Designed by Thos. H. L. Burdette. Main Tower or UTower of Designed by Messrs. Carrere & Hastings, of New York. This tower rises to a height of 433 feet and, from an architectural standpoint, is the dominating feature of the Exposition. This is the center of the brilliant night illumination, the outline of the tower being defined by over one hundred thousand hand cut glass "jewels" or prisms, hung tremulously the least atmospheric disturbance causing them to flash and change and scintillate in a thousand different tints and colors. r 370 ]

PAGE 391

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION THE COURTS AND THEIR BEAUTY The Court of the Universe. Designed by J\1essrs. IVlcKim, Mead & White, of N ew York, this is the great central court or court of honor of the Exposition, and in design and decoration it is made to represent the meeting place of the hemispheres. It is 700 feet long and 900 feet wide, and contains a sunken garden in the center. At the northern end, between the palaces of Agriculture and Transportation, is a great pool of water embellished with statuary and fountains. The Court of Abundance. This is the east central court of the ,Exposition and in design shows the Oriental phase of the Spanish-Moorish type. This court is dedicated to music, dancing, acting and pageantry. Designed by L ouis C. M ullgardt. The Court of the Four Seasons. This is the west central court and one o f the most beautiful sections of the Exposition. It is said that Hadrian's Villa, one of the historic Roman palaces, was the inspiration for this court. I t is surrounded by a beautiful colonnade, in each of the four corners of which are niches containing statuary representing the four seasons. Designed by Henry Bacon, of New York. The Court of Palms. Designed by George W. I{elham, of San Francisco. This is one of the two minor courts of the Exposition. Its entrance is from the great South Garden between two towers, each rising to a height of 200 feet and favoring in architecture the period of the Italian Renaissance. This court contains a showing of rare and beautiful palms. The Court of Flowers. This is the second of the minor courts also havmg its entrance from the great South Garden between two Italian towers Washington state building. another fine example of pavilion architecture. l3711

PAGE 392

PANAMA/PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION "The Nations of the West," symbolical of life in the Occident-a magnificent group of statuary on the arch leading to the Court of the Four Seasons. almost the exact duplicate of those at the entrance to the Court of Palms. While the smallest of the Exposition courts it is nevertheless as beautiful as the others, and, as the name denotes, is a perfect paradise of vari-colored flowers. Designed by George W. I(elham. THE EXPOSITION STATUARY The splendid arrELY of statuary at the Exposition forms one of its leading and most interesting features, Over 250 distinct groups and hundreds of indi vidual pieces of statuary are shown, These comprise, among others, the following groups and subjects: "N ations of the East," "Nations of the "West," "The Colossal Column of Progress," "Spring," "Surruner," "Autumn," "Winter," "Fountain of Energy," "Fountain of Youth," "The Fountains of the Rising and Setting Sun," "Fire," "Water," "Earth" and "Air," "Order and Chaos" and "Eternity and Change," "Modern Civilization," "A d H "Phrl h" "Ad t ""P' t" "S ld' rmore orsenlan, I asop er, ven urer, nes 0 Ier, "Fountain of Eldorado," "Nature," "Ceres," "Beauty and the Beast," "End of the Tl'al'l" "TIle P1'oneel'" "Col'tez" "PI'zal'l'o "The MI'nel' "TIle '" Pirate," "Primitive J\ifan, "Primitive Woman," "Steam," "Electric Power," Besides these figures and groups are many beautiful friezes, spandrels, capitals, niches and columns decorated with allegorical subjects, While color is the dominant note of the Exposition-color grouped in large masses of r e ds bInes, greens and golds-yet over all prevails harmony, the palaces themselves b e ing of a soft, neutral tinta smok rl ivory-that i at one pleasing and restful to eye r

