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HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Foreword
 I. Discovery and settlement
 II. Raids of the buccaneers
 III. Proposed canal routes
 IV. The Panama Railroad
 V. The French failure
 VI. The American triumph
 VII. Making the Isthmus health...
 VIII. An army of workers
 IX. Constructing the lock type...
 X. Auxiliary plans and project...
 XI. Future canal traffic
 XII. Republic of Panama
 XIII. Panama-Pacific international...
 XIV. Panama-California exposit...
 XV. The land divided--the world...
 XVI. The monumental task compl...
 Pronouncing gazetteer of the geographical...
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Back Cover

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'" erica's .at I d" ". .,' "-,

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GIfI of/he Poamll Clllfll/ MlISelDfl

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/triumphaOOaver

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WASHINGTON GOETHALS. Tin; 8 U II.DER OF TilE I'ANAMA CANAL, 'Vho mil'(h l b e ci:l ss{' o ,IS I h e mOSI absohlle deSI)OI on carll,. allhouJ.;'h a b e ne"olent one. and Ihe sIIU"reS boss" man e,'cr worked for H c i s thorough e nJ.;'ineer. a riglHcon s jUlll,!e. and a Siern e"ecutioner roli{'d inlO on{', H e realizes th, u man i s bUI h um:II,. alld for simi"" infractions of th" rules. i s ,,1 ways re"dy 1 0 ): i ,c the offender "nOlher chance. hul there will be nO s{'cond tim{', A man of Ilrodi1{iou s m emory. '1ui ck. 10 Io:r"s" d('jails be I h{'y Ir i v ial aff,,; r s of C"cry day l i fe. or
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AMERICA'S TRIUMPH AT PANORAMA AND STORY OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE WORLD' S CIA T WATERWAY FROM O CEAN TO OCEAN By R ALP H E E T T A V E R Y AI"THOII 01' A TRIP 1'0 TilE CANAL EDITH!> 11\' C. OF TilE C.\N.\! RF.CORD j'l'lIL ISIIKD H\' TilE REGAN PRINTING 1l0IJSE CHICAGO

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Cop y right 1913 b y 11. \1.1'11 E ,\HIt\' [ 4 I

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DE01C, \T)';1) TO TilE :\h: x (J}o' B JI.\ I X .\XI) lll<.\wX OF OUt COt'''T1!L :\1.\TCllLE'SS S tOLl ... \.:\0 T XSJ>IlH.:\(; COUUla; :\I.\OE TilE \ GI;S \ I h :.\L!n-I X TilE CO.:\!nHl"CTIOX OF THE 1'.\':\. \:11.\ C .\.:\,\L [ 5 )

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--,",r r, nto")' IIiM, ,"ol1l/u' po..r On> pASt .. nd .. 'w The """Jour "'0tI1 1u doth s/l." .. WMre '," ei,thty lUi the yeo,. around. And p>plf!' rarefy Wh"" Ih e plaintoin ;:ro." and th/' h O I Wind blow .... [ 6 [ nf the COOOlInll1 -G,lbPr l

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FOIlE IYOIl D I E e i g h th \yondc r of t he world. ;\ chi(' \'cm cnl o f man'1j g'rc :l lc:" l llndcl'laking. i s th e co n s truct i on or t he Panama Canal h\ t h e GOVCl'IWH n t of the l"n ilcd :IIHi. sinc e s l upclldou:o; wor k II .. ..; b('C'n OII'('olllpli"hcd in IllI I C h s horter time than noa...; possi ble. thcr e are n ecessarily man,'" I'ca sons for ( : o ngratlliations for Ihe s k ill a nd PCI'SCVC'!';\II('C di .... pla.w, d .... ide f rom the 1':1<:'1 thai i n com p l et ing thi s t'llkrp r i ... c 0111' gO\'cl'Illllc111 lIa ... a t t h e .... n m e l i m e succ e e d e d in changing the COl1ullcl'('iai hi g h wtlys of the worl d D o u h t l e ss f o r ce nt uries to come the world -wonders of the P a n a m a C anal will h e told in story allfi in p icllll'{,'. but th e e loquence o f th e l h('mc i l ... clf will l1('ver' be ex h a u s t e d whi le I'cvcr cnc(' for find,. nlcnt in the hear ts of m e n Recogn i z i n g a s milc h a s one mnn eould the tude and importancc of th e work beiug pCI'fOl'lllcd 011 th e Isthmus. t h e \ u tlror fOl :ll m\\s t Iwo \"eal'" d welt amo n g t h e ncti i ties o r h i,i gig. w l ie clltc q )ris c, and i n these pages authcntically prcse n ts to the n'adcl h i .. c h ron ic'les o f th e progress of t ill' tio n from beginuing t o compl e tion as wdl a ... Ih(' cesshrt i n stallation of th e wol'1d s majc!:ltic \\':1lel'wII," f r o m o ce an 1 0 o cean, C t o t heci a s it i in a heaut,\' or tY\ log r aphy and al'l illus t ratio n s in ke('ping wilh t hl' grail( ('t l r of the su l Jject h e feel s a ss u r er! of a cOl 'dial r('('(' plion o n t he pari of th e public of the resull of hii effort..;, TilE \I'TIIOH, [ 7 1

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v '. I .'. I SUNRI S E SUNSET AND MOONLIGHT SCENES ON I'ANAMA UA Y During February a n d Mu r c h t h e moon 5 particul:;arl y bright. d u e to the c l ear atmosphere which prevails in the hcill:hl o f Ihe dry season. On cerlain brilliant cvcninll:s it is pOssibl e 10 read i n Ihe moonlili:ht. The cloud effects arc perfect and the rainbows magnificent. One o f the prettiest effects, which happens but rarely. i s a rai nbow at night. [ 8 )

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histor y o f the Panama C: mnl begin s w i lh th e for n wc::.lcl'l1 wntcl'\\ a,\' to th e Indies and for f:nll c :Hld gold. IJY those hardy ac!, 'cnturcrs who foll owe d in the wake of Coi mnims. These me n fr e s h from th e :\Jo ori s h wars and c(\uippcd for a struggle wit h I tal y whic h did not come to pa ss. looked for new f ie tis to conquer. :'\olhing: su i ted the m bett e r than th e d i sco\cr." o f a :'\ cw \\" orld p eopled h," h eathens wailin g to be cOIwcrt c d h," th e sWOI'd t o th e C hri stian faith, afte r t h ei r go ld of which the\' se em e d t o have p l e nt y wa s stripped fmm them to fill t h e em!,I," cofl'e r s of :;pnin. This search bv th e f ollo wer s of Columbuf' was faidv success ful. so 1':0 ns fam e and gold we r e co nce rn ed a nd although no direct wa t e r route wa s found to th e I nd i es to the we s t it n a tuJ"all v k d t o the sdtlcmcnt o f the Isth m us o f Panam a the narrow strip of l and sellaratin g the two oceans and formin g the connectin g link oetwecn :'\Ol'th and South Ameri ca. The e s tahli s h ment of se ttl e m e nt s on both coasts and the s h o r t d i slanee u c l wcell them. l e d to th e building of c ruclc road s and t t'ai l s for the e arl \ mule trains. These Intils led t o the consimctioll of a railroa d n nd the railroad t o a ship ca n a l for trade foll ow s s e lil e r s and water i s th e natural highwa.\ h etween n atio ns. The stnry of the Isthmus i s, th c r efo r c, i n a meas ure, the evolut i o n of trall s p o rtati on ro utes. E .\HL Y DISCO\'EHEB S The (i1' s L European to sai l along the co a s t of Panama was R odrigo d e Bastidas. who s ail e d fl"Om Cadiz in October. 1 500 and fir s t tOllch e d th e co ntin ent. n eal' th e island of Trinidad. a nd fro m there wcnt wcs t a s far as Kombre de Dios. ilh him o n Ih at \ 'oyage w a s asco :'\uile z d e Balhoa. w h o, l al e r WflS t o di scover th e great South Sea. :mel J ua n dc 1a Cosa. who ha d s ail e d with Columbus o n hi s second voyage a n d was co n s id e red olle of th e most able marincrs of hi s rla \. Columbus s aile'" fr o m Cadi z o n hi s fourlh a nd la s t in search o f pass a ge way to the In di es i n :\lay, 150:.? Oil thi s \o.\agc h e skirted th e ShOI'CS of Honduras and Cos la R i ca. to Almir:tnl e Ba." alld Chiriqui Lagoon o n the coas t of j:Janama. At th e lall e r p lace he was told b y the Indians t hat, if h e [ 0 I

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ITED would con tinu e his cou r s e 10 th e cns l he would soon come to n n a now place i)ctw('clI the two ::it'IIS, and thi s It.'tl him to iJelieve that h i s .... c:Hell fur 11 s trait was t hai h e would so on pass into the J ndian Ocean "ful a ttempl of Columbus to found a I>et tlcmen l in C:ll>t illl1 del Oro (Golde n Castil!.! ) a s t h e I sthmul> wa s tc rmed, two colonizer s werc I>l'nt out b.\' Kin g Ferdilland, One of thcsc. Dicgo dc :\i clIcsn, u S pani s h noblcman, more fitled for the court than for a command i n t h e wilderness WllS given con t rol (If all thc land het ween Cape Grac ia s {, D io s \'ie.naglla. : m d the Gulf of Crah:'I or D a r ien, t ht, eastt'1"Il limi t of tlte present Republi c o f P :ll1ama. The ot her wa s de Ojl'd,l. who accompamed Columhu s 0 1 1 h i s second voyage. and i n addition had made two trips to the continent Ojeda was placed in charge of the land Cllst and south of th c G u lf of Umb{ called :\ue\"a Amlalucia, B o t h of t hese expediti o n s outfitted and s ai l e d frolll Sant o Domingo in I.j O D A ssociated with Ojeda wcre J uall de la Co:;n. a s l ieut c nant i n th e f uture rro\'crnmen t and a la\\"\"er named B achclleel' Enc i so, wlto fUl'Ilis hed mosl of t h e mOIH'\" t o equi p t h e expedi tion. I t wa s /lrranged that Enci s o s hould r e m ai n at Sant o D omingo to eollcci l'ccruits and s u ppl i e s procure another ship and joi n Ojeda later at the proposed eol on.\ ', Ojeda landed liCal' t h e presen t c i ty of Cartagena, Col o m h i a, founded in I.): H Here h e attnckcd alld o\c r c ame the Illdi alis wit h a p al'! of h i s fOI ee, [ 10 I

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but in follo win g up hi s v iclot',\' hi s m e n b ecame scatte red. and all th o s e w h o had land e d we r e kill e d w ith th e ex c e p t i o n of him scif and oll e olhe r A mon g Ll1l' kille d w a s th e vet e ran Juan d e l a C o s a Oje d a then enter c d ih c Gulf o f [ra bil a n d f ou nd e d t h e t own of San Sl'iJa s l i a n on the Ca:-.l enl ,-:;1101'1.: bill was soo n co m pelle d t o ['('tum t o Sa n to Dt)llIingo to o b tain tH( 'n a nd s u pplie s. lie left th e new c ololl)" in c h a r ge o f hi s lieu tenant. F ran c i s c o P i za1To, in hi sI OI'Y a s thcconqucmr and des po i l c r o f P cru. w i lh the ll11d cl'-;\:lnl1ile d for Curtag e na ,llel'c t hey fount! E nci s o w i l h rc i n f o r c c m e n t s a m i pl'!)\'i..,i o n.." \\' i l h Enci s o w a.i a 5 1 0\\";1\\"11." i n I h e p e r:soll of \"a sco ;\I U't(Z r i c B a lb o;\. EIl('i<;o ins i sted 011 Pi z;J['1'o and hi;; men returning wit h him to 011 th e il' a n'ind, t he \ fou n d t he se ttl e ment de ..;tn)\'ed I w Indians T he\' we r e w ithout foo d a n d th c s ugge s t ion of B a lhoa, ",i,o sail e d alung these s h()['(',.; with Bastidas t h c y c ro ss e d t he GlIl f of l"l'a bfl. whcre it repmte d Ih e I nd ian!'> we r e I css warlikc and I lI'o\'i s ion s could b e obtaine d 11 w a s IIcc('s"ar.". llO\\"('\ 'c r f o r th e m 1 0 d e feal a );ln d of Indians und('r a p o w(,l'fu! c hief name d C(,Ill:lco. \\"ho di spute d th eir b ut titey o b tained I h e muc h ncede d sup pli('s. an d founded th e s e ttl e m ent of :"'1:1111;.1 :\iaria d e l a A nt igua, t h e f i r.il on t h e I s t h mu:. They we r e n ow in t h e territor,\' \\"h idJ had h e e n a:,;si gned h.\' t h e K ing t o and, had n o r i g hl there. The amhilio u s B albo a took ;ldnll1tag(' Columbus Island whe r e Christophe r Columbus S lopped t o r epai r and scrap e the botto m o f his ships befo r e p r oceed in).:; o n 1 0 S p a in [ I I I

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of thi s cir c ulIlst;1I1CC a nd th c f net th at En c i so w a s di s lik c d 1)\, his m c n for th e r<::I: ';on that h c all o \\'c d 110 priv at e t ra dillg' wilb th e 10 d e po se him, a n d a s kc d :\icllc s a t o ('OIl1C and h lk e c h a r
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the allack on t o return to Spain. Kn owing thai Ihc,\' would immedi ate l y go t o t he Ki ng a nd ask that he be di s pussessed. he starle d in tu obtain the gold which he knew t he King thought more o f than all el s e. and 10 make lIew di s coveries whic h would help his cause. The gold h e obtain e d fr o m the Indian chiefs of the Dari en. It wa s made the pric e ...,f p e a ce, and Balho:L s h owed his s hrewdness hy m aki n g allie s of the Indians after he had ohtaine d their lrcn s urc. Such all alliance he made wilh Carel;!. the ca c i c llLc o f Co\'ha, who after hi s village had beell sackC'd by the Spani;u'J ", left with 3alb o a Oi;e o f hi s daughte r s a s a ho s t a ge. 13alboa accep t e d the In dian maid":ll. o f whom he became vc r," fond and, althoug h they were married accordin g to the C h r i st ian rite s s h e cons i d el'eo hers elf \ti s wirc, B a lboa s tarted from Ant igua on SCpIClllIICI G, ] ,, ]:;,10 cros s tllc I s l hll'lt l S and find lhe greal sea 10 the south of w h ich the I ndia!! s k n owin g the clIpidit y of th e Spnn iards had lold him tales uf the ridlCs of the race o f people w hi ch inhabi ted i l s s horc s the dinerent tril)!.' s whi<., h hc met on the wa,", suhduing H nd m akin!! friClld .. with t h e m. on SeptclllOcr 2,j. he reached a hill ill D ari e n from which i t was said the :O;o llih ('oul d h c S(,Cll, I [al l in g hi s mcn, Balboa made the a sccnt alolle anrl wa till fir s t Enl'Ojl e :tn I n gaze 1I pall th i s h eretofore IIIl knowll (Ice:! Il Six
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n:lllled by Balboa, could be plainly see n. but he did nol \ i s i t them althat t illle \)1\ HCCOllllt o f the roughnes s o f th e sen and the f rai l ty o f the available IndialJ canoes. lIe named the largest of th e i slands, I s la. Rica, w hi c h i s n ow k n uwn as San :'\_ Ii g uel 01" Rcy Island. Nombre de Dios. t h e oldest exis ting settl e m ent on t h e I s t hmus. Sand wllS o b t"i n e d h("re for the ("emem i n the Gallln Locks. Ball) oa rei 1 11'1('c I t riuIllllhant t o Antig-ua afte r an ahs ellce o f about f n U I months I [ i s IllC .-;SCIl.!("CI' tel o f Itis g-ren t di s covcr., d i d not reach the J\:ing, unfort unatel.,' until :Ifll'!" tltat llIonare h. listcning to Ene i so's compl a ints. had s ent ou t a !lew go\' crn o' 1 0 lake charge o f t h e c olo n y. 11.\1.,110 .,'5 t ;XFOHTIJ:-'.,TE El\"D The new govcnlO l wa s nalll e d P edro Ari a s de :\\' i la, commonly cal l e d .. Pednnias tlt e C rud," wh i c h ni c kll' IHle h e WOll i n the \\" o r ld l w h is method of cxtorliug gold from t h e Jndians. W i t h Pedrarias was Hcrnanc l o d e Soto, who was Inter 1 0 disco,er t h e :'\I ississ ippi HiveI', and D iego de Almagro. who wa s 10 become the partn e r o f P i zano ill t h e (' oll qllest o f P eru. L nlike Balboa, P edrar ia s did not tr," t o make f r i ends w i th the Indian s, but in many ins tances repai d the w h ich t h e y to him as a friend of Balbon \\"Ith th e utmos t lre a c hen' destroying thei r \' i lla ges, k i lli rlg w o m c n a n d c h ildrcn, and s elli n g thos e w h o sun'i\'cd into slaver\" I h.' undid what Balboa had becn :n a fair way of aceompli. "hing, that i s Ih c s c tt l C lll c nt of Darien, for th e Ind i ans wcre ('vc n whcr e aroused a n d repaid c r ucit.\ \; i lh crue l t y as uftcn as an opportunity was prescntcd, Shrin("s are c o mmon I onj:: t h e waysides n d "t t h e entr. mce t o ilIages. but thiS o n e has been I''',ced in hollow Iree. The p holOgrapher d ls over e d il near Gorgon". [ 1 1 I Pedrarias s tl'O\'C to establish 11 line o f p osls for eommlwic;r t ion hetween t h e two oceans in aecordancc with t h e idells of B :dbo a. but withollt S U CC ( SS. Tlw (ilst of t hese was loca t e d on th e Atlantic coa s t a t a p l ace named Santa Cruz.

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I n th e m ea nti me, th e Ki ng h :ld r ecognized Balboa's di scovery with a co m mi ss i on as A dcl:tnlado o f t h e South Sen s and Yiccro\ of the P ac i f ic coast. nil e ml ) "\' l,itle, lie was subject to orde!'S Pc(lr arias. jealous of B a boa is acillCVClllcnt. held u p tills COlllllllSS l o n lind kept Balboa f i g htin g for hi s l iber ty ill thL' court of A ntig ua on trumpe d 1I\) c ha rges. F illall.\' B alboa made an al l ian ce wit h "cdmrias by pro m i s i ng Ii, o n e of hi" daughter s, who was at t h aI lime in S p a in a lld went few mi les lip t h e coa;>:1 10 a p l ace cul le d \<:Ia, b etween A nt igua and Santa C ruz. w here h e e s t ablis h e d a se tt lement and had l imhers cut H nd shal)c d w h i c h cou ld be rcad i h built illlo s ld! ) s w ith \\' lic h 1 0 explore t h e new w h ich he ha< d iscovcred, Thesc I j m hCl"s WCI"C C:I I"l"i(.'(1 news.; Ihe I s t hmus J u dia!) s la\'cs aud Wl'l"C up in Sa n :\Iigucl Ba,v, Whi l e a t t h e P earl Islands, fro m whel"e hc iliadI' sey e ral s horl cruis e s B nlh o a beard of t h e enmingof a new gm"erllOl' t o s u persede P ( !(hal"ias, T h i nk i n g th i s gO\'CI 'nol' might be h ost i le It) hi.; plans. h e sent messengcrs t o Antigua to see w helhe r or 110t he had If h e h ad, h e i n s l n leted I l u t o I"e t urn w ithout. allowing tlwir p r ('scm:c to 1x.'c ol1l(' known, t llld he o u l d thell l ei\\'c on h is \'oyagc of disco\"en' before orders for hi s rec all cOllld he dcli\ e rccl. Hi s messe ngcl'S wcn t to A nt i gua and found s till i n char
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G j H E bAND ... of Pcd r aria s for Balhoa came to life. and h e se nt Fran c i sco P izarro, who wa s lalcl' to finish th e work Ba l boa had pla n ned to do, to b r i n g 'ti m hack to A c la At Acla, Balboa was give n a mo c ke r y of a trial 1'0I'\re: lson and wa s beheaded wilh four companions i n the l all e r part of i:)li. Seco n d only to th e di sc o\ 'cry of the South Sea was the dcmon s tr: ltion of t h e praclicaLil ily of an I sthmian trans it. OLD Pcdnu'in s see ing the a(\, 'antagc of H sc Ulcmc n l on t h e new ocean a s an outfitting s tatioll 1'01' future exp loring ex pedition s. c r o ss e d the Isth mu s a n d on Augu s t 1 5, 1 51!), founded l'an'IIl'la. situated about five m i le s cast from the new cit,\ The nallle "l'anama" i s suppose d to ha\'c comc from an Indi a n word IIlcanir lg-a place ahounding" in fii;h. and tradition rc latcs thal the town was b u ilt 011 thc site of anilldian fii;hill g villa gc. .Tn the same )"e;1I-the At la nt i c p01'l was trunsfcrrcd to .\"ol11l1rc de Dins, directly north of o ld P antllutl, tlnd a few ycars later Antigua ar i d Ada werc abandoned 10 th e Indians Some of t h e in t e r io r vm,,!,:es 11",' no j"ils stoUI enough to hold" prisoner. so the stocks are rcsortcd to. On September 15, 1 521. thc settlement at Panuma was madc 11 ci t y by 1"0.\"011 decree. and the fir s t bi s hopric in the Americas was removed there from Antigua. The new governor sent oul, opportullel., -for Pedrarias. died on h is arri\ :d. a s did scycral others \\ h o followed and P cdl'1l r ia s rul e d u nt i lthc aITi\ a l of I' e clro s de 10.'; Bios. who look charge on July 1 326. Before hi s aITi\ al J'edrarias took refuge in Xie;nagua whcre h e had alread y established a sc tUe-IIlc nL 81'. \ 1;\'8 P O WEll SPBE_\DS Fr)llowin g liris per iod in lslhmian 1111111\' pat-l i e s $('t oul inland t o th e and wc r e lo("atl :ci in the l)n .. of Clri,'i'llii ami \ (,raguas ] hcse explora1ron s wcrc madc III aceot"( anc c With the dl'S lrc s of Charles Y w h o look a g reat intcres t i n thc exploration of Ih e South SCll and th e disco\-cl"\-of a s tr:li1 cOllncc\irl" it with tire Atlanlic OCC;1II_ After he carnc to tllc thronc of Spai" ill 1 3tti_ he {"harged t h e governors 01' hi s Amcrica n ('OIOIlICS to examine th e (-oas t line front Dari e n 10 :\ L ('x ico 1'01" a posi;ihle walerwll.\ 111 aC("(lnlalL(-e wilh Ih i s )foli c.\, Gil GOIli'.alcs de A\ila wa s s en t oul from [ I G [

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Spain in I J21, w i l l instructio n s to make 11 search along th e coast for tile wcs l t'rn openino-of a slr'ai L Gonzales d i,..m an tlcd an d transport e d ncross th e and rebu i lt th e m on th e P acifi c s i de. I n Januan', I ,j'l-2, he sa iled from Panama ba r and w('111 as far as t h e l3av of F on,,;('('a. 'where he landed and disCOYCl'cd Lake On Ihi s \ u :nlg-c c.;om,:ale s nwl men se nt oul Oil simi la r selTicc Lv Cort ez. who. laler. cs tabli hcd 11 Imllsil r o ut e tl C l 'O SS the I sthIllUS of Tehuanicpec ill -' l ex i ca. fo l lowing pretty closely the p r esc nt railroad. Thi<; route wa s started in mil c h th e same manner a s th e one aC'l"Oss Dari en. throuO'h lhcneccssi h of tl'anSI)OI'lillu su ital/le lumher from the A tlaul i c coast 01' o the l sthmus t o huild ships ,\"itl! whic h to cxplnt'c the P acific coa,:;t. Wh en P cdrarias le mICd of the d i scovery of I .ake :\iearagua. h e immediatel y laid claim to i t and a s t h e countr.'" w a s r i eh in gol d. est a hlis h e d a eit y at Granada Old Fort
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h i ghway." for th e commerc e acmss the I sthmus at Ihnt time was s teadily on Ih e incrense. making ('arWIll;1 a plaee of mercantile importan cc. In a rOlltc by waleI' for boats Hntl l i g ht dr'art \"I:ssels w:t .o; established from 1\omhr 'c de Dill s a\() n g thc COas l and up the Clragr e s fti,'cr tu thc hend of navigati o n at Cruc e s From Cruces I her'C wa s another trail to I h e c i tv of Panama. OYer thes e trai l s pack trains e arl"icd uri th e lrade. th(' ri"e r I;ei n g lIsed i n th e wei seas un s and wh ell th e altaeks (.f t h e I lldi,llls a n d Cimaroons. ( negl"O slaves, who r e bellcd and \\"ere outlawcd) became too frequcnt. on tire over-Jan d trail. This trade cOlls i .o;kd of gol d and ornnmcnts stripped rnml the templ e s of the I nca s, "old from the mincs ()f Dariell and \ e r :wlJas 011 tire I sth mll s, sih'cr from lloli"ia, pt.'ark and al s o woul. indig o. woods. (;0("0:1, and loh:wc'o. all h ( )und I'M Sp:rin, for which the colon!.;;t s recei"cd and 1'00-Th<-Ihree :mcicnl b e ll s of Cruces. This lown was o n e of the oldest o n Ihe Isthmus, and was the h<-ad of na\' igarion on th<-Chagres befor e rhe days of rhe railroad. Abandoned i n 1,)1l on a C COllnl of ir s being in r h e !:Ik e a rea. !-lILt!r s in return. For Ileal'l, 1\\'0 hundred "cars th c trails from Panama to the !owns of :\( lIlIbrc de D in s P o r to 8 ell(o' we r c the richest tl'adc mutes in the world of thi .<; Iradc c,'cn ori g inalpd across thp Pacific in I h p Philippines and thc Indil's. I,alcl', artcr Ihe I)criod of Ihc ('I'('al Inu\c, \.';,;OI7{)O. a n d up 10 th e tim c of the 1',01<1]1\:1 ra i h'o,j( the pari :!IId pari (l\"C'I'land Irail from Ihp 11\Olllh of the Chagres to Crue('s !J.J. mil e s and I h pllcc 10 Panama, I R mile s, \\';1" I1sed h,Y the colvnisl s wlit.'11 Calif()l'1li:1 and "Trc opened 10 11Ipnt. and by Ihc gold sech,l's in California ill the c1:I.vs of' W. ,Ukr :\omhr'c lil' DiuI' wa s deslrO\ 'pt! in l j!)7 1)\, F ra r w i s Drake. the l'u,\":lII)01"I \\',I S challged 10 I)Mlo Bdlo. i 7 mile s to thc'southwest .. This e hHngc hen(,(j(:ial. a s .\"omiJrc de D ios wa s :\I" H \' S unhealthful. w illIe Porto B ello had I h(, tl('l' harhor and w a s nt:arer to I h e o f the Chagrc s 11ml Panama. [ J

PAGE 23

Porto B ello be came ol1e of th e l'tl' o n gesl fortified or t h e se ttl e m ents in th e \,cw W o rld. lIel'(" cam e th e :O;pani:-:h galleol1s once It year to collect the K i ng's ,treas lIre, and,to bri n g sup\)lics for th e co loni st:.:. and here. ( ach th e alTI\ 'al of the ShipS, t h e mere lanls wo uld eongrC'galc to lake part III 11 hlg fair w hi c h w a s held during the annual \ i sit of the flee\. The l ow II i s situated on a hay ahout a mil e alld a half lun g h." -2.JOO feet w ide, a nd th e ruin s of li\'e of the s i x fort s whidl g u arded it. a s well as an o l d cust o m hOllsc, ca n s t ill b e see n. althoug h \)artJ.\, covered with jlmgl c growth. One o f t h e s i x fort s wa s 011 th e s ide of th e lil l o n the opposite s ide of t h e ba," f r o m th e o l d town and whe re the I s thmian Canal COll lllll ss ion h:1S been qu arry ing ro<:k for th e pas t r ou r ('aI' s for C allal \\'ork, and il wn s :1\\":1," b," s team s h ovels A f ter Pol"io B e llo hecame the r O"al por t on tlte ,\ilantir, the C h agreii 1\1ollth o f the C hagres River, The old fOTt on the left and One o f the tuTretS o n the r iJ:hl River al1d t he ('rue(''; trai l C;lllle into a s a althou gh there w a s als o an overland !'Oad, ami t o protcd thi s rout c f1'Orn pirate s who \\"ere b ecoming bol d enoug h to a tt ack forti f ied town..;, Fo r t L O I ,t' u ZI) ,,'as built irt lGOI at th e rivel' Ill(, ut h TIlE -;CO '['( I I Il I 'BBLE En gla nd los t i1.,,;')ppOl'tullil," ill 1 (;!)8 1 i O O 10 l!'ain:1 f no th old illllLe l'ithmi:tll trade b,' rllilin g 10 I(' I H I il" aid \ 0 t h e ('olonization -.;dlcllIe Ill' \\' illiam P allt'rsl lil. a Scot c h financier. who h ad alrcady fOlllLdl d Ihe B alik Ill' Pal\cr S llll' s )Ibm, which e\'{'lllu:dl, v (' o s l :tilOlll '1,OUU li"es aud $1(JO,IWO i n llIon ey wa,; de s igned to hreak lip the mon o ) "I,r of ilw B r i l i..;h E;t..;\ lu dia COlli pan," in t he Oriental t l'ade hy fou ndin g a eo n n." o n the s hores of J) :II'i('o. a nd opPTling up :L f r ee trade ro\lle ;Ie-ross Ihl' I s thmu s fro m \c1a t41 th(' Gulf of I il!u ci. 0"('1' th(' ,,",HU(' ro llt e tak e n h y B alhoa 1H'11rl, '200 ,\'('11rs uefore, P ermis.;ioll for Ihe [ I!) 1

PAGE 24

formatio n o f the company w i lh th i s end in "iew was obt aine d f rom KinR W i l l i a m H i s appr oval, however, wa s later withdrawn at the i n s t igation uf t h e East l l\d i a Company. when it r e al i ze d that its m o n opo!," wa s in jeopa r dy and in s t ruct i o n s wer e i ss ued to the of the B riti s h co l onie s in the W e s t I nd i es and l\orth Ameri ca to withhol d all,\' ai d to the Sco t s who had already depart ed for D arie n The o pp osit i o n of Ihe Ea s t Indi : l Company forced t h e new project to r c lul'll all th e money s uhscriGcd f o r s tock ill England, and t o r m se the ne ccssarv f und s in Scolland only. On :\o"cmucl' I. Ions. thr'cc -"hip s and two tend ers contain i ng 1 200 men reach e d the Dari e n fro m Leith, and foun d e d th e town o f J\cw Edinburgh o n th e Gulf of Calid onia, ncat A c l a H ere they were welcomed by t h e Sa n lll a s Indians w h o saw in them future alli es against t h e Spaniards. But t h e Scots had no inte nti on of fight i ng. muc h t o the disappointment of th e I nd i an s, a lthough lh ey mus t ha"e known t hat. their inva sio n wou l d be r es i s ted b.,' t h e Spaniards The fir s t e x pedition managed t o stay e i ght. mon t h s, during w h i c h t ime th eit numbers we r e sn dl y r educe d b y s i c k n e ss and famine. On June 1 699, two hundred and fifty s tlrv i ors, with P a tlerson w h o had gone out to t h e co lony 'lS a "olunteer, :rnc! whose wife and so n had die d t h ere left f o r l'\ew York, which pln ce th ey reach e d on Augus t 1 3. i\l ea nwhi l e, t h e compnny at. home, not know in g of the abandonment o f I h e c olony, sent out a se co n d band of 300 r cc t ui ts. This p a rt )' arrived at l\ew Edin b urgh o n August. 1 3 the same day that th e ir predece ss o r s reached l\ew York. F inding the hal f-comp l eted F ott Sl. Anot'Cw deserted. th e)' immediately left fOt' Jamaica. with t h e exception of a few men who in s i s t e d upo n remaining. A third e xp e d i tion con s i s ting of four s hip s and 1 ,3 00 m e n wa s scnt out f rom Scotland, and r e a c h ed l\ew Ed i nburg h on :'\o" cmbel' 30 althoug h rumors o f the f ailure of the fir s t nttemp! I rnd bt:..'Cn r cce i, e d A t last the Spaniat d s dcterm i ned t o ou s t t h c invaders who, u nable to accompl i s h much on account of int c rnnl bicke r ing s the opposi t ion of Eng land. and a hig h death !'ate. sent out a fleet of ships !'!'O1ll Cartage n a o n Fcbruary 1700. to in vesltlte port by sell, w hile a land force blockad e d i t i n the rCM. On .:"l a r c h 31. afte r many so t'li es a gains t the Spanis h for ces, t h e coloni s t s surrende red and w e re allowed to d epart wilh honors. T h e co lon y had been reduced 10 about 360 pe r so n s, and these wcre so s ick and feeb l e that i t i s sa id th e Spaniards had to help t hem aboa rd their s h ip s and sc i th e s ail s for t hem A Nation givclt to the wor l d, A g iant's tas k S h ow what our Uncle Sam c a n do I n an o rbi t of t h e s u n o g re a t ind e ed i s our Uncle Sam And hi s g r e a tn es s ne'er s hall cea se For grea test of ,1]] hi s conqu c s t s won. Are hi s victorie s of pea c e! Gilb erl. [ 20 J

PAGE 25

\l;\" monopolized the c:lI'ly trade with i t s coloni('!'l and th i s polic y cycntuall\, lo s t i t s conlrol of the COllntries of eel.iral and \ lIlc l 'ica. 'l'he fhs l dircct ['cslll t wa i lhe enter ing of E n:.dish. F rench :lnel D utc h free trade r s and lalcl', buc caneers ,wei piral( s all of whom ranged u p nne! dO\nl the coast of th e Spanish :'Il aill prcylllg upon commerc e un d even attack ing the fortified town s Up 1 0 the li me ::;i r lIenl",\' :\lo r ga n hCC:II11C Governor of Jamaica. after the sack of P a nama ill lG71. there wa s \ 'cr\' l ittle diffe r en c e hetween free lmcier s priva t eers. buccaneers and pirate s theil' ohject being thc salllc.-thc ea s y acqu i sition of gol d a n d olher loo t hy upon the commerce o f Spain. Fro m 1 550 to 1 750, t h e lsl hmia n trade route wa s 0 l ) en to s uch attac k s After t h e s ack of Panama, howcn'r, E ngla n d endeavorc ( to pu t a sto p to pira c., in the W es t Indies ( J a m aica was the outfi tt ing s tatiOIl for IlltUl.' s ail i ng LInder co m miss i o n s grant e d by t he governo r who r eceived a share i n the s poil s) and after tlwltime t he p imlcs wer e hunted a s a COlllmon enemy a nd the y i n turn preye d u pon t he shippi n g of a l l nati ons. T he result of the depredations of these freebooter s f ina lly forced S\>ani s h s hipping 1.0 give the waters o f tIle I ndies n w i de herth, and t o t ake th e onge l route t h r o u g h t h e Strn i ls of .:\I agellan to the co loni e s all the P ac ific, all hou g h l hi s trade was already bep:inni n g t o deeline, partly t h rough the failure of the colonies to de"elo \ ) after the e:ls il." of the in c u s bc g lln to g ive out, iln d p:lrtl y t h roug I the 01 S I )am a s a POW?I'. J he free trader s who f llla ll," (c,' eloped mlo pml t es, were crencmlly welcome d t he co l on i s t s unoflieially, as Spain wa s not a eou nt.ry and u nable to sUI )ply the i r n.eeds, a n d be.e:lllsc it was greatly to the.ir bene h t t o obta111 goods of:l )ettcr quahty upon ",I\l c h no taxe s l1:1d been paJd 10 t h e K i n g. T he Iraders were fOl'f,idden entJ'Y i nlo the pOl'ls, and werc com pelled 10 s mugg l e Iheil' goods in al cOln 'cnicnt points along the coa s t and in seeret h;1I'bors. The cus t om of trentin g mCI] a s p i mt es whcll cHught lIaturall), l e d t hem t o protcct t h em seh'cs and, ",h e n t he 0ppol't u n i ty offcrcd to I'e t a l iate i n kind, and the)' finally became buccancer s or pirate s in name a s wcn as i n fact. T hc name buecaneel' wa s gi"cn to the free tradel's b y the I 2 J 1

PAGE 26

CI HE IX'NRJ!IVlDED _---'"'I HE Wl!?j-lJ;), UNJTED bOIl('{/lIi",,,.. lU('rl l' u gal!t' d ill s lIppJ., illg 1 11('111 wit h s lIIokt' + (,llr-ed llH'at fur the ir \'II ."a)..(c-.. The (j I's t \\'l'",t .Indi es UIL\KE'; Engl i shman to mak,' his wa s S i r F ra n e i ... lJra ke -.... -naul{' b.,' the in '.he I n ].)6 8, :-il l' J o hn Hawkm s, WIth :In Engli s h fled, e nt ered th e h arhor of \ ('ra Cml':. :\I ex l ('o. 10 Inull' w ilh the S l1aniards. H e wag rc(,l.:i,' ('<1 h y I 1(' o llieial s of the p o rt in a fl'icndh' 1lI00rHl t'l" ,lilt! in v it e d lu ;HldlOr. A s .'10011 a s his s hip s W(,I'(' anchored un d N the gUlls o f th e fo rt s 11(' w a s ;l1\;\( :I.:(' d :tnd all hi..; s hi p s dts ll"Oycd. with t h e cxcc pliOlI of I wo w hi('h to CSCUpt' nne 1)Clongiug In hi lll s d f and til l o!)w r to hi s cOti!'oin Francis Dnlkt>. Dmkc returned In England nnd ('udcavOI'cd 1 0 (Iblain sati s factio n fo r hi s 10ss t 'l; t hroug h hi ., go\'crn -1ll('l l l l,lIl w a s u n able 10 UO so. I ht'll dl' c idt,d 11-, collcct lli s o\\' n imielllll ily h y allaek ing S pani s h "hil'pill/! a s h e h a d b ec n a Hacked, II C olJt:1 ilH: d I .e ll<'r s of :\ I a rqu e f!'Olll quee n Eli znhe lh. and. in mad e Iwo pl'cl i minal'.\ \ 'oyagcs 1 0 Sir Henry Morgan. Ihe \YC ... t p rinc ip ally t o pare for fulure rnid s :JIltl t o learn how Ih, :-:'paniaru" hanuk'd Ihe goldc11 ll;1r\'e s l fmm P Ci'll, In 1.)72, h c 1111'11('11 wilh Iwo ... hipl'>, ill Ihe h old s of whic h werc slored Ihe part.'i of threl' s nwll saili n g boa I!', :1Ilt! on .lllly 'tn, ha\'illg pu t the boat s loget h er, he attacked and c'lpllll'('d :\olllhrc de Dio s \\,11('1'(' til( K i ng ... lI'casul'(' house \\'
PAGE 27

several l o n s of ;;;11,'(,] in the vicinity. I n \J73. h e rclut'11cd t o ami s ta r ted to a flee t t o golo the P acifi c but J ohn Oxcllil,Hll ',",10 had I)('c n w ith him when h l' cl'os s cd the I s l ln llu s fOI'l'sbdletl him in hi" \0 be tlu firiil Engl i shman 10 sail upon those water s, J ohn O:.:cnham c r ossed the Isthmlls in 1 .'i7J, witll th, llcp of till" Indians O\'C[' the sam e roule Ir, n'crsctl 1 )\ Ball)oa. and launched a ;-;lllall )'n,t! 1/1 1 til( P acific. I [ c s l a,wi! in the \"lcll1' il," of the ('carl I S];llld ... taking sen'ral :' llIall Spanish p r izes and fina lly cnptun: d one of t h e IreaslIn: frall c on s frolll P en!. Oxcnham :.tlld hi s ('r('w we r e l inall," captured b y I h e :-;I':ln ianl s and pullo d eath. Dt'akc retul"tlcd lu the \Y e s t Indies O i l .\' o\"Clllhcl' I S, ].')77. sailed Ih1'01lgh the Strait s of :'\I agt' llan swept Ihe w(':;1 c oa s t o f South .\mcric a a:; far Ilorth a s C ali forn ia wilhoul att:wkillJ..\' the cit y of I' attack Ihe city of P a nama bill the Spaniards had IJ:11'1'icaded the ro,,,a road s o dTecti\ 'el, \ that thc Engli s h ga\'t' up 11)('
PAGE 28

ITED the Gow'l'Ilor of Pannma t hai he wou ld r eturn in a s horl time to take that city . A s he pronll sc d. h e retumed h) the I s lhmus I wo years lal c r sent an advllllcc furn'. w hi ch attacked nIHI capttn'cf l Fort San L o r cllz o a t the m outh o f the Chag n 's. place d a t hea' alld a t P o rt o B ello, and s lat'led u p th e C hagr es llnd ondan d w ith UWO men. t h e Spaniards I,don, hi m. Jt t.ook the Engli shmen nine tla,"s to make t h e jOllI'llCY. and they !iufr c rcd greatl y for wanl of food as the ill til(' ir' retreat on Panama, lai d wa s t e to the cOllntry. Panama was captured o n J anuary 28 1 671. B efore t h e city fdl (h'c broke Ollt an d th e place wa'i ('ntil'd," ['uilled. w a s a cc u se d of bay ing s ci fire \0 the town. hut i t was m o r e likel,Y th at it w a s c a u se d fly a spark blown into an opcn powder magaz ine. which had bcen ord l'red de,.,tro\,e d h,\' th e Governor, Juan Perez de Guzman, lIo\\ 'c\'cr. :\ L{Jr gan stayed i n th e ru in s n e nrl y a month. h o o t,\". and plundered t h e i slands and th e co wllr,\', J{(. then rl'lurncd to San L orellzlI. alld s ailc d t o Jamaic a wil h th e sh,trc of the hO(lty. l c,j\'ing hi.., companions 10 lea ve th e I s thmus a,,; hcs t I he,\ cou l d. The ,tUnck 011 Panama was made w hen England wa s a t p{'acl' with Spain. and the B riti",h Gowrnml'1l1 \\' a", fon'ed 1 0 suppres s hucc all4 el'rin/-\" in J alll'l ica (Ill aC{'I)lm of th e storm o/" pr'ole s t :trous{,d :\Iorgan was made LieutenantGovernol of Jalllai c:l. was late r kni ghted and became gO\ 'c l'nor of tire i s l m ul. i n wh i c h capacity h e di d good work i n suppress in g piracy. ILi s appointment would appC l1" to have b e en made b,\' the Kin g on th e thcol'\ that it ta kes a thid' ttl ea l c h n thi ef. OTIII':B .\T'TE.'II'TS Altho ugh Dmke and :\!OlW11l were no longer feared. th e lsthmu ... Wit S not frce from th e raids of numcrou s olhcr p i ra te s, Fre n c h and Engl i s h w h o \Vall of I h e old fOr! at P orlo B e llo. s howin g and walc h t o wer. [ 24 ]

PAGE 29

CI HE {>&o UNFED attacked P o rto B e l lo, crossed the lslhmus, and I 'aided lip and down th e COOl:;! o f the Pacific. Capl ilin J o hn COXOIl plundc 'c d Port o Bel lo in lG7!>, and in th e following 'c al' c r ossed the Isthmus to the Pac ific in campau," wiLh Captain Ri c hard Sawk i n s, lladh olo m cw S h nrp. Peter H arri s and Edmund Cook. Scen e in the vi11:lgc of C hagrcs at t h e mouth of the river of ,h, u name. :lccompanil.'(\ 300 men. They cl"O%l'd the Isthmus (If Darien. gu ided b y the l ndian s, in April, lGSO, nnd altaC'kcd Santa an ou tpo s t 011 the (I\lyra Ri"Cl', i'\o l findi n g the expected gol d at Santa :.\Lat'ia, they voyaged in canoes nnd in two ba rks,cllpllll'cd byCaplainsSllaql an(1 Cook, 10 "anarua. Arridng of!' Panama, th ey were allacked hy thrce Spaui!ih s hips ncar the is land of P erico ] n th e f i ght whic h ensued on April 2:3, H.iSO, the Engli s h wer e victorious, ou t the,\' failed to attack the eity owing to a di s agrc('lllcllt between themsc lves as to w h o s h ould be Icader, : l lthough thcy in the \"ici nity many days pic king up prizes. Captain Snwkin s wa s killed late[ ill an attack on the mininr. town of P ueblo .:\"ue\o. i n the P["()\"i n(:e of ," crago;!,;. Cnptain Coxon had nYrcady l eft w ith hi s men to rec ross the I sthmus 10 the bo.1Is Icft o n th e Atl antic, and Captain H arris died from wounds rcceiw'd in the battle of P c r ico, l ea\"ing Captai ns Sharp and Cook to continue 111<. ir ill th e South Sea. Capt ain Sharp returned to England whe r e he was tried fur piracy, but escaped han ging on a('counlof laek of e\ iden c c. Frolll 1(;80 to 1 6S8 pirale rai d s wiped out cvcry selt l e lllc][t on II[e P acific coas t of Dar i en. ] n 1 088. Englan d IJccame the ally 01" Spain. and th e pirates ('ea;,e(\ operat ion s for the time being. War brokt' out between .England .1Ild ill Ji"3S alld in liS!) P orto B ello wns aga i n captured alld destroyed b y Admiral Edwa r d ,'{'mon of tlte B r iti s h :\n,' y. 1n l i..J.O, ,"el'll o n captur ed Fort San Lo]"cm:o, find in he again took Porto B ello and prepared an as s ault 011 the ne\\' city or Panama again s t which a A ccl was going around th e Hom under command or Captain r \ n s on. Il oweve r "emon's men began t o fall s iek s o h e ga\'e lip th e attempt [ 25 1

PAGE 30

The lower i s Ihe n lOSI important remainin g e"id e nce of I h e greatness of t h e first c it y of Pananm, destroyed b y I\lorgan in 16;1. I t i s located about six miles soulheaSI of P anama Cily. Th wealt h o f P e r u w a s transp orted o v e r Ihe old masonry bridges cenluries "go. [ 26 1

PAGE 31

011 P a n a m a and wenl t o Ca, rtagclI:l al w h ich plan', he llH't w ith a defeal. Anson Icanllng 01 lIw; ('\ 'e n t lett to aUack '-'1 : tlllla and the new c ity 01 Panama w a s agai n saved The la s t o f th e S p ani s h galleons frum Peru during the latter pari o f I7 : W Pile o f canno n balls II F Ori San Lorenzo. used b y the earl y Spaniard s in the a!lacks of the huccanceu. found UPOJI it s a f r!\'al at P:mama thai I'or\o B ello wa ... Iwin g atlaeked h," Adminll r('1"11011. so ilrcturl1('d to and s ent its I n .'a"ur c \0 C a['\ag('Il:l 0\'("1' the Ir:til rrom Quito to Bogota. rim the ('omnl('J"ec of I ill' :-ipaJli"h g;dl('ons Hew"s the Is t hm us ,md liLl' gradual dl'ea, of t h c town, O i l tht' wheni n 1i\"("d the lllcr< h .lIl l<; and Ir: lllel' ... in. '"1<'1'11111 :;;ackcd Porto Bell" n 'dhandcd the\" earne \11 hlood staine d fl'Olll !II(' lIanu', T o the m outh o f thl' Chagre". where, high on till' hill. San Lor e n zo kept t o plunder and kill Its devot e d ddelld er.;, w h o cOUl'ageou s l y fought For hOIllCS, wive s alll\ ( 'hildre n, :lecoullt inp; :I'; naught Their l i ves h e ld so precioll'; s o cheri.shpd 1 1d'III'l'. Could they drin: the fierce pirates away fnllll their b o n :. Three days they repulsed till'llI, but to find l'n:r y nil!"hl T he fo e s till upon them in 1\("er-('lItiing f igh!. Their anns coul d n o t conquer the power,,,; of h ell Sa n Lorem:o surrender(,di n g l o r i o u s ly fell! Burne d famis hed a n d b leeding fl'Olll m an,\ a wound, They la," w h i l e their s t r o n g h o l d was razed to the g r ou ud Gilbert [ 'li I

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projcd of conncctin g th e Atl a n tie with th e P acific ha s attracted the attention of t he ci\ ilized wo rld since the di scon' r r o f the l sthmus, I n th e n'at'!; l,:;:H t o 1 ;'): )6 s ttldi es wcre made undet' the dircction of t h e til(il gm'ct'llOl' of Panama, P :lsc lial Andago,\'a, i n compliancc w i lh ,I I'o,\'nl decl' c c, dakd Fe bntHl',\' 2 0 IJ:H, fo r a. ship can,d :lCr oss the l slhmlls h y culling fmlll the Cha(!rcs Bin'I' to th e headwat(-'I' s of th e Hio Grande, bu t t h c idea waS ahandollcd o n lIccouul of thc cost. \ril h a I'e\'i\ al o f int c rest ill tlt c subject, m,Ill Y r ou te s we r c s uggcstcd and man,\ s ur\'eys \\'('I'e madc al different poin t s whcre t h e widt h of th c Amcr ic;l n hthtHus w a s found to bc favorable. o r \\'hc I 'c rivcl'S and lakes \\'cre found thal mi g ht be util i ze d a s it poss ihl c Of the many r outcs propose d i t has been fOllnd thall h c one a cl'OSS I\ieamgua, util i z ing t h c S an Juan R ivc r nnd J ,a kc .'\ icaragua, a n d thal at P ,lllama along the lin c of the Panama railroad, utili z ing t hc \'alle), of th e Cha gl'cs Hi\'cl' a l ld lh c R io Grande, are t h c only practicabl c o n cs. Of th e othe r s, t h ose w hi e h gained t h c most a ttenlion and whic h \\'c r e g i \'en the most s tud,\ werc a cross the I s thmus o f T e huantepec, in and threc in Panama. th e Darien, 0 1 :\tralo niwr, the San n bs. and Ih e Calidonia Bit\ roules, 1'E II L \ ;'<1' E I' E C The Tdwi1l1l e pec mule. w hcrc thc Span iards unclcl' Col'ter., after t h c conques t of \Iex i eo, IUlill 11 road aem ss th e I sthmlls i s lh e he s t locat i on gcogmphicall y. for a catlal. it being s o l111J(,h to the Pacific and Gulf por t s of the l"nited w hil c th e d i stanc c fr o m Xt \ \ York i s pl 'ael ieal l y th c same a s f!'O n l Pan a ma I [ o\\'c\ 'e r the summi t lev e l at thi s poi III wa s foun d to be ill t he ne i g hhorhood of 7{)0 feel and \ 'ery broad. and it i s douhtful if a s u flie icnl s uppl,\ of \\'atel' coul d he obtained for it (:\'Cll i f it could be matcr ially lowered ex ca\ at iOll. W hen 1l1l' Fr('ll(: h we r e a t work on Ih e Panama project. Captai n James B Eads sclectcd pla ('e fu r th e location of 11 ship rai lwn," with large enr:) to transport ships fmlll o ne occan In the o lhc]'. T h i s new!' got beyon d the "scl u,:mc" stagt, alt hough at that lil1lc it was considcred practicahle b y c n g inee r s [ 28 J

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The r e i s now a n ordinary ra ilr o a d enga g e d at Ihi .;; po i nt in carry in g t ra n s c onti n en t a l f rei g ht. .-\TH \ O Bl\"EIl \:0\ 1) 'T IUBLT.\HIES 'ari olls projects h 11\ C l){'cn pl"Op o s c d t o u t i l ize th e Alrnlo r i w f which A nws a l m o s t dire ctl y n o rt h a u ou t 20U m i l e s int o th e G ulf of Dari e n at the p o int w h e r e th e l sthmus j oins t h e c o nt i ne nt of So ut h Am e ri c a a nd se"eral o f its trib u ta r ies. whi c h appro a c h th e P a c ific coa s t vcr y clo se l y T h e re i s :1Il l ndi;lIl l eg e nd t hai CllllOCS call be ca rri e d for a s h o r t d i s tan c e fro m t h e h ea d w at e r s of the :\Imt o t o ano t h e r r iver flowing i n l o t h e P a cifi c. The \ Ir atu i s a s ilt -beari n g I'i\"cr all d lia s a co n side rabl e fall and i s n o t in its e l f a d apte d to t h e u sc of occ:11l-f!'oi n g s hips I t w ou l d n ece ssita t e conti n ua l dre d g i n g for it hun d r e d mile s to ellnali ze it a n d a cut thro u g h t h e co n t ine ntal di v i de Illu c h w e a te r t h a n t h e Cllt at Cul e bl'll. T h e stream s flowing into t h e .Pa cific a r e l i ttle m ore than Illotlll tain torren t s On t h i s ac co unt this r o ute has n o t bee n co n s i de r e d with a s mu c h favo r a s th e m o re n o rt h e r l y o n e s The r e i s a. \\' i del.v c ir c ulat e d s t o r y that .King Philip Ill, i n the p erio d 1 6 1 6 t o 16W, i s s ue d a n e dict a t t h e re<\ ue s t of P erc A co s t a forb iddi n g furt h e r co n s i d e ralion of th e p l'Oject on t h e gml\l H t h a t t h e will of Cod was m a d e m anif es t bv th e f a c t lhatH e h a d cre at e d a n i s thmus i n s tead of a s t ra i t : m d th at i t w o u l d b e imp i et y f o r man t o put a s und e r w hat C o d h a d joined P robabl. \ a more r e a s ona b l e o b ject i o n wa s thn l 11 s hip cana l would m a ke t h c Spanis h co l o nie s t oo e a sily :lc(.'Cs:;i b l e to th e i r e n emies T h e poli c y o f .Ki n g P h i lip \\'a s adhe r e d t o for ove r 200 yea r s a fte r h i s d eath i n 1608. CALIDOX I A T h e Cali d o n i n route i s wh el'e B alboa c rosse d t o t h e P a c ific i n J,i I 3 and i s t h e on e whi c h \\'illi a m P a tte r s o n c h o s e in 1 608 f o r a. lin e of tra n s i t a c ro ss t h e i s t h mu s t o contro l t h e trade o f th e P a c ific w i t h th e ea st. This r o ut e s t:ll' t s from C a lido nia B a y o n th e Atla ntic w h e r e P a tl Cl's o n's col o n y of Z\e w E dinhu r g h w a s loca t e d to Sa n ;\I i g u c l B a y o n th e P a c ific. A t fir s t th i s app e a r s to be an i deallo c nti o n f o r R shipc :lllal o n a ccoun t of t he sllo r t d islancc 35 mile s between th e two ocea n s. It wa s advoc:t l c d b y Dr. Ed w a rd Cull e n of Dubli n ill 1 850 H e c l a im e d t hat t h e sllmm i t level o n l hi s lin e was n o t o\' e r IJO fee t. It was p a rtl y ex plo e d by 1 \11'. Lion el C r i s bo rn c an E n g l i s h e n ginecl' i n 18J2, a nd h e r ea ffirm e d th e cl a i m o f D r Culle n L a l el' ex p l ora ti o n s a mo n g th e m t ho s e o f Li e ut e n ant I saac C S trai n U S .. i n 1 8 5.J., a n d 1)\, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s D arie n ex p e dit i o n in l S iO fai l e d t o co n ( 11'1l1 this l ow a ltit u c l e It was f ound th at t he s um mit leve l i s a t l e a s t 1 000 fee t above t h e se a Alth o u g h th e I s thmus i s \ 'cry n arro w a t this p o i nt t h e exca v at i on required i s so grea t t ha t i t w a s pro p o s ed to build a tun n e l 4.2 mil es l o n g t h rou g h th e m o un t a i n s th r o u g h w hich ships m ig h t pa ss This p r ojec t h:.\ s l o n g b ee n co n s id e r e d impo ss i b l e SAN BL:\S T h e San B ia s r o ut e f r o m th e G ulf of San B I as to t h e Ba\':.lIlo H ive .', wh i c h flo w s i nto th e P a c ific a bo u t 1 5 mil es fl'Olll t h e P a cifi c e n trai l ce of t h e pre s en t c anal i s a c r o s s th e narrowes t pal'l o f t h e I s t h m u s th e di s t an ce being abo u t 30 m i l es f ro m s h o r e t o S I I O I 'C. r j h e d i s tan c e fl'Olll t h e Atl a n ti c ti d ewat er t n t i d e wa t e r i n th e Banlll o Rivel i s a b o ul two-t hi r d s o r t h at d i s t ance This rou t e w a s e xp l o r e d u n d e r th e di r t.'ct.i o n of l\lr. Fre d er i c k ;\L. K e l l ey in 1 8 5 i a n d !'uh s equ e ntl y a n ex p e d i t i o n u n d e r Co mm a nd e r Thom a s Oli n r Se l f r i d ge. J r., I 2!l I

PAGE 34

1-, S. :\., in 1870 '1'11(di f licult\' h e re. on the Calidoni.t route, lie s in th e Ill lgh! \)1' Ih e SUllltuil to cruss w l i i c h tunneLs from ei g ht t o len llIile s lon g \n. r c a I s o Iwnpo.;cd h e 1'l'sult of ;1111111' .... c {'xpioratiulI"; llId surn',"'; I'l's ull c d ill the co n \'ict i on that 110 other roule l'mupal'ed in practicability wilh thai of Panama and 1\i<.:11-This route. utiliz i ng I.ake :\icaraglla and th e :-;"11 Juan H i,cr. w hich flows out of it inlu the .\tianti c was used as:1I1 islhmia1l tr;ll1sil h," the :O;panianl s as early a s J.3'l!l. It bCe:lllll the subject of inY<.'stil-:"atioll a s a poss i hle Callall'Ouh' ill ISQj, when the Ill'wl r f ederated slatc of Ccntral .\nwri c a advise d th e { ni l cd =--t:ttcs 111:11 it wou l d '('llcuuragc ,1lI,\' s uch prujl' ct h,Y America ns. Sc\'cral HI'''e ,'''' \\"('1"(' made, but III) c;oll.:;tnI
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T Endicott, U S. K .. find Civil Engineer Alfred :'\oblc. The,\' repOl"l c d that the Canal wa s fC:l s i b l e but re commended furt her survcys ; lIld inve s tigation:: OJ comn.liss i o n ,! as by whiclt, ( Oil, s l s l cd of R caI' AdnHral J ( \\ alkc!'. CI)lo n e i I elel' C. Ilnills. and L (,\\"\ s 'I. Ilaupt. HcfOl"c the wOI"k of Ihi s commiss ion was completed Congress provided. in IS!)O, for inc r e a s ing it for t h e purpos e of making SIII'H'ys. compal'i'-:olls and a ,cxaminatio!l ?f all mute::; fr'OIll Tehu:lnlcpcc to ,th e \ !r:1l0 Hl\' CI'. lhe Comnllssl o n WllCh bec;unc know n :I S t h e I s th mian (anal Commiss ion. was 1I0W reinfo rced h,\' the appointmcnt of (()I onel O. II. E rn ... !. Alfl'c d :\oblc. Geo. S. ) I o rri so n, and Willi nrn I t Burr, cnginl'cr:s, tlnd Pl'of<'-""o] Emory It, Johnson and Samue l I'asco ai' ex per!.", o n t he C(IIlImere i a l ;mel political a s pect s of Ih e prohlem, E x ploration s we r e madc of tlte entire l s t hmus but n o faYlll"abl c route wa s foun d olhcr Ihan Ihat :11 and thnt at Pnnama, The COlli mi ss i o n reported nn \ ''''' ('rnhcr \(i, J!JOI. in favo r o r t h e con:s tru ctio n o f a canal across \,ic' lraglL;!, pm\"ided t h e properl," (If the \'c w } r c nc h Canal Company o n the of l'anama could not he pUI'c h a sc < 1 for $ .. 1-0, 0 0 0,000 n e arl, one-third of t h e price a s ke d The total leng t h of th e canal proposed al W,Ii' al)OIlI 1 8 7 miles:, mile s of w hi c h wa s in deep waleI' in I.ake \,iC:lraglta 1 7 lllile s in the ri"cr IlOt requiring improvement, leavin/! 1 2 1 mill' s of ri\'(']' to he c IIIl.liizeri. It was t(l have nine locks. The d iflic ull i es which would ha\'e t o he m 'c r co m e arc ,!f, out the s a m e a s at Panama. j l o\\e\'( r. the lonw'r d i slance at \'i caragll:l and the P!'oxillli l), 10 acli"e vo lcanocs ma d e i t lei'!i'! des,ira h l c Ih ,lIl Ihe l.',mama r'OlIIe, I h e llliler w a s more advantageous h ('('aIlSC 01 th e I'anama rarlro ,rd and Ihe extens i v e planl :md work o f th c French. 1' .,:\. \ ;\1.\ The Panama Canal p l'Oje('\, like Iht:' was th e subject of llHlny studies and s urvey s the fir s t. a s s t at er! abo"e. made in 1 5:H .Kon e of Ihe sur\'eys how c"er w e r e thoro ugh prior 1 0 the olle made by Ihe l s thmian Canal Commiss i o n in 1 890. S i mon Bo1i,;lI'. in 1 827. c;llJsc d a s ur\'c,' t o be made o f th e roul.e b y an Englis h .... uncyor alld in 183.3 t h e Cnitc d Siaie s scnt C h arle-" B iddle t o i nv estigatc poss ibl e waleI' or railroad routes a c ros s t he hlhmus. H e ohl :lincd tl concess i o n from \'l'W Grana(i;1 ( CnlumIJia) for a rni l road. but n othing rur ther wa s d o n e a t Ihal l im e A r(Ow year" later, 1 838, a company o f Frcndllllcn obtained a s im ilar (' ollc(,-""i o n. and a 1 '('pol' l that a summit pa ss of 3 i feel aoo"c s e a le\ 'c l causc d t h e FI'ellc h GO\"('nlllle nt to s('n d out :\:l1'olcon Carella to make a SIII'W'\' w hich this ermr. H e l'('c ol1llllcnded a l oc k (',lIla l with a summit Icvet (If .. h o ul 160 I'l'c! a bo\"(' sca !c\"c!. a illll nei o f mi les the di\'ide, and 1 8 l o e b 10 make th e rl' (flli rcd lift. II was n ot until :\L a y. IR76 t hat th e GO"erlllll ent or Colombia g,we t o Ihe Fre nc h Can a l Com-\),IIlY t hl' co n cess ion IlIIdel' w hich th e first ('an a l work w a s done. altho u g h the "lan,lma I'ailmad w a s built in a nd o ther J;\tl'ven; had been mfld e under Ih e direct ion of thc l'niled S l a\('s (;On'rtllll CJlt in 1 8(W. W hile the F renc h were fli work o n the Canal ma n." studies W('I't' made of the project h Y oflicc r s of th e [nited Siaies \'avv. 1 ;11 J

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I 1 730 to tra de acro ss th e b lh mll s was at a stands till and o l d rack trail s f r om Porlo B ello a nd from Cruces o n the C hn g r es beca me nearly obli t e r ated through dis u se. S p a in' s bela t e d change of policy. the g rantin g of f r cc trade to t h e co l onies, came too late t o be of mu c h henefit to Pana m a. A few s h ip s di scharged t h eir cargoes a t t h e m outh of t h e Chagrcs f()]' tmlls l 1 o ltalion ovel' the C r u c es tmil, b ut the r e were n o ade quate facilit i es f o r han ( ling an," great amount of trad e had the r e be e n any. What little trad e there was went arollnd Cape Hom 01' v ia the Cape o f Good H ope. T he Isthm lls b ecame a place of s o litt l e imporlance that it wa s I'educ e d fro m a vicerc gc nc," in 1718, w h en i t bee.tme a pro\' ince of 1'\ew Granada ( the oid name for Colomb i a ) 11. obtained i t s ind e p endence from S p ain o n Se p !embe r 26, 1 821. In 1 8 4 9 h o we\'e r t h e Isthmu s a gain came t o lif e w ith the s t eady flow of em i gr:ll1ts bound for Clll i forn i a. whe r e h a d bee n di s covere d dlll'ing the l)I'e \ ioll s ye;u. Calif0nLia alld Oregon had a l s o been thrown o p e n to s ettle men t and th e I sth mia n tran s it b ecame a lmost a n ec e ss i ty, for the only othe r mean s of communicat i on with thos e s tat es wer e the l o n g ove r land journey b y train t h e American cont i n e nt. a n d t h e l o n g voyage around South Ameri ca. Thus the Isthmus a s a tmcle route a g ain c"\lne to t h e f r o nt. The lldnlntllges of an Isthmia n mi lr o nd a s a m eans of d ev eloping t h e trade o f t he Pnite d Sta t es wil h the growi n g r epu hli cs of Central and Sou th America was realized a s carly a s 1S:15, w h e n Pre sident Andrew J a c k so n appointed Mr. Charles B iddle a s 1\ comm i ss ioner 1 0 v i s i t the diff e r ent r o ut es be s t a dapted for inleroceanic com m unicati on b r n1i] o r bv water be t wee n the two ocean s. Mr, B iddle \ i s ited the Isthmus we; l l t o Bogo'ta and o b t ai n e d from the Govemment of :\('w Granada a conces s i on for co n s t ructing a mi lr oad across th e Am e ri ca n I s t hmus. H e returned l o th e L'ni ted S l ates i n 1 837 with thi s d ocu ment but di ed IJcfore b e w a s abl e to p r e p a r e n r e port so n o thin g furth e r wa s done at t ha i lillie, In I s n. a French s.Ynd i eale, h ea d e d by l U n t e o Klin e o btain e d a s i mi lar con('(>s .;;iol1, but w a s ullable 1 0 I 'aise t h e m o n ey ne c essary to calTY out t h e w\llk In D ecembe r J::H8. three far s i g hte d Am ericans, W illiam H. A s pinwall Ht'nr.Y C haun cey a nd J o hn L. S teph e n s, e n te r e d i nt o fl co ntra e l with New [ :12 1

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ITED Granada t o bui ld t h e ro a d, :lnd tlte P analll:l Il a i lr()ad Compan, wit h a capi tal izat ion of $I,UUO,OUO. wa s inc'orporatcd under a chal'lel' frl'allied in th e slate 01' Xc\\" York. As pinwall. in the same ye ar. ohlained fl"Om Con g rc: 'el and a c ross the 10w13n d s of the GalUn Lake region a number o f lon g and high trestles lor emban k ment f ill5. som e of them 9 0 feel high. had t o be b ui lt [ 33 J

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it wa s fea sihle. I n th e cOld,\' ["II"I of HH!L :I p:rt'I," of e n g in eer's in c1la g c of Colo nel C. It Ilug h e s o f the '!lited S lates Topogra phic :lI Corps, was sc nt to l o (,ale th e lin e. F i rl!ling: a :;lummit ridge of 'l87 fce l. a l ine was laid Ollt not e xceeding.]O mil(' s ill lellg-Ih 1'1"0111 0('(';111 to ocean. w i th t h e Allantic terminus on :\an' B:I\ a s Limon B; Til l : I', \:>; .UJ. \ H .\ILIIO.\I> Cle a ring OJI \ranz anillo Island hegan in \ray, I S,jO, This w a s a low pll) l of laud III' about GOO a('I'e s separated f roll1 th e mainland b y a :11'111 of the sea and i s the s i t e of the present cil,\' of Col o n Although e leanngs h at! bee n made, l 'I..'sidcn ce upon th e i sland w a s impossi ble and for the [ .1 J

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C ) liE Ix'\ND U ITED firs t few mo nth s the m en engage d i ll mak i ng t he surn',' s and th e lahorcrs brought fmlll C
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The largesl rail road b r i dge on Ihe n e w lin e s p anning I h e C hagres Rh'cr a l Gamboa. II i s 1 ,320 fecI long T h e Chagres R h 'er empties i n l o Ihe Can a l 3 t t hi s pOi m in th e follo win g m onth. 1 000 pa!'sc ngC'rs we r e car r ied t o that s tatim] f rom Col on. T he s e pa ss c n gc [ s h a d lIrri,' c d at C llltgrc s for th e C ali l'ornin. tmn s i l i n Iw" s h i p s hut COllid n o t he landed th e r e on accollnt of a h e a "., storll1, and we r e at C nl o n T h i s happe n e d most o p p o r t u nel y f o r th e r ailroad. a s th e o l j g inal million d ollars h a d heen exp e n d e d and t h i n g s w e r e beginning t o look dark t o I h e s t uc kh { )ld e r s \\,h e r l th e n c w s r c a c h e d :-.;rc w Y o rk Ihal passcngcr s had h een carri e d a s far a s C a hill, s e ,'cn mi l e s h y m il. e,'c n though t hc," h a d been c al'l'i c d o n fla t cars Ih (' eompan.\' s s t.ock i m m ediately I'O SC in pric c The w o rk wa s plts h e d ( III w ilh n 'll(.'wc d i gor. for. frolll thi s t i m e o n there wa s a s mall and s t e m l.,' inco m e w hi c h could hc a p p lied 10 t h c con struction e xpense. I n J1I1., l S J'2. th e m a d h a d r('a ehe<.l Barhacoas. a tol a l d i s tance of m i l e s w here i t w a s nece ss a r y t o construct 11 bridgc 3 0 0 f e e t lo n g to span the C lrag'r es. all Oe1o lJ('1' H I :'III'_ J ohn I.. S lc ph cll s w h o wa s 1)I'es id clIl of I h ecomp a n ,r. d i e d i n :\cw York. ami hi s s u ece ....... o r. :'Ill'. W C. Young. deci d e d t o have I h e 1'(-'lllllind e r or th e wo r k lU:compli s h e d 11.'c o n t ra ct. The cun tmctor, h o\\'c ,er. faile d It) fulfi l l h i s a lld aftc r 11 ye a r's d el:t.' the company a ga in d ec ided t o do the \\'OI-k_ O F 'l'1[E On t he 'l7l h o f J a nu a r y 1 8 5:;. a t mid n ig h t a nd in m in. t h e Ins t rai l t o th e sUlllmi t rid g e :It Ctlle".-a. :17 m i l es f rum Colon and I I m i l es fr o m Pan,tln a w a s laid a n d in t h e meantim c. w o r k had be e n a d\'a n ci n g s t eadil y f r o m P a n ama. ('it to w h i c h p oint mate r i a l h a d heen tran s p o r te d a round Cape I l o rn On t he I'ollo \\'i n g day, t h e fil's t locolllo ti, c p ass e d f r o m o cean t o o cean. n e arly fo ul' ye a r s
PAGE 41

Allhou g h tra c k had b een laid fro m ocean to oc ean, th e I':Jilt'oad w a s in poor physical cOllditioll. and it wa s not until IS.')!) thai its con s truction account WlI. finally closed, at a lolal expenditure up to t hat time of $8,OUO.000. The road was pro / }crl,\' ballasted. heavier rail s werc lai d. Il."ing hardwood l i cs. hridge ... of il"On r ei) aced wooden structures. ; Hal station huildings and Wh;lITC'; W('l'e crcc tc(. T o ems,:; waterways. 17 U bridges tlnd cuh'crt s had heen built and the woodell bridge al llal'bacoas was replaced h y one o f ir on. The road w a s a pa,"ing inve stment fl'Ollllhc lime w h e n the firs t 11 milt s were opened in I S, i ? f01". a s sectio n s wer e bu ilt put inlo S('l'nee r o r pasSC'ngers and I rClgh I. and at tlu' end of 1 S.).). the .VCi I wo pel' cent. ill I S8.). ilnd th e largt':;1 pCI' cent. i n 1 8 68. I n 1 86J. th e capi tal s to c k was increa s l'd from $5. 0 0 0 0 00 to *7.00U 000. I n 1 881, the )'elll' when the r o nd was s old to the Freneh Can al Compan,\
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C) HE L&-Q_J2l:NI'ilJD;?ElD2.,-;::--<<...C)r:H E YtlOJ]!->ELUNJ]'ED di\'idcnd of IH']' {'('til. d('clarcd. hlillhi:. Hoi 0111,\' J'epresented th e ('arniugs f o!' thai ,n:;!!'. hili also illcluded the a :-;sds and :'Ill' plll ... OIl hand a l !hallin'\('. J<:.\lII.Y IL\'I'fo;:-; :>:I-;.\I(I.Y I'HOI[IIlITIYI: The foI1O\\inJ.{ i;lhle of rall's'l'lac(d in ('fred whell iiI< mad was fir,,1 opt'llcd in IR.).), 1'l'lIlaim d in fllJ'('l' for 2 0 ,n'al ',..,
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America This line continucd until Odol)('I'. IRi'Q. \\"IH II it takcn OY('I" 1,\the Pacif-ic 'Iail Steamship COlll j 1;lTlY \ 1011(' lilll(' the !'Oati had \iu c (If ii.; OWII Oet ween :-).111 Fl'a llci..;co and )anama, bul tId,., was withdrawll ill In the present Panama R aill'Oad Steamship LillC wa" (.'sI1lhli..,hclllnllcr bont s were se nt to Pnnama. and th esc IlIcrcly to nct a .. fecdcrs t o t he main line on their l"('tUI"Il south. This of \lncring no to l ines a l su forced the Panama .\"e\\ -Zealand [ 39 1

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o o o L o o o o o Th" hcadquarlerso f Ihe P :mama Ihitroad a.c located : lI Col o n The n e W li n e runs On the cast side o f the and i s H .1l mi le>! long. It <:o n.plclcd on May 1.5,1911. al a COSt of $8,98 4 .922. 1 8. [ 10 [

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rand Aust m lian S \ camshil) Compan," to g i ve lip it s attempt to inaugura te : t mon t hly s e r vice v i a \\"el jng l on to :::i,nlncy. eonnl' <:Iin g with the Roy al I ail Sleam P a cket. Company. operating between Sou thampton a nd Cuio n. I n s p i te of th i s ]1olie," of laking morc tlLan th e trade could the railroad contin u c d 10 di,: idcnd s bul it wou l d undouhtedly have don e a muc h more profitable bu s iness had ilcndeavored \0 hdp. in s tead 01' opprc""ing th e growin g trade of Central and South America. I:,\, OWX EH SIIII' '''hen t he Frcn c h operatio n s were begun i n 1 881. the Fre llch Canal found that in order to build 11 canal i t would fir s t have 1 0 g :lin th e consen t or t h e railroad or to purchas e it. The latter p l an wa s follow('d, and in J U ll e of that ,'car. 68,88B of thc 70,000 shares werc obtained fIJI' a littl e lw e r $20,000,000 or t wo and ollch alr times what thc road had uriginatt," co s t to build, III addition t o thc amounl expended rOT' ;<:hares han u s e s paid broup;hl t h c lot al cos t to a litt l c ovcr !ti2J ,OOO,OOO, When the l'nit e d S tates. all :\I a" k took o\'cr t h e af f ai r s of the :\cw Fl'cllC'h Canal CompallY. thcy ( 01111(' III t o posscs sion of thes e shares, and ohtained thc rl'mainder. 1.112 sharl';;;, by prinlte pur c hasc a t u co s t or 1.::i7,118,'l L or an a\'erag:e price of !iiI ,W,OO pel' ,,,hare, rhe e n ti r c s lock of t h e Panama H ail road and St eamship Company i s no\\' owned by t hc Lllited Stalcs with the exccption o f onc s h;u'c tr;JnsfC I'I'e d to ('ach o f the di rcctors to cnablc the m to qualify unde r the art icle s of in coqloralion, The C h airman n n d C hief Engineer of Ih e Isthmian Canal Commi ss ion i s a l s o Prc s iden t of t h e P a nama Radroad Com pan\', S inee i t has bccome a government-owned corporation. the road has be come secondary t o Ihc C; \lwl work, a lthough i t i s a common carrier. and carl'i cs The railroad slation a t Gatun, which is t h e o nl)' station o f a pernl:lncnt type so far constructed, excep t a l Colon and P an:!ltI:! Cit)'. 1 11 I

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C I HE h MI;> m ,!), 11 ITED O l d \ Vas h i n t.:to n H o t e l s h owinJ.:: 5 1 atue o f the P a n a m a f ounders, H enry Chaunce y \Vm. II A s pi nwall and J o h n L Stephe ns. A n e w m o d ern h otel has l aken the p l ace of t h e old one. a b o ut iO.OOO t OilS o f co m m e rcial f reig h t a m onth, whic h i s abo u t o n e-hal f of th e tota l amo unt. th e bala n c e beillj! hlilld l c d for t h e company a nd for th e Ca n a l w o rk. W hell the mad wa.'i IlIl"Ile d o v e r I nt h e F r e nch it w a s fou n d to b e in a ne g l e ct e d ('01I(.Iilil)l1, w i l h ohsl)l c t c cq ,dpm cn l a nd rollin g s t ock. S i n ce th a t tim e t ermi11al w h a t'ye s, e q llipp e d w ith m ode m cargo cra n es have be e n ('011-s l r u clc d lerminal y ard:;, wareh o u s e s u nd m a c h i n e s hops p ro yid c d new a n d p ( I\H'rful i oco mn lin.'s. H o f w hi c h a re oil hu rn e r s, larger Ctlrs fo r passe nger s and f r e i g h t put in t o se n 'ice, h ea\ ier rail s lai d b r i d g e s s t r e ngth e n e d t o enable Ihe m t o carl',\" t h e h e H"ier equipment. and t h e who l e lin e d ouble-trac k e d Perman e nt r e inf o r ce d conc ret e s t a tio n s h a ,'e b een b u i ll a t Col o n Cahill and P,1Il1lllH I .mel 11 m o d cl'll con ('l' e t c h(l t cl t h e Was hingt on, cos tin g upward s o f $6JO ,OOO hOi"; hee n eon s l J'lIc ted 0 1 1 C olon h c a ch TilE SEW :>ours I ISE The l'<'Ioc1II e d 0 1 new main lin e of Ih e nlilroad n lll s on th e eas t s i d e o f th e cHlla l for' i ts cll l it'e len g th of n .tl mile". From C o l o n to J l indi. L 1i m i l es and fro m Corozal t o J'anama t h e ol d l ocati o n w a s u s ed. but t h e r emain in g U) miles ( I r e !lew m a d Fro m Gatlin, t h e l i ne s ki rt s t h e n o r t h .shor(> of th e lake for ahout foul' l11ile:o;, a nrl thell l ul'll s so ut h. th e eas te rn arm of the lake 011 a hi g h tn:<;t l e fill at an e l evatio n o f !),j fee l aho,' c .sea lc\"el. :\ca r C"imi l o th e roa d approHc hcs th e canal a n d p;II'allc l s it to G a mboa. Origin ally il w a s p lanncd to earl'," t h e roa d th roug h Cu1chra ClIt on a W f o o t h erm, 1 0 fec i tthon: th e w.II( .. le w1. hil t s1i<1es caus e d the a ],:ln donm c nt of Ih e project, and il WOl'i hllill 011 a h ig h I {'\'cl n rounc! Gold Ifill in S l ead. lis hi ghe.st p o int is'l7t r tJ 2 1

PAGE 47

fee t above sea le '-el ncar L a P ita. and where Ihe conlinelltal divide is cro ... sed, opposite Culebra. th e h e i ght is red. F rom the south end of Culebrn Cut at P aJ'aiso, t h e railroa d n m s p raclicnlt.\' parallel wilh Ihe canal to Panama. W here t he road crosscs t hc Gattln B i,cl. ncar Montc L i riu. a slcel girder b r idgc with a l i f L Sp:1Il h a s been ereded to permit sa iling craft 10 pass inlo Ihl' C"H,t arm of Ihc lakc. :md al Gnmboa. Ihe Chagrl':' H i"l' l is crossed wilh a sleel g irder bridh'"C one-quartcr of a m i l e l ong. \ t :\ I ira ftore s, thc road pa ",>es I II rough d wil h a shull Ie train scn'ice fro m Panama to Bas Obispo. the prese n t te rminus of the old douhl etrack lin e. The s hu tt le train s now cross t h c callal, ilcar Paraiso on a t rc.')ill' brid ge, b ul as t his wil l Ilaw 10 be removed t o permilth e n a"igl ilion of the c:l nal. a woo d c n pont oon b r id gc wil l be buill in Ih e same 10(,lll il), of suffic ient widlh for a sin g l e track and a ro;.u l\\":1,' for 'e h icle s T his i s not intcnded for a pc rmancnt c r oss ing but onl y 1 0 s tic h lime flS thc villages 011 the we s t bank of t h c (:.lnal can b e abandoncd South of Corozfll, II c hange w ill be made in the road wh ich will 111.1\"e Ih e ef reeL of placing t he n ew town of Balboa o n tilt., mai n line, with it s tcrminus a t P anama as at p resent. The rail road poss e sses modern passenger t e nuin ; d s fi t b o th c n ds. T hc onc i n Col on i s o f concretc block construction. a nd was open e d on J uly 23, H)OO. It is not particularly n\trac t i ve irom an a rchi lectu r a l s t n n d p oi n I T he ncw station in P;j na m a co.')1 i IIg a bout $ 1 00.000. WfiS compl e t e d in t h e lat ter p a r t of 1 0 1 3. T he o nly other s talion of a pe rmanent type so f a l co n st ructed is fit Gatun, bui l t i n WOO. I I > -The new HOl e l \ Vas h i n g t o n ::11 Colon. Cost abou t 8500, 000. Ope rated b y the Panama R ailroad. [ <:, [

PAGE 48

The total mi leage of th<-' l'Oad cxeltlli i w nf si dillg-s, i s '>S.7!J, a s folluw s : 'lain linc, m ilt,s; I' e d m "iguel to B a s OIJ i s po. D mile s, and l'an:llll\) scc
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I E F rcncll :!Itempt In CO llstt'\lct a waterway :u: t'()S S Illc ) "th m us was f o r e doomed 1 0 f ai lu r e hecause th e prnjccl fell ill t u the hall d s of p ro m ote r s an d s p cculn l o rs. \ conlrillutor," was the biglt s i c k a nd d ea th rat e t he F rench cmplo,"('s on t h e Isthmus. Thi s adde d g r e atl y to the cos t of adm i n i:;lralion an d re s ulted in nn unstabl e labor f orce. :\[:111,\' o f th e b e s t e ng i nee r s l eft t h e l:.thlllllS : I ftc r hur l sCI'\"icc. 01' dipd. and t h ese con stant c h a n ges m a d e it di(ficll lllo p u r ';\LC an,\ regular plan to ket p up a n cf rccl i vc o rgan iza li ,on t o CatTy o n t h e work. T he compan y had 1 0 11Ig h wages nnd oncr S pCCI:tI II1dUCCIllt.'lll s to pl'rsliarlc men to lake the c hance (It o n c in fiv e o f sun'i\'in g a n attack of ,Yellow f eve r which they were liabl e to contract, H a d th e work bC{'n i n charg e of a r ich and p owcrful go, ocrnment. pu blic o pini o n wou l d n o t have a l lowed th e work to have heen carried on a t s u<:h a n appal l i n g cos l o f l i fe. W he n t he (ntcrpIi s e w a s s ta l 'ted the met h od of t ransmi ss i o n of m a l a r i a a nd n:-l1o\\' f cve r wa s unknown :lI1d. e,'ell if the French had takc n t h e sanitar y prec: i ut io n s p rev ai liug at that t im e, they could not ha\' c s t ampe d out th e s e t wo fc\ 'cl's w h i c h gave th e I sthmus the reputation of be i ng t h e moslunhealth y p lace ill t h e world for a w h ite m all, A s a p r i vatc corporatio n i t cou l d n o t enforce sanitary rcgul ali()J\s had i t dc" irc d to do s o for, un like th e Unit e d States il d i d not acquil 'c :Ibsolulc jurisd iction ove r the Canal stri p b u t wa s a t Ih e m e r cy of t he Col o m h i a n court s, Othe r cau ses were ex travnganc e. w h ich n a t u rall,v devel o pe d into g ra ft. r ol' the s uppl y of money w h i c h eam e flow ing inlo th e cofl'er s o f the compan. \ f r o m eager in ve s to r s beguil e d b y t h e n a lll e of D c T ,esseps seemed inexhau stih le: t h e la c k o f s uit a h l e mach i nc ] '),. t h e wallt of prepa ra t ion. and leadcrs hi p All th ese mi s t akes ha\'e scn'cd as warning s i g na ls to the Cana l Com mi ssio n so t h nt th e f a i l u r e of the Frcnch ha s cont r ibut e d i n II large m c a s u re. t o t h e s u ccess of the America ns. Ill': The fir s t F re n c h Cnna l Com\)nn\,. L a Societe I nternaliona l dll Canal lnle r oceaniqlle inaugura t e d th e u n ( e rt ; l k ing w i l h all cxcillsi,'c cOllccssio n f r o m Col o mbia. b u t wit h a n i ncomple t e su r vcy of thc prop o sed wMI.:. tlnd a n c l i m:'l t c o r cos t a n d tim e p laced muc h t oo low, The necessary mo n ey wa s [
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Count F erdinand de Lessepso His n a m e will ::Ilw3)"s be linked wilh the Ilr eat enterprise it was under his direction and cOfllrol Ih31 the wor k fir s t took definite formo ohtained f rom t h e French mi ddl e <:lasses. w h o wer e i nduce d to p art "oilh t h e ir 1I1!"oug h the ma g i c name o r F l'r d ill;tt l d de L e sscps, w h o h a d j u s t hrought to a SlICl..'cs<;ful <:lo s e hi s great work a t Sucz, tllI(l lto w a s pla ce d n t t h e h ea d o f I he n e w e nt e q)]"iseo D e L csse p s was hOllcst and s i nce re, hut h e was a n old man s o m c what b lind e d by h i s p r e ,Oin!!:; go od I'or lu n e, an d o I h c r cl'ore. ea sily d elu dedo H e w a s cnthusiastic o\"('rOth c i dcll of n cana l co nn ec tin g th e o \t1 ant i c with th e PHcifk, a n d m n d e himsclf a n d others bel i eve thalthe work co u ld b e ncco lliplis h c d m ore quic kl y and milc h easier th a n th e S uezo Hi s abili t y a s a missi o n a ,')" m a d e him \Oalu_ a hle to the p romotc!"s fo!" th c d i fficu lti es of I h e work acr oss t h e Isthmus a s com-IJ a r ed wilh t h e wor k a l Suez s h ou l d l ave bcen apparent cve n to th e layman o lie was not an expe r t engince r ; it di d 1101. oequire ,-tno\' c n gi n ee tOing a bil i ty but merely i magination, t o s ec the practi c a b ility o f cutti n g a sea l ev el c h a nn el t h rough t h e l ow desert ,oegi on of uppe. o Ego,o pt while a l P anama, a hi ll)' a n d I I I 1111 Former of De Lessells Criscobat o now lIsed b y the Canal Commissiono I G I

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rock country had to be tra\'ersed, torren tial strcarns din-rlccl. and a tidal basin COl lstructcd. problems whic h th e world's foremost e n gi neers have difl'crcd in the s olut i o n An d ,,'cl D c L esse p s sin cerely helieved thai he \V, I S 1 0 achic\ c a triumph. and mllch casi?!' than his fin .!. e n ,le Sucz C:u1a1 was III 1869. look t e n \ 'car s 10 budd. llnd cos t aboul $100.000.000. or a Illlihon dollars tl mil e. This low cos t was due to the fact t hat th e cut was llI.ulc Ihl"Ough a stre ich of leve l sand. and Said Pash:l th e Kh edive of Eg ypt. a larg-c st(wk h o lder i n t h e e nterpr ise, practi cally forced his suujccts to work 011 the project in mll c h the SHmc manner as ltamcscs o f old } pnOCUR!:\G Tin; COX CESSIOX The c once ss ion for th e privilege of con structing th e Canal wns ohln incd from Colombia in :\ra,\' 1 87 6, by G e neral Stephen TUtT, a who had acquainted w i th .t;.csscps when the latter pJalllli!l g h i s w,ork ttl Suez, and who wa s later JIlc t ted b y tile Fre nchman s s u c ces s III an cHori to duplicate the fea t at Panama. J [ c organized a provi s ional company in Fr;lIlce an d sent an engi nee rin g party L o th e I sthmus in .\"o\ember, 1 8iG, to make explorat ions and sun'cys. The party wa s in charge of Lieutenant .\"apokon D Ollnpart \\',\"5C of th c Frcnc h ,n of General T iirr, and. at that tllne 23 years of age, ] he hrst eX]ledtho t t wa s o nl y partl," slIccc,;;:,;;:iul. se"cral of it s m embers fal l i n g victims to d i sease. "","sc W[lS again sent OU! ill t hc s l ) rin g of 18i8 with Lieutenant Arman d llccius, al s o of th e F rellc h .\"01",'" On Ilis trip. a ncw co n ces s ion, approved 1 8 .. 1 ,878. in the nnnH. o f t h e a Ssoc tatton pt'es tded o,'et b y GCllet'a l I (in. WILlCIl modtfled altd th c former onc, s o as to gi,'c thc l)I'olllo ters thc excill s i"e privile g e of huilding a cunal across th c Isthmus nll"w tcre wilhin the Uni t c d of Colombia. This concess i o n wa s to rcma i'n in force f)!) ,\'car s, pl'o\' ided thc n c ( cs,.;ar," mi ss ion was o htained f rom the Panama ltaill'Oad whidt held a I I .. The old pOri o f Colon i n U 8 4 during (he early r ench days. This photograph was taken with a Wet plate. a relic of photography, -17 1

PAGE 52

f CriStobal SIr!'c! scene in the Fren c h The scenes o f the o l d F r e n c h days have chan g e d wilh newer ideas. T h is section is now filled w i t h roomy h o u s e s and tIU:lTlCr S f o r t h e canal employes and I. C. C. manuf:lctudnj;: p l a nts. monopol,\' of the I s thmian !'Oute. \York was tu be begun 110 t l a ter than 1 883, ,111<1 was to be completed w i thin ,rears, w ith an extells i o n of s i x years i n c a se the origi n a l IeI'm IlrO\ cd too s h ort. Although \\"y:;;c wenl o.nr not m orc t ha n two-third s of th e d i stance fr o m Pnnama 10 Colon, he s u b nlltied what were suppose d to b e complete p lans and a statement of co s l for :1 sea Ic\'cI canal be t wee n t h c t wo points f ollo w i n g t h e l i ne of till' Pana ma nlilmad. The s e pl:ms and est imates were submitte d t o an inlcrnatioTla l cngi n cl'r ing co n g r e ss whic h was convened i n P aris, :'Ifa.'" 14-20 1 87!). in accordnnce with the terms of th e concessio n with F e r din a n d d e L es s c p s at its head. T hese p lans wc r e th e ba s i s of a deci .sion by t h e co n g r ess ill favor of a sea level can al, follow ing t h e !'Ou te o f the P:'lIlama r a i l r o a d by wa y of the pass :1t ('tllebra usillg th e valley of the C hagrel> rive]' o n the Atlanti c s ide. and the a l le\, of the R io Grande on l h e P acific s ide of th e co ntin e n t a l di, ide It is pe rtin ent t o note that i n th i s co n g r ess, co n s i st in g o f 1 3 Gd e l ega tcs from Franc e, Ger ma ny. the U lli led Siales and o th e r c ountr i es, o n l .J.Q we r e engineers, whi l e the remainder we r e pro m o ters p o l i t i c i a n s, s pecu l at o r s, and p e r s onal friend.s of De L e ss('p s The "'.\se concess io n a n d pla n s w(' r e "sh o v e d through, uppro,cd. :wl! Itlm ed o 'e r t o L a Soc iete I n ternati o n a l dt! Cana l lnlcroc e:lnique. commonly k n own as t h e f i r s t French Canal Com pa n y fo r
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-, -, 5 -o 'i : ;:I 0' ---_. 0' -;;-= ... ;:J --

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n u m ero u s rece pt i o ns a n d ba nq uets tendere d him. he sa id: <'T lict'c arc onl y two great difficulties 1 0 be overcome, t h e Chagrcs H i\ 'cr. and th e deep ::II the summit. The f i rs l can be sUl'm .lunlcd by tlu.: headwater s oj' the rh' c r into anol h e r eha n !leI. and the second will d is;1 ppca r 1 d ore till, we l l s \\"11 i ell w ill be sunk < \lid c harged wit h cx plosin's of s ufli c icnl forc e to I' CIllO\'C \ ".;;1 quanti t i e s at eac h d i sc h a r ge. The engi neering cOlllmissi o n after a s u p crfieial f'tud, v of tll<" route a nd f tlrlllc r i ncomple t e s urn'.'" ... in 11 report submitted FelJ ,'uary 14, 1880. e slilllall'd t he co s t a t $168,600 0 00. T he e n g inee r ing co n gress es t ima t e d the ('osl at $214, 0 0 0,000. On F cbru a r,"2 0 D c L c.'iscps reduced thisl's li rwlte 1 0 0 0 0, n nd again on :\La n : h I without apparcnt rca so n to Thc proposcd s ea leyel canal WilS to h a ,' c a uniform d epth of .. j feel, a hottom w i d th of i 2 fccL and a wid th o n t h e watel' l inc of about !)Q feet. and iJ1\'oh' c d ex cHvntioll est ima t e d at l vi,Q OO,OOO cubi c y a r d s The cngillccring congl'P"S e s tim a t e d sc ycn or e i g ht .,ca r s as th e t ime required t o (!omplete t h e WOI'k. D c Lc<;scp s with h i s usu a l optimism, I'cdu(!cd 111(' tim(! t o six "car,,. To control the floods of the Chagl'{>s H i\'( ,I'. various schemes were IlI"opo s cd Ih e p r i n(,j pal o nl' b e ing Ihe constru("!iol1 of .. dam .. 1 Gamhoa, a littlf' lclow Cruces, and t h e construct ion of channels 1 0 t h e "COl to carry t h e im]>nunded waleI' away fr o m th e c lIla!. On itCCount of t h e 1-\"1"I'<1t diffcrcncc in the tides of Ih e two oceans, a maximum of two nnd o l leh nlf feel in the \ t1ant i c and 2 1 fcC't in th e Pac ific, a tidal bas i n o r loc k wns t o ha,' c been built at t h e )I. win c entnlll("e (The high t ide o n the Pacif ic s i d e i s duc to t h e fact that I h e n ay of PanOlln:! i s funlle lshapc d ) ;\0 work was C,'cr accomplished on cither of t hcse two Front Slreet, Colon, durin g the flo uri,hinj;: F r e n c h day s. w ith the car at the o ld d e pot. [ <9 [

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.. --, SAL BOA I .... lIi[ fRfN CI1 DAYS .. A Io(TOUP o f views of Ualboa a n d the canal entrance a n d o perations, d u r i n g t h e days o f bot h the First and Second French Comp:lIl ics. The w h arf was th e first construc l",d by Ihe F renc h The one_sidell dUInp cars s hown in t h e \ O l l pictur e arc n o w o bsolete. [ 50 J

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proiccfs. ..-\ dam al Gamboa w[ts found lat('r In be illlpr 'aclic nblc, and the prohl clIl of tho di"cr s io]l of Ihe Chagl'cs Bi w'l' wa s left to some future lime. L'Ul'C,lll.\1'I"'(; TilE wonK On January I, 1880 the ('CI'CIIH)n," or the g'rnund W i]" 10 han: heen p erforme d h y 0(' l,t.ssc\,S al th e mouth of the ((if) Gnllltle. ahout tlm, 'j' mile s we s t of Panama cit."" h e hoat bearing 11 part," of ladic,.: and gcnlkmcil w h o wer e t.o lake part wa s dcbryed in :ila l'lin g wIth the 1'('-.1111 111,11 it could lIot O"('l within two 0]' three mile s of Ih e Oil ,1('COlll1l of the ebbing' tidC'. Thi:<. hOWC\'CI" di d not dampen th e ardor of t h e \'('!'-:atile Fl'cndllnan. :1<; tit(' :It'I'i' 'al of th e s t ea mer ill the entrance of the 1'jVCl' monlh was {'oll:
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The pic k a n d s h o \ c l briga de. late r T he B ullel in elu Cnnal Intel"oeea nique," publi s h e d by the c ampan." 1'01' Ihe I)('ne fil o f th e s t ock huld e r s of February 1 188.:.?, sl alt' s : "The fir s t w!lI'k in t h e g T eal cut or the marit im e e:mal wtlS formall.v inaug urat e d t od a y (Jan. 20. 18H'1), al Empire in til e prese n ce of t he dignitaries of th e slale, tile leading citize n s of the cil." and a great a ssemblage o f the I)e ople The fir s t Im'()IJwti" e h as a rri,'Cd a l iiI( newl," opened exe av'ltion TIc c i ty of Panama I;; ce l <']mtling th e e"ent with a g-re;lt fete D c L e sscps l eft Col o n for t h e L"nitcd St at es on February 2'1, 1 880 for th e purpose o f interesting AllI cl' i ca n s in th e und ertaking. Alth o u g h h e wa s r ecei,'e d wilh 11 g real d ea l of en thu s i asm c c r'ywh ere, h e wa s unable t o di s pose of t h e s tock whic h he had thought full y rc s e n c d. Ameri cans wcre interest ed in a ca nal hul n ot i n a canal undel" Fren c h co nll'D1. H e then proce e d e d o n a .similar tOUI" o f Europc, whc r e he wa s more s u ccessful from a p ecun i a r." poi nl o f "i e\\,. Thc (ir s l i ss u e of .';luc k. GOO,oOO shares of $ 1 00 e a c h wa s subs c r ibed twice o\"el', mosll," ta ken in France. The s e shares were distribut e d a m o n g 1 00 000 pers on s indic:atint; th e g rcHt Frc n ch man's p o pul a rit y with th e people of hi s countr.". I n tSHS. w hCllth(' company fail e d. the lotal subs c ripti o n s, s t oc k s :lnd bond i ss ue s. h ad rl'ached $ : m:3.: :;Oj. I 00. n nd th e sha r('holders n urn be r cd 20 0 000. T wo .n'ars of fc\"('r i!
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negr oes f rom the ""cst I nd i es, and man y of them IH,ld dNical and othel' ... im ilolr positions. The white e mpl oy e ", mainl, from F r an ce. were lrc,ded with cxtr'CI1lC IrcnerosilL E<:OIlOI11\" was an unkllown factor ill the admini"lration o. of affair:; of the fir s t co m pan,'"' T he u\ 'cragc pa,' of a cle r k was $I:?i pCI' month, alld of a div i sion chicI' fro m $2 00 to $3 0 0 p ('1' mouth. \ ..rlcl' Iwo se r vice, fi,'c months vacation. wit h f ree lra\'cling (.'xpcn";l':-i to :ll1d from Fr"allc('. we r e g-rantcd. The hours of lahol' I'M the cleric:1I force was fmlll 8 to 11 a. Ill., and Ii! 1 0 [} p. Ill., !'ix hours It cia,'" F n'c quartcr:;, furnitllre. bedding-. lamp", k i tche n utensi l s, etc., were l1l"ovi ded. \ s there w a s no -"y,,!em uf a ccountirw 0 in \'ogue, man,\" did quite a profi tahle bus iness in the bu,ying and selling of the cOlllp an,\"'s fUI 'llilurc, This was mcrcly one of Ihc furms of grail ill "ogue, howe\"er EllorlllOu s salaries we r e paid to the direclors, l'IIJ.6Ileers. and other oflicers o n th e I s thmlls, The director-genera1.'S li"ed ill :t hOIl,",e tltat cost $ 100,000, now lIsed th c \ mcri c:ln Lcg.di oll in P allall'l,t Ci t y: thC',\' recei\"ed $JO ,OOO n rear :Ind w h en thc\" W(,lIt out 011 t h e work Ihe\" \\'t're allm\"{d *jO a day additional. Olle of th e privatc c al' s in w hi c h the." ro d e cust $ ,kl,OOO. L \ FOLIE There fo rmel'ly s tood o n an ari ificial terrace o n the slopc of \neon Hill a buildin g that cOIllJllanded read. ,' atlt-ntion f r o m pass er"hy 011 I lll' road f r om Panama to L a B oc.1. now Balhoa. Jt was th e pl'O"pedi, 'c homc of :'\1. J ule s Din g lel' probabl y t h e foremost of the firs t F rc n ch COIIIpl'ospectl\',c. because h e nc"c] occupied. it. -. Work on Ihc m ansioll w a s begun s h o rtl y 11lle r h e cam e t o t h e I s thmu s 11\ l'ebl'L1ar.,', 1883,
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The ill:l!;::e o f Empire in the old Fren c h days, The French beW:1I1 their l'xc:l":ltion in t h e Cut near t hi$ point i n 1881, first i t had 1)(''''1 1 ('al l t' d La Folit.' Din g k'" 01' Ding l e r 's F o lly, T he e x pel'ielLc(' of .:\1. D ingle r on till' hllllllll" ( o n tilut es, p l' l'hapl', olle of the s' ldril' s l inci d ent-. ill Fr"'ll(' h (',m,t! lIi5101'\ S tul'ie,,> (If the falal cif .. ,('( t h e dillltll<' of I h e I sLillnus \\'a..; !-aid to hin'l' 011 r'ol'l'ig-!I('I' r('acht'd FI'1I1Wt', hilt D ing-IN s{'o ffed al th .. ,..;c rt'port .. I '!lll gOill g 10 s h o\\, Iht' lII," he i'i ('I'('ditc d w ith h il\'i n g slIid litHt (lilly drunkard .. ,11Id tltt, di1>o .. ipall'd c ontra{'t ,n-Ilow /'c\'l'r ,11111 die," I n Ihi s 1>opil'it Ill' In'ullght w i th him to Ih{, l...,tlllllU:-, hi..; \\'if t !"Oll, alld lIi s ,.,ull. who w: .. m,lIlt' din'duroi'I)!) .. I ... ,..;horll.\' 1'( "idim 10 ydlo\\' fe\'( r nnd d i ed, ,,"II"( 'III(,lIlIy W(' ,l1 to "1'1111('''' Oil kan' of :l" .. el1c('. :11 111 11['011 th e return (If hilll .. dr ami In til(' 1 .. 11111111", hi .. md wilh tlte tall.. of h i s SOI L Oil hi .. 1'1'1 II I'll fro m a ",('('oTl d tri p to Fl':ltI{'(', hi" wife :11;";0 ;..;ickclIt' d and die d from til(' ,..;am(' f( lIi1>ol'a .. l', Din:-:-I('l' bil{'!' rdiwpti:-itt d hi:-1'0:-1 alltl \\'('111 I lac k 10 Fr:tllc(' a m all hr'okl'1I ill JIIind illill hOlh \ \ the Iilll t tilt' \ nl{'r i ('all G m' ('J'lllllcnt louk po.s:';{,'l"if)ll. I,a Folil Dirlgll'" fl:lel /';111('11 i l lin I)ad i a l elecil,\', XC('lled I'('pair..; The French at work i n the CaDal at Cuc:lr.lch a 1885. JUSt arou n d the IlOint from Gol d I -lill. [ 5<1 I

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Can al belween Empire and Culebra, showin!>: r h e Frenc h merhod o f ""cav:l.Iion, in 1888. were made and for s everal .\ ear,; the huilding \\"a..; u tilized aii a d etention s ta tion for Ih e qu:n:lnline serv i ce. I I was :-;uld i n l!)J O for $ j'1.), and n 'III()vcd 1 0 make \\"ay for (JuarTY 011 Ihc :-;idt., o f IlilL D u n ng the pCl"lod of g r('H le s t aell \"It .1' tiw rl' 1\T I e pl"\)iJ:r 1,1 y 'l,()OU I l"ellch men on Ille lstllmns, 1111 non-imrnmu .. t < 1 .n'lle)\\" fen' I'. 1.11'1' wa s a gamble ,md. with no suitahle social din'I's i o n. Ihl'\' nuturalh' resorled to th e vnh' form s of Ulllll";l 'm c nl ill'llilalJle, Ih e saloon s g;imhling I"()OI1\:-;, alld hou ses of illrepute Cololl a nd Panama hecame the :\Iccca of t he oj' s l)cict y the l1onworker s who liv(' Oil v i ce. with t h e rc s ult th ai an eflicic lli ];i1 U)i' fun: c could not h c kcp l lon g under s uch COlldili ollS. ami jt was continually changing. I n Ihe cenler of Ihe CUI al I h e end o f Ihe firsl French Company's days, 1889. The first French Comp:my ollerat e d fro m 1881 10 1889. [ 55 1

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GI HE Culcbra CUI in thc earliest limes o f the second Frenc h ComlY.lny, 1894 TilE S ICK POOHLY CAHE!) FOn Two h ospitt d s were bu ilt i n 1 883, whi c h wilh addi tion s and .-.iterat i olls h a \ 'c bee n in cons t ant u sc b y lite A mericans. All co n hospit.:d o r i g inall y cost $J.6UO.000, and Col o n h os pital c os t a t o lal o f $ 7,000.000. The ho s pit als, alt hough fail'ly well equippe d wilh exc ellent do c t ors nnd su rg eo n s :\Ild s U /lpli c d with th e be s t medi c ine s and instruments of the lime, we r e poody m ana gc{. They w e r e h a ndl e d uncle r c ontrac t nnd th e admini stratio n Looking South from C ulcbr:a in thc second French Company's days, 1895, The second Frenc h Company oper:atcd from 1894 t o 1904 [ 56 I

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The CU I as 11 a ppeared i n 1904 w hen the American s bej.f.tn Ihe work. Conlractor's H ill on the right; Gold Hill o n the left. Note t h e succession of benches. lying one above Ihe oth e r The American s have followed this same m ethod in excavating. wa s left a l most entire l y to F rench Siste r s of Charit,' who. :dt h oug h thcy wer e devoted and religious women, were not train e d nurs es. The s e worthy women left the wl.lrd s at night urlcr \Hay er, clos i ng th c doo r s lind windows tight to kcep out thc nil r ht mi s t s. whie 1 w e re SUp\ Joscd to bring malarial fevcr Jellying th e pa t ient s w i th o ut any o t he r care t hall I Iat which wa s g iven hy th e l e ss f ee ble among t hcm se lves. W hen t h e war d s wel 'c opened for m o rnin g pr'aycr it w a s T h e "alley of Ihe R i o Grande in the French days. The presenl canal is between the h ills. T h e old Panam a Railroad bridge is shown at the south end o f the Cut. I 5i J

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Cj HE ;;:;;;;'-SICJ\E U ITED often found that so m e pntienl hnd d i e d dUI'in g the ni g h t, wh o m i ghl have be e n S<1\'cd with propel" attention. The leg s of the h ospi t al beds wc r e p l aced in tins of waleI' t o keep frum crawling' up. These pans of stagnant water ami also th e man. \ onlalllcnl ai basins cont:l i ningflower s and plants in the groulllls outside iliadI.' ideal hrccdill); place s for m osquitoes, and it i s quite probahle thai Illany patient,.; fell vidilll to fever while in the hOf;pilai s ufIerill g wilh so m e minor illn c .;s. dill' 10 t h e lII1.SCrCCllcd window:; ami doors The C u t in French tinws. showinj;( their cabJeway plan o f Cl
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CI HE ;;;;;:"Sr:l lHiE!jLlW.9J;11 lI), Ul' !J],EI2 Cndcr t he new canal co m pall." th e h ospitals W('fC turne d over t o the Sisters of Charity wh o took care of t h e few paticlIls admitted at II fixed charge. \ .. the r C \'CIlUC 1'1'010 patien t s was s m:dl, they had a hard time \(1 kC('I) thelll 0P('II at a ll and wen' compelled 10 sell (10\\' ( '1''-;, fmils. H:;;et a hlcs and 01 IeI' p rodu(I." from I h e hOl'pilal g-mwl( l s. W hell t h e AmcriC :lll s took charge I heS(' WOIlIt'II wcre replace d l.o.,' tra ined 1I1II'S(':';, 'I'll E ( 'lUSH The crash came in D ecember I S88. At thi s tim e had bee n expen d e d 011 th e Isthmus, 1111d in P aris. a tol a 1 o f 79.],01 7.00. This v a s l s um i s s aid I Q been ;'ollc-Ihin l expe nd ed 0 1 1 th e canal work one-third wa s t e d, and otle-thi .. d s hllen." or thai spent all'all:lma, s a [a r ies a nd expen ses of Ill:! nag-cllw llt a/!g .. ega Itd I G,:; rcn t s a lid Ill;! i 11-IL'nunce o f lea s ed prupe l t y, mate .. ial anel supplies, *2!),72'l,S.,) l i; bui ldings, $ 1:;.397,'282; eUlls t ru e ti u n mI{l e n gi neerin g expcllses, l a nd pu rc h u ses $!),,)O,G5,j; 11 nel mcd i cn I a nd rei i g ious 11 ttenda n ce, 7tiS, ] n v iew of t h e \"1Hi oli S forllls of g .. aft exlravagance and wasle, it i s nol slIrpri s i n g thai thel'e was s o l i ltle 1 0 show in actual wo .. k a ccomplis hed. \ 1 til(end of cight ,rears th e work wa s 0.110111 two-firth s ('ollll'leled. A I'-rench exc:I\':ltor :I .. ioneer tr .. n c h i n t h e sout h end of the Cut T h i s t h e best k nown method of exe:I\':lt i niol in that d : IY, The work Ici 1 0 contradol,.., n .. .'" few of wholll f;lithfull,\ Ihe sen i c e for w h ich they we r e pOIid, :'Ilan.'" Illoull' s mall fortu n es, Those w h o we .. e intrusled with the work of exc:t\'alio n wcre paid for the amollnt of whi c h t he," look fr o m th e c anal pri s m. A .. tlll' .. e was IlO data a\"ailah k on th e c o s l of s u c h work, i l wa s illlpo ss ihl e L o ('\,(' n e s t imat e w lt;tt Ihe ch a rge s houl d be, .Tn JlW1I\' c a ses the contradtlr s took t llil whal was mos t ea s ihCX{,:\,'nted, avoiding th e hard s pot s 011c not a h i e c X {'cptioll to thi s w a s th'(' dn: dgi n g wo r k done h,v I h e Am e r i c an Dredging ami Conlracting Compa n y. w hi c h dr'cdge d thc o penin g of t h e Can al from C olon t v beyond Catun. [ ,')t) J

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First Fre n c h Compa ny's day". DrerlJ,( c!l in the canal at Mindi. Two T e n c h I : ulder dredges workinJ.: on t h e C haj.fTCS River. opposit e Gorgona 20 years ago. The Fre n c h s u c ti o n dredge with the carrying pipe", were effecth' c in excavill;ng. but like their cabl e way" did nOI carry the spOil far enough. r GO I

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.:\lu c h worthless m a terial wa s shippe d 10 the l$lhmui'i, d ue to ill tI(h'iscd bU\ ing, the F rench manufacturers u1ld ouuted!,\ i n m an,' i!!stances cleaninghOllse t o thei l profit at th e expen s e of the Ca nal stock h older s. Wh ell t he Americans t ook over t h e pro perl y they found torc h li)!hts in o ne s torehous e apparently brought to the I sthmus to be u s ed in th e cclchmtiotl o f the o p e ning' of th e Canal. A t anoth e r time a 101 o f wooden s hov e l,;. made f['om O Il C pi ece were brou ght to light. They h :l\'c b ee n referred t o a s s now s ho\' c\ s, but wcre evidently intended for h a ndling s an d o r a s he s A I on or more of ru s l ed pen point s found in th e s tati o n er,\ s lore furni s h ed a d di t iona l proof a s to whcl"c so me of the mone\' w c nt. Early in 1 8S.), i t been me :ll) pa rcnt lhat th e Canal coul d not be completed unde r the s ea l e\'et plan w i t hi n t.le time or es timated cost. During the prev i o u s yea r th e r.r o moters f o resaw the end, and began to se ll their s tock. .:\1. Leon Boye r W 10 succeeded Di nglc r a s director had t im e to report before hi s d eath from rellow fcye r a few months after hi s arrinll on th e Isthmus that th e C
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fii ycl'. t o be with w a lcl' h,\' pUlllping, WilS d eci d ed upon. {"ndel' t h e Ill'W p lan, it \\ 'as e s timated thaI the cost would J'c;lch $35 1 000 ,OUO would requirc 10 yea r s t o huild Th('I'C had :dreadr OCCII s pent at thi s time Ilea 1'1\-and onl\' ahout \wo fifth s o f lhe wo r k had been aecOllq ;]il'il!cd. '1'1.<-, ('nd in \\'ork was fon\";tnlllllt!cr th e lIew plan until )'Ia,\' ISS!), whe n the COlll pun,\ bCCOIIlW h:lllk l'upt and a lil/lIid:dOI' was a ppointed 10 lake (bal'ge. l"ndcl' Ih (' l iquidator, tile wo rk f,{radull I," dilll i lli:;hcd and was fin,lIly silspended Oll ) Iay I .), It was SOI)ll J'(';Jli..:ed thal the ollly \\'a," :tn,\ l hi n g coul d he sa \-cd 10 Ihe :.\()(.:kllOldt 'I'S w a s to cont inue th e projed. L aIc in 1 880, th e 1 'C'Ct'in' r 'lppoin te d a COIlllllissi (Hl compos e d of Frcnch nnd for e i g n engineer s d l" ( '11 in lIuml Je r, t o v i s i t the I sthmus a nd dctermine whelher or not. th e ca nal cOllld he complcl ('d. This cOllllni .-; .... i oll reported 011 :\J a y 5, 18!JO, that a lock canal might bc completed wi thin e ight .,c a l s at ;I cost o f $ 1 7 4.GOO,000. I t I"cpot"lt'd Ihal t h e plant on hand wa s in good condition and would probabl y Old French locomotives, One hundred and nineteen o f these were rebui lt and used b y t h e American s. sldHcc fOl' compl eti n g th e canal. I I al s o estimate d t h e \'alu e of lh e plant and till' work alre. u l y accompli shed at !iiS7, ;jOO,OOO or oll e h a lf of the tota l cost. :'I!eHllwhil e a s a I'es ltlt of the cxpO S lir c a n d inve s ti g a ti o n of the d!"lir s of Ih e old ("olllpan,", :'II. D e J.;css(' p s u nd hi s son C harles were sentenced t o fi\ e .\"l'ur.s impr i sonlllent, and s im ilar s ente nces we r e impos e d u p o n se"eml others of th eir associat cs. The French Court of Appeals anllulle d the scntence of Ch,u'l c s de Le.<.:scps, awl t hat again s t h i s rath e r wa s nC\,(' I exccut e d fo r, at t h a l til11(,. J ,U\uar.v 10. 1 8!): !. hi' was 88 .\"('a r s old and a physi c al and m cntal wrec k ; h(.' diet! in the m onth o f D ecemiJer, fullowing \ s Ih e "',\"sc conc(.'s ... il)ll had nc:ol." ex p i re d th e rc<;eh'er obtainc d from Columhia an ('xtell s ion of len ycars. 1t was s ti pul a t c d that the IH'W company sh411dd be forllled anti work IIpon the cana l resume d on o r bcfo r e Fcbrtlal'Y 28. A .. thi s condition w a s not flllfilkd. a sccond cx t e l1.-;iOll o f 1 0 rears was ohtained, to rill) l i nt latcr than O C I O"l'I": J I J 8! H Till-: !'; I';C OXI) OJ{ CO:'IP.\;\'Y The Compagllil.' X
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The top picture shows Has ObispO in the firs l Fren c h Company's days, at Ihe norlhl'rn end o f their p rOpOlICd lock. The center picture shows French cr:mes a t work The French using laborers 1 0 fill cars shown in the [ower picture. Cablcways. in the distance. wer e also used for handling SpOil. [ 63 1

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the old cOIllI)an,\ and escaped criminal p rosecut i o n by Inkin g t h e n ew s t oc k ; and :iij,OOO S lares g i"ell to t h e Colombi a n Government fot' t h e extension o f t h e conce ss ion. Th(' 11('\\' company look \ )ossess ioll ill IS!)4 a n d wor k w a s imIHc diately re s umed in Culcbr .. C u t w i t 1 a force large enough t o co mpl y with the term s of the conce ss ion. A s excava t io n work al th i s point wa s n ecessary under an," plans Ihat mi ght b e dec ided upon i t was conti n ucd. w h ile el aborate and ex ten s ive s t udi es of th e Canal \)J'ojcct we r e beg un b,v compet en t e ngin eers. The plan finally : Idoptc d by llC new cOlllpan.,' i l wolved t wo I c\'cls abm'c the s ea. one;lI1 nrtifi('inllakc 1.0 b e created b y a dam ac r o ss the Chagrcs River a l A number of o l d F r e nch dredges. which wer e valueless excep t as j u n k w hen Ihe Uniled S t a tes acquired them Bohio, a nd another a h i gh le\'el canal Ihmugh Cul ebm Cut al all el ev ation of (is.u s fcel abo\'e mean lide t o be f ed by wa tcr b y a c h a n nel l eadi ng from n l'esc l \ 'oil' to b e con s truct e d at Alhajucla i n the U \lper Chagres Hi\'er valley. The lake le\ 'e] was to be reachcd fmm the A tlant i c )'ya flig ht of two lock s, a nd th e summit ](' \ 'cl b y fI second flight of two lock s. On thc P acific s ide I'ouroth e r l ocks we r c p r ovided for, t h c t,, o m iddle ones al Pedro ;\liguel Uci ng co m b in e d in one flight. and the olher s be i ng located at Pami s o find l\f i raAores. 011 th l ) Atlanli c s ide th e re wa s Lo be a sc a Icvcl channel 10 B ohio, 1 7 mile s i nla nd
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CI HE hWD 11 ITED Illcn numbering nhoul 2.000 al wo r k in Culehrn Cut. [lnd 11 year laler IIii" was increase d t o 3,(iOU. T his was thc large,.;' llul1Ihet' of men emplo,n'd under the new com p an.\ for only e nou g h work was done 1 0 hold the concc!o:sioll and keep the C(luipmen! i1l a salable condilion. T he Frcnch al thai li me wcre beginning 1 0 look for a purchaser; t h ey wanted !ilIOn.OOD,OOO fot' the work alld eqllipmt'nt. but the onl\" likclv huyer \\"as t h e l'nited Stales. The Isthmian Canal Cum-000 mis .... ion, app oi n ted hy tbe Spooner \et (if IS!)!), reported in l\owlllhel'. 1!,01. in f1l\'ol' of the route un l csi' the F rt'll c h eompally wa willing lu "ell out at $ 4 0.000,000. T his recomlllendation I)('camc a law 011 June i!8. t!)tJ'!. and the :\ew Panama Canal COlllpany \nlS practielllly forl'l,d to s('ll 1'. )1' that amount 01' get nothing, AlthoLlg-h t h e Frenc h on the IStJlIllU"; worked IIlIder diflieuitil'S whidl c\'e!ltuall," fOl'ced them t o up thc Canal they I'ctnon-d with the i r clumsy si d e l'XClWaIM.'<, JIIlW ohsolete drcdgcs, small D ('ca llville {'ars and B e l g ium a considerable amount of materi al frullI till' Canal prism. a large pari of which has bel'n found uscl'ul undt'!, the pl't' '' t'n! plan, The old com pa n y ex{'a \ ,lIe d 66, J ('u h i e ,\' a rds, r 1'0111 181'\ 1 1 0 I SS!), a lid the new company eXC:l\'ale d cubie yard,.; III' to I!HH a tut,1I til' 714,-146,D60 cub ic ,\'anls; 18,6.J.6,OOO cubic yards uf t hi s tutal wcre taken from Culcbr a Cui, the opcration of t h e new company l)('ing practically confined ttl A p ile of old French dump Many ton s o f this maler;:!1 h:!v bt'cn collcclcd : llonlo: t h e li n c of Ihe Can,,1. th:1t p Ol'tioll of the work, Of thL'" total. i t has bel'/l figured that ',W,!10S.uoO cuhic ,no'lis hm' c l.}Ccn useful to t h e Aill c r ie:tlls, The old {'f)JI1Pall,'" dredged a <:hanlH : I from decp water ill Panama bay to the \\"han'es at Balboa which has hcell ui'('d h,\' ships docking at that port. On the \ t hmlic side, the channel dredged inlalld, known a s t h c Fre n c h canal. was round u seful upon deepening in hl"illgi llg i'alld and s l o n c rOl the locks and >ipillway eoncrcte i l l Gntun, The J;'rcnch al s o turned on::!r \ 'alllabl e SUlTC\' S and studies or the work, toge1h e r wi t h p lans I l llll have I )('l'!l found of \ ;llll e to the American 01'-gnnizali o n, The bes t of thi s class of work was done under the new compan,\' [ 65 J

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CI HE lJ.<\N-D U ITED This i s espcciall y true of the rec ord .; kepi of the flow a nd flood s o f th e Chagrcs Hh' cr, tog e thel' wilh rai nfal l record s so e ss e n tial to Ihc I)l"cscnt pl:ill. }>'Il J-::"CIi ,\[0 TO .Ulf:I UC.\X I'BOJECl' )Iuch of the work o f during th e fir s t two yea!"s of American I la\'c heen s eriou s l y delayed w i t l lout the Fre n c h s uppli es and equipment. ln the shops and stOl'c holl s c s we r e found : t plenti fu l suppl y of repair parts, s h o p lool s, s iali u llan' engi nes mat erial and s upplie s o f all kinds o f good Cjllalil,L Al Gorgona. where the principal shops were lo c ated" knowl,l during the F,fC'lIch lillle s a s Ba s .\Ialachi n 5 h o\) s, were fo und hed s hlled \\"Ilh o l d locomolln's, cranes and e:.:c:walors. One lUnd r e d ('ar l oa d s of foundr.\ and machin e R liop material \\'cre I'cmo\ 'ed fro m Ihi s point. H epair shops were fuund al Empirc. f'aflli s(l. Gatun and B o lli o A s mall mac h ine s h o p wa s LlIleO\ 'c rcd i n the jungl e al Caimito l\rulalo, when Americ:Ul AnO lher iew of a part o f the old machinery, a legacy fro m the Fre n ch. All o f the junk a l ong ,he line of the Canal both French and American, i s being turned into dollars, having lJcen sol d to a Chicago wreck'n!; concern. e llginc('rs wcre I'tlnning t h c centcr l i llc of thc Canal. Thcre w a s also a dry dock at Cris t u lJnl. whic h wa s ol'iginally IOU fed long. 3'l feel w ide and 16 fcel deep o\'cr the s ill s al o n l ina 'y high tide, At B alho: l o n t h e Pacific side, there was l ocated a repair ami marine s h o p fo r th e floati n g equipmc nt. The o ld FI'c nch Rhops in ('\'Cr.\' clls e forlllcd the nuclcus of the larger and b e ller equipped shops maintaine d h y the .Alllcrie:ln s during the period of cons tructi o n, During th e fir s t 1\\'0 year s of Americnn occupation, .French locomotivcs \\'('re the onh' OIlCS a\' ; 'tilal)lc b y Ihc I s lhmian Can a l Commiss i o n On June 3 0 ID06, there \,'ere 106 i n se n icc. and onh-1 3 Amcrican locolll o ti ves. The sallle i s tru e of th e Fri.n e h dump cars In HHH, there were 30S in s C I '\ i c e. and in I!)O.). aYC]' '.2.000 had been r epaircd alld put in commission as compare d w i lh Am c rican hu i ll ca r s, AI th e present lime th e re [lrc about 100 French and '.2(10 Decauville dump cars in sc r vitx'ab l e condi tion. In D('(;cmhcl', l!)U L th e r e wcrc s ix old Frenc h excavator s workin g in Culebra Cul, I GG I

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CI HE I>M-O .llIIVI)ill02.EgO?,;;;;;;;;:c.S::IUH!jE!iUW2B1 ,-D, 11 ITED which had been over ha ule d a nd pla ce d in s erv i ce. These were similar to Iadd('r dredges, a nd the excavatio n was accompl i s h ed by an endless c hain of buckets which ca rri e d eart h and rock fro m o n e s ide and drop ped it into a hopper f r om w hi ch it fell inl o dump c a r s o n th e o th e r s ide. These machine s were dfcdivc on l y when working in soI'l m aterial. They remain e d at work I S month s before they wer e r eplace d by modern s t ea m s howl.s. The floa t i n g equipment all han d was considerab l e and Illany dre d ges cia pels or self-pro p el lin g hopper barge s, tu g s, launch es, etc. were found in the ll111rine graveya r d s at Folk s J l ive r Cri s toba l and i n the mouth of th e H.io Grande 111 t h e P acific c nl]'ancc t o the Canal, a s well a s along th e hanks of th c Chngres R i\ e r :\[ an,\ of thcse wefe Honted, rebuilt an d p la ced in commiss i on. On account of the excellent materi a l u se d i n the con s trllc:lio n of this equipment, most of whic h wa s Scotch-built th e l uner ican s round it highl." profitabl e to I 'epai r the m H ea,,\' coa t s o f paint and o il, w h ic h 20 or morc rain \ seasons A laborer look i n g for hi' belongings u lter a flood. The a n d loss of property caused by the floods during the r.ainy season is clearly pictured here. coul d 1I0 t p e nelrnte had been g i\ 'en th e mac h inery when it wa s retired, s o that w h e n the h ulls were n o t "'ol'lh repairing, th e valuable parts wcre u sed el s ewhere. SC\ 'e ral dre d ges we r e r eco n struct e d from parts o f others A Scotch ladder dredgc with a capa ci t y o f ab?llt 1 30,0 00 c ubi c .\:ml s month wa s rCI )
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have been lIsed in th e r('inforccmcnt of concrete i n the lock willis, for th e I'cpair of clump Cars. lIld for telephone auc l lclegraph pol e s Scn::n n'ar ... aftCI' th e Can al wa s takcn over from th e F ren c h I nll, the PI'('s clJl' Isthmian Canal Commi:;sion made a c a refu l oflieial c:stiinat e o f the "aill c 10 the Cnnllnission of the franc h i s e s, equipm e n t. matcrial. wo r k donc. and propcrl," of variou s kinds 1'01' which Ihe United :-;talc.-; paid the F l'cnch Canal COlllpan." $40.0DO.()tJO. Jt pln c l' s Ih(' 10t,11 ";duc at OWl' $4'2.UOO,000 d i v ided follows: E xca,' ali(ln. lIseful 10 the {'anaL '.W.70S.000 cuhie ",lI'( l s., .. Panalll ,l R a ilroad :-ill) c k .. .., .. .. ..... Plant ,HId lll.deriaL IIsed. and suld for scrap Buildin gs. w'l'd ... .. Surn'.,' s I'l:ms. IIl<1p .... and record...: La nd .. Clearings. roads (,\(. Ship dlallllt'l ill Panama 13;IY. four lise. Tnlal .. .. ... .. ...... .. ........ ". $25,38D,2 4 0.00 !),


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I sthmian C all a COnlllli,.;"jon o rgani zed for the con "l ru c lion of the Cunal was appoint e d under the prO\-i s ioll s o f \11 \cl of COlIl-!r('l's approve d J u n e 28. lOO:.?, c all e d t he Spooncr A ct. This \ cI a uthor i ze d t h e Pl'c;.;idc n l to aCfl ui rc, in hehalf of th e l"nil c d Sla!C'!', al a co ... 1 n ot ('xcccd inA' $ W O O O.OOO, the r ights, franchises. pro/ )cr ty cie .. illt"iIHlinJ,!; the s hares or th e Panama I':lilroad. owned h,\' t h e :\cw ;'rC]lch C:lI1al CO lllpan,\', :1I1t! to obtain from th e R e p ubl i c of Colombia p C rl)ClLlal control of the s t l'ip of land across t h e hthmus, which contro l S lOuld also include th e righ t t o perpetual!," maintain nnd operate t h e Panama railroad and juri" dicli o n O\'er t he port s at e ith e r end. )f the P re s id e n t s h o uld be unable to obtain a s llti!'fllclor," tit l e t o th e prop ert y Ilnd t h e contro l of th e n ecessa r y territory, w i thin a rea sonable tim e and upon rea sonable t e rm s, then the Comrnis!'i o n w a s auth orize d t o con!;trucl 11 wllt erwn," acro ss i'."icaragua. usin g Lake :\ic;Lraglla. and the Juan H i"cl". aft e r the P re s id e n t had fir s t obtailled perpetual co ntrol. b y treal y with Costa H i e a nnd :\ic :u'agua, The imposs ibility of the United Siaies 10 come to :l :;:tli s faclory agreem ent wilh Colo mbia, who Ihoughllhatlh e L'nited S lates was now committe d to cons t ruct. : 1 canal acmfolS Pallama and, could be made to pay a la rger a mount t han fir s l of Tcred, l e d to th c I'c \ 'olution of :\t)\'(! Il\I)('I 3, 190 3, hy w h ich Panama. (l state of Colombia b eca m e the H cpublic of Panama. a n d the s i g ning o f a I reat," t h e n c w H cpublic b," whic h Ihc Uni t e d Slates wa s grante d in p e r petuit y th e ncec ss ar,\ t erritory. This s tri p ut' land, known li S th e Canlll Z (lIle, cont ai nin g aho ul J 3 6 folquare mil es. extend;; from deep waleI' i n th e Atlantic to d e<'p water in th e Pacific (threc mi les froml h c low walel' mark on e i t her s ide ) and 6\'c m i le s o n e i l her s id e o f lh c center lil lc of thc c a n al. Included in this grant a r c the I s la nd s of Xaos. P crico, F lilllw nco and Cul ehra in th c J3a v of Panama, which arc n o\\' connedcd w i th t he mainland 1)\' a hl't .'akwater. ;1I1d upon whic h arc placed, The cities 0'1' Panama a n d Colo n nrc excluded t'romthc limits of th e Callal Zone. butlhe L'ni ted States exe r c i s e s sani t:u',v control 0\'('1' them, :Iud also has the right 10 mn intain puhlie OI'ele r in them i n c a se Ihe Hcpuhlic or l'llnama should 110 \ h e ahlc in th e judg m c nt or th e L 'llilcd S tates t o do so, [ GO I

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MEMBERS OF T H E I S T HI'HAN CANAL COMMISSION. COL C.: O w GOETHALS. U S A Ch.irma" and C hid En"; .. ., ., COL. HARRY F HODGES. U. S. A .. Chief Enllincer. COL. WILLIAM C. GORGAS. U S A Chic/ Sa nitary Ottice H H ROUSSEAU, CIVI L ENGINEER. U S NAVY, A istan, t., the Chi"f ;nllincer. OIpyrIKro 110 ,,1 0 '" r. .. \\' .. 11. C [ 7 0 J

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M E MB E R S OF T H E ISTHMIAN CANAL CO:\Il\lISSION. COL W ILLIAM L S IBERT. U S A .. O, .. Ene!nr 01 A"antk 1)1 .. I.ion. UOS. R I CIIAMO LEE METCALn:. Ilead o f JR .... \ m n t Of Civil Adm'ni .... tion. COL. O O CAILLARI) O i .. iolon Enlrin. 01 the C nt",l1>iv,.io .. JOSEPII B U CKUS 8 I SIIO I ..... ,.. 1I tlo" F..'u. _ad n,_II.t ..... .... [>, \:, ( ill

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A s compensation to the R e publi c of Pallama, th e United S tates paid li;10,OOO,OOO, "lid agreed to make an annual payment of $ 'UO,OOO, 1.0 begin nine year s after the date uf the ire .. t y Thes e annual pay m e nt s commenced i n l "cunlar,Y, IDI3. T T t ORGA;>; I Z .\11O. \: OF Til b C.\:-.i .\I, The fir s t meding of th e I sthmian Canal Commi ss ion was held i n Washing ton, D. Coo on :\1:'ll'c h 22, tOO with the folluw i ng memhers appointed by lh e t : "J ohn : a l,:el': C l lai rm,a n; GcoIfc \\,1), 1'11'. l S .. \ \\llll.11ll B.llcl
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ExPresident William H.Taft Ex PresidentTheodore Roosevelt Pres ident Woodrow Wilson chronidus of history for all time will t h e names o f R 005e\"(.l t Taft and \Vilson 'World's l{I'eatest u n derlaki n'::-. -Ihe construct ion o f t h e P anama Canal. Students of the subject 'Will doubtless c o ncede t hat to Theodore Roose> 'elt be "ccorded the d istinction o f inaugur.lting t h e enter prise. to his succeu o r former I > resident Taft s h ould the hono r of f o u r years of hithful service I n f orward the s t u p endous work so e ncouTaJ,:l nJ:ly bcJ:u n and 1 0 Presiden t \Voodrow \Vilson fall s Ihe d u l y o f i n stalling Ihe splendid success whic h the resources. perseverance and indomi ta b l e of ,\mer i can cicil: e n ship ha>' e rendered pOssible. [ n 1

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Enginee r :\1r. John F. W allace. entered upo n his du ties o n J une 1 1904. :\[r. Wall ace re s igne d a s Chief E nginee r o n J u n e 25, 190 :"), afte r serv i ng one ye ar, and was sliccee ded b r .:'Ilr. J oh n F 011 J ul)' 20,1905. :\Ir. W allace. who had bec o m e dissatis f i e d w i t h th e working m et h o d s of the fir s t Co mmiss i on was made a member of t h e Commi ss ion unde r an E xec ut ive Order dated Apr i l I. \00.3, whic h r eo r g a n i zed i t a n d gave t o him full co n tro l i n the depat'lUlcnt o f con stmction a n d e n gineeri n g. Thi s reorgan i zati o n w as brou g ht ,bout by t h e Secret .. !'y of W a r who. b y d irectio n of t h e PI"Csiciclil in i\lan: h. I!lOj, rccl ucstcd t hc r es ignation s of the commiss ioners, w hich wer e al once tender e d. I was bcl ic\'c d that this c h a nge woul d m a k e a more effective force for d oin g th c l"cqui r c d work, und do a way w i t h the 1 011(1 occasio n e d in pur<.:has illg matcria l and s u ppl ics and in th e ncco mplis111llcn t of wo rk by gm'c rl1l11cnL "red tapc" which had beco m e s o ir kso m e to ;\[r Wall ace. His l"cs i g nation shol"lly .. ftc r t h i s c hangc, s ix d ays a f ter hi s r elul'I1 t o th c I sthmus f rol11 Wa s hin g to n wns hard to un d erst and, but i t i s poss ibl e tl1:\t t h e question of h ealth enter ed con:side ra h l y i n t o hi s d ecis i o n f o r it wns at thi s time that th e fir s t OUl b r eak o f \'e l low fe\'e r a m o n g t h e A meri c a n s had OCCUl're d und th e firs t vict i m wa s :'\lrs_ Frank Sengcr, thc wifc o f ;\[r. W allacc s private sec r etary TilE SEW C O;\l.\ IISSION The ncw Commiss i o n c r catcd un der t h c a b o\-e mcnti o n e d Orde r co n s i s t e d of the snmc number o f memhe r s, seve n b u t f ull power was praeticnlly ves t e d in thrce member s w h o wcr e p lm:c d in c h n rge o f the t h ree exec u ti \ e d e p artmen t s c r ea ted One department wn s under t h e di loecti oll o f the Chairma n of th e Commissiono T heodore P S h onts, and too k c harge of th e fisca l aff a ir s, th e pUl"chase and delive r y o f material and s upplies, the a cco u nts, bookkee p ing, and audit s, tlnd the commercial operati on s 111 t h e U ni te d S t a t e s o f th e P a n a m a I 'ailma d and s tcalllJ;hip lin es, with hcadquar te r s in Was h ingto n ; a n o th er. unde r the G o ,"erno l of the Zon e C h arles E 2\lagoon whie h l ooke d a f tcr th e ad mini strat i o n and enforce ment of l aw in the Zo n e, th e sanitati o n of t h e Canal Zon e and the c i t i e s of Pan
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SOME OF T H E MEN O N T H E JUG JOB. (I.) He;teki a h A Gudge r Chief Justic e of the Cana l Z one Supreme Court. (1.) F rank Feuille, Counsel and C hief \!C orney o f t h e Isthmian Canal Commis s i o n and the P anama R ail road. tJ. ) 1 A A. Smith. Examiner o f Accounts. i 4 .) A S Zinno H esident Enginee r in the Central Division. who has been identified with the work i n Culehra Cut s ince 190(0. \S.l H e nry Goldmar k designing engineer, in c harge of the lock gales of the Canal (0.) T n Monniche. designing i n charge o f the e m e r s;:ency dams o f the locks. 1 7 .) John H M c Lean. Disbursi n g Officer of the isthn.ian Canal Commission. i s.1 C"pt. E.. \Vood U S. / \ C hief Quartermaster of the Isthmi3n Can,,1 Commission. (9.1 \V. G Comber, Hesident Engineer of the Sixth (Dredging) D" ision. (JO.l C apl. Ch"rle s \V, Barber. Chief of C"na l Zone P o lice. 01.1 C. E \Veidman. Chie f o f the Fire D epartment. ill.) Tom M Cooke. Chi e f Division o f Pos ts, Customs, and Revenues. tl3') Li e u t. Col. Eugene T 'Vilson. Subsistence Officer. il4.) Gecoq;l:e M 'Ve\15, Resident Enginee r Department 01 Municipal Engineering. US. ) liarry O Cole. Resident Engineer. Fifth Division I -;-.j 1

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11 ITED m a n Theodore P S h O llt s C harl es E. ) [ ng oon, al s o Governor of t h e Canal Z o n e R earAdmiral :\lo rd ccni T. Endi c ott. Bri ga di e r G e neral P e t e r C. llain s, U S. A. ( retire d ), C ol. O sw;d d II Ems U S. A .. BClIjamin :\L. Harrod, and J o hn F 'Yallace, als o C hi ef En g i neer. CO;\I.\/ISSIQX A G \ I:\ B E O UGA:>:IZ ;!) O n .\"o\'c m bel' 17. 1!}0 6 t h e commi ss ion w a s again r c o g ani zc d b y Ex ec utive Order ill o rder t o pro m o t e h a rm o n y and t o secure re s ult s b y more di rect m e th od!) and a centmli: wtion o r power. III ord e r t o d o thi s th e f o llowin g departme nt s w('l'e c rea t ed u nd el' the new organiz a t i o n : Chairma n C1Lie f E ng in e er. Gen e r a l COllll s el. wh o took on.'!' th e duli('j; o f th e G o\'crnol', C hief Sanitary Offi c e r Gener a l Purchasing Officer, G e n e ral Au d it o r OUic e l .. and :\lanage r of Labo r and O n S c p t e mht' I 't,>. 190 6 G uv Charle s E :\L agoo n w a s tra n s f erre d t o admin i s t e r afrai r s i n C u ha. and wa s s ucceede d Hiehanl R e id R oge r s th e G e n e r a l Cuun se l in W a s hingt on o n l D I!)OG. Whil e :\11'. R o gel'.'; wa s in W a s h i n g lon. ;)11'. n D R ee d acted a s h e ad of th e d epartme nt on the l sthmu s un til th e ani \'a l o f :\11'. Jo. C S. Bla e k h u rn who w a s appo inted a s Head of t h e D e partment o f Ci" i l Adm ini s tratio n on April I 1007. On April 2, I D07. t h e aUlhoril.\ of th e o r Chie f E xec uti vc of the Canal Z one, wa s tran s ferred hr o rd e r of tll c Se c r e l a r o f W a r t o th e Chairma n's office so f rom that t i m e the C hai r m a n and C hi e f Eng in e e r has in r e alit y been G ove rn o r of 111<' C nn ai Zon e al so. :\lr. S h on t s r e s ig n e d cf r ect i \'e :\rarc h 4-, HlO7 and the re s i gnatio n of General Hains :\raj o r H arrod. and H earA dmira i Endico tt. w e r e a ccepted on :\I a r c h 16 1007. Finally, :\11'. Ste" e n s r es i g n e d cfi"eet i, e Apr i l 1 1007. The r e s ignatio n o f :\lr. S t evc n s WllS n s g r e:t t a surpri.'ie a s thaL o f :\ [1'. Wallace. A cco rd i n g t o t he r e port c u rre n t a l the t im e, th e c hi ef en g i n eer became alarme d o\'er the p o ss i bili t y o f awa rd in g the contract f o r the con s tru ction or the canal t o I h e Oli\'c rB a n gs c o m b in a ti o n and wl"Ote a l ette r t o t h e Pres id e nt se llin g ror th tha t the cana l organizl.lti o n had be e n pre tt y w ell p e rfect e d ; thalmo r e di r t h a d bee n taken o ut during th c pre \ i o u s 3 0 days than h a d ev c r been t a ken oul b efo r e in th e same len gt h o f time; thal h e did n o t c a r e 10 share t h e wo rk o f lHlildin g th e cana l wi th an."on(' 1101' h e h amper e d w itll m e n l ess familial with ti,e subj e c t thnn hims el L Il l' in timated thaI. if hi s w i s h e s we r e not compl i ed wilh h e would ( I uit. The l etter i s s a i d t o hl1\'e caus ed e x P re s i d ent Roose v e l t s o m e t h iug of a s h oc k hut. w i I h his e h a ract eristic s pon t a n e i l), of aet i o n h e ca bl e d ac ceptance o f t h e 're s i gnatio n in ord e r to get competent m e n wh o were u se d t o w o rkin g IInd e r Gove rn m e nt regulations and mde r s and who w o uld "stick," ex-Pre s ident R o o s c "elt r e s ort e d to th e Arm,'" with the r esult tha t three offi cers o f the Corp s of Eng i neer s, U S. A th e C hi ef of the Bureau o f Y:mls and Docks U. S N .. an office r of th e :\fe d iea l Corp:;, U S A and two c i vilian s w e r e appo int e d i n th eir pla ces thus [mlet i (' a II r ; 1 handon i ng t h e p lan uf c a rr.'"i n g on th e w o rk unde r e i vii ia n d i l"Cct i o n. 'nder thiS new o r ga n iza tion n combination of t h e po s iti o n s o f C hai rm a n tln d C h ief Engi n(.'Cr wa s effect e d and Ih e c r e
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w ith th e work unde r the ir charge. This n ew co mmi ss i o n a ss um ed its duti es Oil A pril 1 1 907, a nd con s i s ted of the f ollow i ng: Col. Geo. \y, G oe th al s, U. S A C hnirman and C hief EnO"ineer ; Col. D D U. A., lIc .. of D cparln, l c nt o f E xcav nli o n and ])rc d ging; Li c u t.Col. \\ m L. S ibert U. S. A H ead 0 1 D e partm ent of Loc k :md Dam Con s trucl i nn ; Col. W C. Gorgas, U S. A ., Chief Sanilu l'Y Offi cer'; C i "i l Engineer H H H OlIsse:Hl, C. S. :'\. H ead of D c partm cnl of :\lunicip a l Eng i necl inO", )Iotivc low('1' and )fachi nc r y and B u i lding Co n s tru c t ion ; Jackson S mith 'Labor. Quarters and Subs i s t e n ce; Jo. C S Blackburn I [ead of Department of G i"il Admini s tration; J o sc l ) h B ucklin Bi s h o p Secre t ary. The p e['son nel of the:l ) o\'c co mmissi o n ha s remain e d un ch an ge d with three exce pti ons. Jack s on Sm ith re s i g n ed o n September 1 5, !!J08. and the d epart men t o f labo [ and quarters i s n o w a part of the Quarterma s ter's D e partm ent tinder direct i o n of Captain H.. E. \\'ood U. S A., and th e Subs i s t e n ce D e p a rt -John F \\'al1:l<;e. firs t Chief E n!;incer o f the Can aL. He ent e r e d upon hi s duties June I. 1904. and reS i gned J u n e 25. 1 905. J ohn F Stevens. s econd C hief U e was appointed July ] 0, 1 905. and resi!;ned April I. 1 90 7 Col Geo. \V, Gocthals, taking his place. e ll"",Un>! \\" Il. C men! under dire ct i o n o f : Uajor Euge n e T \\'ils on U S. A .. a s a separate d e partIlle llt. )11-. Jo. C. S. Bla ckburn r cs i glled efl"ective D ecembe r 4 1 009 and was sHc('eed c d o n .:\la., 1 3 1 910 b y .:\[1'. :\fa l!r iee H Thatcher, iUr ROLisseau actin g as Il ea d of I h e Depa rt men I d tiring! he int e n al. Mr. 'fha tch e r r es i g n ed e tre cti \ e 011 J une 14. l!.ll:3, and was s u c('eeded by ':\fr Richard L. .:\fe lcalre t he pre s cnt h ead of th e department. The D e partm en t s of Excavation a nd Dre d ging a nd Lock a n d Dam Con s tru ctio n were abol i s hed a nd o n JII1\ 1 100 8. bec 'hme th e Al1'ln l ie Divis i o n, und e r Col ond Sibert having c h arge of ih e dredg i n g o p e rati o n s in th e A l lanti e enlrance, and the l oc k d am and s pillway work a t Gatun. and th e G e n e ral D ivisi o n un d er D D w ) l i c h ha s ,?f .the exc:\va tiO!1 in th e C ulebra C ui se ctIon On Jul." 1.:1, 1 008, Ihe P acif i c UIYIS I O n was o rgalllzc d and c h arged with the lock, dam and s pi llway wor k at Pedro l\l i glle l and .:\liraf!ol'es, and t h e dl't' dging wor k i n the Pa cific c nlmn c c under :'\11'. S. B \\, i l l i am so n Div i sion Engi neer. U p o n th e o f 1\11'. William s o n 011 D ecember [ 7 8 I

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GI HE l>&D!;l ; UNJTED 1'l 1 9 1'2, the Pacifi c Divi sion wa s aboli s hed a n d its wor k wa s placed under the i milled ia Ie eh a rge o f th e e h icf Engi n eer, as I h e Fifth Di vis ion of the D e pa rimcnt of Constru ction an d Engi neering. On lUay I W I 3 t h e dredg i ng work of the Atl an tic <\ndPac ific Di v i s ion s wa s con solidated unde r :\1]', ,Y. G. Com b er, R es i den t Engi n eer, for min g the s i xth Divi s ion o f the C hief En g ineer' s office. The Department of :\I u ni c ipal Engineer i ng M otive P ower a nd : Unchin cr),. and Buildin g Co n st ruct i on, was a bol i s hed on Au gu s t I 190 5, and hecam e a part of the Depa rtmcn t of Con s truct i on and Enginccrillg wit II :\.1 r. I toll ssca 1I. Assi sta n t 10 th e C hi e f Engineer in c h arge. The present commi ss ion consis t s of the following members: Co lon e l G eo. W Goe th a l s, U S. A Chairman alld Chief Engineer; Col o nel I I. F H o d ges U. S. A ., Assistllnl C hi ef En ginee l ( : \ppoi nted July 14-. 1 008, v i ce J ackso n Sm i th ) ; C ivil Engi nee r H 11. H oussca u l S. X .. A ss i s tant to t he C hi ef Engi n eer; Colonel D. D Gai lla rd U. S. A Di v i s ion E ng i neer. Central Divi s ion; L ieute n a n t-Col. Wm. L. Sihe r t, U S. A .. Divi s i o n Atlanti c Divisio n ; Colonel W C. Gorg a s, U S. A C hie f Sanitary uHi ee r ; Hi chard L. 1\[etcalfe I read of D epa r tme n t of Ci\'i[ Admini s tration; J o se ph Buc klin Bi s hop, Secreta r.". O f th ese eig h t men Colone[ Gorgas i s the onl,\ one who ha s been in the se r vice since th e inauguration of the work Colonel Gaillard left the Isthmus o n Au g u s t 9,1 913 o n s pec i al l eave of aiJ s ellce, s uffering f r om a !len'ous brea k down, due t o hi s long serv i ce o n the I s thmll s, and it i s probabl e that he will not re turn TII E I'U RC I I AS I :\,G E:\'I) The Commi ssion ma i ntain s nn office ill W n s hin g t on in c h n r ge of :\[ajo r ];'. C. Bo ggs, U. S. A ., who fills th e po s ition s of Chief of Offi c e. and General Pur c h asi n g Officer: Th.e work. i s a!Jlo n g tl l e di vis i olls: General Offi ce Dl sburs m g Offi ce, Offic e 01 ASSIst ant I "xammel' ot A cc oun ts. Appointme n t Di visio n Corre s po nd e n ce and R ecol'd Di\,is ioll. and P urcha sing Departme nt. The Appointment Divi s i o n h a s to do wilh f illing r equisi t ion s f o r Am erican e mpl oye s and dllring th e fis ca l ,\'ear en din g J une 3U. 1013. "!,06 j person s were tendered empl o,nncnt on th e Isthmus in gra d es abov e t haI of la borer. Of t hi s numbe r 1 1 83 accepted and were ap\)ointed. covel'ing 59 different po sitions. The purc ha sinr, branc h wa s organizc( o n A ugllsl l 5, I!)07. a nd placed unde r th e s upervi s ion o f t h e C hi ef of Engi n eers, U. S. A ., with an office r or th e Corp s of E ng i neers in c h a r g e Additi o na l offices for th e purch ase o f m ateria l s arc maintain e d at i\'ew York New Orleans, and S an Francisco, Medi c al ancl h o s pital s uppli es are purc h a s ed throug h the :\I edical Supply Depot o f th e Arm y i n New. york. all s uppli es arc purcha se d under contract b y means of ach 'e rtl slng for bl(l s and m a kin g award s th e reon. amI a[1 material i s carefu[ l y ins p ected before s hipm e n!. althou g h th e right i s r esen'ed of makin g finnl ins pection o n th e Isthmus. A s an illu strat ion of the work o f th i s depar tme n t, a total of 7,087 orders wer e during th e la s t fisc al year t o the value of S I "!,335.Di3. 1 'l. [ 71) J

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hi g h mortalit y amon g employes cm: O lln terc d b y th e lmi lders of the Panama rail road mid h y the Fre n c h during their operati o n s indi cated !hnt t o kee l ) a s.uiUilJ.lc wo rk i n g 011 lhe l s thnHl s th e Canal Zone, alld t le c lit e s o! P a nam: L a nd Col on wou l d have to b e made R eali z i n g th i s. onc o f th e fir s t d i v i;o;io n s of th e canal wo rk to IJc Icd was that o f under Col. W C. Gorga s, who, prior \ 0 his 1I1'rind un th e lsthmu ..... had s ucce ss fully s tamped ou t y ellow reVCI l.lllcl suos t .mtially reduce d th e hi g h malaria rate i n .II:1\ u na, Cuha. This div i sion w a s :11 firs t a pa r t of th e Department o f GO\ 'crnnwn l of th e Can a l Zone. but, on a eCOI Jll\ onh(' impOI"talll'l' of th e sanit a r y wod, it w a s later made a distinct nne! s f'lmralc ; i t uee e:,s al'Y 1 0 free the I slhnn r s fro m p e s til e nce in o rd e r thai the cHlllIl work mi g hl he a ec o mpli ... hed but i t was jlLs t a snecessar'y th at i t h e kept in that condition ror all tim e, Dr. Honald R o ss of the B r itis h Ann.\" in India i s c redited with Ih e diseo\'cry, throug h s u c cessi, c expcrimc r l l s in 1 8!lR, th at the A lIopl u : l c 8 m o squito is the for mala rta. This mosquit o bilc s an infcctcd person and carri e s th e gNtn to other lll'fS O n S ]n th e s lImc way another speci e s o f m o squi to, tll C Sfcy olII.lJia. '\' a s fou nd to he re spons ible for yellow fcver. The theon' or yellow f("'e r trans m i ss ion by mos quit oe s was exploi ted a s carl)' u s 1 883 b y D r', Car 'los Fi nla of lIa\' :\na, The def init e and ind i s Plll:dJle test wa s made in Juh', 1!100 at QlIl'nrario s C uh:.. b v four membe r s of th e Cnile d States A r m y l\[edic ;ll C o r p!', who had he e n appointcd as a commis s i on fOl" the s t ud y of tilC di sea s e. The s e fOlll" l!1 ell \\' c r 'e Doctor s \\' alt e r !te cd J esse \\', Lazea r James C
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=. -0;
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PAGE 89

-.1"_ Ever y S(IUare fool o f swamp ",as" breed i n g p lace for m o squitoes. Dr.linin g swamps $ub-9 0 ili n g and burni n g are some o f the used il> the l )rc' ... '"lioo of m osquito breedI nf.: T h e m a n i n t h e UPIX'T picture is s h o w n b uminl.: grnss whic h a long I h o pen dit c h e s a n d drain s. I n t h e l ower ) ; C l ure h e is shown larvacid e O n the g rn s s ( 1

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ClllE l >&-D they wOllld undergo the experim e nt only on cOl ldilion thai th e\' s hould !'cccin' n o ]'('\\":"1.1'([ for s uch se rvi ce. They both ("ollll':l<.:\c;mama Carni val o f 1904 nn d s treams thal could not hc d rain e d \ t the outs et Colonel G o rga s was hampcl 'ed b y t h e failu r e of th e Com mi ss i on in W ashingt on 1 0 reali ze th e immcdia t e necess i ty for large expend ilu l:es I /' / "-"-/ "---\ '--, / \ I \ / \ I / , The g e n u s Stegomyia mosquito. mal e and fe m a le. The f emale o n the l e h the male i n Ihe cl'nter and the lan' a on I h e righl. The species has d istinclive markings, and the harp-shaped d esign near the h ead i s found on no othe r moslluitO. The male does not bile, and is, t h erefore, harmless: it i s Ihe f emale that causes all t h e trou b le. I 82 I

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f,'AIJ1NG It lOOk: mOnlhs o f labor, and soni e after sOflie. bef ore the mosll uilO horde began to thin. A ganli: of about 9(10 natives Wall alone time engaged with ladders and paste. scalinlo: a ll the ere"ices in the houses in Panama, p ri o r 10 fumigation. Streeu were a water s)'stem installed. and a genual clean-up was made. I S:l J

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-The ilU"rJnline o n C ulcbra Isl:,"d in Pan"",,, Bay. Owing 10 t h e faci Ihal the I$lhmus i s h e mmed in on Doth sides, by pOrts. the mOSI r i g id precautions arc o bserved and st"amen hom these pons arc held i n (lua r : lIltinc. unless t hey have been scyen a' sca, fur the purpos e o f ex t erminatin g th e mosqui to. This wa s l alcl' remedied and th e purs e s iring's were iou scllt.' d. An outbreak ()I' y ellow fewl' amon g tilt. J'ccC'lltl,v Ilnacc:iimaled Am ericans began in D e c ember, nlHl la s t e d unt i l Ot.'cl'llIbeJ'. 1 DU.';' D uri ng' tllC e pidemi c t here wer e i n 11 II 2 W cn ses :md dC:'l l lis. o r thi s numhc r o f liIe ca ses and all o f the d ea th s w('t'e among ca nnl emplu, \ cs. The ('on;;lalll1,\' incn.:a siug headway made by th e di s ea s c iu th e earl month s vI' I!)():j cau:-;('d a panic IllUong the empl oyes, A g reut m any of th e m l eft tlte I sthmus a s S OOIl a:-; they could obtain a c commo d ation s 011 the o"CI c l'ow { kcl skanl.",hip s This wus a;1 object l esso n and I'('s liited in a. partial slis pen s ion of n el ll.il c allal c o n s truction work un til th e eradication of yellow fen' r was eH'c ct c d, 1n additi o n to a r i g i d qual':lnt i nc. a r e l e ntl e ss fighl w a s w
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I I The above compa rison of-before and after p aVlnR i s nOI c)I;ali:jl:crn t e d \Vhe n the Ameri can s took charge o f the work m a n y of the streets i n Col o n and P anama C it y wer e "eritabl e bog-s in the rainy season. Now. both cities compare fa\'orabJy in clean. well paved S treelS, with othe r s of their s ize. [ SJ J

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inspcctors in t he ('o u rse o f :I hou s e-Io-ho usc .'ie.uc h rOT' cases, the pnti e nt wa s immediately take n tu t h e ho ... pital .l1\d pla ced in a room protected h)' sc reening, T he ncxt s tep was the t h oroug h fumigatio n of th c house fl'Um w hi c h the pati ent had h('en remo\'('d in onkr t o kill any i nfected m os quit oes Ihat might rema i n. F inall,r an e nd ca\'or was made 1 0 loc:'lt e and fumiga te Ihc sourc c o f inf('clion. '''hen th e epi d e mic uf 100: ) wa s nl ils hei g ht. the plan of fumigating cvc r y house in I h e cit i es of Pana m a and Colon, w h ethel' o r n o t th e re had heen cases of yellow fcwr' in t h e m, w a s c.uTied out. The nati\'C re sident s at fir s t s uhmitted 1 0 t h e t'trmig-.di oll wilh po or gr. l ce. a s Ihe.\ nre illlllHllle and could n ot see Ihe ne cessil.\' T h e Dis p ensa r y at A ncon J)ispenS(lrics and Field Hospita l s a r e maintained a t all the i mpOttan t Canal Zone setde m ents for first aid t reatment. for it. Laler, ther becnrne morc reconc iled bUl complain t s were nume rous. There i s now p endi n g in Congre ss a cl ai m for $50 00U to cove r damages due to a (ire in th e l\lal ilmho di s t rict of Punn rna i n th e s pri n g o r 190 5, which i s claimed to have bee n s tarted b.\ the ove r tllr-ni n g of a fumigatin g oven. The fight agai n s t the J uophdc,'J, the m ala .. ia-ca ..... \ ing mo s quito ha s been co nt inuolls, for i t is next t o impo ss ible t o elimin ate it e ntir e l y This spec i es, unlike t h e S l cyomyia. i s strong on th e w i ng and i s, therefore, a b l e t o e nter Ihe citie s and villag es after bre e din g i n t h e s waml)s a nd s t ngnnnt p oo l s in Ihe o ut s kirt s. To counteract this a s mu c h a s p ossib c, mile s o f dr'ainage ditches hnve hccn co n s tr'ucted in Ihe v i cinily of the c nnal to w ns; s m all streams are kep i cleaned (lu t 10 fac ilitak the flo w of wate .. ; swamps h ave been fille d in and gra ss and .. ank \'egel:\lio n kep I c uI. H cgu lnli o n s a r e also e nf orce d ngain s t a llo wing [ 86 I

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.. r, "NO 12 The Govern"'e ,, O llerates IWO main h05p ilals. One al ,\ncon a nti the other at Colon. The Ancon Hospital is the larger and bcsl equipped, With :l rcputalion in the Tropics second to no_ne It was begun by the French i n 1 883, b u t many impro"cm c n ts have been m:J.de by t h e Americans. [ 8 7 J

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There arc 47 wanls i n the Ancon U o spital, and this i s the imerior of one of the m The w hite American employes. European laborers and the negroes, are cared for in separat e wards. There are I.rivale wards a l s o and one for eh:lrity cases. T h e Canal Commission furni s h e s free nledieal !re"tmenl to "II of it", employes. an.\' wate r l'cct.'ptadc::;, lik e tin ca n s ele .. Ocin g throw n into th e bus h w here th ey might f ill during a rain storm lind make ideal pla ce s for th e m osqui to larvae. Such po ss i b le bree di ng plac..: e s a s canno t be eli min a ted b y draining :Inti filling arc s pra y e d w ith a form of oil. c all e d l a r nlCc ide. whidl d es troys the m o squito lalTa e as th c y co m c 10 th e s llt 'faee of th e wate r t o brealh e In ... pit e of :111 th e s e cfforts th erc arc many c a ses of m ala ria but th e numbe r h a s h ee n rapidly rcduce d ami I lie ty p e of di .... clls c has he e n rcduccd from a "indent t o a comparati\ 'c!y mild type. Wh i l e th e m o ttalit y ft'om m alari a wa s nev e r so hig h a s o ther for m s of tropic di s e a se. Col onel Gorgas H lw,,)"s co n s idet 'e d it o n e of thc mo st. imp o rt ant 011 a cc Olllll o f th e heavy s i c k rate :\Ledicinally. the d i s e a s e i s treated by quinin e man)" thou s:l.I\ds of p ounds of w hi c h have b e en u s e d ill th e ho s pital s a nd i ss ued from t h e di s p e n s arie s maintaine d in e a c h canal :.:on e vil la ge. (.' L EA:-:t:..:G I I O U S E Whil e a -m' of ex term inatio n w a s bei n g wa ge d agains t th e it wa s also aIJ s o lutel." neCeSfl:lr y to cl ean h Olls e, es p eciall.\' ill the c ities of I allama : lIld Col on. The lallt'1' place th e s ite of whic h w a s p a rtl y a tidal swamp, ha d to be fillet! in. 1'r ope r sewer flystem s were i n s tall e d in both cit i e s, whe r e no n e exi s t e d he f ore. unle ss th e o p en d r ai n s in th e stree t s. fille d w i th refu se and ()thcr f i lth coul d be (':dled sc w e r s Su itable wa ter sys t e m s al s o had t o be intro du ced. for up to Jul.,' L 1VO:i. t h e s uppl y of waleI' WI ; S drawlI from th e c i s t e rn s whi c h were allowe d to fill dUIilw th e rain y se a s on s 01' fr o m w ells lind aft e r ward p eddlcd from door to by the (lyl/adorN 0 1 wa t e r cart m e n When I he water wa s turned o n all c i s t e rn s we r e clo s e d Likew i se lhe stree t s w h i c h bt..'c a m e v ir tual l y m ud h ole s in the r ai n y sea so n wer e propcrl.Y p ave d w i t h bri c k or g r aded. A mt:'lh!)d or garbage di s po s al wa s al s o pro \'i d ed, ro r lip t o this tim e I 8 8 I

PAGE 97

w e r e t h e o n I,\' s c a ,\'cng c r s th e a r c kcpl s wept, a n d the "'arb. w e I S c ollected even' ll1"ht fl"OlII C S I ) c c w l l\' d c swllcd cuntalllcr s \VIlIell (' V C I T '" '" ,n M ho u s e h o ld e r i s suppo s e d t o have II i s t h e n 11';Uls / ) ort c d to l uw swamp, pla c e s i n t h e o u t s kir t s o f t h e c iti e s w h e r e i t i s b UfIlcd. I lC a s he s heing a s a fill. I n t h e C an a l Z o n e i s lIs lI.dl.\' d e s tro ye d at incin e ratin g p lanls. I n P a nama and C olon t h e c o i ledi ull i s Ill de b,,'III(' health d \.'parlm c nt o f th e Canal Com mi s s i o n A l l th e s i re d s e wer nnd watc r imp ro\'em e nt:; i n th ese c iti es d o n e b y the e ng i n ee rin g d e p .utme n l o f the C owa! Commissi o n will b e p aid for h,v Ih e B.cpllh l i c of Panama f rom i t s w al e r !"ale s on t h e a mort i z a t i o n pl a n T h e m o n ey advance d by t h e L : nitcd St,lies. holtt *!1.JOO.OOO. i 10 he repaid i n 5 0 years rrom July 1. 1 90 7. hu l a l t h e Iwe s cnt rat c or p a y m ent. !'('ttlc m c nt will have b ee n made mu c h s oo n e r The illllge s in the Ca n a l Zone 1I10 n g t h e line o f t h e C; m a l wen: nol. so f i l th y a s Pana m a a nd Col o n hu t wcr e w i l h uut s ewc r alld w a leI' sys tems. th e n s e v e r a l r e se n o i r s ha\'(' bee n con s t r ucted, a nd a l l house .... arc c onnected wit h s cwc r s.\'s \ e m s ;\racad a m r oa d s h:t\c graduall.\ ]'cplac ed trai l s ; g :]rb a g e i s colle ct e d d ail.\ :Ind pro pc]I.\' di s po s e d of : g r ass a nd o t hcl' t!'Op i c \'cgc l a ti()Il i s k c pl. cui dowll in t h e \'u.:inil.\ of dwellin gs and wcll-kept g a r d e n s and hed g c s m a k e th e c on s t r u ct i o n v i lla g c s appear lik e m o d el lown s. S t ] iet s anit ar.\ ] 'cgulati o n s arc e nfor c e d in :l1llh e C a nal Z o n e lown s a s \\"ell a s i n th e citi c .-; uf Panama and Colon, and e n c h p la cc h a s i t s s an ila r ins pe c tor s or ins pe ct or. BESUL T S II,\\' E ,JU:S'I 'IFlEIJ TilE (,O S'I' W i t h clca nli l]ess alone. h o wcver, t h e hi gh :;i c k a n d d e a t h rat e cOlild no t be ma t el"iall y r cduct.'d The s u c c essf u l \Vat" o n t h e llIo'"'f[lIito, whic h w a s s ta r ted .-----------Along the coast a f e w miles f rom Panama C i ty, i s a Lepe r c o lony o f 2 4 persons. call e d Palo Seco. This i s the col o n y h o u s e and s u r roundi n gs. T h e leper s a r e w e ll t r eate d and have a ll t h e c r e atur e comfort s f u r n is h e d free b y t h e Govc rnmcni. a n d s pend a part of their ti m e growin g "cg f o r their own con s u mpti o n [ 89 I

PAGE 98

GI HE bAN-R Utl.ITED b,\' Colonel when th e e n ginee r's were husy cOlIs ll'llClin g water works and St-'W('I'S, h a s freed t h e I s thmu s of i t s reputation as a pe s t h o le, and has made i ts s ick and mo r ta l ity rate co mp a r e fa\'orab l y wilh cilles in the United St at es. or allY ol hel' parts of the c i vilized wodd. The following tabl es indicate the efl'cc tj,"cness of the p l'cvcnl i ,'c work of sanitat i o n Oil th e Isth mus: CO;\[I'.\H. \ ] '[v!': S T .\1'UIENT OF R .\TES A:uOXG CAX, \I... E:>.IP LOYF;S 0:\' T I H ; b'l'IDIl' 8 OF (1"1\,\;\1'\ L 'XDEH TIn: OBIGIX.\L FHE .... CIl CO:'IPAXY 1 88 L TilE Y E .\H T ilE : U .\xnru;\r .\"U,IIH: U OF E"IPI,OYES WEBE \YOHKIi\G, ,\SO Tin; A:\IEIHCAS ('0:\1.\1I55IOX, 1 904 '1'0 1 !1I2, )NeLL" S l n:. --_. A v('I'
PAGE 99

----: LAS "::---; -CAMACHO RESERVOIR -L ___ -P a nama. Colon a n d t h e town s i n the Canal Zone were without water main, or sewers in E ight reser-' o i n ha" c been bui ll a n d now Water i s plerlliful; sewers ramify Ihe eWes a n d t h e ooge is collecled daill' and burned. "lan y good roads have also been buill. a n d the Las S"Iy.mas road i s much used b y au t o m obile and horse ha c k riders. T h e Unit e d Statu advanced t h e money for this wor k b u t P an:am:a i s 10 1 ):lY i t ba c k inside o f 50 yean. [ 91 I

PAGE 100

On the M ount Hope Road hetween Cristobal and Galun is I\ l ounl H ope Cemetery, o nce known as Monkey H ill, wh('re tho usands of Frenc h C :lnal ('mployes, .. i ctims of yellow fever, lie burie d Under "merican supe rvisi o n the cem e t ery has b een greatly beautified, Each of its .. en' u es i s l i n e d with a diff('rcnt kind o f fruit tree, The \ illage was imm e di ately cl e aned and d i s inf ec t e d and a crllsade Hl?ain s l m t s, th e fic a s or whi c h a r c th e ('arr i c!'s o r buhoinc wa s s tarted, A 'rat" hri g ade WilS at 'o rk in P a n a ma ; rat t!'aps wcre i ss ued fr e e t o all pers o n s w h o w i s hed th e m and a ho un ty was pla ced on each rat dcli, 'e rcd to th e health rlepal'tmt'nt, 1 n addi tion to t hc prcn'ntin:' work dOlle h y th e J)('I):lrtm c lll o f Sanitatio n it maintain s Iwo larg c h ospitals one at Co l o n and th e ollc r at. An c on. and each i'ctllcmcut ha s a di s pe n s ary w i lh a p h,n;;ician in c harge The rc i s al so main t ain ed a large asyl um fflr 111(' insa n e at. ...-\neo n while at. Pal o Secn, II few mil e s ('ai't of Panama. thcr e i s a n asyl um for leper s The r c i s also 11 s anit,u'iulll o n Tallog:, I s land, aboul 1'2 mil es Ollt. in t h c Ih," of Panama, w h c r c COlwal csce nt whit c patients arc giv(,1l a wcek or m ore 1 0 ren e w feve r allli work-wom tis s u es Onc of Ihe m ost impol'lanl Ihin gs s ho w n h y Ihe SLlcces s of sanitary work o n ha s cxpre, .. s cd h,\' Gorg a s ,man,\' tim es. a s r ol,lows: 'i\allves In Ihe ll'oples wllh Ihe same s anll
PAGE 101

U iTED disp e n sa r ies. and qun r nntines lnlion s a t Cololl a nd P allama. c o s t i n g mo r e t hall hair of th e t o t al a m u unt. T o I hi s i s adU(."(1 the ('osl of s treet c leani n g ami ga rLa ge collttting. drain illg a m i reclaiming swamp land. the s alarici' of SOllll 1 5 chapl a i n s. th e ca r e of ce m cierie s and Ihl' carr,villg o n of : 1 general Ulltk rI n k i n g a nd cmha lmi n g bu s i ne ss. C)lolu 1 W lll'l) h e s aid t h ai i t i s w ithi n t he p o w e r o f th e peo p le of tropic C Olllltries 1 0 Ill' jus t :I. h ealth," a s 1!t0li(' ill till' t e m perat e zo ne s. f igu r es the a c t llal cos t o f $lI)i l a .. work 011 the I s thm u s 10 t h e A m e r i ca n G o \ crnmcill will be a l i ttle m o r t li mll a c enl a dn," pCI' capita. ha'icd 011 a populati o n of W U O U IIIGI I) Ql".\Ii.\:'\TIXF: :\UI:>iT\IXEI) S inc>(" J!)O k I ht. quaranl i n e on thc (5)lhmu.;; lia s bcen undcr \ IIIlri e a n conl ro l with s tali o n s Oil Col ol1. and o n CuklJrH 11!land Ilear Ihe P a c ific entrancc t o til e C : 1 n:11. ] n s p i l l' of th e fad I hal p oriI' O I l bot h sides of t h c I s thmus. IIMlh an d s o u t h of Col o n and Pana m a haw bec n inf {'c!(-d wi t h hulnlllie c h o l e l'a s m allp ox a w l .\'(:-1101\' f('n:'r the flll:ll':lllti n e h a s b e('11 s uC'('cs s rlll l r m,lin' tai lH'd A l l cmployes "I' t h e Comm issIOn arri v illJ..:' o n t he I sl h nltls Iran 1 0 s u b m i l 10 "aecinal i o l l \llliess t h ( y can show a "'Hr. Ship.;; Hl'r i"inl-' at tliC' I sthmus f r o m infedcd porls a I 'e I'equi re d to fulfi l l fia.,' s or quaran t ine from th e lime of t h eir depart u r e. E {'ullfior. where yello", fewr has Iwcn c lldemic s ince th e fir s t w hile man la nded on lilc wc,,1 {'oas t nf South .\lI1crica. a n d w here buboniC' p laguc has rece nll., gai lll'd a (001 11111(\. i., ahout four da.vs fo r f a s t ships. \ s shi p s at a n d unload w here they a r c i n dangl'r t)f i n fl'c tion i l i s IlCCl'SS'U. for I hcm 10 he hdorc they s ai l for l'allH m a. a n d i l i s a l so nt.'Ces,.;ary thai I h c peri od of quarant in e b e fulfill ed f rolll Ihe t i lll c o f s u c h fumif,{al i oll. Ship s t h e t rip in four days wou l d 11It.rd ore, h a yc to lay ill qUHJ'allline al Cukbra I s la11d hree days hdOl'c they coul d u n l oad their Cllrgo ;Inc! di s<"i'Hrgc pass('llgl' r s ,11 '\l1con [ ." [

PAGE 102

Island. 1 2 milcsout from \he mai n land, i n Panama Ba )'. I I i s n Ole d for ils sea bathin${, and ;15 ,);ncapples. The nalive secti o n is primitive and picturesllue and contains o n e of the oldU t church('s in this seclion. B allll)H. ]11 c a.->c n ship an'in's w hich ('annol show 11 certificate Ihnl 1\11 regulation s ha\"( h ecll properly co mplicJ w i th 1)('1',,1'(' I C:1\' illg GlIa,":lquil t h ell i t i s necessary that the fum i gate d on its arri\'al al Panama. and pa s s Ihrougli th e 7-cla," tlck-nlto!) period altha! POl'L. On lhc Atlanlic side. at the present tim e. s hip s from L a Cuail'a, Yenczuda. arc compelled 1 0 consume s even dn,'s. and from Ba rranquil1a. alld Cartage n a, they compel l e d 10 co n S llllle s ix day s from the time of s nili n g. \Yitb a rig id quarantine nt th e two port s o f the Canal, aud with the cfrecljvc work of th e sanitary ill!':pcelors kept up a s it hn s bee n ill the pa s t, it see m s improbable t hal a s eriolls epidemic of ye llow t'c\'er will e\'cr break out on th e I sthmus ngnin. T h e Canal Commission's Sanitarium o n Taboga I sland. wller e all sick while employes are 5(ln l 10 con\ a l esc(l. The employt's are given 30 days vacalion e a c h year, wilh full pay, and 3 0 days sick leave each year. when necessary. r .4 I

PAGE 103

the month of Septemher, the Canal force W;tS al i ts lowesl point, numbcringabout :jOO. I n :-\o, emhcr. l nOJ. th e force had been Increa s ed t o approx imatel y 17 .000, :Iud in .\"ovemh el'. ID06. it wa.i practi cally the s ame, The following tables s h ow th e high es t monthl y each 'ear s i nce 1006: 1 DOi-Octobe r ... ... 3 1 ,D6i I 908A pri!.. ......... liO 1 DOD-October .. .35.405 1 010 -:\1arch ", ... ,.38.6i6 lDll D ecemher ....... IDI'l -.\"O\"cmhcl" ....... 40 .130 I!J1 3 -:\I:trch ..... .. The Canal force rellched its highe:
PAGE 104

".---The old Frenc h Adminislr.llion IJuild inJ,l in Panama Cit)". used by Ihe American engin eer.!' their office headquarters durin g the first IWO ) 'car, o f C:mal conStru c tion. The AdminiSIr.lIion 8uildin1o:" al Culebr':l he prescnt enll:lnccrinJ( headquarters, conlaininJ,l the o ff;'; e of Colond Go.;,lhal.'1l The h cad(IUanCrs will be cha"J,(cd to Halboa a s soon as the new ad. minislr:uion huildlnlo: which is now heinl: ereCled t l >l're, ill com illeled. { !I(; J

PAGE 105

ITED considembly, the s k i l le d me c hanics about S O p CI' eel'll. during the ,,' c ar' WIO, aud tha i o f the a dmini s trative employes ab(lUI p er cent. During the year s rec ru i tin g oHice s wer e o p e ned in Europe. th e \\'cst In die s and in the Lnited S lates, ;.l nd IllCII t'clwc scntiug nearl," en,'l'y nati o n ality w('re b r o u g ht to the isthmus under contract with th e Coml lli ",doll. :\'carly all the s upcl'vi-;ory pos i t i o n s. and th e p ositiolls I'('qll irirlg ski l led lahor. al'e filled I)y Americans rhe s e include the m echanics. C:lIvcn!C I'S. piumhc[ s show1 e n gi neers and crancmc n, [oco m o l i, 'c clIginccr s railroa d con dndor s f ir e m en, p olice m en. ci\'; 1 engin ee r s cle rk s. doctors, se h ooi (('.1( :11('1''; etc. The cle r i cal force. drafts men, doct o r s and nurs es arc includcd in the da,.;;si fied c:i\'il SCl'\' i c e l)lIt all other po s itio n s arc excepted from (' ;vil s c n ice r('quireillents The ("01ll1ll01J and un s killed laborer s r epre sent ncarl,\' (-'\'('1',\' nationality. The parI. 1 .. Colonel Goelhal's mO lor car, commonl y known as Ihe --Yellow P e ril from i t s col o r : also a s Ihe '"Brain \"agon." Se"era] o f Ihese c ars have heen s hipp e d 10 t h e Isthmus, and arc uSl.'d by the officials in inspecting Ihe different paris of the work. h owe\'cr, Me ne g r oes fl'Om th e W e s t I ndi es: thc I taliall'5 and Gl'eck s fOl"m th e g r eater part of the European labor force, During t h e yeal 's there were rccl"uilc-d in Europe laborers 8.200 of w hi c h w e r e Spaniards '.2.000 ( Iillian:-; and I.IUU Grcffis. The s e men were ohtained u nd e r conlract, a n d wcre promi'icd free qual'l e rs and employ m e n t al 2 0 cents an h Ollr 1'01' a s l o n g a s th e c a nal work :-;hould la'll. Th(' i r passage money w[ts ad\':mced to them, and w a s d e du("\('d fmm Iheir m on thl.\' pay, so t hat out of a tolal cos t of f o r rec r uiti n g Europ('ans. all but $ 1 00.000 w a s retul"Il e d fr o m th e laborers' wages. H ec r uitin::t ('('ased in Europe in 1 008, a s t h e sup\ ) l y?f !abol con stant throu g h ?f thos e 011 the l Slhmus wh o, H I VlIlg' learned at th e fav o rahl e wo r klll g eOllcilil ollS, came seekin g e mplo,\'mcnt of t h e i r own \ o l iti o n. Those who did not c O llle under [ 97 J

PAGE 106

The Admi n i smllion Buil d i n g at Ancon, containing v a r ious o ffices, including tnose of tne Sec r e tary o f the Commissi o n and Ine n e atls o f Ine D eparlmenlS of C i v il Atlministra li o n S a n il :l1ion a n d Law, T h e D i v isio n EnJo:ineer s offi c e a t C a t u n C alun i s the engi neering headquarlers for the AI I a n li e w hich embraces I h e e o n S lrU C li o n from dee p wate r in lhe Caribbean Sea 1 0 inclutle I h c Catun Lock s antl Dam. I 08 I

PAGE 107

contmct were p aid 16 ccnts an hour f()] three month" ami we r e then rai se d II) 20 cents an houl" if t heir work had Occn sati ... faclon', J alJor c r s ol)l;.ined under contract w ill be r(' patrialed 'It tIle expcns<, (If tIle Commissiun. uut Ill eir Ilulnbt.'r wilillol be large a s, undoubted!.\ many o f lIwm will (ind work elsew here. The of lahorers in the W est J ndie s wa s carri cd 011 seve ral ye a rs after i t had ceased ill EuJ'Opc the last importation uf ncg:mc.s fnlln Barlmdos IHl\'ing taken p lace ill .Januar,\ and F clll'llar'y of IDI3. The hl\:d IlUlnbcl' of ,,'cst ] !lei ia liS J'ccl'lli l cd r cached 30.6 I!) a I. I he end of I!) 12. Of I h i s l o la 1. WAH \\'ere brought from B ;u"hados. 3 .. H2 fro m :\Iartilliqllc 2.0.;;) from Guadelollpt.'. from Trinidnd, and th e balance disirillllted among the olil('r i,.l:ll1d s of the e s t Indies" H ccruiting of laborers wns 1101 allowed in Jamaica arkr 100J, in which "\"ear 4i had been Lrought to tILe b lhmllS under contrad. "\1-Colon e l Goeth
PAGE 108

The Y M C. A. Clubhouse aI G :lIun. The .... nt early discovered that t o keep the C nll ) l o y e:'l contente d they mus t be gi\'cn amus e m ent; accordingly seven clubhouses were erected which are n o w IIclf-IIu s t :lin:ng. They are conducted under the auspices of Ihe Y M C, A., but al o nl{ broader lines th:1n else w here. They furni5 h a(lr:lCI;Ve places for the men 10 congregate, and th e S Oci al work con s i sts of entertainm ents brought from the States, as well as local dramatic mus ; c :ll, minstrel and vaudeville productions. [ 100 [

PAGE 109

ITED pro\'ided. Free Imllilporlatioll i s a l s o new empl oyes frolll th e 1"nitcd :-italc s a nd also 011 their rdum after h,l\'ing c()lllpl\'\(:,d two yca r s of s ati sfadory ,.,crdcc on the 1 s thmus. On t h eir va ca lion lean', the emplo., cs a r c grall!l'" a I'educed fatc 011 the variou s lines fnulling' IJdwccll the isthmll s anti t he L"nitcd Sill i es. On Iht' l'anal1w r'ailroad stl'lIll1s liip s the employes' rat .. j." $QO Dill' way for those appoil11cd prior to Janltal'," I IBO!); for cmployc..'s appointed after Ihat dalc, the raie i s $30; th e regular rate i s from lii7j tu :!S!)O frolll Col o n t o :\ew York. The problem of Illninlainin g a constant force of Am ericans was not so lnd. h owever. until menu s were rOllnd to kCl'P it a s IIcarl." contented a s T o do this. it wa s thougbt to cncourag'-' t o hriuf: tllt'il Owinl>( t o the of buildint.: 011 the side of the hHl at Ancon. man)' s l eps are retat(' (If blessedncss. hul 1I('
PAGE 110

medal awarde d while employe!! o n Ih.:-"Gold R o ll for l onl': service. The m e d:l l ;s f o r two ye:lrs continuo u s service and for each addilional IWO years:l bar is earned. The idea Wa!! by ex-President Roosevelt during his v isit w the I s thmus i n 1906, \\"i.i('h ('a s t'. tlt ey <1"(' compcll e d to rent outs ide r oom s whic h IIrc ex pen s ive and ill no \\";1)' ('ornpa r c wilh th e c omfo l lahlt Commi ssio n q u a rt e rs. Fami l \ qllarters arc g r adcd acco rd i n g t o t h c si:t.c o r an e mpl oyc's salary s o much floor s pa ce to c ach :i;IUO h e carn s 01' f r ac ti on th ercor. Employes I'(' ct i\'ing $ 2 00. ul' o\ er. a r e Olss i g ned whe r e po ss ible. to o n e-fa mi l y hous e s ; tho s e re c ei\ 'ing l ess a r c qUlIrlt'l'eci in two and fOIlI-r amil y bou s e s The quarters ':ni I y a nel ha c h e lor include a II 11m 1 tel' of t t ypes ted a s Type I I or I y p e 1 8. a s the cOlse may l>c, and wcre I nilit f rom s pe c ial d e S ign s t o m a k e th e m s uit able f o r r eside nc e in the tropi cs The l 'OOIllS a l e uniforml y well \enlila t ed. and th e re i s ple n'" of v Cl'anda spac e C h a ir s table s bed s cook s l o \ t e refrigerator. bureOlu, c ) l i fi"oni er. s i debo1.lrd mattresses mats, e tc., arc suppl ied f r e e ; b e d l i n e n and kitc h e n ut t n sils mu s t he obtained b y th e occupant. The hachclor employ e ha s ( o ntended and po ss ihl y w i th somc g rollnd s, tbat h e ha s b ccl! s h o\\'u le ss co n ..;;ielc ra tioll thall the married e mp l oye, The h 3vc Ihis buildin;.: 1 0 themselves, c311e d the Nurses' Home. al Ancon Hospital I IO:? I

PAGE 111

Eac h Zone selliement has buildings for bachelors comme n surate wilh the f orce Q uartered there. furnished free by the G o v e rnment This type o f quarters con t a i n s 24 rooms. with two men assigned to e3ch Frankly. the bach e l o r employe does n o t have the privileges his marrie d friend h as, s till he manage s t o g e t alon g preuy well. as evide nced by the int e rior of h i s quart e rs.

PAGE 112

C j 1'.E bM-D :;;;;,'-StLH E 11 ITED I n mo s t cases, h e mu s t s ha r e hi s room with anot h er, and there has been times when three were placed in one s ma l l room. On the o lher hand, although h e prooabJ,\ will no t admi t ii, the bachelor employe ha s bee n g reatl y L e n efiled b y the p l"cscn c e of women and childre n ill t h e variolls con s truct i o n cnm ps. It has he e n figured thai hachelor Jabor cos ts less than thal of married labo r laking' into considcl'Mi on th e quarter s a ss igned allowan ce for f uel, lig ht, water, care of ground s alld janitor s erv i ce. ..-\ comparis on follow s : Quarters FUl'Iliturc PL. \ N T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single $.300 00 '15.00 Tolal . . .. . .. .. .. .. :'\l al'l'icd $ 1 ,8 00.00 140 00 $ 1 ,0 40.00 $525.00 \IO .... TIILY COST O F ,\LLO\\'.\XC'ES Fuel (coal ancl k illdlin::)'.. .................. I ,i!,!hl ., ....... 6." '." ... .. ... ,. W ;\tc r .. ........ ...................... Di s tillcd Wall'l' ............ .. ..... ". .. .. Car 'c of groll nd ... I'cI1H1\' al (,I' ga rhage. ...... Janit o r service ....... ............... .... r o ta I ......... .... ....... "" $ + :lO L '!O I RO -. ::;0 I '20 $ 12.00 ....... .30 .45 1 0 1 5 I .. a s i x years scn' ice a married mall llIa y be s ai d to r epresent a n ex p enditure of and a s in g l e employc $ 7 : ) 0. I n nddi tioll t o t h e above, t.he marrie d man also r ece ives the benefit for h i s childre n of an exccllent .<:choo l s vstem, Thi s increa sed cos t .. hQwever i s suppose d to be onse l by t h e s tahil i t y of the married foree Tire v i sitor to the I sthmus i s ( I uiek to nole tlrat h c i s ill a IICW atmos p h ere. The bringing together o f p e opl e from e"er," part or the LlIitc d Slates, a n d t h e c'! n sc (\u.cnt i ntel'cl.:II.1g'e of idea s has g l \'e H JU,tlr to a splnt of tol crance, of a broad e n ing of the m ind, and has led to t h e aballllolllllent in a large measure of narrow-m inded prejudice.'iembod ied in t h c s elf i s h thou ght that wa r i s W r igh t yours i s b ound t o bc wrong," n I'Ilt that peopl c in s mall commun itie s in the States ;lrc s o p ronc to fall i ll to. To further th e feeling of contentmen t and t o make of the C a n al Zone a tran s p la l lt c d Americ an community, churches and sc hool s were organized. Churc h work was auth orized L, the Commiss ion on October 4, I DO:), 'i'here M enllX'r5 o f the Ancon Study Club arc abollt 40 churc h bui ldings in the [ JO.j J

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I ---A Co"'Y H o m e i n the Canal Zon e. Marr ie d quarten arc furn is hed free by the Government, and fuel. lilo:h l and WIlier $uPI licd wilho" c h arlZe. A ,sill: nmenl S for I l 1Ia 'len arc m:ul e b y t h e
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ZOI1(" rcpr'ciOcn l i nrr nead y every Chri stian d e n omina t io n The greate r p n r l of th es e oWlle d In t h c liOthrn i a l l Can a l Commissi o n w h i c h ha s ill its e m p l o y len dlllpla i n I'c ill 'c s cnting s i x d i f rl..'l'c n \ dCllomioalions It h a s b C(,1I t h e p(llicy o f th e C o m m i ss i o n 1 0 e n co ura ge churc h wor k and i t g ra n t e d lan d alld s o l d hu ild i n g m a teri a l at cos t 1'0 1 c h u r c h b u ildi ng s R e l i g i o u s s e r v i ces arc als u held i ll t h e C o mmi s sion clubh o u s es a n d lodge ha H s The re a r c six Commis s ion cl u h h Olls t S olle eac h a t C oro;;;al, Culebra, Ern pirf' C r i s tobal. Gatu n. a mi I'orl o Be llo. The o n e w hi c h w a s at Gorgo n a wil l h e fe-e r cdecl a l P c dl'O )Iig uel. a nd a c luh h o u se o f a p e rmane n t t y p e i s p ropo s e d for th e lIew town u f Balboa. Thcs c cl u bh o u s es wer e co n stru cted :Hlt l eqnipI) c d h y t h e COlllm i s s i o n a n d arc conduc t e d h y t ra incd s ec r e t ari es "ppoi nt.c J ).\. the I n t cl'nati o n a l C ommi tt ec of t h c Y :\1. C. A Thc w o rk w a s --, -Mea llime a l a Governm ent k it c h e n for n el:ro lab o r ers. T h e negroes a r e served three rations a day a l l otal COSI o f 2 7 c e n ts. plalllled t o l1I('c t t h e n e cd s o f th e m c n m o r ally. c ducn tion all.\'. : mel p h y s i c ally and t o this cn d rea ding: ]oom s h ow l i n g. poo l and billi a rd mom s g,nnnas i ulIl ( la sses educ atio n a l cl:l.' lses c h ess. c h ec k e r. d r a ma t i c cl u h s. etc., arc main laine d b y thcl11. A l l w hit e l'lllp l o.\'cs are c l i g ible t o m embc r ship u pon th e p a y ment of 111(' !'cgular m e m be r ship d l l C S o f $ 1 0 I)C] annUJll. Thc d e s ir e for mu s i c was a l s o r<-'Co gnize d )y thc Comm i ss i o n a nd unt i l i\l a!' e h I. i l m ai n taine d a fir s tclass h and o f S 5 picces T h e m e m b e r s w e re all e m p l oye s, and t hc.\' r cceivc d a d dil i o n a l p a y for th e ir s c n i c e s T h e 1 ) :Ind \\:as fin ;!. org anized in S e pt e m b e r 1 DO,i ; I S a o r g ani za t i o n. :.mel th c COIllIllISSI OIl t ook o\' e r lis mamte n allce o n i\lan'] 2 /, lnQ7, Co n ce r t s were g i\ 'cn wcekl, \ ill tllC difl' c r e n l t ow n s in th e C n n a l Zone. 1\'eal"l.\ e n'-!'." con s ll u c l ioll v i llage i n thc Z o n e has a Commiss ion b ui l di n g whi e h i s de\'ole d t o t h e u sc of f l al ental or
PAGE 115

T ypical camp for E uropean bOOren. There are separale camps f o r each class of employes, and the American section o f a Can al Zone town i s e ntirel y by itself L --Inlerior of a blink hOLlse f o r m J.'TO laOOr e n The m e n s leep on Standee beTlhs, arranged in parallel rows, i n three liers. I 107 1

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The lo d ge hall s arc a ss igned free of charge for weekl y lllC<'ting s, and arc
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Lodge h all a! Las Casc at.las, All t h e lcading secret socie t ies ar.:: repr esented in the Canal Zone, and lodge halls ha\' e heen erecled fo r Iheir use by the Government. No rental i s eltact e d The Zone has also a federation of women's clubs. -IlI= R e :ld i n g room il\ Ihe Unh'ersil Y Club, a .. a m a City, T h e U nivenlity Club :ln d the SIr:lngenl' C l u b in Col o n d o n o t confine Iheir membership 10 GO>'ernmelll employe,. [ 10 0 J

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empl oyc s who e nt erc d the s e r v i cc i n the ve al' 1 90 4 An o th e r i s calle d th e S o ciety of th e Chagres and i s compos ed of mcn w llO havc s ce n s i x ycars o f s prv i cc A t hird s oci e h has l"Ccentl y Ile e n knowll a s th e A ss oci :dion o f Panama Ca n al Bui lder s to which any g old employe m ay belo n g. A lunch hour scene :1\ shops, before they were destroyed to avoid inundatio n by the rise o f Ga!un lake. All g o l d employ e s w h o h;w e s crn.'d two years unde r th e Canal Commis s ion are entit l e d to a m e d al. This sou\' e nir i s thc outco m e o f the thoughtfulnes s of ex-Pre side nt R o o se\ clt, w h o jus t bdore h e s a i led from th e I sthmu s o n .\"o\' eJllh c r I i IDOl), said: .. j s h all s ec if i t i s not p o ss ible to provide for so m e l ittl e IlIcmori d s om e ll111rk some bad gc w h i c h will :llwtl.\'s di s t ingu i s h th e man w h o f o r n c el"lain s pa c e of time has don e hi s work well o n the Is th mu s, jll s t a s th e l Hlllon of th e Grand Arm." di s tin guis h e s th e man w h o d i d his work well i n t h e C i, i l War." The m edal i s of o n e and o n ehalf inc h e s in diameter, and i s mad e from I ml ss, copper, ;Hld li n ta k e n f r o m old Fre n ch s c rap. On th e revcrse s ide i s a bu s t p o rtrait o f expre s i d e nt R oo s('\ elt with Labor !min arrivin g at dry dock Cristobal. A great many employes live at a diStan Ce from their work und arc to a n d from their homes i n labor trains. [ 110 I

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s pace underncn t h for the sen'i ce record and :lI'ou nd the I im the word s "For two years' continuous service 011 th e Panama Callal." On the o bver se i s a p icture of Culebrn Cut w i th sh ips passing through. the Se:l l of the C anal Zone. a llalHe plate, and t h c wor d s "pres ented hy th e Pres i dent of th e Cnit e d :-5lale:<." -_ .... Inlerior of Mount Hope printing p lan!. The majority of the Commission's printing. including The Canal R .. cor .... i s done here. cut into t he r im. A bar i s awarded for ea c h two n'ars additional sen ice. :It ld t here a r e e mpl oyes who h a,"c cal'llcd not ollly the ;lledal hut three hars a s well. The mcoa l s arc mad c at the Philadelphia mint, ;111(1 arc d i s tribut e d y earl y, d upl i cates are i ss ued, The Cal/al flecord. publi s h e d weekl,\ under the superv i s ion of the C anal Commi ss ion contain s 11 of the progrc ss of c anal WI)I'k. official cir c ular):. s o c ial and c h urch note s, e tc. It i s di s tributed free to all gold cmployes of the Commis.sion and the Panama railroad: i n facio :
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, I The Hotel T;"ol; at Ancon. a picture familiar 10 a nyone who has been on the Isthmus. It i s the principal I'l3ce for lOuris t s, and i s owne d :md manage d by the Unite d States Governmen t. Lobby of the Hotel Tivo l i. One o f the hotel', first guests was ex-Pres i d ent Roose, -clt, and t h e suite h e occupied i s known as Ihe Presid e ll!" suite. (II:,?]

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ested in t hc cons tru c t ion o f the canal in all parts of the globe. Tt i .. pri nted at t h e Cnnal Commission's printing' p l ant a t :'I! ollnt HupC', and i s llllder the dil 'ec lio n of th e o f thc Commi s sion :'lIt, J o scph B u c k liu B ishop, FEEDIXC; AX!) C LOTHIXG THE C \ X .\L ,\Ion' I t is es tim ated t h at w ith c lll\ ) loyes and tiLeir d cpt-mit'n t.;; 111( '1X' wer c ahou t 65,000 pe r so n s d e /)cndin g up on tIC C anal and Panama rail mad wOIk for tlieir sou r ce of income ( u ring t h c h eigh I of act i"il ,", an d t lic..;e p cople h ad 10 h e SII PI'I ied d aily w i t h food clot hin g and o l hc r necc ss a ries It was eal'1,\' reali z cd thai the dema!ld for food ilne! clothing could lIot he s a t i s facto ril, fi ll{'d fr o m Il)cal 'l OU rc('<;, for prices ad va nce d stead i l y a <; I he dema lid i n c r('a s ('d, so (he :-)u 1,s iz.tcnc e J)( 'pa 1'1-ment w a s crea t ed. This d e partmcnt i s dividcd i nto two L r an dlCs ('o mmi.c;sary Commissary :11 Cristobal oldest a n d on Ihe Islbmus. This was O l e rali.'d b)' Ihe I'an' am3 nil road for t h e benefi t o f i ls enlplo) l's before Ihe Uni l e d Slat e s a cquiro.'d the road, A com m issar y Inin m a kes an earl y mor ni nl(' daily run acros s the I Slhmus dislribut i n;:-suppli e s 10 Ihe branch commissaries. a nd ho l el. r he f i r s t COlllllliss:II"\' s lMe was 1lI Col o n ,Uld was lllaint"ined h v th e P anama H aill'Oad COlllp an,' : for t h e hC'nefil o f its c mplo y<',-;:, The c o ni Illissan' divi'lion dews a llcc d {'partlllent'l :11' C 1)II1'{ ha s ed i n t he I nit('(\ :-;Iatc s 10 per ('('nt. ill E uro p e and fiv(' pCI' cenl. in Pa1'1;un. 11wn's nnd women's clothing' gro('('r i ( ''i l1Ie:lls. \'(' g etahle s :lIId f ru i t s arc s u ppl i ed, I n add il i o n to I he reta il s lore s, c old s tonlge. i c c I\\a kin g, c ofr e c [ [13 1

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Public marke t a l C u l c bra.. These market s ::lre located i n man )' of the Zone town s, w h e r e the tropical fmils :Inti v e g e tables may be obtained. I c e and cold slOrage p lant, Cristobal. Ice is sol d a l 40 cents per 1 00 pounds, and cold stonge articles are c h eaper, in many instances. t h :," t hey a r e in t hi s cou ntry from w hich t hey arc i m ported. T h i s i s largely due t o the syst e m o f buyin g i n bulk and, i n t h e case o f mealS. 10 the p lacin g of contrac ts. [ 11 1

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set. UB,ITED roa s tin g, ic e c r eam a nd laundry plants, a nd a bakery arc operated at C r i s t ohal. From thi s point :L su ppl y (.'ain, partly composed of refrigerat o r cars, c r osses t h e I sthmus eac h mornin g. s toppin g at the dif ferent s t ation s along the line where i cc, meats, and other perish abl e art i cle s arc delivered. These goo d s arc th e n di str ibuted to t h e hOLises of employes and to th e mess halls and branch commissari es by th e Quartcl'm
PAGE 124

The CommiSSion laundry at C ristob a l I t is e
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meat alld 9i6, H J pound s of cured and pickled meals w(,l"e brought to th e l s lblllllS. B y printing 333,6.38 pounds of ;l total of Hi,6S:3 pounds uf 1)\1t1el' bought, the cO;lIInis:-;ary w a s able to sa\"c ill tllC price alld al. .. o prescnl i t for sale ill a much belle!' con di t i on t h a n when purchased in thcCllitcd Slates alt 'cady printed. : nlC l )ri c e of was ::':',VI.: d b.\' thc cOlHmi oper at ing. i ts own J'oastlll" I ) alit. I n t ill S plant puunds of gn' c lI c ollee, prodllcmg 280,tlO!) ., of roasted c(Jircc ha ve bct'll tumed out in a year. The icc plant, with a clll 1aci ly of IOU tOIlS : l day, d('li\ 'cl's icc j'1)l' W cc u ts a hundre d we i ght. 01' paull( s of ice dcli\'c r cd at the c mp[o,n;os' duo!' fur eight ce nt s. .\nothcl' i n s tance of cfrcc\i\'c manufacture ami wa s th e operation of the btl ker,'" wh ieh during ;t si n g l e yea r u sed 2U, '2JJ ba rrel s of fllHlr prod ll<:ing O U -- The princip a l street in Gorll'ona, T h is was one of the larlo('es t towns in Ihe Canal bOIl the b u ildings ha\' e a ll been -removetl a s Ih e Walen of G:lIun Lake will cover the site. (i07 loa ves of b l'ead, (j,3i ,8 H roll s : Hld pounds of cake. Each loaf 01' bread weighs 1(j ounces and cos t s the eOIlSlllllCl' three C('nls I n addition, Ihe baker), enah le s th e employe 10 purchas e strictly fresh hread, cakes :lJ1(ll"lllls which he wou l d othcrwise noL he able 10 ohtain, The ,\mericans o n Ihe ZOlle arc great ice c r cam caler s I'm;l tota l of 1 38" j ,j \ gal lon s "alued at $ IIO,!lO:U.iS were <:ollslIllled in a s i ngle ,,'cal' '],hc icc crealll whic,h i s sold for 2.3 cents a as g?od a s obtai,ned milk cream being imported from 11e llilted Slat e s, 111 I'cll' lgCl'atJOII, for Its manulacture, 1 n the industrial and experimental laboratnry maintained th e com m i ssn r,r. exll'acl s talcum powder, soap wit c h haz(,I, hydl'Og( 'li peroxide, ba,\ rum, tooth powdcr, to i let p r c p :lt'u tion s or \'ariOIiS kinds are IlHlllufaclUl' c d ami so ld to the employes al a con s iderahle s a\'illg in cost. Thc experimental r I I 7 1

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Tennis COIITl, Ancon. T ennis is:l f:lvorite pastime and tOUTn:lments a r e h eld frequently. Open in!: !:ame Athletic P:lr k Empire The national gam e has held sway each dry season with :It le:lst o n e l e a g u e made up o f four o r m o r e dubs. J i eld meet s are a lso held occasion a lly. -- -T here :Ire severnl el
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CI HE b&-R PEUlliITE D d cpartmcilt i s ma i n t a i n e d t o inf;ur c the ql1al i ty o f all the goo d s so l d i ll t h e stor es. The r e a r c t h.,cc cla ss e s o f h olds a m i messe s m ai nt aine d w h ere the labo r for ce i s f e d o n e for t h e whil e \ mc r icnn e mploye s where mea l s are s erved a l 30 ce n l s e a c h o n e in whic h S p anis h lahore r s arc scl'n;, d three meal s for .. J.O CI 'lIls, and o n e w h e r e ncg r o lab ore r s a r c s C I Tcd three meal s for 27 ce nt s T he fOiX I i n all th r ee cases i s goo d n nd w h oic s olllc. T he ml'al s se r ved i n the Amt.'ri can h o t e l s. o r m e ss hall s nrc rat h e r t han dainl\' bUl cOlll d hardh' h e duplicate d i n th cCni tcd S i a i e s foJ' d o ulJJc th e p r i c e ci, a r g cd. A 1tho ugl{ th e lab o t'crs' messes s e r ve w h o l eso me foo d \'cr.\' chea ply t he greatcr pa r t o f the. S p :Uli a r d s I w efe l l o ca t :ll l h e liW e re s taurants nwinlaincd n car the COI1.':lrudioll camps t h e i r f el/ow cOUll lrynH'11. The sam c has b e e n t r ue o f t h c negroe s The residenc e section a t Gat u n The three great twi n lock s near the Atlan tic entrance of the C a n a l are l oca'l'"d here. w h o Iwd m u c h rather live i n lit e bu s h 01" in t h e cit i es of P an:lllW and ('olo n w he r e they a r c l e ss r e s t r i c t e d D u r i n g a s in g l e y ea r t h e tolnl numher of mc a l s scncd ill tlte ho t el s w a s the total nUlll be l of ration s s t.'ncd in .Europcnll lahol"c l s' me:;:ses was 1 1 0 8 li.5 a n d t h c total Iltlmhcr of rat io n s :-cl"\"(:>(1 in t hc negr o m esses w a s TilE (".\;\",\1, ZO;\" E T h e C nn n l Z o n c (\o ('s not com c u n der the Constituti o n of the l ni ted S t a l es. bUl i s gO\' e m e d h y ol"der s m ade h y thc P re s idc u t 0[ the Sec r e t a r y of '\"al", und laws e s pecial l y en;l<:ie d by ... s ollicial se al he a r s Ihe mollo. ;' T h e L a nd D i, i de d T hc \\"orl d l ni t cf l and c(J[u: i ... l s of a s hi(ld s howing in ba s e a Spani s h galleon of t he fl f t t'C t l t h cc ntury u nder fnll ... a i l cOJUillf! head 011 be t w e e n t wo hi gb uall k s, all purpure, th e s k y yellow w i l h t h e glow of s Ullse t ; [ 1" I

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A v ie w o f I h e lown of Culebra from M o unt Zion a s it appeared several ) eafS The b uildings 10 the r i l::hl along the edge o f the Callal have all be e n removed on account o f the s lides at Ih i s pOinl A group of four-family h ouses for American married employes, Empire. Large ver andas are built on each s id e of the houses and all are screened. [ 120 ]

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i n t h e chief are the colors of t h e arm:;; ot' the t'nited States. Cnder Ihe s h ield i s t h e m o ll o It was adoptcd i n J!)UG aftcr a t k..;ign (ll" Tifi"nn y & Co. Up 1 0 Septemher I I!JU.J., t h e :,ix Illunic i pal di:;l riel s ill which the ( 'rma l Zone was di"idecl were governed ullder the laws of P :m:tllla. Oil the lalter date. t h e Can, d CtlilIrniss i o n h." la w crcated fi\"c mlmi('ipal district:-. each with a mayor, ilIunic i p a l COlln c i L se cret a ry alld treaSlltlt. T he sc fin, IllLllli(ipal d is tricts were tboli s h ed A p r i l 15. lfJ07 alltl fOil]" administraliw d i strids Wl'I'e c r eated. Oil :\o\"cmhcr 1 7. lfJOO. the O e p a l tllH'nt ot' :-:anitatioll wn.-; separatcd rro m t h e GO"cr nmenl or the Calla I Zone. and tlte I
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School for while c hi l dren a l Emllir". Tweh' whil e m d f i f leen c O lored s c hools are mai n '''ined. T h e w h i l e schools are i n charj.!e o f wom e n from t h e U n ited Siales: the colo r e d schools arc lau g h t b y mal e \Vest I n d i ,ms, Ancon high school class, lerm o f 191 2-1J. There a r e IWO high school s l o r adv a nced sch olars. I 122 1

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hranch a Supreme Co urt: ,t1,ln'C Croll!"ls. fou r DIstrict COllrt s. ep to J ul,\' If;, J!)I !I. the Dm';l011 01 lubhc \\ urk.s. w l m : h had i n c harge thc maintenance of sIred;;, r oad", Irai] waleI' wo rks and S(:\\'(,I''; in t he Canal Zone and in the cities of l'an,lIna and Colon. and alsu the publ i c markets in the Zone, wa s m ade a pari of thi s dl'parlmcnL On th e tatter dale, i t becallle Illt'rgcd with the newl, \' ('.-caled IJi \'i .;ion of : H un icipal un der the office of the Chid' Eng i nccr. TIlE PQ:';T.\L SEB"JCE The Di\ i s i on of Po s ts. Cus tom.>; and Ill'VClIllC';, as it" name implies, 11<1.<; c h a r ge of all po st-of fice s in t h e CHllal Zone the cll s t o m s SCI'ViCl' al t h e purl s of POSt Office :u Ancon. Seventeen OfficC8 h:mdl e the Canal Zone Itt:!i l Postal Ibnks are eslablished i n all bUI one o f Ihem. Allcon and Cristobal. and the collection of taxes all(lli cense fces. I t a l s o look s after t h c adminis tration of the o)f decea s ed ami in sa ne emplo.vl's of tlu' COlllm issi o n and Panama H lIilroad Com pan., The 110s lal serviee "'liS inaugurated all June
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these were replace d by th e P a n a m anian s tamp s llrc h al'O'ed "Can a l Zun e, in u se at t be pre se n t time. D o m e s tic wtes of po s t. w e a lwa,\,s applied between the C.mal Zone a n d t he Uni ted Sta l es, and f O l?this r e:lso n tIle po s tage stamps arc pu rc h a se d f r o m P a nama a t (.0 pCI' ccnl of th eil' face value Zon e pcnilen lia r y. This was formerly locat e d al Cul e b r:l, but was removed a l o n g with m a n y other buildings, o n : ICCount of the slides. The offenden ;n t h e Can a l Zon e a r e kept b usy buil d ing roads. to make up t h e diffe r e n ce i n t h e ra t es of the two co u ntr i es, t h ose in Pana m a IX'i n g slig htl." high er. POST .\!. s .\nXGS B \:-
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ITED $3.9 17.890,:10 was payable in th e C n ilcd Slale.; and for e i gn countri e s :lnd orders amountin g 10 $!)6.j.7'!-J..S:) \w're /)(I, \ al)le ill the Zonc. Parcel s po s t has III I! yet been inlro{ Lll'l'd. alld there are no \cttcrcarricr.;and, in the s e n o-spects only. i s the Canal Zone i'iyslcm I J('hilJd th e sen' iec ill th e United SIMe s. A COllnt of t he m:iil matter l'c('e i n d and di..;patd r c d or hand led in lransit on th e C'lnai 7.\'11(' tIle month of .\ug'us t. I!JI'1. s h u w e d thai 30 pCI' cenl uf the total was omeial lIlatter. lOSt: (T:)T O)]1'i f<.1:UVlCE The !'enje(' of the Zon e includt,.; the t'nll'.'" :Hld ('\ (' al"an('(' of :lIthe Iwo porls .. \ncoll and C r i stohal. the s i gn in g ()11 ;IIlc s for m e d a large part of thc ill 1('!'lIa I rcvenues of t he Z o n e, On tltal date t h e Can:1 1 Z o n e w('nl "dr\''' in i l ceorda r l('t' with an ordl'1' o f th e Commission, ali(I : U s aloon s wen l oul (Ii' hll.<:ines$. rite "squad of Zone I>olicemen, The officers amI firs t cl3SS arC Americans, most of whom have secn scr vic<, in the war, The ordinaf)' 1 )()liccm c n :Ire r 12,j, 1

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Central fire station :11 C ri s t obal. Fire station s are main mined at a ll important points. t heir size a n d elluipment dependin1{ o n the a m o unt of prOI'Crt y 1 0 he protected. Can a l Zone aut omobile fire en1{ine. The department i s equipped wilh two, one stationed at C ri s lolY.ll :lIld the other at Ancon. [ 1 26 I

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l icen se fee was $ 1 ,200, On January 1 the di s t illat ion of li('plOr and the manufacture of rllm upo n whic h taxes h a d been le"ied \\'a" pl'OllIh ilcd in th e Canal Zo n e I)\' Exec utIve Orde r The ta xes 1I0W include ;L real es late rental la x, and l i cen se fccs, Fill cs and cos ts also cOlls tilule a SOUI'Ct' of rC\'CIIUe, DllI'ill g the year, .!II lea ses for agri cullural land a m i IJuildin,g lut s nol co\'e r e d b y revocabl e lice n ses \\'cl'e cancelled, A s th e depopulalton of the Cn nill Zone has becn carried on du!'in g the paslyear, the a mount d e r i"ed frotH l i(.'Cn s c fees has nalurall,Y decr e a sed, The tolal ]'e\'CIllICS for the year endi llg June 30, l!) amounted to *"!S3,S W ,3 I :\ 11 funcl;; thus collect e d arc e xpende d for local purposcs, The rc,' c nucs received f rom th e p o s tal sen'ic<.' are applie d to th e maintenance of that sen'ice and other fUlld s arc lIsed f o r Ihe suppo!'t of -A Iypical pay day scene, Pay days occur once a m onlh and Ihe dales range from Ihe firsl 10 I h e Iwelflh, 'Vhite American el"ployes are k nown Gol d Employes, and all Olhcr.s as Silve r Employe s, All are identified by the numbers on th('ir m('tal chcck 9 th e public school sy s t e m, a nd f o r th e constructi o n aud maint e nancc of public works KI':EPIXG OBDEI( The D ivision of Police and wa s o r ganir.cd on June 2, 1 904, Its wQrk has been cntirely s u ccess ful and the Canal ZIIIH.' i n which ]'ep!'l' scnlali\' c s of n earl," c,'ery n at i o n livc and al'e cmployed i s rC]]l,lrkal,I," free f ro m ( I'iIlH ', One lhinIY whic h has h clpc d to make it .1 moral cOIlHlHmi t y i s tltc strid cnfor('C mcnt of liquor law s a n d l 'cg'lllal i olls the prohibition o f ,1Ild pul J l i c pros t i tu t i o n All of lite s e "ices bowen' I exis!. in the lH.:i ghhoring c i tic!-i of Colon and Panama. with one exception o f I n additio n tl) th < dis tri ct jail s lirC'r e is al s o maintainc d a pen i tential',' l'oli c(' stations art' locat e d in mosl of th e ('annl Zone \ ill;wcs and the fUI'ce i s m a d e Ull of while e x al'll 1\' o and n;l\ y m e n and col o r e d p o l ice ofTieers who ha,' e s een SCI '\ l c e in the Jamaican con stabulary, All cOll\ iet s as well a s d istri ct ])I 'isone l s work o n 11t<.' public r oads The wo rk pcrfol'llled the cOl1\' ict s in th e pcnitc lltiary nearl," paid th e cosioI' guarding, subs i s lin g and clothing them, G UAIlDIXG ,\GA-'XST FIRES The Divis i o n o f .Fir e Pro tect ion wa s organized i n Oetoher, 19 05, and o n D ecember I a fire c hi ef was appoi nt e d H i s wO!'k ('on s i sl<,'d ill o rganizing L J 2i J

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corn panic,s COIllI?l)s c d COlllm i ss ion n nd Panama raih:oad empl oy es. I n :,\on: mhcr. WUU, th e u s l p aI d compally co m pose d o f experie n ce d hre m e n from tlte was cs l abl i .... ltcd a t Cri s tobal. The o r ga n i z at i o n co n s i s t s o f 37 fire m en i n addition t o a c h ief, a ss i sta n t c hi ef. s i x capt ains, s i x lieu t e na nt s, Firs t U n ite d S l a tes CQurt held o n the Zon e a t A ncon. a n d I.> "o]unl('('1' c o mpa n ies w i th a to t a l m emhersh i p of 2,}2. The equipment includes t wo modern aut o m ohile fire e n gincs. o n e s ta t i o n e d at Cris t obal. a nd Ihe o l hel' al AI1<:on. T he depart ment ;Hls we r s alarm s in P a na m a a u d Col on whell properly belong i n g \0 the J'anama rai lroad OJ' to t h e C ni lc d St alt.-'s C o n't'n m en! i s ill dangcl'. 0[' upon til(' reques t of t h e P a na ma au th orit i e s T h e Canal ZOIl e has heell rernal'k:lbl,\ free fro m fir es, but a well organ ize d f i r csystt-' m lH'CCSs a r y, : 1-; th e GO"cJ'11me n t :l11d th c L'an: llna B ai lro :HI d o not carry insurance o n their pl'Ope1'ly, T he and m o s t cxpcn s i \'c f il' c in the Cattal ZOlll' w a s that whell til( s l o l 'cho u se al :\IOllllt llupe hurned i n 1 00 7 w ith :110\;11 loss of r-:n l 'C.\'l'J O:-: .\L F \(" I L I T IE!:i T h e Z OIlt' publ i c se h oo l s,,' s tem w a s OI'gan i ze d ill I!)(H hut lH) action was tah'll ullti l D cc('111hl'I', 1!J(),), \\' h en :1 ccnsu s of child re n of !-
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A t ypic al stree t scene i n the nati,c vi11a1o:'C at C horer". P"nama. protection needed is from t h e sun and IOrrent;,,1 rains. The On account o f the mild climate. which pre"ai l s the entire ) "ear. the onl y t hatch e d roofs 1o:'i\'e ample prOtection to the w h o inhabit them.