PAGE 393

PANAMA/PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION The 4,000,000 square feet of roadways have been packed into smoothness and covered with resilient red rock which is easy on the feet and eliminates the glitter which tires the eyes. Hundreds of trees have been transplanted into places along the drives and in the gardens. l\10re than ten thousand quick growing vines spread their tendrils along the walls of the buildings and the fence the Exposition, and millions of blossoming flowers have been planted in the gardens and courts. BEAUTIFUL NIGHT EFFECTS. One of the most attractive and beautiful features of the great Exposition is the electrical illumination at night, which presents a scene that, once witnessed, will never be forgotten. B y an entirely new system of flood lighting a soft, restful, yet perfect light pervades the courts, revealing in wonderful clearness the facades and walls of the palaces and the natural colors of the shrubbery and flowels. By peculiar and novel lighting devices the statuary and mural paintings are made to appear ""ith even heightened effect Concealed batteries project powerful yet softened rays of light that cau e tens of thousands of spe cially prepared glass jewels," hung tremulously upon the towers, to flash and scintillate like great diamonds, emeralds and rubies. At a point on the Bay shore there has been erected apparatus that weave in the night sky auroras of ever-changing color. There is a Scintillator compo ed of a battery of fortyeight 36-inch searchlight projectors with a beam candle po" er of 2 ,000,000,000. This powerful light plays on the cloudbanks that come in from the Bay. "The Nations of the East," symbolizing life in the Orient and surmounting the Triumphal Arch leading to the Court of Abundance. r 373]

PAGE 394

PANAMA.,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION The Ohio building, reproduction of State Capitol at Columbus. It is a veritable harmonic symphon.\' of light and the special'program each evening is known as "The Dance of the Light God. By the use of colored prisms the fog is painted in every color of the spectrum and "The City of the Rainbow Night" is an appellation which is well merited. A spectacle never before attempted is offered and this feat, always declared impossible, is made easy by the aid of nature's fog, which gives a volatile background. The most beautiful night effect is afforded by the use of the "jewels," glistening and sparkling from the walls and towers. Ten tons of these "jewels" have been used in the architectural scheme. They are 47 millimeters in diameter and were manufactured in Austria of special flint glass, so called because of its hardness. In the process of manufacture they were first molded in facto ries and then given to peasants to be handcut and polished. On the Exposition buildings they are suspended by tiny clasps and sway in the slightest breeze. The colors are white, canary, ruby, emerald and aquamarine, and they are used on the large exhibit palaces to outline the architectural scheme. The Tower of Jewels is studded with their prismatic colors and 100,000 of the'm make a mass of iridescent color 433 feet high under the beams of the great searchlight projectors that turn every night at the Exposition into radiant day. THE AMUSEMENT OR CONCESSIONS DISTRICT. Ever since the days of the Chicago 'iV orld's Fair in 1893, the term way" has been associated with amusement features of expositions large and small. St. Louis in 1904 called its amusement district "The Pike". ; Seattle had its "Paystreak," and Portland its "Trail." San Diego calls its fun department "The Isthmus," and San Francisco, mindful of the object of its great celebra tion, has given to its great amusement district the appropriate title of "The Zon e which bids fair to replace the "Miclway" of ChicaO'o in popular e timation r 3741

PAGE 395

PANAMA--PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION as the name of the amusement district. Sixty-five acres are devoted to the amusement features of the Exposition. This division of the great fair repre sents an outlay of over $10,000,000, and the 200 concessions that have been ac cepted are of the highest class, combining the features of fun and educational entertainment in a 'manner never before found in any exposition. The title, "The Zone," now calls to mind the region of the great canal and the immense work that the United States army has done, waging a war only on disease and nature's topographical barriers. It conjures the Herculean labors that. have been performed in wrenching apart two continents for the gain of the whole world. In 1915, it is to have another meaning and although "The Zone" will take its place with "The Midway" of the Chicago exposition, "The Pike" of St. Louis," "The Paystreak" of Seattle, and "The Trail" of Portland, it will avoid the coarser features of these and still retain something of the tone that is im plied in the thought of the Panama Canal Zone. The world is no longer "pleased with a rattle and tickled with a straw." The first stage attempts at light entertainment were of the type of "Gammer Gurton's Needle," "Hycke Scorner," and other types of low comedy in both senses of the word. The first exposition rather followed this idea that a touch of the risque was necessary to please the public and for this reason there was a suggestion of vulgarity in the first names that designated amusement sections of the great expositions. Typical scene in "The Zone," amusement district of the Exposition. [375 ]