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were 4 7 teachers employed in the sc ho o l s for whi te childre n in the sc ho o l s f o r colore d children, The s e teacher s recci\ 'c d Illonthh s alarie s of c i t her $9001' $110, according to th e i r length oj' sen' i c c 'I'IIE LAW DEI'AHT:llf;:\T The D epartmen t of Law of the Canal Commi ss i o n Itas of all of i b ch' i l case s a s well as the go\"ernment of the Canal ZOlle, I t attends to the pros ecutio n uf all crimes a nd mi s delll('allor s ill the Supreme and Circ uit Courb of the Zone, and its head alld hi s a .. <.;s i s ta nl s flll"tlis h opi nion s when called upon to the C h ai rman and C hief Engineer and the vMiou s departmental chief s, L a nd matters of the Commi s sion a n d t h e Panama rail r oad are under the juris diction of the dCI)llrtment manag ed b,\' ;1 land agent. and in addition. the department h ead ooks after the l egalaA'air s of the railroad Sin c e th e org:llli of the Land the has ,the' IIltc r e s t s of the Untted Slates III th e adj u s tment ul cl:ums, J u dge F rank I 'cmlle. \\' 1.10 ha s held a llumber of po s ts in th e legal of RICO. a nd who was connected With t h c Department of Stale and J u slle c III Cuba duri ng th e admin i s tration of the aff:m s of that i s land b.\" Judg:e C E. !\la goon. i s Counsel and C hi ef Att orney rOl' Ihc Commi ss i o n and I)anamn railro ad, H i s assistants are W K Jacks on P ro s ecuti n g .\Uo rney and C. It. W i l l i ams Assistant Pro s ecu tin g Att orney P AYI:-<'G TilE C Al'\ .\L The Departmen t of Di sbursement s h a s ::ha rge of the di shurscments of nil funds i n co nn ect i o n with the Canal work 011 t h e I s t hUlus P re!ilcn l Coun House at Empire. The U n i t e d Slales pOSSCSSe!il all aulhority O"cr the Canal Zone. the lerrilory a n d h o lding complele judicial power. I ] 29 I

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HE I n w h ell on I y I h e fillet II:! l ing Colo m hia 11 s i l vcr ell rreney wa s a vaila hie fo r t h e pa)'lllc lll of .-;ilwl" employes. it was c u s t o ma r y to adver tise f o r thi s money in SlICIt SUIllS a s were rcquilcd. The b i d whi c h gave t h e be st. return wa s The pl'cm.uilll paid \ aril'd frOIll 117 .\fa t h e dale of the H.st s ale. to 110 III Augus t. WU L and ro s e tl"Orn th e n to 115 In J a nllarr !flO,;, the l ime th e last. .sal e was made under thi s plan. T hi s mad e th e old Colombian peso va r y from *AGOG (expressed in Unile d Sti ll es values). to $ .4 7:;5. it h e in g worl h *. UH at the lime of the la s t s ale The r equir e m ents of t h e DisOffice altha! lillie we]'' lllLLch m ore limiled than now, a l olal or !i;:j2:1.000 f'ufli{'ing 1\)1" c: q wJl ditlll'C fmm 2:;. 1 00 4 lip t o th c time P : u lama. mom'Y wa s inlr(ldllccd ill I!)O.;. all ;111'10t llll less titan one-t h ird o f the tot al of onc month's pa." m I l i n During this Ixrim\ Amcrican ellllllo),e s exchanged a. pari of t h c ir gold for Colomhian currc ncy and paid their loea ohl i ga t i ol1s i n that 11\001Cy. in that wa., H c llin g a prolil o f alJoll t $i.::;O gold on cach $ 100 in gol d ('xdwngcd. l n ot her words h e wou l d get s i l ve r for $ 100 i n gold. and as lo cal prices hoard d c wCl"e ha se d on sih' e r h e wa s the gainer in the l ran;0, I !JUO. and wns nol renewed. S hipmellL of gol d ("Ilin fl'Olll the l nit e d States w a s th e n begull. On account of th e exporl. Offices of Ihe lJisbursing Officer. and o f Ihe Examiner of ACCO U n IS. Empire. [ 130 1

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lax impose d h y th e R e publi c o f Panama on co in, ei th e r gold o r silver, thi s money could not be shippe d out to advantage a s was done in th e case of bill ... The h nnkcrs finally announced th eir willingnes s to recei\ 'e di sburs ing ofliecr's e heek5. on th e \"ew York sub-II'cas ul'," a t par, in exc hange f ol' gold and s il\'er, s o A Commission brake, used in carryinj:: c h ildre n to and from school. The Can a L Conullission l ends e,'ery aid 1 0 Ihe c::Iuse of educ::Ition in the Can::ll Zone, \Vh.,n necessary 10 usc Ihe railroad, passes are goi".,n Ihe pupils. thai shipments of gold fro m the l'nite d S I :tlcs 10 1\1(' I sthmus g r ew les,.; and l ess a nd for a tim e ceased altogethe r For a long time ,\mt.'l'ican cmplo,\'cs wel'c pa i d t h e ir salaries solei." in gol d but \\'ilh the iLH.'n'a.'i(' i n c i rculation of paper o n tile I sthmus due in part 1 0 the increase i n touri s t tradc, and ill part 10 th e rc s ulllp tiol1 of paper shipnwlll s from th e Cnited the\' arc no\\' frequent I" p.lid in hill s. .. Silver e mplo yes \\'e r e paid se mi-monthl y lip to and i nclu di n g Septembcr l !)Oi, a s Ihe.\' \\'el'c una b l e to get credit from the Chines e lllt.'lch:mt s. f['ol1l whom Ihey made their purclwscs, for more than t \\'o \\'c<'k,.; Oil a t ime, \\'ith lilt' O\)C Il ing of t h e cOllllll ii'.'ial'ies and lahOl'crs' k i tchens and the pl'i\ i l cgc a C(,Mdcd Ia )01'C I'S of procu['ing ('oIl1ln i ssal',\' book ... and mcal tickets to be dwrg
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fina H 'Hl o pl c d and s till in IISC, cons i:;l,.; o f c<-'rt ificilie s made Qui fo.-ea c h indi vidua l pa ,nncn l. d u l y c h ecke d and a u t h e nti cate d T hi s ce r tifi c a t e w h e n pmpcrl. v s i g n e d h y th e pa w e :Ulel wi tll('sscd b y a n cmplo,vc w h o i s b onded f o r Lhal p u rp o s e a nd p r e s e n ted b y th e p nyee on the p a y c al., o r a l one of th e pay oflic c s i s imm ediate l,\' p a id t i ll' amount calle d fo r th e r eo n. th e fi:;c ai ending: JUlie 3 0 a t ol a l o f $20.52 4 70 5 .7. 5 wa s dishurs e d on t h e I sthmus f o r s al al'il's a n d w ages $ 0 228 .6 33, 00 1 0 go ld e mployes o f t h e Co mm i ss i on. a n d $ 11.2!JG.I)71.7 6 t o t he i'ih'cr cmplo,vcs an av e rage o f a m on th P ubli c bills a nd reimburs e m e n t 'ou chers p a id on th e I s thmu s maki ng: a g r :IIH I I.o lal of $Q9 560 .33 5 93 dis burs e d DlIriu g Ih e s allIc pcri o d m i eolk'Ct i o n s werc d epos i t e d w ith t h e Treas u rer of th e ( nili'd Stll tes at Washing t o n to t h eamountor $ 3, 040 .l O:?82. The va llie o f the h ot el b o ok.., i s s u e d h,v th i s d c partmc u t duri n g the y e a r 1 n I Q-I W li S $ 1 i n 4 .80 ;ln d $ 1 5 d e n o mi n at i o n s firs t dis bu r s i n g officc r was Lic u L Mark B r oo k e, w h o l e m j )oraril.v dishurs e d funds f ro m an amount h orrowed f r o m the director ge n era of lh e .Fr e n ch C anal Compa n y. a s w h e n th e Ame r ican s look 0 1 1 :\L 3)' 4, 1 90 4 ther c w a s not a ('cni. with w h i c h pay hill s lie wa s s u c cee d e d by Pa/' m a s t e r C T o be\" of th t l" nit e d S tates Navy, w h o wa s l a t e r rel i e ve d ))" P a y master G eo r gc (;, Sc h afe r. also of the 1\ a\")". On \'\ ovelllbe r 2: W05 1\11'. F.dwa .. d W illiam s wa s a ppoi n t e d to th e u ndcl' h i m t h e p resent o r glllll)f,H !lOll \\"115 I n r g el y p e d edeli ;\ II'. dl I:l illS rcsl g n e d on Au g u s t 3U, 1 9 13, : lIld wa s s uccc ct it.'d b v 1\l r James II. :\ Ic L e a II ACGOU:\,TS The D e pll.l' t m en l o f E xa m i n:lt i o n of Account s i s c h a rged wi th th e handlin g o f th e genera l a ecu lIntill/-:". p a y rull s, vo u c hers c o u p o n b oo k s m a l m e a l tick e t s, f i l es :nlll b onds. i nj u r y c l a i m s contract labo rers time in s p e cti o n t im e keepin g C a n a l Zone and in s p e ction o f nccounlabl e officer s T h e m a jur po r t i o n of t h e r Ulld s o f th e C a n al 7,olle a r c 011 d e p o sit in W a s h i n gt.o n with th e of $ 1 00.00 0 d{'p o site d with n l ocal bank, a n d o n J u n e 3 0 1 9 1 3 a m uunte d to :j;Q 1 G S.33 0 6Z. COlls id c l'ati oll o f in jUl"y cl a im s i s o n e o f t h e mos t im portant i t ellis of t h e department's wo r k A t o t a l o f 7 ,'i?i O cl a im s f o r com p e n s ati oll for d eath o r i n j llr v w e r c handl e d f r o m Allgust1, 1 00 8 t o June 30, O f t h e 1 ,8.:;0 ca:-ocs dis po s e d of d lIt iug t h e laoSl. f is c al ye a r ( I ) I Z-1 3),1 cia i illS fOl" i njll ry. a nd 2 1 death cl n i m s we r e gl":lnt e d The tot al va lu e o f t h ese claims, inci l l s i\"c of grant s made 0 1 1 a ccount o f rn eritOl"iolis s i c k l e a ve. The H\'{'rag e duratio n of d i s a b i l i t \ of cas e s f o r whiC h i njury ('ompcllf':atioll cl ai m s h :H'e been f i led i s : j 8 days. und the ave r a g e estim a te d durat io n of cases i n w h i c h m erit ori o u s s i e k leave h a s h ec n gl":lnle d i s f i ve days During th e p crio d fro m AUW.l st. 1.. 1 90 8 J u n e 3 0 l!)1:L ; 1 lolal of ha s h e e n p ;lId Oil ; \ccount 01 Ill.lUl"lC S r e cCive d b y e m pl oy e s III eo u l se 0 1 employ lIle lll. 1'\0 G H \ I VJ' One o f t h e firs t q u es ti o n s a d s i t oJ" to t h e I s thmus a s k s i s lI ow m u c h gmft h a s t h e r c he c n t A g o o d m a n y a r c i n cl in e d to b e s k e pt i c al wile n t o l d t h a t t here l1<\ve h c c n n o cas e s of grart o n thi s job. a n d that t h e w o u ld-be grafte r has h m l h u t l i t H e opportuni ty t o exerci s e hi s g ift duri n g the g r clit c r p a r t o f t h e can a l perio d Il i s t o h e supposed t hnt th e wurd i s r eferre d to i n i t s hllgCI s e nse [ 1:!2 1

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, Balboa H ill is thre e h o urs j ourney from Gorgona over a well-marke d trail. From t s t Op. a height o f aboUI 1.00 0 feet. both oceans may be s e e n o n a clear day. The auth o r is sianding o n The Tr:I'] which leads p the hill. r 133 1

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whcll i t s aid there lias been no g r aft. There h ave bee n i ns t a n ces w h e r e s ikcr foremen were w ilh using t he i r p owe r or place by di scharging some laborer who n>fuscd 10 give him m o n ey. I n m allY of t hese CHses, th e charg"!;>s prm' cd 10 he ullfounde d and. a s it dc\ el o p ed. were actuated h y s pite. There i s I H I :llllh<-'nlicalcd (,a l I \ len \ 'car s of cnll al w o rk w here a ea s e of graft w i t h the hOll(' of great gain in' v iew; ha s been disc l osed. The work i s too 01J('l l all d ahove Joanl. .It w O llld not Ie ;!{'{'uralt' to sa\' thai i n the ca d y dar.'> of th e work. w h e n there were 110 l i me i n spcdor s 011 tht job, 01" oilier 'iafcg uards i m p ose d t he r e W('I-c 110 opporh1l1 i tic s B u t s f a r a s t h e Com miss i o n e m p l oye s th e n were concerned. Ihey,' ftw thc /.!l'lat(r' pal"l, reg a rded t hems elve s as be ing placed o n tireir h o rror, and tlu .. idea held, A. .. t h e force was ('rda rged it becam e m o r e di\'cr:-;ifi('d in charadeI' ali(I leml'cranu' nl. 'lIl
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the fE idea of 11 lock alld lake ]en,1 <:;111:11 wa not a new nIH.', fo r it W;h fir s t sugge s ted in the engineering congrt' ss convened in Pari s in ISiB. al whie h t h e Fren c h adoplctl th e St.' a level piau At Ihi s Godin de L cpinay Olltl ined the ess enti a l fca lllrl' s or thc callal :t. i t is t oday, a lake kn'] with ;t d,lIl1 ac r o ss the ill Catllll. Again. when i t b eca me (,\'ide nl in 1887 that the s ea Icvel canal co uld not b e complckd b y t h e old French Canal Company, a temporal'," l ock plan adoplt' d W\ten t h e Luiled S lates took O\'{'I' the work ill IDO..J. no plan had l)('cII ddeJ'mi lll'd upon. To decide this ( p lcstion. Iloo:;;('\ 'cll. llndC'l" dale of J une 2 l!>OJ, ere;lIe d an I nl\.:l'Ilali ollal Board of CIIII ..;ulting Engi u c('J's. cons i st in g of meml)('J','i as foliows: Gen Gl'Mge W Da"is. Chairman, Alfred one of t he con structing ('ngincel' s of t11l' Soo canal; William llan:1:IY P:lrS()l l,';:. cnginccr of the New \ ork ulldert{round sy .. \em; W illiam I I. Bllrr, Pl'Ofl'SSOl' t)f engi nee r ing i n Columbia college; Gen, U enr,\' L. Abbott, nl'll1y c l lgilleel'. who s e o b sc l'\ atioll s on the topogmph," ali(I c haracteris tic s or thc canal tcrritol'," were ,'a lua hlc; Fl'cdcri c p hydraulic cngi ll('er of Bo stoll: J ose ph H ipley, at onc time chid cngincer of the Soo callal. and :lfl(,l'\\'a]'( l s !.!llll'lu,l"ed h," the I sthmian Canal Commiss ion a s lock CXPl'!'t; I ll'rman I sham Hall -( Iolph of C hicago Drainage Canal famc; W ilcm," c hil'! cll;,!illt' cl' .)1' t he .:'IJanchcst(r s hi p C:11I:1I, rt.'pr esellting th e B riti"h GOI'(:'rnl1lenl; Eu gell chi d cngincer of th e callal at Kicl. r epresent ing the German GOI'Adol\ ) h e Guerard, civil the ment; lodollan Quclle nn('( ', consultlngengme!.!!' o f th c Suez (:Innl, Hntl J W elc kcr, e n g ineer :lnt! c on slructor or t h e .\orth Sea ('allal. I'cpre sc lltiug Holland Go\'ernlllent. This hoard, 011 Janllan' 1 0. 1!)O(;. suhmitted 1\\' \ ) I'c porl s. a majol'i t,l' repo r t. s igned by eight of whom f i \'c wt'['e th e rcpre s c nt ali,"c s of t'of'('lgn governments t'a"ol'ing' a sell l en ('a n al. and a IlIi-rlOr ity report s i g n e d h y five Illcmbcrs. all of whom wcre \ll1 e rieilll s, ami in [ t:J:' J

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PAGE 147

E UN.,ITED 1':1\'01" of it lock c flnal. These feport,; were suhmillcd 10 th e l .;tlilnian Canal Commiss i o n for conside rati on a ud the latter made a report I() the or \\"ar on Fehruaty .), I!)OU. in which all of it,; IlH.'llIhct,,; with the ('xC'l'ptioll of Ci,"il Engineer Endicot t. L". S. ':\ .. favored th e l o('k plan. :\Lr. at thaI lime chief cngiTle<"I". suhmitted a s lalC'llI('ul ill f:l\'OI' of the lock plan, and th e Sccrctnr," of \\"ar in letkr uf \If Ihe rqlnl"l s (4) the a],.:\) f a vore d il. On Fcbrll:ll'\' J!l. lOOt), l'I't',.,ide lll Rooscwlt :.;uhmithd tht'Iit, \ ';II'ious r e p o l'l .. 10 Co n g ress: tog-clhcl' w i l h a letter or rC{,Ulllllll'l1datioll ill which he S:lid: The hydl"'JuHc core. o r water-tight pOrtio n of the Dam, together with the two o uter walls, or toes, T h e toe, arc 1 200 fect a part :It the basco and the spac e betwee n is filled with a n i mpcr\' i o u s mixture o f sand and chI)' sucke d up :lnd pumped in b y from the old bed o f the Chal{res Rive r. The toe, wcre togethcr a t thc to,) where thcy Cal ) the fill The cnlire D a m contains about 2\,000.000 cubic yards o f malerial, equally d h i d e d hetwecn dry and wet fill. Thc upSlream side i s riprnppcd a OO"e thc walcr l e"cl 10 minim i>;c wa"C action. A c : l re r u l study of lit e rcpol ts see m s to ("slahl is h a probabil i ty thn l the ro llo wiuf; arc the fads: he S<."a Ic,cl.canai wOllld hc less cX/ lnscd to damage III t h e event of war, the I'ulllllng ex p e n ses al)al't trom t h e H'a\'," c ost o f interes t on the amount cmplo,"e d 1 0 huil d II, would )e les s ;tnd fol' s m :dl ships Ihe lime o r transit would probn bl,r be less. On t h e olher hand Ihe lock canal at a Ic\ 'e l of 80 r ee t o r t hereabout s. would not cost mud, Iliore than half ilS muc h 1 0 build and co uld be built in ahout hal f Ihe lime, while thel'e wou l d be mueh l ess ris k cOl llleci e d with b uildi n g ii, and for l a r ge ships Ihe wo uld be quickCl'; w hile. taking int o account the i nterest on th c amount S:lw' d in building, t he actual oost of maintenanc c would he les s After b e ing built it woul d b e easi e r to enlarge t he l oc k can al than th e se a IC\'cl ca llal. :\I ol'eovcr. [ t37 1

PAGE 148

C I HE h&D WIHlI ha s ? ccn ae-luaU.'" demonstrated in making and o p erating th e g rcaL lo c k canal. th e SOil, a more impurtant artery of traffi c than t h e g r ea l s e a l e\'el canal the Su e .... got.'s to s u\)purt t h e opi nion o f t h c minority of th e Co n s ultillO' B oa rd of EIlg'ilJ('cr s and of I I e majority of thc I s th mial1 Canal Com III i ss iont> a s t o t he superi or' safe l y f e a s i hilit y and d cs i ra lJil ily of huild inga.lock canal at P a n a ma." C O Il ,!!I'C SS 011 J UI l t.' '.W. IDOH, dc(:idcd upon a. lock can al at an elevation or 85 feeL That thi s wa s 11i(' he s t plan 10 pUJ'su{' ha s been proved by expericllce w ith s lides which ; l(ld c d greatly 10 the c:-itimatcd alllollilt of l' xcll\a li otl llccc ssnry under c i tlJ( '1' p l a n 1'111-; \ The c ompleted (>;lll a l "irlually a wall r hridge 0\'('1' whi c h ships will pa ss f r o m OCC;)!! h. (lCt'an. Tlwrc no of Ihe .\ t1antic wi lh Ihe Pacific w ht'll the dike a t (;.11111.0<1 wa i dt 'stro.wd 011 FI'ida)', O cl!)l,e r 1 0, I!)I:J, and thc watl.'r of Galull L a kl.' w ere all o wed 10 flow illio Culcbra CuI. for lakc and Cut a r c, al Ihc Silifacc (If Ill(' wa if'!', 8.i f e ci :rho ve the len'l o f th e F rom deep Earl)' in C alUn Danl. occurrence cau s e d the sensational stories in the news' papers i n the U n i ted S t ; ues i n 1,)08. 10 the e ffect that the Dam had sunk and thai the f o undation was unsuitable for s u c h a massive struclUre. The com p l e t e d Dam d e monstrates that the state' ments wer e entirely unfounde d and that it i s a s e ffective :1 water b<. rricr as t h e aj!:eold hills upon whi c h i t abu ts. wat c]' in Ih e \t1:lI1tiC 10 dl'l'P wal('r i n Ihe Pa e i f i e the Canal i s ;lhou I :')0 mil e s long; f rom shore l il\(' to s h o r e lill(' i t i s ahou t W mile s long. It docs nol. a s i s q1l:ll ge neral l y though!. l'rOSS th e L itlUHUS from cas t to wesl. J \.i gl'neral dircctiun i s fl'Olll Ilorthwest. 1 0 s ou lhwes t and th e cit, of Panama althc Pacific entra lll'l' i s about 221. miles ,
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Experiment", spillway at C"tun Dam. Uke "II othe r important of th e Cana' w ork. were I .. ,,<.Ie t o a";erl,,in Ihe proper mel hod of Ihe w o r k I Gatun s p i llway, look i n g f r o m the lake The s p ill w a y i s a concret e line d o p e ni n g 1.200 f';'l'l l n nJ:. 2 85 feel wide and i s abou t m idwa y of Gatun Dam. [ J 3 9 )

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from gj 1 0 feet. 'Yhilc in the lake a \"('sscl IlW\' steam at full s peed. The ci'lill in ct C u t as far a s P etlt'O :\Iig u c l uill e miles, n,lJTOWS to : ;0 0 feel. t h e m inimum bottom wid th of th e Can al. A t reoro :\ri g u cl. the is ]'('ud ,' t o bC!rin the desccllt to th e 1';I(; ific. There i s :L s irwlc l oc k h e re ,-0 wbieh t h e \ '('ss d :W1 fecl to a s m all artificia l h o o,\' of walel' called :\!.it 'arlut'c s I,;tkc. whic h is about mil es and .) l j feel aboy c se a le\'el. The, final descent to sea \('\ 'cl i s IllHdc at :\iindfol' cs by a flight o f t wo locks. The ha .. now passed on']" the bridge a nd i s rcady to pl'occ('d th rough :1 sc a l('wl ( ; h a lluc! S} mi les 10 deep wakr ill t h e P acific. This channel, lik e the O I IC Oil the \ I1anlic :-.ide. h:l:-> a bullolll widt h of J Q O feet but it s depth i s feet at mea1l titi(,. in:-;kad or reel.. Thi:-> dif l'erctlcc in the depth of lhe 1\\'0 sea l e\'( l approaches i s due to the fa d thaI it i s n('{.'essar, \' 10 pal'tl.\ counteract a. maxim1l m tidnl o:,cillal ion in th e I'acirie of QI fed; t hal in th e \1I1IlIti c i s but 'J2 feet: th e Illean s e a le ve l i:-; t h e samc i n bolh ocean s, \\" hell \)lans for hardest pro k ill S 10 a sea s o[vc 'I'll E UA.\1 \ 1 G \ l l t;>." I('\,c! canal were IInder considcration one W:IS the o f th c Chagl'es H i\ c l ', of the 1\ ow \Valer from the l ake flowinJ,!" over the s pillway, during the season, before it was completed. The spillway will control the rise and fall of Gatun Lake. h owC\'c r, wilh n lo c k canal, the C hagres i s the k ey to the situatio n, B y placin g a dam :ICI 'OSS the l o w e r elld of its valle y, it s water and that of i t s tributaries 11:1\'c be e n impounde d to form Gatun Lake. The dam i s, in reality, n. low ridge o f ear th cOllllcctin .... th e hill s 011 c i t h e r s ide of the val Icy, and look s a s t.houg h i t had been placed t71c re o r nature rather than by the ef f orts of man, i t i s 1 ; miles long, 1 0,) fecl ahove mean sea level Ol" 20 feet above the normal level o f th e lake, ,wei tapers from nearl,", a mile wide a t its base, t o about 10 0 feet wide [ 1<0 J

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o --, 0 ---l -" ,--" -, o '" ;> ... :;: ----. o ::.,,-;:: g a ;:;<3 .--.. '" =----.. <: ... s-__ -:-"'< .' -",-. -' -, o '" Q 3 r: -. -.. -:;If." 0 ;!> --" -, -,,4 I 1\ r I tI J \ I i \ I I J -" I

PAGE 152

OIl Ihe top. It was con structed o f material laken fro m the Can a l .. m ounting 10 about 21,000,00 0 cubic yards. The method of con s t ruct i o n con s i s ted i n hu i ldin g up two parallel r idges 0 1 toe s of earth riprappcd w i t h r ock. B e L wee n two r idge s s uction dredges pumped sand a n d clay mixcd w ith w .. t e r f!'Olli the bed of the C hagrcs ri\'{ : r A s the watcr d ra ine d o u l of th i s interio r f ill, the c1,,), mixture d r ied and and fo r med a n impen 'iolls cOl'e. I n :\()\'elll her, I!)OS a p(lI'lion of olle of the roek t oe s sank into th e s ill and s oft mild d('po s ited in the bolt om of t h e old F rench Canal C hanll e l w h ic h pa$.;cd throug h the s ite or the d.nll. T hi s had bee n antic ipated b y the c n gin ('l r" on the J S thlllllS. fmt at the lime it led t.o sensa t i o n al stories i n lhe newspap(,rs in t h e l"n ited Statl'", t o ti lt' I'fl'e d t h at the d: nll h a d sunk and that th e T h", ov"'rflow fron l Ih", spillway passing OUI I h r ough Ih", old bed of I h e Cha g n's i nto Ihe Ilanlic Ocean \Vit h the I3ke at i t s m:lximum o f 8 7 feel the regulati n g gales i n Ihe spillw,,}, will I)ermit o f Ihe disc haq;:e of a j;:rea ler volulll e of wal e r than Ihe kno w n Illaximum disch arj.: e of the C h aj.:rcs Ri"er during a flood. fOlllldaiioll \\"a." ILlls uitalJle for s u('h a m a ss i \'c s tructure. T o th e fea r s al'nu s ('tL Prcsident H oo sc.!\'(t sent a s pec i a l board of con s ultin g engin eers t o tlte I sthmus to make all examination o f th e work in p r ogress. and partic u larly C)f Gatllll Dam. This cngincering board, of }'r etlel'ic 1' S tearns, .\rllwl 1'. D,l v i s, 1l<"llr.\ A. All e n. James D. Schuyler, I sham Randol ph John H FI('(' lllan. and Allel1 I l a ze n, reported on Febnl:11.\ 1 6, 1 DO!), that: "The dl':-.igl1 upon which wUI'k 011 the dam now hcing prosccuted ahundantl.," fuHills !lIP rC(luircci dc
PAGE 153

Miraflon.'5 spillway, compleled S e jllemb .... r I 19\3. to the cast and forms l\lir"f1ores Lake. Lies het"',,-en l\.1ir:oflore s Loc k s and risi n g ground I t also regulates Ihe level o f Ihe lake. Hydroeleclric sialion, Gatun spillway, unde r construclion, showing locatio n of penslocks. [ ].13 1

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The complete d dam ha s d emonstrat e d the fael thal i t i s a s effect ivc a wa ter ba r rie r as the a gt'* old hills upon w hich i t ahuls GATt;N" SI'ILI. \\"A Y Til o rd e r lh at th c lake wjll n o l ris e .. bo\ c Si feet and reach th e p oint w here it would fio\\' ov e r thc crest a n d endan ger t h e dam, a .... pitlwa.\ has beel1 COI1* s lt llde d through a r oc k hi l l l1ear-i,)" in its center Thi s i s a co n crete* l i n ed channel 1.200 fee l long a nd 2$5 f eci w ide. 1 0 fee t above sea level a t th e lak e en d and s lopin g t o sea level at I h e fool. At the lake end a c o ncrete dam ha s bct,tl huill in th e form of a c r e scen t 8 0 S feet long clo sing thc 285* f oot c h annel. T hi .-,; dam i.'i 6!) feet ;dJOVC sca Ic\'el o r I (j f eel below t h e l1orlllallc\'el of t h e lake, ; 1 11t! a l it s lop there a r e 1 3 concrete pier s betwce n which therc are m ounted 14 clcdric al1y operat e d to control th e flow of wat e r. The pie r s and t.he g:ltes hri n g th e h e ight of th e s pi l lway dam 1 0 115.5 feet above s en l e ve\. 01 30. : ; fee l abov e th e lake \('\"cl. W ith these gates open the s pillway w ill be able to di scharge a s hi)!h a s 140.000 cuhic f e et of wa lcr p e t second. a larg e r llllounl than Ih c max imu m known di sc ha rge uf the Chag re s during n flood. 'fhe lake whi c h c o ve r s an area of square miles and con t a in s a b out 1 83 bil l ion cubi c fee l of wa ler, save d excavaling :t 24-mile cb;mnel t o the begin lling o f the c u t thro u g h the conti n e n tal divide at Bas Obispo. I t al s o The p e n stock s :\t the !leW h ydroele ctric station '11 Galun spillway. which, by furnishing the watl'r 1 0 the turbines from G:llun Lake. will drive t h e machinery al alilhe locks. makes th e C h a g res Ri v et a m o s l impot"la n l facto r i n the s u c ce ss of th e pro ject rathc r than a toncntinl stream that would o th erwi s e be a m enace t o t h e C; U la\. The l a k e has a c oa s t line of ahout LOW mil es. an d on l y nhou t 90 square miles ( 1 4" J

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View o f Catun Lake. The lake is fOrll>e d b y GalUn Dam. and receives t h e flow of thc Chal::res River and several smaller streams At i t s maximu m of 87 fcc'. it will inundat e 16iA SQuare miles o f territory. parI o f which lies in the Canal Zone. : .nd part in the R e lWbli c of an:lll1a I t w ill have a coast lin e of 1.016 miles. and will be the lan;:est artifidal bod y of water i n t h e world I t COverS a broad expanse from Gatun 10 lias Ihene e i s eonfinNI 10 the 300foot channel in the Culebra Cut section t o Pcdro MiJ;l:ue l During the dry seasonDeecmber t o May -the lakc w ill remain about s tationary. while in the r ai n y scason there will be a surplus. Thous a n d S of a c res o f trees and jungle growth are being-inundated by t h e risi n!{ Waten of the lake, Fl o a ting islands in Gatun Lake. These are reall y m:.sses of ""ge'alion d etached from the swamps b y I h e risinlo: waters and carrie d O U t h y winds intO t h e Opel! water. SO lli e of Ihem COver half an a c r e in ex\en t, and have given con sider"ble troubl e b } o bstructing the lock entrance. [ [-I. ) I

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of its tolal area i s w i t hin the C: lIl al Zon e. 1 n th e raim" se: l s o n s th e lake will he allowed to r ise to 87 feci a1>O\'c sea le vel. ;tnd tlur s p;'()\'id c ,t surplus for the thre e 0)' foul' months of the dr," season whcll the I'lIIt-nfr of water in the Chagres ha s in i s low. ha s al s o hcen made for evaporation. _..;ccpage. leakage a t the lo(:k I-("alcs and power con sumption. With the bIke al 87 feet there will bt, .";\01'(' (\ a lillie o\'er fin : f eci of watel', 'I'h;1I i s. the lake could h e lowered fin.' fcei \\'ilholll l'edll c ing the d ept h t h rough Cukhr:' Cut helow that in the appl'oadl channel on the Atlantic s ide. E x lcnsi,' C s!udil S 0\'('1' a period of mall\' \ 'car .... ()f the "aillfal! alld III(' a 111011 II t of wal('1' that will flow i nto the lakt: 1'1:0111 the Ch:I!!l'l's Hin' I alld i t s lI'ihutOiries durin" tlte mi,,\ se asons .. 0 indicail' tlt:d I II e 1'(' 'ill .dway", be 11 SUfliell'llt s uppl," for Il:t"ig'ation of the Can.d, '1'1.(' Itin'r I i s('s ill tltt mOlilitain", ( a!'ol 1)1' the Can"l. i s "bout 1 60 mil('s lun K nnt! drains a \\" Hil'r",hcd s qu:lr l' mile s in ('XiN ll. \I)()ve Ba s Obis po ils risl' i s \'( :1')' rapid and, a s il a s('e nd s it fluw s thron g h deep and narrow gorges cOIII.;ing a \'('r," nlpid rlln -of r of the min"" lIId th e r i\'('r ha s been known to ris e il littl e O\"CI' '!5 fed in hours A,,; it w i nd", i'l ant! nllt of the hill s in i t s upper ]'(' al'ltl' s rapi d s 1)('('1)111(.' illOl'(' 111l11WI'O\lS alHI diflic ult for the pa ss a g e of Ihe nali\'( ('U.'/II('OS 01' Ihe onl," lII('allS of n;l\"ig.dinll. G Olug up th e - ::= "Y T h e spillway Garun wirh rhe sluice 1I:"res closed Lock s and 'i.bge of Carun i n rhe dis tance, ri\'(' r onl y Ihe nati\'C ImaiTU(,Il, ndcpl from l o n g pra ctice in pol i n g the ir !'oats. can s uc cessf ull, ne got iate th e rapids, Ahm'e Alhajuela. the ri\ "cr i s bOl'der c d b y lilll('s ioll e ('[iff s inlo which the waleI' ha s for age s bee n crlling ils way, forming cOIn's nnd undergro und waleI' eOIlI'S(,5, The lowering clifls are co\'ered wit Ii a mass of v in es nnd crecpel's wound ahollt Ihc tree s whi c b h
PAGE 157

One o f th e bends in the ill' e r C h a g res River T h e C hal!"re s i s the p r incip a l fe eder o f Gat"n Lak e II rises i n t h e m ountai n s o f i n te rior Panama and dr., i n s 1.3(l (l stl"ar .. m i l .. s of I .. r rilor y Durin g Ihe dry s .. ason i l i s a Iu i e ll ) flowinl!" Siream b u t i n the r ai n y mon t h s i t i s subject to s u d d e n f r e s h e t s brlnginl!" down a g r e a t "ohln' e o f w : ll e r which durinl!" the yea r !'JIO, e'IUllled o n e a n d o n e h al f t h e "ol u m e of water that will b e contain !!" in G a ll, n L a k e T o the right of t hi s picture is s h o w n a s tation, o n e of t h ree main t aine d o n I h e ri"er A ccurate reco r d s a r e k e p t o f Ihe river s t ages a s well as o f the rain fall The I s t h m u s h a s IWO seasons; wet and dry. T h e g r eates t recorded r.ti n f all o n t h e I s t h m u s f o r 24 h o u r s i s 10. 8 6 i n c hes; f o r o n c hour 5 .86 inc hes and f o r 3 minutes 2.46 i n c hes. The small p i c t ure abo, e shows t h e rhe r d u r i nl;i; one o f thc flood s [ I 17 I

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Exc avatinl-t for lock s i te. Cawn. Excavating f o r lock site, Pedro Migucl. Excavating for lock s ite. Million s of cubic yards of rnalerial had 10 be excavated before the locks were bui lt. r 148 1

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ITED The s w ift moving ri, 'cr, th e hrilliant tro pi c foliage, nnd th e lowerin g cliffs, all lend to belie the I sthmian p o ct Gil bcrCs l i ne s thai: B eyon d the Cll1wr cs Ri\ 'cr 0 'Tis said ( th e sto r ,"'s old ) Arc path" thai lead to mountain s or pures t virgin go ld ; Bu l "is Ill\" firm cOllvicliOll, \\'halc'cr li te tales they tell, That he yo nd t h e R iver .. All pa ths l ea d s traight L o hell." The C hagrcs has two principal hranc h es. o n e (thc !at'get) known a<; the Pcqllc ni ri .-sing in the San BIas tno llll laills vcry dose to lhe \ilanlie amI It was necessary t o go 1 7 miles along the A tlantic 1 0 g'" the proper gr.ule of rock for the concrete used in G :ltun Locks. Large rock f o r the Colon breakwater w: t S also obtained h e re. This shows the rock quarry, cru s hi n g planl, and Ihe Ihere 0 1 1 3ccouni of ,\u"rry operali ons, The crushed rock W3S 103d e d i n : Ind towed 10 C31Un, S3nd f o r the concret e used :II C 31un loclu was obtai ned :11 Nombre d e Dios, aboul 35 m i les the coast from Colon, :md was also towed t o C3ltm in b 3 rgc.s Porto !lello, signifyinJ,: Beaut iful Port," is the besl h",'cn o n the Atl : mlic Coast of P anama, th e other th c I ndio Hive!'. Be twcc1I Ba s 01)i:.:po and Cahill. it h a s hrullcile.'i. th e o f which arc the G.lIull and 'I'rillid a d ]'ivcl':':, JIl the dr," se a,.;,)tl the se tributarics ma y be rcgllrded a s lle g l i gill1e. hil l duri n g the mill," mo nth s they.li kc th c main r i\ 'cr, h eco m e tropic w i th 11 volume not 1(\ he ig:llol'( d 1 1 00\'c\ 'c r s lIch floo d s 01' f r cs h ets. whi ch ure of frequ e nt OC<.'llrt'cnc(' i n the rain y s eaSOIi. would have hu t slig ht apparent erred o n t h e l ake. 1'01' it wou l d lake the g reatest knowil flo(ld (If Ihe C hagre s nine h o un.; 1 0 r aise t he lewl of the lake one f ool. The sllutlles L l'llll-ofr of waLeI' in the oasin d uri ng: th e pas t '.N ,\'ca] 's, as [ 140 [

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Ill(':tsufed
PAGE 161

Sand bins and unloadinf;: c raneS'l1 (J"lboa. Sand for Ihe conc rele u sed in che l'edro Mif;:ucI and l\1iraflores lock s was .. d from Punla Chame, aboul 15 m ile s alon!: Ihe P .cilic coaS I Irom Iblboa. 11 was l owed 10 llalboa in lifled inlO the by I h e crane s and w h e n neede d W:iS duml W d from the h i n s into car" a n d h : m l c d to the lock SIOr-dgC piles. "neon rock crusher pl ant and quarry, between Panama Cit y a n d Balboa, w h e r e the crushed rock ..... as obtai n e d for the concrete used in the >acili c locks. The side 0 1 the hill has been l iter-d U y ealen away t o secure the amount of rock required. r I.,) ] 1

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A general v iew of the main concret e Ini:Kin g pl3nt at Gattln Locks, which h o uses ::r. bane r y o f eight 2-cuhi c ) 'ard mixers. Rock and sand were carrie d t o the mix('rs by a n electric railroad n mninf,: unde q.:round t o a point bcne:uh the SlOra!;e piles. The finishe d prodtlct ",as carried to the lock s it e by a s u r face electric ..... ilroad. A closer view of t h e same piant. which has produced as high a5 l A.H cubic yard s o f con c rete in a day of 12 houu, working 6h o u r shift s [ 152 J

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inland behind hill s w hi c h will efi'ediw'I., prolecL I hem from Ihe fire of a ho s tile flect. T hc locks u nder the ori"inal plan .'i were 10 havc a lenglh of tWO fee l widt h of 9,; fee l and a clt-'pOI on'r the gale s i lls of feel. Thes e dilllens il'lls were increa se d 011 January I:;, 1 !)08, in compliance with the wis he s of t he 1\a,)' D e partment. to a length of 1,OUO fed and a width of tlO feel in order to allow t h e pass'l"e of larger battleships at thai tillle cuntemplated. The hei g ht of th e lock i s ahoul the same a s that of a s ixstory buildillg. Thc largc .--t of th e present-da." ships, tIl(' I mpnalor. !)l!) feet lonl!. e;1I1 I'l' loc ked thl"Ough the can al. 1-I00\'e"cr, llIo s t of the s hips that wil l u s e Iht-, I sthmian tmde rout e N iaI\' Eighl o f Ihese cableways. four o n each bank were used to place the concrel e in the lock walls. They con s isted o f sleel lOwers, 85 feel h ij!h. opertlling on I heir own Iracks. and supported cables. which car r i e d Ihe COnCrele buckels back and forlh. lhal arc l ikd., t o lise i t for many to c o m e, are less than (;00 feci long. I n fact, 95 pCI' ce nt. of the "esspls Il:tyigaling' th e high nre less than GOO f('d long. For thi s each lock is d i yided by intermediate galcs into two chambers WO :md GOO feet respectivel., This d oe s nol lIl('arl that Ihe full length of 1,000 fcd cannot be if IJlIt with thi s di,"i s ioll a saving in ootl! water and time C:tll be madc in rhe IO('king of l'Omall :ihips. The r e arc six double lock s i n the C:lIIal. Iltl t'e flip:hts of I will locks 011 en c h s ide of the Isthmus t o l ifl :-hips f r om !>ca le"('] to the lake le\'el. and t' ie l: 1'Cnm. T hey arc made i n pairs in order Ih al ships ca n be locked both up and down al Ihe s:lIne time, and. in cas e of a ccident to one set, there \\ill be no dela" to traflic a s the duplicate flight ean be u s ed. The u s a hIe dimell s io n s of all are' lhe same. Eac h lock is a concrete chamber with s teel milel'ing gatcs lit each end. ami with the gales closed. ships are ra i sed :Ind lowcred by s im pl.' admitting or withdrawi n g watel'. 'J h e sid e \\"ftll s arc 4.3 to 50 feel wide at the surface of the floor, 153 )

PAGE 164

This view shows the dUlllllinj{ o f concrete at Gatun Loc ks. E.very move of the buc k e t i s at the wHi of the man stationed in the cablcway tower, w ho, in dumping, follows the sij{na l s of the man supervisinj{ the operat i o n As fast as the con c rete i s depOsited. m e n standing knee deep in t h e mixture, spread i t out evenly. [ 154 J

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pe rp e n d i c ular t o Ihe face. an d n arrow ft"Om a point Q.J.1 feet aboH-' the floo], unlil th ey are e i g ht fce t wide a t th e lop, T he eCllte l wall!; arc GO fed widt, approximately 8 1 fce l hig h an d each f a ce i s \'c r tieaL l n the "ix pair!; of 1(lc k!; th e r e h u \ 'e bee n placet! approxima t ely cubic yard!; nf ( :Qn<.-re\e. re quirin g abOllt th c S'Hlle Ill.llnhcl' o f b arrels of cc ment. I n Ihe ce nlcr wall of eac h sci of l ocks, feet 011)0\'(' Ihe fioor. the]'c i" a spa ce 1!) feet wide at I he b ottolll and fCt.:t at tht t op ill which thcl'e is a tlllllle l di v i ded into I h rt.c g a lleries. The IO\\'l'st .s for dl';,in age; tilt' middle, fol' the \\'il'es for the elcctri c ('!lrre l d t o opnate the loek ma{'liincl',\ Sunday sccnc on so"th :lll llrO:lch w:lll :u G : ulln Locks, In order t o finish a o f work wilhin g iven t i me. i l W:lS frequentl y necessary 1 0 work Ihe m e n Ihc full sc"cn days. ins t alled in th e cenlel' wall. and the IIppel' i s a p assaNe\\ 'u,\' 1'01' the o p cr atol's, T o fill and cmpty t h e l ocks t h ere are ('tlln'I'ts eXlending th e ent ir e length of til(' ce nt e r and s i de walls, These ('lIh'C'rts a r c 1 8 feel in diamete r and arc e n oug h t o permil th e p ass n gc of a ra i lroad t rai n Fl'Olll t hc se lar ge cul\'(' I'I-; th ere arc se\'e ral s mall er cuh'cr t s. to .J., J square feel ill ; I rl'a. which cxt('1)(1 late rall y under t h e floo r of th c locks and open inl o tllC'lll wells, Thes e s mall e r (!uh 'cl'ts wou l d pt.nuil of the passage o f a two-hor se ca l '\. The waleI' i s cOTl\'e,Yed from the lake l e\'e l t h rough t h e culn'rls, a nd t h encc through th c s m all ial era l cuh'c r ts to the l oc k chamher. thu;; ins lirin g all evell d i stri buti on of th e wa l eI' over t h e ent ire area of the chamher This r c duC't's tlwdislurhancc \\'hen th e loc k i s heing filled 01' e m \ ) t ied. s o thaI s hi ps a r c lifh'd 01' lowered with ou l und ergoillg any strain 01' v i o e n l pit ching. The (Io\\, of water Ihmugh th e c ulvert s i s contro lle d b y ndves, The lal'''e cuh'cl' l in th e centC'r wall co m lllu niea t es w i lh lh e ch a ml;e r of each of t he twi n lock s. so Ihal walC'1' lllaY be passed from o n e loc k to th c o th er of t h e \lail' therehy cfl'ecling a sl\\'ing, 'The ;l\ 'e ra ge tim e r equire d to fill and e mpt y a oc k i s abollt \,; minut es. and t h e tim e [ 155 1

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The beginn i n g 0 1 con c rete work llt Glltun Locks. L"ying the floor and i n s t a lli n g the I"'eral culverts. The circular holes in thl' 1100r are 1 0 admit t h e w atu 10 t h e loc k s. and 10 emply the m T h e 1100 r aries in thickness from 13 to 20 feet o f solid con c r e ll' according t o the character o f m"ter ;,, 1 unde r lyin!,: iI. "nd is anchored b y s teel r ail to II d epth o f 1 0 feet [nstalling Ihe cylindrical "alves f o r t h e control o f t h e flow o f W:ller in and out of t h e locks. T h e water control SYSle m of Ihe lock s o f risin!.:: S l e m or S tony g ale a lves. a m I cylindrical valves. T h e r isin!.:: s t e m alves govern I h e 110w of waler i n t h e s i d c wall culverts, and Ihe. cylindrical "Ives gover n t h e flow of wat e r i n the cente r ",,,11 c u lvl'rts [ J 56 1

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ITED o f pas sage of ;l through thc ('Il lire c allal ranges from 10 to I'! hour s aceonling 10 the size of t h e :o:hip. alld t h e rate o f spcC'd :il which it can tr:wd. Thc lock gal e s arc of Ihe miter t y pe, built of s teel fram e <:o\' cl'cd with s teel 11Ia{(', (ij fect long anc! from n to 8'1 feel hi gh. acc ording: to their p o:;ili o n ill the !lek s I n all there arc gates of lwo 1(':1\'('<;; e a c h 'I'h('.-;c galt'S from 3!H) \0 730 lOllS c'lell. :oul. in ord e r 10 redu c e thi s weight mu c h 11;0; p".; s ihh : from the Lcarings ami hinge s upon \\, h i eh th e," s willg. lile didded lillrizon in to I wo s epa 1'<1 1 ( COlli pa l'I men b. The lower c om pa rI m e n t i .. W:1il'!" tight. suflicicntl.v buo,nul l to pradicatly Aoa! in IJI<. wat t']". The uppcr half. ha,.; all opening and. as the wat el" I"i;.;e .;.; in th e chaml)cr it Aow:, into t lte upper half and adds s lIflicicntly to the wpi g ltt of the to ons et the iJl(: r c a"('d pt'essure of the water in the lock chamhcl. The machilll'ry 1'01" opening and clo:,ing" th e gatef;. opel"al e d bydedri(ity was invented hy :\11". Edward Schildhaucr. Electri cal ,mel EnJ.{ilH'l'l" of the canal commission. I I cons i;;l s of a 1:1I'g c "hull" whe el. tllOunh-d ill a hOl"i;wntal pos ition on Ihe lock wall. to the rim or which i s fasten e d 11 s teel :,11'111 o r arm; thi s arlll als o attached to th e lop of cadi gale leaf. The wh eel rolale:, through an arc of Wi degree)';, and clo s e s 0,' opens the gate l e af. accot'ding: 10 th e diredion in which it I;; ltlmed, Tllis operation can he perforul('d in two minutes, : Hld it i ... s imila l to Ihe action of 11 Iwrson who rl'a ehe:, Ollt an arlll to opel! or dose a door. To gllal"l l against aecidl'nt. the gates at th e entrance:, to all the locks anti at the lowcreud 01' the upper lock in ea c h fligillare placed in pairs.lhu:' clilllinalill g th e chan c e s of a s hi p mmmillg Ihe gale whi c h i s holding hac k tlte water of the level above. These guard gates miter outward t o gi,' c Ih c lll added I)owel" to r esi s t an." blow wh ich be to them. <\1"(' al s o ;l"ailab e for lL:-
PAGE 168

Cj HE b&-Q Log, UN.,ITED Ships will nol he allowed t o ('nle r th e l ock s ullder th e ir own s t ea m hul will he towed through h y electri c locollloli\ c S ope r ati n g 011 th e l ock w all s A ship a hout to cnl e r tIle lock s will to a stands t ill alongside th e :ll )proac h wal l s w hel '(' th e locomotive s two on each wall. Iwo forward ;lOt two aft. ca n allach their Jines. U efore th e ship can enler a 111ck ch;lIu bcr iL cncounlCl'S a MethOd o f .he 18foot side w all c:ulvl'fls COlial>sib l e slee l forms wer e used and aflcr the l;on c rCIC had sct. w e r e 1 : lkcI l d own i n section s fcnder c h ain w lliell ha s hCl'l l placed 011 th e upstream side u f all th e g-atc s of Ih e uppe r l o ck s ;mll ill front of Ill(' gnal'd gales at th e ]OW('I' e n d of ('neh flig ht of luck s t o I' r e n.' llt t h e from I)('in g rammed h \ a s hip separat e d fro m tlw l ocomotin:,s 0[' apprnachi ll'" th e g at e s under its 0\\'11 >;team. I n opera tion I h e i s acrns.'; c hamher fro1l1 the. top o f the wall s ; when It I .'l desll'p d 10 ,dlo\\" a Sll1p to pa s s, thc cham I S lowercc 1IIto ... ill thl' l o c k floor, <111ft i s rai s1-' d a/!,lill after the ship pa ss e s It i s worke d 11.\' a h y dr:lu l i e all y ope rat e d of c.\"l inders and is eapalJlc of to a s t o p :I IO,OO(J-tOIJ ."hi p. nwuin g at four kn o t>; an h Ollr, within 1"('1..'1. whic h i s !c: i than tltc d i lan('l' bdwl'cn th e chHin and the ga tc. In ('a s e tlH's e I'rc c,tUt i on s to prl'\ c lt! a ccident to the gates fail. o r ill ca s e il hou l d bc nc c e ssary 1 0 make 1'l' pai r s which would Ilec(' s" i lalc thc s h utti n g of r of all wate r f r 'om Ihe lake Icvel s llll ellU'rgene.v dam of the m ovahle I y p e ha s bee n 111acc d above. cnc h fligh t of ',oc k s. This dam i s t slecltruss l!l:idgc of ca nl! en'r tn)(', p1\'ote d on the srde WHll of the lock apprnach. "hell Ilo t In u s c II r e.'ll s up o n th e i de \\,, 111 parall{ 1 10 Iht' ("hannel. Whell l"l'fjllircd for u s e i l i s r 1 5 8 I

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Thc handlinl-:" equipment used at Pcdro Mil-:"uel and Mir:lflores was entirel y different from Ihal al Gatlin. ,\t Pedro MilJ:lIcl. nerm e r.lrlcs. COnt:l;ninl-:" the mi",inl-:" machiner)', were statione d al Ihe head of the lock with "rms o n either side. from which Jo:r.lb buc k e l s WCrC lowere d 10 pick liP sand and rock. as I h e case milJ:hl be. The finished produ c t was carried b)' these tr.li n s i nto the Ioc:k chamben. MallY of Ihe old Fre n c h locomotives were repaired and lIseu r o r this work. [ 1 5!) 1

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- -I -, -"-, .' I --,- --The Chamber cr:mcs, shown here. l ifted the huc k e t s o f ccmcnl from Ihe ITa;n and Iransponcd them 10 Ihe point desired The rnNhod of dumping by the Chamber cr,mcs is vcry lIimilar 10 Ihal of the GalUn cable ways, the operati o n being controlled by a mall Slatiollcd i n the caKe on the trolley arm These cranes operated O n werc selfpropelling, and were used 10 advantage als o in handJinl<: he: ... y ";CCCII of lock machinery. Ilcrm cromes a l M iraflorcs LOcks. \Vilh the completion of the h c"vy masonry work a t P edro Migue l the ennes Werc Il,o"cd to Locks. The mixing cranes were s lightly m o dified, and were Slalion<,d on the IY.lnks of the locks. instead of ,II t h e head. dUIIl,,;nl! directl y into the side walls, while the c h amber cranes were used solely for center wall conSlruelion. This mel hod dim;n:lIcd Ihe necessily of concrete carryi n g Ir .. ins 10 a large [ IGO )

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swung acl'o ss tbe chnnn cl, with it s e nd re sting o n the ce nter wall of t h e l ock. A serie s of w i c ket g irders hinge d to it a r e tlien luw e red wit h their ends re sting ill p ocke t s em b edde d in th e loe k A ool". The adi o n of t he se girders llIiglil he compared t o til(' dmpping of th e lines on a sulk," ra k e. wilh the exception t hat t h e girder s arc hung on individual pi,' ol",. A nt,!' t he se g irde r s haH' be e n lo we red into pl;1<:c. the y a frOI'd rUlIways f oJ' gales w hich arc let dowil OIlC at a t ime. clo s ing t he s pa ce bdwccn the m The firr-\ row of plates lowered close t h e c h, lIlllc] to n height of 10 feci; another seri es of pan e l s l owe r e d brings thi s h e i g ht t o 2 0 feCi and s o on un Iii the channel completel y clo sed. ',"jlh I he m ain flow of wa leI' c h ecked. the remainder. d ue t o th e de:u'ance het ween the 1,lates. i s chccked by dl'i v ing s teel p ipe ,etween the side..; of the a djacent pane ls. Whell it i s dt'si red to gain access in the dn' !c) th e ills of th e s e cnw!,; of swi'hes. A s th e opc rator tlll'O\\ s the s\\' ilche'l ht, can f';{'C bef o r e h irn in model or diagram l he Pl'Ogl'{'ss of thl' fend cr chaills tltl' 1ll0\' cllIc n l o f the gatcs, the ol'(.'nillg and cJo;
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I I f The upper picture s hows the intakes i n the wall s whe r e wat e r i s l e i I n :lnd OUI o f the culverl,. The center picture J,:;Vl'.'1 a "lew o f G:ilun lock s und e r con strllcli o n In the lower picture t h e 8(IUarC conCrll.IC hlli ldinK in the dis tance i s I h e con t r o l house fro m whic h a ll o f the lock operating machinery will be m::r.nipul:lted l i6:! 1

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and the rise and fal l of the water ill t h e l ock chamhers. The sntcm i s interlocki n g so th at certai n motors Clln not be s tart ed in a certain direct i o n u ntil o l he r m o t ors are o perated in a propel' manner. HOW LOCKS WlmE BJ;JLT One of the most inte r es tin g s i g h t s to the canal vis itor during thc time co n st ru ct i on work was in progre ss on th e locks was th e workin g or the co ncret e mixe r s and the cablew:!,"s and cranes n ow dismantled whi c h carri ed the 111:1-t e r ialto the point w h ere it was t o be p oured. At Gatun l oc k s, whe r e cuhic yards of concrete wcre placed, the asse m bli n g and t he d i stribution of th e materi a l was d one by mean s of indusllial The first monol ith completed at Gatun Locks early In 1910. These monoILth 5 are hUj;:e block s of concrete. which joine d toJrcther. mak e a continuous wall almost a mile long. This is one of the out side walls, and the s pace h as b ee n filled in with earth an
PAGE 174

Of' The tipper piclUrc shows a view nOrih from Miraflores Locks. Petlro Migue l Lock in the distance, sile o f l\IiraflorC5 Lake in between Spillw3)' 1 0 the righl. temporary bridge for the gate contractor s 1 0 the left o f picture. The center picltJrc shows a vicw lookin g south from the same loc k Ancon Hill in the distance. The lower picture presents a busy scen e 3t the locks when the gates were under construction. [ 164 1

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[TED cle<;tl'ic railw:\\ 's and oyc rhcad cnblcways. Fl"Om th e docks in Cris t ohal. th e <.-elllcni was carried in barge s Lip t he old i 're llch canal. whi ch had 1)('('11 deepened for the pu rpose. t o a ccmcnls lo ragc dock at C a lUll. I l ock qua rrie(1 alIt! ( : nl;;; h c d at Porto B ello thoul 17 miles e ast of Cololl. a n d "a nd dre d ged at :\ombrc de Dios aboul35 mil es C:'l s t of Colon. was lowed in barges to G atlin dock s This mall'rial was unl oaded by o\'c rh cad cablc\ \ 'n, s, upon \\'hich grab bm: kc l s wer e hung, and carried to sto rag e pil es. The ma teria l was th e n assemhled in th e m i xers by cars o perated under the cement shed anti u nder the sa nd and roc k s torage pile s. An o th e r electric railway c arri e d t h e hucke t s of co n cl'clc to th e bank above th e lock sites. AI t hi s point t be fnll hueket s wert l ift e d from the cars bv cablewan; stretched a cross the lock sitl' and lowered i n t o t he lock chamber whf' r e d es ired 'f ilel'(' wer e e i gh t of the cal)l('wIIYs :lIT,mgcd in pairs. The lock walts as:I whole give the visitor an idea of maSSi" e cOnstruction only. The arched sections. shown i n the picture. connectinJ,: t h e main walls With the wing and guid e walls, effect a sa"jng in conCr ete and also gi"e a srmmetrical tOuch to t h e struclUres. e a c h pair stretching frOIll a stel, 1 t o\\'e r S,j feet high to a s imilar lower' (m lhp oppos ite s ide of the l ocks. a of 800 feet. Thesc towers \\"ere pla cl't! on truck s on whi c h the.,' could be mO\"ld alo n g parallel to t he lo('ks tn the point desi r ed. B esi d es the concrete. I he {'abkwilYs al s o han dled hea,'," con s tructi o n mat e r i al. stic h a s s teel forlll s and lumhtr. T heil' capacity \\'11:. six tOilS e a c h and the gre at es t lift 170 feel for a di stance of (i70 feet. ) F o r th e at the P aeifie end :r di s tin ct l y differ'CIII s."ste m waselllplo., cd. l lac emenl alledro :\I i g u el WlIS made h y meiWS of fOllr eanti le\"l'r Cranes. t\\"o re sting 011 tracks on th e floor of e ach lock chamber. and t\\"o berm cranes efluip p e d w ith two 2-cuhic ya rd mixer s in the upper forelJay. Each of th e chamber ('rane s was 9,j feet hig h w i t h cantile,'c r arms, which l'x lcuded to hoth .-;i des fro m the center. P la cement in the approach and ",iug walls w a s llIad e b.,' means o f [ 165 [

PAGE 176

--o o A f,(cnerll' vlcw of Gajun Lock s as they appeared OctOber I 1 912. All hc:IV)' m:r.wnr y work, W it h the el
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I ---...:: I -1 I -

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ITED dCITick s, ",hi<'ll lifted th e bu c k e t s fr o m con c rete t rain s w hi c h ra n between the mixer and c h a m ber cranes. \Yhcll th e hean" ma son!') work at P ed r o 1\1"i"lIcl was f-ini s h c d t h e c hamber C]';llles we r e lrans ferr' c d to :\lindl orcs. and ope r ated i n th e s anl C manner. The be r m c ran es w e r e m o d ified i n o l 'de r lim! th ey mi ght be o p erated on th e s id es of t h e locks, ins t ead or at the h ea d. The CI'Llf'h c d stOIl(: for t h e concr ci e o f bot h P edro :\lig u c l and )liraflorcs locks was s u pplied IJY rail f r o m a large quarry :.mel crush e r plant. on the west I;ioc of All eo n hill lIear Panama. Sand wa s d r e d ged at Pu nta Chamc, on Panam a Bay, 2 3 miles wcs t ()f I'anama 11 was hallied in b a r ges t o Balboa and th ere lInloa d e d b y special m:l c hillc\'Y lind haul e d h,v rail \.0 t h e storag e pi les at the locks. :\I \KIX(; Till': 1)11(1' FI. Y The wo r k o f cxenvatiun in t h c canal pri s m was div ided into t wo c la sses, "wcr' and "t1ry," that tak e n out b y mean s of dl1!dg es .md t h a t b y s tea m s h ove l s, re s pcctivcl y. The wet excllvatio n 'II) to Octobe r .5, w h e n wa l e r w a s ad mitte d int o C ulchr a C ut w a s practicall y co nfined t o t h c SC'1l level SeC lion of Ihe norlh w a ll al Galun Loc k s u n d e r construction. This was one o f the most difficult pieces of masonry work in the w hole job. The j{reater Ilart o f it5 length o f 1.000 feet rests upon pi les dri c n to sol i d rock. T o the right i s seen the ., 3 $ 1 wing w311 o f the lock s. appr-oac h e s 10 t h e Canal. Ihal :tllhe .\\I,mlie e n t rancc scvc n milc s to the locks a t Gatun. and that al th c Pa cific cntrance 8; mil c s t o the locks at :\Iil";lf lot"cs. The la rgest IJart o r I he excavati on howc\:cr, wa s accomplis hcd by s l eam sho\' cl s in CLI chi:" Cut,j?I'iOl'!O the.l etting in or th e water or Gatun Lake and i.n t h e Chag-res sec tio n h e r e l 'e m : 1Hlcd o n Septembcr I about 9 1 :,,3,00 0 cubiC yards or s poil in C u lehra CuI. ou t of a total o f 95.S6!J,OOO cuh i c yards. The lol.a l cxcH\ -ntio n "wct"' and dr \ for the entire canal a s orig inall y estimate d b y the minotity Il t('mbct s o f l ite Board of Con sullin g Etl gi n cel's, was c ubi c i u additi oll to th e amounl excRv;Jl e d by th e Fre n c h companies, [ IUS J

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E nlronce 10 Galun Lock s from the lake. G:uun Dam 011 I h e l eft and a l lllrOach wall in Ihe f oreground. Approach 1.0(10 feet lonl:. have been buill :11 each end o f all the locks, and as Ihe name indicates, they ,,"en e as a Io:"uide t o ships up the : tpproach channel. Ships must come to a S lOp :II these walls, unti l the locomotives w h ic h lOW Ih{'m through Ihe locks make f:lst their lines. View o f the upper gates al Miroflores Locks u nder conSlruction The firsl of Ihese i s compl eted and panly swung open to full vicw lo:"ivinJ:" an idea of their thicknell'. The galeS arc operalcd b y e lectricity and may b e open e d or dosed i n one minutc and H seconds, [ 16' [

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C I H E l.l:lli0 w h o QO,iOS.OOO c ubi c yard s lIsc ful under th e p r e s e nt plan s TIlls es timate ha s !.>cell ill('rc:l s c d sc\' cntl lim es on account of c han ge s in t he c:Hlal p la n s t o s iltin g in th e c:tn.tl entra n c e s and ill t h e C h ; g r cs s ect i o n to s lid es in Cllklm l C ui rM th e t e rminal s at bolh entrance s and for the dry d oc k s at Bal bo a. The last c s lim :t\c mad e 011 Jul,,' I W 1 3 place s th e tota l at cuhic y:lJ'd!'i. c o n siderahl y more th a n douLle the amount estimate d When the call:!l is (-n l i l'('ly completed. the exc a \'a t e d m a t e r ial would make a line of 63 p ynullids each equal in s i ze to t h e C"C,lt P Y l'am id of E g y pt. DB I:O G I:-;O :\fo s t of t h e work i n th e Atla nti c e ntrance, ahout c ubi c yards, wa s b y two ele\'a tor dredges l eft b y the Fre n c h llnd o\'erlmu led b y til(' \mcriC ;ln s a dip p e r dredge of Ame r i ca n make. and a sea-going ( lOi neh Com p leted s ill s from the lock gates, T h ese s ill s. buill of s teel and concrete. f orm f oundatio n s on which the Ilates rest, s u ct ion d r e dge. al s o made in the rnitcd S lates '''here the c hannel ran i n s id e the shOl'c lill( two s m all hill s we r (' dwr o u l hy s l ea m s ho\' cls 1 0 a depth o f il f eci. nnd the 1'('IlI,tindel' then accompl i s hed h y the dredges, .In the P ;lcif i c enll'al)('e ahout 61.4 8 0.000 cubi c yard s wHs ;lccompl i s h c d b,\' 1\\'0 ( I('\'atol d r e d g l's of Ih e Belgi an type and two Scotch c-!c\'alur dre d ge s l e ft b \ the Frcnch and o\' c l'halll c d hy the Americans a modern ele\,:ltol' dredge I l llilt in S c o llalHl inl!)11. and a sea-going 20-il1Ch s ucti on d r edge, Thi s latter dre d g e wa s (Joatl'd int o Culehra Cut in October. If) l:'1.
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T h e uml e r constru ction 3t Pedro j\lilo!ue l. The lock gates. ; 1 6 in number two l eaycs to 1'3c h Il;ate. con s t it u t e one o f the spectacula r features of C anal constructi on. I he), arc 7 f"et t hick, from 47 to 82 feet h ill;h 3nd each le:lf or half gate wei):hs from 3110 to 1011 tons. They a r c b ui h u p of great horizo n tal girder, we,,,hing from 11 to 1 8 tons "3eh. w i t h "enical frame work in between. sheathed with steel pl:ues on cad sid". Ncar "icw of t h e ma,si"e l<)(."k gate, showinJ:" ri"etin" !o:anJ:" o n scaffoh.l The lower pan of eac h RlIte i s an air chamber, so that in it. the gatc is buo)'ed UI} b y t h e surro undin!: waler rcd ucinJo: the we;!!h t on its o.nd ffiakinlo! il easier to mo"e. To o,' c rcom e the lifting e ffect w h e n the lock chambe r i, run of wat e r Ihe upper half ha! o penings o n the up-stream s ide which all ows i t to autom a tically r ill or emilly, thull the weiio!h t [ 1;-I 1

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To break lip th i s material, ill addi t i o n to SUh;\f l U CO U S hla s tin g, a Lobnil Z s ub aque olll' rock hn' akcl' w a s u s ed T I -IHOl'CII TilE IJI\'IIH: The part of th e calla l o n which the m o s t work ha s b ee n dOlle. and whic h w a s th e la s t t o b e co mpl ctC(l i s Culc bra C ui th e !.I-mil e sect i o n llll 'o u g h th e co ntincntal di, idt:'. 'York has be e n IIcarlv con tinuollS i n t hi s sect ion s in ce th e Fre n ch slarlc d opcraliolls in 1 88'l. It is aho o n e of th e mo s l important and i nt c r cs t ill,!.\' rOl:' i Oll:, of I h e COl na 1 pm jed on acco un t ,of t he deep i ng n CCCS S :I r > a nd the difti c ulltcs e n co unt e r e d on a cc ount of s hd es and t h e d I s p o s a l of s pod h ell the Ameri cans too k O\'cr the work in ;\fa\ 1!)U4-, t h ey found t h e Fre n ch e ngaged in takin g out jus t s ufficiellt mat e r ial t o hl)lel I hei, : co n cess i on. This C lose "iew o f compl e l e d gates al Gatun Locks. The r e are 4 6 gates i n Ihe lock s whic h agg regate 58 000 Ions ill w e iRht ami i f placed end 011 end would m ake a towe r about one and o ne-fiflh milcs high. The author was standing o n t h e lock floor b e l ween the parlly clos e d gales whe n Ihis pho logr aph was taken. the,'were d o in g wit h a few obs o l et e s ide cxcava lor-i;, se n 'c d b smal l D c('a u \'ille dump ('ar s :lnd Bel g ian engi n es. 'York wa s continue d w ith th e ('{Iuip m c nt left hy th e F""cn ch un lil it c ould h c f,("raduall.,' r e pla ce d w i lh m ode m ste11l11 s h o,"cl s c a r s and e n g incs, The first s t('arn sho'"cl was pla ce d in operat i on o n 11, lD04, a nd thc Ills t o f the F rench cxeayators W IIS di scontinued o n June 1 6 1 005. On Aligust 1 1005 there we r c 1 1 s l ea m s hov e ls a t work but they wer e g r e all." handic
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This Ihe size 10 which Ihe sm:lller fealures o f 1,."3.11' const r u c tion allain, a s wert a s Ihc care taken in their manufaclure, This s teel yoke, mad .. o f vanadium, is used to ('On neCI Ihe topS of I h e J,t"ales wilh Ihe anchors in Ihc w:lll s. It wei j.:hs 14,000 pounds, and was subjected to a stress o f 3,300,000 pOunds before it brOke, The opera t ing mechanis m of a lock gate. The w heel is a bull w hich. in operating, turns through an arc, g;"ing the connecti n!: rod the movement o f an arm i n o penin g \lnd shuttin g a door I t is 1 9 feel i n diameter, and weighs o ,'er 35.000 pOunds, [ 173 1

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eXC :I\'alioll. T rac k s w e r e p rop el'll la i d a pro p e r tran spottatio n s } r s t e m ina ug u rate d a nt! pmpc r d u mpi n g pace s l ocnt c d b efo re th e wor k was res um e d 011 a la rge s cale i n 1!)Ui. I n t h a t ,'car !J, li7.130 c u h i c yard s were t"ke n ou t and f r o m th a t lime 1 0 w h e n !h e maxImum of ] G ,5DG,S!J1 yar d s w a s ,-cached i n 1 nIl. lh('t,C was a s l e a d," inc r ease in t h e amo un t of matC l ial exc a v a t e d a s ne w Side -jew o f cmcTJ;cn c y dam o n e a s t w all al G alUli Locks. In ca5C an acciden t occu r r e d t o the g'dI C S allo w i ng-a free passage 0 1 wat e r from the 8 5 fool l a k e l e v e l t o the sea l evel, c h e d a m w ould be swunlo! : I c r o ss t h e lock c h a mber and : 1 seri es o f wick e t g i r d e r s hinged 10 i. w ould bc lowe r e d wil h t heir ends resting i n I.oek c t s i n the lock floo r S l eel gates w ould thc n be lct d o w n one a l a lim e. w hich woul d close the lock c h a mber and c heck I h e flow o f water equipment was i n s t alled. Tr:ti n s or fla t a nd dUlILp c a r s, 2 0 t o a tmin, d.-aw n hy 100 l o n l ocomo ti v es c u rried th e s p o i l t o be u s e d ill tlt e dam at G a t u n th e hr('akwatel" Oil t h e P a cific e n t r a n c e. fills o r t o dump.'; w h e r e i t w a s m e r e l y wa s t e d A s t h e C u t n l' :l r cc\ complet i o n, t h e work h eca m e co n ec nll"ate d in a h o r t section ;tl Cukbra w h c re th e d cepe s t CUllin g 272 fecI. w a s ncccssar. and the 11IJ1tt b t of s l e a m s h ovcl s h a d t o b e :tra dll ally ,educ e d T o p rc,clIl t h e floodin g of th e C u t. t h e c lllwl channel w a s para l l el e d o n e a c h :-;i c h from Gold I lill norl h t.o B:ls O b i s p o a d i s tan ce of f ive mile s, b y s mall ( auab or di,c r s i o n .... w hich c a rrie d inlo t h e Chag rcs R i v e r th e wate r from stream .... Ihat o therwise would have flowe d in l o t h e C u t and in terrupte d t h e work. 'I'll pl"f'w' nt the wa te r in Gatun Lake fr o m h a c kin g up into t h e cnl th e earth en dik c wh i c h was hlow n up o n O ctohe r Ifl, w a s bui lt. T o th e s outh o f Gold lI ill t h e water w h i c h would ha' c flood c d lh c C ut was carri e d o f f b y t h c Rio G rand e :Htd all old Frcnch divcr i o n channel. R a i n wa t el" thal c ollected i l l th e C ut flowed n o th aud south. At Gambotl, on t h c n o r th it. w a s pumpp d the d i ke. amI a l P edro : U iguel, 1 0 t h c s o u t h it d ra ined ofr thro u g h Ih c l o(' k wall ( ,lIn'r!.;. All s tea m s h m c! w o r k ill th e C u t w a s di scont inuc d o n (."), a n d I I('lweel1 thai (\a l (' a nd Oclol)c l .5, W I S, wltcn \\"ate was admi tt e d all equi p !lient and o t h e r ma\('l iaL i ncl udi n :t o'er mi les of c o n s t r ucti o n t ra c k w a s r e mo'e d A t Ih a l lin l(' t h c r e w e r e a bou t s l c am sllm cl s a t work. The f ollo w i n g lah l c of materi a l exca vated in Ih e C ui a n d fur t h c w h ole can al. i ndi(' a t e s th e p crio d of prep a ra t o r )' w ork, th c t.ime w h ell th e hi g he s t p o int o f cffi-r 174 J

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Section of lock wall s how i n!; the r:lc k r ai l o\' c r w hi c h t h e towing locomotives tra\'c1. TowinJ{ locomotive i n o p e ration at G :ltun Lock s, These machines are dl'signed 10 tow vessel s thro u g h t h e locks, The r e will b e twO locomoti\'es ahead towing, and tWO aStern t o retard Ihe "essel's progress if re
PAGE 186

C j HE bWp :W0I2J. )];) UWTED ('i('II('\' was I'cached. and whe n th e work hecame concentrated in the s h o rt s edi(;r l of Culcbra ClI\ liS Ih(' other se ction s neared cOInpll'li oll: (TLEIlIU C t 'T. CAX.\L. Y ear Cubic Yard .; Year Cuhic Y a l d s 1 !)04 . 'U3, rT'l I H(H.... ... ... ..... N:3A72 I !}iJ.) ... . . L 1(ii,62S I !)(J5 . .. . I. 1 1)06 ................ 2.iO'l,O!JJ I !JOU. . . .. .... 4.!HS. W 7 I f)!Ji ............ ..... 11)(J7'... ...... ..,. 1 ,),7 65,2!)o I OOR. ... .. . I :3,0 I 2 A.'):J IDOS.......... ... J!)on. . . ..... J L,j.ji ,03 4 I DU!). . . 3 .),OD(j, 16(j H)I II ...... ......... ]'') ,3 0 8,'';00 1010 ....... ., :J1A37.(i77 J!J I I .... I J!) 1 1 .... 3 1 .......... HI It!., .. .. UJI:) HI) ......... S,:I l S. lU O HII:1 ( to:-i{pl. I ) 20,!):)7,7 1 8 Total,.: ... 07.132.8 0 1 209,2 1 8,030 'i'W() lila kci' of s tClllll s ho\e1." \n. :I(' 11 ,;cd ill the ('xca \',11 ion wOlk, I he B llCYnlS and :\I ,Il'ioll, of 6li, 70, DO and ](J.) t Oll S equipp ed with dipper s mnging in capa('ily from 1 1 cu hic ,\' ,ll'<1s 1 0 J c uhic .nmls. III CulcLm Cut, 8lio\'e l s with These models o f l>edro Mill:u e l Lock give a good idea of how s h ipS will e nter and pass through the locks. [ 176 J

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A compreh('nsi\' e view o f o n e of the great locks of the Can:t 1 und('r cOnstruction. where the concr ete m onoliths in the world have been buill. One is ai most bewildered by the tre m ('ndo u s machinery o f the w ork-thO! enormo u s Ilcrm and Chamber cr.mes with their almost uncanny air o f intelli!,:e nce t owering over the scene with their interlaced-ironwork arm s extended ab(H' e thO! cem ent wall s whic h they arO! constru c ting.

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-., M iguel ,mu M iraflorC!l a r c a b o u t o n e and oneh a lf a part. The Pacifi c Clllnm c e t o t h e Callal ,,,,d A neon H ili nlay be seen i n t h e d i stance. Ihe t o w n o f I'ctlro l\ Hlo:uel i nto IWO I)arls i s sibl e i ll t h e f o rcgrou n d a t ,h" fill e d with Ihe o f l\Iiraflo n : ,. L a k e -. -.. """ --."... This b irdseye vlcw I:j,'cs a ll idea o f their relation 10 e a c h oth e r T hl) newl y n::I Ocal e d li n e o f t h e n a m a R a i lroad, whic h div ides Idt o f the loeb. The s );lc e betwee n the two lock is nO W

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5-,vnrd d ipp e r s we r e lIsed a l m os t e nt i r e l y. find a s h o v e l th u s e quippe d :\\' c ra gc d about 1 .800 cubi c ya r d s per 8-h o u r day. A c ubi c 'yard of e a r t h a nd r oc k wei g h s aboul 3 000 pou n d s, a n d r eprese nt s a bout :t l woh o l 'sc ca r t l oad. The wor k clone b," th e s lea m s h o v e l s would d i g a cana l 55 feet wid e and 1 0 feet deep frOIll 'faine to O r egon. I n tra n s poding ma (cr i a l l o t h e dump i n g t h r cc cl asse s of ca r s w e rc u se d Lidge r woo d flat. cal 's with o n e high s i d e wit h a capnc i t y of 1 0 c ubi c ya rd s, a nd Oli\'cr and W e stern s ide dump CHrs l a r ge a n d s m all, ha ving :t c apa('il," of 1 1 an d 1 0 c ubic ya r d s, re s peclive l y. T o haul trai n s compose d of 20 H al cars, 27 l a rge clump C:l r s o r s mall d Ulllp c a r s Am e r i c an l oco m otives werc u s ed. T hese t rai n s wo uld make nn ave ra ge of 1 1 tri ps d a i l y t o th e du mps. an ;I\'erage di s ta n ce olle way of II m i l es. The t im e con s u me d in un l o ading a tl':lin o f fla t ca r s OIL th e dumps wa s f ro m seve n t o 1 5 m i n utes. This landin g a t G a tun. T h e struclUr e on c o n c r e t e pi les t o the r i g h t ill a whar f w h e r e small boats that ply t h e lake may l a n d t heir cargoes. w h e n the lake i s t o its fu ll h e i ght. was aecompli:::h ed by th c u s e of w h a t was k n own a s an u n l o ad i n g plc;)\v. l a rge dump c a rs were operat e d hy compr es s ed a i r f r o m I h e l oco m otn' c, whd e t h e s ma l l dum p cars wcr e operated by h a nd, a nd I h e tim e c on sumed ill un l oad i n g was from G 10 5 : ) minu t es. T he consta n t ani,,,] of s poi llrains 011 th e dumping g r o und s made n ecessary a qui c k m e t hod of c hangi ng Ihe c o n s t ruct i on t ra cks. This n eces s i t y l e d to th e in\"('nlion b y W C. B icrd forme r l y s llJwrinte nd e nt o f t h e Pana ma R ai l roa d o f 11 track s hifting m ac h ine Thi s m a chine consis t s of a b oo m. ex t en di n g f r o m ;I flat car out O\'er th e track i n adva n c e of t h e car, 1.0 w hi ch a b l ock a n d t ack l e i s attached b y which the tl":lck i s liftcd frolll i t s he(1. All ot h e r b oom ex t e n d i n g from the car at an a n g l e w ith t h e main boom p ull s t h e t ra ck t o one si d e o r t h e o t her. I n thi s W:I .\ tmc k ma y b e th!"Own n i n e f e ci f!"Om i t s orig i na l p o s i t i o n in o n e opcration. lit addi lioll to t h(' unl oadi ng plo\\" a n d t h e IrHek s hift c r for t h e rapi d h a n d of s po il. th ere was a l s o uscd a mach i ne l o spre:ld th e materia l o n I h e dump I 1 7 ,';: 1

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and keep them ill a un iforml y !C\'cr c ondition This sprel. ld er cons i s ts of a car on which h;l s l>cen placed a ma chine with s t ee l win gs. and it work s cxactl.\: lik e an e l ectric s n ow p l ow o n the city street s in t h e I -nitcd Sta ll's with the except i o n Ihnt th c win gs arc o p e ra ted with compre sse d ail' ohtained from the locomotivc w hi c h haul s the car O\-er th e dump. Wit h a p erfec t organ iJ':ati o n modern equ ipm e nt, a well plann e d s yste m of tra n s portati o n. and t he rapid di s p o snl o f th e s poil s o n th e dumps, t h e rnax imllln possihle output of t he .o;t c am shove1.s was o bt aine d a nd main tained an d man y wOI 'ld recor d s wer e made 011 th e I s thmus in exca v a t ion work. ACBOSS THE ( STlDll: S IS \ IIYUIiOBII'L .\SI; Seve ml attempts !t;I\ 'e heen mad e duri n g the pa s t ft'w .n'a r s to c ro ss the I sthmus in a h eavier than ail' flvilw machi ne, bu t nunt' wert' s u c cessful un til 0 April 27 lOIS w h en R ohert G_ F owler. the a v iat or. acco m pan i ed by R A. Duh eill. photograph e r left th e P acific c nt rance to th e C anal at 10 a Ill,. and arrived at Cris t obal P o int on th e Atlanti c s ide at 10:,ji a. Ill_ The route of the ca n a l was followed clo se l y, t h e ;I\iat ol' making a c i rcle al Culebra, in order to o htain v i ews of all parts of CIL! ebra C ut. The hig h e s t al t itu d e attaincd during th e fli ght was 1,80 0 feet; t h e lowe st he ight at which the m achi n e flew was -WO fee t. The Presi d c nl ha s s i g n e d an E xecuti\-e O rd e r prohiuiti n g furthe r flig ht s over th e Ca n al, or t o t ake ph otograp h s from a (-ly ing ma chine, with ou t w ritt e n auth ority of th c C h ief E xec uti\-c of the Canal Zone. f !toberl G Fowler' s ,-,vc r C ulebra Cut Empi r c s u .spe nsion bridge in forelo(Tound A rar e p icture. [ 170 1 Crossinlo:" the Locks al G,uun o n a b u c k e t operated by the cab1cways.

PAGE 192

"On t hey eve r onward, B la s ting s tone, and c:lrlh and m e n ; Filling river s with razed mountains : Fillin g g ra\ 'cs with parts of m en. Bl ood and bone arc mi xed w i th COllc r e le, Sweat 1'1' llro\\' and '"'ime of toil )lark th e w u g h -ncck swelters, W car,\ mid the grease alld oil. \ Veal'v fles h nor fever's t errors fin!l t h em a s the y onwnrd go. Forwa r d Forward! E,'t'1' F or"',II'd! I s th e 011\\' CI'\' the \' klluw:' -.John lIall. !'51 :n;:O;-TY .\tILLIOl\ I'Ol' N D S 0 1 I>YX.\.\ll'rF: The g reater p:lI' of th e material excavated h," the Ameri c nll s i n Culcbra C ut LefOl'c Ihe dredrrc s were inll'odm :co c on s i s ted of hard rock. and it wa s lICCC SS:lI'\' to drill :lmf hla.';t it bdol"<-' i t could b e handled b,' the s t eam s h ovel s. Aho ul J'O.OOO.OOU pOllnd s out or a total of aboul 70.000:000 pou nd s 1'0 1 th e ent i re Cannl was u s ed. \yiI eli it i s c Olls ider('d that n e a!'ly three c ubi c v
PAGE 193

L aboreT1ll loading well_drill h olC5 with dynamite ncar COntractor's Hill. A small c harge i s firS! el


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materiul arc blas ted for e :tch pound of expl o s i\'c u s ed, th e important. part dynamite has pla yed ill cHllal (;oll s lrouction can be read i ly see n Bln sting powder wa s not ILsed t o a g .. extent due 1 0 exce ss iv e moi sture and wate r in th e holes. In order t o h'cp the .<;team shon ls going at capacity. it was necessary to areas nt a time and as much as 26 t on s of d ynamite wa s lIs ed at o ne t im e. I n Ihe II SC of s 1lch large fJuanlil i c s of high explos ive there have naturally Twelve o r these for storin g dynamite are located a t convenient pOinls along the C'lOal been Illany seriou s a cc idents all hough exl J 'clne car c was tukcll in the handling. T h e mo s t se rioLis acc ident 0<: cllITe d ill the Cut at Ba s Ohis p o on D ecember i't, I DOS, when there was a premature explo s ion of nearly 'l'l,OOO pound s placed in :i'l or the 53 ho l es it was inte nd e d t o cxpl ode. The powder gan g was working ou t h e l a s t h olc whcn th e entire charge for s o m e UIlknown reason wellt ofl'. The rcsult was appalli ng. Twenty-six men wcre killed. among tltem being th rcc Americans, and some iW injured, Ill.m)' of th e m s eri o u s l y. 'J'hcl' c had been :l J)t'cmatu l c explos ion of 26 tons a few m on th s prc\' iou s, 22. ]!J08 in the C l w g 'c s s ect ion of the Can al, w hich is suppo s c d to havc b cen cau;:;cd by lighlning Thc rc wc r e fcw casualtics howevcr, e scapes a s sevel'a l hundl'l x l m e n we r e in l,he Immediate nCllllt )' I h e Ihlll/.;' mos t d read e d by th e s team s h ove l mcn, with t h e po ss ible exception of a sudden s lidc of r oc k was the c hance of the s ho\'cl di/.;'gin g into a charge of d,\'Iwmite which had failed 1.0 ex! )!o d e. An accident of thi s nature oceurrcd in thc Cut 011 Octobcr 8, 1 908 wi t I the resul t that fhe of t h e s hovel c rcw were ki l lcd and several injured, A few days latcr another pl'cmnlure cxplos ion of o\'cr 24,000 pounds in 1 5 4 h o l es caused the dcath of eight men, This lattcr a ceidcnt was a l s o attributcd to the action of lightning upon the wires w hich, :llthough connected with th(' hol e s were not carn' ing any elcctric current at th c tin lc, T o pre vent. such accident s a s milch a s possible, many lectures and di s cll!'!'i o n s w e r e held from timc to time amo n g the employes engaged in the handling, storage etc" or cXl'los i \ c s, R eprcsentati\' c s of thc 1\ elllours-DuP ont. Powdcr Cmnpan,\'. wh ich supplied a la r g e pal'! of th e hlasting mate r ial. explamcd tlte making (If d ynamite the right method of hand liug a nd i t s action under ccrtain kll()"'11 conditions, A s a rc s ult of th e s e I 182 I A g;"flI blast in Culcbra C U I,

PAGE 195

di s cu ss i o n s it wa s d ec ided to u s c a hig h amperage cu rr e nt fm m all electri c lig ht plant i n exp l oding charge s o f m o r e than a d oze n h o l e s i n s t e a d of b y th e use of s t o rage b a ll e r ie s Under th e l a ll e r m e th o d with th e h o l es w ir e d in sel"ie s ills tem l of in p a rallel thel"e was no cc rtain! that all th e h u ll'S had e xplode d af te r t h e current w a s tu rn e d on. I n add itiOIl t o the u:,,(' o f a s tl"o n g current t he h u lc:-; were pla c e d cl o s er t oge th e r i n ord e r t h a t the d et o nati OIl f rom II n earby h o ll" wo uld e x plod e th ose w hich woul d oth e rwise ha\'c f ailed to go o f f. rul es and I"e gulat i o n s fOl" th e han d l i n g, s t o rage a nd u se of' d,l"lla mi te wer(' a l so i n t r o d u c e d and c n forced to min im i z e the dange r fiut n o ru l es o r r e g ulati o n s c oul d p r e \ e n t all a cci d e n t s w i t h out coo p cl"ati o n o f t h e mcn e n g a g ed 011 th e wor k T h i s i mp o ss i bili t y w a s f o r c ibly d e m o n s t rat e d i l l t h e c a s e o f a S pan i s h labor e r w h o, b e co m ing impati e nt at t h e s lowne s s of a ne gro h e lp e r s t u"led 1 0 k n oc k th e co"e r off o f a bo x of hla slin g caps w ith a m a c h e te, II i s h .mlly n e eessar," to s a y thal he di d n o t cOln plete th e wor k a s s i g ned t o him In operation subaque o u or unde r water b la s ting is employed. Drill b
PAGE 196

I n Ihe r acifie entrance d ynamile was e mpl oyed i n subaqueolls blasting. two dril l barges be ing lIse d to make the neCl' ss ar,\ hol e s In addition to breakin g up har d material for the dredges in t h i s sect ioll t h e u s c of dynamit e under w ater kepl marr, or those employe d in the vic i nit y suppli e d wit h f r 'esil fis h for some tim e. Those wh ose employment n ecessitate d th eir goin g out in boats th e m s el\'e s parti c ulal'l,Y fo r'tunate, On o n e occ a s i o n :\ pri\'ale m ess of Canal emplo,rl' S was kept s uppli ed with fis h a s lon g a s such :t did coul d be endured 1)\ its IlH'mbl'rs Th(' grealest difri('ult,\ in Ih e e;,:ea\'ation of Culehra. C ut ha s be e n caused by sli des wh i ch have from tim e 10 tim e precipitat e d great masses of earth and I'Ock i n I ? the Can al pri sn,l bmy in g dir t trai n s, lea rill&", up dirt traIn tracks In(\ clo sIng u p tile dralllage dItch. 111ere Iwve be el1 22 s l rdes and breaks al ditrerent times cO\'ering f rom one t o 7: ) a c r es, 'f'h('se h :I\'e adde d Towing d y n a mite t o the d rill boat Teredo. atl o u t 2,;,000,000 c u bic y a rds, or aboll t o nc -quarter of thc est imatcd total of <.:;,:c:l\"ali ol1 n ecessa r y in th e Cut. The large s t and most.tro ubie sollle of t h ese i s th e Cu(' al'acll;t s lide on the e a s l bank of the Cut a l C1.1lebrn, wh i c h starte d in w hen .Ihe ,I. r e n eh, Wl're at work: Wh e n Ihe Am,ericans s tarted III 1905 IIl1s slrde became acll\'e and, a s th e Cut dee p e n cd at t li S pOint i t cont inucd to d c\e1op Gol d Hill I )]'e se nt s :t so l i d r oe k face 4 82 feel :1bo\'e tire C a nal bottom bet w e en Cllcanl(! 1:1 s lid e and a. s lide imme d ia tel y n01'lh Th('se two s lide s h;n'e broken so far back that th e s lope o n th e ir' ollter Cdl':,TCS i s aw:\\' fro m the Canal. f hi s ha s I c d to t h e inlroduction of h rdruul i c monitors whic h in the mate rial from the lop of the s lides into the \'a l le.\ i n the l'('al' of Gold llilL in order to reduc e th e prcssure from alJo\e, A n o t he r sc rious s l ide occu rrcd on I h e we s t ban k of the C n n al at Culehru covel'i n g all a r'C:l of 7 ) acres, a nd nece ssitating the remond of a bout 1 0,000,000 cuhic ,\'anls of materi al. This s lid e ma d e n ecessa r y th e re m o\' al o f many buildings of the \ illnge of Clilebra which we r e situ at c d ncar th e ed ge of th e Cut. The r e arc two classes of s l ide s One s imi lar to C u cllrl.lclla i s cause d hy tire slippin g of cla y and ea r'tJr on a s mooth s loping Sl11'f ace o f a harder mate rial. The o lh er, commo n l y called ;t "break." similar 1 0 Ih e olle which invo lved thc [ IS 1

PAGE 197

ITED village a l ClIlcbr n i s callsed by t h e stccp n l'ss o f th e s lope and t he great of t h e supe rin cumbent nWl e rial upon t h e u nderly ing Ia,\'crs o f softer material. B es id es s iui c i ll", steam cx:canlte u a grea t llmoun l of mate r ial fro m th e l ops r clic \',c a nd 1 !lc C u t W:I S to preven t a pari of the m a l ena t III I h e sl id es I r o m gomg O\'er III to I he C all a 1 pn,.;m. :\ Lany sc hemes were p r opose d t o prevent slides, one. th e lISC of a CCllle111 gu n t o spra," the sides uf the C ut where t h e m ass of s t o n e l)Cca lllc h t'itt l c and cru m hle d on exposure 10 the air, but. as Colo nel G ail la r d sai d in :'\owmbcr. I VI'!: ;'Thc on[\' succ e ss flli m e th o d of trc ati ng t h e s l ide s o r b reaks o n ce the IlHll cl'iai j;; ill llIoti(l!1. j 10 d i g A sUOOqUeoU5 blaSI i n progress i ll Ihe Pacific entrance 10 Ihe Can al. ... .s high as 10, 000 pounds of d ynamile are s h o t o ff i n a .slnll l e bl:lSt of this kind i t o u t ,md haul it awa y u ntil t h e s l ide comes to re s t upon rt-'.u::hing the ang l e o f r C I )ose for t h e parti c u l a r mater i al then in m otion:' No difficulty i s nilt i ci p n t e( w i t h sl ides now th'lt water ha;-; bccn let i nto the Cut a s t h e Lack p ressure o f th e wuter is ex pected t o result in g reater stahi lit y, \\' hat malerial r emains ill th e slides in th e pris m wi l l b e I m nd led by lh e which will continue th e ir work u n til th e "angl e of re p o se" h a s bee n rea c h ed, The slides have caus e d all im mense nlllount of extra exc1\\'ation ,mel man \' dctays i n the work, bu t ther h a \'e dC'lll olls lraled t h e fael thu l a sea level Can:il requirinl? a. Cut 85 feci deeper th all it now i<; w{luld he nearl," imposs i ble to accomph<:h It i s t hat the s l ide s wou l d han' /,,'c\ 'ented t h e carryi llg out o f n sea I c \ el p roJect, except at an enormous expen se, [ IS'") J

PAGE 198

0,-----, o l I '--___ .-10 I Ie The sea going s u c tion dredge C ulcbn .. shown above. with it s s iswr vessel, the Caribbean. con stituh) the most eX I)Cll s ;VC unilS in the Commission's dred gi n g flee!. These vessels move up :md down the c hannel. suckinJ,: "p t h e mud and loose m'"erial, conycyinj.! it into their own h o ppers. \Vhen th" hoppers are filled. the vessels 1;0 OUi to sea and e mpty. The s uction dre dges w('r e used t o advanla!o!c in the fill u Galil n D : lm. Several of the o l d French dredl:cs were repaired and uscd by the Americans. I IS6 I

PAGE 199

-S uction dredge No. 82. remo"ing sil l frOin the c hann e l north of Camboa dike. This was the dredlo1e -put t o work in the Gallln Lake secti o n -C -. ) // / A dipper dredge at work in the Cantil The material is dumped into Ihe barl(t' alon g side the dredge, and w hen full Ihe barJ!c is cowe d oul \0 sea and emptied The th e newest and mOSI modern l::adder dredge in the Canal senice. It is equipped w ith five yard bucket s :md can dig t o 4 5 feel bo:luw mean sea level. r l S i 1

PAGE 200

Pare of l\1iraflore$ lock s ite and ehe Canal channel 1 0 t h e south of il were eJCca,"ated hydraulically. This iew shows one of the h ydraulic pumps Ihe waler throuJo:h pipes, filted wilh monitors, with a p ressure of 130 pounds ller S
PAGE 201

I The upper picture sho ws:. vicw o f the Canal looking norlh from I'araiso bridge IOward G old Hill wor k prog rcssi nJ( in the C 3 nal, Aug u s t \90 8. The center picture ;.'1 a "jew look i nJ,: soulh from the same poinl. 1 908. A ncon H m i n Ihe disl :,"cc. ( n the lower l )iclUre I3kc n Ihe same yea r the C:lnal i s s hown near Empire. Th.:.-s uspension bridJ.: c n ear Empire may b e secn i n the d i stance. [ I R !) I

PAGE 202

Par.liso in the Fren c h days. Thi s was the s il e o f o n e of Ihe lock s i n Ihe ll)Iock Canal sch e m e whe n the Fren c h were a t work. On Apr il 23. 191)4, the United Siaies m a d e the m e mor.lble purchase a t 540,000 ,000, ,md o n l\by -t. 19<14, Ih e properlY was IUrn e d over to the Americans. Parniso ill the days of American occu p a ncy. s howin!,! Aoeon Hill in the distance. T h e c r a nes w hich arC al$o v isible, s how Ihl' bl'l,l:inning o f I h e wor k 31 Pedro M il(t.lcl L (K' k The French had none o f the hi!:" 1001s, up-Io.d,,,e mac h i n e ry. steam sllo\'cls, Cr:lncs. CIC .. but w ilh Ihe C(lui l JOlCnl w hich had Ih{'y took OUI 78.00 0 .000 cubi c Y:lrds o f spoil, of whi c h 3 0 000 ,0 00 cubic yards usdu l t o the r 100 1

PAGE 203

T h e CUI at Has Obis p o lookin g soulh Junc 30. 1<)10. Thc Io:TC:lIcr of the exca"llli n g in this section h:ad to be d one solid rock, and thousand s o f pounds o f dynamit e were used It was I n this section t hat the explosion occurred in 1<)08. Steam sho"eI 1 1 8 burie d under 1:111 o f rock west side of Can al. near L a s C aSC:l(l as. sho,'e1 Wa 5 workinl': o n Ihe bollom o f t h e canal w hen destroyed. May 3 1 1912. Se, eral S leam s ho"eJs ha"e been destroyed i n this manner and a numner o f men injured and killed. [ 191 1

PAGE 204

A close view of the bri d g e across the Canal ncar Empire. This bridge i s used for vehicles and foot JY .. sscngcrs, but will be taken down w hen the Canal i s completed T h e r e will be n o h ridge aross the Canal excep t the pontoon bri dge ncar Paraiso, w h ic h will be s wun!;: over aj..rains t the e: l s t si d e o f the Canal w h e n not in use. Ni netyfive IOn s team shovel at work in C ulebr .. Cut. O n e hund red steam s hovels ha"e been used in the Canal w ork. Cul e brn Cut i s a term officially applied to that part o f t h e Can al between Bas Obi spo o n the n orth a n d P e dro Miguel on the south, a d i stance of about ni n e milCli. T h e Width of the Cut is 300 feet at the bollom [ 192 1

PAGE 205

< / -'I -, S HOVE L .' I I Cl o -", '--.J -CANAL fl.OOOEO AT BAS OBISPO .. c' u t\ gTeal man y difficulties have boJen encountered a n d overcome in building t h e Canal T h e d i ffi cuhy i n Ihe e:otCllvating. was due t o and breab. w hich closed the draina g e d i t c hes, upset t h e steam sho\'cls, and cover e d the trock s The W:IIer that was nOI carried o ff by the diversion c h a nnels. ente r e d the CU I neccssiullinK pumping. [ 1 93 J

PAGE 206

The side o f Ihe CUI "1 Gold H ill, Ihe deepesl CUl1inJ,: was done. \ V h e n t hi s photograph was t l lken Ihe s te:lm shovel s had 3 0 feel furl her 1 0 go :II t hi s poin !. [ I!).I 1

PAGE 207

" ". -. ---0 '" 3 0 -" '" (<:/JI]

PAGE 208

In Ihe r :liny season, IWO Slream s o f considerabl e size originally c rossed the route o f the C:;mal in the Culebn Cut s{'c li o n o n e of w hich was the Camacho River, now called Ihe Camacho div<:'-rsion. T o pre,' cnt t hese stream s from floodinJ,: t h e C u t, new c h annels were dug, JXlnll elinJ.: the banks of t h e Canal, IhrouJ.:h which their flows were diverted In Ihi' c ase it was necessary 10 dig a tunnel, whid\ is s hown above, t o conduc t t h c water through the h ill C ul ebn C u t looking 50mh fro m Gold and Contractor', Hiolis taken al ::a lime w h e n the Cut w::as IJncti cally free o f mate rial bro ught in b y C u c ::anch::a slide. [ 19G J

PAGE 209

Load e d work c rossing the hi g h trestle o v e r the Canal at P3raiso. This bridge, known as No. 57 J1. i s to be taken down as soon as the pOntoon b r idge little above this poi n t is constructed. :15 i t o bstruct s navig'.I lion o f the Canal. Secti o n o f C ulebra Cut i n t h e vicinity o f Las C
PAGE 210

Complet e d section of C ulebr:;a CU I look i n g Cunene. Steam s hovels are in slide m a teri al. Botto m i s to I;r:;adc. Cul cbra CUI bc"vecn Gold and Contractor's H ills alter the r e moval o f cO nstruction tru c k s. [ 198 I

PAGE 211

C ulebra C u t, south of Cucar.lcha slide, aftt'r t h e channel helPn to liII Railroad crossing at I'araiso in t h e dist,mce Close view o f high rock ban k of C ulebra C u t after the wat e r was let in. The thin w hite line about midwa)" UI) the ba"k to the right marks the ultimate Water level. [ I!'" [

PAGE 212

Gener:ll view o f e ngine house and yard : u I'ar:l iso ill 1,)06. This yard was dismantled several yeaTS ago, and yards werc established at Pedro Miguel :md Las Cascadas. Engine house and yard a t Las Cascadas. A ver y busy scene was presented in the morning w h e n a hundred or more of the engines wer e leaving the yard 1 0 begin their daily work of pulling dirt trJ.ins o u t o f Ihe CUI to Ihe dumping grounds [ 200 1

PAGE 213

110;:: I

PAGE 214

Men shifting track. The old way Uclore I h e trac k shifting m : l c hone was invenh, d and put into usc. -, Revolving Steam sho' e!. A few of these machines were used to a.lva'"age, but larger ones were used for t h e heavy wor k --Rock c hannele. al work. These machines were used i n !>e
PAGE 215

Locomotive cnoes were a useful adjunct 10 the Can:,1 work. Thi5 one i, operating a clamshell buckel. so named from resemblance 10 tht bivalve. The A merican machine w hich m o"es mountains. One of Ihe 100 5 1""m shov('ls I'ng
PAGE 216

Excn',,!cd material Is transport e d in !lc"era! k i n d s of cars, one of which i s the \VcS l crn Dump Car, s h own i n Ihe picture. I n som e o f the o;::Ir$. the bod y i s h eld upright b y :l chain grip. which when T('leased, a ll o w s the body 10 tip. emptying t h e conte n ts. Others are dumped by air. An u n loading machine a l work o n a train of Lidgerwood flat cars. The unloader, a Clllate d by steam front the p ulls th e plow by a steel cabl e which coil s around a drum. A man rides the plow, and signals the movem ents wilh a flag. [ 204 1

PAGE 217

An earth s preader a t wor k After t h e cars ha"e been unloaded. an earth spreader comes along and le"el s off the ground. I n order to d iSpOse of the malerial from the Cut, IarJ:e dun. p l had to be established. The sit e of Ihis o ne. known as M iraflores dump. was formerly :iI swamp. but it has n o w been b u ilt up to a hei ght 0 1 m o r e than 40 feet. A l arJ:e amoun t of the exc""atet.! mal e r ial was used in buildin g t h e D a m at Gat .. n and t h e Naos I s l a n d breakwater o n the I'aeifie s ide. The SpOil from C ulebra CUI has been carried all the way from fi"e t o twenly f o u r miles. ( 205 I

PAGE 218

A loaded train o f Lid"erwood ft :1I cars coming OUI of the CUI at P e dro Milo:ue l Durin!.: the lauer 1':lrt o f the e ca\'alio n Ihe Cut was at s uch a dcpth below the surroundin" level s Ihal long h:lt l t o be bui lt up which the dirt Ir"din s Were pulled by IWO and three locomotives, Two wreckin!.: CT:lncs picking Up: 1 steam shovel. These mac hi nes r:mge in capacily from 1 5 to 100 ton s, and arc kept under Sle;\l11 day and n ight, ready for any e m e rgcncy in the Ira nsportali o n service, [ 20 6 J

PAGE 219

Power stat ions arc situated at various pOints along the Canal t o furnish pOwer 10 the electricallyoperated machinery. as well as t o the Canal Zon e settlements. The buildin g s hown in the piclUre i s the Miraflores station which supp lic d pOwer to the construction m"c hineryat Pedro Mi guel a n d Miraflores Locks. I t i s an oilburning plant but can be con,crtcd t o a s team plant a t any time. Many o f the industrial plants and:lll locomoti\,es arc equipped w ith oil burners. The corral a l A ncon. Corral s afe locatcd at all of the 7.o n e settl e m e n ts. ,. .... 1 t here arc about 650 anin.als in the Canal ser"ice. i ncludinlo: 377 mules. The majority of t hem were b rought fro m the United Stales. :lnd all hay and feed comes fro m the S tates. [ 207 I

PAGE 220

The n rnount o f used on the Cnnal work reQ uired excepti onally comple t e repair fa cilities. This i s the Gorgon a s hops, the largest on the Canal, where r e pairs were nlade 10 every killd o f eQuillment, e)[eept steam s hovels from clock s to locomotives. These shops have heen dismantled alld m oved as the water s o f the Gatun Lake w ill cover Ihis site. The permanent repair s h o p s w ill be located at Ihloo:l R e pair s hops a t Empire. showing the s team s hovel s wer e made at these s hops. w e r e d o n e i n the fi eld. native village i n the bac k g round. All m a j o r repairs to S team shovels were inspected daily alld the minor repairs I ?OS 1

PAGE 221

. ." '. J ..... ), .... '1.:."'i .. ". Many 51idcs have d C\ 'dop"d the latter p ari of Ihe Canal work which ha\'e caused a I:real d eal of (13mage and the excavation of much "lOre male ri a l than ",as fOTin e rly c5limaled. T h i S "lew shows a break o n the weSI bank al C ulebra which encroached O n the v m "Ke o f Culcb n \ 0 such an extent thaI ; \ was n cccs:l.ry 10 move :I large 'lUmbe r of b ui lding s including the hot e l and Y M C. A. Clubho use. A break in the east bank o f the Canal near "" Obispo. This was caused by hil;h water i n the di"crsion c h a nnel w hich broke dlrough the separation w all carr y inj{ i nlO Ihe Canal over 100,00 0 cubic yards o f material. and floodin1o:" it for som e disl a nce. The disastrous cffect o n the railroad i s dearly shown. [209 I

PAGE 222

This shows where !he s l i des on either bank have e n c roached upon !he prism 0 1 !he Canal !o such an extent as o a lmos! effec! closure. TellinJr d le.ts o f !he slide in !he west bank ; u Culebra. Mos! of thi S has now been cleared and !he of similar !rouble a t hi s pOint has largely passed, because o f the method adopted of (('rracing !he upper levcls to relieve Ihe weight on the hanks. [ 210 1

PAGE 223

[1Ir;) -, < -;;"0 < -", =,. 0 n -" 0 0 -0 0 0 -, 0

PAGE 224

, .. Sicam s ho\' c l s workinJ.:; in t h e slide a l C ucaracha. bac k as 1881 when I h e F r ,;,nc h were a\ work o n ever since. T h is s l i d e s howed e"idence of activ i t y as Ihe Canal a n d has been a source of trouble This graphically poru 'ays t h e result of a s lide w hich h a s nearl y b uried a s t e a m s ho\ c l Col o nel Gaillard, the D ivision Engineer i n c harge of o peration s i n CuLebra C u t said : I kno w o f n o sin g l e thing Ihnl has don e so muc h 1 0 com p licate the engin ee r i n g probl e m s of OUT work or t o h inde r and cun:!,] the yardage o u t p u t as the slides." Col onel Georg e \V. Goethals. Chairman and Chief Engineer. said: "Th e only way t o overcom e the slide s is b y unremitting excav:ation." [ 212 1

PAGE 225

SanaPR0JEC:rS Panama Canal \ ct. whic h was sig;1(xl hy Taft OIl Au g u st. Q L 101'2. p\'O\'i
PAGE 226

thro u g h Ihe jungle m o r e <.' a sily titan Ihl"Ou g h an inhabited cOll nt!'r." Col onel Goethals : 1 a m that III(' Canal i s pl'Op crly b y 11lC Americ a n troops alld thai t h e s afe g uard s have been pl'O\"Idcd to prevent all)' s u c h allac k ; undel' thos e condition s it wo uld be impos s i b le." S t nato[' B r i s t o w: ',Yell. if IlInt i s imposs ible. tllen wh,\ s h ould the in habitants o n th e Zon e b e : t J1lcl1: ]('c;," C olonel GOdhals : JI1 tha t the\' ca n gi v e informatio n. They will c1eal' the land and le11ve open s R a c e s and CIl
PAGE 227

Visilors i nspec ling tbe work o n tbe lock s at P e dro Miguel. Thousands of lOu.iSI S have ";sited tbe Canal durin g t h e last few yea.s. i n clml 'n).: people in every walk o f life from the Stales, as well as commiltees from almOSI every nalion o n the globc-. "Big Tree;' a well-known landmark formerl y o n t h e banks o f the Chagres Ri"er at Goryon a 'Vas d}'namite d I n August 1911, s o as n Ot 1 0 become an obstru ction to navigation. ( 215 1

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C I HE ;;;;;S CtI A t th e o u t se t t h e c o m m i ss i on w a s co nf ro nted w ith th e p rece d e nt e s tahl i s h e d h y form e r c o m m i ss ion:.;. w h i c h did no t I'ccogni;;;c the r ig h t s o f occupi e r s (111 lan d s. hu t dealt o n l y w ilh th e ow n e r s. Thi s pos itio n wa s a ha nd one d by the p re se n t commiss i o n whi c h h a s made awanl s t o t h e occ u p i e r s a s well a s to th e o w n e rs. Tlu .. a wa n l s a PPCIl r to h e lIll ij'())"1l11 Y s a t i sfHd o r y t o cIa i manis a 1\ h o u g h th e n : lla:o; h e e n some com p l n i n t o f t h e debl," in m a king sellkmc nt. Opinion s h :I\'(' h e e n hande d dow n from lim e to l i m e. and in t h e m a in ha\'c he e n fayor a b l e 1 0 ti l(' dailllanis. T h e ris e o f (;:1I111l Lake made it neccssar, 10 take lip t h e claims (If pri vate [,f's idcIlLs i n th a i secti\11l fil 's t. T hi s pari of t h e wo r k w a s pra<:l i e a I I,Y {,Olll p lcte tl in A n g u .... !. I!) 1 3 a It huug h p a y m e n l s of ,so lli e l lf I h e a "';H d s IwH' h ee n hel d up. due 1 0 p l ol es t s fr o m th e Couns el of Ih e C nited Slales. w h o A grou., o f E a s l Ind i a n l aborers i n t h e C a n a l s e rvice, T h o s e sitlinK. a r e directl y i n f r o n t of an elbow in o n e of t h e g re:1I lock wall c u h crls. d a i !lICd 111;1 I ill I l lCSt:' pa d i{'U l a I cases t I l c com m a cled w i t hOl11 j U l i S lii<:l i o n T h e p o inl a l issu e ha s b ec n referr e d to I h e Allol'l1ey Gen e ral of I h e Cniled fOl de('i s i oll His imposs ihle t o alTi\'e at a dos e e stimale of th,"' to tal ,1JllOun t t o b e awan1 e d ill d:n n age s, bUl it. Illa y h e a s m u{'h a s s evera l millio n d o l la r s in c a s e all pri vale land i s purchas e d The work fir I h e (;o lllm issjon al so e m 'ers t h e adjudi ('a li ull of la n d inunda te d I)\' Gatun Lakc uu\.<;i d e the houndaries o f the C a n a l Zone w it hin the IOU-fout {'o'ntourlin e D r Rowe re s i g ned i n Sept embe r. 101: 3 t o 1'('!HltnC h i s work a t t h e L'ni v c r,;it,\' of P e n n sylvania I n accordanc e w i t h Ih e powe r c o n f c rre d upon him th e ('nlln l A<:I of \ u glls l l!ll'.? Presid e nt T a ft. OIl :\'o\'cmhc r 1 4 101'2. anti c i pati n g t h e [ 2 1 G J

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, \ Sij!hl$ecing. or "rubber neck train which is laken o e r t h e Canal work Ihree lime s each week Every fut 75.000 peoplc ha,' c viSitc d Ihe Canal sin c c Janu:lry I 1 0 bthmia n takin!:: a trip through the Canal April 20, I'U. Notc Ihe striking backgro und. [ 2 J 7 J

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cnrly of the Canal, proclaim e d tlt e followin g rate s of loll s t o b e paid bv Llsing i t: I. On merchant \'c8.<;('ls carr y i ng I)w;:scn gcrs o r c:ugo. $1.20 per n e t vessel t on ---c ach IUO cubic fee t of t1ctua ea rnin g ca pacil,\' 2. On vesse l s in balla s t without pa sse n gers o r ca r go, p e r ce nt. less titan th e rate of loll s for ves s el s wilh pa ssc uhrcrs or ca lWo. 3. Upo n Il:\\ a l ,c ssc\.s o ther t han t ran s ports, collie r s, ho s pital s hip s and s uppl y ships, 50 cents pCI' di splacement ton. 4. Upon Army and Xa\')' transp o rt s, collie r s h os pital s hip s a nd s uppl y s h ips, $ 1.20 pCI' n e t ton the vessels to be men s ured b y th e same ru l es a s arc c mpto,\"cd in determining th e n ellonna gc of merchant vesse ls. The pl"Ovis i oli cxcillptillg Ameri c a n \ 'csscls in the c oa s tw i se trade fmm th e pa,nllent of tolls brought forth a protest from th e Briti s h Govel'lllllent o n the ",round thai i t wa s a v iohtion o f the llay.P aullccfote Trea t y, whic h prov i de s "'J llat til e Cu n al s ha l l be f ree a nd ope n to til e vesse l s o f comme rc e a nd of war of all natio n s o n term s o f entir e equality, so that th ere s h all be no di sc riminati o n agai n s t any nation i n re s p eclto the conditio n o r c ha rge s of traffic." T o man y, till' granting o f fr ee tolls t o American ships in th e coa s tw i se trade would not s('em t o be di s c rim i nating again s t s hip s of f oreign n a tiull s w hi c h are not all owe d 11,\' law to in that t ra d e. Grea t Br itian, how ever p o int s outtha! enrgo inte nd e d f o r u nit e d States IJort s beyond th e Canal e ith e r fr om cas t or \Ves t sh ipp e d o n a fore i g n vesse co uld be sent t o it!' de s tillali o n mOl'e c heapl y, through the ope r ation of liti s cxe mpli oll. b y landin g i t at a Un it e d States I )ort before r eachin g the Ca nal, nnd t h e n se ndin g it o n as coas t wise traffi c. T len. loa, goods might be s hipped fro m a po r t in the Uni t e d S l ate s ei th er from cast S howing group o f Hindoos in khaki, pullees. and !Urba ns, waiting to greet the visiling S h rincn from t h e United Siales, [ 218 1

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01' \\"esl. through the Can al. a n d then I 'e s hipped to a fOl"e ig n porI. The B rit i s h iew t herefor e. i s t h a t i f i t we r c p oss i h l e to r egulate the coa:;\wi se traffic s o that c ases s i milar t o t h e ahow mi g ht b e avo ided; ill olher words. Ihatonl, bOlwJide coas t w i sc Irade b e h('l lefilp d h," the exemp tion. the ohjectio n wou l d he r CIIIO\ ell Processi o n o f Nobles o f Mystie S hrin e afte r di!ICm b:l.r k inj,: :l.t Colon, A deleg:uion o f about 150 Shriners f r onl t h e U nited S t a t e s v isited t h e Isthmus and on Sept. I 1913, initiated : 1 cla s s of 170 candid:ltes in the locks:lt Mir' .. fl o rcs. I n t h e l e tt c r o f th e T r c n t), impo ... ih l (' Ont. p lall s u gge s t e d h )' t ho s e w h o w i,.;h 10 ma k(.' I h(.' COl 11:1 I a II in.,lru mcn t for tilt. II pbl.l ild illg of th e \ m e l ican m e rchant mar ine i s 1 0 c harge all '('ss('18 alikl' and l1lt'n r e imb u r s e A meri can \ 'e,.;scls by t h e amou n t of tolls thl', \ rna ha,' c paid, This w ould b e a forlll o f ship s ubsi d bu t onl," i n fu, 'or of I h c s h ips making u s c o f the Can al. T h e B r it i s h G m c1'IlmcnL docs not quc R ti o n I h e rig h t o f the "CniL e d S tlli es 1 0 g r:lnl a suhs id," t o shipping. h u t d o e s hc1i e \'c that a subsidy t o ships rol' u s ing th e C:.u wl wo u l d be di.,cri m inal i o n in t o t h e co nd i t i o n s of the c harges o f t raffic The Cana l tolls a re based o n t h e proh:'1 b l e co s t of opl' I 'at i o n and 111:1 in ten a n ee of th e Canal. 11' \ m e r ican s hi p s ure g ranled free toll:-;, t hl' o f Call;d main ten an ce w ill be th row n upo n fore i g n s h ipping, 1I0wl'n' I ', unde r the p rl' :' l n t A ct, and und c r t h e P rcs i dc nt s proc l a m atio n i l i s contende d that n o dis c rim inatio n has bee n s hown a g a ins t foreign s h ippi n g Thc probahl e tOllnage u s i n g t h e Canal was figurc d w h e n t h e t o l l s we r e fixed. and I hi s l o nnage inclu ded coa:-;t t o coa s t ship pin g and American s hi pping carrying forcign commerce or the Uni t e d Slate s Great B rit ain a l so objecl s 1 0 I h e fad thai under the COll\'cntion of P a n a ma. of 1 9 0 3 "es s cl s b e l o n gi nJl' I e ) t h e P a nama G o crnml'nl a r c exempte d f r o m I h e [ 219 1

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The A Ulhor:u Sli fer >ar k Colon, payment of tolls. and L o the further fae! tbat toll s i n the case of ships bc longing 10 thc U i l i t e d Stalcs a nd i t s c i tizcn s Illa\' bc f i xcd ilt a low c r ratc than in th c c a se of forcig n ships The excmption of hclollfj l 'ill g to Panama. agrecd UpOIl HI the f a y-l3ullcau arilla COllvcnt i o n was a l so a. part of th e propo,.;cd I :.)'J l e r !'all Treat), of 1no:), Some argue thal Grcal B r itai n s hould have no m o r e objeetion to s uch :m exempti on now lh n n 10 year s ago, w h ell i t had none, The loll s 1'01' s hi p s lIsing the C unni havc been fixed. ,mel it remains t o be st.'CIl w hethcr 0 1 n nt forcign shipping will have t o beal 'wore t.hall t heir P1'Oportioll of the cos t of mainlemlllce and opcration. I'I
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llnfortified and foreve r rcmain neutral. free and O\lCn \0 \ cs"c!s o f COlllllh'rcc and of wal' of all nations Oil term s of cqualil,'" T Ii treat," in 1901 by th e I lay.P allllccl'olc T rea t now in force. Thi s Irea t y also pro\'iril-s for the n eutraliza tion of t h e Can:d. hilt 110 word j sa id :to;; to forti fying it. The objedi o ll. if there W:I'i an,' is 110 100Iger 'iu,;tainahlc. i rl
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pdled to k('\ p i t open 10 a f o c in \ )ul's uit of h e!' mm s h i p s, or a llow h o s tile s h ip s til through 011 their ''',\' l u h oc kadc or bo mlJl\n l lin ..-\]lU'rican c i t y. The s e q ue s tio n,; ha \ c hc ell ::;clti e d t o t h e cxl c nllhat Co n gres s h a s app r o p ri.tie d lip \0 JUlie 2:L ,I l o l a l of $]O. 6 76.!JJ O for the protection of t h e Canal. \ report of th e Fortifi c ati on B()ard o f Jarw'lr y 4 l !)ll. es t i mat e s th e ; Ull()unt III be appn) pria t c d a l T h e :UIIOI1I1\ c xpl' lld c d 011 fortifications lip to J UlIe j O J!JI:J. w a s 'I'h e work o r prcpa rin g placements fu r ilnd 6 -inc h g un!', and p i ts for 1 2-ine h Illorl a r s. to protect th e ClIn n l e n t r a n ce s i s well unt!(' I wa,\' '1'11('1'(' w i l l a l s o h e o n e IHi n c h g Ull, t h c l a r g e s t llIad e. p l acl' d 1 0 p r Qted the P a (' i(ic clllr:H1ce 1 0 tltc C'lll al. O n the P "cific s i d e t h e i slands o f .'\ao s Culelll' a Pe l i co, and F l a m e n c o arc b e in g fortif ied and fo rm 0 1H' I'{' s l'!"\"at i oll, w hil<'. 011 t h e m a inland a t B a l b o a :1 second I 'csc r valioll will b e A milil:l r y force h a s bee n Illainl a i n e d i n r h e Can al Zone c\'er s ince A m e rican occup : m c )'. T h is i s Camp Ellioll, which o c cupie s a commandinl:; s i l e near Has Obis p o I h e h e a d'luarters f o r the loca l d e l chnwnt o f t h e United SIlItes Marine C o rps. e s t abl i s h c d On t h e Atlantic s i d e t h e r e w ill l J e a for t o n :\I a rgari tn P o i nt, a b ou t a mil e nort h IIf :\Ianzanillo I s la n d o n w hi c h C olon i s s illlatpti: anot h e r 011 '1'01'0 P oint ;l("r o ss thc 1 m \' fr o m Cl)l nll and on e on t h c m a i nland at C ol on. I n Ihe lH'i gllhorh oo d of th e I;)cks, tlJO,.;e a t G atlin. S C ,'CI I miles i n l and, lind t hose a t and P e d ro :\[ i gllc L inland nin e and e!e'"CIl mile s, l"Cspe cl i, cI., ther e wil l b e loca te d fidd d cf(' 1 1 S C S to prov i d e ag'l in s t attack by lalld in g forces. T hi s work I,c i n g ,l o n c undc r t h e directio n o f I ,ielli G eorge It. Gocthals, t h e elde r SOli o f C ol. (;eol'ge W G o e t h a l s t h c b lli l der o f th e Canal. J t i s 1)lanned t o keep o n t h e I sthmus lo:.? cOlllp'l1lic s vI' c 0 a s l artill e r y ol1e hatler.," o f fie d a r till er., fOllr reg iments of inf:ln l r y onl' squadmn of c a v al r y and o n e hat alli o n of mari n l's. T he f ol'is, ;tnd h a tt erie s c(lmpr i s in g t h e m h a v e b e clI na m ed. a s follo\\"s: 1 f fh e 1'1Ic{jic f all/illl/s Fort Granl a nd FOI"l Ama d o r th c firs t located o n [ 2 2 2 ]

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t h e group o f island.'i in Ih c 1m.,' i n hOIlOl" of G('ll. l"1.'>;"l"-S. Cran!. r S .. \ ., w h o d ied 011 Jul.\" -2S, I SS.]. and the se("olld. \o("al<.'d 011 t hl' llwinlalH l al Ralboa. i n h o n o r of Dr. :\la n ucl \JlI a d o r C u('rrcl'( l fir'il preside-Ill of Ihc H q)llblic of Pannmn. who d ied o n :\ Ia\' 2. I OWI J f flli: Iflallfie Il'flllillll. v Fort Sher m lIl, Fort Ilan dt)lflh. ,Il\(l Fod D e L ('s,;ep'i, t he fir s l in honor or G e n \\'jllium '1', :-:iilerm a n, ,'. S .. \ .. who died O I l } \ b ruar), k 1881 the second in hOllorol' :\I
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I n 1911 t h e \Var Oep:lrtlllcnt decided 10 send :. o f i n fantry to the Isthmus. This i s their camp known as Camp Otis. ncar Las Cascadas. Camp lif e a t Camp 01i9. [ 1

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> j

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c B aflcry B llcll, i n honol'or :'Ilaj. Gen, D o n Cnrlos B u e ll. U. S. '01". (Colonel A ssistallt A djutan t General, U S. A.). who tli e d :'\o\'embel Hl. l SflS. B aflery BUl'IIsitic, in honor of :'I [ aj. Gen. Ambmse E. Bums ide. O. S. ol s. ( F irs t L i e utenant Third U S. Arli lle lY) who d ied September 1 8S I. n allery P arl,e, in h o nor o r :'Ilaj. Gell. John G Parke. r. S. ,"aLs. (Colon e l Corps or Eng i neers, U, :::i. A .) w h o d i e d D ecember 1 6 1000. FOBT \ .\[AOOI( .\[ILIT.\I(Y HI:l-i!';B\.\TIO:,\ B all cry Smith. in ilOl101' of :'I1";lj. G en. Charles F IT. S. "ols. (Col o n e l Third LT. S. 1 llf a llt ry), w h o d ied Apri l l SG-:!. 1'011 '1' S II EIOIA:'\ .\11 LlT. \ II \ B attery lIou'ord, in hOll(ll' of :'IIaj. G e n O. lIoward, 1]. S. A .. w h o di e d O e toher '.Hi, I!)(l!). NaO!l I s l a nd. one of the islands i n [ >:mama Bay bclonj{ing to r h United States, which i s bein g fortified T h e is land is connect e d to the mainl:lnd by a bre a kwater. B att ery B a ird, i n h o nor of Brig. Gen Ah" alolll Baird. who di c d JUJlC 14. I!)O J nal/c ry Sfa n ley, in Iiollor of G en. D avid S. S t anle.\ l". S ols. (BI' i gadiel" G e n eral, U. S. A.), w h o died 1 00'l. B at/ cr y M owcr, i u honor of ;\I aj. Gell. A. 1\lo\\'e;. '-. S. 0 1;-;. (Co l o n el. ]'wen t yfifth l nfantr.\)_ who d ied January G. 1870. iJaffer!I / ( ilpalri c k, in iIollor of :'Il a j Gell. J ud s oll Kil patrick. S. Y ol s. (Capt a in F i r s t Artillery), wlto d i e d D el'e m \)el 'l. ISS!. FonT f( ,\NDOLPIl .\lILlT .\HY HESEHVNI'lON 8 affery T idball, i n h o n o r of B rig. Gen J o hll C. T i d ball. U S. A .. w h o di e d 1 J 1!)0 6. Ratie ry Zalill.' tl.-i. i n honor o r 2\laj Gen. Edwlll'd Lewis Znl i n.ski (5th IT. S. A r t ill e r y), w h o di e d 1 0. 1 909. B (;ffery W ebb. i n h o n o r of n l'C\'c t Maj. G e n. A le xandcl' S ,," e hh. l". S. A ( Li e ut e n a n t Col o n e l U. S. 1I1fantl".\). w h o died Fcbruary 1'2, HH 1. r 225 1

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U(Iflcr!J II"ccd. in h Ollo r of C(' n Steph e n I I. \\'eed U. S. Y olunleers (Captain .. 51h I'. :-:i, Arliller y). who was kil l e d in aclion, .July 2, 1 8(;3, aL burg, l'a, FonT HI-:8EH\'.\TTON /3(1ffrl',1J .l/orr/III/, ill honor of B rig, Gell, ('harks 11. :\lurgan, C S. Y ohm le c r.-; (:\l ajlJl. HI! \ rtille r.,,) \\'h o died December '20, 1 87,), IIln:.\ II: \\'. \ I'EW; T o proted Colo n hal'hor from th e violent 1I0l'lhers whic h occasi o nall y OCClIl' dur illg t h c win ter months and whi c h uftell made it uH.-;afe for vessels to lie at alH.. hOl while th ey were i n pl'Ogre.-;s, and a l so 1 0 reduce Lo it minimum t h e amOllnt of silt that may be washed into t h e Can al channel, :L breakwater extending i n a northeas terl y direct i o n f r o m ']'01'0 P oi nt has b een b u ill oul into the bay. lncluding i t s shore connecli on s it i s 1 1 ,7 00 feet 01'
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" Naos Island bre:lkw:lIer showinlo: fill eXlcndinlo: OUI from the mainland. A toml of 474 acres h",.1 heen reclaimed from Ih{' ocean al Ihis poin t u p to June. 1'}13. Practically all the mater;,,. f o r the fill came from Culebr" CUI II is designed 10 c u off cross .,,,rrent. which has carried" large amount of mud and sill i nlo the Can al channel. In addition ;1 will serve as a c 'lUscway connecting the islands, and the fortifications thereon with the mainland.

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feet in height abm' C mean sea level. aud i1i from .:;0 10 feet wide allhe top, \ hreakW,lll 'I' is nolliccl'1iS:lI'," at thi s point a s a prot ecti on ag, linst s lorms to the harhor at 13:dllo ,l, but it sen' c s to din'.'t a .':iwift cross-current Ihat would CMTY ,.01'1 materia l from the shallow harbor of Panama into thc Canal channel. jL Toro 1'0iOl br(,:lkwater. In order 1 0 protect the Cristobal t.!o cks ant.! the Atlan tiC ('ntF.lncc t o thc Canal fro m h('a,' Y seas. a breakwaler has been built OUi from Toro I'oint. on the opposit c sid,' of Limon 11:1) It is o'cr two miles l ong. and i s arm ored wilh I:lrge rock brought from PortO Bello. al s o form" a rail conn cction hetween Ihc mainland and th e i slands wher e work nil Ih(' forlific.dio n s r equired the trans fer o f mueh eUIl.';lrudi on male rial. l'llde r Ihl' cOIlce. "" i o n f rom Colombia under which Ih e P anama Hailroad opel" a\('(1. and whi c h wa s Iwnsfc lTed 1 0 the R ('IHlhlic of Panama, it was s tipulated Ih n! th e group of is land,.. of w hi c h :\:lOS i s (1I1l'. s hollld he conn ected by ra i l with lhe nl;lin land, aud Ih e completion of the breakw,der ha s se l '\ 'e(] 10 1'111 fill Ihi condition. LIGII'I'[:-:(; 1 '111: l'.\:-:AL Due 1 0 the complete syste m of aids 1 ( 1 ,w\ igation. which i s in s t alled Ihl'llllghout its entirc length. ships will he able to th e Caual as well hy night a s b y da y. I n th e whole Canal there arc 2Q ang le s, e i g hl of which are in C ul ehl";! Cut. a 11(1 in order thai ships can 111ake th e propel" lul'll s al these lange nl s mnge lig ltls heaeon s and lighted huoys arc be ing place d, The range light lowers a r t' 10c'llcd on Ihe lon g cl' tangen l s, lind con s i s t of two l i ghts pla ced one behind the o l hel'. in order 10 pl'Olon g the s ail ing l ine unlillh e propel" momcnt fOl' making th e turn. They arc s itual e d o n land. and i t i s ne c e ssary t o keep froclw.'f l.'leared of j1lngle gl'Owth. w hi c h, if left nlone, wou l d soo n obscure thc lights. The to\\'('r s a l e of r e i nforce d concr e le and of s eve r al different d es i g ns; th e morc e1ahorate structures will be lIscd 011 th e Gatllll lock s, and in t h e AII'lIl li c and P acific sce t iol1s whcr c they a r c clo scl" 1 0 t h e s a i l ing lin e s of the ve sse l s. III C'ttlebra Cu\. w h('l"e range lig ht s cannot be uscd to m lnllliage on account of t h e liei ght of the .hanks beacon s havc becn placed three at each angle: beLween [ 2 2 8 )

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/', One of the lighting towers slruclion These lowers will wilh l)Qwcrfulli ghls. under con be equipped Lighthouse : n Toro Point w hich is maintained b y the I'an:lmaniarl Government. ( J

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An of lamp pOSt S o n Gatun Locks. Lighting tower;n t h e dis!"ncc. Close v;cw of on Catun Loc ks. The L o'-' k s will IJ.c b r ill hmtly li g hted a t The cower at C o lon. by moonlight. [ 2 :l 0 [

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ITED these there :-Ire intermediate beacons in pairs. o n e on each s ide of lhe Canal. The bcacofls nre also huill of co n c rete Throughout the Canal cn t nlllcc s and Gat un and : H iraf l orcs La ke s lighted Imo,n'; arc pl a c ed aboul one mile apart to llI:trk each s ide of the challll ci. AI the Atl a nli c entrance there i s a l i ght alld fog s i gnal s l a t i o n at the end of the we s t breakwater, and there will b e anoth('1' l ight h o u se 011 the cast Lrcakwa lcr when t hat i s complcl c d Ac e ty l e n e ga s and electri c i ty lIrc Lls ed i n all light s th e laUer where th e lights arc cOllve n i ent l y acce ss i ble. The cilndlc p owc r of the rallge light s will \"tH r. according to the length of th e range, from about 1 2 000 t o 300,000 candle power. The most powerful light s w ill be thos e marking the \llantic and P acific entmnccs, v i s ibl e from III t o I S statute mile s .:\lr. \Y F. B e yer, assis The site of t h e proposed harbor and terminal works :11 Balboa. Here, immens e s h ops, and a dry dock capable of aCCOlnmodatinl<: any t h a t .. :an usc t h e Canal locks will b", built. The work on s hops and harbor has been begun. t:wt in the o(1l('e of tl]( \<; .;i..;lalll Chi,>!, Eng i nccl'. j in charg c o f thl' work o f th e Lighthouse Suhdi\' i s i on I'OHT F \(' 11.1'1"1 The tlmounl of tl'afll c th at will require terminal fac ilitie s aft c r th e opening of the Canal is problemat ical. The Canal Commis s ion. however. has ba sed its plans o n n l iberal esti mate. and work i s in progress on n e w docks at Cri s to l J al .. ltla Balboa. The facilitie s :It Ct'i stobal eOlls i;;;t of three new pier,;. ;\os Ij. I G and 1 7 wil h a total wa l ct ft'o nlage or :LS!)O reel. in addilion to 378 f eet frontage at the hea d of the s lip for s m all boats and are of s uffi c il'nt s i ze 10 pm \ ide bcrthage for fi\ c \'e ssc l s of 10 .000 t o n s ea c h at one time. Dock Li. -l-1G fet't long. is t h e smalles t of the Ihree. and i s vil'lualh' an cx:h'ns ion of D o c k 11. built se"eral ago. Dock 16, feet in length. parallel. s t Ill' waler fron t L : W 1

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at Cristuba l and i s n ow lls ed w h ell the old wharve s at Col o n arc c r owded. D ock Ii, I feel long. i s th e onl y one to luw c walc r t'mnlage on both sides. Ruom ha s been l ef t for t.wo additio nal pie r s, but th e ir co n s tructi o n will bt, deferred until thc necessity t h erefor dc\ clo ps. All the docks are prot ecte d b y
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slip s between. The con struction of olle pier on l y will b e undertaken al fir",!. but room ha s been pro\ idcd for four more. The old F rellc h s t ee l wharf. 1.000 feet in len g t h tll1d from 2,000 to feel o f bcrlhill g space in front of th e permanent shops will be available when r equire d. The su\)cr structul'c of tlte picl'!'; at Crj,,\oIJal and Balhoa will consi s t o f u n c s t ory s t eel S lCds, havin g a dear hei ght of Q,; fed. Tlu.'Y wil1 COWl' the entire s pace, with lhe exception of about I S fee l al oll!-\" each side all d th e oulel' e n ds. The wharves adjacent to th e r e pair s hops a t 13alhoa wi ll nol b e p r ovi d ed wilh any s hed s. The tot:d cndos cd A oo r s pace a t the new Cris t oba l doc k s is ahout 2 I S ,iOO s quare feel. The Imc k HlTangcllll'nt co n s i s t s o f a trac k along each Handling: carf{o al 8alooa. Il alboa is a busy place a n d Ilromis<'s t o be busier. as the permanI'm adminiSIr.llion headlluarlers. dry docks. repair s hops. coaling: stalion, elc., will b e locate d here. edge of th e piers, an d two dcpr c s s(' d tracks through t h e cc ut e r of the s h eds. th e car f10ms l ev el w ilh th e floors o f the s heds. I n yi e w of t h e ILTlcerlaint," a;:; to th e amount of frei ghl.thatma.v b e handled, it wa s dec ided to for ego the in s tallati o n o f cxpcnsi n cnrgoh andli nf{ machinery at the dock;:;, AL Cri s t o h al, wi th a range of tide of se m'eel.,' a foot, fr(,ight requiring transfer can be handled by ships booms, suppleme nt e d by block.; attached to ele"ated ginlers a long: th(' llides of th e piel' s hed.;. \ t Balhoa, ,dlere th e :I"emge range of t ides i s ch)s(' tn feet elec:lric C]':IlICS will he u:,ed. in addition to a floa.ting crane for he:!,'." eargo. DIlY DOCKS The main dn' d ock will h e al Bal bo a in aCC Ol'dan c e with th e w i s h of th e N:1\')' O ep:ll't me ni. It will he ahle \0 a('colllllloda t e allY \'('.;sel that i s abl e t o [ I

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pa ss thro ugh Ihe Canal lock s wilh a Ilsablc leng t h of 1 00 0 f eci an entrance w idth of 1 10 fed. and it d e plh o\'er Ihe keel block s of 35 feel. Theentr:lIl ce will lx.' clo se d b \ miter gates s imilar t o those u s ed on the locks. The dock will be sen'c d IJY a .J.O-ton Il':tveli ng cmlle with n travel a long bo th s i de s }'or s malle r vcssel s an :Hlxiliar.\ dry d o c k will b e provid e d w i th ;\ u s able l e n g t h of 350 fecI. an entrance widlh I )/" 7 1 fl.'c l. and a d e pth over t h e keel block s of feet. On the Atlantic s ide, the old Frcneh tin' d o c k whi c h h a s a u S :lb l c l e lwlh of 30 0 f ee l 0 wid th of jU feci. ami a depth o\'el' the sill of 1 3 feet. will be co ntinued in u sc. The perm:l llent repair shops will be :It B alboa, s ituatcd ill the arca between th e dry d oc k and l'I..'pail' bel' th and are de s igned to mai nt ain th e followi n g Heavy r epairs to the Canal marine equipment ha\' e been handled in this dry dock on the Atlantic side. and by s hipways on the P"cifie s;(te at B a lboa. A large dry dock is being built w hi c h will a ccommodate any vessel that may lise the Can al. eqllipment: L oc k s pillwil,\ ', and pow e r plant ma c hin c r y; wate l and land C ( l uiplll{'nl retailled for th e maintenanc e and operation of th e Canal ; rolling s t oc k a nd equ ipm ent or the Pan:t1l1a ra ilroad; llleclwnieal apparatus co nn ected with the coali n g planls : fort i fication s : co l d s torage p lant; wirele ss s talion s, ctc.: makin g of r e pai r s r('llni]'cd b y indi\ idlla l s and companies on th e I sthmus : maki ng o f repair s re( l uircd b,\' commcl'eial \ e ssc\s and making of s u c h repnil's a:-; Illa, \ h c required b y vessels of the l'nited S ta te s and \'c ss els belonging t o I)ll1c r gO\crnlllcllt s \\'ork on the n e w s h op s was b egu n cady in l DJ3. ,lIlei \\ill h e c ompletcd ahou t J a nuary I. J!)1.J.. The tran s fer of Ihe Gorgona s h op [ 1

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C I HE Ix'\N[;.l;-D;L. ED!lIVI:iLDQ.E;E'-lD2.:;;" UN,ITED work and c q uipmcll l lo B allloa a n d o th e r points. made un a ccount of t h c ahandon men t of t h e 10\\"11 uf Gorgona l'on s t'fju cnt upon the ris e in Gatllll L ake, was dreeled and t h e old s hops demol i shed during Jul," and \ ugus t. 1!)J:3. T he new shop bu i l d ing s a r c con s t ructed of s t eel frames with of h C ;I\'Y tile. made 011 th e Isthmus T he s ide s aud e nd s were lct'L open 1'01' ventil ation and l ight pl"Otection from SUlI and rain being alrordcd b y wide. o\'crhnn gillg All sbop mach inery will be clcctricall,\ dri,' cll. en til future requirelllents are known, the marine s h ops at :\lounl Ilope will be continued in se rvi ce, .1110 as Paraiso has Uccn made dr'cogin g headquarter s f o r the lI('xt fcw year,;, th c old 1" F loor of the new concret e lumber dock : n Balbo", s hop buildings at lual point drcdging c{luipment onl.,. will he f illed lip and used in makin g GO\'F.HX:'>IEX T CO.\I \xn I'I'EL Oil IIn;JXE:-;S rep'lLrs to The m:lin gOV{'J'Il1llt'nl coaling plant will h(' ",itunlt'd on till' 1l000Ih e nel of all i sland, oppos i te Dock I\. al Crisloblii. near'the \ llallli(' ('lIll'al1('(' 1 0 th c Canal. It w ill be fJ'OIll 1. 700 to '2.000 fed ill length. !WO fed wielt,. alltl will he c:!pahle of handling al)( I s toring 300 000 \Ullo.; of coal. :-iubaqlleolls will 1)(' p l 'u\ i ded as it has 1)(,'('11 dctel'mint'd thai ('oal Ie,;" wil c ll under waleI' titan wlien lying exposed to Iht, ail' T hi s pl
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AI B a l boa. Ih e equipmenl is mu c h l h e samc, w i th the exception Ihal four of t h c d o uble call1 i!c,'cr cranes u s ed i n Pedro :\Iiguel and :\I iraflor e s Lo c k!'; w e re suh.,tiluted fur t h e s t o c k ing ami recla iming hridges The cos t of this cquipment i s and dcli"erie s arc to be made in periods ranging from s i x to :1(lmoll lhs. Fa eilitie., will abo be pl'o"ided at Cri s lohal a nd llallJo,t for supply in g .,hipping Hnt! the Call a I w ith fllel o il. To thi s e nd two skt.l lanks h : w e bee n en'dNI :II (,:\('h t{' rlllinal with a comhined storag e (apae it." of IGO,OOO barrels I'IOY. 'TI": ( O .\L \ S]) 1 ... 10:1. OIL f;TOH,\Gl': Thc re ha s !,eell :1 lin'ly in\('rc s t s hO\\'ll on thc pari of dcalers ill coal nnd f ucl oil in th c L nited Sia i e s :llId Europe in t h c s e llin g pos s i bilitie s o f Ihest! two Oil s l o r lJ;!e tanks i n the foreground Arlcon H ill i ll the d iSlance. ( omtl'1Odilics 011 th(' I sthmu s ,d'te r 11Ie ('o lllpl ('tion o f Ih e Canal. Thi s dis pla.\ of inll'r c M indllced tilt.' Gon'nllllclli tn make k n own il s po l i c.\ toward these ('nlel']'l'i ."\(';o; in tilt' cady pal' l til' I h e plan :Inn o un ce d i:: "I keep complctc conlrnlof th e terminal. .... watcr and trlln spo1'l:ltion h."land and water acr() ........ the 1 ;;;tliIllIlS, and to Iha l e nd no I,md no r land under w at el' thai m a\' b e Ilt'Clh d I:lh-r Ily Ihe ( nited Siaies will be lea:-cd. It. will not be the policy of the Con' mllleuL ho\\'c v cl', In m onopoli z e the fuc l ],u ... incs.'5, :wd enr., means willl,c taken to e n co u rage t h e t'slahl i llIl lc nt of pri"1I 1 (' co al and f u el oil d e pol s Oil thc l tlIllHl S u ndcr pr'o per condilions Jl i s heli{'\ '{,d thai th e duplication of eoal -handlirw machin c n would h e ull(le" i rahl e, and t h e G ove nllll enL th c r('-o for e, \\'ill in:-tal morlern m aehillf'l'y amplc 1'01' pri, :lIe. a s ,\"('11 a s 1'01' il s ow n purpos t'::. Ading undel' Ihi;o; lIa'or.\ Ihe Canal Commiss i o n in July, 1!)I 3 announced its readincss to a ss ign space for fuel oil depots at ei t h e r e n d of the [ 2 : 3 6 1

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C. mal un d e r re v ocahle I cas(' s or l i ce n ses. Coal storage "'1 ) HCl' will he s imilarl," a ss i g n e d P ri,'atc dealers. both in the L"nitcd S tales alit abroad. madt.: so me object i o n wra in ... t I h e rc\'oca hie lease pia n. a nrl i II one o r I\\"o i 11:-;1:1 nees cX/)Ics;.::cd a to a!tend \0 their own coal+h'lI1dling. hul a s ('vide n ce 1101\ tht' G o\'crn m cnt's plan is n ul di sco uragin g Ihc,;c ..:nlcr p r i scs. appiiealiolls had 11('cll I 'cccived up 10 Septembe r I for IGO,oOO 1011:; of pri"ale ('0,11 s\or;l'fC s pace a t Cristohal, alld (j.500 Ion s at B all)o:l. \ number of apI'licali olis had also l){!l'll r ecei"cd for "pat(-, for fuel o i l lanks. 1I0XDEJ) \\',\HEIIOl 'tiE S The Ca nal Commiss i on ha s not ,,ct taken np t h e m a tt e r of honded h ouse .." and j" prol);lhly reludanl 1 0 do 1'0 f rom the fad tlLat th e e(lIltl"ol uf Telph,;,r plam. which has h a ndl,;,
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Can al needs a n d gener al w reckin g p IJrpos('s. t h e con tract 1'01" t h e (,1"('<:\ion of tw o floating c r allcs of Ih e rc\' o]v i ng' ,"pe ha s been madc t o th e Deutsch e ;'\I a sc h i n c n fabrik A G. o f Dillsbur g. Gt'l'lua n .r. s ati s factory p ro l )os als Ho t Iw v ing beell l'ccc in'd fmlll ..-\1l11'l'icidc.i. and l(j feci e i g ht i nc hes at t h e CClItCI'. s u p portin g a SlIPCI'. I rudlll'e i n tll],C\.' paris: fir s t. a fixed m a s l: SCCUlHI a rc\'o1v i llg nnd t l l i rd, :111 : 1rIll OJ' ji]" t h e laller pI'o\' idc(\ wit h a mai n and a n c o _._-----P e rm::m e n t a dmin istration b u i ld i n g on west side o f A ncon 'iill und e r con s truc t i on. Overlooks the s ite 011 w h i c h the permane n t t own at U :dboa will be b i d o u t [ 2:18 [

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-ITED aband olled. leavi n g Pcdm I igucl. P arai su (lclllpOr
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he of cn m : r c tc c on"trll e ti o n The B alhoa t own"ite will b e laid off in a c cordance with til e lJIos l appro\'e d ide a s. and with t h e v i ew of makin!r il a m odel lown i ncluding th e h ea lllifi( : ati o n of its SIlITou1l(liu gs, <1:0: wel l a s the g rounds nbollt the l ock", th e sen' ices of a land scape ar('hiket were e n g a ge d in Jul,\' 1 913, The Doc k s al Cristobal under con struclion, \Vit h the Canal praclically completed, the attention of the C,ma' Commission is beinlo:" concentrate d o n the permanent terminal facilities, T h e present ,.Jans ; nclude e l< l e n s i \ e pia n IS :II O .lho" O n I h e Pacific, and at Cristoha I nCar Ihe AI lami c cn tr: lllce, COlllm i""i o n of Fine \l't s w a s dcle gakd ",\' Congres s to s upervi se the pel'ln;wenl b uilding w(!l'k, and it ha s mad(' s uggestion s from l ime Lo tim\.', I'E l O l ,\XENT OIlGAXIZATION The Act of C on g rc ss of Augll s t ':n. 1912, provide s for the appoi ntment of a governor of the Panama Canal, whe n ill the judgment 01' the Pres ident the WMk of co n s l rudion s hall 1 e s uHi('i(.ntl," adv;Hlced toward completion a s t o rend e r th e further se r v ices of th e I sthmian Canal Commissio n Ullllecess:\rv The appoilltlllent i s to bc made by th e P re s ident. h,\' and wit h the advice con s ent of th e S enat e, and i s efl'ec1i\ 'e for a peri od of four yea rs. The salary i s $ 1 0.000 p et' annum. P res i dent Tart, pre\'i ou s to the expimlion of hi s te rm of office. n l low c d the fact to beco m e public t h at h e inlcnded to di ss o lve th e Commi ss ion and appoin t a g oV('t'IIor, :::'ome ) L e m bers of Co n g re ss opposed t h e plan. one thal it wa s not the put'pose 01' the Act tu aboli s h th e Co m mi"si otl until i t had comple t e d i ls work Pres i dent Taft's te rm expired without :lI1\' f ltl'lh e r lll0\'C in th i s direction. \"ith the advc nt. of lhc D e mocrati c adminis trati on. i t wa s the ge n e r al opinion tha t Pres ident W i l so n woul d gi\'c th e matter th o rolLf!h s tud y before any s tep s toward nbol i s hin g t h e Commi ss i on, This h as proved to be the ca s e, and il s eem s to he th e co mmon understanding tha l t h e Preside nt hns forlll ed t h e opi nio l l that the s tatus of th e Commi ss i o n s h ould remain unchanged until th e g l eat wor k i s ent ir e l y finis hed and the Canal t'e ad, to b e oHic iall y [ 240 J

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Cj HE LfflD J2>IIVI'ajDilliEo!DL;-;;;;;;,C S J:1':!E :W.9W lV Ul:!JTED opened. The h e alth of Olle of the m embe r s of th e COlllmi ss ion LieuL-Col. D D Gaillard b ecame undermined in Jul y, 1913 and he was obl i ge d to retul'll to t h e Cnit c d S tate s, nt lea s t I c mpomril,\', "'hill' n o definit e p lan s f o r th e pe rmanent organiza t ion yet heen announce d C olonel Goclhals h as st aled in h ea r ing s before the Sena t e COTlllHillcc all Inte ro ceani c Callais t hai the es ti mat e d numbe r of c mpl o,"cs requir e d f()l" the operation of t h e Canal. cxC]U.-;iH' o f c i vil admini stration and sa n itation, and of the mililnl' )' e s tahl i sh m e n t. Wl)ldti be 2,5 00. The en s uing ,\'ca r will w i t n es s 1111111," c h ange s all tcnding t owa rd the plac ing i n cfreel of th e pcrlllan('nl or-ganizatiol1. The new di reclor w hen appoint e d wilL in connection with the o pcwtion of t h e I ha I 'e t 1'01.a nd j II i c{ion oyer t hc I Zonc, I \)cr r (Will all duties III connectIOn with the clnl 01 th c Zon e, wIn c h I:; to )c held, trcate d and gm'erne d a s an Hdjllllci o f t h e Cana\. The law pro,ide;.; for one di s t ,.ict COlll'1 w i t h 111'0 dil i s i ons. onc im : llIdin g Balboa, and th e o ther includ ing Cris tobal. each court to han.' juris di ction ill felon,' cascs, and in all ('HUSeS at equit y. admil'a lty. and a l l cas e s at law i lll'olying snlll s I n addition to a judgt,. there will he a mars hal and di s tri d atiol'llcy, caell holding (JUicc fur fOUl' ,IC HI'S. Thc CirCllit Court uf Appeals of thc Fifth Circui t o f the l'nite d Slates at ;\cw will h 1\'c j u ri s d iction ;n all appcal c a s c s The provi s ion of I h c ];1\1' rNJui l'in g Irinl by jur y already bccl] Illnd e operali \'c by th e P re side nt' s EXCCIlIII"c Ordcl' of J ul y lUI:.), WIIU:U:SS CO.II'\I l':'; 1('.\1'10:'; The D ,lI'je n naval radio to he \Iuilt at C airnilo a. p o in t i n the Canal Zone a bout midway helln'ell Col oll and Pana ma, will b e o nc of th e mo s l pOll'el'-New dock No. 1 6 al Colon u n d e r conslruction PaT! o f Iho: C ri s t o ba l terminal syst e m r 2
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ITED rul i n the wor ld, and will estahlis h direc t comllluniciltion between the I sthmus and W a s hin gto n I n power i t will be the samc as the Government's s tatioll at Adinglo n h ut ill th e size j)f i t s l owe n;, it w ill excee d t h e l atter. The sending a nd n.'(( j, ing radius wil l hI' llomi uall y 3 ,00U mil es, s o thai communic ati o n llIa y 1)(' held direct with 1I11.' Arling'loll station. instead uf I';a K ey West a s for medy. I t will b e a ble 10 I' clld mc:-;sagcs a s far a s \'aldivi a Chile, miles south of Yalpa raiso: t o reach a v('ssel ;t1i,\'whcre alo n g the {'H s t e m co a s t of th e Cnile!! Sl;ltCS. 01' midwl\\ Ix'lwCl'n :-':cw York :.wd G ihraltar: and 1 0 communicat e wilh tlil' j land o f St.' "ill('c ul. ;')OU mil es wc:-.l o r ,\frica. There arc tlircc o lher wireless on the 1..;lhlll l l ". liot i ncludin g one al del T om. maintaincd b y the Cnit e d Frui l Company, These arc at Port o H ello Col o n. lind B nlboa. and all a l 'e in of the .'\:1\'y D epa rtm ent. One, or m ore o r these p lants will prohahl," he di:OllllHltled when t he I1('W hi g h p owe r lx'comes OI\' aiblhlc, I n 1!)1'l I'l' e ,,,j
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Cj HE hfflR I .,D, II ITED Daniel C French, s cu l ptor, and the \ ice-ch ainnan, :'\11'. Fl' c d c r i ck Law Olm s ted landscape architect, spcnl1l part of th e m o nth of l ;'ebru:t r y, o n the Isthmus. The il' repo r t s ubmitt e d to C on g re ss on July 'lG, IDI: 3 stales in par t: "The CUllal its e lf. and a lllhe structures connected with it impre ss one with A pretty sc:eoe in the outskiriS o f Culebra Vi!l3ge. a se nse ot' their ha\-ill/:t heel) built with a v icw f':lricth' to th e i r Illilily. There i s :Ill entire abs e n ce of ot'lla m c nl and no ev idence Ihlll th e ac-;theti(' has b ee n consi d e red. except. in a few case s a s a -,,('cnndar,\' ('o n sidcl'a ti o ll. B cc:lu,w o f this "cr,\' fact there is lilli e to find raull \\' jlh fro m th e po int of \'ie\\". The Canal. l ike lhe pyramids, o r some ol)jc<:! ill nalural SCCI\(:r,'" i s fmlll ils scale alld simplicity and ( Iin'elm':,;;, Olle feels lhat an,\ thing done m e rel y rol' Ihe pllrl)o se o f beaulif,,'illg-i t would not onl," fail 10 accompli s h the purpose but \\"ou d h e an illljll'rlincllce, JII:sflch 11 work Ihe mo:,t that IItc artis t could hope 1 0 cia would he 10 aid in :=;cled ing, a s 1.elwccn allel'native fOl'Jns of suhstanlially N lual v;llue from the e n gincering point of "in,' thos e which are to pro\' e mos t agn'cilhlc and appropl 'iatl' ill al>)Jl'arancc," The report. hOwl','cr made a l!llmber of sugges tion s c;dculail'( 10 illlpnwc Ille appearancc at the Can al cntrancl's a l th e in th e Iwnn.lIl l'll1 ;ln d the marine and a rm y re s c rvations It al :,o recomnH ,'Il(kd thai a memorial rccord of the huilding of the C a nal hl' made in Ihe 1'01'111 of a n imprcssi ve in scriplion upon a grcat 11101111111('nlal surface 0 1 1 Ih{' east bank of Cul e lJru Cut, at the puin t uf deepes t cutting', .J.!)Q fet\. I I f:.mred a space 100 f eel in height lind s Ollll'whn L more in w idth !!, c .. eI" simple in d es i g n with lettering i n R o man Y.shnpcd letters large e nough t o b e c1l,<:il\ .. ead by lIor111al [ 2 n J

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( -, -0' [

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C)' CS a c r oss the Canal, nnd th n t th e m n l<'rinl should b e c o n c rete applie d a s
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The court side facing northeas t e ncl ose d h y th e tw o s id e wing s, will h ave plain wttll surfaces, Ircalco w ith pila s ters ;1IIt! w ind ow openings o f Sllmc proporlioll.'S a s o n t h e exterio r e l c \ ations, :tnd a central win g hou s ing the main s ta ir m otive and r)()rfc coeh ere entrance, th e e nti re plan havin g the form of the lette r E w i t h the fir s t floor s ituated 1 00 feel a bove sea level. The offic e OII'('as arc t o b e IrC
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I l E \'olume of II'aflie that w ill pa ss through the Panama Cnnal afll'l" it ha s bee n thrown open to comnlt.'rcc of th e worlt! i s largely a mailer of s peculation. The imporlan ce of the new waterway fr o m a milil:ll'," standpoin t i s casily r ecognizable and in the mind s of Ameri can \rrn,\' : Ind :\U\' y expel'ls. the probable fad tha t t he effic i ellcy of Cnck :-iam's :\a\'.'" will be about douhl e d. alone Wllrrants the CHannou:" cos l which th e j1l'Ojcd ha s e ntail ed. In ('OIllIllCl'cial circle s hl)\\,C\'CI', tin: of the hour i s "Can the Canal be made to pa." :" T o a scertain the prohable amount of t onnage thaI w ill lise the Canal during the l1e x t f ew y(';II'S, the Cnilcd Sinks 011 Sep t emhe r 1 1!)11 cll"llrrc d th e SCITiccs of t h e hirrhc s l American :tuthority i n lids lill e Dr, EmolT o 0 B Johnson professor of t l'all sportation and COIIIIlll'rl'C in the C!li\'ersil,\' of P cnnsylnlllia. A s s pc c ial commissioncr on lrame aud l ulls Dr, Johnso n has made nn cx hallsth'c im'cst igation of th c suhjt'el fl'O/Il all poin t s or vic\\'. thp results of which h avc Lce n incorporated in a pl'intcd \ ,)Iume of :wu pages. Ili s conclusions ma \ h e hrieR,\ summed lip. as follow!;: "The s h ipping w.;ing the P a nama Canal annually during the fil'st ,\'('111' 01' tw o of it s o \ >cration, is. in J!)1.5 and 1 0 1 6, alllount to about t o n s, Altlc end ot 1 0 years, t h e tonnage WIll douhtless hav c I'cOlch c d 1 1,-000.000 tOil!':, Thc prospcd i s, thcrefol'e. that the P :lI1allla Callal w ill start w i th I css than half thc tonnage w hi ch will t hclI he making u-;c of the Canal. !\IOI'COVCI'. it will be a long time before t he Panama Cnllal eatdles up with th e Sue", w al cl'wa), in \ 'o lumc of traffi c. S h ould the Suez tonnage con tinuc t o increase at the prescnt rate the \'olumc of sh ippillg sC\,\' (d hy the Suez rou te in IOQ,j will be double that passing lI11'ough th e I'anama Canal. 11 i s hardl,\' pl'Ohable that th e S ue", tonnage will inc rease al its pre;oo;cnt high rate. whilc it Illa." \\'ell happen that the of the Panama Canal upoll industry and trade ll
PAGE 262

---I -0 0 -" 0 3 -0 0 0 0 I I I \ II }

PAGE 263

Dr. Johnson ga\'c publici'" to the aiJon' f"r('(';t ... ill Inl'.? anti hi ... frallk m lmi.;;sioll that his figuN's ma," 1)(' nndcrc!Otim.tll'd indic.tlc.; thaI it i.., IH,t ill tl1(' \lOWCr of illall 10 foretell the \"Illume of traffic the Callal will aUrad. I i s only w i t h i n t he twciVClllOnth II.at skam.;hip COlli panic .... alld finn.; engaged ill the whole sale coal and fuel oil trade. han-awakellcd I() tilt, p":-;,,i h i l i tics ('yoked by the Callal. If reports thaI art.' con .. tantl y noted ill the daily p r l'ss arc truC', nca t'I," (,\' (' 1 ')" company ellgaged ill
PAGE 264

[ 001lJ > -;; -0 --" 0 -0 () 0 -- 3 ---a 0 0 0

PAGE 265

C I HE U -ITED r oad buildinlT in those countries, sout h of th e Equntor, ha s cnjn,\'cd It mcndous in the la s t f ew years. Arge ntin a ha s Ocen hrollghl in louch with \'alparai so bv the Andean tunnel, and the p1'Oduds of the weste rn part of that republic will, in all probabi l ity, b e shi pp e d lhmugh the Canal. The port o f Y alparaiso, w hi ch Wil S almos t dcslro,rc d b y:lll earthquake ill 100(;, ha s fully rcco\ 'crcd fmlll ils eA'cds. ami ha s contracted for porI works costing millions of d ollars in antici pation of the open in" of th e Clilla1. At prcSCIlt. A me r ican com m erce but a minor mle i n t h e c st c oa s t trade. although. owing 10 the n UllIhel' of Americall ill\ 'cslmcnls. th e lrade i s impro\ ing. Germal1\ and Great B ritain ha\"e lon g had the lion's The P o lar Ship Fram lying al ancho r in Cristobal llarbor This boat left Buenos Aires on August U 1 913. a n d reached Colon on Octol.>cr 3. for t h e purpOSC of JY.Issing the Canal o n illl way t o San Fra n ci.'lco It will be one of the lirsl 'cssels 1 0 make the pa.'lsage, sharc, and it will bc man\" ,ca r s heforc thei l hold can be hrokclI, The fault i s our own, Europcan em i g'nlnti'. and l'cl)I"('scnt at i\"es of European firms. w{'nl t o thos e counll 'ies in an eark da\'; the\" intermarried \\ i tb lite lIf1ti, c rc .;;idcnts, and Illan)" became ci t izen s who' r ose to prominen ce i n public lift.. On the olher hand prio r t o the Spanii'h-.\ me r ican flr, thcse countries knew few Americans, with the exception of touris ts. W e k e pI to Oil I' own horders. :tm l estahlished neither soc ial nOl' bus ine ss relation s, and as for going thcre to livc. it was n o t t o be thought of. the ,\mcri<:
PAGE 266

Moonlil:hl On Limon Bay. 'Vllen Ihe rose and mauve and I.:Teen (aded. t h e Itopical moon appears. which is nowhere more effulgent th:m on the I Slhmus. Roosevelt Avenue. t h e pretties t s treet in C rislobal. overlook i n g Limon Bay and Ihe All3ntic entrance 10 the C an:!1. The beauty of this street a lul the o utlook haS been marred by the building o f the docks al this point. [ 2-52 )

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The Spanis l H\meriean "Oar w a s the cntc-ring wedge; the Panama Canal a m i ot h e r large projects in Central a III I :;ou l h Amcricll requi ring American b rai n and brawl! h a s wide n e d the o p e ni ng. lIulil luuay o n c wil l find p I c-illy of Americans scauc r c d all m ocr L at iJl-Am c-rica, A large pl'rcen l agt' of thost' w h o :11 Culebra. Nel.'1"o v illage of Golden Creen in middle distance. T hese v illages w ill be abandoned i n course of ti m e enl i s t e d in the Phi lippine, Cuban, 01' Porto R i can campaigns those who have seen senice on th e .Panama Canal, 01' thos e who cngngt'd in railroad and mi ning work in Bn.l7:il. Pcru, or Chilc, nevcr go haek b) the 1 0nited :;Iatcs to "csi d c permanen tly. Some of them lean: the tropics with th e ;t\ owl'd ililention of nen'r return ing. bul S001l('" 01' laler, one will find thtll at a s tealll:-:hip omee pass a g e southward bound Thc-lurc of the Iropi ( :-: is not ( a..;ily OYl'rl'ome. Thc Amcr icallizing of L ;llin. \ mt.ri(a has only jus t Ilcg u l l; it wOlild lIot hll'O c bee n beg-II II yct bul f(,1' tl1ost. prime faeior:-:, til( \ rar ami th e Callal. A s Amc-r iealls loca t e ill Central and \ lIIcr i("a, Ihe ("all grows lIlor'eallcl more insi s te n t for COilYellieIlC(S to w hiclL ther ],een banks, clubs, store!'. and merchandis e. Till' influence of the L atinizecl A ml' r i('an i s seen in thc gradual illlpron'mc-nt of cOl1dition s 1111 of wh ich, whilc minu te in detail ill cOllll c d ion wit h t h e trade of thc-Canal. has a direct bearing on its ful ur{' s o rar a s it con cerns lrafric wit h South \mcr iea. Thc Pal11lmil Can:11 will plan' t h e l nilf'd States and Europe .. l,out on a par i'O far as i t (onc('I'IIS the commen: c of \ustralia ;lnt! :\"cw Z('aland. The sumt. i" Inlt. cf Japan, China. and the Philippine s The s hu r t rUlllc from I 2.");) 1

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Europe to thc Oricnt i s way of S uez; the s h ort cours e from t h c Atlan t i c coas t of th e Cni l e d States to Japan and mo st. of China will he b y wa y ot' P a nama. A lO-knol freight s t eamer will be a b l e t o make th e voyage f r o m :" ew YOI'k to Yokohama I w wav of Panama in 1,) d: I\ s' l ess tim e than it now l akes Iw W
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I M a in entrance 10 1h e new H Olel \Vas h i nglOn, Colon. t hrou g h the Panama COllwl wil l afford an opportunity for the tired II';tvek'r t o land. alld if he s o sir'l s to tile I s thmu s h y l':ti1. The ] stlllllU."', therefure. w iil he a i'iOl"t of dcaring hOll s e for pas s en ge r traflie. P e ople comin g fnUll Europe alld eastern 01' s ouliteJ'll l"lliled Stales w ill c hange there foJ' the Or'ielll. wl' s l c r n rnited Slates, and we slern :O;OU! Ii \ mcriea. The dos ing ,wars of the ('011-:.ll'uci ion period of t h e Canal Ita .. allraetcd a g rowing numh e r llf to u r i s t s. lInlilllllhc pJ'es cnllill1/.', it i:s ju"t a s Ilnu : h a booki n g puint for the t Ollri"t a g ellcie s a s 1\11\" olher pla c e of th e w or1e l Ii:!!' to Ofr l'l". Stati stic ; compikd to Jul'"l, lOI S show th a i about jJ,OOO peuple have \ j s ited thc Ca 1101 1 s iu c c J a n 0<1 ry 1 1!J 1 0, on'!' ollc-half of Iha! numbcr wilhill 11.(' \)a,>1 1 8 months, TIc following table of ('om p:lrati,'c distances will "how :iome o f th c shorkni n g of the I'anama Canal w ill ef r { ,(,!: A typical s treet in C r is t o b al. The r e are cocoanut p a lms on e\'ery SlTee t in t h is pretry Canal Zone settlement, while banan a trees and other tropic growth adorn the gross p lots i n frODI of the houses, [ 255 ]

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-------I -'. ----"'-'" -, o --. -" --0 --. ----, -", i;' ---= C -" z < o = > z r --g r < > -o c z -., o -, ./ \ --, -" .,

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(!.<;"Z] -----. -. I > --" -, ---- -_ .-- .---, -, if

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I E P :l11allla of lod l,\' afi'oni s a s trikin g conlm s \ to th e Panama of \l1ho u g h old," a de cade h a s elaps ed since it hcca m e it n puhli c and s el f governin g. the CUUllt!'," h a s made a wonder ful stride fo rward in pl'Og-rcss and WI:,II-hcin g. It cannot lJC s lIppo;)c d t hai Ih i s c hange wo uld h
PAGE 273

for t ill g(Jod of all th e Jlt u p k. treated t heir pulitic a l o]Jp u lle l l l s a s ]1<"rs ollal e l lf'llIie s Clilitl(' d 1 0 110 (Olls iticra ti oll. The !"c,' olll i ion of I )oO1 )O-l. unc o r I he m os t s a IIg u i na r y :;t rug g k s ill w h i e h t h e I s t h m i an c,'er hccalllc c n g a g ed. was :;Iad('d i n Colnmbia, w h e r e lhl' J e .. u i l s, w h o c o n s l i l u t l' d a dominant fador in a n a ir s of c hu r c h and s tale, had :;tal'ted a c:ulIp a i g n against the L iheral .. T he fighl jJl\ u l nd c\' cr y <;ellied par t o f th e l...,thnlll,;. and the f a ilul'l' o f the l oc al Liheral m'll 1\' 10 will "iet(HT al 11i;lt tim e \\ '01:; due tu t he gC'lIel'o<;i t of G e n Emiliallo 1I (,I'I'el':I. w h o lai d :-icge t u P all a m:! Cit y and wlw willillg t o g ive tilt wom e n and c h i ldren a chanc t to e,,cape l he l ) ollll l:lI'( ll11el1l, P I),.,II")!I((I hi s a!lack thel' c h," g i"ill g the enelll Y oppo rlullit y 10 S Il P llj!;lilell ils dcfl'l l<:('S, D r, Beli s a r i o 1'01'1':1" I he P I 'l''JClIl Chi e f ExeclitiH' or I' ''ll a m a, w a s o n e of Ihe pri n eipal LilJt'r a l leader s ill tid:; campai g n O R U ELISARIQ PORR A S Prcsi dent o f t h e R e l m blj c o f Panama, Nation a l P alace and T h e a t r e P a nama City, It COSt 51.000, 0 0 0 and i s t h e fin..,s t e d ifice i n the Republic o f l'a n ;,"la ( 250 1

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The last r evolution. that of 3, 1 903, whe n Panama sece ded fro m Colombia, was a bloodle ss .. fra il'. d evo i d of s peclacular incidcnt, but i t gave birt h 10 a. !lew republi c and made t h e Panama. Canal all a ssure d fact. The part that the U n ite d Sl:ttes took in t h e eve n t h as b(.'C1l di sc u ss ed pro and co n J I !o;nfli c e,.; to sa\' t hat w hile th e Am e r ican GO\'enllllenl did not ;wliveh' interest i t s elf in the cause, i t :;lIIiled bmadl.v allh e p l ot. and prevented any c han(.'C thal th e Colombian troops might ha\'l' had t o an'rtthe disa:;ter. h y prohibiting th e ir tl"an"port over t h e Panama R ailroad on the pretex t o f keeping lh e tmn:;it clea r w hi ch was all the J'anamefw s wanted. The "handwriting on the wal],' was see n w h en th e Colombian Con g 'css del ib e ra t ely lumcd down P re s ide n t R oo s evel t s ge n e ro u s proposal r 01' t h e pmc h a se of lhe Canal s trip at $ 1 0.000.000 On the i r OWII admiss i o n they wanted mol'C, for th e rca s on t h c), thou ght th ey could get i t b y aski n g for it.. Roose "elt' s h idden note of warning s hould h ave b ee n enough, but Depu t y E leclioneering in the inlcrior of P a n ama i s done o n horseback. The man i n fronl, under the flags, was one of Ihe can didates for I'residenl i n the last deClion. Ydel: and his followcr s th ought th ey would c all wha t t h ey r ega rd e d a s a bluff and th ey did bu t with an un cxpected result. Thc I slhmi ;Uls k n ew the temper of th e ir co mpnlri o t s, s o t llC nction of the Colombian Congress wa s no surpri s e to them. The Irent." wa" defeated b y Col ombia 011 Augu s t 12, 1 903; th e flag of the ne w ,epubl i c was rai se d on Novcmber 3. thre e m o nth s later; P anama was r 2M I

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C I HE l>&-D :;:;;;;C::II J HllEUWOR 1 ->I:>.LUl:'lJTED r ecognized by the U nit e d Slates 011 .:\"ovcmbcr u, 100:3: th e Canal t rea t., \\'jlh Panama w a s s i g n e d at Wa s h ingto n on I S, I!)O:1: it wa s t':llificd by P al1ama o n D ccc mIJcr:1. IOU:!. and b y the U n ited ::;lale s ::;ella!c 011 F cbnwrr '24 1 !J04. Quick work all around. TilE I'.\S. \ .\I.\ FL.\G : .\li ss :\Jari a E milia d e 1:t O ssn :l niece of the fir s t of Panama. Dr. :\lanucl Amaclor G uc rrcl"O. i s I l lCdcs i gner o f th e flag of the republ i c. wh i ch was hung fro lll t h e halco n,v of Dr. Amador's house 011 :\O\'cllIhc['4. 1 003. WIH.'1I the D ecla rati on of Independence was s igned in Cathedral P ark. The flag was presen t ed to P re sidcnlR oosc\'cl l whe n the Cnil c d States recognized t h e ind e p ende n ce of Panama. The two stars th a t a dol"l1 th e b anner r cpre.scnt the two national part i es. Lilx.'ral amI COllse r va tive The tWO S!ar$ in th(! flag are red and blu(!on white background; the opposite corner s are red and blue, makin!.: the com hi nalion red, white aud blue. :\,\TJO:\o\L I1Y:\l:\ OF TllE I
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l.J The hi!!h l a nds offer a .,Ie: ,sant and cool climate where all "1o:" 1 ,"ion peculiar 1 0 t h e tropica l 7-0n e The : ,IOn1o: t h e stream s i s f i nc: fern s a n d o r c h id s o f many kinds abound an" s plend i d har dwood trees lOwer ""cr Ihe ,,"cTgreen i 2G2 1

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C I HE l>&R ITED 1 00 years behi n d the tim es. The n ew gO\'cl'Ilmc nlmadc a gu od s tart h,\' dis bandin g its s m al l :Il'm,,-iatc in J!)O-J.. 'fhi.' army in ncarl \ (.','cn Lalill-.\IIH.'riCall country is a bone of contention for th e opposing pol i tical 1'01' 1'itLccess i s practically a ss ul't'd in case the :l.'
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C I HE J>fflD J!IVIDED 0 ,j\, \ o 0 0 ..... --, ... ... .. .. .... _. no -' .. '" 0" .. r O' so m e ras h ad on the part of Panama, remote at be s t continue to be obse n cd. L":';D OF TilE COCOAXUT C r oo k ,\ OIL I fiugcr and y ou will h:w c a fail' idea o f the American i sthmus, Pl'adic:dl,v the whole of whic h is incl1lde d within lh e limit s of the R cpllolic of P ana m a. The arca of Ihe co un t r y can onl y be estim at ed, a s no act ual sLirvey ha s evcl' been made; :lnd i npproximat c l y 32,0 0 0 square mil es, based upon th e ca s t and wes t boundari es, :15 claim ed, i'M, t o dale, n e ith e r th e f ronti e r on the Cos t a R ica s ide n ol' that bord ering on Colomhia. has b een delel' min e d The P a nama-Costa Hi can boundar y qu estio n was submitle d f o r arlJ i tratio n to ronnc r P['csidc n l Loubc! of Fra n cc. bUllhe Cos t a Hicf P .. blic I nSlruc,i o n DON RAMON F. A CI!.VEDO. o f I .. blic Worh. r 26 4 1 DON ERNESTO T LEFEVRE.,. Secretary o f Fo...,illn

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Illenl r efused to abide by his deci ion, which, for the 1ll0s t parl. sllstaine d Panama's eOlltelll i oli s and the malleI' i s nul\' befure anothel' trihlln. d. \ lripa l titc treah' W:l1i arranged by the Cnited S latcs i n 1!)J'2 to bc ... il-{Tletl h y it, Panama, and C o lombia. T h e proposed cOllv C lltlon defined th e l ) ollll(l:1l'i(' s ilnd ga\'c Colombia a sum of money-con.'
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r I I N ATIVE CA.,RTS..-Bull fights now p r o h ibited but c o c k fights are s lill a 1 )() l l tll a T s p o rt. Muc h m o n e y has been a n d is b(, ;IIl{ s pellt i n tll(' buildinj.: of fine m:ocaotlllli,.;e
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infl' into P aril;! 13:1\' i s hclicw'd to he second in :-li zC'. wilh the C'ha!! rcs Hin!r, o .. fccdcr of (;allm L ake, th ird. The repuhlic i s di"ided illio seven !WO\ illCC S nalll('I,\ B()(';l'; d d Toro, Chiriqui Cocle, Colo n L II S Santos P;1llama. nnd I',mama ]ll'O\'jm'l' is llIuch ti l(' la rges t em],racing thai regi o n a s yd Ulll'cC'iairncd from the imli:111 tribes known a s the Darien. Panallia City i s the federal i\;o; wdl ;I:' pmvillt::ial (,end"nCia, or C entral Park. I'a"alll : t The public parks are t h e meeting-places o f the ",aSSeS. Ibnd concert s hdtl ""NY Sunday anti Thursda y eveninj.:s. The natl"ell assemble in their gala clothes, I Ol{elher w ith ; "osm Ol1o lilall m;,uurc of ( .... land. wa s a mi scr:dJle \"ill:lgc of kOflO souls ill IOUL huilt 0\"('1' a hul ha .. g l'own 10 an C'nlerpl"i:,;ing wdl-IJrdel"c d town of 01' 1lI01'(.'. ;1 gail1 o f O\'CI" GOO 1'<"1" ccnl in tht., pas t ten .\'cars. P anama Cil.\ luda.\ I:'lljoy:-; lIIos l o f tire COIl\'('l l i cII CCS of all,\' c il.\' of ill' s iu'. illcltlding ta xi('ah ... alld ,111 l,le("\rie ,.,Inc\ railw ay, w hi c h were pla("(' d in .<;cl"\"i('<.' in "\ug"u:-;I, I!)!:t Colon. also. ha:-; it Ir:l111 W:I.\' lIndcr' con s truction, T he fulure appears hril!ht for 1!t6C tW() owillg" t o their proxinlil y 10 the Canallermirli. Da \ id, tlle ca pital of C hiriqui pr(wincc. is th e th irtllargcs i c it.\". while Boca'; d e l Tow, buill III' b.\" th e Lanalla Intcrcsls of I h e \ nit e d Frllit Compml y nlllk s fOlll 'th. th e The present admi ni:-;tral ion i s headed b y Dr. B e l i sario Porras, a lcader of Liber:rls, who took a prominent pal'l in the rl'\ 'oltrtiOll o f 1UIIO, :l1Id wlto i s a { 2G7 J

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G I HE bAN-R ITED thorough \ )]"ogrcss i vc. 1[(' was inaugurated o n Octoher I Ifll 'l, aftcr nn cx ('('cd,ing!,\' lard cam.\)aign. and i s calle d Panan}:I,'s co n stit utional prcsulcnl. 1n YleW ot POS S! ,Ie altCllIllt s al fl':IlId. Ihe Llllled S lal es was called upon to S lIP C1Tisc the clce1ioll, and ( i tl so. 1n hi s pre-election s p eec h es, Dr. 1'0l'l'as pl'ollli ... cd th e people of th e cOLlntr," certain reforlll S and tn:lll\' of th ese reforms arc tlcing bnnlght :1110111. \YilclI h e took office, th e nalion ai II'CaSIII',Y was empl y. and a co n s iderabl e amoun t was owing 10 t h e local banks o n loan.s. 111 le ss tllan s i x motl!ll!' all dehts were pa i d. a nd in Augu s t 1!)13, lllcrcwasa halancc in the lJ'caslIl'.\' of over no t includin g t h e firs l of tlte annual payments of $250 000 made by th e l nit.ed States in 1!) 1 3, under th e Treaty. The national ('onstitution, prO\ iding for a centralized republ ican fo rm of go\er nmclll. WCIlt. into efl'et:\ 011 Pehrnar.\' '24 l!)O J The prc sident i s e l ected by Panama City as i l appears from I\ncon H ill, This is the capi tal of the Republic of Panama and is situated clos e t o the Pacific entrance to the Canal. It has aooU 140. 000 inhabitants, including almost ever y national i f Y on I h e globe, popular \'oll'. for a k rill of four ,\'enrs and cannot s u cceed him se lf. T he ele('\ i o n s a r c held in July, alld the loltlccelollolful candidate takes th e oath of o f fice o n the fir sl.of Odoher, fo'il owing. Ire I'ecci\,es a s alar'\' o f $!),OOO pe l annum, with a n allowanc e for hOlls chol d expenses ami ex t r a offl('ia 1 purposes. I [ e II ppoin t s a II the h i g h e r onici: d s, il1('hllling memher s of hi s cahi1lci, j ud ges of th e Supre m e Court. diplomati c and con:-oul a r reprcscntati\'es, and th e g o \'erno r s o f provinces, lie i s assisted i n his duli e s h y a cahinclof f i ve rnem hers, co n s i:.tin g of a scc r e t a r',\t of finance, s ec r e t a r y of for'e i g n relatio n s, secretary of gO\ 'e l'lll rlc n t and jus ti ce, sec retar.\ o f puhlic i n stnr cl i oll, a n d see r 'dar')' of public wor ks. I n case of d e:\ lh tltt" dillie s of the lll'es i l\elll devolve on the Prima DClJiY"(ldo. The r e a r c three of these desiYlI(l(olf, whi c h co r Tespon d 10 th e tit les of firs l seco nd and thinl vice-pre s ident, re s pectively. The lawmaking bl'1lnch of th e governmenl is :t [ 2GB J

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I INTERNATIONAL I \Vhile Panama C ity a s a who le. has (Iui, e 3 n antiquated "PlX'a.a"cc. there arc a nurnlJ.er o f up-Io-,ble stores which impOrt the la teSI c reati o ns, direct fr o m Paris. The Palm Garden i n the Hotel Central is a popu1:l r meeting place, especiall y o n Sunday evenings aher the band concert i n the park. [ 269 J

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s ingle IJOdy kllo\\ n a s Ihe nalional assembly, cOllsi sli ng of depulie s elected rm' a krill of Iwo ,\' c:lr;'l in Illm:1i Ille :;aJllc manner a s l lIited States Congressmcll. I 'he lid III in i s l fa I iOl1 of jusl i c e i s cs ll.'t\ in a s u I le['iOl" C()11 ['1. c i ['ClI it COlt 1'15. cl isl ['ict cnut'ls ami s ueh illfpJ'ior t r ibunals as may be c s tablished iJ,r I:I\\'. The sltperiul' hold ..; eOllrl ill J'a!lalli : Cil., alld cOII!>is t s of fi"e judges. JI1 a ge neral "':l.\" enju," thl same righl s ,Ilul pri"ilcges before lhe Iri l Juna l s of the (utlllt!'\' :1 ... ('ili zl'lh do HI-:\'EX! 'ES The nation a l f in allCl's al'( ill an ('x(' ellent condition. The s um of $G.OOO.-000. lite halanee o f lIll' *10.000. 000 paid Panama by the l nit c d :-il:t\e s fOt' the ( Hllal s trip. i s Inalll'd (Ill (i .... t-ela ... s :\e\\' York Itlol'll-'ages, dra\\'illl-' pCI' ccnl i"ll'n',.,t alllllJal l y. Thi .. inlen. 's \. ahout $2 7'2.000. \(lgditCI' with th e followin g appl'oximatt.' a 11'101111 I,.;, 1'01'111 Ihe fix ( d annual reVcnll(' S of t h e n.:-public: Can a l ZO[H' r e ntal. $'l.3IJ.OO(): illte-['C!>, t on thc sum to I-'lIaranlcc Ih e paril y of mont'y. *!)JIOO: interl':-t f rom fund:. in tlte .\'alional Balik 01' the Republic, $S;;.7.jO; ['C llt s of puhlic market ami dl)ck, :t;.J.O.()U(l: rents rl'Otn lots in Colon. inkresi 011 hOlld..; of th c :\atiollal Compan.\ $Q.-J..jO. Total, $ 6 ; 1 :1.'200. \ddcd 10 thi.., arc Ihe customs duties and co n sl1la[' fee s c s limated ;tl 1'01' 101:1; ;Intl int('rnal rC\'Cllue collcc tion s est imated al $.)00,0 00. The hml g et of ('x pt'Il!>(,s 1'01' l!)I!J i s es litnnll'd al !j;3.8.J.l,'!1 L Thc counlry IUtS no natiol1al dehl, amillu.'l'c i s 110 prohability of ils C\'C[' hH\ in g onc. All imports inlo Ihe I'cpuhl i c, with the eXl'eplion of cel'iain articlc s on which 11 hig he r ta x i s imp o s ed. arc s uhj c l'l 10 a duly of I.') 1',,-'[' cenl. Li
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impor ta tion of opi ulll if' now p rohibited by law. ma r ks m a y I.Jc lI pOIi al)pl i cal ion t o the ( F OI11C lll o ) and tbe paY lIl c u t of I l l' r e qllired fcc. :\.\'1'10"':.\1. Foreign patent:; and I .. nlle Secrclary (If P ubl i c \rorks The lllo n c\ lry IInil i s the B alhon. ha\'ing:l fixed \'a 1 11(' of one dol lar in g'uld. ( nder t h e T rea l y Panama agrccd III llwinlOlin it,.: ('uin:!!;t' ,II a pari t y of '2 II) I. C ayucos small 1>0;115, s hown i n Ihe [);ClUre. are hollowed o u t o f
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Some of the streets in Colon hav e <\uee r n:lmes. This i s a scen e in Hottle Alley. one of the l )rineil),, 1 business thoroughfares. One of the newer type of concrete buildings. This s tructure is the of the P anama I\:lilroad. which own s most of the land i n Colon. l:ront Street. Colon. a s i t appears to-day. Hcfore the Americans started work o n t h e Canal many o f the streets were in (In unsightly and consequently unhe(lilhy condition. I n the P : I S I f e w years a br!o(e amount o f street improvemenls h 'lVe been made and n'uch land has been filled in and reclaim e d easl of the city. All of the strcc ts. both resid e n ti(l l and business. arc now macadamitcd. I 2i2 1

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CI HE I).('\ND ::;;;;;5;c:I11H:lliEU:WPll H];),:_U ITED Panama bcc:lIne :t ] 'cpublic there was not a road in the coun t ry thal could be dig n ified h y that name. SuiJsequentiy. a number of road s ;md bl'id gcs were built, co n nccling the principal lown s il1 wes tern Panama. but the work, in man y cuses, was let 1 0 irrespon s ihle contrac t or", ali(I pro\ 'cd def e ctive. 11 i s o m ciall,v admitte d thai the main trouble Ita s heen the failure t o adopt a definite plan: This mistake ,has bC,?Jl and work s of a pllbli, c nature arc C:IITled out along unIform tllles 'lbc largest wagoll bndgc III th e republic I S that ovcr th e Santa l\laria R i"cr on th e hOl'del' of Coclc and Los Santos pro\"inces. It waS built in 1907, under th e supervisi on of :\Lr. J G. H o l co mbe, at lhallim c c h ief e n g ineer of the republi c, bu t who w a s formed,," in charge of all munici pal c n g inccrmg of th e Canal Commi ss ion, Since WO .. k municipal buildings, including sc h oo lh o u scs, havc becn e r ected i n all of th e important A busy scene:1I the pla)' a .. o r market beach. Panam a City. where Sllla!! vessels lad e n with vegctablu and fruil unl oad their cargoes. towns.. In P anama. II national pala ce and theatre was completed in IDOS at a co s l of about $ 1 000,000; a ci l y hall wa s erected ill I DIO: a national in s t itute for boys covering half nn acre. was finished in I DII at a coslor about $800 .. 000; a spacioll s c i ty market i s n ow undt'l" c on structi o n .. and plans ha \'c be e n prepared fol" a n t l balLoir and co l d s tOnlf.,I'C plan t \0 cos t $ 1 00 .. 000.. I n Colon. a govern. m c nt bui lding wns cl"ected i n 1 006, Developm cnt of th e cOllntry ha s been g r e atl.'" halldieappcd b y th c lilek of s u itable transportation faci litie s from the interior d istricts 1.0 the porls. Produce i s brought 10 the ports b," packpony, or by twowhccled ox carts, over roads whic h in the rainy seas on oftentimes become impassable. It i s then shipped 10 market by steamer or s ai ling vessel. On the P a c ific coast. th e \'al1onal l\"uvigatio n Compnny operates s lel.lmc r s west a s far as P e(lI"cga l th c pori of Chiriqui provincc, touching at all interme diat e pOI ts, and on t he easl to San [ 273 J

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-ox. TEAM Ancient meth o d s o f :tl{rkulture :Ire still i n V O)!UC, s uch a s pl3ntinlo:" corn h y punc hing holes in Ihe j.(round w ith" s h aCl' po;nted slick "Ithough a few farmen h(wc made homes and I:lid OUI .,lanl:llloIlS in the ;mer i o ,rovincc" :tnd t h e of 1 :.rmll1lo1 arc h eill\,: gradu:ll1y inlllro \ cd. Produce Is brough t 1 0 mark e t h y a pack-pony or b y two-wheeLed 0)( cariS over road s, which. In the season, often become im"3ssa ble [ 2 7 4 1

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i\ligucl l3ay. The Panama S t carnt'ltip Company co mpet e s in Ihis trade he twe e n PaTlallHt and Chiriqui, rlS d o hundreds of s mall s ailing ,esse l s On the Allantic coa s l th e traffic has to depend entirely o n s a ilin g ve s se l s and launc h es. There i s le ss Iha n HIO o f mil!"Oad in t h e country. and i s CIl llfincd to the Panama m ilroil(1 main lin e. and its branches. and to a. line about W miles ill len g th operat e d by the United Fruit Company in co nn e ct i on wi th it s ban a na plantat i o n s i n th e prov incc of Bocas del T oro. In 1!)IO. at til e rcq u e s t of tllc Panama. Governmcnt, a sunc\' wa s made bv t h e Panama Hailroad Company. f o r a l ine f r o m Panama t o D;I,i d in C hiriqui pro,illcc. a distance of about 27 mil es. Seve ral attempts to --. P anama r --cnact railroad legislation in th e :\"ational \ ssc mbl y ill urder t o p r oceed w ilh the con s truclion of thi s line. failed ; i t pass ed th e .\ssembly :11 o n e time, but w a s vc t oc d by a forme r president on con stitutional g rounds The present administration has abando n e d t hi s project, and i s making a. stud), of : t series o f s h o r t e lectri c roads. with a vicw of connecting lip Celebr:Hion of the opening o f l 'aoama lr:1m w:1)'s. Picture taken at the company', car barn. I --J -" -

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t he' pri n ci pal p o r t s on t h e P a c i f i c coas t wes t o f Panama, w i th th e intC l j o r di stri cts. u sing t h e abundant wat e r p ow e r f u r op e ra tin g th e m A number o f o t h e r I'a ill'Oad sc h emes hOI v c been launched d 1I r illg t h e p a s t f e w year s, n otn bly one ill th e Dari e n b y a G e rm a n sy n d i c n t c, a n d nlloth cl' i n C o l o n p r o vince w\'i n g its por t t e rminu s at th e m o u th o f t h e Chag r c s Rive r;. th e pro j ect W Hi' a h andolled alld t h e la ll e r ha s b e e n hel d up b y t h e U ll ilcd Siales m e n !. The P ana manian tel e gra ph s ys t e m i s g ov c nllll c nto wn c d A lin e A c orne r o n Centra l Aven u<". P a n ama. s h owing a car o f I h e tramway service. edt lI d ... f r om P a n a m a t o David, wit h branc h lin es m mifying th ro u g h th e pronnc c s Fin:..: I'CBLI C SCHOOL S Y S T E '\ I The natio n al c o n s t i t utio n e s ta b l i s h e d a f r e e p u blic se h o o l sys t e m s o m e t hing-u niqu c in Latin Am e r i c a. a nd th e gov e rnm ent h a s purs u e d th e p o l i c y o f a l wlI)'s p r o \ idi n g l i b c l'all y for t h e cause o f educati o n. Att e nd a n c e at t h e publi c s c h oo l s i s co m p u l s o r y a nd abse n ce with o u t p c rm i s s i o n i s p u ni s ha b l e b y s m all fine s Se p a ra te g rade d sc h ool s f o r cach s e x a r c m ai nt aine d The c u rri c ulum ('mbrac{'s s t ud ies th a t w ill \ wc p a re t h e J )u pi l for th e l o ca l normal sc ho o l s, a nd the in s tit u te. 11 i nclude s ( rawi n g a n i n th e cas e of t h e girl s, in s t r u ction i n n e e d l ewo rk Les s o n s in E n g l i s h are g iven in all t h e ci t y sc h oo l s, and s o m e of t h e count r y sc h o o l s, tw i c e a w ee k The gO\'e r n m e n t :11 5 0 maintai n s a m a nu a l trai nin g s c h oo l f o r b oy s a n d a natura l c o n s erva t or), of m u s i c t o w h i c h c h i ldre n o f pOOl" fami lies a r e g ivcn f r e e i n s t r u c tio n a n d w h e re bo ys arc t ra i n e d to qualif y for ('IH\) l oy m cnt i n th e nat i o n a l b a n d Thc r e arc ,t number of p r i v a t e c ollege s for boll se x e S i n th e r epubl ic; th e college s for b oys a r c ge n e rally c o n d ucte d b y Ih e C hri st.ian B ro th e r s. The i n stitu t e i s o p e n t o boy s fr ce o f c ha rg e bu t o n l y lwo i n a f a mily are e nti tlc
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l -.... I CITY HALL. PANAM A I I I I The splend i d public w o r t h y o f a n y lown s of t heir size. w hich have b ee n e rected i n Panama C it y a n d Col o n are r c a l monument s t o Panan'ani;ln p rogr ess. The I'anama gO crnm cn! providn liberall y f o r the e d ucation of ils yout h The N:u;on:l' lnslitulc. Pan:lm: 1 Cit)'. cost about 5 1 00,000 and h a s <;Ill" room f o r 1 000 boys. Colon also h a s a school b u ilding for boys of mu.., h the sam e arc hitcctu r:l 1 typ e a s t h e o n e shown in the pictur e for girls. [ ?--J

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drawn on f reely in Ihe s ('lecli o n of th e remainder of the facullL The s c h olars nr(' (Ial;", ,. 1 8 2'2 36 1 2 76 2 0 IS!) ;';1). r ... .-s 1'(0, Pup ils "11-In,true-ti"", rulle<.1 '>lie-half I ,by 1 2 ,!!) I 217 53 '2 1 08 2 .. "'1..J. -,-1 .3,j8 7(l U 1 1 2 ,30 ( 3 1 2.94 2 2,016 17.J. 6,.1.07 5.177 '.I, ; 1.2 'il -861 .. I -..J. I !J 1!J,,j 'II :J.618 ) 1 i", .. 1 >(,h. ",I, a,.--110",<: 1"'1 ,i I, "r 1",1 h ,,x ..... "ttcn,! .",. ,>('>0 rot I I,e ",un. Ii",,, Al t c rnal c 1OChool. are Ih""" "l'en:: Ihe l .. "Uent! "'-'1"",1 ill Ih" u"""iug, :iIl,! girl,; in the I'ire '...,.1.11. T n addition lu the :dlon', thcrt:' i s n n ormal in s lilute for girls wilh 16 1 pupils. lind In pl"Ofcssors; nlltionul c on servat o r y of mus i c and declamation w ilh J7G pupils 1111<1 eigh t professo l 's; sc h ool of arts and w ilh 136 scholars .mel nine profc!Ssors, ami Ih e :\:1tioltal lns tilulc fo r boy s w ith 1 57 pupils and 26 all located i n Pan:un a Ci ty, Si n c e ) Ia,\' I. several o lher p l 'imary :,c hoob han' bc(.'n o p e n cri. ;tm l 011(' professionnl s c h ool 1"01' g irls The nntional Masonic Temple, I'or! Limon. I 278 J

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-___ ---.JO 0 ____ v--I o V icwS o f:l. S UI,..,.r Can e P la malion, loc:lled about sc\' c n mile, cast o f Colon. The raisin!,: of 8 U lta r clin e i s destined t o bcCOIllC o n e o f the fmu r e source" o f wealth o f the country. The I s t h m ia n cane containS:l hi K h p ",r Cent of saccharin e and grows readily. r 27!) J

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c on servatory of music and declamation i s o n e o f the be s t of it s kind, and man\' Am crican d l ildr c u rece i ve Illu s i cal i n struction t hcl"C. I ts head i s P rof. Narci s o Garay. PA.'>.'.\.\I A HICIILY I::.'>.'DOWED BY N.\'I'UI U ; lhc fac t lh at Panama. has bee n wOlld e rfull), faNored i n t h e extent and va..1e ty of it s nat ural resources. the value of it s :mport s g reatly excee d the val u c of it s CXpOI-lS. The peo p le of in terior P a n a m a a r e ill th e m ai n agr i cu lturis t s onl.\ so fa.r as to s uppl,v t heir own s im ple wa n t s. T h ey l a c k initiative a n d ambit ion looking onl y L a t h e pl' e -;cnt. w i t h no great d esire to aC(lui r e wealth fro m c u ltivati o n of th e s oil. H en ce. t h e future of I sthmia n upon immig rants, m e n of a hardic r mol d and cx pCl'lcn ccd 1IL I dhng I I C held, The Canal Commissi on ran UI) a g ai nst this co n d i t ion in and 1 !)05, It wa S pe r fec tl,\' willi III-( to bu y PI'O( \Lce i n the lo c al m a rket but the m o ment it attempt e d to do so, pri ces udnlllccd to a prohibi t i ve poi n t. T hi s brou g h t t h e co mmi, s sHI'Y int o I n 1 00 4 but o n e com mi ssary. was i n opentllOn. t hat at C nstoba. I he mercit. UlIs 01 J'allailla p rote s t e d agalll s t lh c cS,tabl!shmelll of gOV('!llm ent o n a large sc ale, and t o \\a s i ling l on, I n 1900 Ilon. C h a rles i\lagoon th e n governor 01 t 1e Canal Z o ne wa s directed to p ropose to the co mmittee o r merchants hav ing t h e matter in ch:,lrge. t hat i f a comp.IIl,v was amon g to est abli s h commiss a r ies a t I)OIl1IS along t h e Canal, wh e r e lIlt h c:l l cd. and J! t i ll S compa n y wou l d agree to s ci good s at a r e a sonahle pric(', th e Canal COlllmiss i o n wou l d des ist f ro m th e i r plan. Afte r a week o f deliberation. t h e chairman of th e cOlllmittee announ ce d Central Market Panama City, w h e r e the l a rger n u mocr o f Pan aman ia n housewives do thei r marketing. [ 280 ]

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., '. The Mango i s the most common of the fruit Dearing trees in P :anama. Gourds. from the 1o(ourd o r calabash trees. arc much used for househol d IHens115. An cl
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al 11 public thai i t wa s too I,ig :111 undertaking for the m erchants t o l'ntl'l'tain. ThLis Panama l o s t one of it:;; greates t opportunities and a s a I'('suli of the commiss arie s h:1\"(: been a thorn in th e fles h of th e 10clI! c()I1IIllc n.:ial hod," ('vcr s inc('. ntil imllligrali(in i s i lllcl l igelltly fostercd 11,'" the Panalll:l GO\' crIlmcnt t h e re ("all he no g i c at dcvclopment of the (.'()unlT',' s v a s l r esources. So me SlreCI venders arc numerous and display .heir in the m 3 nncr shown in the picture. attempt s at s e!lIl'l1lcnl and colon i zation have IIcCIi made o n the pad of forei g n ers ami han' faile d, pal'II," 011 ably 75,000 head of cattle in Chiriq ui out the extensivc [ZS Z J J

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P a namanian fire b r iJ;::ade. Both Panama and Colon i n times past h,lVe been iSiled b y terrible confbJ{I"lHions. and up 10 a fe w years a)o:o were compelle d t o firu wilh antiqual<'d e(l"ipmenl. J G. O U II"e i s Ihe good angel of Ihe "an',"la and f o r years paid for ils upkeep out of his personal fund s. Autom o b i l e fire e n l: ine 0 1 the Panamanian fire departm e n t at Colon. T h e city o f i s also provid e d wilh one o f these modern m a chines. I 283 1

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llano s of thal provincc. and in ,capahlc of s upportin g tim<:s thaI. mally. Cattle on th e hoof III C llll'1QUI Imng about :1. h ea d Ihcrc 1 5 an ahundance of feed. and tlte ch ief c l lcm." o f the anim als i s the tick, which, under sc i entific handling. ha s heen brought under co ntmJ. It is e s timat e d thai ove r 8.0UO.000 a c re s in the republ i c arc co\ crcd by v ir g i n /'ol'e s l s co ntainin g valuab l e hardwood s s u c h a s cocobo l o guayaculll ( lignum ,-itnc ) 1'01,1<.'. d\'cwood:;, and other v:ll'ictic s Tmccs or gol d are fou nd in nll'ioll s pal'l s of the cOlllLtry. A few quart z millCS han' been worke d Lui o n account. of the luw gra d e a r c they h :t\ c not p rowd profitahle :\langan c s c mine s wen formerly work e d on th e A\lalllic The Espiritu Santo or Holy Ghost Orchid. one of the mos t p d:t;e d members o f the lsthmanian orchi d family. The p e tals of the flowers enclose a f ai thful reproduction of doves. even to the eyes and bill. Row o f young Royal palms. S lifer I'ark Colon. These were s hoots less than a foot high i n 1'109, when tran splanted from the noranical Garde n s al Kingslon. Jamaica. coa s l, ncar :\ombre de Dios, Indications o f o i l have been discovered in Chiri 'lui and L os Santos province s :\0 coal of value h ave yet been fou nd I liglliti c formation was en c oun ter'ed in th e excav ati o n of the Ca nal. B o t h the flom and the fauna co\'('r ,t wid e ran ge and remain to b e mad e the subject o f expert s tud y. The oJ'(: : hid thrives, and there a r e hundreds of \ arictie s, the R spiri/Il S (lil/O. tlte SCI/wI/a S (lII/a. and L a /Jo1lcc ila de La Noche hein g th e mo s l pri;r,ed, Among wild animals a r c th e jaguar, wil d ca t pumn, dee r annadill o anteater, tapir. raccoon s aj i no, :1 species of wild boa r rabbit. s quirrel monkc.\ lIlal'lno s ei. ,HId s loth, Alligator s arc p l e utiful in the tidal river s alld th e snake fami l y i s reprc s c nt ed f r o m t h e b oa co nstric t o r to the s pite -[ :l8 I

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A n iguana, o r lizard. h s flesh a s well a s ils eggs, are hil:; hly pri>.cd a s articles o f diet by t h e nati. ,cs o f P a n a m a Amon g the wild animals o n the Isthmus, non e are m ore ulll,repossessing ,h,," the S101h, s hown in the picture. They arC harmless and s lick close to the t Tees Two l)rodu CIS o f the I sthmus. T h e I)ielure abo,'., sho w s O u ster" Ur own scaled o n a I S h 8 i n allig'lIor, which was shol Ihree mile s fro m Porto Ile llo, in AUlo:usI. 1909 The r iver s o f Panam a a r c I h e habitat o f t h o usands o f alligatol1l. T h e Hayano river i s CSI)cci::r.lly adapte d t o t heir h"u"ts, and parties of Canal employes ofte n make trips up thi s river and enjoy the sporl o f hun ting the m I 2 85 I

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" bread seller. rul coral. Bird l ife i s particula rl) \'''ricd. t he s pec i es be ing the pa!Tol tamdy. Including the parroquct. The birds of (luaiJ, curra,'iO\\"S. wild ducks pigcons. t o\'c,o;, gU:ln:-;, ( a k ind of wild lurkey) and vari otls migratory s hore bird s. The qucl%[t1 I J ird i s fou nd in C hiriqui p r o vin ce. I n the Calla1 Zone upwal d o f SOO s p cci('s of hirds h,I\ 'c heen not ed, :I(}O of which h,I\'c heen classified. Among them 10'(' lHore than 130 kinds of hUllIming I,il'd ... including a new s peci es whid\ ha\'e hcen g i ven th e name of Goclhal ae. in hOIl()f o f Colon el Coclhals. The I sthnuli' i ... a H'rilah l c paradise for t h e s portsman. The killing of birds in the Canal ZOI1(; i s restri cted. Deer. f(,tlller,h co mm on i n the Zone. ha\'c been b'trgcly huntcd of 1', but arc p lentiful a s h ort distance away fnJm 111(. Canal. Thc \arg'cs t inglc itcm of export fUml t h e I s lhmus i s b:uwnas, the anllLlal shipmc n t s of the rniled Fruit Cumpany from i t s plantati o n s in BoclI$ del '1'01'0 1)1'()"incc :done alllotmting 1 0 upward of G,OOO,OOO bunches. It i s th e "e('o n c I:u 'g('st b,lIlana producing distriel ill the world. and is continually bei n g ('xtendcd, Haltllll;L. i arc found ill all parts of t he r('plIblie, and, with the ahove exception, no IIftins arc taken to culti,'ate them. The Chngres River valley i s a pm(\1tccr: aud I otels and mes!'=e s .. 't.lle l' rlJole s hanana I"; (' .... I)('c l
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, ... I The sin\=le ilem of e"pOn fro m the ISlhmu is bananu. The (,"01lal shipmenl of thl'" Uniled Fruil Company from plantation in llocas d ('\ T oro Pro, ;ne,," alOin.' to upof 6.00t,toO II is the second I3rlo:('51 banana producing disirici in Ihe world.