PAGE 396

PANAMA--PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION As unclean comedy on the stage has given way to the clean, so has the idea of clean amusement gained in popularity in expositions. A baker's dozen of the large attractions that are to be seen will give an idea of those that cover 65 acres and cluster about the main artery, which is an asphalt pavement 3,300 feet long and more than 100 feet wide. These attractions, that may be given a brief description here, are: "The Grand Canyon of Arizona," "Yellows tone National Park," "Toyland Grown Up," "Creation," "Submarines," Evolution of the Dreadnaught," "'49 Camp," "Panama Canal," "l\1ahomet's Mountain," "Old Nuremberg," "Japan Beautiful," "Chinese Village" and the "Aeroscope." The Grand Canyon of Arizona represents a cost of $350,000. It was built by the Santa Fe Railway company and every detail of the great natural beauty is reproduced on smaller sca le but so that the impressions of the exact distance are carried out. These illusions are made possible by perfectly devised and carefully concealed electrical and mechanical devices. Eight standard gauge observation cars are in place and on these the visitor will be taken over the half hour journey from the bottom of the canyon to the summit. Geysers, mountain gorges and roaring torrents will be found on the trip. Indian villages with their basket and pottery workers and the interesting occupations of the Zuni, Laguna, I-Iopi, and Pueblo Indians will be ob served on the journey. When the car has made the ascent, a storm comes whirling through the can yon. The winds roar and add their rush to the sounds of the rivers which swell into 'mighty torrents. Darkness falls and the thunder and lightning make the visitor, who has just made the climb, happy that he has escaped. But the sun bursts forth and leaves the canyon glorified. The structure is 700 feet long and 300 feet wide. "Yellowstone National Park" stands at the eastern end of the amusement area. It represents a cost of $250,000 and was built by the Union Pacific Railway company. In the background of this attraction is Old Faithful Inn. It is a lofty, widespreading structure of logs with a touch of Swiss about its gables and windows. Inside, the logs are everywhere and may be seen in partitions, balustrades, steps and newel posts. The lobby has the four cheerful fireplaces, the huge corn popper, the clock with the twenty foot pendulum and the log made galleries. Everything is a faithful reproduction of the Old Faithful Inn of the real Yellowstone. "Toyland Grown Up" is the million dollar concession of Frederick Thompson and covers fourteen acres. Thompson has earned his fame as a purveyor of amusements by building Luna Park at Coney Island and the Hippodrome in New York. In this new enterprise Thompson has reversed the fairy tales of childhood and the giant's stove, his skillet, the blocks of the children, Noah's Alk, and every hero, heroine and villain of nursery rhyme will be so large as to 'make the humans who visit the toyland appear very small and insignificant "Creation" is one of the prettiest structures on the grounds and exhibits a $160,000 presentation of the beginning of the world as told in Genesis. "The Submarines" have an exceptional educational value and permit the visitor to go far below the surface of the water and observe in absolute comfort the interesting sea life that abounds in the Pacific Ocean. "The Evolution of the Dreadnaught" combines roman e with hi tory and [376 ]