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the palm t ree i n clu d i n g th e r oyal palm (trans plan t e d), w i n e palm i vo r y n u l p, d m and fan pa lm. P en 1'1 fighing has h ee n currie d o n for 'yea r s i n t h e P e a r l lsI and arc hipela go, g i tu ated i n P ana m a Bay. about..J.5 m i l es f ro m P a n a ma. C i t y. It is c onduct e d under co n ce ss i o n f ro m t h e Pana m a G ove l'llm e nl. B a l boa m a kes me nti on of findi n g m a n y pead s of s ir.e th e r e, a nd so m e h ave bee n d i s cl ose d i n r ecent times L a t h e \ alue o f $ 1 ,2 00. N: lt ive diversat'e usual l .vc m p l oye d a l tllOll g h t h e d i v i n g hell h a s bee n u s e d M o s t of th e fis hin g i s ca rri ed o n i n l h e rai ny seaso n a s t h e OU ler "iew of onc of I h e o l d forls :11 I'orlo Helto. I I is so !.'Town over with "eJ:ct:"io n thai the walt s a r e hardl y v i s i b l e .. T h e turre t mark s one o f t h e corn ers. A tropical tram p A local c haractcr known a s "Old A spinwall" who l i v e d in C o lon for m a n y y ears. divers d o not l i ke to dt's cen d i n th e d ry seaso n wh e n an ocea n curr ent coo l s t h e te mp erature of th e \\'atel'. So m e pea r1.'S a r e al s o f o u n d alo n g t h e c oa s t o f Los Santos p rovi n ce. O tll el' n ative products are r u b b e r c o coa, p l a lltai l l s, COl'll indi go, s a r sapa r i l l a, ipecac, sligar c.m e. and t o b acco. T h e r a i s i ng of s ugar cane i s d es t i n e d to b ec ome OtiC of t h e future p e r man e n t su u r ces of wea llh o f th e countrr. The hthmian ca n e contain ... t high pe rcentage of s a cc h a rine a n d g r o w s r e adil y. A L th e present tim e o n I." o n e rdin cr), is i n o p e rat i o n t h e sap b e i n g m ainl y lIse d in t h e producti on or m olasses and n at i \'C mill I t i s to be fea red t hat. :\attlrc h as h ee n t oo l av i s h t o th e s impl e husba nd ma n of the li'ithmus. It furni s h e s t h e calle to hui l d th e w alls o f his l i ttle hut; t h e palm l ea\'cs a rc ca s il)' g a t h ere d 1 0 th a t c h it; t h e n e i g h b o ri n g tl"ees s uppl y th e m aterial ou l o f whic h h e f a s hio n s hi s m o d a r fin d p eslle for pu lver ir.i n g hi s co rn 01' h ulling hi s ri ce; the cal a bas h t r ee foun d g r o win g in e v e r y ya r d furni s h es t he [ 288 1

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. ,," ----"..,

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L--r __ Primiti v e rnelho(b used in makins.: molasses in the interior of P a nama iJnd the produce is princip ally u5 e d In the manufmC lUr e of nalive rum. Pineappl e Itfowins,: is quite : m indus.r)' and some o f the most luscious i n the world are W"own o n bland. A aarnple o f the 51r.aW used in the m :IOuf:>ClUr e of l'am.ma halS i, shown in one of the abo"e piclUres. A h .mily WOU,", ;.'1 alw shown prepnins.: the e>'cnins.: meal by hullins.: rice with o.ortar lind pestle, aft e r the mll;"c method. The househ o l d utensib of the people o f the i nterior o f >aoa m a are crude afb.i n [ :?8!l I

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minor h ouse h o ld uten sils; hi s ora nge and papaya. trees a nd ba n a n a s ta l k s g i ves him all th e fru i t he wan t s; he goes a s h o r l d i sta n ce a way a nd collect s th e w ild planlaiu. whi c h makes an exce l l ent substitu t e f o r po t atoes; h e pok es slic k in th e grou nd neal' the hou s e and inscrts th e se ed of a yucc a or ya m, g i v ing i t n o The usual typc of housc of the :I\'cragc intcrior Panamanian, Thcy are constructcd of bamboo, t icd by mean s o f withC!S a n d h,we a tbatch roof. fur ther attention: hi ... w ife culleds the firewood that lh e wind ha s s ho o k f rom the trees, and h e lacks wha t ? :\ol.hin g, but :I lillie eof r ee. s u ga r s alt a nd candles, Till,: I'EOI'L The lla l i,'c populatio n of the i sthmus i s composed of de scendant s o f the ea d y S pani s h (,OIl?Ui8!adore,
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-, The o f t h e trop i ca. l >;001) love 1 0 pby ardently as d o those i n the cooler they have t h e same c h ildish joy, a n d sorroWlI and look forwa r d wilh Sl)nle desire 10 the t i m e when they aTC "Grown U p." One o f their g a m e p,;,cu lia r w the I sthmus resembles "shootinR C r.lP!II," and i s pl:lyed w ith the see d s of t h e marJnon. a n : "'ve fruit. [ :''91 1

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A wash day scene, \\las h'boards a r e not In fa"or with the n a ti.' e laundry WOmen, A flat stone and a wooden beater a r e {'(feclive in rcmovin):' the dirt, but a s a "butto n buster" they arc har d to beat. Laundry i s delivered and produce carried to markel o n the heads of the A farmer living near "anama Cit y m :lke s a b usi' of renting space to Ihe washcrwOlll e n on which t o e rect lines for drying their clothes, the l'ni ted Fruit Company leas impor ted them ill lat 'ge Ilumbers to work its ba nana p lantatio ns, I'raetic ally all of the negroe s came from the islands of th e Antilles; Ill:lll," o f th e m become natu ralized [lequire propert,v, and i n t im e, adopt th e langllage and cust o m s of t h e countr y and intermix with th e native iuhabilanl:-;, The full-b l o od ed lIegt'O immigl'ant ha s no soc ial s ta nd ing wh at eve r w ith t h e Panamani an s a s lon g as he remai n s a \Ycsllndiall in c h,lI 'actc r and as s ocia tion", lIe i:-; t CJ'IlH'd a "chumho" by them, equiv a l e nt of the s hort e nin g of th e word "negro" a s pradic cd ill th e rnited Stales, The color lin e h o w e ver i s Street scene i n the village of Arraijan, [ 2!)2 J

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I ., ". 'I I j l ;. ROArio de I .. Rosa i n her n:uive h oli da y c05tume. I :'1/ I T h e l\1a fllniquan women are the most pict urCSl lue of the varied I YlleS attracted 10 I'allanm by the Canal work. Their dres' lends w h o ll y to gay colors. One of the belles o f P a nama, or::ll l>:Inamanian "Oueen o f HC:lns." A 1' ,"mm anLan bmi1y. Girls o f the hiRhcr c las' Panamall;,m fa m ilie s arc not allowed o n the after nlRhtfali. withou t beinl:' :accom panied by !IOniC member of t h d r family. I 203 I

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Cj HE not drawn so slricth-as it i s in t h e nor with the l axity of the !\ol th 1 f c i s not admiltcd 10 th e best h otel s, c a fcs, 01" ba rb el' s h ops, but h e i s permitt e d to lI1i!l
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Interior of the c hurch :11 Arraijan. The parishioners a r e poor as eviden ced by Ihe crude allempl al adornmenl. The "iI!aJ,: e church at San M ilo:uel, P earl I slands. These islands a r e located i n P anama Uay and are n O l eo.! f o r I heir p earl beds. finer y th e ir s i mpl e aL o d e p oss e s s cs. This, o n f ea s t d a ys, c on s i s t s of the pol/ e ra, pop u larl y c alk
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overlooke d Many of the old'ho u s e s contain niche s for the burning of candles, a practice indul ge d in bt,' every good Catholi c famil y on the n Cllr approach of ill fOltullc o r s ickn e ss \\nys idc s hrin es :He found al o n g the road s o n which some s mall offering ma y be see n On nil imp ortant reli g i o u s annive r saries a.nd s aint days proce ss ion s arc forme d a III I marc h t hr o u g h th e stre d s The c arnival o r l\I a r d i Gras ha s co m e to be th e one great e vcnt in P,mama, and i s carri ed out o n a. larger s cale w ith eac h s u ccee din g y ear. 11. i s prece ded b y the e l ect i o n of a king a nd quce n th e proceed s f rom the s ale o f vo l es being u s ed t o d ef ra y t h e CXpCIISC o f t he affair The ca rni ntl contiuliCS f o r three o r four days, and .. r ,\ 4 I Chorrcra Fall s. One o f a number o f pretty wau::rialls in Panama, 20 miles from Panama City. during thi s p erio d the lid i s of I'. Il i s estimate d that i n thc 19] 3 ce lebration aLou t 50 Ion s o f c onfe lli were u sc d. The Panamania n o f th e better c la ss r e r.rc sents the mate rial prog r ess of the country along all lin es. His so u s a ud daug It e r s are cducat e d a broad and dress in a s co rrcd s t yle a s in New York 01' P aris. With th e bl' oa deningof ideas,th e r e ha s bee n an abandonme nt of s o m e of th e anc i ent c u s tom s wh ich h ave h e mmed in t h e lif e o f th e bor alld g irl. I t i s not a s p opular n ow as it wa s once for a. t o stand 1'01' flour s on the s idewa l k g a zing s teadil y tip at th e fair form o f hi s illamorad a with out indulg i n g in It word of c onve r sa t i o n but th e head s of s o m e famili es s till p e r s i s t in inquiring th e int e ntion s of admire r s o f th eir daug ht e r s whe n the y call mOI 'c lhan on ce, and s h ow th e m the door if the ans wer i s not salisfaclo l"),. ]n Pana m a. the se c u s tom s h ave g iven wa y to a large e x t ent th e pas t t e n yea r s, and, in tim e, will probabl y be a thin g of th e pa s t THE I:,\I)IA:,\S PANA:\IA Indians, and pe r so n s of Indian de s cent are f o und in eve r y part of the I sthmus. but th os(' w ho ha v e prese r ved their tribal stale ma he g r ouped untler r :!1G J

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I -"". .. ",.' ,. Carnival scenes, Panama C it)'. The Annual Carnival" or Mardi Gras, is the bigges t evenl of the year in P anama. The upper picture s hows the Queen of the Carnh' ,, 1 riding in her royal c h a ri o t during the height o f the festivities. Ton, of conteu; aTC thrown and (.'vl'rybody t a kes II week'! h o l iday I 20 7 J

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the f our fo llowing c l a sses : The Cuay mic s who dwell i n th e moullta i nsof Chiriqui and c l'agu:ls prov i nces; the S:1I1 1llas, or C una-Cunas, w h o people th e i s lands and S OIl1 C p:lI'l s o f th e mainland th e ClIl'ibbcan co a s t c a s t o f Colo n; th e C h uc un a q uc s, o r D a r i en t rib e w h o live in t h e mountains of e a s t e rn MEMUERS OF I'RESIDENT PORRAS' CABINET. DON AKrSTIl)ES AItJOSA. DOS 'KANC ISCO I ILOS. Secrc.",) 0 1 in 'tlce. .. )' of "n" J "s';ce. Pana m a, and t he e h a co es, who arc fOllnd in the Samb u R i ver yalley in southeas t e rn Dari e n and who s e territory l a p s over into Col ombia.. The nati o nal ce n s u s of 1 011 did not include a counl of th e I ndians liv ing in trilla! stale, but e stimated th e i r Ilumbe r at SG.17 8, s inc e s hown t o be entirel y too low. Se"enl,' five th olls;lIl( i will approximate their numbe r m ore n e a l I,Y, :\11'. IIl'HI'," (lill i e!', who iw s gi\'c n I h ese tribes w ith th e exce pti o n o f thc Chue ullaqllcs sUllie pCI 'sona l s tud y, co ntr'ibut c d an exccllc n t .II,tide on th e ]ndian;-; of Pana ma i n thc July H1I2. numbcr of th c Nafiollal G'eo9mphic Jl/ogazillc. H e. h tl\\c\c r .. t h e Chucllll nqll cs and th c upper Ba.\';lIlo Hi vc r Ind ians ; I S a pari of th c Cuna-Cuna stock, which i s ope n 1.0 ques t i o n. a s th e Iwo \)J'c:-;cnl d i s tin c t ph,\.sic;tI lypes. J : h e S:ln B ias are se mi-dwtlrf s w i th ahnonna I )' dcvelo p e d h ca d ..;, mali-Size boc ile s. and PUIl.\ l egs; th c m os l of the Illl'JI are bow -Icgge d A lb i nos arc common among t h e m. The Chucunaquc Indian i .... or llonu .d proportions fled of r oot. and will comparc t o adva nt age ill .som e re spcd .... wilh the :\ul'lh .\ml'l' i can ]ndiall. The C unaCuna is a I ishc r-Vaults in the Cemetery, Panama Cil y. I 20 8 1

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man; t h e C h u c u naquc, a hunter. and between (h e I wo Ih ere j usually d\.!adl,v CHllli!,\', T he C h u c u naques arc ',\'pica! $l\'a gcs. wh i lc till' !'ian alth o u g h fcarflll of t h e co ming of the white man, doc s nut detest him, and has a d o pt ed many of th e white man's comfo rts. T he territo r ie s 01' th e C Ulla-Cull:) and t h e ChUCllna(llIc han' long heen nearly a scaled h oo k to the oulsidcr. an d until rc('cull,\' I t has been a Iribal l aw with the San BIa s thai no stranger s h o uld be permitted to remain aftl'r n i g htfall, d ue it i s s aid. Ollt of fear fm-their womell. The San BIa s inhnbil the hundreds of i s land s and i s l e t;; tha L fringe th e C:ll"i bl>c;\n (oa s l. and suhs i s l 011 w'gelahlc s and fish; fr es h Illcal i s rare l y scc n i n th e i r villa g es. B efo r e P alHlllla sepam L c d from Col o miJia. Ih e S:1I1 BIas were nlled by o n e e hi el'taill named I na naqui lla. T he laller d i ed of fC\'cr while o n 11 mi .... s i o n 10 B o go ta th e capital of Col ombi a. and wa s slIcceeded by his nephew. I napaquina, Owing t o tlie new ch i e f's s l owness in recogni z ing the c hange in go\'el'nlll c nl,.;. Panama trans ferred allthority O\'CI' the San B ia s t o another lndi a n, whose E!l g li,.;h !la m e i s C h a rll',\' H olJiu s on. Some of t he San Bla.s refu s ed t o accep t Hohi n solL. and a split followe d so loda, the tribe i s divid e d R o bin son, who spcnt s e veral ,reJ.lrS i n I h e L'niled S tales i s n prog r essi\'e w hil e 1 nallHC[uina has n o d esi r e 1 0 c u lt i \ 'ate the white mtlll's acquai n\;lIIce. The c a p i ta of th e former i s at San J ose de Xargana. ncar the mouth o f th e 11io Diahl o. and there carly ill t!)I:L :'\I i ss Anni e Coope. a wo mall mi ss i o na ry suc(e lde d ill c,;tabl i s hin g a lIlis" iuli sc h ool. :,\[i ss Coope made an attempt 1 0 e nte l t h c country S('\'('ral ,\'C:II'S befoJ 'c but at thallllllc W;lS not p Cl'mitte d 10 land. S h e persi s t e d in h cl' dl'or! ... a n d th rough Ih e influcnce of Chief H o hin:-oon. s h e wa" s u cces"l'lIl; n ow th e I nd ians are glad s he callie, F cw of the :-ian BIa s arc ahl c to count abo \ 'c 10, Peculiar rock form a tion seen :11 San Juan o n the Pequ e ni River SC .... n e o n the UPI:>er C ha g res I { i"er The Tiv e r between AJhajuela and EI Vigi:l between hi g h rock banks. l 2139 1

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an d w h ell one o f th e San BIa s boys of ,:\1 i ss Coope:S school cOlin t e d t o 1 00 h c was the wonder of th e \ illa ge. It h a s bee n th e c u stom of thi s divi s ion of the tribe to permil th e to come 10 .Panama and COI OII, and to s end th e m nblo1.\{I to procure a rudimentary ("ducation, with l h e expe c l a li oll Ihal th ey San lJIas Indian C h ic f San BIas Indi,m Girls. woul d return to their h o me s laler; so m e ha\'c gone back, hUl mo s t o f th e m become enamo r e d of th e life of Ihe c i l i e s ;lIl d seycr tribal relatiolls Thc g irls h owc\'er, are ra [cl y allowe d t () l e a ye the I nel 1:1 n \ i Ilages. '''il h the de\el0plllcnt of Pana ma, I h e r e ha s been an i n c reasin g l y in s istent demand th a t th e valuahle tC[Tilory occupie d by the India n t.ihcs be opened for settlement. The lndians ha\' e oppose d this, but at the s ess i o n of the P a n a m a A ssembly in 1013,1.1 bill wa s p asse d w h i c h permits peaceful expl oit:l. tion of the [cgion and alteady a numbcr of trading compani e s hll\ 'e entere d or ;Il'(.' preparing to e n te r th e field. Thc Sa n Bias coa s t y ield s some of th e f inesl ("OCO
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Even oflic ial s of th e Canal Commi ss ion rcceind a I'ciJufi' al their hnnds a few years :1"0. It was when a hunt heing m a d e for a
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I wvi n g reached their twelft h year, Polygamy i s practiced. w hil e Indian tribes of t he I sthmus a re for th c m o s t part, monoga mi s t s Guay m i w i ves are reg-on d e d as a. t ungilJle a ssct. Til E C IIOCOES th e other With th e Of the Chncoes. Pitticr w r itcs: <;\\,l1il e the hiiitor,Y o f th e C unot -Cunas c ou l d be w ritt e n at lea s t for th e po st-Colomhian period. we know almostno th i l lg oj' lh c C h ocoes, They are se ld o m r efe rJ'cd to i n th c anc i e n t I'cco]'( l s ]\c,'cr i n OUI' 2: ; ,"CHI' S or tropica l expcl'ic n c e have we mel with s u c h a sun-l ovi ng, bri g ht. and trustin g pcople, l i ving nearest to l\aturc, and i g norin g the mos t c l e m e ntal'," wiles of so-ca lled ci"il i z:lt i o n Phys i c all y th e C h ocoe s arc a f i n e ;In d Ilc a lthy t:lCC. Tile nlcn have w il' y limbs and face s thalal' e a l o nce kind and e n c r getic. w hi le. a s a r ule, t h e girl s :lrc plump. a nd full of mi sc hi ef. The WOIllC l t p rC,.,CtTe t h ci I' good IOtlk s a n d a t tra ct i \'cness III lIdt l o nger than i s gener a l ly Ih e easc in primiti\'(' peopl es. in w h i c h tltcir sex bears thc h e'.l\' i es t s hare of t h e day's wod" B ot h males and fem ales havc ulUl s llalhfine while teeth. w hi c h i he y so m eti me s d,"c I)laek hy ehcwi n g th e !ihoot s or' w i ld pcppcr The "k in of a I'i c h olin'-bl'uwll col oI'. and. as u s u a l a little lightel' in the women a1ld children. Though all go almos l lla ked. th e)' look fai r e r t han th e CUIl
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Cj HE b 6.ND U ITED an d black, or simply black. T he people 'II"C clennl,\' and ,'c r y indus triOlls. Du r i ng the dry s ea s on, t heir life i s w h olly ou t or -door s, planting their c r o ps. hunti ng, f i s hi n g. a n d ca n oe i ng. W hen t h e hCHY)' rains co m e tb ey remain at ( Som e of the I!o l d ornaments found ;n the of an ""linCI race of Illdian 5 in t h e Province of C h i r il l u L They are marle of solid gol d and each i s supposed to represent some animal. home weaving ha s ket s of all kinds. a work ill whi(h iiI(' wOllle n arc rema rkahl," pro f i c i ent maki ng r o p e ,l1\e1 hammock,.., canj1lg out o f Ir('(' trunk .. elc ,\XCI E:-;-T CIYlI. I7.. \ 'I'IOX OF CllIIOQl'I I n a pow e rful a nd aggrc,.;,.;in: I l'iiw SOllw l i mc.<; spoh'r1 of 1.1. the Dora squcs, p r obabl,\ an ofl'shoot o f the :\l a,\':ts, inhabited the g reater part of t h e p rovince of Chiriqui, A s a peopk they lire n ow totall,\ cxtinct, hut they have left behind e\'id e n ces of a cidliza ti o n that compares fa\'orahly w i th that of the A z tecs of :\I exico, th e :'Il"anl s of Central \ mcrica, thc Chibcha s of the Colombian p lat eau, and th e Incas of P c r u I n the latter pad of 1 8.)8, n at i \'cs of 13ugaba ;t s mall \'illage in Chiriqui l )I' o\'in('e. a bout 1.3 milcs from Diu' id, a cc id ental l y unC:II'lhed a g old image, Furthe r se .trch kd to t h e dis('O\'c ry within an :H'ea of 1 2 a c rc s of gol d Ol'lramcnts and curious poltc r y val u e d at $JO,OOO. T h e place was ,,' \ idclltl y a 1/I/(/cIII, or hurial g r ou nd 1'01' the ancient race, S ince Ihat tim e o l her d i seO\'er ies ha\'e bcen made, MId thousa nd s of h u aca,<;, 0 1 gra\fcs. ha\'e been expl o r e d I n mallY \ ) otICry only has heen found, the gold ornaments having been placed s olel y in t Ie g nt vcs o f some e hi c l'lain. o r p I 'o min enlman o f the trille, The gl'H\'es al 'e il1\';1I'i:lhl," e n close d i n 1'Oligh stone s lahs. fo rllling a ki n d of a \'auH, \,i s i l or,. 10 Chiri(lui rarel, I'c!um with out somc o f th i s pollc r,v, wh ich can he obt;l ille d vel'," c heapl,\', or if one cares 1 0, r 30" 1

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I CATHEDAAL "'D_ -I L .... MEllt[O[$ (HUIICH f CENTRA L AVEo; b-OOK''''G SOUTH The upper piclUrc shows the Pan ama Cathedral. Panam a C it)', begun i n 1673, and completed i n 1 160 A pOrtion of the Plan de 13 Indepcndcncia taken from the roof of t h e City H all buil ding. is also show n The small buildinll; on the corner directly in front o f the L a M e rcedes C hurch, i s the c hap
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h e c an di g th e m up him s elf. Thc gold orn a m ent:,; are of sple ndid w orkmans hip. <.Lnd s h ow that the LlIjian s were s kill e d metal workers. T hey appear to h :l\'c becn ca.st in cla y mould s, and th e m ost fa\'ored f o rlllS arc the frog tort o i sc. t i ge r armadillo, d og, caglc, a nd s n akc. The pott e r y i s \ aricolo r e d ei ther p l ain or g la ze d and th c decorati o n range s from c rud c outlines of ani mal shapes to compl e x and rcgular geo m e tri cal de s ign s. So m e impl e m e nt s and h o u se hold uten sils ha\'c also been f o und. I n I!H3, g ra\' es co nt ainin g some of t h ese go ld ornaments were reported 1 0 have b ee n found in th c provinc e o f Los San t o s, about 150 mil es eas t of the g ra \'es of C hi, iqui P arI o f Ihe Sea 'Vall I'anam a Cily. The wall is sai d In have cOSt $8.000.000 and is Iheone which l e d King Philip 10 remark Ihal the work ough t 10 h e "isibl e from his palace in Spail> \ n o lh e r onl;lm e nl that c ome s from C hiriqui pl'O\'i nee, and i s also quite common in Cos t a Ric a, is t h c cadella c ltota, a lon g go l d c h ain, ma d e o f thin plate s, clo s ely linked t oget h er. They arc hi ghl.\ prize d b y th e Panamenas, wbo weal' them 011 r eas t da\'s, w hil e the Am ericans ha\'e sOlwht tlie m soeaor 'el'iv thai Lhey have r i s en g reatl.\ in pri ce a n d c a u s ed numCl'OlIS imitation s. A ge nuin e c ad ella clwla, worlh n o w abou t $ -H), c ould h ave hecn bought in for half that s u m Thc piedras pilliadas ( p ainted s t OIlCS ) fou nd in C hiriqui pro\'i n ce arc attributed b y some t o the ancient l ndian i l lhahil;lIl t s The Im'f,'Cst s p eci m e n of the s e stands upo n an o l>cn plain a few mil es o ut of D a vid and consists of a hll ge bould e r all whi c h a \ ariet.\ of hi e ro g l yp hi cs l la\ e be e n cut and painte(l S mallel s t o ne s ha\' c b ee n found in th e valle r of th e Cal de ra RiYer :'111'. D F :'Irac D o nald nn authority on the geo l ogy of wes t el'll Pana m a s a ys of them: ;'F rom [ 305 1

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""""' ITED I he wC'nt h eri ng of pied pi 1/ (ada8 a,!d from I h e p oltc T and 01 her o bj e ct s remnants of an llnClCnl l ndWrl cuHure. 1 \ IS known that Ihe\-arc at. l ea s t 1 000 years old, and probHbl,v considerabl y more," S I G IITSEEI;>;G The modcrllizin g of Panama has nccc ssarilr robbed i t of so me of its his toric c"ann, but the r e s till r c nmin lIlany c\idcnces or' its cadicl' c h a r acteris tics. The o n ce fortified se a wall s till stands and the story of i ts cost, s aid to l>c $8,000,000, :111 enOl'll'lO! I S slim in h o se da .will bea r r e peali ng. .; A So\ c l' c ign of S p a i n was se en s l:lIIdm g at tI wmdow o t Ills p:d acc one cia v, low,u' d tbe wes t w i t h 11 di sturhed expr e ss ion 011 his features. A cOlli-ticl" mac k bold to inq uire whal h e was lookin g OIL 1 am looking: r e pli ed the King. hi s face ,"('laxing into a A part 01 the Sea \Vall. P:marn a City. at low lide. The C hiriqui prisoll i s located wilhi n these walls. There i s a promenad e on t o p of the wall which o\' e rlooks the Pac ific entromee 10 the Canal On the Sea \Val1 there h a9 recently ix!en placed a bron"e bus t of L uden Bonaparte \Vyse. t h e Frenchman who was i nterested in the Canal work f o r many years. It was the gift 01 his son t o the Republic of Panama. g rim s mile 'for tho se costly wnl l s at Panama.' They ought to he i s ible eve n from h ere." The cathedml begun in 167 3 ami completed in 1 760, the church of Snn Francisco. and th e ruin s of t h e convent ; Idjacenlth e l'et o th e churc h of Sa n Fel i pe Neri founded in HiSS. n ow the oldest in th e c ity th e ru in s of Sa nt o Domingo cllurch, ,, ith its flat a r cll, lile rtlin s of tll c Jesuit college :'Incl co n "CI1 t on Av enue A the r emnanl of th e o l d c it y ,, ail s are amon g the places tlUlt bring a sparkl e to the eyes of i s itor s Outs ide th c c i ty the place s well wo r th a. v i sit include Old ]lannmn, with i t s s ole survi"i n g l owe r 1'I1ille d chur c h catacombs. 'ya lis. bridges, a nd ell lies ; I':'timga hl1l \ld. w i th its qua i n l village a nd exceJle n t sea. bathing; P ead 1 slands with i t s p e arl fis h erie s; Chorrenl,:. 1:u'ge native v illage. [ 'l06 [

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Las Sabanas con lain !! the Slimmer h o me.'l of m :m)' of the wealthier people of P a n ama. Many beautiful house!! hav e been erecl e d i n this suburb. It i s tropical, because here the s ill:,,manua l of the tropics, the palm. dainty ferns and o t her lu""riam g rowths. It;s located about seven miles fr o m I>an:una City a n d is reaChed by a good .naca d : uni"ted road. -[ 307 [

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20 miles from Panama n ellr which arc pretty falls; th e lower r e a c hes of t h e I3l1,ml1o Hi\'CI'. haunt of th e a l l igators; 11 !'it o f the olel C r u c e s paved trail which enters the COl'uza ir-o a d ; the nlin s of the Fot San Lore n z o. a l lhe mouth orlhe C ha grcs n ive r and the ruin s of t he forl s at Porto Bell o. The old es t c hurc h in the re p ubl i c :\a l _ll in t h e of hut i s n o t l,I1l1ess o n e has th e tllnc. :\carlyal t h e 1)0111\.0; of IIlkrcsL III the C. mal Zone, or 111 th e vic i ni l,)' of Pana ma o r Colon, call )C reached e ither h y railroad tra i n c arriages. automohiles. 01' launc h es. The hi ghway fr o m Panama through L a s Sabanas t o the Ri o Juan Din ? fumis hcs a pi c a sanll r i p b y car ria ge 01' autom ohil e. The road winds throu g h a !"OIling prairie. wh e re m a n y of th c wealthie r Panamanians hi\\ c s umme r iI O lllCS. The r e a I'C a n (I III 1)(,1';,f '!l o n b ol l .. s idcs of I h e lsi m LIS. f he bay al 1'01'1 0 B ello I S a SWlIllllllll hol e lor Ihe l'e!mlcnts o f Ihat VIll age, al1(l moo n lil-{hl swimming parties lIr c h cld fr equently. Thcre i s a :o;and beach neal' '1'01'0 P oint. w hil e at Cristohal. t h e s lip s between the new docks, and a t Colon th c swimming pool adjacent to thc ncw liotel W ai'hington arc well Il atl'o ni:t.cd. On Ihc P acific s id e. t h e cove on Tahoga I sl:wd. and th e sand YCach at. P ella !"'r iela arc the two mos l desirahle pla(.'Cs. A large pavi l i o n has rcce ntl y IX'CI I erectcd fronti n g th e bcach at P e n a Pri e ta t o wh i c h the streeL car s rUIl. At G atun. th e lak e i s l.I:'>Cd and a t Coro:t.al. swimming in t h c c allal i s a great past ime. 1\0 o n e knows e xadl)' how the word "Panama" cam e to b e applie d t o the hat of th a t name, An o l d hal deal e r once t o ld th e w riter t hat h e thought it was becall se in thc carly da,\ of th e hat's popu l ari!. y, mos t o f t h e shipments cnmc th ro u g h Panama. Only \ few Panamas have ever becn m a d e o n th e J s l hmus. and thes e we r e of th e c r ud c \ 'arie l,\', A few ,YCllt'S ago thc Panama Government a .hat at :1 lillie v i llage called Al'l'aijan: hu!. i t wa s no!. n s llcc es,s, b('\Ul(l ol' I S I he h o m e 0 1 t h e I ru e Pa nl! ilia a I thoug h 1Il r cce n 1 ,\'ca r s, Colom hJ:l a nd othe r ne<1l'b,\' COUlltries havc come 10 be g reat produc e r s of thc chellpcr Making P a n ama h a l S a l Arraijan. A f e w Panam a hats are m a d e here. but t h e lrue j'anama come$ from Ecuador. [ 30S I

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g rad es The most nllu abl e mak c of a P a nama h at i s t h e :\(o llt cc r i s ti. so nallle d f r o m :t s m all t o w n in E c uad o r w h e r e th ey arc ma d e. T hi s h at sc I!. .. ill tlie local m a r ket a t fl"Om $35 t o $ 50 a n d wou l d be wor th f ro m $7 .") 10 $ 1 0 0 in I he t llitl'd S tat es. Yis i t o r s t u th e I s t h mu s acclis t o m e d to t h e c heap imitation s ha n dled b y Am erica n o r E u r o p ean impot-ters are at. a l o ss t o acco unt for the p r i c e s a sked for a i\I ontec r i s t i hal. All P alla m a h a t s look more O t less ;:dike to t h em. and are i gnorant of t h e f a d t h at i n fabric at ing a .'\I olltc{"risti hat of t h e best g rad e t h e t i m e o f se"eral p e r s o n s for a pe r iod of s everal month s i s rl'Cjuitc d. They arc wove n by ha n d l a bo t o n th e plan. There arc plcllly of th e c h eape r g rad es ha n d led o n t h e [ s t l lluus. a n d since the coming of the tourist:<, a b r i s k b us iness i n th e m h as s p r u ng lip. The soca l l e d ""m a d c un d er water" h at i s a m vlh I n exca v a tin g t h e Cana l a nu mber o f nlricties of stOIlCS. agat es. s ton cs, j a spers, e tc., wer e found t hat w h e n pro p erl.' cu t and po l i s h e d m a d e at.tracti v c m o u n ti n gs. So mc o f the be s t of t h c s e spceimc n s were unco"ered w hen the h ydrau l i c m on it ors wcr e e n gage d i n s l uic i n g m ate r ial frOt11 tlte Canal c hannclnear } [ iraOo r e s Lock s, fOt"m crly t h e an cie nt be d o f t h e Hio G rande. Tin; I'. \ X \ .'\.\ LQT'TEH Y The Panama 1 0 U c r." h as been ill o p erat i o n for man y yea r s bu t i t had II f ormidabl e rintl in roul e tte. The latter w e nt ou t of ex i s t e n ce b, law 011 D ecembe r 3 1 190-4-, w hen th e l otte r y a t o n ce c a m e to t h e fore. The r i g ht t o se l l ti c k e t s in t h e C anal Z o n e ClllllC be f o r e t h c Supr emc Cou r t of t h c Uni t e d S t ate s i n th e form o f a test c a se i n 1 90-l, a nd w a s decide d ad\"er seh t o th e 1 0 U c r y company. The C an a l e mpl oye p o pul ation ha s. h owe"c r b ee n i t s be s t c u s t o m e r The drawings a rc hel d each Sun da.y m o rni ng. a n d the gra n d p r ize s arc $ 7 500 and $ 1 5, 0 0 0, th e l a r ge r d r aw i ng occ u rring 01l{.'C a mo n th o n t h e S un day follo w i n g t h e canal pa y days. T h c l o lt e r y i s ope r ate d und e r a s i o n f r o m the Panama GO\em me nl. and t h e d rawi n gs a t,' sUI)('n'i s e d b." t h e Crater o f C h iriqui Volcano. This i s the hiJ.:h cs t .. i n 1 1 .5 0 0 fect. has been eX l i n c t for man y yean. [ 309 I The volc3no

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_.--.... --LOTERIA DE ............... .... ,. .. v ............ .. _----_. One Ilicce of n P,,"ama loncry lick ct. The coml.lele licket fh' c of Ihese I.iecell which sell for fift y cent s ('ach for th., relo:"ula' drawinlo:"S aod a dollar eac h for Ihe 1I1 >cclal drawlnj.:5. A "jewof one of Ihe drawings which lak e place aI len o'dock e"ery Sunday morning. 1 0,000 ticket.'! are Isu e d weekly and Itrand run from $7,510 for the ordinary dr:ow. inll:5 to 515.000 f o r Ihe 'pecial The l ottery office located in the Bisho p P a lace, oppO!Iite the Central Park, Pa"ama City, TicketS cannOI De sold in the Ca"al Zone but the Canal employes arc the heSI p3tfon,. T hey I11UlIt IJUrdms e their tickel', however, in P"n:lm a City or Colon. The drJwinlVl :lfe SUI)en lscd b y Ihe l'a n 31lla government and a certain I )('r cen t of the profits mU S t be devoted 10 educati on::.1 and c l1::.ritab l e purposes, [ 310 )

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au th orities. The pmcccds dcri\' cd Ih e W" 't'['Il111cnl IlIIL,,1 to cduc:t t ional an d charitable purpos es. 1'.\:,\.\.\1.\ T O !lOLl) :'\ "10;\",\1, I';XI'O:-;ITIO:-O 1)\, hi\\' he dC'\'o\c d The r ou r hundredth anni\'cr.;;;aI T of th e of the I' a cific Ocean 1)\, Ya sco :\ lllkz de H al b oa o e ctl [TeO on Scpt CIlI hel' Q,j, J!) 1 : 1 (Octube r .J, new s t y l e ). I n commemo ration of thi s c\' c nl P Ullam:t w ill hold a nat i onal ex p os iti o n open ing on Xoycmbcr 1 1 01-1-, and co n tin uin g s ix month s, 1 0 which the rnitcd Slates. Spain find th e count rie s of Lalin-Amc r i c n. including Cuba and Ih e ,Y cs f the corner SlOne of the P:mama Nation : EXpOs ition, SCp l. 26, 1913 The c e r e mony was perf orme d b y '>resident !'orras. assisted by t h e Ilishop of Panama. Dr. \ViIliam Rojas. Indies have heen invited. A prclim i nar., crc dit nr $ l jO,OOO w a s ()ted V,V t h e i\'at i()II : d A ... scmbl y r,'t t be Ilndertakillg in 1!)1: t '.I'll( sit e i s on a natural p l a teau, jus t c ast of Pan:una Cil nn Iomd plll'{'ha s ed b," th c gov l'l'Ilment for th e pUIpose lIalf of Ibi s Ir:lel of 700 1 (TeS will bt laid for the e x po s iti nll g r o und s. with avenues 88 fed wid e I'unning e:l ... 1 Hnd we s t. and s trt.'e\.ii GO f e d w id e. run n i n g nOl'th a n d sOllt h The g round s front on L a s Sabanas road. and will ha v c one mai n a n d two smaUt.'r cntnmee s, openi n g into a s mall park se t ou t with Il'Opi c t rees and p lant s I n :lnoth el' part of the grounds will h e an arl ifieial l agoo n A gif t of a plo t of gro und has been made eaell 1 0 th e l nit cd Stales aud Spain for the e r ect i o n of building s, whi le two ot h e r plo t s have been re se n ed h y Panama rot' it s exhibi t s The s e huil di n g s ite s arc s itllated one 011 each of t h e four co rn e r s 01' t h e gro u nd s r ind from them a vicw of the bay An c on I r i ll Ancon, Panama and env ir o n s may h e obt ain ed [ all]

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CI HE UN:> U ITED Tracy Robinson, of Colon who ha.'J resided o n 'he ls,hnllls longer ,han any other li>';ng American, cclebra'ed ,he fifrielh anniversaT)' of his residence Ihere in 1 911, September 2:; was declared n. national holiday in Panama, and the da r wa s made the o c ca s ion of t h e I'or1 inallglll"at i011 of work ;\ II he expos i lioll g rounds. The ex e r c i ses were attended b y go\' crnmcnt and Canal offi c ial s, and m embers of the diplomati c corps con s i s t e d pri n ci pall y of laying th e comer s l one of t h e Admini s tration L,\' .Prcsidenl Porras and nn arl dl'cs s b y lUr. Ramo n F. A c evedo. who outline! 1 t h e ('ovcmmellI' s p lans The managing director i s .:'If!', Al ejandro B erllludez, w h o wns I h e :\ ica raguan COUl III i ss ioner t o I h e Pan-American Expos ition at Buffal o. and t h e Sl. Loui s Fair. Yis itors pass in g thl"Ough th e Canal Cit route r o r the San Frnnci sc o fail' will be afl'orded an opportunity of s eei n g the Canal and the expos i tion at the same time, A move m ent wa s started by Pre s id enl P o rr a s in for t h e erect i o n o r IL monumenl in honor or B nlboll ncar th e P a cific e n t rance to the Can al. Kinjt .\ lfo n s o or Spain has perso nall,\' donat/..>
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111111 January 3 1 1011 th e Con gress of th e United Slates se lected Sa n F ra n c i sco a s the m ost d es i rable site for th e :'\riatc d $J.OOO,OOO; and t h e C it" of San Franc i sco issued bonds in the sum of $J,OOO.OOO. These appropr iations and subscript i ons, aggregat i ng $ L 7 .. :>OO,000 in United States currency, form the general fund of the P anama.P acific Internaliooal Expo.;ilioll Company for preparation ami construction of thc Expos ition. Thc Counti es of Cal irorni,L WCI'C ati ull oy the other COllntie.; of [ 313 J

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till' out!'idc of Snll Frall c i s co. I t i ..; ex p ccte d that t hi s fun d willnpproxi-male $:l.OUO.O O O I n additioll !')lllllS \ I 'I !1o\' e rins:: fiJ{ur e of a Slar, four leen feel in heis:: h l, Ihat will sur mounllhe colonnade encirclins:: Ihe Cour t o f Sun and Stars. T hese figures. o f which the r e will be liD will each support a s tarshaped h ead dress four feet in diam e t e r and Set with prisms Ihal al night will reo fic c i in the colors o f Ihe rainbow the shahs o f masked halteries o f sen c hli ghts placed on the roofs of Ihe exposition palaces. will Le ex p e nd ed by F o r e ign Co untri es and the States a s well a s b.\' pri\'atc cxhibitors f rom th e l llitcd St at cs and abroad, The gmnd t o t al will co n s titute an cxpenditure appl'Oximating $3 0 .000.000 The choice o f San Franci s co wa s th c l ogica l onc, Thc P ncific Coa s t mctro poli s i s a co s mo po l ita n center with a r cprcse ntation of man y r acc s that well ( \ u alific s it a s thc s ituation of an int el'lla t ional ce chl'l'ttio n, Il i s, mOI'eOVel', th c chici' ci t y UP01! the wes t e rn sl1l)I'cs of Am erica: il i s th e mo s t important pori f o r ve ss el s bound r rom th e Atlanti c Coast of Ameri ca t o the P a c ific, While recovering from its di s a s ter San Fra n cisco and Cidii'ornia has :'l ss lIr ed more Ulan t wenl)' milli o n of dollars, the l:lr ges l initial fund ('\ 'cr raised towards a. wOI ld's exposit i on, The courage o f th e city found e d b y th e pio n ee r s or th e W c s t. was, : tnd i s unfailing, Its atmo sp here i s di slincti\ c "Whc I'e co uld yo u find a ('i t y in w hi c h th e o p e nin g o f th e Panama CHnal c o uld be so exaltin g]y ce l ehrate d ?" said Sec r e ta ry o f State Br\'an And for lller Sec r c tary of Slate :Kllox c h a r :u : tel' i:o:ed thc P a n ama Ca nal
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bny. Beyond the hill..; of :\I :lri,n, ri:-,inj.r lip, i1l10 and some in s tances IIllo lit e th ou'ia nd-i 01 teel, wIth ) 10l1I1I I amillpll .... !ollle .. 1 of all. its sUlllmi t oftell wi t h a turban or fog-UPOIJ whid, the Slin :I'" upon a n i s I bank of ,;now.;I"; a background for the On a clea r da\' w h clI Ih e wmel !'>W(.'cp in tlm1ugh the (;old{ n Galt', i t see m.; a s if o n e IWI\' almo., reach oul and tonch thi hill Hero",s the hurhor. F rom th e we .. of the ,;ilc one lIIav look out to the r im of II'-t P ll('ific Oce:H\ t hrough the mile :lnd ollc'(lLHlftcr. wide or lhe Golden (.ale, guanlcd 011 c:H: h sid e b y rugg(.'(1 cliff nnd prote cte d hy forls. The central portion of ill(' site l i es abonthe -.t'li und i s cm: irc\ed on thrre side .. gently sloping g rollnd; with. in It s hort frolll tl1l' oouudarie s of th(' :li:>n 10we1"8 Ih:>, will m:>rk the s tream 0 t Ie great m CO lHlIl1-( :;approa c h to the Court of P:alm5 There will be t .... o of trnnic of th e world the thC!!le courU. in one soulh of the Court r I t I of Four Se:>sons :;and ont' SOUTh of ,he Feslivt' Court. western gate 0 t Ie nite! .... hich will be kno .... n '" Ihe Cour, of -Iowen. States. Ships entering the hnrhor will pas s before th e exposition groun ds. T he harlx w i tself ,,-ill be:l 1):11'1 of th e g!"cal. theatre upon w hich will h e staged the world's jubilL'e lind th e Go dell Gate Will be th e entrance of th e t h entre.

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A panorama \Yill h e afl'o rd ed \ i s itors o n s h ip s co min g t h ro u g h the Golden Gate A s one l oo k::; from the h:ll"ilo r h e will s ec three main groups o f expos i tion hui ldings. The r e will h e th e great ce n tral grollp comprisinrY the fourtecn e xpos i t i on palaces to hc d eWlte d to gClle ral ex hihit s ; Ihel'(' will th e Day li ght perspeCtive. The relalive heigh t o f the buildings may be judge d b y the fact that the Tower of Jewels i n t h e center o f the picture is four h u ndred and thirty feet in h eight, dominating the architecture of the exposition. g roup upon t h e l eft hand 0 1 ca s t end devoted to amus e ment co n ce ss ion s and c O\'eri n g sixl.\' -(;\ e acre s; this will b e th e midway." The ri g ht h a nd group upon t h e P re s i di o military r e s e r va t ion and neares l the Golden Gate, will be d e voted to th e pavil i o n s o f t h e States and fore ign natio n s From afar th e central g roup, t h e mai n ex h i lJit pala ce s facing for m o re than ;L mil e upo n F r allci s co harbor, wil l pre s e nt th e effect of allno."t a s olid mass in g of palatial s tJ"\lcturc s, blltneare r at hand it will be see n that the expo s iti o n palace s a r c intersperse d \Yith g r eal open courls, Three ma i n courts will rUI I I lortl, and south through t h i s c c ntr;ll g roup. I n gene l al th e bu i ldin g s o f the c ell I ral g rou pare to b e brollgh t in lo COil tact w i l h t h ose Ilex t adjoi II iu g b y arcades courts and arch\\';1.\s. Throug h thi s method of treatment four of tlte ge n e ral ex hi bit palaces o f the mai u gl"OUP, fmllti n g nort h upo n San Fra n c i s co bay b ut se t ha e k a di s tance f!'OllI t h e wate r s ed g e will present a. s inglt' a r chitectural d c s i g n Their \\'all;-; a m i the adjoining arc h e s will forlll the m ain northel'll f a cade of th e ('xlws i tion along Ihe 8 1101'C S of th e h a rhol', the marveloll s frontage Iha\ will h e fir,;t se ell b y \ i;-;itor s who r e a c h the e xpos ition cit \ h.v water and e nt e r :-;an FrHlH::i,;co "a.\ through thl' Golde n Catc. B \ d a v the g l itter ing pillal' s and minarets o f thi s mile long facade will be se en as a drcam c it,\' while b y nig ht t h ey \\'ill r efle ct Ihe h e en o f a million li:;hl;-; into th e waters of the b a y B efol'C th e facade alld al o n g the hat"i)()I"'S edge fOI" more t h a n a mil e thl'I'c will b e built a g r e at esplanade a v a st. trel c h of gro un d and lel'l';lce s in whic h foun t ain s will play and groups of slaltlar." be set H t i nt c rval s Brilliant flowers [ :JIG [

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and hardy flowe ring trees and shrulls w i lllf'l1d wa rmlll and color to 1]\(. esplauadc. ludeed throug h out t h e expos i t i on flowe s alld roli a l!(' w ill cont rast with th e s hinin g col onnades and /)cris l y lcs and w al l s uf the huildings. and will ('lIh a n ce the beau ty of innumcrab c lagoon s. fountains and wat e r efreels. The esplanade is to be kn ow n a s lh e '.\[a r ina" ( villa gard e n s), The m a i n group of buildi n gs wil l1ie b e t ween n tropi c al garden 01' h ou l c \ 'ard running c afil a nd wc s t along t h e fringe or thc hill s neares t t he ci t y upon th e south and th e cs / )lanu d e alo n g t h e s h o l 'cs of F ranci sco hay 11/)011 t h e north. The tropi cal bOll cvarelto h e known a s lilt, "Alameda, w ill ht' ('ig .teen hundred fee t in l ength and three hund r e d feel w ide: it w ill b e glow in g w i t h fountain s, lagoon s, s t atulll'Y, peri s ty les and al'c; ldes, and, seclude d from t h e win c h ; of thei t wi l l be tralls pi Hnt e d wi th a profus ion of semi-tropie-altrees, plants a n d flower s. in cl u ding the orange. hanana, oli, 'c m,nti e. :llld C"N." "ariet," of palm. The e a s l end o f th e Alamcda will o p e n out with a pla za upon \'all :\"cs s h'CllUe, one of the /)!'in c i pal boule\'artis of :ian Francisco. The we:;t cnd upon the Presidio \\'il he S Ul'm ounted iI." a cnmnH'morati\'c of triumph, The th emc of t h e it:; sculpture ;l1ld mural paintings, will exal t the spirit of achic\'cment through wh i c h ,\meriea has completed th e Panama Canal. I n the eouris there will be obse l've d the 1lll)llulllen tal ex pl'C'ssion s in Gl'cek llnd !loman, Occit/ental a n d Oriental :lrehitecilu'c of the most refi n e d quali ty that the world (,"Cl' bcheld. The g:l'Olind will hecomc a ,'as l tropical ;Jnd semill'Opi c al garcl('11 through h e tnlllspianl illg of pa l m s. t.',c:-g reclls and flower s A 1 ) l'illi anl. .rei h;trlnonious color SclWIlI(, ha s 1,ccn dcsigned b," J u lcs Guerin probabl\' the greatest authorit," o n decoral i,'c c olo ring in th c world The prevailIn g colOI' tonc o f t h c cxposition w ill h c an ochre. a tawny h ufl'. sc"crnl shadcs 1'C'lllO"c d f!'Olll w hite, hul in th e dis tance gi"illg the cfred of white, but w i l l n o l be glarin g under the hrilliant s unl i g ht of Cal il'omia, I n th e courts th c r c w ill be a marvC'l o u s blcudingof colors; Pompeiian I'c d strong I tal iall b l ucs. "crm ilion a III I orange will pre d ominate. The COlIl't .... ... tem i s unique in t hat it will p ermit e a ch architect. a rti ... t o r sculptor to p1'csent some {'OlU'CPti on witho ut clai'lhing w i t h th e exposition :11'chi !edul'c and coloring in i t s cntir e !\", 'The maill gruup of exhihit p a la cc:;, f aeing upon th e harbor for ..J.,JOO fee t Night perspective s howing the searchlights ancho red i n the bay, r 317 J

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C I HE I>&-D UliITED an ('{feci of n lmOsl a s i n g le palace: Eight of t h e h uild i n gs will be JOllied III a rectang l e to f o r m almos t a h uge Orie ntal bazaara veritable wa lled c it,\' wit h i l s do m es, l owe r s, mina r e L s gn'at i nt e rior couds. F o ul' of t h e eigh t hllildiugs, a s s h o wn b y t h e grouud or block plan wil l fnce oul on San Franc isco 11,,\, and folll' of them will face the hi l l s of t h e c i ty o n th e so u t h The wafl s o/' t h e eig ht ex h i bi L palaces will be broken 'onl y hr a number of stupendous ellirallccways whic h w ill gi\c a ccess t o t h e great intc i 'iol' COlII'Is a n d the.1' :q J p roach<:s. grOl.!.P will be di,: idcd from nort h to soul,' I ; i n t h e cenler by the COlll't 01 t h e SUll a n a S t a r s. deSig n e d by M essr s. ::\lcKllll ;\Lcad a n d Yh ilc: on ,I!IC by llt c FCi>li vc, court a n d O! l th e b y Ihe COUl't of :;easons, ] wo Soulh COlll I s w Ill be CIII like IIlc h es III Ih e w a lled cl l y, one south of t h e Courl of FOIlI' Seaso n s and olle south of the Festi ve Court. -. -_., ... -I .1 "-, o f the :lbove J,:ro und or block plan. the left of the illustr.llion at Van N.,ss :Ivenue thl' n 10 be l'aSI and w eSI by Ihe 5trel't of conct>ssions, which will connect wilh Ihe main boull'v:lrds and o f Ihe l'Xposilion. On the w:llerfront oppOsil e ,\I:.chint>ry ltall w ill be noted Ihe feny shippinl{ yards and railway docks. Nex t comes Machinery I-Iall. Ih .. larJ,:esl sinl{le structure in the t>xposition. 122 feet hiJ,:h 367 .8 h wide and 961.8 ft lonl{. The n eXI grou!' of e il{ht huildings, forming a reCI:lngie. is. a s will be noted. di;,idl'd from nonh' lO south b y three hUl{e interior couns, the central court bei nl{ Ihe gran d court of honor. Ihe Court o f the Sun and SI:LTS: before the J,:roup of eighl b uildinj{sisan esplanad e 30 0 f..,el wide. indented hY:I g-real yac h t direC l l y in fronl o f the I'alace of Agricullure. Nearest the hills of San Fr.lIlcisco : lIld p:'r'".lIl..,1inlo! th.., esphlllade is a tropical garden in which is SCI FeSli val Ihe P a lace of HOrliculture. and lesser S lruetures. To t h weSI o f the g-roup of will be n oted a circular s h:lfX'd Struc lure, the Palace o f F ine ArIS. which will face upon a and han,," courl. The "a lace o f Fine Arts w ill he 1100 feel lonl{ in i ts outside arc. The S tates of the Union will occupy locacio n s upon Ihe Avenue o f Commonwealths a long I h e bay, while the nalion s w ill ereCI their p'IY ilions furthest I h e harbor. T h e grealesl length of Ihe I{rounds is fifteen thousan d feel and the Io!realest widlh more than one m ile. T h e area of the sill' is 625 a cres. T h e main g roup of exhibit palaces w ill face upon t h e harbor for forlyfi"e hundred feel. A hl1ge eO\l1'l in Italian Henaissa n('(' will lie hetween the rectangle and the Palace o f Fine Arl s. Of :lllihe court s the g1':lnd Court of Honor. t h e COllr t of I h e Sun nnd S t a r s, 7J O feel in width f!'Oll\ cast to west and !lUU feci alon g i l s mai n axi s will be th e large s t and mos L impos in g, AI Ihe s o ulh end of the court. w ill be the huge Towcl of Jewel s, r i smg 400 feet in height a n d dominatin g th e architecture of Ihe exposi tion. The upper p a r t of the tower wi l l tuke the form of i.crI':l c e s leading up t o the g roup of figures s urrounding a g lobe, Lypi f) in g tlle wo rld ; [ 318 J

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the low e r will be l i n e d wil h J ewe l s whic h will g l i Ucr l ik e di a m onds when search l igh t s a r c turned upon t h em. AI t.h c ba se of thc tower. which will oc cup.\' all ac r e in extent. will be
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C I HE l>t\ND 0 14') ];> 11 ITED o f gol d G i an i bank s of flowe r s and potted p : tl m s w illlc n d co l o r a n d to t h e i s l a. IInagery If the v i sito r to th e ca s t o r F estive Com! h e will b e h o l d a \ i s ion s urpassi ng t h e ric h e s t dre am o f t h e Ori e nt. The F e stive Court i s d e di ca ted to Illlls i c d:Ulc in g and acting: i t i s d e sign e d for pageantr," surpas s i n g the l u x u r i Olls Durb a r an d will cOl l s l i lllle th e prope r s e tt in g for Orie nt al 0 [ m o d e rn drtllllll u po n a c o l ossa l sCII\e. T h e arc hilc durc ur thi s g r ea t C O lirt will p:lr l a k e o f th e O r i c n lnl p hn s c o r t h e SpHnis h -:\l oori s h architecture. Orname n t ati o n lI p o n a n elaborate scal e w i l l be h e lped b y bri l l i ant l i g h t in g ef f ects. Ele ct r i c s ci ntill a tors w i l l p l a y upon founta in s al n i ght; r eflected c o l o red l i g ht s w ill c a s t a s p ell t h ro u g h o u t the c omt. The wall s o f t h e clo i s t e r will be d eco rat e d wi th tn lll' a l The i mposing faca d e o f Mllc h i n e r ) H a ll t h e lall:eSl buildin g at the Expos i tion. The structure w ill be 3 & 7 .8x9&7.11 ft and w ill be decornted w ith more than a m il e and a half of orna m ental c orni c ell. The a r chitectural design o f the b ui l di n g based upon t h e Roman arch m o ti l pro totypes of w h i c h m a y be loun d in the b i!: Roman baths a t H a d ri: m and C arac a l la T h e inlc r i o r arr.tngemenl consist!! o f thre e n aves 7 5 l e e l i n width. 122 f e e l i n h eight a n d more than 9011 feel l ong. paintings : e x o t i c Aowcr,.. t r ee s and \i nes. oran ge t r e e s in fruit and ill bl o s so m will ('ontrnst w i t h t h e s t a tu a r y a n d t h e hllge co l o n n ades aud s t ai r c a sc s F r o m t h e Court o r S un and S tars t h e \'is itor in pa s s in g t o th e w e s t will c o m e t o th e super h Court of F ou r S e a sons o f w h ic h ([enry Dacon. creator of t h e I,in c o l n .:\l e m orial ( i n m e m O l'y of Abraham L i n c o l n. t o b e lm i ll a t P o t o m : l c P a r k. W a s hin g t o n D C ) i s th e a r c hi tect. [II its t h e m e I h i s court will ty pi f y t I le c onques t of n a tul e h y m a n k i n d In e a c h of I l le fOllr col'llersor t h e court w i l l be c u t great. n i c hes int o the e n c i rc l ing e x hi bi t palaces and i n eac h o f the n i c hes will h e fOlll' n UIl'a l pain t i n g s s u gge s t i n g the se a s o n s spri ng. summe r autumn and w i nt e r ; l o ft y c o l o nnade s will s c reen th e n i c h es. I n th e center of [ 3 20 I

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th e Court will be II great of s tatunry i n \\" h i ch Ceres. Goddess of \rrri-cu l ture, will b e show n di s p clls m g t he bounties of nature. I:> 'fhe o rn a m cnlatioJlupo n the watc r 'front ",illll{' upon a colossal scale. The Court of Four S('asons. o p cning UpOIl the harhor will he entered lhr'ollgh a s tupendou s gat cwH,\', t h e Gatc of Columhus. r he v j;.;ilor will pa"" illI'ollgh the g a teway benea th g r cnl lower to t h e csplallad( upon :-:an hay. Din'ctk before t h e l ow('[' will he '<;('{,II a co lo..;sa! (-jfTllre of Columhu;; fae-ill" till' wa ter 0 1:'''I I11CIII I he lower in I'C(:6-;(':o; w ill bl' res I'cprc<;('n I ir;:r I he gl'e
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tangle of e i ght bu ildi ngs will be :\fachiner y l Iall t h e larges t s inO'l e structure of the exp o s it i o n. Jus t south of ;\lac hinel" Y H all is Autoillobiltllali. In th e south ga rden at thc east. end and near t h e co n cess i o n s center will be locat e d } 'estival l I all and ncar the wes t end th e Palaceol"llortic ultllt"c.a Ilugestntclure t clfto 1"1" .. tlu" .. 1 f :'1>o>I,lcm T h e W('St somh court. o r COUT{ of Palms. looking nOrlh. From this cour t t h e v i sitor will pass t hrough the arch etl porta' seen in the center of the picture 10 the great west COUrI or Court of Fou r Seasons. whose theme will symbolize the marc h o f the Saxon 10 the \Vest of wood and glass. Flanking th e gr-cal rectangle on th e west will be t h e Palace of Fin e Arts, n. class i c and beauliful emhod,\"ing th e s p irit of Halian re nai ssanc e and facing upon a greal pool fmm w hi c h its outlines will be rc fleet e d. Of the three main th e onc on th c cast will bc co mpri se d in the c on c e ss ions or amu sc ment een l l'r, which will OC('I'1>,Y s i x ty.(ivc a e l"CS, and will b e tltc fir s t of all parts of t h e exposi tioll to be reached by th ose w h o co mc from th e downt own portioll of ; '';In H s entran e c will be way of a g reat plar-a, at whi c h t h e cUllc('s s i on s di s h 'iet will o p e n oul upon \ all :\ess a\,C"lIue. Through the conel' s ..,iCIIIS a r e a will run a broad houle\' :lrd, t he sIJ"Cci of eom:es sions, more than feci long. Thc domes 01" the will b e illuminate d ;It night and start lin g electri ca l ef f e ct s will contrilJUte t o the night lifeof th e expo ... ilion at the amusc me l l ('{'lIter. The \I'('s ten! group will include the areH occupied h.\ the p:lyil i olls of th e fo rei g n lIatiolls, by the huildings o f the upon t h e A\' ellll e 01" Conllllon wea lth s and by th e
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S till fur t her to the west o f the area o f t h e States and district will be O're
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1 I Ii! :;:;:; :::::;:. -L Wl:sr tNlRAN<1 SANDI[CO LlPosmON B .\ ilL Y not onC' in a t\()Z(,1I people real izes the scop e alld extenl of the prepaJ'atiolls San Diego making 1'0.-he]" Pallama-Califo rni a Exposition huge fmllle and ,; rcat concrete s tr'lIdurcs under construe-. li o n. men laying fOllndations 1'01' m o r e, hu ild ings goi n g lip in c\'c r y portton 01 the gl'(':1 1 pa r-k. .\1 tilt' Administration Building on th e E x po s ition grounds w h ere arc hOllSl'd the ofliC("l's of the EX\)OI;iti()1l, is found II complete organization. departIlH.'nt l'd and COlTelalcd ill SII(' 1 a mallll('r that en:I'," p1l1'1 of tlte work of \WCI HlI'nlioll. a work thOit iw..; prucccded 1'1)1' on.'[' three goes a o ng-l ike clock work. :-\0111 Diego is (','cali n g Olll' of the most heautiful parks in the world, and huildi1lg it-; Exposition u sing the latter as a mean s to beaut ify the park. Ground was firs t 1)l'Ok('1I 1'01' work July ID, 1911. and t h e grading has been fini ... hed 11 ye;n. \ great plant propagating ,\';ud was e stahlished in I !)lI and no\\' COilt aill S millions of tr('cs, fems ami v illes for decorating th e g rounds park wa,v s and bllildings, \ i ... itOl"s sce g-r eal trees being hoi s te d ovcr t h c s i d cs of thc hugc viadud to the slopes below for planting in holes nlread,v prepared; IrC<'s Ihat will nen'" be elll 01' moved again. Surl'OlI lidin g th e Admini stl"da\ When the Califol'llia Siale llllildi:. filli1:ihcd il will he connede d wilh thc hridge, and th e t\\'o wil l form olle tll"l'liitcdllral compo:o:ilioll !ll'nd.\ 1,200 fec t alld over 3i' ; j fcd high, th e lop of the lower 0 1 1 Ihe Slatc Building liflill g it s domc O\'CI" 500 fee t abo\'c the sell, ( 321 I

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The site of the. CO\lld not haw' more bappil. Balboa a ma g llJflccnlloul'lcc l l 11\lIldn x l anJ hit,," a c re trael. ill' s on a Il1gh lable land in th e heal't. of Ihe city. To Iht, e s tern gate of th e :-;itc i s about fifteen minutes' walk from the bu:-;illCSS ('{'!Ite r From an," por'linn oj' tile E xpo s iti on grounds th e visitor ClljO."S a s l,klHlid \'i C'\\' of the cit," alld harhor', The cast el'll bnundal'Y of the s i te j l1I:tl'k{'d h,v ;lIWllll'l' deep cnn,von. an d the gl'OlInds al'(' l)isccted here ami thel'l' !)Y s m,lll r;tVilll''', all of w hi ch lend admiral,k to the work of t h e land .walle :ll'd ell{'r and the 0 expns ition clIgillC'Cl', hoth of whom arc lakin/.{ full ;trh-ardagc of the fad \n enhance and I )(':!ulify the plans for the E x po.;iti oll. FrorH I hc end o f b ridg c 10 the Ihe of Ihe E x J':, .... iti?lI n:lllled the "Prado. W I {"(' 111 the dlstall('c It I'; I'ldar/;l'd b y I'lm': """ J h c fll.;1 I -i. 7 l- I ,. I J ,. : 11'1 '. Southern California Counties' lIuikli nl,:. of Ihe se i s known a s th c P laza d(' Calit'omia, and tilt' .;c{"\)Ild ;ilmo'i l midway beLween the gales. a s the P la z a d e P all,lIna, .\t t h e eastern !!'llewu." Ihe "isiloT lul'l\s 10 Ihe norlh. 10 \\"11,11 i,., named th e ,, sth lUllS," a l o n g wh il'h are s i t ua ted I h e ,.,i le s of I h e a III IIs('nlt'111 ("ol1c(':,,.,ion s. many of which haw al!"ea d,\' heen allolt e d The ofrcril1g ha ... h('e n s o great. thai I he Depa rt men I of Concessions. undc!" I h e II i redors h i p of I L 0, D:I \"is. a -;:,i,.ta III 10 Prcs id ent D C, Collier, has been c Olnl}t!llpd in i;elf def( 'lIse. since. 10 reSol't to a policy o f el imination. The I st linus" will (nclo s c. CHI its ('Olll'i;C to the n orlhel'll g at ew:I.'. th e c once ss ion s. the v illa ges of Ihc ;\01'111 ,\me l'jcan Indian tribe s, the L ittl e L ande!" s farms, lite l'. S. B.ccbmati on S('n' ice. ami i t s 1ar13:c acrcage of dcmoll.-;trating" farm land s and the outdoor exhiLi t:; of th e scvcn ::iouthcm Cal i fornia Counties. President D C Colli el' belie, c s thal the world has til'(.'d of the antiquated and obs ole t c method of "pl'Oducts" a s s llch. lIe heli(,vcs thal these teach the beho lder practical l y n o thing he yond the fad thal man's lnlll s p ortation r ]

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facilitie s arc adequate to the ta s k of col l ect i ng th em. and hi s mean s ampl e to defra,v the {'x l X'll sc; ot herwi se the r e i s nothing t o he learned f!"Om s u c h cx lllbit s. In sca r e for a theme for t he Sa n Di ego E xpos i tion whic h would teac h the v i s il o r somdhing worth and therefore l eave a las t ing and useful impre ss ion. P resident Collier hit upon th e plan o/' pre s cn t illg a sy n opsis of man's evo lut i on through a demon s tra t ion of the myriad proce sses markmg t h e 1)1'('scnl acme of ci, i l izalioll. ,1I1e! cmbody i ng th e hi s to r y of m:ll1. Jt wa s a conception. and ils g reat merit.s have hcell re c o g nized b y th e co untri es 0 1 th e world. III that a lIlall Y mor e than were expected to do so, have arranged to h ecome parti c ipant s in the San Diego celcbmt i on of thc opc ningof the Panama Callal. I'ndc .. the plan nf l're sidclll Collie .. products witl be s een a:s adjullcts 10 the ex hihition or p .. occ ss c:s whic h ca l l them into being. Birdseye vicw of t h e Exposition grounds and the City of San Diego [ 1

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Aft e r Sa n Diego h a d sent h e r invitation s to th e nlrious states o f t h e uni o n, and t o fore i g n countri e s. and t h ese had r espon d ed in so mu c h (J'reale r number t han w a s at fir st deellled p oss ihl e. i t was f ound n ecessa r v to en l a r ge th e s c o p e of Ihe E xpositio n T o th is e nd the c i ly h as voled additi o n a l $8 :>0, 0 0 0 bo nd issue. m a kin g t h e third mil l i on d o llar s rai sed for E x p o s ition pu r p oses. b y th e c ity o f San Di ego alone. A s a matter or s tri ct r ecog ni t i on and go\'e rnmental appl"Oval. the San Diego Expos iti on if'; in ex a ctly t he sa m e p usi t ion a s th at at San F ranc i sco; h o th Home Econom y Building. ex p ositions Il1w(' be c n "recognized" by tht"'" F c dCI'al Cnlll-;"rcss th e i lwit alion s 10 cae h h ave bee n transmitted to ror c i n challcelluri("s 1)\' the D C llarlmcnt or o Slate, and the cus t o m s and immigration la\\ ':-: arc sus p e nd'd hy aet of Congress. with Ihe u s ual rcstr i<:lion s and hondi n g prl\'ileges granted in suc h ca s ('s. The S mit hsouiall I m;titul i on and the Xalional :'\I usell m co optral i ng with th e of E xhi b its to seeUl"{' exhih i ts of ethnology
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(;be AND DMDED'6he ORLD UNITED' LE la'lti\\"o .,t e a m at \\"ol 'k in hol lo m excavation in Culcbr a Cui \\"('1"(' withdrawn (III S e p tember 1 0 1 0 13. Thc.sc w e re sltO\'c!1\'o. llla11llt' d b y 1 Ia c s. cngincl'l'. and \ E ,\\cxa r l d cl' ( :ralH' lll a n ; a lld s lllwcl :\n, 2'20, marltH'd b,v AI. Gedde s en g i nce r, and \y, L I I ,('I'anemall. The la..;\ t r ainloa d of m ateri a l was d r aw n o u t o f tb e C u t b y ( o ng-in c Xo 'lli O w ith E C. B ( :lII, e n g in cer', alld E \ D onndl,", a s COI1-dudM. I t \\' a ."; IO::W:I. Ill. w hl'lllhc l a'i l dipl'e r s/'u l were load e d Inlh c hurry t o g el O t i C IIlnr{' dippl'rf1l1 on th e <"HI' S a s t h e t r a in g o t u n der wa," the c r :H1C'lllan o f !'ilio n ] :\'0. -2' W d U1Ilpe d i t s lo a d 011 t h e coal i t'[u l e r o f th e l ocomotiw'. compl e tel y fillin g it. T he t r a i n I't"Occcd c d it s h o r t d i;-;tam::c I J ut was fo r ce d to s top unlil th e d irt co u l d b e !'iJon-l e d ol r t h e coa l co ntinui n g th e tri p The \ 'el'Y 1:1;0;1 h o\'('1 out of the Cut wns o n th e f hllo wing da,\' :September II w h e n s h o n"!1 '! IO. tnHlIl1C d b y FI':l11k L ou l H n : wel S II. 131', \ ':ln, c ra n C lllan whic h had \)("('11 work in g t o k e c p t h c t rack arouu d C u c a r a c h a s l i d e cl ear, wa s withdr:II\"11. T h u s t h e re i g n of K i n g Yarda g e o n t h e Canal whi c h h a d c o n tinued w ith Lut o n e i lll(,I"1"lIpli o n for a p c riod o f o\' c r 3 1 yc a r s, c a m e t o all eud so fal' a s cXC"
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out o n e e nd of thc dikc but did IIot adm it thc waleI' at once, The ladder dredgc Corozal Ihc larg<-'sl ill Ilw Canal sen'ice, was pullo work on thc remain tie r o f the di ke and s oon had a Ihrough, The h l owillg lip or the "ole l'clllainillg harr ier hetwe e n :\I iraflores I .nck" and the sea, whic h occurred a l !)::W t)('lo{'k on mortling. ,\ ugu ... \ 31. was a much mOl'e iutcres lin g sp('('tadc, I n th i s dih' the r e had hCl'lI placed 37.JOO pounds of ,lIlel GO pel' ('enl. d,\'nlllllil e. amollg' hules al an H\'erage dcpth of 30 fect. ('oll('l'ntraled i n about the ('enter, The 1,la ... 1 tore a gap i n the balTiel' hul i l S the waleI' in Ihe challlld oulside was at Im\ lide. it did nol flow o\'cr, Graduall,\ hO\\'l'\'l'r. thl' tidc crept IIp until at ] :3,i p, Ill, it was n cad,\' even wit h th e top. ,\t Ih i s moment. a llIall ..,tized a shon'] and made a trench l h e top of the gap through which a rill heg;!11 to fin\\, This soo n i ncrea",ed tu a good -sized ,,,tream. t lwll to a rin'I', and to a raging torre nt. carrying 1I\\'a,\' ... edion .. of the di kc ('ae h "u('('cedill).\' moment. 1II11il at 3 u'cloek, when, with til(' pit J.O(JO feci long. ,)00 fl,:et wide. and -lG feet de('p {'o lllplch'I,\ filled, tire gap had wid elH'li t o 40 0 f{'('\. TIt<' {'lId of tld", harri{'l' signalized the prndical ('omplctioll o r a .. ca le\ 'cl channcl dt>ep enough for going all thc way from Loeb ttl till' "ea, a di .. tance of Gatun dike wa-; a harricr that at (Jill' time kept the wakr in the .\tlantie chnnncieulofi lheforeha,\' of G altlll L ocks, I t was al"t) thed a" a frolll the cast to the west hank, Two pipe lilll' slIctiulI dredge" hcgall the renl()\ a l of tid .. dike. whic h was eight red .iI){)\'e "COl Ic\'('\' ami ;,j feet \\'ide tilt top. o n 't, 1 013, nn d,\'llamilc being lIc('e"',,:ll'Y, On Oclo\ll'1' ] O('eall goi n g sle:l m "hi p" \\,(,1'(' ahle to n:tvigalt tilt' ,\tl:intic ('hallllt'l to (;:111111 T he I""t alltl mo" t 1l10ll1entoll-; ('\ C ll1 of the kind was thl' (\C1'>tl 'uctioll of Gamho:l D ike 011 FI'ida\' Oetoht, ] 10, and while thl' \\':liers of the two O ('{';lIh did n o t join on thnt da\' i t pr<.'-.aged the near IIpproadl of that long looked I'm occas ion, Gamhoa Dike waS Imil l in J!}o8 to proted ('ule'bra Cui from inun dati o n b y i n the C hagres H iveI', During thc flood of D e('elUbel', l!)Oo, the I'i\'(' r rosc to 8 1,(i feel al Galllhoa, hILt Ihis W,t S hefore the d i ke \\'"" huilt and bcfor c th e B ao;; Ohis pu sc('\ i on or Culebra Cut had hecn complekd, D nl'ing the flood of .:\O\'cmher.190!l, th e waleI' ro se to a h e ight or feci. and eHllle so clo s e 1 0 thc top of the dike, which was t h e n at i 1 r('("t allO\'e sea lew!. that s luicc gat es \\'Prc o p c n c d t o fill thc Cut wit h w al(']' to the len of th e l'i\'('1' to ""oid heavy was;hin g in c a se a brca k oecurrc d Since t ha t ycar t h e s afet y of the dike has nc\'('r hecn llH-'n:lcc d '''hen Gatun Lake rose to 0\'('1' .j" fcel in the la Iter pa rl of ]!) 1 Q, t h e d i ke wa s wide n ed to an : lYer age of :W f ( cl IJY d lim ping clavon thesid e t ow:lr d the CuI. and raised t o an ele\'ation of 78,S! ft.'et a],O\'cse,t level. II eo n i ainl'd ahout 9{),UOO euhi e of l1Iat('rial. and in mining for its complete dc<;t l'l l clion. iI t o tal of I ,"177'c\rill holes wCl'e S lin k, w hi c h if placed en d t o end wo uld equal ,i], iGti l i llca l fcet, I 'wo hltl1lll'ed or the h oles were made by tri pod drill s, t he ha lan('(' \\'ell or chul'll drills, C ul cbra C ut. between C ueuracha s lid e ilnd G a mhoa dike, conhlined 'tQ, 7 feel of w:tler when th e dike wa s d es tl'on'd on Odoher 10, I t was car l\' decid c d t ha t it wo uld b e unwisc to allow the Cut to fill from the filII h e ad o f Ihe How from [ 32!) I

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Gatlin Lake. and O ctober 1 therefore, the v. d ves in fj"e24-in c h pipes ext ending into th e lake beneath Gambua dike we r e opened. Subscqu e ntl y a s i x th pipe wa s hrought into ser vice. and all were continued in use up to th e day of the explosion, fillin g t h e Cut to th e d epth above state d G:\:'>IBO \ IS BL' 8TED "Gamboa is bus ted!" are the words Prei'icienL Woodrow Wilso n i s credited with ha\' ing u:-;ed when h e pressed t h e button at the White House in Washingt.o n at 2 p m. on Frida.y, O ctober 10 selling oft' t h e hla s t which destroyed the l l s t art ificial harrier in the Canal. According to thc local oflic ial timing it was exactly 2 :02. w hen the thousand s who werc wHkhing an insignificant embankment on w hi c h th e c,'cs o r the world has been fastened for weeki'. with bated breath. i'aw a giant p 'un of smoke. Ihe h 1lrtli n g of rocb. mud, and other debris high ill air, and ht'ard th e Illuffled r oar of I h e always a few seconds behind, Col o n el Goethals h a d pl:lIllled 10 blow up th e d ike 'It !) a, Ill .. on Ocl"ber 10, all(l had alread.\ aJlnounced the hour but a me:;;sage wa:-; recei\'ed from Washinglun s hOl'lIy afterward, asking i f i t would be agreeable for Ihe P resi dent 10 fire lile charge. and if :-00. if th e c hange in lime 10 fl p. m. would he conveni ent. The Colonel replied th: ,tI h e would he pleased to I Hl\'e Ihe Pre:-;idenl fjl'C th e blast. The spark thai lJIad p the water IJ]'idge of the Canal practically continuous waS sent ov('r miles uf Ielegraph and eahle lines f!'Om \Ya:-;liington toCalveslon, Tcxa.,. "." the Western ( nion \\,ire, and i'1'01ll Ihal pOill l t o Gamboa. dike hy \\':1." of Ihe C{']lIral & South .\meriean Cal) le Company's ('a hIe. AI Ihe dikt', it wa., cOllllt'eil. : d to a local circui t, w hich, in lurn, operated th e switch that fin,d th e "las t. While not a holiday on Iht, bthmu:-; .. cl everyone thaL could gel excused from hi s work wa s prescnt. .Hld a crowd of peopl e, probabl.' 3 000 in number, lined Ihe hanks of the Canal. ul sought a Illore commandin g p osi li o n on the nearby hills. Only a portio n of the d ike \\'a:-; dyn.uniled, hut the :;;llOt w a s n. perfect one. making a comp,ualivcl., clea n opening 1'i!5 feel. in w idth, Iltl'Ough which wa leI' from t h e lake f lowed in s uflic i('I]1 \ 'olume ns to bring th e water al]"(' a c l\ in the Cut 10 lake le\ l'l w ithin two houl 's' tim e. When Ihe dike was dc.<;II'O,\'('(1 Ih e stage of Wal eI' in th e lake was 07.7, and that in the Cut 61.7. a difr el'c n ce of onl.\ :;;ix f ed. The explo:-;inn was not a la rge o ne. a s eomp'lIed with some of th e oth e r s s hol of!' i n connection wit h the Canal work, Only e ight tons of e x plo s i\'e WI.'I1.' u sed, Ih e eharge:-; heing-planted in ,wu hole:;; from 20 l03,j fet'! ill depth TIIC ]'em,rind('r of Ih e d i ke, w hich included a 1mI'd rock section w a s hlown Iq) on Oetoher 17. D re dge ,I), which wa s pa:;;:;;cd Ihl'Ou g h Galun L o('k:-; 011 Oetnher D, hega n '\'Mk soon after the blast of Octoher 10, remo,ing the remainder I)f t h e o lJstruction. ,Gamhoa wa s ma,inl., it s f)osi t i o n a s it kept the w aler ]n Gatun ),ake Imlll C'nienng the O-mlle sectIon 0 Culehra Cut, and was Ihe Old." remaining artificial bar to a continuous wa\.el'\\'ay f ro m Gatun Locks to i g uel ( ,oc k s. !'hi s fae!. her al ded around the g lobe. nnd til e interes t 01 Ihe world on October 10 centere d on th e small ernbnnkmcnt of rock and earlh, It s des lruc:lion was attended wil h much rejoi ci n g in all paris o f lhe Unile d Stntes; celebrations were held i n :'1 number of c iti es, and Ih e press o f Euro p e I 330 J

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C j HE l>fflR ITED reflccted t he f ollowi n g sent im en t expr e ss e d in t he L ondoll Time;;. "The final stage today is an ('\ en l i n t he h i stor," of mankin d of wh i ch Ih(' whole human race has r easo n to be p r o ud." G .\Tt:X LOCKS, TilE t 'lBST LX ArIT. \ I OI'E H \T10:"< The firs t p a ss age of a W'ss el t h roug h a sc i of the Callal lo c ks occurred on Sept e mber Q G w h e n t h e tug Gatlin wa s lifle d f rom the se a challllello t h e Gatull Lake lC\'cL us in g t h e we!;! fli g h t. Thi", date was ChOst'H. he caus e of the depa r tul'C fro m t h e j slhnll i s of :\Ia j. JalHc!'O .1'. Jcrnv. who had charge of 111( m a so nr,'" constru ct i on of Gahm L o c ks. and of :\I nj. (;eorgc :\1. I L offman who had of th e bu i l d i n g of Gatun Dam. as :l;-;s i"lanb 10 tlwi]' chicL L ieu\.Col. \\"illi:lrn I.. The filling of th e lowcr lock was completed a l .J:-I-,i p Ill when the Sl':I ga l e wa s opened. and Ih(' Gat lin with fla),(s fI,"i n g and w hi tle hlowing s lca!l1erl u p th e apl lJ'oa c h chnnnd and past the entranc e t o the lower loc k. amid th e cheers of t Ie assembled spectators, The lower operatinJ! gatc!'-O W tl'(' thCll l"Io:,;ed. :lIld t h e came to a slop Ihe ('enter w a ll. wa,.; 1II the I1lHler 0, 1013 threc grol1Jl!'-O of dre dging H'!'-O,.;ej..; and a A na tin g p i le d.-i,c r, i n lo\\' o f tugs a lotal of 1 : ) \\"('1'(' l ifted ,It 011(' tilll e from the Atlanti c e nlmncc chann el to thc surface of Gatull J ,ake. u sillg" Ihl.' I.'lltirc 1 .000 -foot lengt h of each chamber. Thi s performallce mor e lwar!., dClllon strated the u t i l ity o r thc locks in co m mercial and na\' al U"I,' Ihan the pas.;age of t h e lone tUfl' on Se p temhe r 2G. The first group cntel"l'd thc lowel" 1000'k al !):,jO a. m ;!lId r Car group p a sse d into Galtln Lakc at IQ:-I-O p. Ill. The fir!'l gl"Oup co n s i s te d of t h e lu g B ollio. wit h a to\\" of o n e 6001011 harge loadcd wil h piles and [ 331 J

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500 tons o f coal. and two old cellll'nl load e d with '2:;0 Ion s of coa l each, The second group comprise d the lu g Galun, w ith s uction dredge :-\0, 8U, s el'eral pontoons, and a fuel o i l harge in tow, The thi['d group con s i s ted of the tug Empire, with Fre n ch ladder dredge :\0 :;, two dump sc ows, and n floating pileciri, 'er. \ Illotor launch and sCI 'e ral nativ e C:1II0CS J'ollow e d in th e real'. \t' tl' r cn l erin:.; upon the lake the drcd:.;e s uld auxilillry equipment we r e towed "out h to Gamhoa d i kc. t o u egin dredg in g ope[' ati o n s in thc C l.llehl':'\ Cut ... ect ion. Prohahl.l the most pra<:ti c al illu stration afforded h,l' thi s was thc dll'a pnt'ss at whic h I.UOO tons of coa l were cUIl\e.ved to des tination, a s compar ed wilh the {'osloI' I-{cttilll-{ it to the sa m e point h,l' [',IiI. On O('\ olJer '2'2, fifteen more I'css("l s of th e \ 1 1anli c dredgi n g n c('t were passe d thl'Ou g h Gatnn Loeb, to be in I 'cacliness 10 IIcg in operations in Cul ebr::t Cllt. On O('\oher the tUI-{ .\Iiraflo['cs. wilh tllrc{' harf.{cs, old Fr{'ll(: h clapet :\0. {i, and Ihe l a ullch 13irdcna. made I he first lock age al Ihe i';lc-ific end, and wen' rais("d IUI-{dh el' Ihe ,\'('s l flif.{ht a l .\ii r:d l ores Lo c ks to the s urra('c of :\1 iraflorC's I,akc. a n /.'Icl'alion of fed, A s i n th(, ClI.'.;e of Gatull I ,od:: ... the g al es and opt'rating mac-hi[ICI',I' worh'd p('['I'ecil,' t h e opcrati on la s tillf.{ one hUlIl aud:W I lHllut('S, T he lo('k .. al P edro '\ligHel were ill read ine ss to pa ss liIe into the Cui. hllt o\\'ing to all (/('pth (If watcl' so u th of ('ue;[rat:ha s lid e. t h is \\',IS postPOlI('t\ t o a lat el' dale. rhe tng. ('1:11 )('1. and laun ch rt;,lul'llt'd 10 Ihe 1 1I('ifi(' {'ldraIlCf'. and wen' passed Ihrouf.{h th e o('ks Qil th(' downwa rd Irip in -l. j minul("s. \\'hil<' t he up of Gamhoa dike was ,I feature Ihat app("aled to the popular mind. th e f ael lhat the lo ('ks and Iheil' huge. hut ddicale pas s ed tilt It's s w i t h H."ing co lo rs, was the source 411' greatest plea s ure 1 0 th e m cn ou Ihe jol,. Flto,\] 'I'I1t-: HE, \ T O (TLEBILI eel' The pa ssage of hoth o f Ihe Pa cific 1 (l('k s wa s s uc cessf ull y acco mpli shed 011 O('tollel 'H. w h("n !lI 'c d ge :\0, 8 :;, towed 11,1' t h c lu g .\limflol' es. and aCCOll1the launches Binlena. and Loni se l owing 11 fuel. o i l a. I g hl e[' lo r I'(.'palr \Jal'l .... and dapcl ;\0. D. and s le:llll launch ;\0. 2li tmnng di sc harge pi p(' /'01' t 11.' d r e dge 0 1 1 pontoons, wa s lift e d through '\[iraflOl'e s Locks 10 :\iil'aflol'es Lake, and Ihl'OlIgh lh e e a1'il chambe r o f the s ingle lock at 1' edl'O .\1 rO[' the l ill to the s urfa ce Inc! o f Ihe wate r in ClIlchra. The tow s enter e d the l owl'!' lock at :\limfi orcs al f);(H H Ill" Ihe upper 1('I'c l at and .\Lirafl ol'es Lake OIl ]O:',W. P as s in g a cl'OSS :\limAol' e s Lake, the foremos t I'('SS('\S enlered P e d ro :\Lig uel Lo ck at 11 ;]0 a, m and pass ed inlo Culebm ('ul at 11 ;,j'!, The dredgc wa s th('11 lowed 10 Ihe foot of Cue:l r ae ila s l ide and hegan ils work of e xca vation o n Octob e r : W. 1 ';. \ II'I'I IQI' \ K ES It wa s an c:-.:tr:ltwdinary c oincid e nc e that the day water wa s admitted to C ulehr a Cut ther e should o ccur the Iwrclest earthquake shoc k that has been expe rien c ed nn the Isthmus s in ce Scptemher 7 1 882, That it was more than a eOlilc iden ce non e but the supers titiou s will allow although Ihere arc so me that ( :132 1

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CJ HE I.>N*fDL. ;:;;;;,"'StI >J;)<..UN,ITED have tri ed to estahlish a co n necl i o n betwee n it and the Calla] enterpri se po ss ibly having in mind the admonitioll o f the Spanis h friar deliv e red when the project was first g iven se r iou s co n s ider at ion. whi c h w a s What Gud hath joi n e d to ge t h er, l et n o man pu t asunder." To the mor e pradical. how e n!"L it afrOl't\cd an excel lent test o f the stability of th e Canallne k s and their equipment. and thai it will lak e a IlIll('h greater s hock than any hith e r t o e x pe r i enced on t h e I sthmus to make an illlprc,;s iull 011 the lock :-;lrlletlll'CS. The fir s t tremo r in t h e s ('ries occulTed at I : l 8 p. m .. on Octohel' L IDIS. and pa sse d unnoticed although "cgistcrcd on the in,,\rullIcnl at the \ n l' on se i s mograph stati o n. The he:w y ;-;hoc k callie al II :,:?,j Ihal nighl and con t i nued for tlte s pace of ahout 25 second s It nl a d. e \ 'el'yoIlC oul o f their beds ami i nlo the stre e t s e s p ecially in t he ci ties of Pnnama and C olon and the inlCl'iOr town s The 1l\(j"ell"l{'lll reg i;o;tel'ec\ Force J.\" Oil t h e Ito;-;;-;i F orel sca l e. 1 1 0 X and was I he s t mllges t .;ha kc e x peri c lleed in the hislcu.v of the Anc on ,..e i s mograph s tation. De ..,,,ite nlal"llling rl'porl s ;o;Cllt 0111. tlO damage was done to an.Y pari of the Can:1I wurk, 01' 10 huilding-s ill l'atl,llll,l, \\"ith th' exception of a few s light eraek s \\"hic h de\"Clop c d ill the e ntl C l 'ell' wall;-; o r hOllscs. J' he S t'i;-;nlOgraph indicated the epi('l'lIll' l of the di sturhance a.; lwi n g llJ miles 10 Ihe sO\lIIl\\"l;o;t. which ('.:;l at,l i;-;lled it at a poinl of!" the eoa;o;l of J ,o;o; Sa n\t);o; p l 'o\ 'ince, RepOI'ts frolll town.; ill Ihi .. proyince on the <\a.,' f ollowing 1 1](> firs t .se\"Cre s hock indicated that the ma x imllm fOl'(' (' of Ihe 1lI0\"{'IIICElt was r elt the r e ; s evcral h ou s c;o; wcr e in the "illagc;-; of L o s Snnlo s La s Tablas, :'\la cHl'ac:ll', alHl T ono s i and in two 01' three churdl l o w e r s w el'C o"(, I 'tul'IIed. A t ncar the scat of the troubk, l:ln
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to Congress on February 16, 1 909, ha s th e followin g to SHy on the possibilit y o f damage to th e C:Ulul b y curlhquakcs: .. It h as been s u ggeste d thaI the Canal r eg ion i s l i able t o earthquak e s h ocks. and that. a se a I m' d c anal would b e l e ss s ubj ect to injul'Y b y ea rth quakes than a lock C anal. "We h : w c see n in th e c i t y of Pana m a th e ruin s of an old churc h s a i d t o h:lYC be e n d es tro ye d b y fir e, co nt a i nin g a long and extremely Hal arch of g reat age, which cOllvinc('s u s that t here ha s been no earthquake s h ock 011 t h e I sthmus during the one-hundred and fift y years, m o r c o r l ess, th at t hi s structure ha s been in ex i s tence that would h ave injure d t h e wor k propo se d "Dams and lock s arc s lrll c lurcs o f g r eat. s tabilit y and liule s ubj ec t 1.0 damage h y earthqu ake sllocks. The s ucc ess ful res i s tan ce o f the d ams a nd re sc r voi r s s uppl y i ng San Franc i sc o with water e\'cn w hcli tho s e s tru c turc s were locat e d nca r th e l i ne of fault of the earthquake, g i\ e s co nfiden ce in t h e abil i t y of w e ll-de s i g n e d ma sonry s tru ctures and carth embankm c nt s t o r es i s t earth quake slioeks. "\Yc d u n ot regard s u c h s hocks a s a SOurce o f se r i o u s damage L o any t y pe of C,ulal a t t he I s thmll s, bu t if th ey wcre s o. their e frort Oil t h e d am s. l oc k s and wor ks p ro p ose d for th e se a l e\TI Canal would be much the s lime a s lIp on simi l a r s lru c tur(.'s of th e lock Canal." The IUII'des t s hock whic h the I sthmus h as cx pcri enccd s i n c e it s di sc o"e r y i s belie ved 10 h ll\'e been that of Septembe r 7, I SSe, but. Ihe fa m O ll S flat arc h p asse d th rough un sc at h ed, a lth oug h the of th e Cathe dral f ell i n, ,mel Lhe o l d Cabild o. o r town hall was badl y c rack e d. F i ssu re s al s o open e d in th e Interior of the m e teorological SIMio n al Ancon whic h houses a set of sei s mograph i n struments, [:\,1 1 1 -

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gro und at that time at Colon, and along the bunk of t h e C h agres H i\'el', and the s ton e c hurch at. C ru ces was de s t royed, The flat a r c h lIb o\'e alluded to ha s s tood in the ruins of Santo D o min go church for 206 yea r s, This arch has a span of o\'er.).O fee l and a rise of two; and it would not. r e quire a terrific s hock to bring it d ow n The church i n w hi c h lhi s arch is found was built the brethren o f SI. D omi nic, Histon' relates that whe n the arch wa s first built il fell. ft was rebuilt and fell again. and al so 11 third lime The fourth time it was built its de s ign er, one of the f r ia rs sloo d beneath while the s upport s were b eing removed sa, ving that if i t was well m ade he would not he crushed, It did not f all. But for C ucara ch a slide, C ule bra Cu t would h ave been n adgahle fur boats drawi ng 'l5 feet o f Willer all the wa.y fro m Gamboa Di ke to P edro :'Ilig uci Lo cks, imm e diat e l y after the blast of O c tober 10. This slide which ha s pJ'O\'ed tIl(' mo s t troublesome of an,\ on the Canal, cnt irel,\' blocked the Cui on October 10 up to t h e 73-foo l level, so that when the C ut hetw('e n Ihe dike a nd the s l ide was at lake le\ 'e l, the water was s till ahout s i x feet below Ihe top of the barr'ier al C u enrae ha An ef1'od was al ol1ce made to pass th e wate lthrou g h t o the sect i o n of the C ut betwcen the s l i de and Pl'dru :'Iriguel Lucks by digg i ng a trench with pick and s h o,'el. T he
PAGE 352

vesse l s taking pari in thcJ)a geanl can be loc ked throu g h on the official da, y, but the rcprcsC'ntativ<-'s of iff c r c nt countries prc scnlmay IJc taken through on s p c ciall., s elected es s els. and th e remainder o f the ships Cllil follow lut e r pro c e edin g 10 San Franci sco, w here lhey will lake pa r t in th e festivilies altcnding tile o l )cnill g of t he P allllllla-Paeific E xposi liu l l o n F cbnllt''y '20. l V 15. F[[(S' I BOA'I' TlIHOU GIi TilE: C'\1\":\L 'I'll scndinl-{ of th e firs t boat through the Canal depended, at t lJe time W:l:-i puhli;o;hcd. on excllvating ;\ channel through C ucarach a s l ide. \\-hic h m i g lll lake wet'k..; 01' month:-, accordi n g to the slide's future activitie s. The P olar s l li\) Fram kft BUf'llo S Air es on Augu s t 14, and a rrived at ('01 011 lIll Octo )('1" :3. J!) 13.011 its way to San Francisco hy wa.," of the P a nama ('anal. wht-I' e i t e x pect s to outfit for projected t rip to the Arctic region. Lt will m hahl.' h e o n e of th c fir s l v e s s e l s t o make the tl"ip fro m occan to ocean al t h o u g h it i s r('ao.;mlabl \ ce rtain that on e of t h e Com mi ss ion's vessel s wil l make t.he i nit i al voyage A b a ttle ship will l i kely be pas se d through soo n after J annal'\' I I!)I k The follow i n g thirt y -five pa.g e s of v i ews s how th e la s t s team s h ovel work in Culebm C ut. th e :-;uc c essful ope ration of a l l the locks and the pre sent dre d g in g w ork al Cue;lr;l<:ha Slide. th e la s t barrier to a passage through th e ('u l ir c C anal. )

PAGE 353

L:asl diPllUful o f dirl Iliken oul of Culebr:a CUI by Shovel No. 126. Thb and 1M foUo .. IhrH p&(eI .. ho ... Ihllla'i SlUm .ho.-el oI-ron! Ihe .. ale, .. -u lurnfd IQ. [ 337 1

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Next to the last S team Shovel No. Crane man Hudson. luge 11ft. rock delivered by Ens;::ineer Geddes; Tower G, from which Operator Kimball iss ued orders m O "ing last trai n o u t of bottom of the Cut. Last Jar!.:c rock delivered on Car No. 2011S by Steam S hovel No. 226. [ 338 )

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S team S ho\'cl No. 226, which l oaded la s t dippcrful o f dirt o n last IrJin out of the Cut. La s t train of material OUI of hOllom o f Cut.

PAGE 356

Envlne No. 2Ml whi c h Ilulled the last loaded train out of the Cut Enlo:in e No. 119, whic h Ilushed last train up incli n e lr:lck. Enginee-r : Uld condu ctor on l ende r [ 340 1

PAGE 357

up Ihe firS! dike a t Miraflores on May 1 8, 1'}13. This lei water into a completed sectio n of Ihe C"nal about \,000 feet long. Minll o res dike before the blast o f August 3 1 1'}1 3 The d y n amite blast al Minflores d i k e on August .S1. 1'J13. Thll Ind till' lour .110'" Ihr "I' "I 'Uranol"(>
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I Views showiolo: the W :Ul'f lOW the ch,mne l after the dike was b lown up. I Man makinll" ITench 1 0 I e Ihe firSI waler in 2 The o p eninl( i t :i1 1 1K'ar e d 3(1 minutes l ater. 3 The dike crumble d .way under the mil: llI )' rush o f w:Iter. 4 The openin!: nlom('ntarily widens. [ 34:! 1

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\Vh,.", the wate r imo Ihe pit. the phenomenon of the tide held stationary for three-Quarters of an hour Wa!J oMen'cd II Balboa mile, away. I. The rU5h of ",aler continues. 1 The open;nJ,( .. bom one hour after the "" IICr firs. wen! IhrouJ,lh J 51t'el cabl e hung across the bU, which Ihe rush 01 "',IICC th,...l.Shcd back: and forth 4. The pit is gndually filling. [ 1

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View inlO the pi' towa r d Loc k s -- \Vhe n t h e pit was n e arly full. the s uction caused a barge 10 bre a k loose and t o pass through the OIICninl;:. s n a llpin g t h e stee l cabl e in it s progress like a piece of thread [ I I 1

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EX C :l" l uinj;! in Ihe e:mal from Mi r.lflore 5 Locks!O Ihe s{'a. This i s Ihe s eciion of Ihe Canal Ih31 was fill e d hy the hlowinll: up of Ihe laSI dike a l Mir'.lflorcs. s hown on I h e Ilre v i o u s pall:es. View 100kinJ: seawud !:Iken from Ihe same I l la c e as Ihe one u I h e Ihe channel filled. Ancon and Sos" Hills i n the distance. flores Locks i n the ( 3<15 1 l O P of the p all:<'. s h o w i n\.: Appro a c h w ,,11 o f M i r a -

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Leuin g waler Ihr ough Gamboa Di k e i n l O C u l ehra CUI. Two o f Ihe }4in c h pipe s are s hown in I hi s I'iclUre S i x 0 1 I nese IIi pes were opened l e n d ays befor e t h e Dik e was blown u p all o w i n g the C U I 1 0 becom e partly fill e d s o Ihe r e woul d n o t be such a rus h o f Wale r whe n t h e Dike w a s d"s troyed G a mboa Dike b dore ; was I 34' I

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Blast thai destroyed Gamboa Dike on Octoher 10. 1913. The CUI had been fill e d 10 w ithin a fcw fecI of the level o f the In k e before the Dike was blown UI" -- c: F -00" .-'Va t e r from G : I'U" Like fJowinj.: inlO the C U I throuJ:h the OlX'ninJ: i n the dike afler the explosion The first boat 10 l )aSS inlO the CUI fro m the l a k e \vas II canoe con lain in!: IWO men.

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-1 I I \

PAGE 365

, -- -- Lak e CI>trance to (;'11110 Lock s o n m orni n g of loc kage, Look i nt:: soulh Till> "",1111, "",',,,
PAGE 366

F ill i n g of lower lock w a s a ided b y opening sea k : lI1: val ve.'!. TUI{ G alun moored i n s e a 1;, '0::1 chan n el \"atchin g Ihe filli n g o f the lowe r lock

PAGE 367

Turning water into the lock cham l),:,r culverl opcn ; nl!S in the floor-parlial flow. waler i nto the lock chamber Ihrou!:h culverl openings in Ihe floor-maximum flow. [ 1

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... .' \Vater i n the lower lock a n d level c h ''''llci equalize d Opening the lower ).:lIard gate. T u g Gacun m o ving u p the approac h c h a nnel toward t h e lower lock [ 3.52 J

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T h e Ilre l i m i nary o b j ect lesson in the C """I Z o n e Motto, T h e La"d Di,' l d eo!. I h e \\'orld U n i t e d," fin d s its c uhnin" ti o n in t h e strikinj.! illustratio n given a bo"e. T h e s c e n e s hows t h e f ir s t b o t 10 p : .ss thro ugh Ihe Gatun l o c k s o n Seple mber 26. 19n, ,.nu picture s t h e e nthu sias tic I h r o nj.! of p eople w h o arc man ilest i nj.! their jO) b y cheer s a s t h e b o at's progres s i s proceedinj.! throu g h Ihe wat e r w ay, To the tuj.!oo a t G a m,," W:lS ac c o r d e d the p ri vilege o f m a k i n!;' t h e f irst l a s s a!;e.

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PAGE 371

Tug entering tho;, lower loc k c h anlbcr. T u g steamin g up the lower lock cham b e r [ 353 J

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Tug comes 10:J SlOP alongside the cen ter wall in the lower lock chamber. Cal l' is closed l lreparatory 10 filling the lock for the l ift 10 the m i ddle chamber [ :{:).I J

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Colo n e l Goethals a n inu.'rcs t c d spectator, Colonel Goethal, i s Group i ncludes M rs. II U Rousseau. silling: Mr. Joseph Buckl in Uish o p with umbrella: Mr. Rousseau, back turned -Col. Harry F Hodges tldt facin g). and Lieut -Col \V. L. Sibert ( ri g h l fad .. ,, ) tal king i t over. [ 3;;5 )

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I Gales in Olle n positio n have llppcarancc of being part of lock wall. \Vale r rising i n the middle lock for the second lift I 356 J

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-Tug E mpire, :and ils lOw, French ladder dredj:e N o.5, two dump scows ::r.nd flo::r.tinfi: piledri\'cr entering the lower :approach to G 'lIun Locks. Thl!! and (hp lollo"'/Il,, ,"", >how I be lit.t p....,tlnl lock .... e at Ga.llo Locks. '",0:1_", d ."d ba"",s puslng !rorn the au Ie",,' chlnnell'" ".nun lAke. 0<:101>", 9, 1913. romb'n .. d hit 01 S{.'<..;.I, T u g Bohio and consorlS, consisting of three loaded oorgcs in the lower :approach channe l waiting for Ihe gales to swing. [ 357 I

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Tul,:s. dredges and h a rges cnterin g t h e lower lock (ro m the s e a c hann el C losing the l ower lock opcrnl;ng g atc. r 35S I

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The lift from the lower to the middle lock Opening the middl e g ( lI e. The fleet. J3 "essels i n all, nearly filllhe lower lock chamber. [ :J.'j!1 J

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The "e$Se l s pass into the m i d d l e lock c h a m be r Inside the middl e c h amber. Ready lor the l if t t o the u pper lock [ 360 [

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Assembling the various eraf! inside the middle lock. Colonel Goethal s on the lock wall to the right with his bae k turned. Tug Empire. with tow, passing out inlO Galun Lake. Dark SpOIS on th ... surf3ce of the lake are floating islands, masses of sw;amp vegetation lossened by the lal"", rise, and blown across the lake by the wind. [ 361 I

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Tug Mir.tflores, ils tow o f three Pana m a Railroad a 'ld S l eam bunch Birdena after they h a d passed into thll lower lock at Miraflores. This and the 101i0w"lIl: ''''0 ,110'" fir-I lock a ...,. al .... t ..,..,k.. and barllrf'S passonR lroll'''''' le\'el cha,,"el !O Lake, 24, HlIl,;it.!l1I 0 1 SIt Ie
PAGE 381

\&91:1

PAGE 382

VesseLs wailing for the lift 1 0 the upper lock. A French clapet w hich a lso made the lockage, appears i n Ihe foreground. -Tug and it s lOW passi n g through Miraflores Lake toward P edro l\1i!:,ue1 Lock s. This lake is one and one-half miles long, separating P edro Miguel and i\li r a llores locks. I 3(;' J

PAGE 383

Opening the lower guard gale 10 admit the floating equipment. T his a nn I h,' 10110\\'101: I'U" .how Ihr tll'Sl al ,',:<1'0 l"",k', 2 1 I (IIl, 'he ""',\ hUe<.! from 1(, Culclo ..... na," 1111 of Wi roml,ln,',1 I,ll ,,( .",1 1'<..:1m .11 IS Sli b:t. 1 h" ""'"It! a.! at {lat un on I he Allam", Sid,", -+ Tug Miraflores a n d dredge No. 85 entering Ih e east lock chamber. [ 3 65 1

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\Vailing for the Lock to fill The I lipc on the barges was part of the OUlfi t of dredge No. 85. for u s c at Cucaracha slide. The Lock filled Heady to Out into the Culebra C U I channel.

PAGE 385

-----.' French clapet No.4 in the lowcr wesl c h amber: 1t Galun, Sccrctar)' of 'aT G:lrrison a n d p:orr y through the Lock. .. On October 30. 191 3. C ul cbm Cui at Gold Hill i n 188 7 during the Fre nch canal limes. Thcspaccbctwecn Ihe s h e d in the and Ihe firs t French IOCOllloti,' c is the zone of acti,-;ty of the C u c aracha slide. ( 367 1

PAGE 386

C lose jew o f a s l i d e i n Culebra Cut. S hooting o ff : 1 blast i n con nection with the work o f c Ullin g a ditch t h rough slide for t h e o f water. Culebr a C u t opposite C ul e b,.,. village after removal of steam shovels a n d construction trac ks, Action o f s lides graphically pi cture d h e re.

PAGE 387

C lose -jew of Cucaracha s li
PAGE 388

Dredge No. 85 workinJ{ a l I h e ,.oUlh fOC o f Cucar3cha s l ide. Look ing north at a pOint abou l O P l>os i l e t h e middle o f Cucaracha s li d e s how'nJ: dred g e No. 86 a t w ork on the n Orlh IOC o f Ihe s l i d e. [ 3 70 1

PAGE 389

Looking north throuKh Cuc-oIr:1eha slide. View of the C u t about 880 yards south o f C u c:anae h a slide. No. 85 and 86 may be seen in th e distance w orking on the south and n o r t h sidu o f the slide, the Ia"t barrier to a I,assage through the entIre Can:>.l l a7t J

PAGE 390

TIlE )JO'\DlE!\TAL TAS K CO:lIPLETED I E hundred million c i t i%clIS of the United States of America are jus tifi(.>(1 i n t h ei r display o/' pride O\'CI t h e co n summation of the greates t e ngin ee r ing ta s k evct' assigne d t o man-th e co n s t ruct i on the f'anam:t Canal. Xol alone have th e peopl e o f our country manifold rCllSOIlS for rejo icing at the achie\'e m ent s o conspic u o u s l y won but the inhahilanl,'i of th e \\"OI'ld likcwi:-:c have n li\ 'ing interest in the acco mpli shm e nt of an undertaki ng which has united inlo a commel 'c iaJ th e A Ilallt i c :lnd P acifi c ;\lankind's
PAGE 391

which is hi s just due. His sl1]e lldid capability. alw:l.n, in ('\"id(,I1(,(" as time proccet l s will .. ow brig hter. W l i lc th e cordial cOllllllcm lali oll of his countrymen will be hi s r ich l'e"';1I"(1 dUl'illg lif(, i t see m s beyond the rcalm or douh t thaI a natio n which displa,n:d thc marvelous rcsoul"('CS and mllllifeskd the almost illim ihthle power wilie h for ,-enr s ,,"ct'e in (.'\'idcllcc ill the con struction of the Panama Can:tl will he S IHWlsig hted either in cntt'qwisc or laeking in iniliati,"c 01' in\"(.'nli(lll in IItilizil1,!! the r.ulh way be t ween the O('caIlS, whic h now ha s heen provided. rhus we he permi tted at the dosing s tage {If OUI' "olulllc to ha zard the prediction that \nll'rican e nterprise and \mcriC:ln amhiti.m wil l fulfill en'I 'y and meet ewr y expectation in utilizing tllC oppm-tunit," which the futurc ma," present in availing ours elves of lIw advantages at hand, In order to be abl(' 10 grasp the possi hilitie s of th(' trade which in the Ileal' future will I}(' carried throug h th e Panama Canal, thcrt' should I}(' no suiJjeei 11101'(' cllte..taining' no r olle more pI'ofitable that C,Ill engal-("c the attention of t h e business associations of the cOllntr," than to ohtain a knowledge of thc topic that i s actiwly s tirring the e nergies of other nalions, "\I olluments of ruins of o ld S\'stCIl1S and ancient methods ma,' he ohscrnxl on en.'I'\" hand on thc hthnllls, hut when the magie wand o(,\ mel'ican wa s 'w:I,'cd o"er the sce n e thc a rtisans of QUI' country wcre (,(jl l a l to t"'er," call; obstacl('s di s a ppt,:tl'l'd and i elor." came into v iew 10 pcrmancntly r eside as a sentinel prodaiming t h ei r glor., '. Our people will surely 1I0t be s low to se i z e t h e fruits of the vidory now s o completely WOII, I n wit h the gwt!I> 'ing ill,sl'parahl," associated with th e (' oll strudlOlI of the Pallama (:1l1al 11 I S espl' (' l ally f1l1mg' to nute the complete absence of s uspi<'ioll and fr<>edolll fnll11 both scamla l ami graft from which those pl'Osecutillg the. wOl'k fl'OllI tl .. beginnin g to tile cO.lllple tiOT.I of the 11 bsorhlllg t a:-;k werc rehe,cd. 11I add I Iron tlJ('re has hcen hu t hit Ie to d Ise
PAGE 392

GillE T n th e l)I'cparation of the matter for thi s \'olume the A u th or.mel Publi s her h.we sparc< n e i the r drort oor expense in supplvi u g the reader an auth entic a ccurate unci attractin"! acc:oullt ill words and picture s of the Twentieth Ct.'lltur/s ma s tetviecc of things dOlle Wit h t h e feeling t hal this aim and purpose have heen realized ; md t h;lI. eve t T expectatio n has l ikew i se heen fulfil l e d. the pages making up th i ... hook ,HC now s ubmitted for a di s c r imi n ating \"Ndid a s wor th y of th e attracti\'{' subjcd of which it t r eats. "iew it a s we ma y. the ulliti n g (If th e water s of th e Atlanti c an d Pacific m::rk an epodl in the \\"ndd of pl'Ogress. P e rhaps timc will again demon s t rate thai once ngai n Anwl"ic:l i s hu t Ollt a des t iny heyond the re. diz;llioTl of th ose w h o lta\ I huildec\ be\ler Ihan the\' knew a work w hi(h for "cars to com e p os teril., will poillt with pride. and (inally one th ai s t aw] s in I h e fulle s t :I." explaincd ill th e Canal motto: "TIlE LAXI) \\"OltL)) I ':\I TI::D. { :17-1 1

PAGE 393

' "' ->. c: e .,. en .... -, .' -...; --:> .., C> -.. 00 n J> '" z 0 '" J> r ".. r' -'d -C> t" z 0 '" C> '" ..; '" M -U> '" U> -0 z .<. -

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I ,e i ... '. I

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PIW1\OU:\Cl:\G G A ZETTEER O F THE GEOGRAPmC AL :\. I \ IE:; \IOS T FREQlj E:\TLY HEARD 1:\ TilE CA:\AL ZO:\I; A:\D PA:\A\IA, T O GWrHEH. WITH TllElll.II'PLlC AT lO:\, ;\:\D AL S O ETD10 L OGY. H E ll E K:\OW:\ Alua Clar a ( :;'\::w ;, kl:i'rii). 1I1('nn;n,l: <'Ie-nr willer. 1\n'" .. apphe,1 to ..... "er"l .. on tile Oil n<'"O,,,,1 Qf the or their :""""" or vibuta"y of (::lIlIn Ui"'r, n",1 OJf the Zone watc01 hi and l1 of Ihe pot"bili,y of 11i(' "",\;'r. Na u lt' of <'T('('k that Toro Point wi t h ",:oI(,T \Iso nallle Qf thr;'-i"" pott 011 ,'O:OH t in t:0I'1[. pro,lllee. Agua F rill. (,;,,l:w;, frl''''''), I)\p""iu,!: run, "ing w:lter. !Sen'ral $ t reatl1$ loN'. t his "'''''e. Agua Salud Cli-!:w;; 1(1 :l ltuml,eT o f .mnll wh(l,,)' Ih llIi t ... frll't l'uml.:lIlY in ,leI Toro pro'in' ... i l $ pI'rllla",,"t .\:I!ne of in Ih e 1000nlity, from litle ginll 1.:0IUlII who it. Alto Obispo (;011 0 ohee 'I"'), "'e,, lIi,,!! "up pH bisho p." c"ne,1 by the "110."1 "'''''e lIf ,,,,'i"e ,.,11"1:" lIe"r B". 011 Ihe 0101 lin(> of 110", p, If. ll. ,\ban ,1011",,1 on :I'Ottll t of Gatun Lake, Ancon (i",k(,,,(>') "",nning "op{"n b ar, or """ ... to '\',,"0" f l ill, (I,', 'T' lookin)( P3nnr",. "uti /'''"3111'' n".,', lI)"O ('lIlle10 of Ihe ;\1ll{'Tie,,,, sCltlem","t lit th{' fOOl (If Ihe hill. Arraljan (lIn;i ,,{' h,;H'), t o h(> front "arr"ic".\o.' pln.e to ,10,,"'" 1\',"lIe of Panama"i,,,, "ill,l;!e ju"1 out-;,I' Iho ZOll" hou,,,13ry Ii, ,, W(>"I of t:mpirc. :\'ot{"d for its or:lt'ge grove. B arbacoas 10 hnwnt 011 01<1 Ii,,{' of the P. R. R., W mi]r frolll 1'''''''lIla. 8.1", of Ih", \"i\",.\ :::;1;01"'8 :\Iarin., .... ,,"']) ('alllp Elliott) for To"",, will be "bn,,,lolled. Bayano (I,;;.,.:;',,;;). O rij1in (If n:lm(> lIn,I(> lermilled. ;\'nrne of 0"", of Ihe Inrg'" of Ihe (>IIIpl.,ill)<:, inlo l':lll"ma n"y. Ilio ("hepo, f,"" ... J for "1I;1I,,lor hn""I., ,\1-0 of Ir;h" uf t ll:tt dwell "long Ih ... "1'1'''' tonr.e of th{' $tTeQm, Bocas del Tor o ']1'1 t;,'ri,), ","o"Ih of Ih ... ],,,11." "'IIIII' of 'LIIoJ pro,. illo", ,lc'-rlol,e,1 by th(> b,,",,"a whid, is wholly iH th" b'It,,,. of Ihe l'lIi"',1 Frllit Co m p"u.'". Allllllni ship""'III. frOIll 1000"lily now ""'I)""t 10 :I. Bohio Soldado (boo('f", s',lcoliid'ij), ho""'." X"".", of :I on",' d]luge ill I h n ('lLII:!.l ZOIlC. 15 from Colon. :-;1<' III)W "O"Nt'1,,1 I h(';r Ihere. Buenavista "j1ooJ ";p,,-," '1"1", "a"". of '(>\'I'r,,1 0" till' 1.lhltlllq. For",{'rly,,, h"llIlet on the I'. n. fl ill Ih.' (::llun L>e'" line of Ihe 1'. If. 1/" mil('s from Colo". Caldera (kf,]"lf'y'r;i) "('nl.lTon." :\"LIt,e of" .i'e r n"" hot ill tit" l,ro,-iuH of ('hirilllli. Calobre (k:il;;'hray). From the wo,,1 "Cal o r," ht"t. XlII"'" of "jlb:,:e ill \'I'rngtt:,. u",:tr ",hid, ar{, th",o hot Camacho (kiimiifhij). of WQT.I IIlId(>, '{'Tlttilled, .\nllw of in \h{" (""IIAI Zorll'. Also applied to Zone Empire. Cana (ka'",i), or S anta Cruz de C:lua (lIiiu't" k r 008 ,I:ty kii'nn). ;..'ame or ill tho !)"ri{'1l region, h",: .. of lh(l Dnriell Gold :\Iining ( 'l)mI'DIlY. 1.1,1. Ca a.caja l mrnlling filII of :::rnHl Or Hiver, emplying into the bAy ot' Hill. highe"t ]'o;nt in Ih.., <;',H tul Zour, ow, 1,000 f"e t situ Atc,1 f"w f r om the (lId sile! (If Gorgonl' [ :Ii!) 1

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Chagrell (rhng're"5). O.ill'" of wor,j "n.I(>I('t m;",,I. j'r",,.ip,,1 o f Qulnti L,,\(e. St-e in of the hook un.ll'r "Oatllll L"k{'.' Chame mcall,n,!! "Inl'e o f haTtH or 1.",1." 1'0"" On the we_I ill p"",.mn ])ro'-, 1110"', Abu nnltl6 o f a 1''''';''8111" in the Mil'" a th" ",,,I (If wh'I'I,. ""Ul',l I'Ullin ('lin Ill(', 0),1";11('01 "II of I h.-"fWo! II""" in lhe c<.>,,"I'UdlOlI 01' Ihe I 'aciilc 1.Q ... of tli,> Can,.!. C hitre (,.h{'('lr:,y'). )(0"' 'al';'U" ,l!towinj.( \own on tb.' ""'1 "0''''1. '" 1.0. PU)\''''''!', t"'"I.,. of til .. Cr,,,\ ;ntH fur the 1'1111'''":1 markel. Cho rrera "'('IIII;n,!! ",!ll"trnll. :-Oa ,ill"I:" ill 1':1"''''''' 1"0"'""(' n little of tb,-7.on{' hou,,,lan', fOllr III'IP. from Ihe :Ire 'Iuil" 1""'lIr(''''I''''' Chi riqui (,-hee 'l'"('-II'IIef'o ",,,I ri,'" A rf' I:ro\\u. Also wllne of "" """"n .. \ '-01 """0 in Ihe ""'''f' I'r",.;",", 111(' h'I:I",., 1",,,1< in 11,, ,-"""'",', 11.,',041 f .. t. "Atrl<, ... r tl", U U l i"nn l in \'n",,,n,, ("it)". Code (k;; k1'-,,'). 1"<1i,,n wor,l. of P"n ."lIIl1' ... of I I Iri1>,' of In Ih:ll i"l",hil the ",oonlai". of pro, i'''... Jo.I,.,-,.rnl ri\"(''''', one of 1.>,."r this """'I'. Co<:oll (k,;k"ll'e'). Inke in Ih e ( 'p",,1 Z"'''', ""{',I a" 0"1' of Ihe r(',('no'I">I for I h{' !'nnn,,,a \\':\'('r no ... I,arl of I."k". AI.o II", n3m(' of 11", thnt fed Ih" Coiba, o r Qttl b do (k;; ".,'hii, or kel'b-,hi) I,:lr)l ..... ;.1:111,1 i" l'n''''III''l>i"" w:lI,r., "rr tl.{' f'0"'1 of Ih I'r'wj".{' of \'H"I:''''., '1'1.1' 1""''''''Q 1'1",," 1 0 tho nn I ionnl on this Colon (k;,-j, -,"(,,, pronoun"",1 1ik" Ihe wor,1 ('il.'" nl Ihe AUanl,, I'"'r",,,-e of Ih" ('''''11.1. ill i Ih .. Rn,1 '-'nl ,i I A I of (,olon I'ro,i,,,... For", .. r!., "1111",1 '\0l'iowoll, hUI Ih" ('olo",hi:l" Go,.. rn", ... nl t o rl'rog' "i7(' I h e nn",", n",j il wall .-j,"nJl;.',1 1 o ('olon, Ih .. f'1'a,,,.h for ('olumbus. Coronl (k,;r,;-",;!'), $:;a;,1 10 h(' nnm.' of :I plant growth, Ameriratt ""1I1('n'I',,1 ,,,iIf" (roltt ['annma, one of 11,1' fi."t 10 hI' In IIIo,-i"A" Gorl-'ona, nlO_t of Ihe \mer if"" I"i,e ... t' rp Irn,,,,fHrr.! to lIti. Cristobal l'l.plHtish fo r the fir.t ",,,,,e of Co ln",b,, Arn"ri(",Hl ."ttl('mrnt 0 l'po, (""Ion. "f'rI"n,1 I."il in t h e '-"Hly .. "V,. :'00"' !lhan. don(',1 on of the ri' "''''111, II miles fro. I'I"'P"" lhe "")lill e('r' lilt h"",J'I"arler. o f Ih l' r. <'. ('. n",t r e .i,Je,,, o o f Colourl \\'ill ultimnl .. l), Ill' .. I)an do,,,'d Also tho n(\llle of the rot'k rut ITED th rough I he I sthUlia" corolilleT3, nIne m;lo!B long. David ( d:i"el',\'), ('orr{, 81IO, uli,,1o; 1 0 t l ,o pr0l' ,' r n"",,' \)",-i,1. Capi lli I o f I h e pro,-iuec or C hi riqui Also Ih "nmo of a rive r nenr tho I y. Darion (dli r ee,i\"I"). N.ame o f Inrgo An,l only porlinl1y ('lI"l'lorf"\ lerrilory in caglerll I'"n. "m". h{'l,,-il), woo<\.'<\ nnd r id, in N31110 of" t.iht of l l" t i"h"bit the IIIoun'";,,,' of Ihi H rell,on, hl'lIer kno",,, a8 Ihe Churullaqu,' :'O.al1'" of Ollt' of Ihn .. a rl y I)TOIIO.",1 "hip <'nm'!11 Ihe -""",e of Iho h'l1h-\lOw"r ., .. Iio stal io" 101''''1'<1 """r ('ni ,,, i l o in the I.:all a l Zone, El Di ablO FI .\el':;"hli, mea"inl: "'I'h., J)", il.' :'0"1111' o f h ill OUl.:
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Juan Mina (hooiin ",enniog Jolm ].I'''e, S""Ill ul'nr th(' mouth of t he Chilibr o Il:in;'r O n the Las Cascadas (JnR menning "The Amcri('an >leltll'l""nt on the oltl Iiue of 1', n, 1(" 15 mile8 f'(lm 1""'11"''', II,,' of {'eunal Ili "ision for S(,,'(,'1I1 ,l'elLrs, Will lou aba,,,loned, Los Santos ",eAninl:" "The !'laints." 1'111111' of prO"in"e ill I'II",,,,,a, a",] ,,1"0 of ,'nl'ilal, I.n ViII" ,Ie 1.0. "TIlt' Villn"l' of Ihe ']'(1"" wns form('tl." i"'llort,,,,I, ['"t hll. b,,,-'II ,Ii,' a,,,, ,,d by ('hi, ... port. pro,'in,'(' w". ,h,' "I'll tn of Ihe ('ulhqunk(' i n Ortob('r, l!113. Majagnal (m:; h ; /::"'III'j, }'rom 81'II11i.h rna jagua (If !lIp lindt'n "nr;<'Iy. 'H' ti"e tow" in Ihe Cnllnl ZOIl(', nno FolkH !lin'r frO'1l Marne; :-Ianw of a nIl0,(' fruit: al_o o f a fQrme in I he Cnnal Zonl' 0" t he old li"e of 1', Ii. II., jn Ihl' (;atnn L"kl' n.ea. M audillgo (nonn,]i,,',!:ii) A of the ('nll,,1 ZOlle, w hirh "i!lag(' o f Obispo all,l ... ntl'rs i"IO Oalun L"ke. Maudinga ( nwl! ,l;n'):!,,). A tin l""" Ill"!, or the ManzanillQ (ru; ,n-M:i Sotalll',1 fro'" Ihe IIumlo('f or m anchineel, or ].oison fo. n,erl), fou",1 ill the "i,iuily. I .. exu,Jp n fallin!: Q" 11 p ... rson, irriI n ling sore.. :-lame of OD ",hid, the of {'olon Ku, n,ls, "OW wilh t he mai" la,,,1 h" a liroa,1 fill, so thll t it is :I" isla",] "0 mOre. nnrne ot u bny tl{'.1' ('olon. Matachin Probably rrom the Sp;,,,;sh wor,) matar, t(l ex"tuh'. 1'01'"larly SUI)' p(I"ed 10 he a \\'or,) fro", m a tar, kill. n,,11 chino, ('hi",,,,,a,,, tlo "",'on"t of the nUI'jl''',] .i, ... IIumher of 8ni,1 to hn\e 0""11"(''] mnong the ,'h'l>a"'l'n lit Ihi. poinl, "t It t'''''' \\,1,('1l ('hine"1' employed in Ih(' of Ihe P'\1Wnm .ailroa,l. This wo .. h,u than o\h ... lotnl I.'rm. IQ the aho"'.1 the ,,"or,1 ... f l'r. tQ "Iou teher." !\'''''') Qf n fomll'f 1 0"'11 on Ihl) 011\ line of H ie 1', II, 11., rail(',) "'ty" of the .\[a larhiu. hut \ "'I".i,nn8 1 0 .\!ata('h'n. IIban,)on('([ ",ilh Ihe of OMun [.nke Mindl (nd,,'']e\,), Origin of wo r,] uoknowII. Nalile of ri"l'r Colon, ""') a].o o f a low "'''lIe of Ihrough by the Atla"li,' !ranee l o the !':lnal. Mitaftores (mc ... ri i -fli)'rl"s), "'1'.1"'''1' L ook t h e f1QWCnI-" :\',on,e !ti"en t o Inke, "",) :I QII 1'. n, I I., ahont!j from Plluama. T he tQwn it ,lf heen mo,'",] on arl'ot",l or tlw At t his l'oi"l i. t h(' upw P"nama waterworks. T he 01'''' I nolle] on Ihe lioe of tho f1t ilr01 t .i ",,,)er a hill here. Monte Lirio (mon t iiy leeTeeo ), [" Enj!lish. lI[o""t Lily. !'l1 .1lioll on Ihc nl'W line o f 1101' 1'. R R., 14 miles from Co lon, There i. t lift br;dge o"e. Ih e Gatun 1I"er at this point, NaG S 'FrQm the word nave, of the group of ;.t",,,I. in PJ,n[""'t Qwned ,.n d (orl ilil'd by t he l'nit(' 1 Stntes. with the '"ni"ln,,'] hI' a breakwnter "",I ""u.ew;t)'. Nargana (nlLrgil'ni i), [ndinn on !hl' 1:',", Bl:'K ,'on.' of Pa"lI[((n, of Chief I '[,nrley hra,) of a [,ra",'1) of I he toi,u, llbs Iriloe. Nata ( n,. Iii'), One or llip town. on the Isrhmus, situ"I",1 in Crxl;; PrOl'i",I'. Ihe ol,I,'st ,hu.d, th"t i. iu N ombre d e D ios (n"ml"hr"y ,Ia.\ Je,,',,"c), ",,',,"ing of O o.!," Q'Hl of Ihe early 10Wo:S of I hl' blhmus, do: Ihe Dorllo "hout :\.; C,,"t of (.'"Ion. Fro", l'"int obtaine" Ihe j:'l'nter part of Ihe for Iruiloliug Gatun Palo SIleo ( [),i-I.:; "Dry .Ii .. k." A point OU Iho;> "0"'1,,, fro'" B"lboa, t he I ,'pcr selli,'m('nt 10fated. Panama (Im-"ii ""j'), to Im,lilion in th.' "". 1." In di,'" 10"!!U", all ol,urr ,),,,,,'C of (''']I;t,<1 "nd "ily of the reo I",l/Iir, situall',1 0" Pnunrna H:. y, I'" the SOUlh ,,,Ie o f Ihe I.Ihmus. Paraiso ( pii tii ri" ), me"ui "l! ")"",,,1 i"e, ,\",eri"I'" ;11 the C'.1",, 1 ,,1" )lIt eij:'ht from I'a""",n, elosdy I he "f lh" C"",<1. ,LT<',lg;"!,:" h"",). 'I"arle.s will he hen'. Pearl hlaud $ ,II' A of "bout II'; aIHI 9iluall',1 ill ["",. n",a "hont :;0 ",ii,'" from Ihe I'0.t of ['a" ama. L a.::('sl i9 Ife.', mill'S wi.11' 'LIl,] J,j j",,!,:". nOh'd for [lenrl }>euQnomt\ I"ohnhl," fro'" Ihe ::;I"",i,h wo.d pelloso. ,o,'alled On ''''''Onn t of I he of Ihe fonnl'rl.' helll Ihl'r" h." thl' mO"""li" who, on Ih" pri,,,,il',,1 of Ih" would tl:ljl'I'Il"tl' Ihem.,'III'S ",,Iii Ihe blood .trea"1<.,1 down. has rl'ccnlly betn l'.ohibil .'d hy the of I',,,,nma, [t i" :on intHe,,' in:: lown, the ,'al'il,,1 of nn,] the home of of I'nnama '8 1I\0>t I,.omi((c ,, mcn. Pe{)uenl Onc o f I he pri''''ipnl of I he ](h'e', flowing Ihrough n .id, "11,,..1,,1 ,o"nlrr, P e ri co (p',y.ee'kij), me1I11i"J; 1''''0'1''<;1. O"e of Ih,' ::ro"]) of f"nr >,Iut in Pnn al"" lb.,', Ihe 81""'8 pu.d,ased "Uti forliliet!. Porto B e llo, or Pilerto B ellQ (por -iQ or ]lWI'.to b"I'yQ), "",,,,,iug "Ilcaul ifu] ]lort." ""me hestowed Qn Ihe b,l' Col"",1)n$ on of ilg mn!:",fi",'nt h""c". [ t iH One of Ihe towns Qn the .1t olle liml' the At I",,'ie of Ihe lrade rQut e, !'lmall town anll r"ins slill A ... ba\' (he ",eut 0(( a("'OOnl of the neighborin,.: ro,'k fro", the rock was ohlai"" d for I be in Lol'k., wl'll for Ihl' armQr of Iho break"'"ter i" Colon linT' hor. P u nta Mala (poon'llI m;i'I,, ) menn,ng, lit b"d I>oiul The name of It capQ On Ih" south Qf Pam,,,,a, nmrkl1l1l' 111(' limit of Ihe Ba y o f P""a",,,. Small ship. gi"e i t a wi'le berth. R i o de Jesos (Tee':;
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.. d low" i u thl' of ..t'''''p nal i,." :ore 'nnde. R io Grande ( .... . ,\1'0 Ihe tla"'" of !I ,,,",,n'oi. :H,d litho. ; n th" ZOll(>. S a banaa. (IT Las Sabanas Ct. la. Oli .\ [':lrl of Ih(> l.."all,,1 lonl' ,'",1 !)f I'"nnm,. ('ily. .. .1 from IItC rQUi".!: (ltnu.-!{'T of II", 1"0",,,1, r, -mloli,,1' rolli".!: I,.n ... ,. b.' Ib,' w""lthil'r of /',,,,,,n,n. ",It" 1>,,,,1' Ihrir summ .. r h ... r ... Sambu ;\':1"''' of n \":111,'" in !(11).:"1111_, f'Ollllf"'tCti willi port of Agulhl"ke a moder n road. ITED Tabernilla ( I ii \ '(' m eaning "Liltlo lin-ern." F o rm c r 1 0,,"" on the ol d li n e of the 1' R. n. which w i l h the Til'(' o f (: llIn L ke. Ncn r here wns one of Ihe "u"'pinli:' for rnnal T abog'" ( l i i .hu'l(ii). b .. lougin g 10 P ou nma, m ilc8 ou t i n P : "'''''Hi B : IY. 'Iu"int "ol ivl! ,';I1,,).!c o]t! t h u r t h i C. C. I nTium, 0 ,, 1 "n I mlhin).! be"d.. Nolcd fo r iI. fruit c, ,\(";nll., l'iuruppl('8. Tabogullla (lii [,ijj.!h ... "yii), mc"u i uI: l .;ule T obo!:"." Iyinl:' nl'lIr Taboga, 11("01'1<',1. Tiburo n (Ic(>-boo-roll .. '). I n EUll'lish, A A t the I'lIlrn"et' of Ihe Gulf of l)arirn or l'rnl,:!, on 11.1' of Pa""III3. T o oosl (,[, n;,,'>I"). 1)0.1 On I hc eoa'" o r I.os I'rol'iur(>. thc e,,"tc. of l ite c"rth'tu,.k ... in ]913. Trin i d a d 1'1'c f""ti(>r of Cout"" L nkl'. T uyra ( lool'l".ii). Thc .i,", ill r ('"uhlip, dTlliuin!: Iht' ",o""tain wnter"h .. o t P a r i .. II, 1111,1 cml'lyin g into t h e G u l f o r Ura b a (u rii-hii'). :'\'nlllc :;t;"cn t o lhl' !:" I f ""I'arntiu).! ('nlomhia f.orn I'ana ... 011 the north of tI, .. inlo the '\lr"lo Ri"I'T V erag uas ;\u<'icnt '-.. ragno, II Iranspl"nl .. '! nome. embracillR I'''rl of Ihl' lerrilory of t he I s t hmn ... il 110'''' reff'tll 10 th" pro\"in.'I', in "todueli,c is I!('('oncl olily to C h i r iqui ( I

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C O:\TE:\T S F ORE\yOHD .. -, . .. CIlAPTER!. ":a,k D;,;('()'Ne .... TI,e I'i"" :-;'tt "II .. 'nl 1 .... n of II<' :'<>u", I "rurl """It of ()Id I ,,,,,,,,,,, l 'u'wr I of th" (;"',,) '1'1'1"1,-"1'1,,, :,:,,:,,1..1, 11,,10101,-CI!APTER TI. RIIDS O F TilE IlI"CCI:\EEH S CIlAPTElt LII. PHO PO SEi) (".1:\. 11. H OLTES 28 CllIPTE H II". TILE PA:\.UI.I I LUI.HO .li) ',., -Fi .... l Work 0 .. 1.,e 1'""",,,,, l{nil ....... ,1 ( \""1', .>\;(>11 .,r III\' EII,,q .;,, Early 11:<10'" 1 '",I,;l,il''''--E"luhli,h"",,, "[!'Ol"a,,, ..... ,i()"Jtr) 111).:111._ "",\ I ,;,il"'., ...... ( 'han;.. ..... in Ow"" .... 1oil' The :\Cl\' )iuiu l.ine ill the \r",itI. CHAI'TE H 1". TilE FIlE:\CII F .III.l"HE .. !'""nukr I',,)('u';":': the ( ',mN:'",j"u [' la" Ih.-Fr.:lld, Fon_l", F"li, Hi,,:.:I,-, I',p I'oorl)' C fur-'I'll. t 'rash T h ur :\.'" .I-Freu .... \ ;,l l u I' ,,,jed. CILIPTER IT TilE UIEHIC \:\ TIlIDII'Il. . . ofl h(' (',,,,,,1 I' .... ("ull/ ... ;" t 'I,;ef ... :\c" ('orn ",;",;on ("or",,,;.,;u,, I'unh: .. ,;".: E",1. CII.IPTEIt 1"11. 8 0 ellA ('TEll 1 111. ,1:\ A I D IY O F II O HK EIlS n,) ( ;('tI'''l1lhe Fom;-To-.... l:lhe, Keel';"::: 110 .. \",rr;l"llU E'''l''o.n'. ('01,,,,,,1,,1 1'1,,,,1 :\1,,,,1101)' ('",.1 or \ )1"". all........F ... untl ('I,;lloi,,::: 111<' (,,,,,,,1.\,,,,.,' The I u"ul [ '".1,,1 :'.''';l .... 1' .... 1 1 n,,"k. n I'opubr '".\ ;I" I ;on 1 .... 11e ('10.'\0111> ... i'.u"" .. I),y .. K .... pilll! O nlt-, (;"",ywlfuite--Slidt!>. EI,,,tuc"l \ 'W" "c,,1 ..\11"'n,( St-a LC"d I 'roj<'-{;''''''rr" "cul C,., I ",,,I F ,wl Oil 1I",i" .... I 'ri ,'''''' ( .. ""d I '-"d O il ... II ... "tle<1 \\'''rehOl'
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CONTE1YTS -(Colllinwxl) C II.\PTE R X U . . ....... TI'e 1'"",,,,,,. Fi:oll'-.... allon,d II.,'''''' vr Ihe BCI'" hlic of I'a"an .. BCCOIlsII1K1Ion l c ,io d-"'I'loe L""d of 11", ('00'O.1I1UI '1'/'\.", "-G ,,\,c.mllenl Is I rog"-">I,e--Uc,c"ucs -.... "I 1 0",,1 <-u .renlT I '"itli c I "'1"'Il\'C" 'ctlls-F ree l 'IIhli<: S..t,wl S."O'I<:",I ,,, ,,,,,,, E,ulowco,l hr :-';"ture-T h c of l'au"u -'l'11t! G ""y",ie--The (l'o<'OeS-.\, ... ienl iUlI "r h;"I:' I' ",,, llah-C"" ,, l 7,,,,,,, r !-il Ol" TI ... 1 ',,,,,,,,,, 10 1 101<1 .... "liollnl E "pc",i l iOll. C II.\I'TE l t X III. F I C lXTEltXATlOX A I. EXP O -SlTIOX .... .... .. ... ... ... .. . ....... ..... C II.\ PTE R XI Y. 1' \ X ,UI.\ C \ LI 1'0 R X 1.\ EX P OS I T I OX. . .. C II AI'TE l t X\. TilE L A X D DJ\'lDED-THE \\'O RI.I) ljXI T E D 3Q8 l )c,t'"<"t;oll of t 1", l)ike; I.cttj,,1l' Wal e r ] 111<> \ulchm ;5 ;,,1 UII I .. h, I he 1';1'<1 i hi,,,,] 0l'en,t;oll-The Fi .... l Pmd. i<:,,1 .... I al 1',witk E",I F",IU theSe" 10 ("ulcbr ... ('''1-E "rll''1""k", ;\In a l'ass,o,!,,(, I 'htou!;), ( '''"m,d,,, G",ri,oll' s 'i,i t T h e OUid a l Opening F i,,! '11,",11;:1, the (""" "I. CII.\ I'TE It X \"1. T I U': OX 1 E X T \ 1. T \ S K I TE I) .. !17Q I I.I.l'ST IUTIOXS I X F O U t COL O l l S C olonel Ccol 'gc W nsitingl on Goclha l s ." .. .. ... F arillg Tille Page F .\("IX G The FamOlls Flat Arch ill th e nuin s of D o m i ngo C h ul'ch. l'a n all1 a Cit" ... .. ............... .. .. ,." .. .. ..... One 01' the Driveway.':! ill Aneon l l o s pital Ground s .... ..... .. ...... 80 Culc !m.l C Ilt. Looki ng \'01'111 F r om Gold lind Contraclo! s Hill s ......... l Q8 One o f th e Cre a l ] Q c k s of l h e C:ll1a i U11(1e1' C o n s ll'u clion ............... 1 76 A T ypica l S ll' cc t in th e \" a l i \'c Y illa gc at CholTc rtl, l'nntlma.......... A G r oup or C Ull a CUlIa I ndian s P a n a ma......... .. ... ...... ... .. 288 Tug C n l ull, Firs t Boat P a ss i n g Throug h Galun l.ocks Se pt. 26. I n I S 3 J:! of the Canal au d t h e C a n a l Z o n e a l lei I n t e r e s t i n g Fa ct s and Figur e s ... 37 4 [ 31':0 1

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ILLlS I'H .\TlO:\S 1:\ BLAC K \:\D \\"1[[TE f'oroo.nm Palm... .. .. .. on Panama Hal' II \I 0,. OF Til E Bt Tf',l "IT n" "If II,",," /';<'<"0,,0 0' and "\>&II h {"''''>on. 1'01'10 or Wall and "a.eh T""w. IHI" \"itlal(t' of inLN>I>f (It' Tm,,r. Old ",.oam.' or W.IL 01,1 I 'a"a", U,,,,,. <:>t TOln- Old j'."anu .. Old Fon. Old I'."am.. lIt/dt(' ,1,',.",,,,,,, .. to, Jllno:k I "" ... cannuntwL. ., Fon San r.o"'IUU pnOI'(hl:O ('IX \I. S"'LlI,O(UIlt Hnd.tt, 11\11.110,1) t:lllb .. "k' ..... nl Fdl I 1"IIMn.. ("ny T i n : FIU:S(,l1 }',[LnU: ,'o .. "n r ""!i,u",,1 Old Po" 01 1"000n, II'S! I'll .... '" I"Thl01l.1 I).,' ''10, {':Io 1' .... 1><"11 I"',', ."' ." ", ..... ,. Colon ........ 11 l'a,.. ........... h hnl_ .... t Shop-",.. ) ",,.., II h.>.rf .'11"1><11 Il".lro ... .... flt "".011' II. U \\luIrf llalhco on II ........ ""h 1).0..-... Ila,' In .h,II",," l)a, TIHo I'wk lind (I..,.d. 1.6 "r Eml""" I,, 11,.. ( "'IAI 1\ .. d",. TIl<' (.nal 1I," ..... n E,np"".I.\ (\,Ieh,.. 1\'1. l.ouk"u: ,..."nh .'mm (\lItlif:!. ,'Q', nn In 'hr 1m' ..... 11''111'' ,b. I ,II,'" "r tli IUo (; .... ,,<1 In ,b ,,,..-.11 ''''''''11 ( .t,,, ... n I'lan of U.'.' "on .\ "'"rh ., .. ,1",, _, I I ,n,I,. F,,,, r .. .,..h ('"" .. I'a 'r-. ........ b 1..,llr. 1)".1 ..... 0t',...... i;"'1IO"a .... ,,--!> ... 1 ..... "lot I ...... h nllmp ('al'< Old ..... nd' 1......,"'0)1 ...... a.. OI,,,pO on FI,,' F....,.-I\ ('(IIn'lIn, Ila, ........ n ...... II Work .'",,,"11 l"'M I.abo", .... o (u. Oltt ..... nch Un-w .. Old ..... ".h Uuml' (u T I W A111:R1r.l:; TlUr'}rl'1I ('01 (; .... IV (1.o...h .. 1< 1'01 11',11,.,,, f' (:,,"''''. ('1 f ," .. .. .. f,; ., " I I ,,,. .. ,:, '.; .. 7::; .1 7_; 7.; AA " " " '0 " 9:1 111 ,. "10 11', ", '" .., 11M, 11M, I'.) 11M) lnl lU! 1 ,,! 1"'1 lIU 1111 l'n ,', I":' III.; lH'; 1111 111; I' IIYj lin 1 111 1111 '" '" II! II! 11.1 '" '" '" '"

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TLlX STlI.ITIOSS I V HUC K .ISD l'rl""" .. in Gonro ..... .. l'uu". '"""n,. 0'''''''''1: lIaU ,\lhh"lIe .... k. lialhnlJl: Ik-ao:h. "ana.,," lIa) ,.,....., ... 1\""ld.'""" s.,'C,lon U ('al"ll ... C\Ild.", From \I",,,n 7.10". "om-Fa"",)' II",,;., for Mn'' ....... \ 1 .. r"'I.lu), .... 1:"'I"rI' .. .... 1);"81 ('Oll,,,,l"'(Oll ('10,'1"'1. \"",,,, 1'!<'''001 rur Whll<' ('1"ld,,-n, Ern!,,,,, """,,,, &houl (1ao.<, .. 1"0>\ 'flTi",' at ,\nron .... ..... .. ry. (\11,>". .... A """ .. ,1 "r 1 .... ".' PoilCern':!l. \n<"(ln (','"ml' 1'-"'" "'.'ion at f'T"lnbal ('."aJ Zo",. \"wmobil.. ',,,, LII.o:"'" \ 1',',,, ... Pay Day h .... nil''''' ,'-,a,.,. ("OlIn \'11"011 l'n .... '" ('OIIft 1/0\,,..., I':mp, ... OIrleos of .... 1),,1>"""00; om",", .,"' I. ,.'n,,,'"' \<'<'(JIm". .: "'I" I'I! \ IlrlIk" ... Look,,,!\, '1'"" .. ,,1 Ihe ,\Ilan' .... 'r .. ,l ,. Toward Ihe """ilic LOCK TYI'I; ( '\" II., lIuck", h) ,"';, "n 117 '" '" '" II!) 120 120 I! I 1"., .. I'" 121 12" 126 1;\0 13l ,:1:1 1:1:1 \33 1;9 '" [ 382 J IV H I T E-CCont inued ) I)nll 1I0Ie! 10",\11 Ilyn.mi.e .. .. .... Id '" 1112 '" 1111 '" 'AA Hi7 '" '" 1119 ", '" '00 '00 '" '" lin '" ,., ,93 ," '" U $ '00 .. l'ara''''' l ll7 Wlllell \10\'''' l louna]"., o f nal ClI .. I of nil, ""(\'0 ,111(11,'1 UI'" Sleam ilhovci ... "' I;am!>oa \",n PROJ ECT;'; S, l l mrjne ("orl" an I T"mh ....... .. '" "" ", ,. ''''' 2 10 211 2 1 2 2 1 2

PAGE 403

lLL[;STHATIONS TN BLAC K ASD I allama C,I.' l'all.ma lltr. iii;;;" Ila rs. Plnamanlan. . .. . . .. ......, .,, .. [ 3SJ I "'0..1""11"_' of "'nlljan ,'", '''I 111'-'-' .,," :O:al;onal :"1"",1110 1 ] :o:n : l! :0:,\ 1"1 0:0: ,\ I. E X 1'0-'-11,., \\ .". Fonh m .. '-""1 F;"'t :\0.; '''' :\0, W, :\0. W, ,.,-'''' = '" '" 3-1:1 1.1 .113 :r II :111 :1I5 :\1;; ;lIij :11{; ;1I; .11 ; .l I S .119 '"

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TLL U STR. I T IONS l.V BD. l e K I .\TD IVITlTE-(C o nt inu e d ) .. !>a:e :Ir.o :l-W 361 362 3 6 2 '" :15 2 .,,' 3 6 1 35:1 '" 351 3 65 3S1 -. -'" 3M. aM '00 (l"cr :167 '" :''-06 '" '" a.-,'I '" :1(;-1 "" :1.;9 370 ;1",) ,m ;too .171 ..... "" 3 7 I

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'" erica's .at I d" ". .,' "-,

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GIfI of/he Poamll Clllfll/ MlISelDfl

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013 http://archive.org/details/triumphaOOaver

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WASHINGTON GOETHALS. Tin; 8 U II.DER OF TilE I'ANAMA CANAL, 'Vho mil'(h l b e ci:l ss{' o ,IS I h e mOSI absohlle deSI)OI on carll,. allhouJ.;'h a b e ne"olent one. and Ihe sIIU"reS boss" man e,'cr worked for H c i s thorough e nJ.;'ineer. a riglHcon s jUlll,!e. and a Siern e"ecutioner roli{'d inlO on{', H e realizes th, u man i s bUI h um:II,. alld for simi"" infractions of th" rules. i s ,,1 ways re"dy 1 0 ): i ,c the offender "nOlher chance. hul there will be nO s{'cond tim{', A man of Ilrodi1{iou s m emory. '1ui ck. 10 Io:r"s" d('jails be I h{'y Ir i v ial aff,,; r s of C"cry day l i fe. or
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AMERICA'S TRIUMPH AT PANORAMA AND STORY OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE WORLD' S CIA T WATERWAY FROM O CEAN TO OCEAN By R ALP H E E T T A V E R Y AI"THOII 01' A TRIP 1'0 TilE CANAL EDITH!> 11\' C. OF TilE C.\N.\! RF.CORD j'l'lIL ISIIKD H\' TilE REGAN PRINTING 1l0IJSE CHICAGO

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Cop y right 1913 b y 11. \1.1'11 E ,\HIt\' [ 4 I

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DE01C, \T)';1) TO TilE :\h: x (J}o' B JI.\ I X .\XI) lll<.\wX OF OUt COt'''T1!L :\1.\TCllLE'SS S tOLl ... \.:\0 T XSJ>IlH.:\(; COUUla; :\I.\OE TilE \ GI;S \ I h :.\L!n-I X TilE CO.:\!nHl"CTIOX OF THE 1'.\':\. \:11.\ C .\.:\,\L [ 5 )

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--,",r r, nto")' IIiM, ,"ol1l/u' po..r On> pASt .. nd .. 'w The """Jour "'0tI1 1u doth s/l." .. WMre '," ei,thty lUi the yeo,. around. And p>plf!' rarefy Wh"" Ih e plaintoin ;:ro." and th/' h O I Wind blow .... [ 6 [ nf the COOOlInll1 -G,lbPr l

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FOIlE IYOIl D I E e i g h th \yondc r of t he world. ;\ chi(' \'cm cnl o f man'1j g'rc :l lc:" l llndcl'laking. i s th e co n s truct i on or t he Panama Canal h\ t h e GOVCl'IWH n t of the l"n ilcd :IIHi. sinc e s l upclldou:o; wor k II .. ..; b('C'n OII'('olllpli"hcd in IllI I C h s horter time than noa...; possi ble. thcr e are n ecessarily man,'" I'ca sons for ( : o ngratlliations for Ihe s k ill a nd PCI'SCVC'!';\II('C di .... pla.w, d .... ide f rom the 1':1<:'1 thai i n com p l et ing thi s t'llkrp r i ... c 0111' gO\'cl'Illllc111 lIa ... a t t h e .... n m e l i m e succ e e d e d in changing the COl1ullcl'('iai hi g h wtlys of the worl d D o u h t l e ss f o r ce nt uries to come the world -wonders of the P a n a m a C anal will h e told in story allfi in p icllll'{,'. but th e e loquence o f th e l h('mc i l ... clf will l1('ver' be ex h a u s t e d whi le I'cvcr cnc(' for find,. nlcnt in the hear ts of m e n Recogn i z i n g a s milc h a s one mnn eould the tude and importancc of th e work beiug pCI'fOl'lllcd 011 th e Isthmus. t h e \ u tlror fOl :ll m\\s t Iwo \"eal'" d welt amo n g t h e ncti i ties o r h i,i gig. w l ie clltc q )ris c, and i n these pages authcntically prcse n ts to the n'adcl h i .. c h ron ic'les o f th e progress of t ill' tio n from beginuing t o compl e tion as wdl a ... Ih(' cesshrt i n stallation of th e wol'1d s majc!:ltic \\':1lel'wII," f r o m o ce an 1 0 o cean, C t o t heci a s it i in a heaut,\' or tY\ log r aphy and al'l illus t ratio n s in ke('ping wilh t hl' grail( ('t l r of the su l Jject h e feel s a ss u r er! of a cOl 'dial r('('(' plion o n t he pari of th e public of the resull of hii effort..;, TilE \I'TIIOH, [ 7 1

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v '. I .'. I SUNRI S E SUNSET AND MOONLIGHT SCENES ON I'ANAMA UA Y During February a n d Mu r c h t h e moon 5 particul:;arl y bright. d u e to the c l ear atmosphere which prevails in the hcill:hl o f Ihe dry season. On cerlain brilliant cvcninll:s it is pOssibl e 10 read i n Ihe moonlili:ht. The cloud effects arc perfect and the rainbows magnificent. One o f the prettiest effects, which happens but rarely. i s a rai nbow at night. [ 8 )

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histor y o f the Panama C: mnl begin s w i lh th e for n wc::.lcl'l1 wntcl'\\ a,\' to th e Indies and for f:nll c :Hld gold. IJY those hardy ac!, 'cnturcrs who foll owe d in the wake of Coi mnims. These me n fr e s h from th e :\Jo ori s h wars and c(\uippcd for a struggle wit h I tal y whic h did not come to pa ss. looked for new f ie tis to conquer. :'\olhing: su i ted the m bett e r than th e d i sco\cr." o f a :'\ cw \\" orld p eopled h," h eathens wailin g to be cOIwcrt c d h," th e sWOI'd t o th e C hri stian faith, afte r t h ei r go ld of which the\' se em e d t o have p l e nt y wa s stripped fmm them to fill t h e em!,I," cofl'e r s of :;pnin. This search bv th e f ollo wer s of Columbuf' was faidv success ful. so 1':0 ns fam e and gold we r e co nce rn ed a nd although no direct wa t e r route wa s found to th e I nd i es to the we s t it n a tuJ"all v k d t o the sdtlcmcnt o f the Isth m us o f Panam a the narrow strip of l and sellaratin g the two oceans and formin g the connectin g link oetwecn :'\Ol'th and South Ameri ca. The e s tahli s h ment of se ttl e m e nt s on both coasts and the s h o r t d i slanee u c l wcell them. l e d to th e building of c ruclc road s and t t'ai l s for the e arl \ mule trains. These Intils led t o the consimctioll of a railroa d n nd the railroad t o a ship ca n a l for trade foll ow s s e lil e r s and water i s th e natural highwa.\ h etween n atio ns. The stnry of the Isthmus i s, th c r efo r c, i n a meas ure, the evolut i o n of trall s p o rtati on ro utes. E .\HL Y DISCO\'EHEB S The (i1' s L European to sai l along the co a s t of Panama was R odrigo d e Bastidas. who s ail e d fl"Om Cadiz in October. 1 500 and fir s t tOllch e d th e co ntin ent. n eal' th e island of Trinidad. a nd fro m there wcnt wcs t a s far as Kombre de Dios. ilh him o n Ih at \ 'oyage w a s asco :'\uile z d e Balhoa. w h o, l al e r WflS t o di scover th e great South Sea. :mel J ua n dc 1a Cosa. who ha d s ail e d with Columbus o n hi s second voyage a n d was co n s id e red olle of th e most able marincrs of hi s rla \. Columbus s aile'" fr o m Cadi z o n hi s fourlh a nd la s t in search o f pass a ge way to the In di es i n :\lay, 150:.? Oil thi s \o.\agc h e skirted th e ShOI'CS of Honduras and Cos la R i ca. to Almir:tnl e Ba." alld Chiriqui Lagoon o n the coas t of j:Janama. At th e lall e r p lace he was told b y the Indians t hat, if h e [ 0 I

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ITED would con tinu e his cou r s e 10 th e cns l he would soon come to n n a now place i)ctw('clI the two ::it'IIS, and thi s It.'tl him to iJelieve that h i s .... c:Hell fur 11 s trait was t hai h e would so on pass into the J ndian Ocean "ful a ttempl of Columbus to found a I>et tlcmen l in C:ll>t illl1 del Oro (Golde n Castil!.! ) a s t h e I sthmul> wa s tc rmed, two colonizer s werc I>l'nt out b.\' Kin g Ferdilland, One of thcsc. Dicgo dc :\i clIcsn, u S pani s h noblcman, more fitled for the court than for a command i n t h e wilderness WllS given con t rol (If all thc land het ween Cape Grac ia s {, D io s \'ie.naglla. : m d the Gulf of Crah:'I or D a r ien, t ht, eastt'1"Il limi t of tlte present Republi c o f P :ll1ama. The ot her wa s de Ojl'd,l. who accompamed Columhu s 0 1 1 h i s second voyage. and i n addition had made two trips to the continent Ojeda was placed in charge of the land Cllst and south of th c G u lf of Umb{ called :\ue\"a Amlalucia, B o t h of t hese expediti o n s outfitted and s ai l e d frolll Sant o Domingo in I.j O D A ssociated with Ojeda wcre J uall de la Co:;n. a s l ieut c nant i n th e f uture rro\'crnmen t and a la\\"\"er named B achclleel' Enc i so, wlto fUl'Ilis hed mosl of t h e mOIH'\" t o equi p t h e expedi tion. I t wa s /lrranged that Enci s o s hould r e m ai n at Sant o D omingo to eollcci l'ccruits and s u ppl i e s procure another ship and joi n Ojeda later at the proposed eol on.\ ', Ojeda landed liCal' t h e presen t c i ty of Cartagena, Col o m h i a, founded in I.): H Here h e attnckcd alld o\c r c ame the Illdi alis wit h a p al'! of h i s fOI ee, [ 10 I

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but in follo win g up hi s v iclot',\' hi s m e n b ecame scatte red. and all th o s e w h o had land e d we r e kill e d w ith th e ex c e p t i o n of him scif and oll e olhe r A mon g Ll1l' kille d w a s th e vet e ran Juan d e l a C o s a Oje d a then enter c d ih c Gulf o f [ra bil a n d f ou nd e d t h e t own of San Sl'iJa s l i a n on the Ca:-.l enl ,-:;1101'1.: bill was soo n co m pelle d t o ['('tum t o Sa n to Dt)llIingo to o b tain tH( 'n a nd s u pplie s. lie left th e new c ololl)" in c h a r ge o f hi s lieu tenant. F ran c i s c o P i za1To, in hi sI OI'Y a s thcconqucmr and des po i l c r o f P cru. w i lh the ll11d cl'-;\:lnl1ile d for Curtag e na ,llel'c t hey fount! E nci s o w i l h rc i n f o r c c m e n t s a m i pl'!)\'i..,i o n.." \\' i l h Enci s o w a.i a 5 1 0\\";1\\"11." i n I h e p e r:soll of \"a sco ;\I U't(Z r i c B a lb o;\. EIl('i<;o ins i sted 011 Pi z;J['1'o and hi;; men returning wit h him to 011 th e il' a n'ind, t he \ fou n d t he se ttl e ment de ..;tn)\'ed I w Indians T he\' we r e w ithout foo d a n d th c s ugge s t ion of B a lhoa, ",i,o sail e d alung these s h()['(',.; with Bastidas t h c y c ro ss e d t he GlIl f of l"l'a bfl. whcre it repmte d Ih e I nd ian!'> we r e I css warlikc and I lI'o\'i s ion s could b e obtaine d 11 w a s IIcc('s"ar.". llO\\"('\ 'c r f o r th e m 1 0 d e feal a );ln d of Indians und('r a p o w(,l'fu! c hief name d C(,Ill:lco. \\"ho di spute d th eir b ut titey o b tained I h e muc h ncede d sup pli('s. an d founded th e s e ttl e m ent of :"'1:1111;.1 :\iaria d e l a A nt igua, t h e f i r.il on t h e I s t h mu:. They we r e n ow in t h e territor,\' \\"h idJ had h e e n a:,;si gned h.\' t h e K ing t o and, had n o r i g hl there. The amhilio u s B albo a took ;ldnll1tag(' Columbus Island whe r e Christophe r Columbus S lopped t o r epai r and scrap e the botto m o f his ships befo r e p r oceed in).:; o n 1 0 S p a in [ I I I

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of thi s cir c ulIlst;1I1CC a nd th c f net th at En c i so w a s di s lik c d 1)\, his m c n for th e r<::I: ';on that h c all o \\'c d 110 priv at e t ra dillg' wilb th e 10 d e po se him, a n d a s kc d :\icllc s a t o ('OIl1C and h lk e c h a r
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the allack on t o return to Spain. Kn owing thai Ihc,\' would immedi ate l y go t o t he Ki ng a nd ask that he be di s pussessed. he starle d in tu obtain the gold which he knew t he King thought more o f than all el s e. and 10 make lIew di s coveries whic h would help his cause. The gold h e obtain e d fr o m the Indian chiefs of the Dari en. It wa s made the pric e ...,f p e a ce, and Balho:L s h owed his s hrewdness hy m aki n g allie s of the Indians after he had ohtaine d their lrcn s urc. Such all alliance he made wilh Carel;!. the ca c i c llLc o f Co\'ha, who after hi s village had beell sackC'd by the Spani;u'J ", left with 3alb o a Oi;e o f hi s daughte r s a s a ho s t a ge. 13alboa accep t e d the In dian maid":ll. o f whom he became vc r," fond and, althoug h they were married accordin g to the C h r i st ian rite s s h e cons i d el'eo hers elf \ti s wirc, B a lboa s tarted from Ant igua on SCpIClllIICI G, ] ,, ]:;,10 cros s tllc I s l hll'lt l S and find lhe greal sea 10 the south of w h ich the I ndia!! s k n owin g the clIpidit y of th e Spnn iards had lold him tales uf the ridlCs of the race o f people w hi ch inhabi ted i l s s horc s the dinerent tril)!.' s whi<., h hc met on the wa,", suhduing H nd m akin!! friClld .. with t h e m. on SeptclllOcr 2,j. he reached a hill ill D ari e n from which i t was said the :O;o llih ('oul d h c S(,Cll, I [al l in g hi s mcn, Balboa made the a sccnt alolle anrl wa till fir s t Enl'Ojl e :tn I n gaze 1I pall th i s h eretofore IIIl knowll (Ice:! Il Six
PAGE 18

n:lllled by Balboa, could be plainly see n. but he did nol \ i s i t them althat t illle \)1\ HCCOllllt o f the roughnes s o f th e sen and the f rai l ty o f the available IndialJ canoes. lIe named the largest of th e i slands, I s la. Rica, w hi c h i s n ow k n uwn as San :'\_ Ii g uel 01" Rcy Island. Nombre de Dios. t h e oldest exis ting settl e m ent on t h e I s t hmus. Sand wllS o b t"i n e d h("re for the ("emem i n the Gallln Locks. Ball) oa rei 1 11'1('c I t riuIllllhant t o Antig-ua afte r an ahs ellce o f about f n U I months I [ i s IllC .-;SCIl.!("CI' tel o f Itis g-ren t di s covcr., d i d not reach the J\:ing, unfort unatel.,' until :Ifll'!" tltat llIonare h. listcning to Ene i so's compl a ints. had s ent ou t a !lew go\' crn o' 1 0 lake charge o f t h e c olo n y. 11.\1.,110 .,'5 t ;XFOHTIJ:-'.,TE El\"D The new govcnlO l wa s nalll e d P edro Ari a s de :\\' i la, commonly cal l e d .. Pednnias tlt e C rud," wh i c h ni c kll' IHle h e WOll i n the \\" o r ld l w h is method of cxtorliug gold from t h e Jndians. W i t h Pedrarias was Hcrnanc l o d e Soto, who was Inter 1 0 disco,er t h e :'\I ississ ippi HiveI', and D iego de Almagro. who wa s 10 become the partn e r o f P i zano ill t h e (' oll qllest o f P eru. L nlike Balboa, P edrar ia s did not tr," t o make f r i ends w i th the Indian s, but in many ins tances repai d the w h ich t h e y to him as a friend of Balbon \\"Ith th e utmos t lre a c hen' destroying thei r \' i lla ges, k i lli rlg w o m c n a n d c h ildrcn, and s elli n g thos e w h o sun'i\'cd into slaver\" I h.' undid what Balboa had becn :n a fair way of aceompli. "hing, that i s Ih c s c tt l C lll c nt of Darien, for th e Ind i ans wcre ('vc n whcr e aroused a n d repaid c r ucit.\ \; i lh crue l t y as uftcn as an opportunity was prescntcd, Shrin("s are c o mmon I onj:: t h e waysides n d "t t h e entr. mce t o ilIages. but thiS o n e has been I''',ced in hollow Iree. The p holOgrapher d ls over e d il near Gorgon". [ 1 1 I Pedrarias s tl'O\'C to establish 11 line o f p osls for eommlwic;r t ion hetween t h e two oceans in aecordancc with t h e idells of B :dbo a. but withollt S U CC ( SS. Tlw (ilst of t hese was loca t e d on th e Atlantic coa s t a t a p l ace named Santa Cruz.

PAGE 19

I n th e m ea nti me, th e Ki ng h :ld r ecognized Balboa's di scovery with a co m mi ss i on as A dcl:tnlado o f t h e South Sen s and Yiccro\ of the P ac i f ic coast. nil e ml ) "\' l,itle, lie was subject to orde!'S Pc(lr arias. jealous of B a boa is acillCVClllcnt. held u p tills COlllllllSS l o n lind kept Balboa f i g htin g for hi s l iber ty ill thL' court of A ntig ua on trumpe d 1I\) c ha rges. F illall.\' B alboa made an al l ian ce wit h "cdmrias by pro m i s i ng Ii, o n e of hi" daughter s, who was at t h aI lime in S p a in a lld went few mi les lip t h e coa;>:1 10 a p l ace cul le d \<:Ia, b etween A nt igua and Santa C ruz. w here h e e s t ablis h e d a se tt lement and had l imhers cut H nd shal)c d w h i c h cou ld be rcad i h built illlo s ld! ) s w ith \\' lic h 1 0 explore t h e new w h ich he ha< d iscovcred, Thesc I j m hCl"s WCI"C C:I I"l"i(.'(1 news.; Ihe I s t hmus J u dia!) s la\'cs aud Wl'l"C up in Sa n :\Iigucl Ba,v, Whi l e a t t h e P earl Islands, fro m whel"e hc iliadI' sey e ral s horl cruis e s B nlh o a beard of t h e enmingof a new gm"erllOl' t o s u persede P ( !(hal"ias, T h i nk i n g th i s gO\'CI 'nol' might be h ost i le It) hi.; plans. h e sent messengcrs t o Antigua to see w helhe r or 110t he had If h e h ad, h e i n s l n leted I l u t o I"e t urn w ithout. allowing tlwir p r ('scm:c to 1x.'c ol1l(' known, t llld he , o u l d thell l ei\\'c on h is \'oyagc of disco\"en' before orders for hi s rec all cOllld he dcli\ e rccl. Hi s messe ngcl'S wcn t to A nt i gua and found s till i n char
PAGE 20

G j H E bAND ... of Pcd r aria s for Balhoa came to life. and h e se nt Fran c i sco P izarro, who wa s lalcl' to finish th e work Ba l boa had pla n ned to do, to b r i n g 'ti m hack to A c la At Acla, Balboa was give n a mo c ke r y of a trial 1'0I'\re: lson and wa s beheaded wilh four companions i n the l all e r part of i:)li. Seco n d only to th e di sc o\ 'cry of the South Sea was the dcmon s tr: ltion of t h e praclicaLil ily of an I sthmian trans it. OLD Pcdnu'in s see ing the a(\, 'antagc of H sc Ulcmc n l on t h e new ocean a s an outfitting s tatioll 1'01' future exp loring ex pedition s. c r o ss e d the Isth mu s a n d on Augu s t 1 5, 1 51!), founded l'an'IIl'la. situated about five m i le s cast from the new cit,\ The nallle "l'anama" i s suppose d to ha\'c comc from an Indi a n word IIlcanir lg-a place ahounding" in fii;h. and tradition rc latcs thal the town was b u ilt 011 thc site of anilldian fii;hill g villa gc. .Tn the same )"e;1I-the At la nt i c p01'l was trunsfcrrcd to .\"ol11l1rc de Dins, directly north of o ld P antllutl, tlnd a few ycars later Antigua ar i d Ada werc abandoned 10 th e Indians Some of t h e in t e r io r vm,,!,:es 11",' no j"ils stoUI enough to hold" prisoner. so the stocks are rcsortcd to. On September 15, 1 521. thc settlement at Panuma was madc 11 ci t y by 1"0.\"011 decree. and the fir s t bi s hopric in the Americas was removed there from Antigua. The new governor sent oul, opportullel., -for Pedrarias. died on h is arri\ :d. a s did scycral others \\ h o followed and P cdl'1l r ia s rul e d u nt i lthc aITi\ a l of I' e clro s de 10.'; Bios. who look charge on July 1 326. Before hi s aITi\ al J'edrarias took refuge in Xie;nagua whcre h e had alread y established a sc tUe-IIlc nL 81'. \ 1;\'8 P O WEll SPBE_\DS Fr)llowin g liris per iod in lslhmian 1111111\' pat-l i e s $('t oul inland t o th e and wc r e lo("atl :ci in the l)n .. of Clri,'i'llii ami \ (,raguas ] hcse explora1ron s wcrc madc III aceot"( anc c With the dl'S lrc s of Charles Y w h o look a g reat intcres t i n thc exploration of Ih e South SCll and th e disco\-cl"\-of a s tr:li1 cOllncc\irl" it with tire Atlanlic OCC;1II_ After he carnc to tllc thronc of Spai" ill 1 3tti_ he {"harged t h e governors 01' hi s Amcrica n ('OIOIlICS to examine th e (-oas t line front Dari e n 10 :\ L ('x ico 1'01" a posi;ihle walerwll.\ 111 aC("(lnlalL(-e wilh Ih i s )foli c.\, Gil GOIli'.alcs de A\ila wa s s en t oul from [ I G [

PAGE 21

Spain in I J21, w i l l instructio n s to make 11 search along th e coast for tile wcs l t'rn openino-of a slr'ai L Gonzales d i,..m an tlcd an d transport e d ncross th e and rebu i lt th e m on th e P acifi c s i de. I n Januan', I ,j'l-2, he sa iled from Panama ba r and w('111 as far as t h e l3av of F on,,;('('a. 'where he landed and disCOYCl'cd Lake On Ihi s \ u :nlg-c c.;om,:ale s nwl men se nt oul Oil simi la r selTicc Lv Cort ez. who. laler. cs tabli hcd 11 Imllsil r o ut e tl C l 'O SS the I sthIllUS of Tehuanicpec ill -' l ex i ca. fo l lowing pretty closely the p r esc nt railroad. Thi<; route wa s started in mil c h th e same manner a s th e one aC'l"Oss Dari en. throuO'h lhcneccssi h of tl'anSI)OI'lillu su ital/le lumher from the A tlaul i c coast 01' o the l sthmus t o huild ships ,\"itl! whic h to cxplnt'c the P acific coa,:;t. Wh en P cdrarias le mICd of the d i scovery of I .ake :\iearagua. h e immediatel y laid claim to i t and a s t h e countr.'" w a s r i eh in gol d. est a hlis h e d a eit y at Granada Old Fort
PAGE 22

h i ghway." for th e commerc e acmss the I sthmus at Ihnt time was s teadily on Ih e incrense. making ('arWIll;1 a plaee of mercantile importan cc. In a rOlltc by waleI' for boats Hntl l i g ht dr'art \"I:ssels w:t .o; established from 1\omhr 'c de Dill s a\() n g thc COas l and up the Clragr e s fti,'cr tu thc hend of navigati o n at Cruc e s From Cruces I her'C wa s another trail to I h e c i tv of Panama. OYer thes e trai l s pack trains e arl"icd uri th e lrade. th(' ri"e r I;ei n g lIsed i n th e wei seas un s and wh ell th e altaeks (.f t h e I lldi,llls a n d Cimaroons. ( negl"O slaves, who r e bellcd and \\"ere outlawcd) became too frequcnt. on tire over-Jan d trail. This trade cOlls i .o;kd of gol d and ornnmcnts stripped rnml the templ e s of the I nca s, "old from the mincs ()f Dariell and \ e r :wlJas 011 tire I sth mll s, sih'cr from lloli"ia, pt.'ark and al s o woul. indig o. woods. (;0("0:1, and loh:wc'o. all h ( )und I'M Sp:rin, for which the colon!.;;t s recei"cd and 1'00-Th<-Ihree :mcicnl b e ll s of Cruces. This lown was o n e of the oldest o n Ihe Isthmus, and was the h<-ad of na\' igarion on th<-Chagres befor e rhe days of rhe railroad. Abandoned i n 1,)1l on a C COllnl of ir s being in r h e !:Ik e a rea. !-lILt!r s in return. For Ileal'l, 1\\'0 hundred "cars th c trails from Panama to the !owns of :\( lIlIbrc de D in s P o r to 8 ell(o' we r c the richest tl'adc mutes in the world of thi .<; Iradc c,'cn ori g inalpd across thp Pacific in I h p Philippines and thc Indil's. I,alcl', artcr Ihe I)criod of Ihc ('I'('al Inu\c, \.';,;OI7{)O. a n d up 10 th e tim c of the 1',01<1]1\:1 ra i h'o,j( the pari :!IId pari (l\"C'I'land Irail from Ihp 11\Olllh of the Chagres to Crue('s !J.J. mil e s and I h pllcc 10 Panama, I R mile s, \\';1" I1sed h,Y the colvnisl s wlit.'11 Calif()l'1li:1 and "Trc opened 10 11Ipnt. and by Ihc gold sech,l's in California ill the c1:I.vs of' W. ,Ukr :\omhr'c lil' DiuI' wa s deslrO\ 'pt! in l j!)7 1)\, F ra r w i s Drake. the l'u,\":lII)01"I \\',I S challged 10 I)Mlo Bdlo. i 7 mile s to thc'southwest .. This e hHngc hen(,(j(:ial. a s .\"omiJrc de D ios wa s :\I" H \' S unhealthful. w illIe Porto B ello had I h(, tl('l' harhor and w a s nt:arer to I h e o f the Chagrc s 11ml Panama. [ J

PAGE 23

Porto B ello be came ol1e of th e l'tl' o n gesl fortified or t h e se ttl e m ents in th e \,cw W o rld. lIel'(" cam e th e :O;pani:-:h galleol1s once It year to collect the K i ng's ,treas lIre, and,to bri n g sup\)lics for th e co loni st:.:. and here. ( ach th e alTI\ 'al of the ShipS, t h e mere lanls wo uld eongrC'galc to lake part III 11 hlg fair w hi c h w a s held during the annual \ i sit of the flee\. The l ow II i s situated on a hay ahout a mil e alld a half lun g h." -2.JOO feet w ide, a nd th e ruin s of li\'e of the s i x fort s whidl g u arded it. a s well as an o l d cust o m hOllsc, ca n s t ill b e see n. althoug h \)artJ.\, covered with jlmgl c growth. One o f t h e s i x fort s wa s 011 th e s ide of th e lil l o n the opposite s ide of t h e ba," f r o m th e o l d town and whe re the I s thmian Canal COll lllll ss ion h:1S been qu arry ing ro<:k for th e pas t r ou r ('aI' s for C allal \\'ork, and il wn s :1\\":1," b," s team s h ovels A f ter Pol"io B e llo hecame the r O"al por t on tlte ,\ilantir, the C h agreii 1\1ollth o f the C hagres River, The old fOTt on the left and One o f the tuTretS o n the r iJ:hl River al1d t he ('rue(''; trai l C;lllle into a s a althou gh there w a s als o an overland !'Oad, ami t o protcd thi s rout c f1'Orn pirate s who \\"ere b ecoming bol d enoug h to a tt ack forti f ied town..;, Fo r t L O I ,t' u ZI) ,,'as built irt lGOI at th e rivel' Ill(, ut h TIlE -;CO '['( I I Il I 'BBLE En gla nd los t i1.,,;')ppOl'tullil," ill 1 (;!)8 1 i O O 10 l!'ain:1 f no th old illllLe l'ithmi:tll trade b,' rllilin g 10 I(' I H I il" aid \ 0 t h e ('olonization -.;dlcllIe Ill' \\' illiam P allt'rsl lil. a Scot c h financier. who h ad alrcady fOlllLdl d Ihe B alik Ill' Pal\cr S llll' s )Ibm, which e\'{'lllu:dl, v (' o s l :tilOlll '1,OUU li"es aud $1(JO,IWO i n llIon ey wa,; de s igned to hreak lip the mon o ) "I,r of ilw B r i l i..;h E;t..;\ lu dia COlli pan," in t he Oriental t l'ade hy fou ndin g a eo n n." o n the s hores of J) :II'i('o. a nd opPTling up :L f r ee trade ro\lle ;Ie-ross Ihl' I s thmu s fro m \c1a t41 th(' Gulf of I il!u ci. 0"('1' th(' ,,",HU(' ro llt e tak e n h y B alhoa 1H'11rl, '200 ,\'('11rs uefore, P ermis.;ioll for Ihe [ I!) 1

PAGE 24

formatio n o f the company w i lh th i s end in "iew was obt aine d f rom KinR W i l l i a m H i s appr oval, however, wa s later withdrawn at the i n s t igation uf t h e East l l\d i a Company. when it r e al i ze d that its m o n opo!," wa s in jeopa r dy and in s t ruct i o n s wer e i ss ued to the of the B riti s h co l onie s in the W e s t I nd i es and l\orth Ameri ca to withhol d all,\' ai d to the Sco t s who had already depart ed for D arie n The o pp osit i o n of Ihe Ea s t Indi : l Company forced t h e new project to r c lul'll all th e money s uhscriGcd f o r s tock ill England, and t o r m se the ne ccssarv f und s in Scolland only. On :\o"cmucl' I. Ions. thr'cc -"hip s and two tend ers contain i ng 1 200 men reach e d the Dari e n fro m Leith, and foun d e d th e town o f J\cw Edinburgh o n th e Gulf of Calid onia, ncat A c l a H ere they were welcomed by t h e Sa n lll a s Indians w h o saw in them future alli es against t h e Spaniards. But t h e Scots had no inte nti on of fight i ng. muc h t o the disappointment of th e I nd i an s, a lthough lh ey mus t ha"e known t hat. their inva sio n wou l d be r es i s ted b.,' t h e Spaniards The fir s t e x pedition managed t o stay e i ght. mon t h s, during w h i c h t ime th eit numbers we r e sn dl y r educe d b y s i c k n e ss and famine. On June 1 699, two hundred and fifty s tlrv i ors, with P a tlerson w h o had gone out to t h e co lony 'lS a "olunteer, :rnc! whose wife and so n had die d t h ere left f o r l'\ew York, which pln ce th ey reach e d on Augus t 1 3. i\l ea nwhi l e, t h e compnny at. home, not know in g of the abandonment o f I h e c olony, sent out a se co n d band of 300 r cc t ui ts. This p a rt )' arrived at l\ew Edin b urgh o n August. 1 3 the same day that th e ir predece ss o r s reached l\ew York. F inding the hal f-comp l eted F ott Sl. Anot'Cw deserted. th e)' immediately left fOt' Jamaica. with t h e exception of a few men who in s i s t e d upo n remaining. A third e xp e d i tion con s i s ting of four s hip s and 1 ,3 00 m e n wa s scnt out f rom Scotland, and r e a c h ed l\ew Ed i nburg h on :'\o" cmbel' 30 althoug h rumors o f the f ailure of the fir s t nttemp! I rnd bt:..'Cn r cce i, e d A t last the Spaniat d s dcterm i ned t o ou s t t h c invaders who, u nable to accompl i s h much on account of int c rnnl bicke r ing s the opposi t ion of Eng land. and a hig h death !'ate. sent out a fleet of ships !'!'O1ll Cartage n a o n Fcbruary 1700. to in vesltlte port by sell, w hile a land force blockad e d i t i n the rCM. On .:"l a r c h 31. afte r many so t'li es a gains t the Spanis h for ces, t h e coloni s t s surrende red and w e re allowed to d epart wilh honors. T h e co lon y had been reduced 10 about 360 pe r so n s, and these wcre so s ick and feeb l e that i t i s sa id th e Spaniards had to help t hem aboa rd their s h ip s and sc i th e s ail s for t hem A Nation givclt to the wor l d, A g iant's tas k S h ow what our Uncle Sam c a n do I n an o rbi t of t h e s u n o g re a t ind e ed i s our Uncle Sam And hi s g r e a tn es s ne'er s hall cea se For grea test of ,1]] hi s conqu c s t s won. Are hi s victorie s of pea c e! Gilb erl. [ 20 J

PAGE 25

\l;\" monopolized the c:lI'ly trade with i t s coloni('!'l and th i s polic y cycntuall\, lo s t i t s conlrol of the COllntries of eel.iral and \ lIlc l 'ica. 'l'he fhs l dircct ['cslll t wa i lhe enter ing of E n:.dish. F rench :lnel D utc h free trade r s and lalcl', buc caneers ,wei piral( s all of whom ranged u p nne! dO\nl the coast of th e Spanish :'Il aill prcylllg upon commerc e un d even attack ing the fortified town s Up 1 0 the li me ::;i r lIenl",\' :\lo r ga n hCC:II11C Governor of Jamaica. after the sack of P a nama ill lG71. there wa s \ 'cr\' l ittle diffe r en c e hetween free lmcier s priva t eers. buccaneers and pirate s theil' ohject being thc salllc.-thc ea s y acqu i sition of gol d a n d olher loo t hy upon the commerce o f Spain. Fro m 1 550 to 1 750, t h e lsl hmia n trade route wa s 0 l ) en to s uch attac k s After t h e s ack of Panama, howcn'r, E ngla n d endeavorc ( to pu t a sto p to pira c., in the W es t Indies ( J a m aica was the outfi tt ing s tatiOIl for IlltUl.' s ail i ng LInder co m miss i o n s grant e d by t he governo r who r eceived a share i n the s poil s) and after tlwltime t he p imlcs wer e hunted a s a COlllmon enemy a nd the y i n turn preye d u pon t he shippi n g of a l l nati ons. T he result of the depredations of these freebooter s f ina lly forced S\>ani s h s hipping 1.0 give the waters o f tIle I ndies n w i de herth, and t o t ake th e onge l route t h r o u g h t h e Strn i ls of .:\I agellan to the co loni e s all the P ac ific, all hou g h l hi s trade was already bep:inni n g t o deeline, partly t h rough the failure of the colonies to de"elo \ ) after the e:ls il." of the in c u s bc g lln to g ive out, iln d p:lrtl y t h roug I the 01 S I )am a s a POW?I'. J he free trader s who f llla ll," (c,' eloped mlo pml t es, were crencmlly welcome d t he co l on i s t s unoflieially, as Spain wa s not a eou nt.ry and u nable to sUI )ply the i r n.eeds, a n d be.e:lllsc it was greatly to the.ir bene h t t o obta111 goods of:l )ettcr quahty upon ",I\l c h no taxe s l1:1d been paJd 10 t h e K i n g. T he Iraders were fOl'f,idden entJ'Y i nlo the pOl'ls, and werc com pelled 10 s mugg l e Iheil' goods in al cOln 'cnicnt points along the coa s t and in seeret h;1I'bors. The cus t om of trentin g mCI] a s p i mt es whcll cHught lIaturall), l e d t hem t o protcct t h em seh'cs and, ",h e n t he 0ppol't u n i ty offcrcd to I'e t a l iate i n kind, and the)' finally became buccancer s or pirate s in name a s wcn as i n fact. T hc name buecaneel' wa s gi"cn to the free tradel's b y the I 2 J 1

PAGE 26

CI HE IX'NRJ!IVlDED _---'"'I HE Wl!?j-lJ;), UNJTED bOIl('{/lIi",,,.. lU('rl l' u gal!t' d ill s lIppJ., illg 1 11('111 wit h s lIIokt' + (,llr-ed llH'at fur the ir \'II ."a)..(c-.. The (j I's t \\'l'",t .Indi es UIL\KE'; Engl i shman to mak,' his wa s S i r F ra n e i ... lJra ke -.... -naul{' b.,' the in '.he I n ].)6 8, :-il l' J o hn Hawkm s, WIth :In Engli s h fled, e nt ered th e h arhor of \ ('ra Cml':. :\I ex l ('o. 10 Inull' w ilh the S l1aniards. H e wag rc(,l.:i,' ('<1 h y I 1(' o llieial s of the p o rt in a fl'icndh' 1lI00rHl t'l" ,lilt! in v it e d lu ;HldlOr. A s .'10011 a s his s hip s W(,I'(' anchored un d N the gUlls o f th e fo rt s 11(' w a s ;l1\;\( :I.:(' d :tnd all hi..; s hi p s dts ll"Oycd. with t h e cxcc pliOlI of I wo w hi('h to CSCUpt' nne 1)Clongiug In hi lll s d f and til l o!)w r to hi s cOti!'oin Francis Dnlkt>. Dmkc returned In England nnd ('udcavOI'cd 1 0 (Iblain sati s factio n fo r hi s 10ss t 'l; t hroug h hi ., go\'crn -1ll('l l l l,lIl w a s u n able 10 UO so. I ht'll dl' c idt,d 11-, collcct lli s o\\' n imielllll ily h y allaek ing S pani s h "hil'pill/! a s h e h a d b ec n a Hacked, II C olJt:1 ilH: d I .e ll<'r s of :\ I a rqu e f!'Olll quee n Eli znhe lh. and. in mad e Iwo pl'cl i minal'.\ \ 'oyagcs 1 0 Sir Henry Morgan. Ihe \YC ... t p rinc ip ally t o pare for fulure rnid s :JIltl t o learn how Ih, :-:'paniaru" hanuk'd Ihe goldc11 ll;1r\'e s l fmm P Ci'll, In 1.)72, h c 1111'11('11 wilh Iwo ... hipl'>, ill Ihe h old s of whic h werc slored Ihe part.'i of threl' s nwll saili n g boa I!', :1Ilt! on .lllly 'tn, ha\'illg pu t the boat s loget h er, he attacked and c'lpllll'('d :\olllhrc de Dio s \\,11('1'(' til( K i ng ... lI'casul'(' house \\'
PAGE 27

several l o n s of ;;;11,'(,] in the vicinity. I n \J73. h e rclut'11cd t o ami s ta r ted to a flee t t o golo the P acifi c but J ohn Oxcllil,Hll ',",10 had I)('c n w ith him when h l' cl'os s cd the I s l ln llu s fOI'l'sbdletl him in hi" \0 be tlu firiil Engl i shman 10 sail upon those water s, J ohn O:.:cnham c r ossed the Isthmlls in 1 .'i7J, witll th, llcp of till" Indians O\'C[' the sam e roule Ir, n'crsctl 1 )\ Ball)oa. and launched a ;-;lllall )'n,t! 1/1 1 til( P acific. I [ c s l a,wi! in the \"lcll1' il," of the ('carl I S];llld ... taking sen'ral :' llIall Spanish p r izes and fina lly cnptun: d one of t h e IreaslIn: frall c on s frolll P en!. Oxcnham :.tlld hi s ('r('w we r e l inall," captured b y I h e :-;I':ln ianl s and pullo d eath. Dt'akc retul"tlcd lu the \Y e s t Indies O i l .\' o\"Clllhcl' I S, ].')77. sailed Ih1'01lgh the Strait s of :'\I agt' llan swept Ihe w(':;1 c oa s t o f South .\mcric a a:; far Ilorth a s C ali forn ia wilhoul att:wkillJ..\' the cit y of I' attack Ihe city of P a nama bill the Spaniards had IJ:11'1'icaded the ro,,,a road s o dTecti\ 'el, \ that thc Engli s h ga\'t' up 11)('
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ITED the Gow'l'Ilor of Pannma t hai he wou ld r eturn in a s horl time to take that city . . A s he pronll sc d. h e retumed h) the I s lhmus I wo years lal c r sent an advllllcc furn'. w hi ch attacked nIHI capttn'cf l Fort San L o r cllz o a t the m outh o f the Chag n 's. place d a t hea' alld a t P o rt o B ello, and s lat'led u p th e C hagr es llnd ondan d w ith UWO men. t h e Spaniards I,don, hi m. Jt t.ook the Engli shmen nine tla,"s to make t h e jOllI'llCY. and they !iufr c rcd greatl y for wanl of food as the ill til(' ir' retreat on Panama, lai d wa s t e to the cOllntry. Panama was captured o n J anuary 28 1 671. B efore t h e city fdl (h'c broke Ollt an d th e place wa'i ('ntil'd," ['uilled. w a s a cc u se d of bay ing s ci fire \0 the town. hut i t was m o r e likel,Y th at it w a s c a u se d fly a spark blown into an opcn powder magaz ine. which had bcen ord l'red de,.,tro\,e d h,\' th e Governor, Juan Perez de Guzman, lIo\\ 'c\'cr. :\ L{Jr gan stayed i n th e ru in s n e nrl y a month. h o o t,\". and plundered t h e i slands and th e co wllr,\', J{(. then rl'lurncd to San L orellzlI. alld s ailc d t o Jamaic a wil h th e sh,trc of the hO(lty. l c,j\'ing hi.., companions 10 lea ve th e I s thmus a,,; hcs t I he,\ cou l d. The ,tUnck 011 Panama was made w hen England wa s a t p{'acl' with Spain. and the B riti",h Gowrnml'1l1 \\' a", fon'ed 1 0 suppres s hucc all4 el'rin/-\" in J alll'l ica (Ill aC{'I)lm of th e storm o/" pr'ole s t :trous{,d :\Iorgan was made LieutenantGovernol of Jalllai c:l. was late r kni ghted and became gO\ 'c l'nor of tire i s l m ul. i n wh i c h capacity h e di d good work i n suppress in g piracy. ILi s appointment would appC l1" to have b e en made b,\' the Kin g on th e thcol'\ that it ta kes a thid' ttl ea l c h n thi ef. OTIII':B .\T'TE.'II'TS Altho ugh Dmke and :\!OlW11l were no longer feared. th e lsthmu ... Wit S not frce from th e raids of numcrou s olhcr p i ra te s, Fre n c h and Engl i s h w h o \Vall of I h e old fOr! at P orlo B e llo. s howin g and walc h t o wer. [ 24 ]

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CI HE {>&o UNFED attacked P o rto B e l lo, crossed the lslhmus, and I 'aided lip and down th e COOl:;! o f the Pacific. Capl ilin J o hn COXOIl plundc 'c d Port o Bel lo in lG7!>, and in th e following 'c al' c r ossed the Isthmus to the Pac ific in campau," wiLh Captain Ri c hard Sawk i n s, lladh olo m cw S h nrp. Peter H arri s and Edmund Cook. Scen e in the vi11:lgc of C hagrcs at t h e mouth of the river of ,h, u name. :lccompanil.'(\ 300 men. They cl"O%l'd the Isthmus (If Darien. gu ided b y the l ndian s, in April, lGSO, nnd altaC'kcd Santa an ou tpo s t 011 the (I\lyra Ri"Cl', i'\o l findi n g the expected gol d at Santa :.\Lat'ia, they voyaged in canoes nnd in two ba rks,cllpllll'cd byCaplainsSllaql an(1 Cook, 10 "anarua. Arridng of!' Panama, th ey were allacked hy thrce Spaui!ih s hips ncar the is land of P erico ] n th e f i ght whic h ensued on April 2:3, H.iSO, the Engli s h wer e victorious, ou t the,\' failed to attack the eity owing to a di s agrc('lllcllt between themsc lves as to w h o s h ould be Icader, : l lthough thcy in the \"ici nity many days pic king up prizes. Captain Snwkin s wa s killed late[ ill an attack on the mininr. town of P ueblo .:\"ue\o. i n the P["()\"i n(:e of ," crago;!,;. Cnptain Coxon had nYrcady l eft w ith hi s men to rec ross the I sthmus 10 the bo.1Is Icft o n th e Atl antic, and Captain H arris died from wounds rcceiw'd in the battle of P c r ico, l ea\"ing Captai ns Sharp and Cook to continue 111<. ir ill th e South Sea. Capt ain Sharp returned to England whe r e he was tried fur piracy, but escaped han ging on a('counlof laek of e\ iden c c. Frolll 1(;80 to 1 6S8 pirale rai d s wiped out cvcry selt l e lllc][t on II[e P acific coas t of Dar i en. ] n 1 088. Englan d IJccame the ally 01" Spain. and th e pirates ('ea;,e(\ operat ion s for the time being. War brokt' out between .England .1Ild ill Ji"3S alld in liS!) P orto B ello wns aga i n captured alld destroyed b y Admiral Edwa r d ,'{'mon of tlte B r iti s h :\n,' y. 1n l i..J.O, ,"el'll o n captur ed Fort San Lo]"cm:o, find in he again took Porto B ello and prepared an as s ault 011 the ne\\' city or Panama again s t which a A ccl was going around th e Hom under command or Captain r \ n s on. Il oweve r "emon's men began t o fall s iek s o h e ga\'e lip th e attempt [ 25 1

PAGE 30

The lower i s Ihe n lOSI important remainin g e"id e nce of I h e greatness of t h e first c it y of Pananm, destroyed b y I\lorgan in 16;1. I t i s located about six miles soulheaSI of P anama Cily. Th wealt h o f P e r u w a s transp orted o v e r Ihe old masonry bridges cenluries "go. [ 26 1

PAGE 31

011 P a n a m a and wenl t o Ca, rtagclI:l al w h ich plan', he llH't w ith a defeal. Anson Icanllng 01 lIw; ('\ 'e n t lett to aUack '-'1 : tlllla and the new c ity 01 Panama w a s agai n saved The la s t o f th e S p ani s h galleons frum Peru during the latter pari o f I7 : W Pile o f canno n balls II F Ori San Lorenzo. used b y the earl y Spaniard s in the a!lacks of the huccanceu. found UPOJI it s a f r!\'al at P:mama thai I'or\o B ello wa ... Iwin g atlaeked h," Adminll r('1"11011. so ilrcturl1('d to and s ent its I n .'a"ur c \0 C a['\ag('Il:l 0\'("1' the Ir:til rrom Quito to Bogota. rim the ('omnl('J"ec of I ill' :-ipaJli"h g;dl('ons Hew"s the Is t hm us ,md liLl' gradual dl'ea, of t h c town, O i l tht' wheni n 1i\"("d the lllcr< h .lIl l<; and Ir: lllel' ... in. '"1<'1'11111 :;;ackcd Porto Bell" n 'dhandcd the\" earne . \11 hlood staine d fl'Olll !II(' lIanu', T o the m outh o f thl' Chagre". where, high on till' hill. San Lor e n zo kept t o plunder and kill Its devot e d ddelld er.;, w h o cOUl'ageou s l y fought For hOIllCS, wive s alll\ ( 'hildre n, :lecoullt inp; :I'; naught Their l i ves h e ld so precioll'; s o cheri.shpd 1 1d'III'l'. Could they drin: the fierce pirates away fnllll their b o n :. Three days they repulsed till'llI, but to find l'n:r y nil!"hl T he fo e s till upon them in 1\("er-('lItiing f igh!. Their anns coul d n o t conquer the power,,,; of h ell Sa n Lorem:o surrender(,di n g l o r i o u s ly fell! Burne d famis hed a n d b leeding fl'Olll m an,\ a wound, They la," w h i l e their s t r o n g h o l d was razed to the g r ou ud Gilbert [ 'li I

PAGE 32

projcd of conncctin g th e Atl a n tie with th e P acific ha s attracted the attention of t he ci\ ilized wo rld since the di scon' r r o f the l sthmus, I n th e n'at'!; l,:;:H t o 1 ;'): )6 s ttldi es wcre made undet' the dircction of t h e til(il gm'ct'llOl' of Panama, P :lsc lial Andago,\'a, i n compliancc w i lh ,I I'o,\'nl decl' c c, dakd Fe bntHl',\' 2 0 IJ:H, fo r a. ship can,d :lCr oss the l slhmlls h y culling fmlll the Cha(!rcs Bin'I' to th e headwat(-'I' s of th e Hio Grande, bu t t h c idea waS ahandollcd o n lIccouul of thc cost. \ril h a I'e\'i\ al o f int c rest ill tlt c subject, m,Ill Y r ou te s we r c s uggcstcd and man,\ s ur\'eys \\'('I'e madc al different poin t s whcre t h e widt h of th c Amcr ic;l n hthtHus w a s found to bc favorable. o r \\'hc I 'c rivcl'S and lakes \\'cre found thal mi g ht be util i ze d a s it poss ihl c Of the many r outcs propose d i t has been fOllnd thall h c one a cl'OSS I\ieamgua, util i z ing t h c S an Juan R ivc r nnd J ,a kc .'\ icaragua, a n d thal at P ,lllama along the lin c of the Panama railroad, utili z ing t hc \'alle), of th e Cha gl'cs Hi\'cl' a l ld lh c R io Grande, are t h c only practicabl c o n cs. Of th e othe r s, t h ose w hi e h gained t h c most a ttenlion and whic h \\'c r e g i \'en the most s tud,\ werc a cross the I s thmus o f T e huantepec, in and threc in Panama. th e Darien, 0 1 :\tralo niwr, the San n bs. and Ih e Calidonia Bit\ roules, 1'E II L \ ;'<1' E I' E C The Tdwi1l1l e pec mule. w hcrc thc Span iards unclcl' Col'ter., after t h c conques t of \Iex i eo, IUlill 11 road aem ss th e I sthmlls i s lh e he s t locat i on gcogmphicall y. for a catlal. it being s o l111J(,h to the Pacific and Gulf por t s of the l"nited w hil c th e d i stanc c fr o m Xt \ \ ' York i s pl 'ael ieal l y th c same a s f!'O n l Pan a ma I [ o\\'c\ 'e r the summi t lev e l at thi s poi III wa s foun d to be ill t he ne i g hhorhood of 7{)0 feel and \ 'ery broad. and it i s douhtful if a s u flie icnl s uppl,\ of \\'atel' coul d he obtained for it (:\'Cll i f it could be matcr ially lowered ex ca\ at iOll. W hen 1l1l' Fr('ll(: h we r e a t work on Ih e Panama project. Captai n James B Eads sclectcd pla ('e fu r th e location of 11 ship rai lwn," with large enr:) to transport ships fmlll o ne occan In the o lhc]'. T h i s new!' got beyon d the "scl u,:mc" stagt, alt hough at that lil1lc it was considcred practicahle b y c n g inee r s [ 28 J

PAGE 33

The r e i s now a n ordinary ra ilr o a d enga g e d at Ihi .;; po i nt in carry in g t ra n s c onti n en t a l f rei g ht. .-\TH \ O Bl\"EIl \:0\ 1) 'T IUBLT.\HIES 'ari olls projects h 11\ C l){'cn pl"Op o s c d t o u t i l ize th e Alrnlo r i w f which A nws a l m o s t dire ctl y n o rt h a u ou t 20U m i l e s int o th e G ulf of Dari e n at the p o int w h e r e th e l sthmus j oins t h e c o nt i ne nt of So ut h Am e ri c a a nd se"eral o f its trib u ta r ies. whi c h appro a c h th e P a c ific coa s t vcr y clo se l y T h e re i s :1Il l ndi;lIl l eg e nd t hai CllllOCS call be ca rri e d for a s h o r t d i s tan c e fro m t h e h ea d w at e r s of the :\Imt o t o ano t h e r r iver flowing i n l o t h e P a cifi c. The \ Ir atu i s a s ilt -beari n g I'i\"cr all d lia s a co n side rabl e fall and i s n o t in its e l f a d apte d to t h e u sc of occ:11l-f!'oi n g s hips I t w ou l d n ece ssita t e conti n ua l dre d g i n g for it hun d r e d mile s to ellnali ze it a n d a cut thro u g h t h e co n t ine ntal di v i de Illu c h w e a te r t h a n t h e Cllt at Cul e bl'll. T h e stream s flowing into t h e .Pa cific a r e l i ttle m ore than Illotlll tain torren t s On t h i s ac co unt this r o ute has n o t bee n co n s i de r e d with a s mu c h favo r a s th e m o re n o rt h e r l y o n e s The r e i s a. \\' i del.v c ir c ulat e d s t o r y that .King Philip Ill, i n the p erio d 1 6 1 6 t o 16W, i s s ue d a n e dict a t t h e re<\ ue s t of P erc A co s t a forb iddi n g furt h e r co n s i d e ralion of th e p l'Oject on t h e gml\l H t h a t t h e will of Cod was m a d e m anif es t bv th e f a c t lhatH e h a d cre at e d a n i s thmus i n s tead of a s t ra i t : m d th at i t w o u l d b e imp i et y f o r man t o put a s und e r w hat C o d h a d joined P robabl. \ a more r e a s ona b l e o b ject i o n wa s thn l 11 s hip cana l would m a ke t h c Spanis h co l o nie s t oo e a sily :lc(.'Cs:;i b l e to th e i r e n emies T h e poli c y o f .Ki n g P h i lip \\'a s adhe r e d t o for ove r 200 yea r s a fte r h i s d eath i n 1608. CALIDOX I A T h e Cali d o n i n route i s wh el'e B alboa c rosse d t o t h e P a c ific i n J,i I 3 and i s t h e on e whi c h \\'illi a m P a tte r s o n c h o s e in 1 608 f o r a. lin e of tra n s i t a c ro ss t h e i s t h mu s t o contro l t h e trade o f th e P a c ific w i t h th e ea st. This r o ut e s t:ll' t s from C a lido nia B a y o n th e Atla ntic w h e r e P a tl Cl's o n's col o n y of Z\e w E dinhu r g h w a s loca t e d to Sa n ;\I i g u c l B a y o n th e P a c ific. A t fir s t th i s app e a r s to be an i deallo c nti o n f o r R shipc :lllal o n a ccoun t of t he sllo r t d islancc 35 mile s between th e two ocea n s. It wa s advoc:t l c d b y Dr. Ed w a rd Cull e n of Dubli n ill 1 850 H e c l a im e d t hat t h e sllmm i t level o n l hi s lin e was n o t o\' e r IJO fee t. It was p a rtl y ex plo e d by 1 \11'. Lion el C r i s bo rn c an E n g l i s h e n ginecl' i n 18J2, a nd h e r ea ffirm e d th e cl a i m o f D r Culle n L a l el' ex p l ora ti o n s a mo n g th e m t ho s e o f Li e ut e n ant I saac C S trai n U S .. i n 1 8 5.J., a n d 1)\, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s D arie n ex p e dit i o n in l S iO fai l e d t o co n ( 11'1l1 this l ow a ltit u c l e It was f ound th at t he s um mit leve l i s a t l e a s t 1 000 fee t above t h e se a Alth o u g h th e I s thmus i s \ 'cry n arro w a t this p o i nt t h e exca v at i on required i s so grea t t ha t i t w a s pro p o s ed to build a tun n e l 4.2 mil es l o n g t h rou g h th e m o un t a i n s th r o u g h w hich ships m ig h t pa ss This p r ojec t h:.\ s l o n g b ee n co n s id e r e d impo ss i b l e SAN BL:\S T h e San B ia s r o ut e f r o m th e G ulf of San B I as to t h e Ba\':.lIlo H ive .', wh i c h flo w s i nto th e P a c ific a bo u t 1 5 mil es fl'Olll t h e P a cifi c e n trai l ce of t h e pre s en t c anal i s a c r o s s th e narrowes t pal'l o f t h e I s t h m u s th e di s t an ce being abo u t 30 m i l es f ro m s h o r e t o S I I O I 'C. r j h e d i s tan c e fl'Olll t h e Atl a n ti c ti d ewat er t n t i d e wa t e r i n th e Banlll o Rivel i s a b o ul two-t hi r d s o r t h at d i s t ance This rou t e w a s e xp l o r e d u n d e r th e di r t.'ct.i o n of l\lr. Fre d er i c k ;\L. K e l l ey in 1 8 5 i a n d !'uh s equ e ntl y a n ex p e d i t i o n u n d e r Co mm a nd e r Thom a s Oli n r Se l f r i d ge. J r., I 2!l I

PAGE 34

1-, S. :\., in 1870 '1'11(di f licult\' h e re. on the Calidoni.t route, lie s in th e Ill lgh! \)1' Ih e SUllltuil to cruss w l i i c h tunneLs from ei g ht t o len llIile s lon g \n. r c a I s o Iwnpo.;cd h e 1'l'sult of ;1111111' .... c {'xpioratiulI"; llId surn',"'; I'l's ull c d ill the co n \'ict i on that 110 other roule l'mupal'ed in practicability wilh thai of Panama and 1\i<.:11-This route. utiliz i ng I.ake :\icaraglla and th e :-;"11 Juan H i,cr. w hich flows out of it inlu the .\tianti c was used as:1I1 islhmia1l tr;ll1sil h," the :O;panianl s as early a s J.3'l!l. It bCe:lllll the subject of inY<.'stil-:"atioll a s a poss i hle Callall'Ouh' ill ISQj, when the Ill'wl r f ederated slatc of Ccntral .\nwri c a advise d th e { ni l cd =--t:ttcs 111:11 it wou l d '('llcuuragc ,1lI,\' s uch prujl' ct h,Y America ns. Sc\'cral HI'''e ,'''' \\"('1"(' made, but III) c;oll.:;tnI
PAGE 35

T Endicott, U S. K .. find Civil Engineer Alfred :'\oblc. The,\' repOl"l c d that the Canal wa s fC:l s i b l e but re commended furt her survcys ; lIld inve s tigation:: . OJ comn.liss i o n ,! as by whiclt, ( Oil, s l s l cd of R caI' AdnHral J ( \\ alkc!'. CI)lo n e i I elel' C. Ilnills. and L (,\\"\ s 'I. Ilaupt. HcfOl"c the wOI"k of Ihi s commiss ion was completed Congress provided. in IS!)O, for inc r e a s ing it for t h e purpos e of making SIII'H'ys. compal'i'-:olls and a ,cxaminatio!l ?f all mute::; fr'OIll Tehu:lnlcpcc to ,th e \ !r:1l0 Hl\' CI'. lhe Comnllssl o n WllCh bec;unc know n :I S t h e I s th mian (anal Commiss ion. was 1I0W reinfo rced h,\' the appointmcnt of (()I onel O. II. E rn ... !. Alfl'c d :\oblc. Geo. S. ) I o rri so n, and Willi nrn I t Burr, cnginl'cr:s, tlnd Pl'of<'-""o] Emory It, Johnson and Samue l I'asco ai' ex per!.", o n t he C(IIlImere i a l ;mel political a s pect s of Ih e prohlem, E x ploration s we r e madc of tlte entire l s t hmus but n o faYlll"abl c route wa s foun d olhcr Ihan Ihat :11 and thnt at Pnnama, The COlli mi ss i o n reported nn \ ''''' ('rnhcr \(i, J!JOI. in favo r o r t h e con:s tru ctio n o f a canal across \,ic' lraglL;!, pm\"ided t h e properl," (If the \'c w } r c nc h Canal Company o n the of l'anama could not he pUI'c h a sc < 1 for $ .. 1-0, 0 0 0,000 n e arl, one-third of t h e price a s ke d The total leng t h of th e canal proposed al W,Ii' al)OIlI 1 8 7 miles:, mile s of w hi c h wa s in deep waleI' in I.ake \,iC:lraglta 1 7 lllile s in the ri"cr IlOt requiring improvement, leavin/! 1 2 1 mill' s of ri\'(']' to he c IIIl.liizeri. It was t(l have nine locks. The d iflic ull i es which would ha\'e t o he m 'c r co m e arc ,!f, out the s a m e a s at Panama. j l o\\e\'( r. the lonw'r d i slance at \'i caragll:l and the P!'oxillli l), 10 acli"e vo lcanocs ma d e i t lei'!i'! des,ira h l c Ih ,lIl Ihe l.',mama r'OlIIe, I h e llliler w a s more advantageous h ('('aIlSC 01 th e I'anama rarlro ,rd and Ihe extens i v e planl :md work o f th c French. 1' .,:\. \ ;\1.\ The Panama Canal p l'Oje('\, like Iht:' was th e subject of llHlny studies and s urvey s the fir s t. a s s t at er! abo"e. made in 1 5:H .Kon e of Ihe sur\'eys how c"er w e r e thoro ugh prior 1 0 the olle made by Ihe l s thmian Canal Commiss i o n in 1 890. S i mon Bo1i,;lI'. in 1 827. c;llJsc d a s ur\'c,' t o be made o f th e roul.e b y an Englis h .... uncyor alld in 183.3 t h e Cnitc d Siaie s scnt C h arle-" B iddle t o i nv estigatc poss ibl e waleI' or railroad routes a c ros s t he hlhmus. H e ohl :lincd tl concess i o n from \'l'W Grana(i;1 ( CnlumIJia) for a rni l road. but n othing rur ther wa s d o n e a t Ihal l im e A r(Ow year" later, 1 838, a company o f Frcndllllcn obtained a s im ilar (' ollc(,-""i o n. and a 1 '('pol' l that a summit pa ss of 3 i feel aoo"c s e a le\ 'c l causc d t h e FI'ellc h GO\"('nlllle nt to s('n d out :\:l1'olcon Carella to make a SIII'W'\' w hich this ermr. H e l'('c ol1llllcnded a l oc k (',lIla l with a summit Icvet (If .. h o ul 160 I'l'c! a bo\"(' sca !c\"c!. a illll nei o f mi les the di\'ide, and 1 8 l o e b 10 make th e rl' (flli rcd lift. II was n ot until :\L a y. IR76 t hat th e GO"erlllll ent or Colombia g,we t o Ihe Fre nc h Can a l Com-\),IIlY t hl' co n cess ion IlIIdel' w hich th e first ('an a l work w a s done. altho u g h the "lan,lma I'ailmad w a s built in a nd o ther J;\tl'ven; had been mfld e under Ih e direct ion of thc l'niled S l a\('s (;On'rtllll CJlt in 1 8(W. W hile the F renc h were fli work o n the Canal ma n." studies W('I't' made of the project h Y oflicc r s of th e [nited Siaies \'avv. 1 ;11 J

PAGE 36

I 1 730 to tra de acro ss th e b lh mll s was at a stands till and o l d rack trail s f r om Porlo B ello a nd from Cruces o n the C hn g r es beca me nearly obli t e r ated through dis u se. S p a in' s bela t e d change of policy. the g rantin g of f r cc trade to t h e co l onies, came too late t o be of mu c h henefit to Pana m a. A few s h ip s di scharged t h eir cargoes a t t h e m outh of t h e Chagrcs f()]' tmlls l 1 o ltalion ovel' the C r u c es tmil, b ut the r e were n o ade quate facilit i es f o r han ( ling an," great amount of trad e had the r e be e n any. What little trad e there was went arollnd Cape Hom 01' v ia the Cape o f Good H ope. T he Isthm lls b ecame a place of s o litt l e imporlance that it wa s I'educ e d fro m a vicerc gc nc," in 1718, w h en i t bee.tme a pro\' ince of 1'\ew Granada ( the oid name for Colomb i a ) 11. obtained i t s ind e p endence from S p ain o n Se p !embe r 26, 1 821. In 1 8 4 9 h o we\'e r t h e Isthmu s a gain came t o lif e w ith the s t eady flow of em i gr:ll1ts bound for Clll i forn i a. whe r e h a d bee n di s covere d dlll'ing the l)I'e \ ioll s ye;u. Calif0nLia alld Oregon had a l s o been thrown o p e n to s ettle men t and th e I sth mia n tran s it b ecame a lmost a n ec e ss i ty, for the only othe r mean s of communicat i on with thos e s tat es wer e the l o n g ove r land journey b y train t h e American cont i n e nt. a n d t h e l o n g voyage around South Ameri ca. Thus the Isthmus a s a tmcle route a g ain c"\lne to t h e f r o nt. The lldnlntllges of an Isthmia n mi lr o nd a s a m eans of d ev eloping t h e trade o f t he Pnite d Sta t es wil h the growi n g r epu hli cs of Central and Sou th America was realized a s carly a s 1S:15, w h e n Pre sident Andrew J a c k so n appointed Mr. Charles B iddle a s 1\ comm i ss ioner 1 0 v i s i t the diff e r ent r o ut es be s t a dapted for inleroceanic com m unicati on b r n1i] o r bv water be t wee n the two ocean s. Mr, B iddle \ i s ited the Isthmus we; l l t o Bogo'ta and o b t ai n e d from the Govemment of :\('w Granada a conces s i on for co n s t ructing a mi lr oad across th e Am e ri ca n I s t hmus. H e returned l o th e L'ni ted S l ates i n 1 837 with thi s d ocu ment but di ed IJcfore b e w a s abl e to p r e p a r e n r e port so n o thin g furth e r wa s done at t ha i lillie, In I s n. a French s.Ynd i eale, h ea d e d by l U n t e o Klin e o btain e d a s i mi lar con('(>s .;;iol1, but w a s ullable 1 0 I 'aise t h e m o n ey ne c essary to calTY out t h e w\llk In D ecembe r J::H8. three far s i g hte d Am ericans, W illiam H. A s pinwall Ht'nr.Y C haun cey a nd J o hn L. S teph e n s, e n te r e d i nt o fl co ntra e l with New [ :12 1

PAGE 37

ITED Granada t o bui ld t h e ro a d, :lnd tlte P analll:l Il a i lr()ad Compan, wit h a capi tal izat ion of $I,UUO,OUO. wa s inc'orporatcd under a chal'lel' frl'allied in th e slate 01' Xc\\" York. As pinwall. in the same ye ar. ohlained fl"Om Con g rc: 'el and a c ross the 10w13n d s of the GalUn Lake region a number o f lon g and high trestles lor emban k ment f ill5. som e of them 9 0 feel high. had t o be b ui lt [ 33 J

PAGE 38

it wa s fea sihle. I n th e cOld,\' ["II"I of HH!L :I p:rt'I," of e n g in eer's in c1la g c of Colo nel C. It Ilug h e s o f the '!lited S lates Topogra phic :lI Corps, was sc nt to l o (,ale th e lin e. F i rl!ling: a :;lummit ridge of 'l87 fce l. a l ine was laid Ollt not e xceeding.]O mil(' s ill lellg-Ih 1'1"0111 0('(';111 to ocean. w i th t h e Allantic terminus on :\an' B:I\ a s Limon B; Til l : I', \:>; .UJ. \ H .\ILIIO.\I> Cle a ring OJI \ranz anillo Island hegan in \ray, I S,jO, This w a s a low pll) l of laud III' about GOO a('I'e s separated f roll1 th e mainland b y a :11'111 of the sea and i s the s i t e of the present cil,\' of Col o n Although e leanngs h at! bee n made, l 'I..'sidcn ce upon th e i sland w a s impossi ble and for the [ .1 J

PAGE 39

C ) liE Ix'\ND U ITED firs t few mo nth s the m en engage d i ll mak i ng t he surn',' s and th e lahorcrs brought fmlll C
PAGE 40

The largesl rail road b r i dge on Ihe n e w lin e s p anning I h e C hagres Rh'cr a l Gamboa. II i s 1 ,320 fecI long T h e Chagres R h 'er empties i n l o Ihe Can a l 3 t t hi s pOi m in th e follo win g m onth. 1 000 pa!'sc ngC'rs we r e car r ied t o that s tatim] f rom Col on. T he s e pa ss c n gc [ s h a d lIrri,' c d at C llltgrc s for th e C ali l'ornin. tmn s i l i n Iw" s h i p s hut COllid n o t he landed th e r e on accollnt of a h e a "., storll1, and we r e at C nl o n T h i s happe n e d most o p p o r t u nel y f o r th e r ailroad. a s th e o l j g inal million d ollars h a d heen exp e n d e d and t h i n g s w e r e beginning t o look dark t o I h e s t uc kh { )ld e r s \\,h e r l th e n c w s r c a c h e d :-.;rc w Y o rk Ihal passcngcr s had h een carri e d a s far a s C a hill, s e ,'cn mi l e s h y m il. e,'c n though t hc," h a d been c al'l'i c d o n fla t cars Ih (' eompan.\' s s t.ock i m m ediately I'O SC in pric c The w o rk wa s plts h e d ( III w ilh n 'll(.'wc d i gor. for. frolll thi s t i m e o n there wa s a s mall and s t e m l.,' inco m e w hi c h could hc a p p lied 10 t h c con struction e xpense. I n J1I1., l S J'2. th e m a d h a d r('a ehe<.l Barhacoas. a tol a l d i s tance of m i l e s w here i t w a s nece ss a r y t o construct 11 bridgc 3 0 0 f e e t lo n g to span the C lrag'r es. all Oe1o lJ('1' H I :'III'_ J ohn I.. S lc ph cll s w h o wa s 1)I'es id clIl of I h ecomp a n ,r. d i e d i n :\cw York. ami hi s s u ece ....... o r. :'Ill'. W C. Young. deci d e d t o have I h e 1'(-'lllllind e r or th e wo r k lU:compli s h e d 11.'c o n t ra ct. The cun tmctor, h o\\'c ,er. faile d It) fulfi l l h i s a lld aftc r 11 ye a r's d el:t.' the company a ga in d ec ided t o do the \\'OI-k_ O F 'l'1[E On t he 'l7l h o f J a nu a r y 1 8 5:;. a t mid n ig h t a nd in m in. t h e Ins t rai l t o th e sUlllmi t rid g e :It Ctlle".-a. :17 m i l es f rum Colon and I I m i l es fr o m Pan,tln a w a s laid a n d in t h e meantim c. w o r k had be e n a d\'a n ci n g s t eadil y f r o m P a n ama. ('it to w h i c h p oint mate r i a l h a d heen tran s p o r te d a round Cape I l o rn On t he I'ollo \\'i n g day, t h e fil's t locolllo ti, c p ass e d f r o m o cean t o o cean. n e arly fo ul' ye a r s
PAGE 41

Allhou g h tra c k had b een laid fro m ocean to oc ean, th e I':Jilt'oad w a s in poor physical cOllditioll. and it wa s not until IS.')!) thai its con s truction account WlI. finally closed, at a lolal expenditure up to t hat time of $8,OUO.000. The road was pro / }crl,\' ballasted. heavier rail s werc lai d. Il."ing hardwood l i cs. hridge ... of il"On r ei) aced wooden structures. ; Hal station huildings and Wh;lITC'; W('l'e crcc tc(. T o ems,:; waterways. 17 U bridges tlnd cuh'crt s had heen built and the woodell bridge al llal'bacoas was replaced h y one o f ir on. The road w a s a pa,"ing inve stment fl'Ollllhc lime w h e n the firs t 11 milt s were opened in I S, i ? f01". a s sectio n s wer e bu ilt put inlo S('l'nee r o r pasSC'ngers and I rClgh I. and at tlu' end of 1 S.).). the .VCi I wo pel' cent. ill I S8.). ilnd th e largt':;1 pCI' cent. i n 1 8 68. I n 1 86J. th e capi tal s to c k was increa s l'd from $5. 0 0 0 0 00 to *7.00U 000. I n 1 881, the )'elll' when the r o nd was s old to the Freneh Can al Compan,\
PAGE 42

C) HE L&-Q_J2l:NI'ilJD;?ElD2.,-;::--<<...C)r:H E YtlOJ]!->ELUNJ]'ED di\'idcnd of IH']' {'('til. d('clarcd. hlillhi:. Hoi 0111,\' J'epresented th e ('arniugs f o!' thai ,n:;!!'. hili also illcluded the a :-;sds and :'Ill' plll ... OIl hand a l !hallin'\('. J<:.\lII.Y IL\'I'fo;:-; :>:I-;.\I(I.Y I'HOI[IIlITIYI: The foI1O\\inJ.{ i;lhle of rall's'l'lac(d in ('fred whell iiI< mad was fir,,1 opt'llcd in IR.).), 1'l'lIlaim d in fllJ'('l' for 2 0 ,n'al ',..,
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America This line continucd until Odol)('I'. IRi'Q. \\"IH II it takcn OY('I" 1,\the Pacif-ic 'Iail Steamship COlll j 1;lTlY . \ 1011(' lilll(' the !'Oati had \iu c (If ii.; OWII Oet ween :-).111 Fl'a llci..;co and )anama, bul tId,., was withdrawll ill In the present Panama R aill'Oad Steamship LillC wa" (.'sI1lhli..,hclllnllcr bont s were se nt to Pnnama. and th esc IlIcrcly to nct a .. fecdcrs t o t he main line on their l"('tUI"Il south. This of \lncring no to l ines a l su forced the Panama .\"e\\ -Zealand [ 39 1

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o o o L o o o o o Th" hcadquarlerso f Ihe P :mama Ihitroad a.c located : lI Col o n The n e W li n e runs On the cast side o f the and i s H .1l mi le>! long. It <:o n.plclcd on May 1.5,1911. al a COSt of $8,98 4 .922. 1 8. [ 10 [

PAGE 45

rand Aust m lian S \ camshil) Compan," to g i ve lip it s attempt to inaugura te : t mon t hly s e r vice v i a \\"el jng l on to :::i,nlncy. eonnl' <:Iin g with the Roy al I ail Sleam P a cket. Company. operating between Sou thampton a nd Cuio n. I n s p i te of th i s ]1olie," of laking morc tlLan th e trade could the railroad contin u c d 10 di,: idcnd s bul it wou l d undouhtedly have don e a muc h more profitable bu s iness had ilcndeavored \0 hdp. in s tead 01' opprc""ing th e growin g trade of Central and South America. I:,\, OWX EH SIIII' '''hen t he Frcn c h operatio n s were begun i n 1 881. the Fre llch Canal found that in order to build 11 canal i t would fir s t have 1 0 g :lin th e consen t or t h e railroad or to purchas e it. The latter p l an wa s follow('d, and in J U ll e of that ,'car. 68,88B of thc 70,000 shares werc obtained fIJI' a littl e lw e r $20,000,000 or t wo and ollch alr times what thc road had uriginatt," co s t to build, III addition t o thc amounl expended rOT' ;<:hares han u s e s paid broup;hl t h c lot al cos t to a litt l c ovcr !ti2J ,OOO,OOO, When the l'nit e d S tates. all :\I a" k took o\'cr t h e af f ai r s of the :\cw Fl'cllC'h Canal CompallY. thcy ( 01111(' III t o posscs sion of thes e shares, and ohtained thc rl'mainder. 1.112 sharl';;;, by prinlte pur c hasc a t u co s t or 1.::i7,118,'l L or an a\'erag:e price of !iiI ,W,OO pel' ,,,hare, rhe e n ti r c s lock of t h e Panama H ail road and St eamship Company i s no\\' owned by t hc Lllited Stalcs with the exccption o f onc s h;u'c tr;JnsfC I'I'e d to ('ach o f the di rcctors to cnablc the m to qualify unde r the art icle s of in coqloralion, The C h airman n n d C hief Engineer of Ih e Isthmian Canal Commi ss ion i s a l s o Prc s iden t of t h e P a nama Radroad Com pan\', S inee i t has bccome a government-owned corporation. the road has be come secondary t o Ihc C; \lwl work, a lthough i t i s a common carrier. and carl'i cs The railroad slation a t Gatun, which is t h e o nl)' station o f a pernl:lncnt type so far constructed, excep t a l Colon and P an:!ltI:! Cit)'. 1 11 I

PAGE 46

C I HE h MI;> m ,!), 11 ITED O l d \ Vas h i n t.:to n H o t e l s h owinJ.:: 5 1 atue o f the P a n a m a f ounders, H enry Chaunce y \Vm. II A s pi nwall and J o h n L Stephe ns. A n e w m o d ern h otel has l aken the p l ace of t h e old one. a b o ut iO.OOO t OilS o f co m m e rcial f reig h t a m onth, whic h i s abo u t o n e-hal f of th e tota l amo unt. th e bala n c e beillj! hlilld l c d for t h e company a nd for th e Ca n a l w o rk. W hell the mad wa.'i IlIl"Ile d o v e r I nt h e F r e nch it w a s fou n d to b e in a ne g l e ct e d ('01I(.Iilil)l1, w i l h ohsl)l c t c cq ,dpm cn l a nd rollin g s t ock. S i n ce th a t tim e t ermi11al w h a t'ye s, e q llipp e d w ith m ode m cargo cra n es have be e n ('011-s l r u clc d lerminal y ard:;, wareh o u s e s u nd m a c h i n e s hops p ro yid c d new a n d p ( I\H'rful i oco mn lin.'s. H o f w hi c h a re oil hu rn e r s, larger Ctlrs fo r passe nger s and f r e i g h t put in t o se n 'ice, h ea\ ier rail s lai d b r i d g e s s t r e ngth e n e d t o enable Ihe m t o carl',\" t h e h e H"ier equipment. and t h e who l e lin e d ouble-trac k e d Perman e nt r e inf o r ce d conc ret e s t a tio n s h a ,'e b een b u i ll a t Col o n Cahill and P,1Il1lllH I .mel 11 m o d cl'll con ('l' e t c h(l t cl t h e Was hingt on, cos tin g upward s o f $6JO ,OOO hOi"; hee n eon s l J'lIc ted 0 1 1 C olon h c a ch TilE SEW :>ours I ISE The l'<'Ioc1II e d 0 1 new main lin e of Ih e nlilroad n lll s on th e eas t s i d e o f th e cHlla l for' i ts cll l it'e len g th of n .tl mile". From C o l o n to J l indi. L 1i m i l es and fro m Corozal t o J'anama t h e ol d l ocati o n w a s u s ed. but t h e r emain in g U) miles ( I r e !lew m a d Fro m Gatlin, t h e l i ne s ki rt s t h e n o r t h .shor(> of th e lake for ahout foul' l11ile:o;, a nrl thell l ul'll s so ut h. th e eas te rn arm of the lake 011 a hi g h tn:<;t l e fill at an e l evatio n o f !),j fee l aho,' c .sea lc\"el. :\ca r C"imi l o th e roa d approHc hcs th e canal a n d p;II'allc l s it to G a mboa. Origin ally il w a s p lanncd to earl'," t h e roa d th roug h Cu1chra ClIt on a W f o o t h erm, 1 0 fec i tthon: th e w.II( .. le w1. hil t s1i<1es caus e d the a ],:ln donm c nt of Ih e project, and il WOl'i hllill 011 a h ig h I {'\'cl n rounc! Gold Ifill in S l ead. lis hi ghe.st p o int is'l7t r tJ 2 1

PAGE 47

fee t above sea le '-el ncar L a P ita. and where Ihe conlinelltal divide is cro ... sed, opposite Culebra. th e h e i ght is red. F rom the south end of Culebrn Cut at P aJ'aiso, t h e railroa d n m s p raclicnlt.\' parallel wilh Ihe canal to Panama. W here t he road crosscs t hc Gattln B i,cl. ncar Montc L i riu. a slcel girder b r idgc with a l i f L Sp:1Il h a s been ereded to permit sa iling craft 10 pass inlo Ihl' C"H,t arm of Ihc lakc. :md al Gnmboa. Ihe Chagrl':' H i"l' l is crossed wilh a sleel g irder bridh'"C one-quartcr of a m i l e l ong. \ t :\ I ira ftore s, thc road pa ",>es I II rough d wil h a shull Ie train scn'ice fro m Panama to Bas Obispo. the prese n t te rminus of the old douhl etrack lin e. The s hu tt le train s now cross t h c callal, ilcar Paraiso on a t rc.')ill' brid ge, b ul as t his wil l Ilaw 10 be removed t o permilth e n a"igl ilion of the c:l nal. a woo d c n pont oon b r id gc wil l be buill in Ih e same 10(,lll il), of suffic ient widlh for a sin g l e track and a ro;.u l\\":1,' for 'e h icle s T his i s not intcnded for a pc rmancnt c r oss ing but onl y 1 0 s tic h lime flS thc villages 011 the we s t bank of t h c (:.lnal can b e abandoncd South of Corozfll, II c hange w ill be made in the road wh ich will 111.1\"e Ih e ef reeL of placing t he n ew town of Balboa o n tilt., mai n line, with it s tcrminus a t P anama as at p resent. The rail road poss e sses modern passenger t e nuin ; d s fi t b o th c n ds. T hc onc i n Col on i s o f concretc block construction. a nd was open e d on J uly 23, H)OO. It is not particularly n\trac t i ve irom an a rchi lectu r a l s t n n d p oi n I T he ncw station in P;j na m a co.')1 i IIg a bout $ 1 00.000. WfiS compl e t e d in t h e lat ter p a r t of 1 0 1 3. T he o nly other s talion of a pe rmanent type so f a l co n st ructed is fit Gatun, bui l t i n WOO. I I > -The new HOl e l \ Vas h i n g t o n ::11 Colon. Cost abou t 8500, 000. Ope rated b y the Panama R ailroad. [ <:, [

PAGE 48

The total mi leage of th<-' l'Oad cxeltlli i w nf si dillg-s, i s '>S.7!J, a s folluw s : 'lain linc, m ilt,s; I' e d m "iguel to B a s OIJ i s po. D mile s, and l'an:llll\) scc
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I E F rcncll :!Itempt In CO llstt'\lct a waterway :u: t'()S S Illc ) "th m us was f o r e doomed 1 0 f ai lu r e hecause th e prnjccl fell ill t u the hall d s of p ro m ote r s an d s p cculn l o rs. \ conlrillutor," was the biglt s i c k a nd d ea th rat e t he F rench cmplo,"('s on t h e Isthmus. Thi s adde d g r e atl y to the cos t of adm i n i:;lralion an d re s ulted in nn unstabl e labor f orce. :\[:111,\' o f th e b e s t e ng i nee r s l eft t h e l:.thlllllS : I ftc r hur l sCI'\"icc. 01' dipd. and t h ese con stant c h a n ges m a d e it di(ficll lllo p u r ';\LC an,\ regular plan to ket p up a n cf rccl i vc o rgan iza li ,on t o CatTy o n t h e work. T he compan y had 1 0 11Ig h wages nnd oncr S pCCI:tI II1dUCCIllt.'lll s to pl'rsliarlc men to lake the c hance (It o n c in fiv e o f sun'i\'in g a n attack of ,Yellow f eve r which they were liabl e to contract, H a d th e work bC{'n i n charg e of a r ich and p owcrful go, ocrnment. pu blic o pini o n wou l d n o t have a l lowed th e work to have heen carried on a t s u<:h a n appal l i n g cos l o f l i fe. W he n t he (ntcrpIi s e w a s s ta l 'ted the met h od of t ransmi ss i o n of m a l a r i a a nd n:-l1o\\' f cve r wa s unknown :lI1d. e,'ell if the French had takc n t h e sanitar y prec: i ut io n s p rev ai liug at that t im e, they could not ha\' c s t ampe d out th e s e t wo fc\ 'cl's w h i c h gave th e I sthmus the reputation of be i ng t h e moslunhealth y p lace ill t h e world for a w h ite m all, A s a p r i vatc corporatio n i t cou l d n o t enforce sanitary rcgul ali()J\s had i t dc" irc d to do s o for, un like th e Unit e d States il d i d not acquil 'c :Ibsolulc jurisd iction ove r the Canal stri p b u t wa s a t Ih e m e r cy of t he Col o m h i a n court s, Othe r cau ses were ex travnganc e. w h ich n a t u rall,v devel o pe d into g ra ft. r ol' the s uppl y of money w h i c h eam e flow ing inlo th e cofl'er s o f the compan. \ f r o m eager in ve s to r s beguil e d b y t h e n a lll e of D c T ,esseps seemed inexhau stih le: t h e la c k o f s uit a h l e mach i nc ] '),. t h e wallt of prepa ra t ion. and leadcrs hi p All th ese mi s t akes ha\'e scn'cd as warning s i g na ls to the Cana l Com mi ssio n so t h nt th e f a i l u r e of the Frcnch ha s cont r ibut e d i n II large m c a s u re. t o t h e s u ccess of the America ns. Ill': The fir s t F re n c h Cnna l Com\)nn\,. L a Societe I nternaliona l dll Canal lnle r oceaniqlle inaugura t e d th e u n ( e rt ; l k ing w i l h all cxcillsi,'c cOllccssio n f r o m Col o mbia. b u t wit h a n i ncomple t e su r vcy of thc prop o sed wMI.:. tlnd a n c l i m:'l t c o r cos t a n d tim e p laced muc h t oo low, The necessary mo n ey wa s [
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Count F erdinand de Lessepso His n a m e will ::Ilw3)"s be linked wilh the Ilr eat enterprise it was under his direction and cOfllrol Ih31 the wor k fir s t took definite formo ohtained f rom t h e French mi ddl e <:lasses. w h o wer e i nduce d to p art "oilh t h e ir 1I1!"oug h the ma g i c name o r F l'r d ill;tt l d de L e sscps, w h o h a d j u s t hrought to a SlICl..'cs<;ful <:lo s e hi s great work a t Sucz, tllI(l lto w a s pla ce d n t t h e h ea d o f I he n e w e nt e q)]"iseo D e L csse p s was hOllcst and s i nce re, hut h e was a n old man s o m c what b lind e d by h i s p r e ,Oin!!:; go od I'or lu n e, an d o I h c r cl'ore. ea sily d elu dedo H e w a s cnthusiastic o\"('rOth c i dcll of n cana l co nn ec tin g th e o \t1 ant i c with th e PHcifk, a n d m n d e himsclf a n d others bel i eve thalthe work co u ld b e ncco lliplis h c d m ore quic kl y and milc h easier th a n th e S uezo Hi s abili t y a s a missi o n a ,')" m a d e him \Oalu_ a hle to the p romotc!"s fo!" th c d i fficu lti es of I h e work acr oss t h e Isthmus a s com-IJ a r ed wilh t h e wor k a l Suez s h ou l d l ave bcen apparent cve n to th e layman o lie was not an expe r t engince r ; it di d 1101. oequire ,-tno\' c n gi n ee tOing a bil i ty but merely i magination, t o s ec the practi c a b ility o f cutti n g a sea l ev el c h a nn el t h rough t h e l ow desert ,oegi on of uppe. o Ego,o pt while a l P anama, a hi ll)' a n d I I I 1111 Former of De Lessells Criscobat o now lIsed b y the Canal Commissiono I G I