PAGE 397

PANAMA--PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION shows the various stages in arriving at the great superdreadnaughts that are in the midst of a titanic struggle in the present war. "The' 49 Camp" is of great interest to all those whose friends or relatives came to the west during the gold rush of 1849 and to those who have read or heard the wonderful stories of those days. The types of those days are repro duced in the men that are to be seen around the 1915 mining camp, the repro ductions being as true as historians can make them. 1 I 1 f "Panama Canal" concession, and crowd in "The Zone" or amusement district. "The Panama Canal" is one of the first large attractions to greet the eye of the visitor on entering "The Zone." This will be one of the greatest educational features of the entire Exposition, for those who have not made the trip through the real canal may examine a miniature canal that is complete to the smallest de tails. Every part of the present canal with cities, locks, dams, spillways will be shown and the visitors will pass through from one ocean to the other in a palatial steamboat and the only difference between this trip and the real trip will be in the length of time consumed. "l\1ahomet's Mountain" is one of the thrilling spots of the concessions dis trict. It is a monumental pile of mystery and beauty. It is 150 feet high and 100 feet in diameter. At the entrance is an escalator which carries the visitor to a mammoth cave of marvelous illusions. One may pass through a roaring waterfall and emerge perfectly dry. One may look into a deep well and see the center of the earth mId r

PAGE 398

PANAMA .. PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION Massachusetts building, reproduction of the State House at Boston. the strange creatures that may be found there. The visitor is brought into close contact with Mars and the antics of the inhabitants of IVlars may be watched with curiosity. In succession one may explore wonders of the of the Winds, the Palace Cave and "Heaven the Beautiful." There is also the Cave of Mystery, where beautiful statues turn to life. Cathedral Cave draws the explorer by strains of lTIusic played on the stalactites by an electric current. At the top of the mountain is "The Devil's Slide" where the adventurer quickly slides into the open. If the descent is too rapid there are stairways and slower progress. "Old Nuremberg" cost $225,000, and because of the war that is now devastating Germany, this city that has been called the "jewel among the ancient cities of Europe" has added interest. It is an exact reproduction of the orig inal. It was in this city that the "Iron Maiden," one of the most horrible means of torture, first made its appearance, and this will be reproduced. Nuremberg was the center of art and invention in the sixteenth century and many of its treasures will be found in the duplicate on the grounds of the exposition. The city will be found complete even to the old pretzel and sugar bakery. "J apan Beautiful" and the "Chinese Village" are in distant parts of the district and each is a tiny wonderland. Gardens, quaint houses, dainty tea rooms and the life to be found in such communities are shown with fidelity. Each cost in the neighborhood of $250,000. r 378l

PAGE 399

PANAMA,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION The "Ferris wheel" at Chicago and the' teeter-totter" at Buffalo were interesting altitude features and the one at the San Francisco Exposition is well known a the 'Aeroscope." It consi ts of a giant arm of steel, mounted on a piyot at the ba e, and picks up a car containing 30 passengers. The highest point is just four feet higher than the highest point of the Chicago Ferris wheel. In "The Street of Cairo, which i a city within a cit}, entertainment of oriental plendor and true color is offered, with eyery class of eating e tablishment that will appeal to appetite and pur. e. FiYe hundred natives of Egypt are employed on the grounds and are garbed in their own co tume. They ha ye charge of the community within a space of 250 feet wide and 400 feet deep. Here in thi little wonderland, practically picked from the old world and et down in the mid t of the highe t culture, will be found the Hindoo theatre the whirling deryi hes, the fakirs and loud fanatics. Profe ional crier pre ide oyer the Temple of l\lummie the oriental theatre attract by its weird mu ic of flute and tom-tom, the sensational torture dances, the dancing maidens, coffee hou e moking parlors, fortune tellers, rug maker, nake charmers, \VTe tIer all haye their place on these winding treet, oyer this world Teplica. On the treet in front are the camel and donkeys which lend the la t touch of incerity to thi quaint picture redolent with the atmos phere of Egypt. New Jersey building-a reproduction of the famous Trenton barracks occupied by General Washington after the passage of the Delaware in 1776. [379 ]

PAGE 400

PANAMA--PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION KEY TO STATE BUILDINGS I n Q ccompanying mop oj u pcuition ,round l ./ IIOJ been found to '()(IJlc mod of the SlDk bUilt/mil b.ll number All 01 IN ot;,er ,mP
PAGE 401