PAGE 51

rock country had to be tra\'ersed, torren tial strcarns din-rlccl. and a tidal basin COl lstructcd. problems whic h th e world's foremost e n gi neers have difl'crcd in the s olut i o n An d ,,'cl D c L esse p s sin cerely helieved thai he \V, I S 1 0 achic\ c a triumph. and mllch casi?!' than his fin .!. e n ,le Sucz C:u1a1 was III 1869. look t e n \ 'car s 10 budd. llnd cos t aboul $100.000.000. or a Illlihon dollars tl mil e. This low cos t was due to the fact t hat th e cut was llI.ulc Ihl"Ough a stre ich of leve l sand. and Said Pash:l th e Kh edive of Eg ypt. a larg-c st(wk h o lder i n t h e e nterpr ise, practi cally forced his suujccts to work 011 the project in mll c h the SHmc manner as ltamcscs o f old } pnOCUR!:\G Tin; COX CESSIOX The c once ss ion for th e privilege of con structing th e Canal wns ohln incd from Colombia in :\ra,\' 1 87 6, by G e neral Stephen TUtT, a who had acquainted w i th .t;.csscps when the latter pJalllli!l g h i s w,ork ttl Suez, and who wa s later JIlc t ted b y tile Fre nchman s s u c ces s III an cHori to duplicate the fea t at Panama. J [ c organized a provi s ional company in Fr;lIlce an d sent an engi nee rin g party L o th e I sthmus in .\"o\ember, 1 8iG, to make explorat ions and sun'cys. The party wa s in charge of Lieutenant .\"apokon D Ollnpart \\',\"5C of th c Frcnc h ,n of General T iirr, and. at that tllne 23 years of age, ] he hrst eX]ledtho t t wa s o nl y partl," slIccc,;;:,;;:iul. se"cral of it s m embers fal l i n g victims to d i sease. "","sc W[lS again sent OU! ill t hc s l ) rin g of 18i8 with Lieutenant Arman d llccius, al s o of th e F rellc h .\"01",'" On Ilis trip. a ncw co n ces s ion, approved 1 8 .. 1 ,878. in the nnnH. o f t h e a Ssoc tatton pt'es tded o,'et b y GCllet'a l I (in. WILlCIl modtfled altd th c former onc, s o as to gi,'c thc l)I'olllo ters thc excill s i"e privile g e of huilding a cunal across th c Isthmus nll"w tcre wilhin the Uni t c d of Colombia. This concess i o n wa s to rcma i'n in force f)!) ,\'car s, pl'o\' ided thc n c ( cs,.;ar," mi ss ion was o htained f rom the Panama ltaill'Oad whidt held a I I .. The old pOri o f Colon i n U 8 4 during (he early r ench days. This photograph was taken with a Wet plate. a relic of photography, -17 1

PAGE 52

f CriStobal SIr!'c! scene in the Fren c h The scenes o f the o l d F r e n c h days have chan g e d wilh newer ideas. T h is section is now filled w i t h roomy h o u s e s and tIU:lTlCr S f o r t h e canal employes and I. C. C. manuf:lctudnj;: p l a nts. monopol,\' of the I s thmian !'Oute. \York was tu be begun 110 t l a ter than 1 883, ,111<1 was to be completed w i thin ,rears, w ith an extells i o n of s i x years i n c a se the origi n a l IeI'm IlrO\ cd too s h ort. Although \\"y:;;c wenl o.nr not m orc t ha n two-third s of th e d i stance fr o m Pnnama 10 Colon, he s u b nlltied what were suppose d to b e complete p lans and a statement of co s l for :1 sea Ic\'cI canal be t wee n t h c t wo points f ollo w i n g t h e l i ne of till' Pana ma nlilmad. The s e pl:ms and est imates were submitte d t o an inlcrnatioTla l cngi n cl'r ing co n g r e ss whic h was convened i n P aris, :'Ifa.'" 14-20 1 87!). in accordnnce with the terms of th e concessio n with F e r din a n d d e L es s c p s at its head. T hese p lans wc r e th e ba s i s of a deci .sion by t h e co n g r ess ill favor of a sea level can al, follow ing t h e !'Ou te o f the P:'lIlama r a i l r o a d by wa y of the pass :1t ('tllebra usillg th e valley of the C hagrel> rive]' o n the Atlanti c s ide. and the a l le\, of the R io Grande on l h e P acific s ide of th e co ntin e n t a l di, ide It is pe rtin ent t o note that i n th i s co n g r ess, co n s i st in g o f 1 3 Gd e l ega tcs from Franc e, Ger ma ny. the U lli led Siales and o th e r c ountr i es, o n l .J.Q we r e engineers, whi l e the remainder we r e pro m o ters p o l i t i c i a n s, s pecu l at o r s, and p e r s onal friend.s of De L e ss('p s The "'.\se concess io n a n d pla n s w(' r e "sh o v e d through, uppro,cd. :wl! Itlm ed o 'e r t o L a Soc iete I n ternati o n a l dt! Cana l lnlcroc e:lnique. commonly k n own as t h e f i r s t French Canal Com pa n y fo r
PAGE 53

, " -, -, 5 -o " 'i : ;:I 0' ---_. 0' -;;-= ... ;:J --

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PAGE 55

n u m ero u s rece pt i o ns a n d ba nq uets tendere d him. he sa id: <'T lict'c arc onl y two great difficulties 1 0 be overcome, t h e Chagrcs H i\ 'cr. and th e deep ::II the summit. The f i rs l can be sUl'm .lunlcd by tlu.: headwater s oj' the rh' c r into anol h e r eha n !leI. and the second will d is;1 ppca r 1 d ore till, we l l s \\"11 i ell w ill be sunk < \lid c harged wit h cx plosin's of s ufli c icnl forc e to I' CIllO\'C \ ".;;1 quanti t i e s at eac h d i sc h a r ge. The engi neering cOlllmissi o n after a s u p crfieial f'tud, v of tll<" route a nd f tlrlllc r i ncomple t e s urn'.'" ... in 11 report submitted FelJ ,'uary 14, 1880. e slilllall'd t he co s t a t $168,600 0 00. T he e n g inee r ing co n gress es t ima t e d the ('osl at $214, 0 0 0,000. On F cbru a r,"2 0 D c L c.'iscps reduced thisl's li rwlte 1 0 0 0 0, n nd again on :\La n : h I without apparcnt rca so n to Thc proposcd s ea leyel canal WilS to h a ,' c a uniform d epth of .. j feel, a hottom w i d th of i 2 fccL and a wid th o n t h e watel' l inc of about !)Q feet. and iJ1\'oh' c d ex cHvntioll est ima t e d at l vi,Q OO,OOO cubi c y a r d s The cngillccring congl'P"S e s tim a t e d sc ycn or e i g ht .,ca r s as th e t ime required t o (!omplete t h e WOI'k. D c Lc<;scp s with h i s usu a l optimism, I'cdu(!cd 111(' tim(! t o six "car,,. To control the floods of the Chagl'{>s H i\'( ,I'. various schemes were IlI"opo s cd Ih e p r i n(,j pal o nl' b e ing Ihe constru("!iol1 of .. dam .. 1 Gamhoa, a littlf' lclow Cruces, and t h e construct ion of channels 1 0 t h e "COl to carry t h e im]>nunded waleI' away fr o m th e c lIla!. On itCCount of t h e 1-\"1"I'<1t diffcrcncc in the tides of Ih e two oceans, a maximum of two nnd o l leh nlf feel in the \ t1ant i c and 2 1 fcC't in th e Pac ific, a tidal bas i n o r loc k wns t o ha,' c been built at t h e )I. win c entnlll("e (The high t ide o n the Pacif ic s i d e i s duc to t h e fact that I h e n ay of PanOlln:! i s funlle lshapc d ) ;\0 work was C,'cr accomplished on cither of t hcse two Front Slreet, Colon, durin g the flo uri,hinj;: F r e n c h day s. w ith the car at the o ld d e pot. [ <9 [

PAGE 56

.. --, SAL BOA I .... lIi[ fRfN CI1 DAYS .. A Io(TOUP o f views of Ualboa a n d the canal entrance a n d o perations, d u r i n g t h e days o f bot h the First and Second French Comp:lIl ics. The w h arf was th e first construc l",d by Ihe F renc h The one_sidell dUInp cars s hown in t h e \ O l l pictur e arc n o w o bsolete. [ 50 J

PAGE 57

proiccfs. ..-\ dam al Gamboa w[ts found lat('r In be illlpr 'aclic nblc, and the prohl clIl of tho di"cr s io]l of Ihe Chagl'cs Bi w'l' wa s left to some future lime. L'Ul'C,lll.\1'I"'(; TilE wonK On January I, 1880 the ('CI'CIIH)n," or the g'rnund W i]" 10 han: heen p erforme d h y 0(' l,t.ssc\,S al th e mouth of the ((if) Gnllltle. ahout tlm, 'j' mile s we s t of Panama cit."" h e hoat bearing 11 part," of ladic,.: and gcnlkmcil w h o wer e t.o lake part wa s dcbryed in :ila l'lin g wIth the 1'('-.1111 111,11 it could lIot O"('l within two 0]' three mile s of Ih e Oil ,1('COlll1l of the ebbing' tidC'. Thi:<. hOWC\'CI" di d not dampen th e ardor of t h e \'('!'-:atile Fl'cndllnan. :1<; tit(' :It'I'i' 'al of th e s t ea mer ill the entrance of the 1'jVCl' monlh was {'oll:
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The pic k a n d s h o \ c l briga de. late r T he B ullel in elu Cnnal Intel"oeea nique," publi s h e d by the c ampan." 1'01' Ihe I)('ne fil o f th e s t ock huld e r s of February 1 188.:.?, sl alt' s : "The fir s t w!lI'k in t h e g T eal cut or the marit im e e:mal wtlS formall.v inaug urat e d t od a y (Jan. 20. 18H'1), al Empire in til e prese n ce of t he dignitaries of th e slale, tile leading citize n s of the cil." and a great a ssemblage o f the I)e ople The fir s t Im'()IJwti" e h as a rri,'Cd a l iiI( newl," opened exe av'ltion TIc c i ty of Panama I;; ce l <']mtling th e e"ent with a g-re;lt fete D c L e sscps l eft Col o n for t h e L"nitcd St at es on February 2'1, 1 880 for th e purpose o f interesting AllI cl' i ca n s in th e und ertaking. Alth o u g h h e wa s r ecei,'e d wilh 11 g real d ea l of en thu s i asm c c r'ywh ere, h e wa s unable t o di s pose of t h e s tock whic h he had thought full y rc s e n c d. Ameri cans wcre interest ed in a ca nal hul n ot i n a canal undel" Fren c h co nll'D1. H e then proce e d e d o n a .similar tOUI" o f Europc, whc r e he wa s more s u ccessful from a p ecun i a r." poi nl o f "i e\\,. Thc (ir s l i ss u e of .';luc k. GOO,oOO shares of $ 1 00 e a c h wa s subs c r ibed twice o\"el', mosll," ta ken in France. The s e shares were distribut e d a m o n g 1 00 000 pers on s indic:atint; th e g rcHt Frc n ch man's p o pul a rit y with th e people of hi s countr.". I n tSHS. w hCllth(' company fail e d. the lotal subs c ripti o n s, s t oc k s :lnd bond i ss ue s. h ad rl'ached $ : m:3.: :;Oj. I 00. n nd th e sha r('holders n urn be r cd 20 0 000. T wo .n'ars of fc\"('r i!
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negr oes f rom the ""cst I nd i es, and man y of them IH,ld dNical and othel' ... im ilolr positions. The white e mpl oy e ", mainl, from F r an ce. were lrc,ded with cxtr'CI1lC IrcnerosilL E<:OIlOI11\" was an unkllown factor ill the admini"lration o. of affair:; of the fir s t co m pan,'"' T he u\ 'cragc pa,' of a cle r k was $I:?i pCI' month, alld of a div i sion chicI' fro m $2 00 to $3 0 0 p ('1' mouth. \ ..rlcl' Iwo se r vice, fi,'c months vacation. wit h f ree lra\'cling (.'xpcn";l':-i to :ll1d from Fr"allc('. we r e g-rantcd. The hours of lahol' I'M the cleric:1I force was fmlll 8 to 11 a. Ill., and Ii! 1 0 [} p. Ill., !'ix hours It cia,'" F n'c quartcr:;, furnitllre. bedding-. lamp", k i tche n utensi l s, etc., were l1l"ovi ded. \ s there w a s no -"y,,!em uf a ccountirw 0 in \'ogue, man,\" did quite a profi tahle bus iness in the bu,ying and selling of the cOlllp an,\"'s fUI 'llilurc, This was mcrcly one of Ihc furms of grail ill "ogue, howe\"er EllorlllOu s salaries we r e paid to the direclors, l'IIJ.6Ileers. and other oflicers o n th e I s thmlls, The director-genera1.'S li"ed ill :t hOIl,",e tltat cost $ 100,000, now lIsed th c \ mcri c:ln Lcg.di oll in P allall'l,t Ci t y: thC',\' recei\"ed $JO ,OOO n rear :Ind w h en thc\" W(,lIt out 011 t h e work Ihe\" \\'t're allm\"{d *jO a day additional. Olle of th e privatc c al' s in w hi c h the." ro d e cust $ ,kl,OOO. L \ FOLIE There fo rmel'ly s tood o n an ari ificial terrace o n the slopc of \neon Hill a buildin g that cOIllJllanded read. ,' atlt-ntion f r o m pass er"hy 011 I lll' road f r om Panama to L a B oc.1. now Balhoa. Jt was th e pl'O"pedi, 'c homc of :'\1. J ule s Din g lel' probabl y t h e foremost of the firs t F rc n ch COIIIpl'ospectl\',c. because h e nc"c] occupied. it. -. Work on Ihc m ansioll w a s begun s h o rtl y 11lle r h e cam e t o t h e I s thmu s 11\ l'ebl'L1ar.,', 1883,
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The ill:l!;::e o f Empire in the old Fren c h days, The French beW:1I1 their l'xc:l":ltion in t h e Cut near t hi$ point i n 1881, first i t had 1)(''''1 1 ('al l t' d La Folit.' Din g k'" 01' Ding l e r 's F o lly, T he e x pel'ielLc(' of .:\1. D ingle r on till' hllllllll" ( o n tilut es, p l' l'hapl', olle of the s' ldril' s l inci d ent-. ill Fr"'ll(' h (',m,t! lIi5101'\ S tul'ie,,> (If the falal cif .. ,('( t h e dillltll<' of I h e I sLillnus \\'a..; !-aid to hin'l' 011 r'ol'l'ig-!I('I' r('acht'd FI'1I1Wt', hilt D ing-IN s{'o ffed al th .. ,..;c rt'port .. I '!lll gOill g 10 s h o\\, Iht' lII," he i'i ('I'('ditc d w ith h il\'i n g slIid litHt (lilly drunkard .. ,11Id tltt, di1>o .. ipall'd c ontra{'t ,n-Ilow /'c\'l'r ,11111 die," I n Ihi s 1>opil'it Ill' In'ullght w i th him to Ih{, l...,tlllllU:-, hi..; \\'if t !"Oll, alld lIi s ,.,ull. who w: .. m,lIlt' din'duroi'I)!) .. I ... ,..;horll.\' 1'( "idim 10 ydlo\\' fe\'( r nnd d i ed, ,,"II"( 'III(,lIlIy W(' ,l1 to "1'1111('''' Oil kan' of :l" .. el1c('. :11 111 11['011 th e return (If hilll .. dr ami In til(' 1 .. 11111111", hi .. md wilh tlte tall.. of h i s SOI L Oil hi .. 1'1'1 II I'll fro m a ",('('oTl d tri p to Fl':ltI{'(', hi" wife :11;";0 ;..;ickclIt' d and die d from til(' ,..;am(' f( lIi1>ol'a .. l', Din:-:-I('l' bil{'!' rdiwpti:-itt d hi:-1'0:-1 alltl \\'('111 I lac k 10 Fr:tllc(' a m all hr'okl'1I ill JIIind illill hOlh , \ \ the Iilll t tilt' \ nl{'r i ('all G m' ('J'lllllcnt louk po.s:';{,'l"if)ll. I,a Folil Dirlgll'" fl:lel /';111('11 i l lin I)ad i a l elecil,\', XC('lled I'('pair..; The French at work i n the CaDal at Cuc:lr.lch a 1885. JUSt arou n d the IlOint from Gol d I -lill. [ 5<1 I

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Can al belween Empire and Culebra, showin!>: r h e Frenc h merhod o f ""cav:l.Iion, in 1888. were made and for s everal .\ ear,; the huilding \\"a..; u tilized aii a d etention s ta tion for Ih e qu:n:lnline serv i ce. I I was :-;uld i n l!)J O for $ j'1.), and n 'III()vcd 1 0 make \\"ay for (JuarTY 011 Ihc :-;idt., o f IlilL D u n ng the pCl"lod of g r('H le s t aell \"It .1' tiw rl' 1\T I e pl"\)iJ:r 1,1 y 'l,()OU I l"ellch men on Ille lstllmns, 1111 non-imrnmu .. t < 1 .n'lle)\\" fen' I'. 1.11'1' wa s a gamble ,md. with no suitahle social din'I's i o n. Ihl'\' nuturalh' resorled to th e vnh' form s of Ulllll";l 'm c nl ill'llilalJle, Ih e saloon s g;imhling I"()OI1\:-;, alld hou ses of illrepute Cololl a nd Panama hecame the :\Iccca of t he oj' s l)cict y the l1onworker s who liv(' Oil v i ce. with t h e rc s ult th ai an eflicic lli ];i1 U)i' fun: c could not h c kcp l lon g under s uch COlldili ollS. ami jt was continually changing. I n Ihe cenler of Ihe CUI al I h e end o f Ihe firsl French Company's days, 1889. The first French Comp:my ollerat e d fro m 1881 10 1889. [ 55 1

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GI HE Culcbra CUI in thc earliest limes o f the second Frenc h ComlY.lny, 1894 TilE S ICK POOHLY CAHE!) FOn Two h ospitt d s were bu ilt i n 1 883, whi c h wilh addi tion s and .-.iterat i olls h a \ 'c bee n in cons t ant u sc b y lite A mericans. All co n hospit.:d o r i g inall y cost $J.6UO.000, and Col o n h os pital c os t a t o lal o f $ 7,000.000. The ho s pit als, alt hough fail'ly well equippe d wilh exc ellent do c t ors nnd su rg eo n s :\Ild s U /lpli c d with th e be s t medi c ine s and instruments of the lime, we r e poody m ana gc{. They w e r e h a ndl e d uncle r c ontrac t nnd th e admini stratio n Looking South from C ulcbr:a in thc second French Company's days, 1895, The second Frenc h Company oper:atcd from 1894 t o 1904 [ 56 I

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The CU I as 11 a ppeared i n 1904 w hen the American s bej.f.tn Ihe work. Conlractor's H ill on the right; Gold Hill o n the left. Note t h e succession of benches. lying one above Ihe oth e r The American s have followed this same m ethod in excavating. wa s left a l most entire l y to F rench Siste r s of Charit,' who. :dt h oug h thcy wer e devoted and religious women, were not train e d nurs es. The s e worthy women left the wl.lrd s at night urlcr \Hay er, clos i ng th c doo r s lind windows tight to kcep out thc nil r ht mi s t s. whie 1 w e re SUp\ Joscd to bring malarial fevcr Jellying th e pa t ient s w i th o ut any o t he r care t hall I Iat which wa s g iven hy th e l e ss f ee ble among t hcm se lves. W hen t h e war d s wel 'c opened for m o rnin g pr'aycr it w a s T h e "alley of Ihe R i o Grande in the French days. The presenl canal is between the h ills. T h e old Panam a Railroad bridge is shown at the south end o f the Cut. I 5i J

PAGE 64

Cj HE ;;:;;;;'-SICJ\E U ITED often found that so m e pntienl hnd d i e d dUI'in g the ni g h t, wh o m i ghl have be e n S<1\'cd with propel" attention. The leg s of the h ospi t al beds wc r e p l aced in tins of waleI' t o keep frum crawling' up. These pans of stagnant water ami also th e man. \ onlalllcnl ai basins cont:l i ningflower s and plants in the groulllls outside iliadI.' ideal hrccdill); place s for m osquitoes, and it i s quite probahle thai Illany patient,.; fell vidilll to fever while in the hOf;pilai s ufIerill g wilh so m e minor illn c .;s. dill' 10 t h e lII1.SCrCCllcd window:; ami doors The C u t in French tinws. showinj;( their cabJeway plan o f Cl
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CI HE ;;;;;:"Sr:l lHiE!jLlW.9J;11 lI), Ul' !J],EI2 Cndcr t he new canal co m pall." th e h ospitals W('fC turne d over t o the Sisters of Charity wh o took care of t h e few paticlIls admitted at II fixed charge. \ .. the r C \'CIlUC 1'1'010 patien t s was s m:dl, they had a hard time \(1 kC('I) thelll 0P('II at a ll and wen' compelled 10 sell (10\\' ( '1''-;, fmils. H:;;et a hlcs and 01 IeI' p rodu(I." from I h e hOl'pilal g-mwl( l s. W hell t h e AmcriC :lll s took charge I heS(' WOIlIt'II wcre replace d l.o.,' tra ined 1I1II'S(':';, 'I'll E ( 'lUSH The crash came in D ecember I S88. At thi s tim e had bee n expen d e d 011 th e Isthmus, 1111d in P aris. a tol a 1 o f 79.],01 7.00. This v a s l s um i s s aid I Q been ;'ollc-Ihin l expe nd ed 0 1 1 th e canal work one-third wa s t e d, and otle-thi .. d s hllen." or thai spent all'all:lma, s a [a r ies a nd expen ses of Ill:! nag-cllw llt a/!g .. ega Itd I G,:; rcn t s a lid Ill;! i 11-IL'nunce o f lea s ed prupe l t y, mate .. ial anel supplies, *2!),72'l,S.,) l i; bui ldings, $ 1:;.397,'282; eUlls t ru e ti u n mI{l e n gi neerin g expcllses, l a nd pu rc h u ses $!),,)O,G5,j; 11 nel mcd i cn I a nd rei i g ious 11 ttenda n ce, 7tiS, ] n v iew of t h e \"1Hi oli S forllls of g .. aft exlravagance and wasle, it i s nol slIrpri s i n g thai thel'e was s o l i ltle 1 0 show in actual wo .. k a ccomplis hed. \ 1 til(end of cight ,rears th e work wa s 0.110111 two-firth s ('ollll'leled. A I'-rench exc:I\':ltor :I .. ioneer tr .. n c h i n t h e sout h end of the Cut T h i s t h e best k nown method of exe:I\':lt i niol in that d : IY, The work Ici 1 0 contradol,.., n .. .'" few of wholll f;lithfull,\ Ihe sen i c e for w h ich they we r e pOIid, :'Ilan.'" Illoull' s mall fortu n es, Those w h o we .. e intrusled with the work of exc:t\'alio n wcre paid for the amollnt of whi c h t he," look fr o m th e c anal pri s m. A .. tlll' .. e was IlO data a\"ailah k on th e c o s l of s u c h work, i l wa s illlpo ss ihl e L o ('\,(' n e s t imat e w lt;tt Ihe ch a rge s houl d be, .Tn JlW1I\' c a ses the contradtlr s took t llil whal was mos t ea s ihCX{,:\,'nted, avoiding th e hard s pot s 011c not a h i e c X {'cptioll to thi s w a s th'(' dn: dgi n g wo r k done h,v I h e Am e r i c an Dredging ami Conlracting Compa n y. w hi c h dr'cdge d thc o penin g of t h e Can al from C olon t v beyond Catun. [ ,')t) J

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First Fre n c h Compa ny's day". DrerlJ,( c!l in the canal at Mindi. Two T e n c h I : ulder dredges workinJ.: on t h e C haj.fTCS River. opposit e Gorgona 20 years ago. The Fre n c h s u c ti o n dredge with the carrying pipe", were effecth' c in excavill;ng. but like their cabl e way" did nOI carry the spOil far enough. r GO I

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.:\lu c h worthless m a terial wa s shippe d 10 the l$lhmui'i, d ue to ill tI(h'iscd bU\ ing, the F rench manufacturers u1ld ouuted!,\ i n m an,' i!!stances cleaninghOllse t o thei l profit at th e expen s e of the Ca nal stock h older s. Wh ell t he Americans t ook over t h e pro perl y they found torc h li)!hts in o ne s torehous e apparently brought to the I sthmus to be u s ed in th e cclchmtiotl o f the o p e ning' of th e Canal. A t anoth e r time a 101 o f wooden s hov e l,;. made f['om O Il C pi ece were brou ght to light. They h :l\'c b ee n referred t o a s s now s ho\' c\ s, but wcre evidently intended for h a ndling s an d o r a s he s A I on or more of ru s l ed pen point s found in th e s tati o n er,\ s lore furni s h ed a d di t iona l proof a s to whcl"c so me of the mone\' w c nt. Early in 1 8S.), i t been me :ll) pa rcnt lhat th e Canal coul d not be completed unde r the s ea l e\'et plan w i t hi n t.le time or es timated cost. During the prev i o u s yea r th e r.r o moters f o resaw the end, and began to se ll their s tock. .:\1. Leon Boye r W 10 succeeded Di nglc r a s director had t im e to report before hi s d eath from rellow fcye r a few months after hi s arrinll on th e Isthmus that th e C
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fii ycl'. t o be with w a lcl' h,\' pUlllping, WilS d eci d ed upon. {"ndel' t h e Ill'W p lan, it \\ 'as e s timated thaI the cost would J'c;lch $35 1 000 ,OUO would requirc 10 yea r s t o huild Th('I'C had :dreadr OCCII s pent at thi s time Ilea 1'1\-and onl\' ahout \wo fifth s o f lhe wo r k had been aecOllq ;]il'il!cd. '1'1.<-, ('nd in \\'ork was fon\";tnlllllt!cr th e lIew plan until )'Ia,\' ISS!), whe n the COlll pun,\ bCCOIIlW h:lllk l'upt and a lil/lIid:dOI' was a ppointed 10 lake (bal'ge. l"ndcl' Ih (' l iquidator, tile wo rk f,{radull I," dilll i lli:;hcd and was fin,lIly silspended Oll ) Iay I .), It was SOI)ll J'(';Jli..:ed thal the ollly \\'a," :tn,\ l hi n g coul d he sa \-cd 10 Ihe :.\()(.:kllOldt 'I'S w a s to cont inue th e projed. L aIc in 1 880, th e 1 'C'Ct'in' r 'lppoin te d a COIlllllissi (Hl compos e d of Frcnch nnd for e i g n engineer s d l" ( '11 in lIuml Je r, t o v i s i t the I sthmus a nd dctermine whelher or not. th e ca nal cOllld he complcl ('d. This cOllllni .-; .... i oll reported 011 :\J a y 5, 18!JO, that a lock canal might bc completed wi thin e ight .,c a l s at ;I cost o f $ 1 7 4.GOO,000. I t I"cpot"lt'd Ihal t h e plant on hand wa s in good condition and would probabl y Old French locomotives, One hundred and nineteen o f these were rebui lt and used b y t h e American s. sldHcc fOl' compl eti n g th e canal. I I al s o estimate d t h e \'alu e of lh e plant and till' work alre. u l y accompli shed at !iiS7, ;jOO,OOO or oll e h a lf of the tota l cost. :'I!eHllwhil e a s a I'es ltlt of the cxpO S lir c a n d inve s ti g a ti o n of the d!"lir s of Ih e old ("olllpan,", :'II. D e J.;css(' p s u nd hi s son C harles were sentenced t o fi\ e .\"l'ur.s impr i sonlllent, and s im ilar s ente nces we r e impos e d u p o n se"eml others of th eir associat cs. The French Court of Appeals anllulle d the scntence of Ch,u'l c s de Le.<.:scps, awl t hat again s t h i s rath e r wa s nC\,(' I exccut e d fo r, at t h a l til11(,. J ,U\uar.v 10. 1 8!): !. hi' was 88 .\"('a r s old and a physi c al and m cntal wrec k ; h(.' diet! in the m onth o f D ecemiJer, fullowing . \ s Ih e "',\"sc conc(.'s ... il)ll had nc:ol." ex p i re d th e rc<;eh'er obtainc d from Columhia an ('xtell s ion of len ycars. 1t was s ti pul a t c d that the IH'W company sh411dd be forllled anti work IIpon the cana l resume d on o r bcfo r e Fcbrtlal'Y 28. A .. thi s condition w a s not flllfilkd. a sccond cx t e l1.-;iOll o f 1 0 rears was ohtained, to rill) l i nt latcr than O C I O"l'I": J I J 8! H . Till-: !'; I';C OXI) OJ{ CO:'IP.\;\'Y The Compagllil.' X
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The top picture shows Has ObispO in the firs l Fren c h Company's days, at Ihe norlhl'rn end o f their p rOpOlICd lock. The center picture shows French cr:mes a t work The French using laborers 1 0 fill cars shown in the [ower picture. Cablcways. in the distance. wer e also used for handling SpOil. [ 63 1

PAGE 70

the old cOIllI)an,\ and escaped criminal p rosecut i o n by Inkin g t h e n ew s t oc k ; and :iij,OOO S lares g i"ell to t h e Colombi a n Government fot' t h e extension o f t h e conce ss ion. Th(' 11('\\' company look \ )ossess ioll ill IS!)4 a n d wor k w a s imIHc diately re s umed in Culcbr .. C u t w i t 1 a force large enough t o co mpl y with the term s of the conce ss ion. A s excava t io n work al th i s point wa s n ecessary under an," plans Ihat mi ght b e dec ided upon i t was conti n ucd. w h ile el aborate and ex ten s ive s t udi es of th e Canal \)J'ojcct we r e beg un b,v compet en t e ngin eers. The plan finally : Idoptc d by llC new cOlllpan.,' i l wolved t wo I c\'cls abm'c the s ea. one;lI1 nrtifi('inllakc 1.0 b e created b y a dam ac r o ss the Chagrcs River a l A number of o l d F r e nch dredges. which wer e valueless excep t as j u n k w hen Ihe Uniled S t a tes acquired them Bohio, a nd another a h i gh le\'el canal Ihmugh Cul ebm Cut al all el ev ation of (is.u s fcel abo\'e mean lide t o be f ed by wa tcr b y a c h a n nel l eadi ng from n l'esc l \ 'oil' to b e con s truct e d at Alhajucla i n the U \lper Chagres Hi\'er valley. The lake le\ 'e] was to be reachcd fmm the A tlant i c )'ya flig ht of two lock s, a nd th e summit ](' \ 'cl b y fI second flight of two lock s. On thc P acific s ide I'ouroth e r l ocks we r c p r ovided for, t h c t,, o m iddle ones al Pedro ;\liguel Uci ng co m b in e d in one flight. and the olher s be i ng located at Pami s o find l\f i raAores. 011 th l ) Atlanli c s ide th e re wa s Lo be a sc a Icvcl channel 10 B ohio, 1 7 mile s i nla nd
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CI HE hWD 11 ITED Illcn numbering nhoul 2.000 al wo r k in Culehrn Cut. [lnd 11 year laler IIii" was increase d t o 3,(iOU. T his was thc large,.;' llul1Ihet' of men emplo,n'd under the new com p an.\ for only e nou g h work was done 1 0 hold the concc!o:sioll and keep the C(luipmen! i1l a salable condilion. T he Frcnch al thai li me wcre beginning 1 0 look for a purchaser; t h ey wanted !ilIOn.OOD,OOO fot' the work alld eqllipmt'nt. but the onl\" likclv huyer \\"as t h e l'nited Stales. The Isthmian Canal Cum-000 mis .... ion, app oi n ted hy tbe Spooner \et (if IS!)!), reported in l\owlllhel'. 1!,01. in f1l\'ol' of the route un l csi' the F rt'll c h eompally wa willing lu "ell out at $ 4 0.000,000. T his recomlllendation I)('camc a law 011 June i!8. t!)tJ'!. and the :\ew Panama Canal COlllpany \nlS practielllly forl'l,d to s('ll 1'. )1' that amount 01' get nothing, AlthoLlg-h t h e Frenc h on the IStJlIllU"; worked IIlIder diflieuitil'S whidl c\'e!ltuall," fOl'ced them t o up thc Canal they I'ctnon-d with the i r clumsy si d e l'XClWaIM.'<, JIIlW ohsolete drcdgcs, small D ('ca llville {'ars and B e l g ium a considerable amount of materi al frullI till' Canal prism. a large pari of which has bel'n found uscl'ul undt'!, the pl't' '' t'n! plan, The old com pa n y ex{'a \ ,lIe d 66, J ('u h i e ,\' a rds, r 1'0111 181'\ 1 1 0 I SS!), a lid the new company eXC:l\'ale d cubie yard,.; III' to I!HH a tut,1I til' 714,-146,D60 cub ic ,\'anls; 18,6.J.6,OOO cubic yards uf t hi s tutal wcre taken from Culcbr a Cui, the opcration of t h e new company l)('ing practically confined ttl A p ile of old French dump Many ton s o f this maler;:!1 h:!v bt'cn collcclcd : llonlo: t h e li n c of Ihe Can,,1. th:1t p Ol'tioll of the work, Of thL'" total. i t has bel'/l figured that ',W,!10S.uoO cuhic ,no'lis hm' c l.}Ccn useful to t h e Aill c r ie:tlls, The old {'f)JI1Pall,'" dredged a <:hanlH : I from decp water ill Panama bay to the \\"han'es at Balboa which has hcell ui'('d h,\' ships docking at that port. On the \ t hmlic side, the channel dredged inlalld, known a s t h c Fre n c h canal. was round u seful upon deepening in hl"illgi llg i'alld and s l o n c rOl the locks and >ipillway eoncrcte i l l Gntun, The J;'rcnch al s o turned on::!r \ 'alllabl e SUlTC\' S and studies or the work, toge1h e r wi t h p lans I l llll have I )('l'!l found of \ ;llll e to the American 01'-gnnizali o n, The bes t of thi s class of work was done under the new compan,\' [ 65 J

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CI HE lJ.<\N-D U ITED This i s espcciall y true of the rec ord .; kepi of the flow a nd flood s o f th e Chagrcs Hh' cr, tog e thel' wilh rai nfal l record s so e ss e n tial to Ihc I)l"cscnt pl:ill. }>'Il J-::"CIi ,\[0 TO .Ulf:I UC.\X I'BOJECl' )Iuch of the work o f during th e fir s t two yea!"s of American I la\'c heen s eriou s l y delayed w i t l lout the Fre n c h s uppli es and equipment. ln the shops and stOl'c holl s c s we r e found : t plenti fu l suppl y of repair parts, s h o p lool s, s iali u llan' engi nes mat erial and s upplie s o f all kinds o f good Cjllalil,L Al Gorgona. where the principal shops were lo c ated" knowl,l during the F,fC'lIch lillle s a s Ba s .\Ialachi n 5 h o\) s, were fo und hed s hlled \\"Ilh o l d locomolln's, cranes and e:.:c:walors. One lUnd r e d ('ar l oa d s of foundr.\ and machin e R liop material \\'cre I'cmo\ 'ed fro m Ihi s point. H epair shops were fuund al Empirc. f'aflli s(l. Gatun and B o lli o A s mall mac h ine s h o p wa s LlIleO\ 'c rcd i n the jungl e al Caimito l\rulalo, when Americ:Ul AnO lher iew of a part o f the old machinery, a legacy fro m the Fre n ch. All o f the junk a l ong ,he line of the Canal both French and American, i s being turned into dollars, having lJcen sol d to a Chicago wreck'n!; concern. e llginc('rs wcre I'tlnning t h c centcr l i llc of thc Canal. Thcre w a s also a dry dock at Cris t u lJnl. whic h wa s ol'iginally IOU fed long. 3'l feel w ide and 16 fcel deep o\'cr the s ill s al o n l ina 'y high tide, At B alho: l o n t h e Pacific side, there was l ocated a repair ami marine s h o p fo r th e floati n g equipmc nt. The o ld FI'c nch Rhops in ('\'Cr.\' clls e forlllcd the nuclcus of the larger and b e ller equipped shops maintaine d h y the .Alllcrie:ln s during the period of cons tructi o n, During th e fir s t 1\\'0 year s of Americnn occupation, .French locomotivcs \\'('re the onh' OIlCS a\' ; 'tilal)lc b y Ihc I s lhmian Can a l Commiss i o n On June 3 0 ID06, there \,'ere 106 i n se n icc. and onh-1 3 Amcrican locolll o ti ves. The sallle i s tru e of th e Fri.n e h dump cars In HHH, there were 30S in s C I '\ i c e. and in I!)O.). aYC]' '.2.000 had been r epaircd alld put in commission as compare d w i lh Am c rican hu i ll ca r s, AI th e present lime th e re [lrc about 100 French and '.2(10 Decauville dump cars in sc r vitx'ab l e condi tion. In D('(;cmhcl', l!)U L th e r e wcrc s ix old Frenc h excavator s workin g in Culebra Cul, I GG I

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CI HE I>M-O .llIIVI)ill02.EgO?,;;;;;;;;:c.S::IUH!jE!iUW2B1 ,-D, 11 ITED which had been over ha ule d a nd pla ce d in s erv i ce. These were similar to Iadd('r dredges, a nd the excavatio n was accompl i s h ed by an endless c hain of buckets which ca rri e d eart h and rock fro m o n e s ide and drop ped it into a hopper f r om w hi ch it fell inl o dump c a r s o n th e o th e r s ide. These machine s were dfcdivc on l y when working in soI'l m aterial. They remain e d at work I S month s before they wer e r eplace d by modern s t ea m s howl.s. The floa t i n g equipment all han d was considerab l e and Illany dre d ges cia pels or self-pro p el lin g hopper barge s, tu g s, launch es, etc. were found in the ll111rine graveya r d s at Folk s J l ive r Cri s toba l and i n the mouth of th e H.io Grande 111 t h e P acific c nl]'ancc t o the Canal, a s well a s along th e hanks of th c Chngres R i\ e r :\[ an,\ of thcse wefe Honted, rebuilt an d p la ced in commiss i on. On account of the excellent materi a l u se d i n the con s trllc:lio n of this equipment, most of whic h wa s Scotch-built th e l uner ican s round it highl." profitabl e to I 'epai r the m H ea,,\' coa t s o f paint and o il, w h ic h 20 or morc rain \ seasons A laborer look i n g for hi' belongings u lter a flood. The a n d loss of property caused by the floods during the r.ainy season is clearly pictured here. coul d 1I0 t p e nelrnte had been g i\ 'en th e mac h inery when it wa s retired, s o that w h e n the h ulls were n o t "'ol'lh repairing, th e valuable parts wcre u sed el s ewhere. SC\ 'e ral dre d ges we r e r eco n struct e d from parts o f others A Scotch ladder dredgc with a capa ci t y o f ab?llt 1 30,0 00 c ubi c .\:ml s month wa s rCI )
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have been lIsed in th e r('inforccmcnt of concrete i n the lock willis, for th e I'cpair of clump Cars. lIld for telephone auc l lclegraph pol e s Scn::n n'ar ... aftCI' th e Can al wa s takcn over from th e F ren c h I nll, the PI'('s clJl' Isthmian Canal Commi:;sion made a c a refu l oflieial c:stiinat e o f the "aill c 10 the Cnnllnission of the franc h i s e s, equipm e n t. matcrial. wo r k donc. and propcrl," of variou s kinds 1'01' which Ihe United :-;talc.-; paid the F l'cnch Canal COlllpan." $40.0DO.()tJO. Jt pln c l' s Ih(' 10t,11 ";duc at OWl' $4'2.UOO,000 d i v ided follows: E xca,' ali(ln. lIseful 10 the {'anaL '.W.70S.000 cuhie ",lI'( l s., .. Panalll ,l R a ilroad :-ill) c k .. .., .. .. ..... Plant ,HId lll.deriaL IIsed. and suld for scrap Buildin gs. w'l'd ... .. Surn'.,' s I'l:ms. IIl<1p .... and record...: La nd .. Clearings. roads (,\(. Ship dlallllt'l ill Panama 13;IY. four lise. Tnlal .. .. ... .. ...... . .. ........ . ". $25,38D,2 4 0.00 !),


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I sthmian C all a COnlllli,.;"jon o rgani zed for the con "l ru c lion of the Cunal was appoint e d under the prO\-i s ioll s o f \11 \cl of COlIl-!r('l's approve d J u n e 28. lOO:.?, c all e d t he Spooncr A ct. This \ cI a uthor i ze d t h e Pl'c;.;idc n l to aCfl ui rc, in hehalf of th e l"nil c d Sla!C'!', al a co ... 1 n ot ('xcccd inA' $ W O O O.OOO, the r ights, franchises. pro/ )cr ty cie .. illt"iIHlinJ,!; the s hares or th e Panama I':lilroad. owned h,\' t h e :\cw ;'rC]lch C:lI1al CO lllpan,\', :1I1t! to obtain from th e R e p ubl i c of Colombia p C rl)ClLlal control of the s t l'ip of land across t h e hthmus, which contro l S lOuld also include th e righ t t o perpetual!," maintain nnd operate t h e Panama railroad and juri" dicli o n O\'er t he port s at e ith e r end. )f the P re s id e n t s h o uld be unable to obtain a s llti!'fllclor," tit l e t o th e prop ert y Ilnd t h e contro l of th e n ecessa r y territory, w i thin a rea sonable tim e and upon rea sonable t e rm s, then the Comrnis!'i o n w a s auth orize d t o con!;trucl 11 wllt erwn," acro ss i'."icaragua. usin g Lake :\ic;Lraglla. and the Juan H i"cl". aft e r the P re s id e n t had fir s t obtailled perpetual co ntrol. b y treal y with Costa H i e a nnd :\ic :u'agua, The imposs ibility of the United Siaies 10 come to :l :;:tli s faclory agreem ent wilh Colo mbia, who Ihoughllhatlh e L'nited S lates was now committe d to cons t ruct. : 1 canal acmfolS Pallama and, could be made to pay a la rger a mount t han fir s l of Tcred, l e d to th c I'c \ 'olution of :\t)\'(! Il\I)('I 3, 190 3, hy w h ich Panama. (l state of Colombia b eca m e the H cpublic of Panama. a n d the s i g ning o f a I reat," t h e n c w H cpublic b," whic h Ihc Uni t e d Slates wa s grante d in p e r petuit y th e ncec ss ar,\ t erritory. This s tri p ut' land, known li S th e Canlll Z (lIle, cont ai nin g aho ul J 3 6 folquare mil es. extend;; from deep waleI' i n th e Atlantic to d e<'p water in th e Pacific (threc mi les froml h c low walel' mark on e i t her s ide ) and 6\'c m i le s o n e i l her s id e o f lh c center lil lc of thc c a n al. Included in this grant a r c the I s la nd s of Xaos. P crico, F lilllw nco and Cul ehra in th c J3a v of Panama, which arc n o\\' connedcd w i th t he mainland 1)\' a hl't .'akwater. ;1I1d upon whic h arc placed, The cities 0'1' Panama a n d Colo n nrc excluded t'romthc limits of th e Callal Zone. butlhe L'ni ted States exe r c i s e s sani t:u',v control 0\'('1' them, :Iud also has the right 10 mn intain puhlie OI'ele r in them i n c a se Ihe Hcpuhlic or l'llnama should 110 \ h e ahlc in th e judg m c nt or th e L 'llilcd S tates t o do so, [ GO I

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MEMBERS OF T H E I S T HI'HAN CANAL COMMISSION. COL C.: O w GOETHALS. U S A . Ch.irma" and C hid En"; .. ., ., COL. HARRY F HODGES. U. S. A .. Chief Enllincer. COL. WILLIAM C. GORGAS. U S A . Chic/ Sa nitary Ottice . H H ROUSSEAU, CIVI L ENGINEER. U S NAVY, A istan, t., the Chi"f ;nllincer. OIpyrIKro 110 ,,1 0 '" r. .. \\' .. 11. C [ 7 0 J

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M E MB E R S OF T H E ISTHMIAN CANAL CO:\Il\lISSION. COL W ILLIAM L S IBERT. U S A .. O, .. Ene!nr 01 A"antk 1)1 .. I.ion. UOS. R I CIIAMO LEE METCALn:. Ilead o f JR .... \ m n t Of Civil Adm'ni .... tion. COL. O O CAILLARI) O i .. iolon Enlrin. 01 the C nt",l1>iv,.io .. JOSEPII B U CKUS 8 I SIIO I ..... ,.. 1I tlo" F..'u. _ad n,_II.t ..... .... [>, \:, ( ill

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A s compensation to the R e publi c of Pallama, th e United S tates paid li;10,OOO,OOO, "lid agreed to make an annual payment of $ 'UO,OOO, 1.0 begin nine year s after the date uf the ire .. t y Thes e annual pay m e nt s commenced i n l "cunlar,Y, IDI3. T T t ORGA;>; I Z .\11O. \: OF Til b C.\:-.i .\I, The fir s t meding of th e I sthmian Canal Commi ss ion was held i n Washing ton, D. Coo on :\1:'ll'c h 22, tOO with the folluw i ng memhers appointed by lh e t : "J ohn : a l,:el': C l lai rm,a n; GcoIfc \\,1), 1'11'. l S .. \ . \\llll.11ll B.llcl
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ExPresident William H.Taft Ex PresidentTheodore Roosevelt Pres ident Woodrow Wilson chronidus of history for all time will t h e names o f R 005e\"(.l t Taft and \Vilson 'World's l{I'eatest u n derlaki n'::-. -Ihe construct ion o f t h e P anama Canal. Students of the subject 'Will doubtless c o ncede t hat to Theodore Roose> 'elt be "ccorded the d istinction o f inaugur.lting t h e enter prise. to his succeu o r former I > resident Taft s h ould the hono r of f o u r years of hithful service I n f orward the s t u p endous work so e ncouTaJ,:l nJ:ly bcJ:u n and 1 0 Presiden t \Voodrow \Vilson fall s Ihe d u l y o f i n stalling Ihe splendid success whic h the resources. perseverance and indomi ta b l e of ,\mer i can cicil: e n ship ha>' e rendered pOssible. [ n 1

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Enginee r :\1r. John F. W allace. entered upo n his du ties o n J une 1 1904. :\[r. Wall ace re s igne d a s Chief E nginee r o n J u n e 25, 190 :"), afte r serv i ng one ye ar, and was sliccee ded b r .:'Ilr. J oh n F 011 J ul)' 20,1905. :\Ir. W allace. who had bec o m e dissatis f i e d w i t h th e working m et h o d s of the fir s t Co mmiss i on was made a member of t h e Commi ss ion unde r an E xec ut ive Order dated Apr i l I. \00.3, whic h r eo r g a n i zed i t a n d gave t o him full co n tro l i n the depat'lUlcnt o f con stmction a n d e n gineeri n g. Thi s reorgan i zati o n w as brou g ht ,bout by t h e Secret .. !'y of W a r who. b y d irectio n of t h e PI"Csiciclil in i\lan: h. I!lOj, rccl ucstcd t hc r es ignation s of the commiss ioners, w hich wer e al once tender e d. I was bcl ic\'c d that this c h a nge woul d m a k e a more effective force for d oin g th c l"cqui r c d work, und do a way w i t h the 1 011(1 occasio n e d in pur<.:has illg matcria l and s u ppl ics and in th e ncco mplis111llcn t of wo rk by gm'c rl1l11cnL "red tapc" which had beco m e s o ir kso m e to ;\[r Wall ace. His l"cs i g nation shol"lly .. ftc r t h i s c hangc, s ix d ays a f ter hi s r elul'I1 t o th c I sthmus f rol11 Wa s hin g to n wns hard to un d erst and, but i t i s poss ibl e tl1:\t t h e question of h ealth enter ed con:side ra h l y i n t o hi s d ecis i o n f o r it wns at thi s time that th e fir s t OUl b r eak o f \'e l low fe\'e r a m o n g t h e A meri c a n s had OCCUl're d und th e firs t vict i m wa s :'\lrs_ Frank Sengcr, thc wifc o f ;\[r. W allacc s private sec r etary TilE SEW C O;\l.\ IISSION The ncw Commiss i o n c r catcd un der t h c a b o\-e mcnti o n e d Orde r co n s i s t e d of the snmc number o f memhe r s, seve n b u t f ull power was praeticnlly ves t e d in thrce member s w h o wcr e p lm:c d in c h n rge o f the t h ree exec u ti \ e d e p artmen t s c r ea ted One department wn s under t h e di loecti oll o f the Chairma n of th e Commissiono T heodore P S h onts, and too k c harge of th e fisca l aff a ir s, th e pUl"chase and delive r y o f material and s upplies, the a cco u nts, bookkee p ing, and audit s, tlnd the commercial operati on s 111 t h e U ni te d S t a t e s o f th e P a n a m a I 'ailma d and s tcalllJ;hip lin es, with hcadquar te r s in Was h ingto n ; a n o th er. unde r the G o ,"erno l of the Zon e C h arles E 2\lagoon whie h l ooke d a f tcr th e ad mini strat i o n and enforce ment of l aw in the Zo n e, th e sanitati o n of t h e Canal Zon e and the c i t i e s of Pan
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SOME OF T H E MEN O N T H E JUG JOB. (I.) He;teki a h A Gudge r Chief Justic e of the Cana l Z one Supreme Court. (1.) F rank Feuille, Counsel and C hief \!C orney o f t h e Isthmian Canal Commis s i o n and the P anama R ail road. tJ. ) , 1 A A. Smith. Examiner o f Accounts. i 4 .) A S Zinno H esident Enginee r in the Central Division. who has been identified with the work i n Culehra Cut s ince 190(0. \S.l H e nry Goldmar k designing engineer, in c harge of the lock gales of the Canal (0.) T n Monniche. designing i n charge o f the e m e r s;:ency dams o f the locks. 1 7 .) John H M c Lean. Disbursi n g Officer of the isthn.ian Canal Commission. i s.1 C"pt. E.. \Vood U S. / \ C hief Quartermaster of the Isthmi3n Can,,1 Commission. (9.1 \V. G Comber, Hesident Engineer of the Sixth (Dredging) D" ision. (JO.l C apl. Ch"rle s \V, Barber. Chief of C"na l Zone P o lice. 01.1 C. E \Veidman. Chie f o f the Fire D epartment. ill.) Tom M Cooke. Chi e f Division o f Pos ts, Customs, and Revenues. tl3') Li e u t. Col. Eugene T 'Vilson. Subsistence Officer. il4.) Gecoq;l:e M 'Ve\15, Resident Enginee r Department 01 Municipal Engineering. US. ) liarry O Cole. Resident Engineer. Fifth Division I -;-.j 1

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11 ITED m a n Theodore P S h O llt s C harl es E. ) [ ng oon, al s o Governor of t h e Canal Z o n e R earAdmiral :\lo rd ccni T. Endi c ott. Bri ga di e r G e neral P e t e r C. llain s, U S. A. ( retire d ), C ol. O sw;d d II Ems U S. A .. BClIjamin :\L. Harrod, and J o hn F 'Yallace, als o C hi ef En g i neer. CO;\I.\/ISSIQX A G \ I:\ B E O UGA:>:IZ ;!) O n .\"o\'c m bel' 17. 1!}0 6 t h e commi ss ion w a s again r c o g ani zc d b y Ex ec utive Order ill o rder t o pro m o t e h a rm o n y and t o secure re s ult s b y more di rect m e th od!) and a centmli: wtion o r power. III ord e r t o d o thi s th e f o llowin g departme nt s w('l'e c rea t ed u nd el' the new organiz a t i o n : Chairma n C1Lie f E ng in e er. Gen e r a l COllll s el. wh o took on.'!' th e duli('j; o f th e G o\'crnol', C hief Sanitary Offi c e r Gener a l Purchasing Officer, G e n e ral Au d it o r OUic e l .. and :\lanage r of Labo r and O n S c p t e mht' I 't,>. 190 6 G uv Charle s E :\L agoo n w a s tra n s f erre d t o admin i s t e r afrai r s i n C u ha. and wa s s ucceede d Hiehanl R e id R oge r s th e G e n e r a l Cuun se l in W a s hingt on o n l D I!)OG. Whil e :\11'. R o gel'.'; wa s in W a s h i n g lon. ;)11'. n D R ee d acted a s h e ad of th e d epartme nt on the l sthmu s un til th e ani \'a l o f :\11'. Jo. C S. Bla e k h u rn who w a s appo inted a s Head of t h e D e partment o f Ci" i l Adm ini s tratio n on April I 1007. On April 2, I D07. t h e aUlhoril.\ of th e o r Chie f E xec uti vc of the Canal Z one, wa s tran s ferred hr o rd e r of tll c Se c r e l a r o f W a r t o th e Chairma n's office so f rom that t i m e the C hai r m a n and C hi e f Eng in e e r has in r e alit y been G ove rn o r of 111<' C nn ai Zon e al so. :\lr. S h on t s r e s ig n e d cf r ect i \'e :\rarc h 4-, HlO7 and the re s i gnatio n of General Hains :\raj o r H arrod. and H earA dmira i Endico tt. w e r e a ccepted on :\I a r c h 16 1007. Finally, :\11'. Ste" e n s r es i g n e d cfi"eet i, e Apr i l 1 1007. The r e s ignatio n o f :\lr. S t evc n s WllS n s g r e:t t a surpri.'ie a s thaL o f :\ [1'. Wallace. A cco rd i n g t o t he r e port c u rre n t a l the t im e, th e c hi ef en g i n eer became alarme d o\'er the p o ss i bili t y o f awa rd in g the contract f o r the con s tru ction or the canal t o I h e Oli\'c rB a n gs c o m b in a ti o n and wl"Ote a l ette r t o t h e Pres id e nt se llin g ror th tha t the cana l organizl.lti o n had be e n pre tt y w ell p e rfect e d ; thalmo r e di r t h a d bee n taken o ut during th c pre \ i o u s 3 0 days than h a d ev c r been t a ken oul b efo r e in th e same len gt h o f time; thal h e did n o t c a r e 10 share t h e wo rk o f lHlildin g th e cana l wi th an."on(' 1101' h e h amper e d w itll m e n l ess familial with ti,e subj e c t thnn hims el L Il l' in timated thaI. if hi s w i s h e s we r e not compl i ed wilh h e would ( I uit. The l etter i s s a i d t o hl1\'e caus ed e x P re s i d ent Roose v e l t s o m e t h iug of a s h oc k hut. w i I h his e h a ract eristic s pon t a n e i l), of aet i o n h e ca bl e d ac ceptance o f t h e 're s i gnatio n in ord e r to get competent m e n wh o were u se d t o w o rkin g IInd e r Gove rn m e nt regulations and mde r s and who w o uld "stick," ex-Pre s ident R o o s c "elt r e s ort e d to th e Arm,'" with the r esult tha t three offi cers o f the Corp s of Eng i neer s, U S. A th e C hi ef of the Bureau o f Y:mls and Docks U. S N .. an office r of th e :\fe d iea l Corp:;, U S A and two c i vilian s w e r e appo int e d i n th eir pla ces thus [mlet i (' a II r ; 1 handon i ng t h e p lan uf c a rr.'"i n g on th e w o rk unde r e i vii ia n d i l"Cct i o n. 'nder thiS new o r ga n iza tion n combination of t h e po s iti o n s o f C hai rm a n tln d C h ief Engi n(.'Cr wa s effect e d and Ih e c r e
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w ith th e work unde r the ir charge. This n ew co mmi ss i o n a ss um ed its duti es Oil A pril 1 1 907, a nd con s i s ted of the f ollow i ng: Col. Geo. \y, G oe th al s, U. S A C hnirman and C hief EnO"ineer ; Col. D D U. A., lIc .. of D cparln, l c nt o f E xcav nli o n and ])rc d ging; Li c u t.Col. \\ m L. S ibert U. S. A H ead 0 1 D e partm ent of Loc k :md Dam Con s trucl i nn ; Col. W C. Gorgas, U S. A ., Chief Sanilu l'Y Offi cer'; C i "i l Engineer H H H OlIsse:Hl, C. S. :'\. H ead of D c partm cnl of :\lunicip a l Eng i necl inO", )Iotivc low('1' and )fachi nc r y and B u i lding Co n s tru c t ion ; Jackson S mith 'Labor. Quarters and Subs i s t e n ce; Jo. C S Blackburn I [ead of Department of G i"il Admini s tration; J o sc l ) h B ucklin Bi s h o p Secre t ary. The p e['son nel of the:l ) o\'c co mmissi o n ha s remain e d un ch an ge d with three exce pti ons. Jack s on Sm ith re s i g n ed o n September 1 5, !!J08. and the d epart men t o f labo [ and quarters i s n o w a part of the Quarterma s ter's D e partm ent tinder direct i o n of Captain H.. E. \\'ood U. S A., and th e Subs i s t e n ce D e p a rt -John F \\'al1:l<;e. firs t Chief E n!;incer o f the Can aL. He ent e r e d upon hi s duties June I. 1904. and reS i gned J u n e 25. 1 905. J ohn F Stevens. s econd C hief U e was appointed July ] 0, 1 905. and resi!;ned April I. 1 90 7 Col Geo. \V, Gocthals, taking his place. e ll"",Un>! \\" Il. C men! under dire ct i o n o f : Uajor Euge n e T \\'ils on U S. A .. a s a separate d e partIlle llt. )11-. Jo. C. S. Bla ckburn r cs i glled efl"ective D ecembe r 4 1 009 and was sHc('eed c d o n .:\la., 1 3 1 910 b y .:\[1'. :\fa l!r iee H Thatcher, iUr ROLisseau actin g as Il ea d of I h e Depa rt men I d tiring! he int e n al. Mr. 'fha tch e r r es i g n ed e tre cti \ e 011 J une 14. l!.ll:3, and was s u c('eeded by ':\fr Richard L. .:\fe lcalre t he pre s cnt h ead of th e department. The D e partm en t s of Excavation a nd Dre d ging a nd Lock a n d Dam Con s tru ctio n were abol i s hed a nd o n JII1\ 1 100 8. bec 'hme th e Al1'ln l ie Divis i o n, und e r Col ond Sibert having c h arge of ih e dredg i n g o p e rati o n s in th e A l lanti e enlrance, and the l oc k d am and s pillway work a t Gatun. and th e G e n e ral D ivisi o n un d er D D w ) l i c h ha s ,?f .the exc:\va tiO!1 in th e C ulebra C ui se ctIon On Jul." 1.:1, 1 008, Ihe P acif i c UIYIS I O n was o rgalllzc d and c h arged with the lock, dam and s pi llway wor k at Pedro l\l i glle l and .:\liraf!ol'es, and t h e dl't' dging wor k i n the Pa cific c nlmn c c under :'\11'. S. B \\, i l l i am so n Div i sion Engi neer. U p o n th e o f 1\11'. William s o n 011 D ecember [ 7 8 I

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GI HE l>&D!;l ; UNJTED 1'l 1 9 1'2, the Pacifi c Divi sion wa s aboli s hed a n d its wor k wa s placed under the i milled ia Ie eh a rge o f th e e h icf Engi n eer, as I h e Fifth Di vis ion of the D e pa rimcnt of Constru ction an d Engi neering. On lUay I W I 3 t h e dredg i ng work of the Atl an tic <\ndPac ific Di v i s ion s wa s con solidated unde r :\1]', ,Y. G. Com b er, R es i den t Engi n eer, for min g the s i xth Divi s ion o f the C hief En g ineer' s office. The Department of :\I u ni c ipal Engineer i ng M otive P ower a nd : Unchin cr),. and Buildin g Co n st ruct i on, was a bol i s hed on Au gu s t I 190 5, and hecam e a part of the Depa rtmcn t of Con s truct i on and Enginccrillg wit II :\.1 r. I toll ssca 1I. Assi sta n t 10 th e C hi e f Engineer in c h arge. The present commi ss ion consis t s of the following members: Co lon e l G eo. W Goe th a l s, U S. A Chairman alld Chief Engineer; Col o nel I I. F H o d ges U. S. A ., Assistllnl C hi ef En ginee l ( : \ppoi nted July 14-. 1 008, v i ce J ackso n Sm i th ) ; C ivil Engi nee r H 11. H oussca u l S. X .. A ss i s tant to t he C hi ef Engi n eer; Colonel D. D Gai lla rd U. S. A Di v i s ion E ng i neer. Central Divi s ion; L ieute n a n t-Col. Wm. L. Sihe r t, U S. A .. Divi s i o n Atlanti c Divisio n ; Colonel W C. Gorg a s, U S. A C hie f Sanitary uHi ee r ; Hi chard L. 1\[etcalfe I read of D epa r tme n t of Ci\'i[ Admini s tration; J o se ph Buc klin Bi s hop, Secreta r.". O f th ese eig h t men Colone[ Gorgas i s the onl,\ one who ha s been in the se r vice since th e inauguration of the work Colonel Gaillard left the Isthmus o n Au g u s t 9,1 913 o n s pec i al l eave of aiJ s ellce, s uffering f r om a !len'ous brea k down, due t o hi s long serv i ce o n the I s thmll s, and it i s probabl e that he will not re turn TII E I'U RC I I AS I :\,G E:\'I) The Commi ssion ma i ntain s nn office ill W n s hin g t on in c h n r ge of :\[ajo r ];'. C. Bo ggs, U. S. A ., who fills th e po s ition s of Chief of Offi c e. and General Pur c h asi n g Officer: Th.e work. i s a!Jlo n g tl l e di vis i olls: General Offi ce Dl sburs m g Offi ce, Offic e 01 ASSIst ant I "xammel' ot A cc oun ts. Appointme n t Di visio n Corre s po nd e n ce and R ecol'd Di\,is ioll. and P urcha sing Departme nt. The Appointment Divi s i o n h a s to do wilh f illing r equisi t ion s f o r Am erican e mpl oye s and dllring th e fis ca l ,\'ear en din g J une 3U. 1013. "!,06 j person s were tendered empl o,nncnt on th e Isthmus in gra d es abov e t haI of la borer. Of t hi s numbe r 1 1 83 accepted and were ap\)ointed. covel'ing 59 different po sitions. The purc ha sinr, branc h wa s organizc( o n A ugllsl l 5, I!)07. a nd placed unde r th e s upervi s ion o f t h e C hi ef of Engi n eers, U. S. A ., with an office r or th e Corp s of E ng i neers in c h a r g e Additi o na l offices for th e purch ase o f m ateria l s arc maintain e d at i\'ew York New Orleans, and S an Francisco, Medi c al ancl h o s pital s uppli es are purc h a s ed throug h the :\I edical Supply Depot o f th e Arm y i n New. york. all s uppli es arc purcha se d under contract b y means of ach 'e rtl slng for bl(l s and m a kin g award s th e reon. amI a[1 material i s carefu[ l y ins p ected before s hipm e n!. althou g h th e right i s r esen'ed of makin g finnl ins pection o n th e Isthmus. A s an illu strat ion of the work o f th i s depar tme n t, a total of 7,087 orders wer e during th e la s t fisc al year t o the value of S I "!,335.Di3. 1 'l. [ 71) J

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hi g h mortalit y amon g employes cm: O lln terc d b y th e lmi lders of the Panama rail road mid h y the Fre n c h during their operati o n s indi cated !hnt t o kee l ) a s.uiUilJ.lc wo rk i n g 011 lhe l s thnHl s th e Canal Zone, alld t le c lit e s o! P a nam: L a nd Col on wou l d have to b e made R eali z i n g th i s. onc o f th e fir s t d i v i;o;io n s of th e canal wo rk to IJc Icd was that o f under Col. W C. Gorga s, who, prior \ 0 his 1I1'rind un th e lsthmu ..... had s ucce ss fully s tamped ou t y ellow reVCI l.lllcl suos t .mtially reduce d th e hi g h malaria rate i n .II:1\ u na, Cuha. This div i sion w a s :11 firs t a pa r t of th e Department o f GO\ 'crnnwn l of th e Can a l Zone. but, on a eCOI Jll\ onh(' impOI"talll'l' of th e sanit a r y wod, it w a s later made a distinct nne! s f'lmralc ; i t uee e:,s al'Y 1 0 free the I slhnn r s fro m p e s til e nce in o rd e r thai the cHlllIl work mi g hl he a ec o mpli ... hed but i t was jlLs t a snecessar'y th at i t h e kept in that condition ror all tim e, Dr. Honald R o ss of the B r itis h Ann.\" in India i s c redited with Ih e diseo\'cry, throug h s u c cessi, c expcrimc r l l s in 1 8!lR, th at the A lIopl u : l c 8 m o squito is the for mala rta. This mosquit o bilc s an infcctcd person and carri e s th e gNtn to other lll'fS O n S ]n th e s lImc way another speci e s o f m o squi to, tll C Sfcy olII.lJia. '\' a s fou nd to he re spons ible for yellow fcver. The theon' or yellow f("'e r trans m i ss ion by mos quit oe s was exploi ted a s carl)' u s 1 883 b y D r', Car 'los Fi nla of lIa\' :\na, The def init e and ind i s Plll:dJle test wa s made in Juh', 1!100 at QlIl'nrario s C uh:.. b v four membe r s of th e Cnile d States A r m y l\[edic ;ll C o r p!', who had he e n appointcd as a commis s i on fOl" the s t ud y of tilC di sea s e. The s e fOlll" l!1 ell \\' c r 'e Doctor s \\' alt e r !te cd J esse \\', Lazea r James C
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=. -0;
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PAGE 89

. -.1"_ - Ever y S(IUare fool o f swamp ",as" breed i n g p lace for m o squitoes. Dr.linin g swamps $ub-9 0 ili n g and burni n g are some o f the used il> the l )rc' ... '"lioo of m osquito breedI nf.: T h e m a n i n t h e UPIX'T picture is s h o w n b uminl.: grnss whic h a long I h o pen dit c h e s a n d drain s. I n t h e l ower ) ; C l ure h e is shown larvacid e O n the g rn s s ( 1

PAGE 90

ClllE l >&-D they wOllld undergo the experim e nt only on cOl ldilion thai th e\' s hould !'cccin' n o ]'('\\":"1.1'([ for s uch se rvi ce. They both ("ollll':l<.:\c;mama Carni val o f 1904 nn d s treams thal could not hc d rain e d . \ t the outs et Colonel G o rga s was hampcl 'ed b y t h e failu r e of th e Com mi ss i on in W ashingt on 1 0 reali ze th e immcdia t e necess i ty for large expend ilu l:es I /' / "-"-/ "---\ '--, / \ I \ / \ I / , , The g e n u s Stegomyia mosquito. mal e and fe m a le. The f emale o n the l e h the male i n Ihe cl'nter and the lan' a on I h e righl. The species has d istinclive markings, and the harp-shaped d esign near the h ead i s found on no othe r moslluitO. The male does not bile, and is, t h erefore, harmless: it i s Ihe f emale that causes all t h e trou b le. I 82 I

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f,'AIJ1NG It lOOk: mOnlhs o f labor, and soni e after sOflie. bef ore the mosll uilO horde began to thin. A ganli: of about 9(10 natives Wall alone time engaged with ladders and paste. scalinlo: a ll the ere"ices in the houses in Panama, p ri o r 10 fumigation. Streeu were a water s)'stem installed. and a genual clean-up was made. I S:l J

PAGE 92

-The ilU"rJnline o n C ulcbra Isl:,"d in Pan"",,, Bay. Owing 10 t h e faci Ihal the I$lhmus i s h e mmed in on Doth sides, by pOrts. the mOSI r i g id precautions arc o bserved and st"amen hom these pons arc held i n (lua r : lIltinc. unless t hey have been scyen a' sca, fur the purpos e o f ex t erminatin g th e mosqui to. This wa s l alcl' remedied and th e purs e s iring's were iou scllt.' d. An outbreak ()I' y ellow fewl' amon g tilt. J'ccC'lltl,v Ilnacc:iimaled Am ericans began in D e c ember, nlHl la s t e d unt i l Ot.'cl'llIbeJ'. 1 DU.';' D uri ng' tllC e pidemi c t here wer e i n 11 II 2 W cn ses :md dC:'l l lis. o r thi s numhc r o f liIe ca ses and all o f the d ea th s w('t'e among ca nnl emplu, \ cs. The ('on;;lalll1,\' incn.:a siug headway made by th e di s ea s c iu th e earl month s vI' I!)():j cau:-;('d a panic IllUong the empl oyes, A g reut m any of th e m l eft tlte I sthmus a s S OOIl a:-; they could obtain a c commo d ation s 011 the o"CI c l'ow { kcl skanl.",hip s This wus a;1 object l esso n and I'('s liited in a. partial slis pen s ion of n el ll.il c allal c o n s truction work un til th e eradication of yellow fen' r was eH'c ct c d, 1n additi o n to a r i g i d qual':lnt i nc. a r e l e ntl e ss fighl w a s w
PAGE 93

I I The above compa rison of-before and after p aVlnR i s nOI c)I;ali:jl:crn t e d \Vhe n the Ameri can s took charge o f the work m a n y of the streets i n Col o n and P anama C it y wer e "eritabl e bog-s in the rainy season. Now. both cities compare fa\'orabJy in clean. well paved S treelS, with othe r s of their s ize. [ SJ J

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inspcctors in t he ('o u rse o f :I hou s e-Io-ho usc .'ie.uc h rOT' cases, the pnti e nt wa s immediately take n tu t h e ho ... pital .l1\d pla ced in a room protected h)' sc reening, T he ncxt s tep was the t h oroug h fumigatio n of th c house fl'Um w hi c h the pati ent had h('en remo\'('d in onkr t o kill any i nfected m os quit oes Ihat might rema i n. F inall,r an e nd ca\'or was made 1 0 loc:'lt e and fumiga te Ihc sourc c o f inf('clion. '''hen th e epi d e mic uf 100: ) wa s nl ils hei g ht. the plan of fumigating cvc r y house in I h e cit i es of Pana m a and Colon, w h ethel' o r n o t th e re had heen cases of yellow fcwr' in t h e m, w a s c.uTied out. The nati\'C re sident s at fir s t s uhmitted 1 0 t h e t'trmig-.di oll wilh po or gr. l ce. a s Ihe.\ nre illlllHllle and could n ot see Ihe ne cessil.\' T h e Dis p ensa r y at A ncon J)ispenS(lrics and Field Hospita l s a r e maintained a t all the i mpOttan t Canal Zone setde m ents for first aid t reatment. for it. Laler, ther becnrne morc reconc iled bUl complain t s were nume rous. There i s now p endi n g in Congre ss a cl ai m for $50 00U to cove r damages due to a (ire in th e l\lal ilmho di s t rict of Punn rna i n th e s pri n g o r 190 5, which i s claimed to have bee n s tarted b.\ the ove r tllr-ni n g of a fumigatin g oven. The fight agai n s t the J uophdc,'J, the m ala .. ia-ca ..... \ ing mo s quito ha s been co nt inuolls, for i t is next t o impo ss ible t o elimin ate it e ntir e l y This spec i es, unlike t h e S l cyomyia. i s strong on th e w i ng and i s, therefore, a b l e t o e nter Ihe citie s and villag es after bre e din g i n t h e s waml)s a nd s t ngnnnt p oo l s in Ihe o ut s kirt s. To counteract this a s mu c h a s p ossib c, mile s o f dr'ainage ditches hnve hccn co n s tr'ucted in Ihe v i cinily of the c nnal to w ns; s m all streams are kep i cleaned (lu t 10 fac ilitak the flo w of wate .. ; swamps h ave been fille d in and gra ss and .. ank \'egel:\lio n kep I c uI. H cgu lnli o n s a r e also e nf orce d ngain s t a llo wing [ 86 I

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.. r, "NO 12 The Govern"'e ,, O llerates IWO main h05p ilals. One al ,\ncon a nti the other at Colon. The Ancon Hospital is the larger and bcsl equipped, With :l rcputalion in the Tropics second to no_ne It was begun by the French i n 1 883, b u t many impro"cm c n ts have been m:J.de by t h e Americans. [ 8 7 J

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There arc 47 wanls i n the Ancon U o spital, and this i s the imerior of one of the m The w hite American employes. European laborers and the negroes, are cared for in separat e wards. There are I.rivale wards a l s o and one for eh:lrity cases. T h e Canal Commission furni s h e s free nledieal !re"tmenl to "II of it", employes. an.\' wate r l'cct.'ptadc::;, lik e tin ca n s ele .. Ocin g throw n into th e bus h w here th ey might f ill during a rain storm lind make ideal pla ce s for th e m osqui to larvae. Such po ss i b le bree di ng plac..: e s a s canno t be eli min a ted b y draining :Inti filling arc s pra y e d w ith a form of oil. c all e d l a r nlCc ide. whidl d es troys the m o squito lalTa e as th c y co m c 10 th e s llt 'faee of th e wate r t o brealh e In ... pit e of :111 th e s e cfforts th erc arc many c a ses of m ala ria but th e numbe r h a s h ee n rapidly rcduce d ami I lie ty p e of di .... clls c has he e n rcduccd from a "indent t o a comparati\ 'c!y mild type. Wh i l e th e m o ttalit y ft'om m alari a wa s nev e r so hig h a s o ther for m s of tropic di s e a se. Col onel Gorgas H lw,,)"s co n s idet 'e d it o n e of thc mo st. imp o rt ant 011 a cc Olllll o f th e heavy s i c k rate :\Ledicinally. the d i s e a s e i s treated by quinin e man)" thou s:l.I\ds of p ounds of w hi c h have b e en u s e d ill th e ho s pital s a nd i ss ued from t h e di s p e n s arie s maintaine d in e a c h canal :.:on e vil la ge. (.' L EA:-:t:..:G I I O U S E Whil e a -m' of ex term inatio n w a s bei n g wa ge d agains t th e it wa s also aIJ s o lutel." neCeSfl:lr y to cl ean h Olls e, es p eciall.\' ill the c ities of I allama : lIld Col on. The lallt'1' place th e s ite of whic h w a s p a rtl y a tidal swamp, ha d to be fillet! in. 1'r ope r sewer flystem s were i n s tall e d in both cit i e s, whe r e no n e exi s t e d he f ore. unle ss th e o p en d r ai n s in th e stree t s. fille d w i th refu se and ()thcr f i lth coul d be (':dled sc w e r s Su itable wa ter sys t e m s al s o had t o be intro du ced. for up to Jul.,' L 1VO:i. t h e s uppl y of waleI' WI ; S drawlI from th e c i s t e rn s whi c h were allowe d to fill dUIilw th e rain y se a s on s 01' fr o m w ells lind aft e r ward p eddlcd from door to by the (lyl/adorN 0 1 wa t e r cart m e n When I he water wa s turned o n all c i s t e rn s we r e clo s e d Likew i se lhe stree t s w h i c h bt..'c a m e v ir tual l y m ud h ole s in the r ai n y sea so n wer e propcrl.Y p ave d w i t h bri c k or g r aded. A mt:'lh!)d or garbage di s po s al wa s al s o pro \'i d ed, ro r lip t o this tim e I 8 8 I

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w e r e t h e o n I,\' s c a ,\'cng c r s th e a r c kcpl s wept, a n d the "'arb. w e I S c ollected even' ll1"ht fl"OlII C S I ) c c w l l\' d c swllcd cuntalllcr s \VIlIell (' V C I T '" '" ,n M ho u s e h o ld e r i s suppo s e d t o have II i s t h e n 11';Uls / ) ort c d to l uw swamp, pla c e s i n t h e o u t s kir t s o f t h e c iti e s w h e r e i t i s b UfIlcd. I lC a s he s heing a s a fill. I n t h e C an a l Z o n e i s lIs lI.dl.\' d e s tro ye d at incin e ratin g p lanls. I n P a nama and C olon t h e c o i ledi ull i s Ill de b,,'III(' health d \.'parlm c nt o f th e Canal Com mi s s i o n A l l th e s i re d s e wer nnd watc r imp ro\'em e nt:; i n th ese c iti es d o n e b y the e ng i n ee rin g d e p .utme n l o f the C owa! Commissi o n will b e p aid for h,v Ih e B.cpllh l i c of Panama f rom i t s w al e r !"ale s on t h e a mort i z a t i o n pl a n T h e m o n ey advance d by t h e L : nitcd St,lies. holtt *!1.JOO.OOO. i 10 he repaid i n 5 0 years rrom July 1. 1 90 7. hu l a l t h e Iwe s cnt rat c or p a y m ent. !'('ttlc m c nt will have b ee n made mu c h s oo n e r The illllge s in the Ca n a l Zone 1I10 n g t h e line o f t h e C; m a l wen: nol. so f i l th y a s Pana m a a nd Col o n hu t wcr e w i l h uut s ewc r alld w a leI' sys tems. th e n s e v e r a l r e se n o i r s ha\'(' bee n con s t r ucted, a nd a l l house .... arc c onnected wit h s cwc r s.\'s \ e m s ;\racad a m r oa d s h:t\c graduall.\ ]'cplac ed trai l s ; g :]rb a g e i s colle ct e d d ail.\ :Ind pro pc]I.\' di s po s e d of : g r ass a nd o t hcl' t!'Op i c \'cgc l a ti()Il i s k c pl. cui dowll in t h e \'u.:inil.\ of dwellin gs and wcll-kept g a r d e n s and hed g c s m a k e th e c on s t r u ct i o n v i lla g c s appear lik e m o d el lown s. S t ] iet s anit ar.\ ] 'cgulati o n s arc e nfor c e d in :l1llh e C a nal Z o n e lown s a s \\"ell a s i n th e citi c .-; uf Panama and Colon, and e n c h p la cc h a s i t s s an ila r ins pe c tor s or ins pe ct or. BESUL T S II,\\' E ,JU:S'I 'IFlEIJ TilE (,O S'I' W i t h clca nli l]ess alone. h o wcver, t h e hi gh :;i c k a n d d e a t h rat e cOlild no t be ma t el"iall y r cduct.'d The s u c c essf u l \Vat" o n t h e llIo'"'f[lIito, whic h w a s s ta r ted .-----------Along the coast a f e w miles f rom Panama C i ty, i s a Lepe r c o lony o f 2 4 persons. call e d Palo Seco. This i s the col o n y h o u s e and s u r roundi n gs. T h e leper s a r e w e ll t r eate d and have a ll t h e c r e atur e comfort s f u r n is h e d free b y t h e Govc rnmcni. a n d s pend a part of their ti m e growin g "cg f o r their own con s u mpti o n [ 89 I

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GI HE bAN-R Utl.ITED b,\' Colonel when th e e n ginee r's were husy cOlIs ll'llClin g water works and St-'W('I'S, h a s freed t h e I s thmu s of i t s reputation as a pe s t h o le, and has made i ts s ick and mo r ta l ity rate co mp a r e fa\'orab l y wilh cilles in the United St at es. or allY ol hel' parts of the c i vilized wodd. The following tabl es indicate the efl'cc tj,"cness of the p l'cvcnl i ,'c work of sanitat i o n Oil th e Isth mus: CO;\[I'.\H. \ ] '[v!': S T .\1'UIENT OF R .\TES A:uOXG CAX, \I... E:>.IP LOYF;S 0:\' T I H ; b'l'IDIl' 8 OF (1"1\,\;\1'\ L 'XDEH TIn: OBIGIX.\L FHE .... CIl CO:'IPAXY 1 88 L TilE Y E .\H T ilE : U .\xnru;\r .\"U,IIH: U OF E"IPI,OYES WEBE \YOHKIi\G, ,\SO Tin; A:\IEIHCAS ('0:\1.\1I55IOX, 1 904 '1'0 1 !1I2, )NeLL" S l n:. --_. A v('I'
PAGE 99

----: - LAS "::---; -CAMACHO RESERVOIR -L ___ -P a nama. Colon a n d t h e town s i n the Canal Zone were without water main, or sewers in E ight reser-' o i n ha" c been bui ll a n d now Water i s plerlliful; sewers ramify Ihe eWes a n d t h e ooge is collecled daill' and burned. "lan y good roads have also been buill. a n d the Las S"Iy.mas road i s much used b y au t o m obile and horse ha c k riders. T h e Unit e d Statu advanced t h e money for this wor k b u t P an:am:a i s 10 1 ):lY i t ba c k inside o f 50 yean. [ 91 I

PAGE 100

On the M ount Hope Road hetween Cristobal and Galun is I\ l ounl H ope Cemetery, o nce known as Monkey H ill, wh('re tho usands of Frenc h C :lnal ('mployes, .. i ctims of yellow fever, lie burie d Under "merican supe rvisi o n the cem e t ery has b een greatly beautified, Each of its .. en' u es i s l i n e d with a diff('rcnt kind o f fruit tree, The \ illage was imm e di ately cl e aned and d i s inf ec t e d and a crllsade Hl?ain s l m t s, th e fic a s or whi c h a r c th e ('arr i c!'s o r buhoinc wa s s tarted, A 'rat" hri g ade WilS at , 'o rk in P a n a ma ; rat t!'aps wcre i ss ued fr e e t o all pers o n s w h o w i s hed th e m and a ho un ty was pla ced on each rat dcli, 'e rcd to th e health rlepal'tmt'nt, 1 n addi tion to t hc prcn'ntin:' work dOlle h y th e J)('I):lrtm c lll o f Sanitatio n it maintain s Iwo larg c h ospitals one at Co l o n and th e ollc r at. An c on. and each i'ctllcmcut ha s a di s pe n s ary w i lh a p h,n;;ician in c harge The rc i s al so main t ain ed a large asyl um fflr 111(' insa n e at. ...-\neo n while at. Pal o Secn, II few mil e s ('ai't of Panama. thcr e i s a n asyl um for leper s The r c i s also 11 s anit,u'iulll o n Tallog:, I s land, aboul 1'2 mil es Ollt. in t h c Ih," of Panama, w h c r c COlwal csce nt whit c patients arc giv(,1l a wcek or m ore 1 0 ren e w feve r allli work-wom tis s u es Onc of Ihe m ost impol'lanl Ihin gs s ho w n h y Ihe SLlcces s of sanitary work o n ha s cxpre, .. s cd h,\' Gorg a s ,man,\' tim es. a s r ol,lows: 'i\allves In Ihe ll'oples wllh Ihe same s anll
PAGE 101

U iTED disp e n sa r ies. and qun r nntines lnlion s a t Cololl a nd P allama. c o s t i n g mo r e t hall hair of th e t o t al a m u unt. T o I hi s i s adU(."(1 the ('osl of s treet c leani n g ami ga rLa ge collttting. drain illg a m i reclaiming swamp land. the s alarici' of SOllll 1 5 chapl a i n s. th e ca r e of ce m cierie s and Ihl' carr,villg o n of : 1 general Ulltk rI n k i n g a nd cmha lmi n g bu s i ne ss. C)lolu 1 W lll'l) h e s aid t h ai i t i s w ithi n t he p o w e r o f th e peo p le of tropic C Olllltries 1 0 Ill' jus t :I. h ealth," a s 1!t0li(' ill till' t e m perat e zo ne s. f igu r es the a c t llal cos t o f $lI)i l a .. work 011 the I s thm u s 10 t h e A m e r i ca n G o \ crnmcill will be a l i ttle m o r t li mll a c enl a dn," pCI' capita. ha'icd 011 a populati o n of W U O U IIIGI I) Ql".\Ii.\:'\TIXF: :\UI:>iT\IXEI) S inc>(" J!)O k I ht. quaranl i n e on thc (5)lhmu.;; lia s bcen undcr \ IIIlri e a n conl ro l with s tali o n s Oil Col ol1. and o n CuklJrH 11!land Ilear Ihe P a c ific entrancc t o til e C : 1 n:11. ] n s p i l l' of th e fad I hal p oriI' O I l bot h sides of t h c I s thmus. IIMlh an d s o u t h of Col o n and Pana m a haw bec n inf {'c!(-d wi t h hulnlllie c h o l e l'a s m allp ox a w l .\'(:-1101\' f('n:'r the flll:ll':lllti n e h a s b e('11 s uC'('cs s rlll l r m,lin' tai lH'd A l l cmployes "I' t h e Comm issIOn arri v illJ..:' o n t he I sl h nltls Iran 1 0 s u b m i l 10 "aecinal i o l l \llliess t h ( y can show a "'Hr. Ship.;; Hl'r i"inl-' at tliC' I sthmus f r o m infedcd porls a I 'e I'equi re d to fulfi l l fia.,' s or quaran t ine from th e lime of t h eir depart u r e. E {'ullfior. where yello", fewr has Iwcn c lldemic s ince th e fir s t w hile man la nded on lilc wc,,1 {'oas t nf South .\lI1crica. a n d w here buboniC' p laguc has rece nll., gai lll'd a (001 11111(\. i., ahout four da.vs fo r f a s t ships. \ s shi p s at a n d unload w here they a r c i n dangl'r t)f i n fl'c tion i l i s IlCCl'SS'U. for I hcm 10 he hdorc they s ai l for l'allH m a. a n d i l i s a l so nt.'Ces,.;ary thai I h c peri od of quarant in e b e fulfill ed f rolll Ihe t i lll c o f s u c h fumif,{al i oll. Ship s t h e t rip in four days wou l d 11It.rd ore, h a yc to lay ill qUHJ'allline al Cukbra I s la11d hree days hdOl'c they coul d u n l oad their Cllrgo ;Inc! di s<"i'Hrgc pass('llgl' r s ,11 '\l1con [ ." [

PAGE 102

Island. 1 2 milcsout from \he mai n land, i n Panama Ba )'. I I i s n Ole d for ils sea bathin${, and ;15 ,);ncapples. The nalive secti o n is primitive and picturesllue and contains o n e of the oldU t church('s in this seclion. B allll)H. ]11 c a.->c n ship an'in's w hich ('annol show 11 certificate Ihnl 1\11 regulation s ha\"( h ecll properly co mplicJ w i th 1)('1',,1'(' I C:1\' illg GlIa,":lquil t h ell i t i s necessary that the fum i gate d on its arri\'al al Panama. and pa s s Ihrougli th e 7-cla," tlck-nlto!) period altha! POl'L. On lhc Atlanlic side. at the present tim e. s hip s from L a Cuail'a, Yenczuda. arc compelled 1 0 consume s even dn,'s. and from Ba rranquil1a. alld Cartage n a, they compel l e d 10 co n S llllle s ix day s from the time of s nili n g. \Yitb a rig id quarantine nt th e two port s o f the Canal, aud with the cfrecljvc work of th e sanitary ill!':pcelors kept up a s it hn s bee n ill the pa s t, it see m s improbable t hal a s eriolls epidemic of ye llow t'c\'er will e\'cr break out on th e I sthmus ngnin. T h e Canal Commission's Sanitarium o n Taboga I sland. wller e all sick while employes are 5(ln l 10 con\ a l esc(l. The employt's are given 30 days vacalion e a c h year, wilh full pay, and 3 0 days sick leave each year. when necessary. r .4 I

PAGE 103

the month of Septemher, the Canal force W;tS al i ts lowesl point, numbcringabout :jOO. I n :-\o, emhcr. l nOJ. th e force had been Increa s ed t o approx imatel y 17 .000, :Iud in .\"ovemh el'. ID06. it wa.i practi cally the s ame, The following tables s h ow th e high es t monthl y each 'ear s i nce 1006: 1 DOi-Octobe r ... ... 3 1 ,D6i I 908A pri!.. ......... liO 1 DOD-October .. , .35.405 1 010 -:\1arch ", ... ,.38.6i6 lDll D ecemher ....... IDI'l -.\"O\"cmhcl" ....... 40 .130 I!J1 3 -:\I:trch ..... .. The Canal force rellched its highe:
PAGE 104

".---The old Frenc h Adminislr.llion IJuild inJ,l in Panama Cit)". used by Ihe American engin eer.!' their office headquarters durin g the first IWO ) 'car, o f C:mal conStru c tion. The AdminiSIr.lIion 8uildin1o:" al Culebr':l . he prescnt enll:lnccrinJ( headquarters, conlaininJ,l the o ff;'; e of Colond Go.;,lhal.'1l The h cad(IUanCrs will be cha"J,(cd to Halboa a s soon as the new ad. minislr:uion huildlnlo: which is now heinl: ereCled t l >l're, ill com illeled. { !I(; J

PAGE 105

ITED considembly, the s k i l le d me c hanics about S O p CI' eel'll. during the ,,' c ar' WIO, aud tha i o f the a dmini s trative employes ab(lUI p er cent. During the year s rec ru i tin g oHice s wer e o p e ned in Europe. th e \\'cst In die s and in the Lnited S lates, ;.l nd IllCII t'clwc scntiug nearl," en,'l'y nati o n ality w('re b r o u g ht to the isthmus under contract with th e Coml lli ",doll. :\'carly all t

STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00014525/00001
 Material Information
Title: America's triumph at Panama; panorama and story of the construction and operation of the world's giant waterway from ocean to ocean
Physical Description: 1 p. l., 5-384 p. : col. front. (port.) illus., col. plates, fold. map. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Avery, Ralph Emmett
Haskins, William C.
Publisher: Regan Printing House
Place of Publication: Chicago
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Panama   ( lcsh )
Panama Canal (Panama)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Panama
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: By Ralph Emmett Avery ... ed. by William C. Haskins ...
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01004686
lccn - 14000005
ocm01004686
Classification: lcc - TC774 .A85 1913
ddc - 918.63 A955a
System ID: AA00014525:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Dedication
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Foreword
        Page 7
        Page 8
    I. Discovery and settlement
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    II. Raids of the buccaneers
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    III. Proposed canal routes
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    IV. The Panama Railroad
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    V. The French failure
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    VI. The American triumph
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    VII. Making the Isthmus healthful
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    VIII. An army of workers
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    IX. Constructing the lock type canal
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    X. Auxiliary plans and projects
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 224a
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    XI. Future canal traffic
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
    XII. Republic of Panama
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 288a
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
    XIII. Panama-Pacific international exposition
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
    XIV. Panama-California exposition
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
    XV. The land divided--the world united
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 352a
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
    XVI. The monumental task completed
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 374a
    Pronouncing gazetteer of the geographical names most frequently heard in the Canal Zone and Panama
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
    Table of Contents
        Page 379
    List of Illustrations
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




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Gift of the Panama Canal Museum

















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013











http://archive.org/details/triumpha00aver




































































Copyright, Harris & Ewing, Washington, D. C.
COLONEL GEORGE WASHINGTON GOETHALS,
THE BUILDER OF THE PANAMA CANAL,
Who might be classed as the most absolute despot on earth, although a benevolent one, and the
squarest boss a man ever worked for. He is a thorough engineer, a righteous judge, and a stern
executioner rolled into one. He realizes that man is but human, and for simple infractions of
the rules, is always ready to give the offender another chance, but there will be no second time.
A man of prodigious memory, quick to grasp details be they trivial affairs of every day life, or
questions of moment; an ear for every one, and the friend of all. The American Nation owes
much to the men who rendered yeoman service on the Isthmus; they cannot be too highly re-
warded. It owes much to that peerless leader, George Washington Goethals, who, for over six
long years has kept the goal steadily in sight, who has never, for a single instant, permitted his de-
termination to waver, who has fought inch by inch until every obstacle has been overcome, and
who, through his forceful personality and sense of justice, has compelled the admiration of every-
one with whom he has come in contact.










AMERICA'S


TRIUMPH


AT


PANAMA


PANORAMA AND STORY OF
THE CONSTRUCTION AND
OPERATION OF THE
WORLD'S GIANT WATERWAY
FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN





BY RALPH EMMETT AVERY
AUTHOR OF
A TRIP TO THE PANAMA CANAL

EDITED BY
WILLIAM C. HASKINS
OF THE CANAL RECORD


PUBLISHED BY
THE REGAN PRINTING
CHICAGO


HOUSE



































Copyright, 1913,
by
RALPH E. AVERY


[4





























DEDICATED TO THE
MEN OF BRAIN AND BRAWN OF OUR COUNTRY, WHOSE
'MATCHLESS SKILL AND INSPIRING COURAGE
MADE THE DREAM OF AGES A REALITY
IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE
PANAMA CANAL


[5]





















































[6]















FOREWORD


HE eighth wonder of the world, the crowning
achieveinent of man's greatest undertaking,
is the construction of the Panama Canal 1.b
-the Government of the United States and,
since this stupendous work has been accomplished in
much shorter time than was thought possible, there are
necessarily many reasons for congratulations for the
skill and perseverance displa-edl aidel from the fact
that in completing this enterprise our government has
at the same time succeeded in changing the commercial
highways of the world.
Doubtless for centuries to come the world-wonders
of the Panama Canal will be told in story and in picture,
but the eloquence of the theme itself will never be ex-
hausted while reverence for mighty deeds finds lodg-
Irient in the hearts of men.
Recognizing as much as one man could the magni-
tude and importance of the work eting performed on
the Isthmus, the Author for almost two years dwelt
among the activities of this gigantic enterprise, and in
these pages authentically presents to the reader his
chronicles of the Itel-by-step progrew, of the construc-
tion from beginning to completion. as well as the sue-
cessful installation of the world's majestic waterway
from ocean to ocean.
Clothed as it is in a beauty of typlogil'hly and art
illustrations in keeping with the grandeur of the subject
he feels assured of a cordial reception on the part of
the public of the result of his efforts.
THE AUTHOR.


[7]









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*, 'i-... -"!


~~ ~ *
4 -**^


,~..lt. I


U-1
** '* *
. ., .:^


SUNRISE, SUNSET AND MOONLIGHT SCENES ON PANAMA BAY.
During February and March the moon is particularly bright, due to the clear atmosphere
which prevails in the height of the dry season. On certain brilliant evenings it is possible to
read in the moonlight. The cloud effects are perfect and the rainbows magnificent. One of the
prettiest effects, which happens but rarely, is a rainbow at night.
[8]


i: T`;
~s~ ~ ~~





















=


HE history of the Panama Canal begin with the search for a western
waterway to the Indies, and for fame and gold, by those hardy
adventurers who followed in the wake of Columbus. These men,
fresh from the Moorish wars, and equipped for a struggle with Italy
which did not come to pass, looked for new fields to conquer. Nothing suited
them better than the discovery of a New World peopled by heathens waiting
to be converted by the sword to the Christian faith, after their gold, of which
they seemed to have plenty, was stripped from them to fill the empty coffers
of Spain.
This search by the followers of Columbus was fairly successful, so far as
fame and gold were concerned and, although no direct water route was found
to the Indies to the west, it naturally led to the settlement of the Isthmus of
Panama, the narrow strip of land separating the two great oceans and forming
the connecting link between North and South America. The establishment
of settlements on both coasts and the short distance between them, led to the
building of crude roads and trails for the early mule trains. These trails led
to the construction of a railroad, and the railroad to a ship canal, for trade
follows settlers, and water is the natural highway between nations. The story
of the Isthmus is, therefore, in a measure, the evolution of transportation routes.
EARLY DISCOVEHI-HS
The first European to sail along the coast of Panama was Rodrigo de
Bastidas, who sailed from Cadiz in October, 1500, and first touched the
continent near the island of Trinidad, and from there went west as far as
Nombre de Dios. With him on that voyage vwa Vasco Nufiez de Balboa, who,
later, was to discover the great South Sea, and Juan de la Cosa. who had sailed
with Columbus on his second voyage and was considered one of the most able
mariners of his day.
Columbus sailed from Cadiz on his fourth and last voyage in search of a
passageway to the Indies in May, 1502. On this voyage he skirted the shores
of Honduras and Costa Rica, to Almirante Bay and Chiriqui Lagoon on the
coast of Panama. At the latter place he was told by the Indians' that, if he
[9






i J TAN-PD ,DIVIDED --c-R E O ?_J U ITD

would continue his course to the east, he would soon come to a narrow place
between the two seas, and this led him to believe that his search for a strait was
nearing success; that he would soon pass into the Indian Ocean and thence
around the Cape of Good Hope to Spain, surpassing the achievement of Vasco
de Gama, the Portuguese, who had
already sailed around Africa (1497-
1498) in his search for a water route to
the Indies. Columbus continued on his
way and passed the site of the present
city of Colon at the Atlantic entrance to
the Canal, and on November 2, 1502,
arrived at a harbor 18 miles nortlhea.t,
which he named Porto Bello, signifying
beautiful port. He stayed there a week
stormbound, and then continued on
lpat Nomlre de Dios, thus overlapping
the voyage of Bastidas. He gave up
his uiii-ucce tful search for a strait
eventually, and took to the more prac-
tical work of hunting for gold. His
a' attempt to found a colony at the mouth
of the Rio Belen, southwest of Colon,
failed, and on May 1, 1503, he sailed
from the shores of the Isthmus. He
died on May 20, 1506, still believing
that he had discovered the eastern
shores of Asia. This belief was shared
by all the early voyagers until the dis-
Statue of Columbus and Indian Girl. Pre- covery of the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
sented to General Mosquera of Colombia in
1868, by the Empress Eugenie, and afterwards THE FIRST SETTLEMENT
turned over to Count DeLesseps. Now occu-
pies a commanding position on Cristobal Point. After the unsuccessful attempt of
Columbus to found a settlement in
Castilla del Oro (Golden Castile), as the Isthmus was termed, two colonizers
were sent out by King Ferdinand. One of these, Diego de Nicuesa, a Spanish
nobleman, more fitted for the court than for a command in the wilderness, was
given control of all the land between Cape Gracias A Dios, Nicaragua, and the
Gulf of Uraba, or Darien, the eastern limit of the present Republic of Panama.
The other was Alonso de Ojeda, who accompanied Columbus on his second
vovyge, and in addition had made two trips to the continent independently.
Ojeda was placcil in charge of the land east and south of the Gulf of UrabA
called Nueva Andalucia. Both of these expeditions outfitted and sailed from
Santo Domingo in November, 1509.
Associated with Ojeda were Juan de la Cosa, as lieutenant in the future
government, and a lawyer named Bachelleer Enciso, who furnished most of
the money to equip the expedition. It was arranged that Enciso should remain
at Santo Domingo to collect recruits and supplies, procure another ship, and join
Ojeda later at the proposed colony.
Ojeda landed near the present city of Cartagena, Colombia, founded in
1531. Here he attacked and overcame the Indians with a part of his force,
[ 10 1






cE TAM D DIVIDED U----E WO JTNITED

but in following up his victory, his men became scattered, and all those who had
landed were killed, with the exception of himself and one other. Among the
killed was the veteran Juan de la Cosa. Ojeda then entered the Gulf of
Uraba and founded the town of San Sebastian on the eastern shore, but was
soon compelled to return to Santo Domingo to obtain men and supplies. He
left the new colony in charge of his lieutenant, Francisco Pizarro, famous in his-
tory as the conqueror and despoiler of Peru, with the understanding that if he did
not return within 50 days the colonit, should decide among themselves the best
course to follow. He finally reached Santo Domingo, after suffering ship-
wreck and many hardships on the island of Cuhla. and found that Enciso had
departed long before with abundant supplies for the colony, but he was unable
to recruit another force to follow.
Pizarro and his men, suffering for lack of food, waited anxiously and in
vain for the return of Ojeda, and then abandoned the colony and sailed for
Cartagena. Here they found Enciso with reinforcements and provisions.
With Enciso was a stowaway in the person of Vasco Nuilez de Balboa. Enciso
insisted on Pizarro and his men returning with him to San Sebastian. On their
arrival, they found the settlement destroyed by Indians. They were without
food, and at the suggestion of Balboa, who had sailed along these shores with
Bastidas, they crossed the Gulf of Urali. where it was reported the Indians
were less warlike and prioviions could be obtained. It ;ws necessary, however,
for them to defeat a band of Indians under a powerful chief named Cemaco,
who disputed their landing, but they obtained the much needed supplies, and
founded the settlement of Santa Maria de la Antiguia, the first on the Isthmus.
They were now in the territory which had been a ,igued by the King to Nicuesa
and, consequently, had no right there. The ambitious Balboa took advantage


Columbus Island where Christopher Columbus stopped to repair and scrape the
bottom of his ships before proceeding on to Spain.
[ 11 1






S jD DIVIDED D T NTED

of this circiiistance and the fact that Enciso was disliked by his men, for the
reason that he allowed no private trading with the Indians, to depose him, and
asked Nicuesa to come and take charge of the colony.
















November 2, 1502, Columbus arrived at this harbor, 18 miles northeast of Colon, which he
named Porto Bello, signifying beautiful port. Rock for the concrete used in the locks at Gatun
was obtained at this point.
Nicuesa had already sailed from Santo Domingo, taking along with him
about 700 colonists. During the voyage, a terrific storm arose, wrecking some
of his ships and causing the loss of 400 lives. In the tempest the ships became
separated; some of them reached the coast at the mouth of the Belen River,
and others the mouth of the Chagres River. After collecting his men, Nicuesa
left the Belen River, and after doubling Manzanillo Point shortly landed,
saying: "We will remain here in the name of God." This was the site of the
town of Nombre de Dios, the oldest existing settlement on the Isthmus. During
American canal times, the sand for the concrete in Gatun Locks was obtained
here, and in 1910 and 1911, the sand dredge cut through the hulks of two old
ships, believed to be relics of the days of Nicuesa. The dredge pumps also
drew up bullets and other small articles.
Nicuesa's situation was desperate, as he was without arms or provisions,
but fortunately there arrived shortly his lieutenant Colmenares, who brought
supplies, as well as information concerning the new settlement at Antigua.
Nicuesa declared his intention of going there and taking all the gold found by
Ojeda's men as rightfully belonging to him. News of his intention reached
Antigua before he did and, on his arrival, he was met by an armed mob,
secretly urged on by Balboa, which cast him adrift in a leaky brigantine along
with 17 followers who had remained faithful to him. They were never heard
of again. Of the two expeditions, one was now left at Antigua, and of the two
men sent by the King of Spain to colonize the mainland, both were gone.
Balboa the stowaway ruled in Darien, March 1, 1511.
DISCOVERY OF THE SOUTH SEA
The first move Balboa made on finding himself in charge of the colony was
to secure his position by persuading Enciso and those who had led the mob in
[ 12 ]







C JI.E T DIVIDED C--jRE WOPrA UNITED

the attack on Nicuesa to return to Spain. Knowing that they would immedi-
ately go to the King and ask that he be dispossessed, he started in to obtain the
gold which he knew the King thought more of than all else, and to make new
discoveries which would help his cause. The gold he obtained from the
Indian chiefs of the Darien. It was made the price of peace, and Balboa
showed his shrewdness by making allies of the Indians after he had obtained
their treasure. Such an alliance he made with Careta, the cacique of Coyba,
who after his village had been sacked by the Spaniards, left with Balboa one of
his daughters as a hostage. Balboa accepted the Indian maiden, of whom
he became very fond and, although they were ever married according to the
Christian rites, she considered herself his wife.
Balboa started from Antigua on September 6, 1513, to cross the Isthmus
and find the great sea to the south, of which the Indians, knowing the cupidity
of the Spaniards, had told him glowing tales of the riches of the great race of
people which inhabited its shores. Fighting the different tribes which he met
on the way, subduing and making friends with them, on September 25, he
reached a hill in Darien from which it was said the South Sea could be seen.
Halting his men, Ballbo, made the ascent alone, and was the first European to
gaze upon this heretofore unknown ocean. Six days later, September 29, 1513,
four hundred years ago, he waded into the ocean and took possession in the
name of the sovereigns of Spain. This was in the Gulf of San Miguel, so named
for the reason that it was discovered on St. Michael's Day. He also performed
a similar ceremony when he reached a point of land at the entrance to the gulf.
Balboa subdued the local Indian chiefs, who gave him presents of gold and also
many pearls from the Pearl Islainds a few miles off the shore, and cotlfirne'd
the rumors of a powerful and rich nation to the south. The Pearl Islands, so



.. -'-



FIR
d."two
4..;..,A


A family of Indians, Darien.
[ 13 ]







CMJE bTAN-D DIVIDED O----cLHED O _TTITED

named by Balboa, could be plainly seen, but he did not visit them at that time
on account of the roughness of the sea and the frailty of the available Indian
canoes. He named the largest of the islands, Isla Rica, which is now known
as San Miguel, or Rey Island.













Nombre de Dios, the oldest existing settlement on the Isthmus. Sand was obtained
here for the cement used in the Gatun Locks.

Balboa returned triumphant to Antigua after an absence of about four
months. His messenger telling of his great discovery did not reach the King,
unfortunately, until after that monarch, listening to Enciso's complaints, had
sent out a new governor to take charge of the colony.
BALBOA'S UNFORTUNATE END
The new governor was named Pedro Arias de Avila, commonly called
"Pedrarias the Cruel," which nickname he won in the New World by his
method of extorting gold from the Indians. With Pedrarias was Hernando de
Soto, who was later to discover the Mississippi River, and Diego de Almagro,
who was to become the partner of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru. Unlike
Balboa, Pedrarias did not try to make friends with the Indians, but in many
instances repaid the hospitality which they extended to him as a friend of
Balboa with the utmost treachery,
destroying their villages, killing
women and children, and selling
those who survived into slavery.
tbas lHe undid what Balboa had been in
a fair way of accomplishing, that is,
Sthe settlement of Darien, for the In-
dians were everywhere aroused and
repaid cruelty with cruelty as often
as an opportunity was presented.
Pedrarias strove to establish
Sa line of posts for communication
between the two oceans in accord-
ance with the ideas of Balboa, but
Shrines are common along the waysides and at without success. The first of these
the entrance to villages, but this one has been was located on the Atlantic coast
placed in a hollow tree. The photographer dis- at a place named Santa Cruz.
covered it near Gorgona.
[14 ]







cTRE T3 DIVIDED --r-t7E OROD, UNITED

In the meantime, the King had recognized Balboa's discovery with a
commission as Adelantado of the South Seas and Viceroy of the Pacific coast,
an empty title, as he was subject to the orders of Pedrarias. Pedraria-. jealous
of Balboa's achievement, held up this commission
and kept Balboa fighting for his liberty in the court
of Antigua on trumped up charges. Finally Balboa
made an alliance with Pedrarias by promising to
marry one of his daughters, who was at that time
in Spain, and went a few miles up the coast to a
place called Acla, between Antigua and Santa Cruz,
where he established a settlement and had timbers *
cut and shaped which could be readily built into
ships with which to explore the new sea which he
had discovered. These timbers were carried acr r,,
the Isthmus by Indian slaves and were set up in
San Miguel Bay.
While at the Pearl Islands, from where he made
several short cruises, Balboa heard of the coming
of a new governor to supersede Pedrariia,. Think-
ing this governor might be hostile to his plans, he
sent messengers to Antigua to see whether or not he
had arrived. If he had, he instructed the messengers
to return without allowing their presence to become
known, and he would then leave on his voyage of
discovery before orders for his recall could b)e
delivered. His messengers went to Antigini and
found Pedrarias still in cmaro-e. for the new governor A wayside cross, or shrine.
fu a. .a stl in t) 1Some of these are very old.
had died on his arrival. 6ne of them, however,
told Pedrarias that Balboa was contemplating treachery and the founding of
an independent colony on the Pacific coast. The bitterness and jealousy


Village of San Miguel on Rey Island, one of the larger of the Pearl Island Group.
[ 15 1








OE TJA3JD DIVIDE D ---cE -H3 pOO 3D WITED

of Pedrarias for Balboa again came to life, and he sent Francisco Pizarro,
who was later to finish the work Balboa had planned to do, to bring `im back
to Acla. At Acla, Balboa was given a mockery of a trial for treason and was
beheaded with four companions in the latter part of 1517. Second only to
the discovery of the South Sea was the demonstration of the practicability of
an Isthmian transit.
SETTLEMENT OF OLD PANAMA
Pedrarias seeing the advantage of a settlement on the new ocean as an
outfitting station for future exploring expeditions, crossed the Isthmus and, on
August 15, 1519, founded Panama, situated about five miles east from the new
city. The name "Panama" is supposed to have come from an Indian word
meaning a place abounding in fish, and tradition relates that the town was built
on the site of an Indian fishing village. In the same year the Atlantic port was
transferred to Nombre de Dios, directly north of old Panama, and a few years
later Antigua and Acla were abandoned to the Indians.

