PANAMA.,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION : 'I t -. The historical value of the pavilion is enhanced furthe r b y the Danskerhal l en," the celebrated chamber which is placed in the ba em e nt. In thi s room the F l atey-Book is reproduced by actual photographs, page for page, taken from t he original. I n this book are shown the Icelandic Sagas and the account of Leif E r icsson's discovery of America. United States history is recalled by the Virginia building. This state, which has been known as the of Presidents, shows l\Iount Vernon, the home of th e first president. Not on l y is the building an exact reproduction of that fa mou structure, but the interior furnishings are those actuall y used by George ashington N annie Randolph Heath, of Virginia, who acts a s the Vir ginia hostess, has much of t h e Washington furniture in her possession and has l oaned it to her state for use in the building. H awaii has a choice spot for the building that repres ents this little land of seductive beauty. The site is at the edge of the lagoon of the Palace of Fine Arts and is sequestered in the midst of low-hanging trees. The architecture of t h e building fo ll ows the low-lying tropical type so common in Honolulu. The b u ilding is in the form of aero s and at the intersection of the t w o arms there is a rotunda containing a mezzanine gallery The main entrance is at the end of one of the wings of the cross and leads through a pergola into a tropical garden roofed with glas At either side are the reception and waiting rooms and beyond the gardens i the rotunda. Across t his rotunda is the pit, twenty feet in diameter, which contains a representation of one of the burning lakes of the volcano Kilauea." In the angles between the wings radiating from the rotunda are four dioramas con s i sting of artificially i ll uminated scenes of typical spots in Hawaii. The aquarium is equipped with tanks containing the rarest and most beautiful fis h of the Pacific Ocean. l\1usic in this bui lding is provided by H awaiian s ingers and musician s J apan' s pavilion is p l ac ecl i n a wond erful .J apanese garde n and both building awl garde n w e r e transported from Nippon. The pavilion c opies an original r 3R1 1

PAGE 402

PANAMA,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION The state building of Texas, during dedication ceremonies. tha t has weathered the storms for 600 veal'S and neither the new nor the old structure ha s ever utilized a single nail. Trees, plants ston e s and even lawns were brou ght acros s the Pacific to make the gardens everything they purport to be. In contrast to the horticultural beauty of the Japanese pavilion is the build in g and garden of the Philippines. More than 4 ,000 orchid plants have been brou ght to the Exposition grounds on United States governm ent transports for di splay in the Philippines' building. The rarest orchids to be found in the world come from the Philippines and the several hundred varieties in the Exposition nurse ries represent many thousand dollars. The Philippine building is Spanish colonial in s t y le. It is one story in h e i ght, triangular in shape and has a large patio in th e cent e r. The inner sides o f the wings resemble conservatory construction. Oriental beauty and luxury crown the $300,000 pavilion of the Ottoman Empire The exterior of the pavilion i s crowned with domes and minarets in appr ove d Turkis h s t y le. In the east of the structure is a lno s que of rare beauty, an d a kiosk will b e another attractive feature. The interior of the pavilion is a r ep li ca of the interior of one of the palaces of the Sultan. The main hall contains the court of official e xhibits the offices of the Otto man commiss ion e rs a parlor of oriental luxury for ladi e s and a men s lounging room attrac tively d e corat e d. On the second floor are the s alon ball room and gall e ries and a lso a suite of apartme nts. In th e cafe, auditorium and dining room Turkish m u s i c i a n s off e r nati ve mu sic. r 3821

PAGE 403

PANAMA,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION If there should come to the Exposition a visitor who does not find a building he can call home and headquarters, the California building will answer his or her needs as the host building. It is the largest state building ever erected at an exposition. The California building faces the Bay at the beginning of the area devoted to the states. Inside the driveway arch of the south arcade is the fore court, which is re'miniscent of the cloisters of the old missions that have played their ro mantic part in the history of California The first patio that the visitor enters will not look like a creation of the present; and it is not. The great hedges that stand twice the height of a man's stature have been flourishing for forty years on the one spot. In the center of the north facade of the fore court stands a statue of J unipero Serra, extending a silent welcome. Behind this statue stands the great tower, 70 feet square and 120 feet high and s urmounted by four minor bell towers. In the base of this tower is the main entrance foyer. The grand reception room is 56x86 feet and the ballroom is 88 feet wide, 168 feet long and 42 feet high. Over the grand reception room is the roof garden with its fountains, hedges, flowers and wide, inviting seats. The president of the Exposition will have offices in this building. A state building that would be a fit companion building for the Fifth Avenue mansions js the one erected for New York. This beautiful structure is just west of the California building and i four stories in height, has twelve room s for servants, twenty chambers for the state a suite for the governor, Utah state building, replete with works of art. [3 31

PAGE 404

PANAMA,PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION a meeting roo'm for the board, an oval reception room for women and eighteen private baths. The ceiling of the ballroom cost $10,000 and the room is 54x76 feet with a balcony on two ides. On the first floor there is a music room, ladies' reception room, a ladies' writing room, and writing and reception rooms for men. A cor ri dor runs the entire length of the building from east to west and the floor is of tile with the coat of arms of the state conspicuously interwrought. There is a large dining room, a private dining room and a kitchen with $3,000 worth of the latest culinary appliance. Oregon's building, surrounded on three sides by the buildings of the states of California, New York and New Jersey, harks back to the Parthenon and also gives proper attention to the rich natural resources of the state. Instead of the marble pillars of the Parthenon the Oregon building uses giant logs with the bark intact. There are 16 of these great pillars on the north and south sides and ten on the east and west sides. Every state and territory has been given one of these pillars. Every foot of the timber that has gone into this attractive building was sent from the Oregon forests and was sawed and planed in a temporary mill on the site. Another distinction that has come to Oregon is the giant flag pole with the ten foot star and 50 foot flag that marks the site. This pole is the tallest single piece flag pole in the world and was the gift of the citizens of Astoria, Oregon, and was cut from an Oregon fir tree. Indiana is represented at the Exposition by a homelike Hoosier residence that will invite many more than IIoosiers. Inside is a library of more than 15,000 volumes, made up entirely of the works of Indiana authors. Other Indiana in dustries will be represented by the furnishing and outfitting, and the fireplace will be made of Bedford stone. Two states have reproductions of their state capitols. Massachusetts has a duplicate of the state house at Boston and Ohio has reproduced the state cap itol at Columbus. Cuba brings atmosphere in its pavilion, which is of Spanish-American architecture. It is two in height with a tower at one corner. On three sides stretch the wide veranda common to Cuban haciendas and in the center of the building is a large glass-covered patio filled with Cuban plants and flowers. The distinction of being the first foreign pavilion completed went to Honduras and the first state building to be ready was that of Idaho, which was dedi cated on May 14, 1914. Washington, North Dakota, Wisconsin, l{ansas, Illinois, Pennsylvania, N evada, West Virginia, and Colorado have buildings that reflect credit on those states. Canada has a fine building. Argentina, with the largest appropriation of any nation, $1,700,000, has a picturesque structure. Bolivia, Sweden, New Zealand, Australia and the Netherlands have pavilions of high artistic merit. With its delightful location, its mammoth palaces, charming courts and vistas of unsurpassable beauty; its unique architecture and wealth of art treasure ; its cosmopolitan group of domestic and foreign pavilions, and above all with its hundred thousand exhibits of the world's recent progress, the PanamaPacific International Exposition will surely prove to be the world's greatest attraction until the closing day, December 4, 1915. The hospitality of Cali fornia is famed over all the earth, and uSan F1'ancisco invites the wo1'ld.n r 3841

PAGE 407

LATIN A.\4ER.

PAGE 408

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 3 1262 09193 4322