Some of the interior villages have no jails stout enough to hold a prisoner,
so the stocks are resorted to.
On September 15, 1521, the settlement at Panama was made a city by
royal decree, and the first bishopric in the Americas was removed there from
Antigua. The new governor sent out, opportunely for Pedrarias, died on his
arrival, as did several others who followed, and Pedrarias ruled until the arrival
of Pedros de los Rios, who took charge on July 30, 1526. Before his arrival,
Pe lr;irias took refuge in Nicaragua where he had already established a settle-
ment.
SPAIN S POWER SPREADS
Following this period in Isthmian history many parties set out inland to
explore the country, and outposts were located in the provinces of Chiriqui and
Veraguas. These explorations were made in accordance with the desires of
Charles V, who took a great interest in the exploration of the South Sea and the
discovery of a strait connecting it with the Atlantic Ocean. After he came to
the throne of Spain in 1516, he charged the governors of his American colonies
to examine the coast line from Darien to Mexico for a possible waterway.
In accordance with this policy, Gil Gonzales de Avila was sent out from
[16] V







NNEIvW DIVIDED ----crE WORP_ JN[ITED

Spain in 1521, with instructions to make a search along the coast for the western
opening of a strait. Gonzales dismantled and transported his ships a.crs, the
Isthmus and rebuilt them on the Pacific side. In January, 15, he sailed from
Panama bay and went as far as the Bay of Fonsecn, where he landed and
discovered Lake Nicaragua. On this voyage Gonzales met men sent out on
similar service by Cortez, who, later, established a transit route across the Isth-
mus of Tehuantepec in Mexico, following pretty closely the present railroad.
This route was started in much the same manner as the one across Darien,
through the necessity of transporting suitable lumber from the Atlantic coast of
the Isthmus to build ships with which to explore the Pacific coast. When
Pedrarias learned of the discovery of Lake Nicaragula, he immediately laid
claim to it, and as the country was rich in gold, established a city at Granada


Old Fort at Porto Bello.


near the shores of the lake after subduing the Indians. In 1529, Captain
Diego Machuca thoroughly explored the lake and discovered its eastern outlet,
the San Juan River. Sailing down this stream he finally reached the Atlantic
Ocean, and sailed along the coast until he arrived at Nombre de Dios, thus
opening up another route across the American Isthmus.
The first extensive explorations to the south were the voyages of Pizarro
and Almagro in 1524, which ended in the conquest of Peru. In 1527, an
expedition sailed up the Rio Grande, carried their canoes across the divide
at Culebra to a tributary of the Chagres, down which they sailed to its mouth,
thus going over the present Canal route.
PERIOD OF THE GREAT TRADE
Permanent settlements were now located at Nombre de Dios and at
Panama, and between these two points was established a paved trail or "royal
1. 17






c[Tflr N J)IVIDED --r B WQOIJD, TNITED

highway," for the commerce across the Isthmus at that time was steadily on
the increase, making Panama a place of mercantile importance. In 1534, a
route by water for boats and light draft vessels was established from Nombre
de Dios along the coast and up the Chagres River to the head of navigation at
Cruces. From Cruces there was another trail to the city of Panama. Over
these trails pack trains carried on the trade, the river being used in the wet
seasons, and when the altactks of the Indians and Cimaroons, (negro slaves,
who rebelled and were outlawed), became too frequent on the overland trail.
This trade consisted of gold and ornaments stripped from the temples of the
Incas, gold from the mines of Darien and Veraguas on the Isthmus, silver from
Bolivia, pearls, and also wool, indigo, mahogany, dye woods, cocoa, and
tobacco, all bound for Spa iii. for which the colonists received clothing and food-


The three ancient bells of Cruces. This town was one of the oldest on the Isthmus, and was
the head of navigation on the Rio Chagres before the days of the railroad. Abandoned in 1913
on account of its being in the lake area.

stuffs in return. For nearly two hundred years the trails from Panama to the
towns of Nombre de Dios and Porto Bello were the richest trade routes in the
world. Some of this trade even originated across the Pacific in the Philippines
and the Indies. Later, after the period of the great trade, 1550-1750, and up
to the time of the Pu;aniii railroad, the part water and part overland trail from
the mouth of the Chagres to Cruces, 34 miles, and thence to Panama, 18 miles,
vw;as used by the colonists when California and Oregon were opened to settle-
ment, and by the gold seekers in California in the days of '49.
After Nombre de Dios was destroyed in 1597 by Sir Francis Drake, the
royal port was chlangedt to Porto Bello, 17 miles to the southwest. This change
was beneficial, as Nombre de Dios was always unhealthful, while Porto Bello
had a better harbor and was nearer to the mouth of the Chagres and Panama.
[ 18 ]







Cr-B TuA N-D


DIVIDED E--I<7E WQORJaJ FITTED


Porto Bello became one of the strongest fortified of the Spanish settlements in
the New World. Here, came the Spanish galleons once a year to collect the
King's treasure, and to bring supplies for the colonists, and here, each year, on
the arrival of the ships, the merchants would congregate to take part in a big
fair which was held during the annual visit of the fleet.
The town is situated on a bay about a mile and a half long by 2,500 feet
wide, and the ruins of five of the six forts which guarded it, as well as an old
custom house, can still be seen, although partly covered with jungle growth.
One of the six forts was on the side of the hill on the opposite side of the bay
from the old town and where the Isthmian Canal Commission has been quarry-
ing rock for the past four years for Canal work, and it -was dug away by steam-
shovels. After Porto Bello became the royal port on the Atlantic, the Chagres


Mouth of the Chagres River. The old fort on the left and one of the turrets on the right.

River and the Cruces trail came into general use as a highway, although there
was also an overland road. and to protect this route from pirates who were
becoming old enougl to attack fortified town,. Fort San Lorenzo was built in
1601 at the river mouth.
THE SCOTCH BUBBLE
England lost its opportunity in 1698-1700 to gain a foothold in the Isthmian
trade by failing to lend its aid to the colonization scheme of William Patterson,
a Scotch financier, who had already founded the Bank of Englalid. Patterson's
plan, which eventually cost about 2,000 lives and $100,000 in money, was
designed to break up the monopoly of the British East India Company in the
Oriental trade by founding a colon y on the shores of Darien, and opening up a
free trade route across the Isthmus from Ada to the Gulf of San liguel. over
the same route taken by Balboa nearly 200 years before. Permission for the
[ 19 ]


- U- lLv--


L






9ci_ TiPD ,DIVIDED AMGP& WUITP _U JITE

formation of the company with this end in view was obtained from King William.
His approval, however, was later withdrawn at the instigation of the East India
Company, when it realized that its monopoly was in jeopardy, and instructions
were issued to the governors of the British colonies in the West Indies and
North America to withhold any aid to the Scots who had already departed for
Darien. The opposition of the East India Company forced the new project
to return all the money subscribed for stock in England, and to raise the
necessary funds in Scotland only.
On November 1, 1698, three ships and two tenders containing 1,200 men
reached the Darien from Leith, and founded the town of New Edinburgh on
the Gulf of Calidonia, near Acla. Here they were welcomed by the San Bias
Indians who saw in them future allies against the Spaniards. But the Scots
had no intention of fighting, much to the disappointment of the Indians, although
they must have known that their invasion would be resisted by the Spaniards.
The first expedition managed to stay eight months, during which time their
numbers were sadly reduced by sickness and famine. On June 20, 1699,
two hundred and fifty survivors, with Patterson who had gone out to the colony
as a volunteer, and whose wife and son had died there, left for New York, which
place they reached on August 13. Meanwhile, the company at home, not
knowing of the abandonment of the colony, sent out a second band of 300
recruits. This party arrived at New Edinburgh on August 13, the same day
that their predecessors reached New York. Finding the half-completed Fort
St. Andrew deserted, they immediately left for Jamaica with the exception of
a few men who insisted upon remaining. A third expedition consisting of
four ships and 1,300 men was sent out from Scotland, and reached New Edin-
burgh on November 30, although rumors of the failure of the first attempt had
been received.
At last the Spaniards determined to oust the invaders who, unable to
accomplish much on account of internal bickerings, the opposition of England,
and a high death rate, sent out a fleet of ships from Cartagena on February
25, 1700, to invest the port by sea, while a land force blockaded it in the rear.
On March 31, after many sorties against the Spanish forces, the colonists
surrendered and were allowed to depart with honors. The colony had been
reduced to about 360 persons, and these were so sick and feeble that it is said
the Spaniards had to help them aboard their ships and set the sails for them.




"A Nation given to the world,
A giant's task begun,
Show what our Uncle Sam can do
In an orbit of the sun.
O great indeed is our Uncle Sam
And his greatness ne'er shall cease!
For greatest of all his conquests won,
Are his victories of peace!"
-Gilbert.


[ 20 ]

























[ 'I]PAIN monopolized the early trade with its colonies and this policy
eventually lost its control of the countries of Central and South
j Anerica. The first direct result was the entering of English, French
and Dutch free traders and later, buccaneers and pirates, all of whom
ranged up and down the coast of the Spanishli Main preying upon commerce
and even attacking the fortified towns.
Up to the time Sir Henry Morgan became Governor of Jamaica, after the
sack of Panama in 1671, there was very little difference between free traders,
privateers, buccaneers and pirates, their object heing the same,-the easy
acquisition of gold and other loot by preying upon the commerce of Spain.
From 1550 to 1750, the Isthmian trade route was open to such attacks. After
the sack of Panama, however, England endeavored to put a stop to piracy in
the West Indies (Jamaica was the outfitting station for many ships sailing under
commissions granted by the governor who received a share in the spolils), and
after that time the pirates were hunted as a common enemy, and they in turn
preyed upon the shipping of all nations.
The result of the depredations of these freebooters finally forced Spanish
shipping o give the waters of the Indies a wide berth, and to take the longer
route through the Straits of Magellan to the colonies on the Pacific, although
this trade was already beginning to decline, partly through the failure of the
colonies to develop after the easily won treasures of the Incas began to give out,
and partly through the decadence of Spain as a sea power.
The free traders, who finally developed into pirates, were generally
welcomed by the colonists, unofficially, as Spain was not a manufacturing
country and was unable to supply their needs, and because it was greatly to their
benefit. to obtain goods of a better quality upon which no taxes had been paid
to the King. The traders were forbidden entry into the ports, and were com-
pelled to smuggle their goods in at convenient points along the coast and in
secret harbors. The custom of treating these men as pirates when caught,
naturally led them to protect themselves and, when the opportunity offered,
to retaliate in kind, and they finally became buccaneers or pirates in name as
well as in fact. The name buccaneer was given to the free traders by the
[ 21 ]






CME L DN-. DIVIDED --CT-H E WRO DTITED

boucanicrs, men cingaged in supplying them with smoke-cured meat for their

DRAKE'S EXPEDITION


The first Englishman to make his
West Indies was Sir Francis Drake.


Sir Henry Morgan.


name feared by the Spanish in the
In 1568, Sir John Hawkins, with
an English fleet, entered the harbor
of Vera Cruz, Mexico, to trade
with the Spaniards. He was re-
ceived by the officials of the port
in a friendly manner and invited to
anchor. As soon as his ships were
anchored under the guns of the
forts, he was attacked and all his
ships destroyed, with the exception
of two which managed to escape,
one belonging to himself and the
other to his cousin Francis Drake.
Drake returned to England and
endeavored to obtain satisfaction
for his losses through his govern-
ment, but was unable to do so. He
then decided to collect his own
indemnity by attacking Spanish
shipping as he had been attacked.
He obtained Letters of Marque from
Queen Elizabeth, and, in 1571-1572,
made two preliminary voyages to
the West Indies, principally to pre-
pare for future raids and to learn


how the Spaniards handled the golden harvest from Peru. In 1572, he re-
turned with two ships, in the holds of which were stored the parts of three
small sailing boats, and on July 29, having put the boats together, he attacked
and captured Nombre de Dios where the King's treasure house was at that
time located. He would have made a rich haul of the gold waiting for the
arrival of the fleet from Spain had he not been wounded in the assault on the
town.
Drake then made his headquarters on the coast, and made many forays
on shipping, even taking ships from under the guns of Cartagena. With the
help of the Ind1iani,. who since the days of Pedrarias were always ready to help
the enemies of Spain, and of the Cimaroons (as escaped negro slaves who had
banded together in the jungle and waged continual war on the Spanish pack
trains were called), he crossed the Isthmus to the Pacific, in time to see a Peru-
vian plate fleet riding at anchor in the bay of Panama. He planned to ambush
the pack train carrying the treasure from this fleet near Venta Cruz, or Cruces,
but failed to obtain any gold, the Spaniards aware of his presence, sending a
train of mules bearing provisions in advance. He captured and sacked
iCruces but, as this was merely a stopping place for the pack trains, he procured
very little booty. Another ambush outside of Nombre de Dios was more
successful, his men taking away all the gold they could carry and burying
[ 22






c]TI JAD DIVIDED c H---G]WE WORBl TINITED

several tons of silver in the vicinity. In 1573, he returned to England and
started to organize a fleet to go to the Pacific, but John Oxenham who had been
with him when he crossed the Isthmts,. forestalled him in his desire to be the
first Englishman to sail upon those waters.
John Oxenham crossed the Isthmus in 1575, with the help of the Indiain.
over the same route traversed by Balboa, and launched a small boat on the
Pacific. He stayed in the vicinity of the Pearl Islands taking several small
Spanish prizes, and finally captured one of the treasure galleons from Peru.
Oxenhani and his crew were finally captu red by the Spaniards and put to death.
Drake returned to the West Indies on November 15, 1577, sailed through
the Straits of Magellan, swept the west coast of South America as far north as
California, without attacking the city of Panama, crossed the Pacific. passedt
around the Cape of Good Hope and landed in England in 1580, having gione
completely around the world. In 1595, he again returned to the Isthmus, and,
with Sir John Hawkins, captured and burned Nombre de Dios, and started
across the Isthmus to attack the city of Panama, but the Spaniards had barri-
caded the royal road so effectively that the English gave up the attempt. They
went to Porto Bello instead, and just previous to the attack on that place,
January 28, 1596, Drake died and was buried at the mouth of the bay.
Drake's example was followed by William Parker, who attacked and sacked
Porto Bello in 1602. From the time of Drake, Porto Bello had little rest from
attack; its forts were rebuilt only to be again destroyed.
FALL OF OLD PANAMA
Henry Morgan was one of the first of the pirates to attack the mainland.
In June. 1668, he plundered Porto Bello, and at that time sent a message to


Section of wall and Spanish cannon, with embrasure, in old fort at Porto Bello.
[ 23 ]






-E Dj_ DIVIDED ---- E WIIOJ N-ITIED

the Governor of Panama that he would return in a short time to take that city.
As he promised, he returned to the Isthmus two years later, sent an advance
force, which attacked and captured Fort San Lorenzo at the mouth of the
Chagres, placed a garrison there and at Porto Bello, and started up the Chagres
and overland with 1,200 men, the Spaniards retreating before him. It took the
Englishmen nine days to make the journey, and they suffered greatly for want
of food as the Spaniards in their retreat on Panama laid waste to the country.
Panama was captured on January 28, 1671. Before the city fell fire broke out
and the place was entirely ruined. Morgan was accused of having set fire to
the town, but it was more likely that it was caused by a spark blown into an
open powder magazine, which had been ordered destroyed by the Governor,
Don Juan Perez de Guzman. However, Morgan stayed in the ruins nearly a
month, collecting booty, and also plundered the neighboring islands and the
surrounding country. He then returned to San Lorenzo, and sailed to Jamaica
with the la rget share of the booty, leaving his companions to leave the Isthmus
as best they could. The attack on Panalma was made when England was at
peace with Spain, and the British Government was forced to suppress buccan-
eering in Jamaica on account of the storm of protest aroused. Morgan was
made Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica, was later knighted and became
governor of the island, in which capacity he did good work in suppressing
piracy. His appointment would appear to have been made by the King on the
theory that it takes a thief to catch a thief.
OTHER ATTEMPTS
Although Drake and Morgan were no longer feared, the Isthmus was riot
yet free from the raids of numerous other pirates, French and English, who


Wall of the old fort at Porto Bello, showing entrance, and watch tower.
[ 24 ]






Cj-E T^A___IVIDED --q-~I-E O O_- I_

attacked Porto Bello, crossed the Isthmus, and raided up and down the coast
of the Pacific. Captain John Coxon plundered Porto Bello in 1679, and in
the following year crossed the Isthmus to the Pacific in company with Captain
Richard Sawkins, Bartholomew Sharp, Peter Harris and Edmund Cook,


















Scene in the village of Chagres at the mouth of the river of that name.
accompanied by over 300 men. They crossed the Isthmus of Darien, guided
by the Indians, in April, 1680, and attacked Santa Maria, an outpost on the
Tuyra River. Not finding the expected gold at Santa Marin, they voyaged
in canoes and in two barks. captured by Captains Sharp and Cook, to Panama.
Arriving off Panama, they were attacked by three Spanish ships near the
island of Perico. In the fight which ensued on April 23, 1680, the English
were victorious, but they failed to attack the city owing to a disagreement
between themselves as to who should be leader, although they stayed in the
vicinity many days picking up prizes. Captain Sawkins was killed later in an
attack on the mining town of Pueblo Nuevo, in the Province of Veraguas.
Captain Coxon had already left with his men to recross the Isthmus to the boats
left on the Atlantic, and Captain Harris died from wounds received in the
battle of Perico, leaving Captains Sharp and Cook to continue their voyages
in the South Sea. Captain Sharp returned to England where he was tried for
piracy, but escaped hanging on account of lack of evidence. From 1680 to 1688,
pirate raids wiped out every settlement on the Pacific coast of Darien. In 1688,
England became the ally of Spain, and the pirates ceased operations for the
time being.
War broke out between England and Spain in 1738, and in 1739 Porto
Bello was again captu red and destroyed by Admiral Edw;ard Vernon of the
British Navy. In 1740, Vernon captured Fort San Lorenzo, and in 1742, he
again took Porto Bello and prepared an assault on the new city of Panama
against which a fleet was going around the Horn under conlnni dl of Captain
Anson. However, Vernon's men began to fall sick, so he gave up the attempt
[ 25 ]












































64


p


'C
U.


~.' ,r


:iu

*4. .';-~


F! ~:U


1.eq
<..* A
*?: \cr .


The tower is the most important remaining evidence of the greatness of the first city of
Panama, destroyed by Morgan in 1671. It is located about six miles southeast of Panama City.
The wealth of Peru was transported over the old masonry bridges centuries ago.


[ 26 ]


k
r'.:***
""
n I;a;
*~
X/o ~t~d~:
'*!"' .
:...i'~.Lt~:1~ :n


i-PP. A
.,~5N'w-'
- r f


.;


B I


~il~j:~~7
r:, ~x.,


A :^v r ,-: .jh







T 1D JVIDED 1<-TE _W OJ UNITED

on Panama and went to Cartagena instead, at which place he met with a decisive
defeat. Anson learning of this event, left to attack Manila and the new city of
Panama was again saved.
The last of the Spanish galleons from Peru during the latter part of 17;:i


Pile of cannonballs at Fort San Lorenzo, used by the early Spaniards in resisting
the attacks of the buccaneers.

found upon its arrival at Panalma that Porto Bello was being attacked by
Admiral Vernon, so it returned to Guayaquuil and sent its treasure to Cartageia;
over the trail from Quito to Bogoai. Thus the commerce of the Spanish
galleons across the Isthliius ceased, anr l the gradual decay of the towns on the
Isthmus wherein lived the merchants and traders set in.


"Froinm acked Porto Bello redhanded they came,
All bloodstalined( from conquest unworthy the name,
To the mouth of the Clagre.,. where, high on the hill,
San Lorenzo kept gu ar(d, to plunder and kill
Its devoted defenders, who courageously fought
For homes, wives and children, accounting as naught
Their lives held so precious, so cherished before,
Could they drive the fierce pirates away from their shore.
Three days they repulsed them, but to find every night
The foe still upon them in ne'er-ending fight.
Their arms could not con(quer the powers of hell!
San Lorenzo surrendered-ingloriously fell!
Burned, famished and bleeding from many a woundl.
They lay while their stronghold was razed to the ground."
-Gilbert.


[ 27]













t b .


HE project of con necting the Atlantic with the Pacific has attracted the
attention of the civilized world since the discovery of the Isthmus.
In the years 1534 to 1536, studies were made under the direction of
the then governor of Panamua, Pascual Andagoya, in compliance with
a royal decree, dated February 20, 1534, for a ship canal across the Isthmus by
cutting from the Chagres River to the headwaters of the Rio Grande, but the
idea was abandoned on account of the excessive cost.
With a revival of interest in the subject, many routes were suggested and
many surveys were made at different points where the width of the American
Isthmus was found to be favorable, or where rivers and lakes were found that
might be utilized as a possible passageway. Of the many routes proposed, it
has been found that the one across Nicaragua, utilizing the San Juan River and
Lake Nicaragui, and that at Panama along the line of the Panama railroad,
utilizing the valley of the Chagres River and the Rio Grande, are the only
practicable ones. Of the others, those which gained the most attention and
which were given the most study were across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in
Mexico, and three in Panama, the Darien, or Atrato River, the San Blas, and
the Calidonia Bay routes.
TEHU.NTEIEC
The Tehuantepec route, where the Spaniards under Cortez, after the
conquest of Mexico, built a road across the Isthmus, is the best location, geo-
graphically, for a canal, it being so much closer to the Pacific and Gulf ports of
the United States, while the distance from New York is practically the same as
from Panama. However, the summit level at this point was found to be in the
neighborhood of 700 feet and very broad, and it is doubtful if a sufficient supply
of water could be obtained for it even if it could be materially lowered by exca-
vation. When the French were at work on the Panama project, Captain James
B. Eads selected this place for the location of a ship railway with large cars to
transport ships from one ocean to the other. This never got beyond the
"scheme" hIlige, although at that time it was considered practicable by engineers.
[ 28







CR___,,__,DIVIDED ---.7m -,L0 t. UTNTED

There is now an ordinary standard-gage railroad engaged at this point in
carrying transcontinental freight.
ATRATO RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
Various projects have been proposed to utilize the Atrato river, which flows
almost directly north about 200 miles into the Gulf of Darien, at the point where
the Isthmus joins the continent of South America, and several of its tributaries,
which approach the Pacific coast very closely. There is an Indian legend that
canoes can be carried for a short distance from the headwaters of the Atrato to
another river flowing into the Pacific. The Atrato is a silt-bearing river and has
a considerable fall, and is not in itself adapted to the use of ocean-going ships.
It would necessitate continual dredging for a hundred miles to canalize it, and a
cut through the continental divide much greater than the Cut at Culebra. The
streams flowing into the Pacific are little more than mountain torrents. On
this account this route has not been considered with as much favor as the more
northerly ones. There is a widely circulated story that King Philip III, in the
period 1616 to 1619, issued an edict at the request of Pere Acosta forbidding
further consideration of the project on the ground that the will of God was made
manifest by the fact that He had created an isthmus instead of a strait, and that
it would be impiety for man to put asunder what God had joined. Probably
a more reasonable objection was that a ship canal would make the Spanish
colonies too easily accessible to their enemies. The policy of King Philip was
adhered to for over 200 years after his death in 1698.
CALIDONIA
The Calidonia route is where Balboa crossed to the Pacific in 1513, and is
the one which William Patterson chose in 1698 for a line of transit across the
Isthmus to control the trade of the Pacific with the east. This route starts
from Calidonia Bay on the Atlantic where Patterson's colony of New Edinburgh
was located, to San Miguel Bay on the Pacific. At first this appears to be an
ideal location for a ship canal on account of the short distance, 35 miles, between
the two oceans. It was advocated by Dr. Edward Cullen of Dublin in 1850.
He claimed that the summit level on this line was not over 150 feet. It was
partly explored by Mr. Lionel Grisborne, an English engineer, in 1852, and he
reaffirmed the claim of Dr. Cullen. Later explorations, among them those of
Lieutenant Isaac G. Strain, U. S. N., in 1854, and by the United States Darien
expedition in 1870, failed to confirm this low altitude. It was found that the
summit level is at least 1,000 feet above the sea. Although the Isthmus is very
narrow at this point, the excavation required is so great that it was proposed to
build a tunnel 4.2 miles long through the mountains through which ships might
pass. This project has long been considered impossible.
SAN BLAS
The San Bias route from the Gulf of San Bias to the Bayano River, which
flows into the Pacific about 15 miles from the Pacific entrance of the present
canal, is across the narrowest part of the Isthmus, the distance being about 30
miles from shore to shore. The distance from the Atlantic tidewater to tide-
water in the Bayano River is about two-thirds of that distance. This route was
explored under the direction of Mr. Frederick M. Kelley in 1857, and subse-
quently by an expedition under Commander Thomas Oliver Selfridge, Jr.,
[29 ]






, n I A -P DIVIDED --D _P T _LTNJTEP

U. S. N., in 1870. The difficulty here, as on the Calidonia route, lies in the
height of the summit, to cross which tunnels from eight to ten miles long were
also proposed.
The result of all these explorations and surveys resulted in the conviction
that no other route compared in practicability with that of Panama and Nica-
ragua.
NICARAGUA
This route, utilizing Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan River, which flows
out of it into the Atlantic, was used as an isthmian transit by the Spaniards as
early as 1529. It became the subject of investigation as a possible Canal route
in 1825, when the newly federated state of Central America advised the United
States that it would encourage any such project by Americans. Several
surveys were made, but no construction work was attempted. In 1850-1852
an Amnricaii, O. W. Childs, organized a company under an agreement with
Nicaragua, and established a transit route, partly by water and partly by stage
road. This transit company also made isrve\ys for a ship canal along this route.
It forfeited its concession in 1858 without doing any work on the proposed canal.
Later surveys were made by the United States under Commander E. P. Lull,
and in 1889 canal construction was begun when the Maritime Canal Company
of Nicaragua, composed of Americans, was formed under a concession from
Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Financial difficulties, however, stopped the work
and the company failed in 1893. For some years after efforts were made to
induce the United States Government to finance the project, with the result
that, in 1893, Congre,% provided for a board of engineers to ascertain the
feasibility and cost of a canal at this point. This board, appointed by President
Cleveland, consisted of Colonel William Ludlow, U. S. A., Civil Engineer M.


Swinging bridge, Chame.
[ 30 ]







S_.DIVIDED-- -- _WOIJD, ITED

T. Endicott, U. S. N., and Civil Engineer Alfred Noble. They reported that
the Canal was feasible, but recommended further surveys and investigations.
Accordingly a commission was appointed by President McKinley, which con-
sisted of Rear Admiral J. G. Walker, Colonel Peter C. Hains, and Lewis M.
Haupt. Before the work of this commission was completed Congress provided,
in 1899, for increasing it for the purpose of making surveys, comparisons and a
thorough examination of all possible routes from Tehuantepec to the Atrato
River. The Commission, which became known as the Isthmian Canal
Commission, was now reinforced by the appointment of Colonel O. H. Ernst,
Alfred Noble, Geo. S. Morrison, and William H. Burr, engineers, and Professor
Emory R. Johnson and Samuel Pasco as experts, respectively, on the com-
mercial and political aspects of the problem. Explorations were made of the
entire Isthmus, but no favorable route was found other than that at Nicaraglua
and that at Panama. The Commission reported on November 16, 1901, in
favor of the construction of a canal across Nicaragua, provided the property of
the New French Canal Company on the Isthmus of Panamai could not be
purchased for $40,000,000, nearly one-third of the price asked.
The total length of the canal proposed at Nicaragua was about 187 miles, 47
miles of which was in deep water in Lake Nicanragun, 17 miles in the river not
requiring improvement, leaving 121 miles of river to be cIanalized. It was to
have nine locks. The difficulties which would have to be overcome are about
the same as at Panama. However, the longer distance at Nicaragua and the
proximity to active volcanoes made it less desirable than the Panama route.
The latter was more advantageous because of the Panama railroad and the
extensive plant and work of the French.
PANAMA
The Panama Canal project, like the others, was the subject of many
studies and surveys, the first, as stated above, being made in 1534. None of
the surveys however were thorough prior to the one made by the Isthmian Canal
Commission in 1890. Simon Bolivar, in 1827, caused a survey to be made of
the route by an English surveyor, and in 1835 the United States sent Charles
Biddle to investigate possible water or railroad routes across the Isthmus.
He obtained a concession from New Granada (Colombia) for a railroad, but
nothing further was done at that time. A few ye rs later, 1838, a company of
Frenchmen obtained a similar concession, and a report that a summit pass of
37 feet above sea level caused the French Government to send out Napoleon
Garella to make a survey which corrected this error. He recommended a lock
canal with a summit level of about 160 feet above sea level, a tunnel of 3S miles
through the divide, and 18 locks to make the required lift. It was not until
May, 1876, that the Government of Colombia gave to the French Canal Com-
pany the concession under which the first cnal work was done, although the
Panama railroad was built in 1850-5, and other surveys had been made under
the direction of the United States Government in 1854 and 1866. While the
French were at work on the Canal many studies were made of the project by
officers of the United States Navy.


I 31 1

























'ROM 1750 to 1849, trade across the Isthmus was at a standstill, and
the old pack trails from Porto Bello and from Cruces on the Chagres
became nearly obliterated through disuse. Spain's belated change of
policy, the granting of free trade to the colonies, came too late to be
of much benefit to Panama. A few ships discharged their cargoes at the mouth
of the Chagres for transportation over the Cruces trail, but there were no ade-
quate facilities for handling any great amount of trade had there been any.
What little trade there was went around Cape Horn or via the Cape of Good
Hope. The Isthmus became a place of so little importance that it was reduced
from a viceregency in 1718, when it became a province of New Granada (the
old name for Colombia). It obtained its independence from Spain on Sep-
tember 26, 1821.
In 1849, however, the Isthmus again came to life with the steady flow of
emigrants bound for California, where gold had been discovered during the
previous year. California and Oregon had also been thrown open to settle-
ment, and the Isthmian transit became almost a necessity, for the only other
means of communication with those states were the long overland journey by
wagon train across the American continent, and the long voyage around South
America. Thus the Isthmus as a trade route again came to the front.
The advantages of an Isthmian railroad as a means of developing the trade
of the United States with the growing republics of Central and South America
was realized as early as 1835, when President Andrew Jackson appointed Mr.
Charles Biddle as a commissioner to visit the different routes best adapted for
interoceanic communication by rail or by water between the two oceans. Mr.
Biddle visited the Isthmus, went to Bogota, and obtained from the Government
of New Granada a concession for constructing a railroad across the American
Isthmus. He returned to the United States in 1837 with this document, but
died before he was able to prepare a report, so nothing further was done at
that time. In 1847, a French syndicate, headed by Mateo Kline obtained a
.niiiiihar cnmcll( ion, but was unable to raise the money necessary to carry out the
work. In December, 1848, three far-sighted Americans, William H. Aspinwall,
Henry Chalmccy, and John L. Stephens, entered into a contract with New
[ 32 ]







1HE 6 .pDrIVIDED ~-ZtIE WOI`S-1, UNITED

Granada to build the road, and the Panama Railroad Company, with a capital-
ization of $1,000,000, was incorporated under a charter granted in the state of
New York. Aspinwall, in the same year, obtained from CiongreS a contract
for carrying United States mail by steamer from Panama to California and
Oregon, as a part of his railroad scheme. A similar mail contract authorized
by Congress on the Atlantic side, New York and New Orleans to Chagrcs,
was obtained at the same time by Mr. George Law.
As soon as the concession was obtained from New Granada, Mr. Stephens,
accompanied by Mr. J. L. Baldwin, an engineer, went over the proposed route
for the road and, finding a summit pass of a little less than 300 feet, decided that


e -


High trestle for embankment fill. The new line was built on a 95-foot level and across the
lowlands of the Gatun Lake region a number of long and high trestles for embankment fills, some
of them 90 feet high, had to be built.
[ 33]






E TI- n DIVIDE D --E _Ocr _WP T SUITED

it was feasible. In the early part of 1849, a party of engineers in charge of
Colonel G. H. Hughes of the United States Topographical Corps, was sent to
locate the line. Finding a summit ridge of 287 feet, a line was laid out not
exceeding 50 miles in length from ocean to ocean, with the Atlantic terminus
on Navy Bay, as Limon Bay was formerly called, and with the Pacific terminus
in Panama City.
A contract was then entered into with two experienced contractors, Colonel
Geo. MI. Totten and John C. Trautwine, for the construction of the line.
These men decided upon Gorgotii, on the Chugres river, 31 miles from Colon,
as the base of operations toward Panaina. thinking that material could be easily
landed there by boat. However, the river was so low in the dry season and so
swift in the rainy season that light draft steamers were found out of the question


7 .r

Loading dirt train for trestle fill.

for the transportation of railroad material. At the same time the increasing
rush to the California gold fields by way of the Isthmus, made river transporta-
tion and the cost of labor prohibitive, and the contractors begged the company
to release them from their obligation. This the company did, and, deciding
to undertake the construction work itself, retained Messrs. Totten and Traut-
wine in its wcr'ice.
FIRST WORK ON THE PANAMA RAILROAD
Clearing on Manzanillo Island began in May, 1850. This was a low
swampy plot of land of about 600 acres separated from the mainland by a
narrow arm of the w(.a. and is the site of the present city of Colon. Although
clcariing had been made, residence upon the island was impossible and for the
[ 34 ]







C~jIE aDN-1 DIVIDED --S-Ti O~?D R jTED

first few months the men engaged in making the surveys, and the laborers
brought from Cartagena, Colombia, were obliged to live on board an old brig
anchored in the bay. When this became overcrow'dled, as additions were made
to the force, it was supplemented by the hull of a condemned steamboat. The
village of Aspinwall was founded on February 2, 1852, but on account of
Colombia's refusal to recognize the name, it was later rechristened Colon, in
honor of Columbus.
The first seven miles of the road was through an extensive swamp, covered
with jungle, and the surveyors were compelled to work in water and slime up
to their waists. In a short time the entire force suffered with malarial fever, and
great difficulty was experienced in obtaining sufficient laborers. Irishmen
were brought from the United States, negros from Jamaica, and natives from
the adjacent tropical countries, and fever made inroads on all of them. The
importation of Chinese coolies was tried, and nearly 1,000 of that race were


















Scene on the Panama railroad, near El Diablo, Ancon Hill in the distance.
Corozal-Ancon wagon road on the left.

brought from China. Native hill rice, tea, and opium were supplied them,
but within a few weeks disease broke out among them, and, many becoming
melancholy, are said to have committed suicide, so that inside of 60 days scarcely
200 able-bodied remained. The high mortality of these Chinese laborers,
probably helped develop the story that each of the ties on the original Panama
railroad represented the life of a laborer. The facts in the case make the story
ridiculous. There were at least 150,000 cro-,s-ties in the original road, including
sidings and yards, while the largest number of emploves at any one time was
not over 7,000, and the road was completed in four years. According to the
most authentic records, the total mortality during the construction period was
about 1, 00. Added to the difficulties of maintaining a labor force, was the
necessity of bringing nearly all food and supplies from New York, a distance
of nearly 2,000 miles.
By the first of October, 1851, the track had been laid as far as Gatun, and
[ 35 ]







HE JAN-D 2DIVI DE D cHE P OI[D, UNITED




















The largest railroad bridge on the new line, spanning the Chagres River at Gamboa. It is 1,320
feet long. The Chagres River empties into the Canal at this point.
in the following month, 1,000 ,passngers were carried to that station from
Colon. These passengers had arrived at Chagres for the California transit in
two ships, but could not be landed there on account of a heavy storm, and were
disembarked at Colon. This happened most opportunely for the railroad, as
the original million dollars had been expended and things were beginning to
look dark to the stockholders. When the news reached New York that
passengers had been carried as far as Gatun, seven miles by rail, even though
they had been carried on flat cars, the company's stock immediately rose in
price. The work was pushed on with renewed vigor, for, from this time on,
there was a small and steady income which could be applied to the construction
expense. In July, 1852, the road had reached Barbacoas, a total distance of
23 miles, where it was necessary to construct a bridge 300 feet long to span the
Chagres.
On October 10, Mr. John L. Stephens, who was president of the company,
died in New York, and his successor, Mr. W. C. Young, decided to have the
remainder of the work accomplished by contract. The contractor, however,
failed to fulfill his obligation and after a year's delay, the company again decided
to do the work.
COMPLETION OF THE ENTERPRISE
On the 27th of January, 1855, at midnight and in rain, the last rail to the
summit ridge at Culebra, 37 miles from Colon and 11 miles from Panama, was
laid, and in the meantime, work had been advancing steadily from Panama
city, to which point material had been transported around Cape Horn. On
the following day, the first locomotive passed from ocean to ocean, nearly four
years after ground was first broken. The completed road was 47 miles 3.020
feet ,ng, with a maximum grade of 60 feet to the mile, in order to surmount the
summit ridge at elevation 287 feet. The first president was Mr. David Hoadley.
[ 36 ]







cE AMD DIVIDEDD C ---OTgE ^UT

Although track had been laid from ocean to ocean, the railroad was in poor
physical condition, and it was not until 1859 that its construction account was
finally closed, at a total expenditure up to that time of $8,000,000. The road
was properly ballated, heavier rails were laid, using hardwood ties, bridges of
iron replaced flimsy wooden structures, and station buildings and wharves were
erected. To cross waterways, 170 bridges and culverts had been built and the
wooden bridge at Barbacoas was replaced by one of iron.
The road was a paying investment from the time when the first 11 miles were
opened in 1832, for, as new sections were built they were put into immediate ser-
vice for passengers and freight, and at the end of 1855, the year the entire r, ,ad was
opened, its income from passengers and freight was $W,1~5,232.31. When the
original construction account was closed in January, 1859, the gross earnings
amounted to $8,146,605.00, while operating expenses, together with deprecia-
tion amounted to $2,174,876.51, leaving a balance of $5,971,728.66, as legitimate
earnings for a period of seven years, during the last four of which the road was
open throughout its entire length. Dividends have been paid every year on the
stock, with the exception of a few years previous to the taking over of the road
from the French Canal Company by the United States. The average dividend
during the years 1852-1881 was 16 per cent., and since that period, five per cent;
the smallest dividend was two per cent. in 1885, and the largest 44 per cent. in
1868. In 1865, the capital stock was increased from $5,000,000 to $7,000,000.
In 1881, the year when the road was sold to the Frenchl Canal Company, a


The station of the Panama Railroad at Panama City always presents an active scene at train
time. A new first class station has taken the place of the old one shown here. All passenger
locomotives are oil-burning and the coaches are thoroughly up-to-date, having first and second
class accommodations. The tunnel at Miraflores is 736 feet long.
[ 37 1







CjT A TAI IVI D ED q-i E W QOJCUP T1T7ITED

dividend of 521 per cent. was declared, but this not only represented the earnings
for that year, but also included the assets and surplus on hand at that time.
EARLY RATES NEARLY PROHIBITIVE
The following table of rates, placed in effect when the road was first opened
in 1855, remained in force for 20 years, and following the company's policy,
wee( intended to be prohibitive at first, on the theory that they would be lowered
when the company had had an opportunity to improve its line, will explain in a
measure the large profits made on this road which cost about $170,000 a mile
to build:


Fare, Panama to Colon, Ist-class.
Fare, Panillma to Colon, 2d-class.
Charge for baggage...... .....
Freight rate, Ist-class ..........
Freight rate, id-class...........
Freight rate, 3d-class...........


1885
$25.00
10.00
.10 per lb.
3.00 per cwt.
2.00 per cwt.
1.00 per cwt.


1903 1907
$5.00 $,.40
2.25 1.45
.02 per lb. .02 per lb.
.40 per c.u. ft. .50 per cwt.
1.20 per cwt. .44 per cwt.
.80 per cwt. .32 per cwt.


At the present time the first-class passenger fare is $Q.40, with 150 pounds of
baggage free; second-class, half of that rate.
ESTABLISHMENT OF STEAMSHIP SERVICE
In 1856, the company established a steamship service between Panama
and San Jose de Guatemala, thus opening up the rich coffee country of Central


:,...---:-' ':;^-. ^^ .... ^
-.- --~ -" ,


The Panama Railroad operates a steamship service with a fleet of six vessels plying between
New York and Colon, two of which were purchased in 1908 for the carrying of cement. This
is the Panama, one of the passenger steamers.
[ 38 1


-r.L







i~~~ir7HE~~~iiii~~~~iii l)A~ 6c D


DIVIDED ---- CH E WORLRD, TIJITED


America. This line continued until October, 1872, when it was taken over bv
the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. At one time the road had a line of its
own between San Francisco and Panama, but this was withdrawn in 1902. In
1893, the present Panama Railroad Steamship Line was established between
New York and Colon, and there are now six ships in this service, the Ancon,
Cristobal, Panama, Colon, Allianca and Advance, although the two former
vessels purchased in 1908 are owned by the Canal Commission, and have been
used mainly in transporting cement to the Isthmus.
CONCESSIONARY RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES
The terms of the original concession granted by the Government of New
Granada provided, among other things, the exclusive privilege of building a
railroad on the Isthmus of Panama; that no undertaking for the opening of a
canal to connect the two o(cans would be permitted without the consent of the
railroad company; that the railroad company should have the exclusive privilege
of building wagon roads across the Isthmus and the use of the Chagres for
steamer travel, and the exclusive privilege of the use of the ports at the two
termini for the anchorage of vessels, and for the loading and unloading of cargo.
This concession was to remain in force 49 years from the day of the road's
completion, subject to the right of New Granada to take possession at the
expiration of 20 years upon the payment of $5,000,000, or at the expiration of
40 years upon the payment of $2,000,000. The provisions of the contract were
modified several times, but its exclusive features remained practically the same.
In 1867, it was renewed for 99 yea rs on payment of $1,000,000 in cash, and an
annual payment of $250,000 guaranteed to New Granada. The railroad also
obligated itself to extend the road to the islands in the bay of Panama. This
extension of the contract for 99 years was secured 12 years after the opening of
the road by Colonel Totten, when it was realized that New Granada would
surely raise the necessary $5,000,000 to obtain the road after 20 years of opera-
tion, a road costing $8,000,000 to build and, at that time paying 24 per cent on a
capitalization of $7,000,000.
Two years later, 1869, the Union Pacific was completed across the
American continent, with a consequent decline of California trade across the
Isthmus. The loss of this trade would have been offset by the trade of Central
and South America, had the company seized the opportunity, but its policy,
apparently, was to make all it could there and then let the future take care
of itself. In 1868, the Pacific Steam Navigation Company withdrew its line of
steamers from the Isthmiian transit, and sent its ships to Englanl via the Strait
of Magellan, and transferred its repair shops and coaling station from the island
of Taboga to Callao, Peru. It was forced to do this by the shortsighted policy
of the railroad's (directrs who refused to ratify a traffic agreement profitable
to both, which had been tentatively drawn up, giving the company where
freight originated the right to make a through chlarge to be divided equally
between the three carriers, the railroad and the steamship lines on either side
of the Isthmus. The steamship company took most of its trade with it and an
idea of what was lost to the railroad can be obtained from the fact that, in 1874,
it had .54 steamers, with a total of 124,000 tons, in operation between Valparaiso
and Liverpool. Only its smaller boats were sent to Panama, and tllee mierel
to act as feeders to the main line on their return south. This policy of offering
no encouragement to steamship line. also forced the Panama, New Zealand
[39 ]







~-~F:: _'P~''-~r;
r
ic"





n
L_ ___I~


The headquarters of the Panama Railroad are located at Colon. The new line runs on the east side
of the canal and is 47.11 miles long. It was completed on May 25, 1912, at a cost of $8,984,922.18.


[ 40 ]


5W"







CT-7iPS T\AN-D


DIVIDED -

and Australian Steamship Company to give up its attempt to inaugurate a
monthly service via Wellington to Sydney, connecting with the Royal Mail
Steam Packet Company, operating between Southampton and Colon.
In spite of this policy of taking more than the trade could stand, the railroad
continued to pay dividends, but it would undoubtedly have done a much more
profitable business had it endeavored to help, instead of oppressing the growing
trade of Central and South America.
CHANGES IN OWNEIllHIP
When the French operations were begun in 1881, the French Canal
Company found that in order to build a canal it would first have to gain the
consent of the railroad or to purchase it. The latter plan was followed, and in
June of that year, 68,888 of the 70,000 shares were obtained for a little over
$20,000,000 or two and one-half times what the road had originally cost to
build. In addition to the amount expended for shares, bonuses paidl brought
the total cost to a little over $25,000,000. When the United States, on May 4,
1904, took over the affairs of the New French Canal Company, they came into
possession of these shares, and obtained the remainder, 1,112 shares, by private
purchase at a cost of $157,118.24, or an average price of $140.00 per share.
The entire stock of the Panama Railroad and Steamship Company is now
owned by the United States, with the exception of one share transferred to each
of the directors to enable them to qualify under the articles of incorporation.
The Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission is also
President of the Panama Railroad Company.
Since it has become a government-owned corporation, the road has bec',ome
secondary to the Canal work, although it is still a common carrier, and carries


The railroad station at Gatun, which is the only station of a permanent type so far
constructed, except at Colon and Panama City.
I 41 ]


. l-







cmE bv- DIVIDED --c-E WO-D Ja UNITED


Old Washington Hotel, showing statue of the Panama Railroad founders, Henry Chauncey, Wm.
H. Aspinwall and John L. Stephens. A new modern hotel has taken the place of the old one.

about 70,000 tons of commercial freight a month, which is about one-half of the
total amount, the balance being handled for the company and for the Canal
work.
When the road was turned over by the French it was found to be in a
neglected condition, with obsolete equipment and rolling stock. Since that
time terminal wharves, equipped with modern cargo cranes, have been con-
structed, terminal yards, warehouses and machine shops provided, new and
powerful locomotives, 12 of which are oil burners, larger cars for passengers
and freight put into service, heavier rails laid, bridges strengthened to enable
them to carry the heavier equipment, and the whole line double-tracked.
Permanent reinforced concrete stations have been built at Colon, Gatun and
Panama, and a modern concrete hotel, the Washington, costing upwards of
$650,000 has been constructed on Colon beach.
THE NEW MAIN LINE
The relocated, or new main line of the railroad runs on the east side of the
canal for its entire length of 47.11 miles. From Colon to Mindi, 4.17 miles,
and from Corozal to Panama, the old location was used, but the remaining
40 miles are new road. From Gatun, the line skirts the north shore of the lake
for about four miles, and then turns south, crossing the eastern arm of the lake
on a high trestle fill at an elevation of 95 feet above sea level. Near Caimito,
the road approaches the canal again, and parallels it to Gamboa. Originally,
it was planned to carry the road through Culebra Cut on a 40-foot berm, 10 feet
above the water level, but slides caused the abandonment of the project, and it
was built on a high level around Gold Hill instead. Its highest point is 271
r 42 1







j _) DIVIDEDD ---- EJO_ DUTTN,,TED

feet above sea level near LaPita, and where the continental divide is crossed,
opposite Culebra, the height is 241 feet. From the south end of Culebra Cut
at Paraiso, the railroad runs practically parallel with the canal to Panama.
Where the road crosses the Gatun River, near Monte Lirio, a steel girder bridge
with a lift span has been erected to permit native sailing craft to pass into the
east arm of the lake. and at Gamboa, the Chagres River is crossed with a steel
girder bridge one-quarter of a mile long. At Miraflores, the road passes through
a tunnel 736 feet long.
The new line was completed on May 25, 1912, at a cost of $8,984,922.18,
but passenger trains were not run over it for its entire length until September 2,
1913, when the former crossing at Gamboa dike was abandoned on account of
the rise of Gatun Lake. On that date a new schedule was placed in effect,
whereby the main line trains run all the way from Colon to Panama on the east
side of the canal, and the towns on the west bank are served with a shuttle train
service from Panama to Bas Obispo, the present terminus of the old double-
track line. The shuttle trains now cross the canal, near Paraiso on a trestle
bridge, but as this will have to be removed to permit the navigation of the canal,
a wooden pontoon bridge will be built in the same locality of sufficient width for
a single track and a roadway for vehicles. This is not intended for a permanent
crossing but only to such time as the villages on the west bank of the canal can
be abandoned. South of Corozal, a change will be made in the road which will
have the effect of placing the new town of Balboa on the main line, with its
terminus at Panama as at present. The railroad possesses modern passenger
terminals at both ends. The one in Colon is of concrete block construction,
and was opened on July 23, 1909. It is not particularly attractive from an
architectural standpoint. The new station in Panama, costing about $100,000,
was completed in the latter part of 1913. The-only other station of a permanent
type so far constructed is at Gatun, built in 1909.


The new Hotel Washington at Colon. Cost about $500,000.
Operated by the Panama Railroad.
[ 43 )







CrHLNDJIVI DE D --CJ11E, WSJ5ll~~lP~~l U~ NJTIIIEDZ


- &A.-


The total mileage of the road, exclusive of sidings, is 58.79, as follows:
Main line, 47.11 miles; Pedro Miguel to Bas Obispo, 9.12 miles, and Panama
to Balboa 2.56 miles.
BUSIEST SHORT LINE IN THE WORLD
During the years 1911-1912 the road carried 777,121 first-class passengers,
and 1,980,550 second-class pascenigers, an increase of over 300,000 for the year.
During the fiscal year just closed, the pa,,enger traffic is expected to show
material increase due in part to the increased tourist travel. Freight amounting
to 1,871,076 tons was transported over the railroad during 1911-1912, divided
as follows:


Throutgli common ercial freight ....................
Local and I. C. C. freight.............. ........
Local commercial freight ........... ............ .
Panama Railroad Company's freight ...............


Per cent.
... .36.80
.... 49.93
... 10.37
S... 2.90


The net revenue from its operation was $1,997,280.80. The steamship
line, on the other hand, has not paid as an investment, except as a feeder for the
railroad, and for the benefit of the Isthmian Canal Commission. It has had a
steady freight and passenger traffic, but the cargoes have consisted principally
of canal supplies, and the pa;.sengers have been mostly employes of the Canal
Commission and railroad, who are carried at a reduced rate. The net deficit
from the operation of the steamship line for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912,
was $305,742.85.
With the completion of the canal it is possible that the road will be electri-
fied, obtaining the necessary power from the hydroelectric plant at Gatun spill-
way, and will be devoted almost entirely to local traffic. This traffic will, no
doubt, be consideralble, for Colon and Panama will always be important cities.


11:;..


K ii t"I


*-**-


New Panama railroad passenger terminal in Panama, just completed.
[ 44 ]


nib


DIVIDED -Cr-ME
I


CI"HF~ 'I~AN-D


~i~r7ab,
~iiSiiSiiii-~

























HE French attempt to construct a waterway across the Isthmus was
foredoomed to failure because the project fell into the hands of
promoters and speculators. A contributory cause was the very high
sick and death rate among the French employes on the Isthmus. This
added greatly to the cost of administration and resulted in an unstable labor
force. Many of the best engineers left the Isthmus after short service, or died,
and these constant changes made it difficult to pursue any regular plan to keep
up an effective organization to carry on the work. The company had to pay
high wages and offer special inducements to perluale men to take the chance of
one in five of surviving an attack of yellow fever which they were liable to
contract. Had the work been in charge of a rich and powerful government,
public opinion would not have allowed the work to have been carried on at such
an appalling cost of life. When the enterprise was started the method of
transmission of malaria and yellow fever was unknown, and, even if the French
had taken the sanitary precautions prevailing at that time, they could not have
stamped out these two fevers which gave the Isthmus the reputation of being
the most unhealthy place in the world for a white man. As a private corpora-
tion, it could not enforce sanitary regulations had it desired to do so, for, unlike
the United States, it did not acquire absolute jurisdiction over the Canal strip,
but was at the mercy of the Colombian courts.
Other causes were extravagance, which naturally developed into graft,
for the supply of money which came flowing into the coffers of the company
from eager investors beguiled by the name of De Lesseps seemed inexhaustible;
the lack of suitable machinery, the want of preparation, and misguided leader-
ship. All these mistakes have served as warning signals to the Canal Com-
mission, so that the failure of the French has contributed, in a large measure, to
the success of the Americans.
DE LESSEPS--PO(MOTER
The first French Canal Company, La Societe International du Canal
Interoceanique, inaugurated the undertaking with an exclusive concession from
Colombia, but with an incomplete isrvey of the proposed work, and an esti-
mate of cost and time placed much too low. The necessary money was
[ 45 ]







C~RE~ TLA.N-D


DIVIDED 0 ---HE WORDA, UNITED


Count Ferdinand de Lesseps. His name will
always be linked with the great enterprise
as it was under his direction and control
that the work first took definite form.


obtained from the French middle
cla;ies, who were induced to part with
their savings through the magic name of
Ferdinand de Lesseps, who had just
brought to a successful close his great
work at Suez, and who was placed at the
head of the new enterprise. De Lesseps
was honest and sincere, but he was an
old man, somewhat blinded by his pre-
vious good fortune, and, therefore,
easily deluded. He was enthusiastic
over the idea of a canal connecting the
Atlantic with the Pacific, and made
himself and others believe that the work
could be accomplished more quickly
and much easier than the Suez. His
ability as a missionary made him valu-
able to the promoters, for the difficulties
of the work across the Isthmus, as com-
pared with the work at Suez should
have been apparent even to the layman.
He was not an expert engineer; it did
not require any engineering ability, but
merely imagination, to see the practica-
bility of cutting a sea level channel
through the low desert region of upper
Egypt, while at Panama, a hilly and


Former headquarters of De Lesseps, Cristobal, now used by the Canal Commission.
[46


I- ~--1---- `- ----v U"--~--~


S LA







E AN- DIVIDED --gq "M WOXIDVO IUNTED

rock country had to be traversed, torrential streams diverted, and a tidal basin
constructed, problems which the world's foremost engineers have differed in
the solution. And yet De Lesseps sincerely believed that he was to achieve a
second triumph, and much easier than his first. (The Suez Canal was opened
in 1869, took ten years to build, and cost about $100,000,000, or a million
dollars a mile. This low cost was due to the fact that the cut was made through
a stretch of level sand, and Said Pasha, the Khedive of Egvpt, a large stock-
holder in the enterprise, practically forced his subjects to work on the project
in much the same manner as Rameses of old).
PROCURING THE CONCESSION
The concession for the privilege of constructing the Canal was obtained
from Colombia in May, 1876, by General Stephen Tiirr, a Hungarian, who had
become acquainted with De Lesseps when the latter was planning his work at
Suez, and who was later incited by the Frenchman's success in an effort to
duplicate the feat at Panama. He organized a provisional company in France
and sent an engineering party to the Isthmus in November, 1876, to make
explorations and surveys. The party was in charge of Lieutenant Napoleon
Bonapart Wyse, of the French Navy, a brother-in-law of General Ttirr, and at
that time only 23 years of age. The first expedition was only partly successful,
several of its members falling victims to disease. Wyse wa.s again sent out in
the spring of 1878 with Lieutenant Armand Reclus, also of the French Navy.
On this trip he obtained a new concession, approved May 18, 1878, in the name
of the association presided over by General Ttirr, which modified and extended
the former one, so as to give the promoters the exclusive privilege of building a
canal across the Isthmus anywhere within the United States of Colombia.
This concession was to remain in force 99 years, provided the necessary per-
mission was obtained from the Ptnama Railroad Coipmlny which held a


The old port of Colon in 1884, during the early French days. This photograph
was taken with a wet plate, a relic of photography.
[ 47 ]







CJB LjAND .DIVIfDED --_H _gOB TJTED




















Cristobal street scene in the French days. The scenes of the old French days have changed
with newer ideas. This section is now filled with roomy houses and quarters for the canal
employes and I. C. C. manufacturing plants.
monopoly of the Isthmian route. Work was to be begun not later than 1883,
and was to be completed within 12 years, with an extension of six years in case
the original term proved too short.
Although Wyse went over not more than two-thirds of the distance from
Panama to Colon, he submitted what were supposed to be complete plans and
a statement of cost for a sea level canal between the two points, following the
line of the Panama railroad. These plans and estimates were submitted to an
international engineering congress which was convened in Paris, May 14-29,
1879, in accordance with the terms of the concession, with Ferdinand de
Lesseps at its head. These plans were the basis of a decision by the congress in
favor of a sea level canal, following the route of the Panama railroad, by way
of the pass at Culebra, using the valley of the Chagres river on the Atlantic
side, and the valley of the Rio Grande on the Pacific side of the continental
divide. It is pertinent to note that in this congress, consisting of 136 delegates
from France, Germany, the United States and other countries, only 42 were
engineers, while the remainder were promoters, politicians, speculators, and
pT'rs~'al friends of De Lesseps. The Wyse concession and plans were "shoved
through," approved, and turned over to La Societe International du Canal
Interoceanique, commonly known as the first French Canal Company, for a
considileration of $2,000,000. This was the first "step in the dark," taken by the
company.
DE LESSEPS PLAN.
De Lesseps made two visits to the Isthmus, the first in December, 1879, and
the second in 1886, remaining for about two months on each occasion. On
his first visit he wais accompanied by his wife, three of his children, and an
international technical commission, consisting of nine members. At one of the
[ 48

















































The famous flat arch in the ruins of Santo Domingo Church, Panama City. It is an architectural curiosity of the early day Spanish masons and
has withstood the assault of fire and earthquakes. It has a span of over 40 feet, and a rise of two feet, and has stood in the ruins of the old church
for 206 years.







~C"HE Qt- D DIVIDED --TTREVMOrJhDB ITNJTED

numerous receptions and banquets tendered him, he said: "There are only
two great difficulties to be overcome, the Chagres River, and the deep cutting
at the summit. The first can be surmounted by turning the headwaters of the
river into another channel, and the second will disappear before the wells which
will be sunk and charged with explosives of sufficient force to remove vast
quantities at each discharge."
The engineering commission, after a superficial study of the route and
former incomplete surveys, in a report submitted February 14, 1880, estimated
the cost at $168,600,000. The engineering congress estimated the cost at
$214,000,000. On February 20, De Lesseps reduced this estimate to $131,600,-
000, and again on March 1, without apparent reason, to $120,000,000. The
proposed sea level canal was to have a uniform depth of 29.5 feet, a bottom
width of 72 feet, and a width on the water line of about 90 feet, and involved
excavation estimated at 157,000,000 cubic yards. The engineering congress
estimated seven or eight years as the time required to complete the work.
De Lesseps, with his usual optimism, reduced the time to six years. To
control the floods of the Chagres River, various schemes were proposed, the
principal one being the construction of a dam at Gamboa, a little below Cruces,
and the construction of channels to the sea to carry the impounded water away
from the canal. On account of the great difference in the tides of the two
oceans, a maximum of two and one-half feet in the Atlantic and 21 feet in the
Pacific, a tidal basin or lock was to have been built at the Pacific entrance.
(The high tide on the Pacific side is due to the fact that the Bay of Panama is
funnel-shaped). No work was ever accomplished on either of these two


Front Street, Colon, during the flourishing French days, with the pay car
at the old depot.
[ 49 ]










U.~













U~~I

hi


KK fI
f M M-


THE FIRST WHARF


BALBOA IN THE
FRENCH DAYS


.'
I. E
--


A group of views of Balboa and the canal entrance and operations, during the days of both
the First and Second French Companies. The wharf was the first constructed by the French.
The one-sided dump cars shown in the top picture are now obsolete.

[ 50]







cTru TA-P DD ID V Wot V-% V UWTINJTED

projects. A dam at Gamboa was found later to be impracticable, and the
problem of the diversion of the Chagres River was left to some future time.
INAUGURATING THE WORK
On January 1, 1880, the ceremony of breaking the ground was to have
been performed by De Lesseps at the mouth of the Rio Grande, about three
miles west of Panama city. The boat bearing a party of ladies and gentlemen
who were to take part was delayed in starting, with the result that it could not
get within two or three miles of the shore on account of the ebbing tide. This,
however, did-not dampen the ardor of the versatile Frenchman, as the arrival
of the steamer in the entrance of the river mouth was considered by him a
sufficient beginning. The first blow was thereupon struck with a pick in a box
of earth upon the deck of the steamer, while the observers aided their imagina-


Limon Bay in the busy French days.


tion by copious drallghts of chimil)agne. On January 10, 1880, De Lesseps,
with another party of civil and church dignitaries, went to Culebra to witness
the first blast. Accounts differ as to this event. Tracy Robinson, the oldest
American on the Isthmus, states in his book on Panama. that the blast never
came off, and as he was present, he ought to know. On the other hand, the
"Star and Herald" of the day following gives a circin l;m ntial a'ceiiiunt of the
affair, ending with: "The mine had been carefully laid in an exceedingly hard
and compact formation of basalt at a few feet below the summit, and charged
with 30 kilogramin of explosive. The operation was performed with complete
success, and immense amount of solid rock being hurled from its original
position." No photographs of the incident are extant.
Actual excavation work did not commence in Culebra Cut until some time


[ 51]







c IY TAM-D DvDED ----E D HE W'M UNITED


The pick and shovel brigade.


later. "The Bulletin du Canal Interoceanique," published by the company
for the benefit of the stockholders, of February 1, 1882, states: "The first
work in the great cut of the maritime canal was formally inaugurated today
(Jan. 20, 1882), at Empire in the presence of the dignitaries of the state, the
leading citizens of the city and a great assemblage of the people. The first
locomotive has arrived at the newly opened excavation. The city of Panama
is celebrating the event with a great fete."
De Lesseps left Colon for the United States on February 22, 1880, for the
purpose of interesting Americans in the undertaking. Although he was
received with a great deal of enthusiasm everywhere, he was unable to dispose
of the stock which he had thoughtfully reserved. Americans were interested
in a canal, but not in a canal under French control. He then proceeded on a
similar tour of Europe, where he was more successful from a pecuniary point of
view. The first issue of stock, 600,000 shares of $100 each, was subscribed twice
over, mostly taken in France. These shares were distributed among 100,000
persons, indicating the great Frenchman's popularity with the people of his
country. In 1888, when the company failed, the total subscriptions, stocks and
bond issues, had reached $393,505,100, and the shareholders numbered 200,000.
Two years of fc\verihl preparation followed which witnessed the making
of hasty surveys, the bringing together of machinery and a labor force, and the
erection of quarters and hospitals. The actual construction work was let to a
firm of French contractors, Couvreaux & Hersent, but they soon realized the
difficulties of the undertaking and withdrew from the last part of their contract.
FRENCH LABOR FORCE
There seems to have been little difficulty experienced in obtaining a labor
force, which in 1888, numbered about 20,000 men. Nine-tenths of these were
[52]







bv-P r, DIVIDED W--< E^ OJID JTITED

negroes from the West Indies, and many of them held clerical and other similar
positions. The white emploves, mainly from France, were treated with
extreme generosity. Economy was an unknown factor in the administration
of affairs of the first company. The average pay of a clerk was $125 per
month, and of a division chief from $200 to $3:iol per month. After two years'
service, five months vacation, with free traveling expenses to and from France,
were granted. The hours of labor for the clerical force was from 8 to 11 a. m.,
and 2 to 5 p. m., six hours a day. Free quarters, furniture, bedding, lamps,
kitchen utensils, etc., were provided. As there was no system of accounting
in vogue, many did quite a profitable busine-, in the buying and selling of the
company's furniture. This was merely one of the petty forms of graft in
vogue, however. Enormous salaries were paid to the directors, engineers, and
other officers on the Isthmus. The director-generals lived in a house that cost
$100,000, now used as the American Legation in P;nanma; City; they received
$50,000 a year, and when they went out on the work they were allowed $50 a
day additional. One of the private cars in which they rode cost $42,000.
LA FOLIE DINGLER
There formerly stood on an artificial terrace on the western slope of Ancon
Hill a building that commanded( ready attention from passersby on the road
from Panama to La Boca, now Balboa. It was the prospective home of M.
Jules Dingier, probably the foremost director-general of the first French com-
pany, prospective, because he never occul)ied it. Work on the mansion was
begun shortly after he came to the Isthmus in February, 1883, and the cost
including the grounds is said to have been about $50,000. For many years





















La Folie Dingier, built for M. Julius Dingier in the first French Company's days, but never oc-
cupied by him. The experience of M. Dingler on the Isthmus constitutes one of the saddest
incidents in French canal history. His son, daughter and wife all contracted the dreaded yellow
fever and died.


[ 53 1







TAD PIVIDED c-E ODJ. ITTITED


The village of Empire in the old French days. The French began their first
excavation in the cut near this point in 1882.
it had been called La Folie Dingler, or Dingler's Folly. The experience of
M. Dingier on the Isthmus constitutes, perhaps, one of the saddest incidents
in French canal history. Stories of the fatal effect the climate of the Isthmus
was said to have on foreigners reached France, but Dingier scoffed at these
reports. "I am going to show them," he is credited with having said, "that
only drunkards and the dissipated contract yellow fever and die." In this
spirit he brought with him to the Isthmus, his wife, son, and daughter. His
son, who was made director of posts, shortly fell victim to yellow fever and died.
Dingier subsequently went to France on leave of absence, and upon the return
of himself and family to the Isthmus, his daughter met with the fate of his son.
On his return from a second trip to France, his wife also sickened and died from
the same fell disease. Dingier later relinquished his post and went back to France
a man broken in mind and body. At the time the American Government took
pcce-ion, La Folie Dingier hadl fallen into partial decay. Needed repairs


The French at work in the Canal at Cucaracha, 1885, just around
the point from Gold Hill.
[ 54 ]







EA- J)IVIDED --C- _WO J_- IjTED


Canal between Empire and Culebra, showing the French
method of excavation, in 1888.


were made and for several years the building was utilized as a detention station
for the quarantine service. It was sold in 1910 for $525, and removed to make
way for quarry work on the side of Ancon Hill.
During the period of greatest activity there were probably 2,000 Frenchmen
on the Isthmus, all non-immune to yellow fever. Life was a gamble and, with
no suitable social diversion, they naturally resorted to the only forms of amuse-
ment available, the saloons, gambling rooms, and houses of ill-iepute. Colon
and Panama became the Mecca of the palraites of society, the non-workers who
live on vice, with the result that an efficient labor force could not be kept long
under such conditions, and it %was continually changing.


In the center of the Cut at the end of the first French Company's days, 1889.
The first French Company operated from 1881 to 1889.
[ 55 1


--
M. k jj.

Wz_







31WAin T~A~SL,


DIVIDEDD --lrE WPO~-,I6J~DuITIV~ED


4- ft, I W --,;-


Culebra Cut in the earliest times of the second French Company, 1894.


THE SICK POORLY CARED FOR
Two hospitals were built in 1883, which, with additions and alterations
have been in constant use by the Americans. Ancon hospital originally cost
$5,600,000, and Colon hospital cost $1,400,000, a total of $7,000,000.
The hospitals, although fairly well equipped, with excellent doctors and
surgeons and supplied with the best medicines and instruments of the time, were
poorly managed. They were handled under contract, and the administration


Looking South from Culebra in the second French Company's days, 1895.
The second French Company operated from 1894 to 1904.
[ 56]


'-~DIVIDED -- 11







C)E, bP DIVIDE 'VC.O1 oDUNITED


The Cut as it appeared in 1904 when the Americans began the work. Contractor's Hill on
the right; Gold Hill on the left. Note the succession of benches, lying one above the other.
The Americans have followed this same method in excavating.

was left almost entirely to French Sisters of Charity, who, although they were
devoted and religious women, were not trained nurses. These worthy women
left the wards at night after prayer, closing the doors and windows tight to
keep out the night mists, which were supposed to bring malarial fever, leaving
the patients without any other care than that which was given by the less feeble
among themselves. When the wards were opened for morning prayer it was


The valley of the Rio Grande in the French days. The present canal is between the hills.
The old Panama Railroad bridge is shown at the south end of the Cut.
[57]







CrI1F LA-DDIVIDE D -~ -CfTIE WOi?4Ma uilTED


often found that some patient had died during the night, who might have been
saved with proper attention. The legs of the hospital beds were placed in tins
of water to keep insects from crawling up. These pans of stagnant water, and
also the many ornamental basins containing flowers and plants in the grounds
outside made ideal breeding places for mosquitoes, and it is quite probable
that many patients fell victim to fever while in the hospital suffering with some
minor illness, due to the unscreened windows and doors.











Il






The Cut in French times, showing their cableway plan of excavation. These cableways
carried the material out of the canal and deposited it to one side, but unfortunately not far enough,
for much of it has slid back into the Cut, causing extra excavation.
The hospital records show that during the construction period of the old
company-1881 to 1889-there were 5,618 deaths, 1,041 of which were from
yellow fever. The old yellow fever ward in Ancon hospital, now ward No. 16,
was called St. Charles, and it is believed that more people died from yellow fever
in it than in any other one building in the world. The West Indian negroes
were immune to yellow fever, and very few of them were admitted to the
hospitals. The victims, therefore, were nearly all white persons, and mostly
Frenchmen. A large proportion of the sick did not enter the hospitals, as the
contractors were charged one dollar a day for skilled medical treatment of
employes. Colonel Gorgas estimates the number of laborers who died from
1881 to 1889 at 22,189, or a rate of something over 240 per thousand per year.
He also estimates that as many died of yellow fever outside the hospitals as in,
and places the total number of deaths from that disease at 2,082. In September
1884, during an attack of yellow fever, the Canal Company lost 654 employes out
of a force of about 18,000. This is in part based on surmise, for the truth was
partly suppressed or minimized by the Canal Company in order not to destroy
the confidence of the people in the project, and outside of the hospital rolls, the
records were incomplete. A virulent form of malaria, known as "Chagres
fever," caused a greater toll in lives than any other one disease. The negro
laborers, although immune from yellow fever, succumbed quickly to attacks
of this form of malaria.


[ 58 ]


CTE TLv-D .







CTIE ?D, J)IVIDED --c ZE WOPID, UNITED

Under the new canal company, the hospitals were turned over to the Sisters
of Charity who took care of the few patients admitted at a fixed charge. As
the revenue from patients was small, they had a hard time to keep them open
at all, and were compelled to sell flowers, fruits, vegetables and other products
from the hospital grounds. When the Americans took cha rge these women
were replaced by trained nurses.
THE CRASH
The crash came in December, 1888. At this time $156,654,687.00 had
been expended on the Isthmus, and in Paris, $78,140,330.00, a total of $234,-
795,017.00. This vast sum is said to have been "one-third expended on the
canal work, one-third wasted, and one-third stolen." Of tliat spent at Panama,
salaries and expenses of management aggregated $16,51.0,883; rents and main-
tenance of leased property, $3,301,070; material and supplies, $29,722,856;
buildings, $15,397,282; construction and engineering expenses, $89,434,925;
land purchases, $950,655; and medical and religious attendance, $1,836,768.
In view of the various forms of graft, extravagance and waste, it is not sur-
prising that there was so little to show in actual work accomplished. At the
end of eight years the work was about two-fifths completed.



















A French excavator opening a pioneer trench in the south end of the Cut. This was the
best known method of excavating in that day.

The work was let to contractors, very few of whom faithfully performed
the service for which they were paid. Many made small fortunes. Those
who were intrusted with the work of excavation were paid for the amount of
spoil which they took from the canal prism. As there was no data available
on the cost of such work, it was impossible to even estimate what the charge
should be. In many cases the contractors took out what was most easily
excavated, avoiding the hard spots. One notable exception to this was the
dredging work done by the American Dredging and Contracting Company,
which dredged the opening of the Canal from Colon to beyond Gatun.
I 59 1



















First French Company's days. Dredges working in the canal at Mindi.


F\


Two French ladder dredges working on the Chagres River, opposite Gorgona 20 years ago.


The French suction dredges with the carrying pipes, were effective in excavating, but like
their cableways, did not carry the spoil far enough.
[ 60 1







CI7-1E TIAN-D


DIVIDED Z~-

Much worthless material was shipped to the Isthmus, due to ill ad vised
buying, the French manufacturers undoubtedly in many instances cleaning
house to their profit at the expense of the Canal stockholders. When the
Americans took over the property they found torch lights in one storehouse
apparently brought to the Isthmus to be used in the celebration of the opening
of the Canal. At another time a lot of wooden shovels, made from one piece,
were brought to light. They have been referred to as snow shovels, but were
evidently intended for handling sand or ashes. A ton or more of rusted pen
points found in the stationery store furnished additional proof as to where
some of the money went.
Early in 1885, it became apparent that the Canal could not be completed
under the sea level plan within the time or estimated cost. During the previous
year the promoters foresaw the end, and began to sell their stock. M. Leon
Bover, who succeeded Dingler as director had time to report before his death
from yellow fever a few months after his arrival on the Isthmus, that the canal
could not be completed by 1889, and to submit a plan for a lock canal. In May,














Old French dump cars. Steel cars, 18 feet long, were used exclusively. The cars dumped on one
side only, and were too small for economical use. Most of these were scrapped by the Americans.

1885, MI. De Lesseps asked the French Government for authority to issue
lottery bonds for a loan of $120,000,000, to replenish the depleted treasury.
Before granting permission, the Government sent out M. Armand Rousseau,
an eminent engineer, to investigate conditions. He reported that the canal
could not be finished within the time and cost estimated unless clhinged to the
lock plan. Similar reports were made by an engineer sent out by the company,
and by the agent of the Colombian Government on the Isthmus, the latter
stating that the canal could not be completed before the expiration of the
concession in 1892. In February, 1885, Lieutenants Winslow and McLean of
the United States Navy, reported that there remained to be excavated 180,000,-
000 cubic yards; that the work would take 26 years at the then rate of progress.
and that the cost would total $.350,000,000.
M. De Lesseps withdrew his request for permission to issue lottery bonds,
but would not consent to a change in plans. He obtained temporary financial
relief by the issue of bonds to the value of about $70,000,000, but as money
again began to get scarce. he consented to a change in plan, and in October,
1887, a temporary lock canal, with summit level above the flood line of the
[ 61


. -- ., -TIATS







CITNE TD-)D DIVIDED ----c-E W20J, TTNITED

Chagres River, to be supplied with water by pumping, was decided upon.
Under the new plan, it was estimated that the cost would reach $351,000,000
and would require 20 years to build. There had already been spent at this time
nearly $'.50,000,000, and only about two-fifths of the work had been ac-
complished. The end was in sight.
Work was pushed forward under the new plan until May, 1889, when the
company became bankrupt and a liquidator was appointed to take charge.
Under the liquidator, the work gradually diminished and was finally suspended
on May 15, 1889. It was soon realizc1 tllat the only way anything could be
saved to the stockholders was to continue the project. Late in 1889, the
receiver appointed a commission composed of French and foreign engineers,
eleven in number, to visit the Isthmus and determine whether or not the canal
could be compllleted. This co( nisiion reported on May 5, 1890, that a lock
canal might be completed within eight years at a cost of $174,600,000. It
reported that the plant on hand was in good condition and would probably











Old French locomotives. One hundred and nineteen of these were rebuilt
and used by the Americans.

suffice for completing the canal. It also estimated the value of the plant and
the work already accomplished at $87,300,000, or one-half of the total cost.
Meanwhile, as a result of the exposure and investigation of the affairs of
the old company, M. De Lesseps and his son Charles were sentenced to five
years imprisonment, and similar sentences were imposed upon several others
of their associates. The French Court of Appeals annulled the sentence of
Charles de Lesseps, and that against his father was never executed for, at that
time, January 10, 1893, he was 88 years old and a physical and mental wreck;
he died in the month of December, following.
As the Wyse conce,,ion had nearly expired, the receiver obtained from
Colombia an extension of ten years. It was stipulated that the new company
should be formed and work upon the canal resumed on or before February 28,
1893. As this condition was not fulfilled, a second extension of 10 years was
obtained, to run not later than October 31, 1894.
THE SECOND OR NEW COMPANY
The Compagnie Nouvelle du Canal de Panama, the New French Canal
Company, as it is generally known, was organized under a special law on
October 20, 189!, with a capital stock of $13,000,000, with shares valued at $20
each. Six hundred thousand shares were sold for cash, the greater part being
taken by the receiver, the contractors, and others, who had been interested in
[ 62 ]





















IS

















mor no I'~ m me r Prinimum a ,, 1< .


























..-_,










The top picture shows Bas Obispo in the first French Company's days, at the northern end
of their proposed lock. The center picture shows French cranes at work. The French using
laborers to fill cars is shown in the lower picture. Cableways, in the distance, were also used for
handling spoil.

[ 63 ]






_i_ TDA-_.DIIVI DED --~cTi Wo o UJw U

the old company and escaped criminal prosecution by taking the new stock;
and 50,000 shares given to the Colombian Government for the extension of the
concession. The new company took possession in 1894, and work was im-
mediately resumed in Culebra Cut with a force large enough to comply with
the terms of the concession. As excavation work at this point was necessary
under any plans that might be decided upon, it was continued, while elaborate
and extensive studies of the Canal project were begun by competent engineers.
The plan finally adopted by the new company involved two levels above
the sea, one an artificial lake to be created by a dam across the Chagres River at












A number of old French dredges, which were valueless except as junk,
when the United States acquired them.
Bohio, and another a high level canal through Culebra Cut at an elevation of
68.08 feet above mean tide, to be fed by water by a channel leading from a
reservoir to be constructed at Alhajuela in the upper Chagres River valley.
The lake level was to be reached from the Atlantic by a flight of two locks, and
the summit level by a second flight of two locks. On the Pacific side four other
locks were provided for, the two middle ones at Pedro Miguel being combined
in one flight, and the others being located at Paraiso and Miraflores. On the
Atlantic side there was to be a sea level channel to Bohio, 17 miles inland, and
on the Pacific side at Miraflores, about 8 miles inland. The depth of the
canal was to be 29.5 feet, with a bottom width of 98 feet. The locks were to be
in duplicate, 738.22 feet long, 82.02 feet wide, with a normal depth of 29.5
feet. The lifts were to vary from 26 to 33 feet.
A second plan was also worked out in which the upper level was omitted,
the cut through the divide being deepened to 32 feet above sea level, making the
artificial lake created by the dam at Bohio the summit level. Under this plan
the feeder from Alhajuela was omitted, although the dam was to be retained to
control the Chagres. One flight of locks on the Atlantic side and one lock on
the Pacific side were also to be omitted. The estimated cost of completing the
canal under this plan was not much greater than the first, and all work on the
first plan for several years would be equally available under the second.
Although the first plan was adopted on December 30, 1899, no effort was
1maile to carry it out, on account of the interest being shown by the United States
in a canal across Nicaragua. It was realized that if the United States should
undertake to construct such a waterway, the work accomplished and the plant
on the Isthmus would be practically worthless. In 1895, there was a force of
[ 64 ]







]E MDVIDED -ym 0ogjva TTKITED

men numbering about 2,000 at work in Culebra Cut, and a year later this was
increased to 3,600. This was the largest number of men employed under the
new company, for only enough work was done to hold the concession and keep
the equipment in a salable condition. The French at that time were beginning
to look for a purchaser; they wanted $100,000,000 for the work and equipment,
but the only likely buyer was the United States. The Isthmian Canal Com-
mission, appointed by the Spooner Act of 1899, reported in November, 1901,
in favor of the Nicaragua route unless the French company was willing to sell
out at $40,000,000. This recommendation became a law on June 28, 1902,
and the New Panama Canal Company was practically forced to sell for that
amount or get nothing.
Although the French on the Isthmus worked under difficulties which
eventually forced them to give up the Canal undertaking, they removed with
their clumsy side excavators, now obsolete dredges, small Decauville cars and
toy Belgium locomotives, a considerable amount of material from the
Canal prism, a large part of which has been found useful under the present
plan.
The old company excavated 66,743,.5.51 cubic yards, from 1881 to 1889, and
the new company excavated 11,403,4 y9 cubic yards up to 1904, a total of 78,-
146,960 cubic yards; 18,646,000 cubic yards of this total were taken from
Culebra Cut, the operation of the new company being practically confined to














A pile of old French dump cars. Many tons of this scrap material have been collected
along the line of the Canal.

that portion of the work. Of this total, it has been figured that 29,908,000 cubic
yards have been useful to the Americans. The old company dredged a channel
from deep water in Panama bay to the wharves at Balboa which has been used
Iby ships docking at that port. On the Atlantic side. the channel dredged inland,
known as the French canal, was found useful upon deepening in bringing sand
and stone for the locks and spillway concrete at Gatun.
The French also turned over valuable surveys and studies of the work,
together with plans that have been found of great value to the American or-
ganization. The best of this class of work was done under the new company.
[ 65







cg-^ pD DIVIDED ---G C1E WORUN WMITEP

This is especially true of the records kept of the flow and floods of the Chagres
River, together with rainfall records, so essential to the present plan.
FRENCH AID TO AMERICAN PROJECT
Much of the work of preparation during the first two years of American
occupatioi n-1904-1905-would have been seriously delayed without the
French supplies and equipment. In the shops and storehouses were found a
plentiful supply of repair parts, shop tools, stationary engines, material and
supplies of all kinds of good quality. At Gorgona, where the principal shops
were located, known during the French times as Bas Matachin shops, were
found sheds filled with old locomotives, cranes and excavators. One hundred
car loads of foundry and machine shop material were removed from this point.
Repair shops were found at Empire, Paraiso, Gatun and Bohio. A small
machine shop was uncovered in the jungle at Caimito Mulato, when American


















Another view of a part of the old machinery, a legacy from the French. All of the junk
along the line of the Canal, both French and American, is being turned into dollars, having been
sold to a Chicago wrecking concern.

engineers were running the center line of the Canal. There was also a dry dock
at Cristobal, which was originally 190 feet long, 32 feet wide and 16 feet deep
over the sills at ordinary high tide. At Balboa on the Pacific side, there was
located a repair and marine shop for the floating equipment. The old French
shops in every case formed the nucleus of the larger and better equipped shops
maintained by the Americans during the period of construction.
During the first two years of American occupation, French locomotives
were the only ones available by the Isthmian Canal Commission. On June 30,
1906, there were 106 in service, and only 15 American locomotives. The same
is true of the French dump cars. In 1904, there were 308 in service, and in
1905, over 2,000 had been repaired and put in commission, as compared with
300 American-built cars. At the present time there are about 100 French
locomotives and 200 Decauville dump cars in serviceable condition. In
December, 1904, there were six old French excavators working in Culebra Cut,
[66 ]







~ijEj T^l TIVIDED -31iR EO-3_ IE

which had been overhauled and placed in service. These were similar to ladder
dredges, and the excavation was accomplished by an endless chain of buckets
which carried earth and rock from one side and dropped it into a hopper from
which it fell into dump cars on the other side. These machines were effective
only when working in soft material. They remained at work 18 months before
they were replaced by modern steam shovels.
The floating equipment on hand was considerable, and many dredges,
clapets or self-propelling hopper barges, tugs, launches, etc., were found in the
marine graveyards at Folks River, Cristobal, and in the mouth of the Rio
Grande at the Pacific entrance to the Canal, as well as along the banks of the
Chagres River. Many of these were floated, rebuilt and placed in commission.
On account of the excellent material used in the construction of this equipment,
most of which was Scotch-built, the Americans found it highly profitable to
repair them. Heavy coats of paint and oil, which 20 or more rainy seasons
















A laborer looking for his belongings after a flood. The damage and loss of property
caused by the floods during the rainy season is clearly pictured here.

could not penetrate, had been given the machinery when it was retired, so that
when the hulls were not worth repairing, the valuable parts were used elsewhere.
Several dredges were reconstructed from parts of others. A Scotch ladder dredge
with a capacity of about 130,000 cubic yards per month was repaired at a cost
of about $30,000, which, when new, cost about $(200,000. At the present time
there are several French dredges doing excellent work on the Canal.
Two thousand, one hundred and forty-nine buildings scattered along the line
of the Panama Railroad were included in the turn-over. These were generally
small and ill-suited for use, other than as laborers' barracks or storehouses, but
it was found profitable to repair some 1,500 of them even after they had stood
unused for ten yea rs or more. The large piles of French scrap, old locomotives,
boilers, dump cars, parts of machines, etc., which used to be one of the sights
along the line of the Panama railroad have slowly disappeared. Much of it
has been sold as junk to contractors, while the copper, brass, white metal, rails,
and cast iron have been used in the foundry at Gorgona. Old French rails
[ 67 1







DIVIDED C--cE OIZ.D, TTD ITED


have been used in the reinforcement of concrete in the lock walls, for the repair
of dump cars, and for telelelime and telegraph poles.
Seven years after the Canal was taken over from the French, May, 1911,
the present Isthmian Canal Commission made a careful official estimate of
the value to the Comminion of the franchises, equipment, material, work done,
and property of various kinds for which the United States paid the French Canal
Company $40,000,000. It places the total value at over $42,000,000 divided
as follows:


Excavation, useful to the Canal, 29,708,000 cubic yards......
Panama Railroad Stock ...............................
Plant and material, used, and sold for scrap ................
Buildings, used .......................................
Surveys, plans, maps, and records .......................
Land ............................... ..............
Clearings, roads, etc ................. .............
Ship channel in Panama Bay, four years' use. .............


Total


$25,389,240.00
9,644,320.00
2,112,063.00
2,054,203.00
2,000,000.00
1,000,000.00
100,000.00
500,000.00

$42,799,826.00


A mechanical oddity-tree grown through an old French dump car.


I 68 1


~ T~A~GD.















Riu







X N Isthmian Canal Commission organized for the construction of the
Canal was appointed under the provisions of An Act of Congress
approved June 28, 1902, called the Spooner Act. This Act author-
ized the President to acquire, in behalf of the United States, at a cost
not exceeding $40,000,000, the rights, franchises, property, etc., including the
shares of the Panama railroad, owned by the New French Canal Company,
and to obtain from the Republic of Colombia perpetual control of the necessary
strip of land across the Isthmus, which control should also include the right to
perpetually maintain and operate the Pananma railroad, and jurisdiction over
the ports at either end.
If the President should be unable to obtain a satisfactory title to the prop-
erty, and the control of the necessary territory, within a reasonable time and
upon reasonable terms, then the Commission was authorized to construct a
waterway across Nicaragua, using Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan River,
after the President had first obtained perpetual control, by treaty with Costa
Rica and Nicaragua. The impossibility of the United States to come to a
satisfactory agreement with Colombia, who thought that the United States was
now committed to construct a canal across Panamaa and, therefore, could be
made to pay a larger amount than first offered, led to the revolution of November
3, 1903, by which Panama, a state of Colombia became the Republic of Panama,
and the signing of a treaty by the new Republic by which the United States was
granted in perpetuity the necessary territory. This strip of land, known as
the Canal Zone, containing about 436 square miles, extends from deep water in
the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific (three miles from the low water mark
on either side), and five miles on either side of the center line of the canal.
Included in this grant are the Islands of Naos, Perico, Flamenco and Culebra
in the Bay of Panama. which are now connected with the mainland by a break-
water, and upon whicli fortifications are being placed. The cities of Panama
and Colon are excluded from the limits of the Canal Zone, but the United States
exercises sanitary control over them, and also has the right to maintain public
order in them in case the Republic of Panama should not be able in the judg-
ment of the United States to do so.


[ 69 1













































































MEMBERS OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.
COL. GEO. W. GOETHALS, U. S. A., COL. WILLIAM C. GORGAS, U. S. A.,
Chairman and Chief Engineer. Chief Sanitary Officer.
COL. HARRY F. HODGES, U. S. A., H. H. ROUSSEAU, CIVIL ENGINEER, U. S. NAVY,
Assistant Chief Engineer. Assistant to the Chief Engineer.
Copyright, Harris & Ewing, Washington, D. C.

[ 70 ]













































































MEMBERS OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.
COL. WILLIAM L. SIBERT, U. S. A.. COL. D. D. GAILLARD,
Division Engineer of the Atlantic Division. Division Engineer of the Central Division.
HON. RICHARD LEE METCALFE, JOSEPH BUCKLIN BISHOP,
Head of Department of Civil Administration. Secretary.
Copyright, Harris & Ewing, and Clinedinst, Washington, D. C.
[ 71 ]






CM T_ _6-1A-D DIVIDED T--CI--- WOrU- !EY

As compensation to the Republic of Panama, the United States paid
$10,000,000, and agreed to make an annual payment of $250,000, to begin nine
years after the date of the treaty. These annual payments commenced in
February, 1913.
February, 191. ORGANIZATION OF THE CANAL COMMISSION
The first meeting of the Isthmian Canal Commission was held in Washing-
ton, D. C., on March 22, 1904, with the following members appointed by the
President: Rear-Admiral John G. Walker, Chairman; Major-General George
W. Davis, U. S. A., William Barclay Parsons, C. E., William H. Burr, C. E.,
Benjamin H. Harrod, C. E., Ewald Grunsky, C. E., and Frank J. Hecker.
On May 9, 1904 Ex-President Roosevelt, by Executive Order, placed the
immediate supervision of its work, both in the construction of the canal and in
the exercise of such governmental powers deemed necessary under the treaty
with Panama in the Canal Zone, in the hands of the Secretary of War, William
H. Taft.
SThe full Coinmision first arrived on the Isthmus on April 5, and estab-
lished temporary headquarters in the old De Lesseps residence in Cristobal.
A thorough study ws made of the plans and methods of work as carried on by
the French, in which work it was assisted by Maj. William M. Black and
Lieutenant Mark Brooke, U. S. Corps of Engineers, and by M. Renaudin, the
resident representative of the New Panama Canal Company. From this
examination it was found that new and extended surveys would be necessary
before any of the problems of location and construction could be settled, so the
first step of the Commission on its return to the United States on April 29, was
the organization of engineering parties. Five of these were organized, the first
leaving for the Isthmus about the middle of May, and the others shortly after.
Surveys and investigations were made by these parties of the proposed harbor
improvements of Colon, the proposed dams for the control of the Chagres River
at Gatun, Bohio and Gamboa, and the design of water works and sewers for
the cities of Colon and Panama.
TAKING POSSESSION-CHANGE IN CHIEF ENGINEER
The United States represented by Lieutenant Brooke, U. S. A., took
possession of the French canal property on May 4, 1904, and operations were
continued with the same employes and laborers, about 700, that had been left
by the French company, for work had been continuous in Culebra Cut from
the beginning in 1881, except for a few years, in order to hold the franchise.
Although neither the equipment nor the organization of this force was adequate,
it was considered advisable to maintain it for the time being and to gradually
introduce necessary changes in the organization and in the equipment.
Lieutenant Brooke remained in charge of this work until the arrival of
Major-General Davis, who was appointed Governor of the Isthmus on May 8,
1904, and arrived on May 17. On the day of his arrival it was announced to
the inhabitants of the Canal Zone that the territory had been occupied by the
United States of America. This was a little bit too precipitate for the Pana-
manians who had been accustomed under the French regime to much speech-
making, feasting, and champagne drinking when any undertaking was put into
operation, so they protested to the State Department, to the end that, to their
minds, more fitting ceremonies were later indulged in. Governor Davis was
also placed in temporary charge of the construction work until the Chief
[ 72 ]


























































Woodroiw \Aison






The chroniclers of history for all time will associate the names of Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson
The chroniclers of history for all time will associate ~he names of Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson
with the world's greatest undertaking,-the construction of the Panama Canal. Students of the
subject will doubtless concede that to Theodore Roosevelt should be accorded the distinction of
inaugurating the enterprise, to his successor, former President Taft should belong the honor of
four years of faithful service in carrying forward the stupendous work so encouragingly begun,
and to President Woodrow Wilson falls the duty of installing the splendid success which the re-
sources, perseverance and indomitable courage of American citizenship have rendered possible.
[ 73 1






T E A -D DIVIDED r~l/B WOJDP TINTE

Engineer, Mr. John F. Wallace, entered upon his duties on June 1, 1904. Mr.
Wallace resigned as Chief Engineer on June 25, 1905, after serving one year,
and was succeeded by Mr. John F. Stevens on July 20, 1905.
Mr. Wallace, who had become dissatisfied with the working methods of
the first Commission was made a member of the Commission under an Executive
Order dated April 1, 1905, which reorganized it, and gave to him full control
in the department of construction and engineering. This reorganization was
brought about by the Secretary of War who, by direction of the President in
March, 1905, requested the resignations of the commissioners, which were at
once tendered. It was believed that this change would make a more effective
force for doing the required work, and do away with the long delays occasioned
in purchasing material and supplies and in the accomplishment of work by
government "red tape" which had become so irksome to Mr. Wallace. His
resignation shortly after this change, six days after his return to the Isthmus
from Washington, was hard to understand, but it is possible that the question of
health entered considerably into his decision, for it was at this time that the
first outbreak of yellow fever among the Americans had occurred and the first
victim was Mrs. Frank Seager, the wife of Mr. Wallace's private secretary.
THE NEW COMMISSION
The new Commission created under the above mentioned Order consisted
of the same number of members, seven, but full power was practically vested in
three members who were placed in charge of the three executive departments
created. One department was under the direction of the Chairman of the
Commission, Theodore P. Shonts, and took charge of the fiscal affairs, the
purchase and delivery of material and supplies, the accounts, bookkeeping,
and audits, and the commercial operations in the United States of the Panama
railroad and steamship lines, with headquarters in Washington; another, under
the Governor of the Zone, Charles E. Magoon, which looked after the ad-
ministration and enforcement of law in the Zone, the sanitation of the Canal
Zone and the cities of Panama and Colon, and the custody of all supplies and
construction necessary for sanitary purposes, and the third, under the Chief
Engineer, John F. Wallace, which had charge of the work of construction, the
custody of all supplies and plant on the Isthmus and the practical operation of
the railroad on the Isthmus with special view to its utilization in the Canal
construction work.
An executive committee of not less than three members, a majority of
whom constituted a quorum was also created to act in place of the full com-
mission, which had heretofore only met quarterly, during the intervals between
meetings, in order to secure the uninterrupted course of the work. This
execcItive committee met twice a week in the office of the Governor on the
Isthmus until it was abolished on November 17, 1906.
The new department of Government and Sanitation was placed in charge
of Mr. Charles E. lMagoon, as a member of the Commission, vice Major-Gen-
eral Geo. W. Davis, who returned to the United States on May 9, 1905, in ac-
cordance with instructions received from the Secretary of War, on account of
failing health. When General Davis left the Isthmus he turned the work over to
Col. W. C. Gorgas, the Chief Sanitary Officer, who acted as Governor until
May 25, when Governor Magoon assumed the duties of his office.
The new Commission now consisted of seven members, as follows: Chair-
[ 74
































































SOME OF THE MEN ON THE BIG JOB.
(1.) Hezekiah A. Gudger, Chief Justice of the Canal Zone Supreme Court. (2.) Frank
Feuille, Counsel and Chief Attorney of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Rail-
road. (3.) H. A. A. Smith, Examiner of Accounts. (4.) A. S. Zinn, Resident Engineer in the
Central Division, who has been identified with the work in Culebra Cut since 1906. (5.) Henry
Goldmark, designing engineer, in charge of the lock gates of the Canal. (6.) T. B. Monniche,
designing engineer, in charge of the emergency dams of the locks. (7.) John H. McLean,
Disbursing Officer of the Isthmian Canal Commission. (8.) Capt. Robert E. Wood, U. S. A.,
Chief Quartermaster of the Isthmian Canal Commission. (9.) W. G. Comber, Resident Engineer
of the Sixth (Dredging) Division. (10.) Capt. Charles W. Barber, Chief of Canal Zone Police.
(11.) C. E. Weidman, Chief of the Fire Department. (12.) Tom M. Cooke, Chief, Division of
Posts, Customs, and Revenues. (13.) Lieut. Col. Eugene T. Wilson, Subsistence Officer. (14.)
George M. Wells, Resident Engineer, Department of Municipal Engineering. (15.) Harry O.
Cole, Resident Engineer, Fifth Division.
[ 75 1






CEj TANM-P DIVIDED 7--F WWOJD01b, TTN TED

man, Theodore P. Shonts, Charles E. Magoon, also Governor of the Canal
Zone, Rear-Admiral Mordecai T. Endicott, Brigadier-General Peter C. Hains,
U. S. A. (retired), Col. Oswald H. Ernst, U. S. A., Benjamin M. Harrod, and
John F. Wallace, also Chief Engineer.
COMMISSION AGAIN REORGANIZED
On November 17, 1906, the commission was again reorganized by Execu-
tive Order in order to promote harmony and to secure results by more direct
methods and a centralization of power. In order to do this, the following
S departments were created under the new organization: Chairman, Chief
Engineer, General Counsel, who took over the duties of the Governor, Chief
Sanitary Officer, General Purchasing Officer, General Auditor, Disbursing
Officer, and Manager of Labor and Quarters.
On September 25, 1906, Gov. Charles E. Magoon, was transferred to
administer affairs in Cuba, and was succeeded by Richard Reid Rogers the
General Counsel in Washington on November 19, 1906. While Mr. Rogers
was in Washington, Mr. H. D. Reed acted as head of the department on the
Isthmus until the arrival of Mr. Jo. C. S. Blackburn who was appointed as
Head of the Department of Civil Administration on April 1, 1907. On April
2, 1907, the authority of the Governor, or Chief Executive of the Canal Zone,
was transferred by order of the Secretary of War to the Chairman's office, so
from that time the Chairman and Chief Engineer has in reality been Governor
of the Canal Zone also.
Mr. Shonts resigned effective March 4, 1907, and the resignation of
General Hains, Major Harrod, and Rear-Admiral Endicott, were accepted on
March 16, 1907. Finally, Mr. Stevens resigned effective April 1, 1907. The
resignation of Mr. Stevens was as great a surprise as that of Mr. Wallace.
According to the report current at the time, the chief engineer became alarmed
over the possibility of awarding the contract for the construction of the canal
to the Oliver-Bangs combination, and wrote a letter to the President, setting
forth that the canal organization had been pretty well perfected; that more dirt
had been taken out during the previous 30 days than had ever been taken out
before in the same length of time; that he did not care to share the work of
building the canal with anyone, nor be hampered with men less familiar with the
subject than himself. He intimated that if his wishes were not complied with
he would quit. The letter is said to have caused ex-President Roosevelt
something of a shock, but with his characteristic spontaneity of action, he cabled
acceptance of the "resignation."
In order to get competent men who were used to working under Govern-
ment regulations and orders, and who would "stick," ex-President Roosevelt
resorted to the Army, with the result that three officers of the Corps of Engineers,
U. S. A., the Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, U. S. N., an officer of the
Medical Corps, U. S. A., and two civilians were appointed in their places, thus
practically abandoning the plan of carrying on the work under civilian direction.
Under this new organization a combination of the positions of Chairman and
Chief Engineer was effected, and the creation of the Department of Sanitation,
distinct from Civil Administration was made. It was also required that the
commissioners take their station on the Isthmus and thus be in direct touch
[ 76




















































2-TP


A feature of the Fourth of July celebration at Cristobal, in 1911, when Colonel Goethals delivered an address. A flag chorus of school children is
seated back of him. The Fourth has been religiously observed by the Americans on the Isthmus every year since 1904.


ILY


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ii


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CTUqE jA-jD IlVIDED --cT-H WP -D, IJJNITED

with the work under their charge. This new commission assumed its duties
on April 1, 1907, and consisted of the following:
Col. Geo. W. Goethals, U. S. A., Chairman and Chief Engineer; Col. D. D.
Gaillard, U. S. A., Head of Department of Excavation and Dredging; Lieut.-
Col. Wm. L. Sibert, U. S. A., Head of Department of Lock and Dam Construc-
tion; Col. W. C. Gorgas, U. S. A., Chief Sanitary Officer; Civil Engineer H. H.
Rousseau, U. S. N., Head of Department of Municipal Engineering, Motive
Power and Machinery and Building Construction; Jackson Smith, Manager,
Labor, Quarters and Subsistence; Jo. C. S. Blackburn, Head of Department of
Civil Administration; Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Secretary.
The personnel of the above commission has remained unchanged with three
exceptions. Jackson Smith resigned on September 15, 1908, and the depart-
ment of labor and quarters is now a part of the Quartermaster's Department
under direction of Captain R. E. Wood, U. S. A., and the Subsistence Depart-
















John F. Wallace, first Chief Engineer of the John F. Stevens, second Chief Engineer. He
Panama Canal. He entered upon his duties June was appointed July 20, 1905, and resigned April
1, 1904, and resigned June 25, 1905. 1, 1907, Col. Geo. W. Goethals, taking his place.
Copyright, Clinedinst, Washington, D. C.
ment under direction of Major Eugene T. Wilson, U. S. A., as a separate depart-
ment. Mr. Jo. C. S. Blackburn resigned, effective December 4, 1909, and was
succeeded on May 13, 1910, by Mr. Maurice H. Thatcher, Mr. Rousseau acting
as Head of the Department during the interval. Mr. Thatcher resigned, effective
on June 14, 1913, and was succeeded by Mr. Richard L. Metcalfe, the present
head of the department.
The Departments of Excavation and Dredging and Lock and Dam
Construction were abolished and, on July 1, 1908, became the Atlantic Division,
under Colonel Sibert, having charge of the dredging operations in the Atlantic
entrance, and the lock, dam and spillway work at Gatun, and the General
Division, under Colonel D. D. Gaillard, which has charge of the excavation in
the Culebra Cut section. On July 15, 1908, the Pacific Division was organized
and charged with the lock, dam and spillway work at Pedro Miguel and Mira-
flores, and the dredging work in the Pacific entrance under Mr. S. B. William-
son, Division Engineer. Upon the resignation of Mr. Williamson on December
[ 78]







llP TIAZLj DIVIDED --~TH- WO^ -NITEDg

12, 1912, the Pacific Division was abolished and its work was placed under the
immediate charge of the Chief Engineer, as the Fifth Division of the Department
of Construction and Engineering. On May 1, 1913, the dredging work of the
Atlantic and Pacific Divisions was consolidated under Mr. W. G. Comber,
Resident Engineer, forming the sixth Division of the Chief Engineer's office.
The Department of Municipal Engineering, Motive Power and Machinery, and
Building Construction, was abolished on August 1, 1908, and became a part of
the Department of Construction and Engineering with Mr. Rousseau, Assistant
to the Chief Engineer in charge. The present commission consist of the
following members:
Colonel Geo. W. Goethals, U. S. A., Chairman and Chief Engineer;
Colonel H. F. Hodges, U. S. A., Assistant Chief Engineer (Appointed July 14,
1908, vice Jackson Smith); Civil Engineer H. H. Rousseau, U. S. N., Assistant
to the Chief Engineer; Colonel D. D. Gaillard, U. S. A., Division Engineer,
Central Division; Lieutenant-Col. Wm. L. Sibert, U. S. A., Division Engineer,
Atlantic Division; Colonel W. C. Gorgas, U. S. A., Chief Sanitary Officer;
Richard L. Metcalfe, Head of Department of Civil Administration; Joseph
Bucklin Bishop, Secretary.
Of these eight men, Colonel Gorgas is the only one who has been in the
service since the inauguration of the work. Colonel Gaillard left the Isthmus
on August 9, 1913, on special leave of absence, suffering from a nervous break-
down, due to his long service on the Isthmus, and it is probable that he will not
return.
THE PURCHASING END
The Commission maintains an office in Washington in charge of Major
F. C. Boggs, U. S. A., who fills the positions of Chief of Office, and General
Purchasing Officer. The work is apportioned among the following divisions:
General Office, Disbursing Office, Office of Assistant Examiner of Accounts,
Appointment Division, Correspondence and Record Division, and Purchasing
Department. The Appointment Division has to do with filling requisitions
for American employes, and during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, 2,065
persons were tendered employment on the Isthmus in grades above that of
laborer. Of this number, 1,183 accepted and were appointed, covering 59
different positions. The purchasing branch was organized on August 15, 1907,
and placed under the supervision of the Chief of Engineers, U. S. A., with an
officer of the Corps of Engineers in charge. Additional offices for the purchase
of materials are maintained at New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco.
Medical and hospital supplies are purchased through the Medical Supply
Depot of the Army in New York. Nearly all supplies are purchased under
contract by means of advertising for bids and making awards thereon, and all
material is carefully inspected before shipment, although the right is reserved
of making final inspection on the Isthmus. As an illustration of the work of
this department, a total of 7,087 orders were placed during the last fiscal year
to the value of $12,335.973.12.


[ 79 1
























HE high mortality among employes encountered by the builders of the
Panama railroad and by the French during their operations indicated
that, to keep a suitable working force on the Isthmus, the Canal
Zone, and the cities of Panama and Colon would have to be made
healthy. Realizing this, one of the first divisions of the canal work to be
established was that of sanitation under Col. W. C. Gorgas, who, prior to his
arrival on the Isthmus, had successfully stamped out yellow fever and sub-
stantially reduced the high malaria rate in Havana, Cuba. This division was
at first a part of the Department, of Government of the Canal Zone, but, on
account of the importance of the sanitary work it was later made a distinct and
separate department. That its work under the direction of Colonel Gorgas
has been entirely successful, may at this day, be readily seen. Instead of a
pest hole with an unsavory reputation as "a white man's graveyard," the
Isthmus has become a winter resort for an increasing number of tourists each
year. Not only was it necessary to free the Isthmus from pestilence in order
that the canal work might be accomplished, but it was just as necessary that it
be kept in that condition for all time.
Dr. Ronald Ross of the British Army in India is credited with the discovery,
through successive experiments in 1898, that the Anophlllcs mosquito is the
germ-carrier for malaria. This mosquito bites an infected person and carries
the germ to other persons. In the same way another species of mosquito, the
Styoimyia, was found to be responsible for yellow fever. The theory of yellow
fever transmission by mosquitoes was exploited as early as 1883, by Dr. Carlos
Finlay of Havana. The definite and indisputable test was made in July, 1900,
at Quemados, Cuba, by four members of the United States Army Medical
Corps, who had been appointed as a commission for the study of the disease.
These four men were Doctors Walter Reed, Jesse W. Lazear, James Carroll,
and Aristides Agramonte. One of these men, Dr. Lazear who allowed himself
to be bitten by an infected mosquito, died from the resulting attack of yellow
fever. Dr. Carroll also contracted yellow fever during the experiments, but
recovered. A reward of $200 was offered to encourage volunteers, and of the
many enlisted men who took part in the experiments, the first to present them-
selves \\ere John R. Kissinger and John J. Moran, both of whom stated that
[ 80 ]













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One of the driveways in Ancon Hospital grounds. Ancon Hospital is world-famed, and the grounds are among the most beautiful in existence.
The site covers about 80 acres, on the slope of Ancon Hill, and the environment is decidedly pleasing to the eyes of both the sick and well. Over
250 varieties of trees and plants are grown in the grounds.




























































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JI -. N
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[ 81 ]


Every square foot of swamp was a breeding place for mosquitoes. Draining swamps, sub-
soiling and burning grass, are some of the methods used in the prevention of mosquito breed-
ing. The man in the upper picture is shown burning grass which grows along the open ditches
and drains. In the lower picture he is shown spraying larvacide on the grass.


* *


- I -'T7 .






Jj DJ )VDED ____RH ETO D ITD
they would undergo the experiment only
on condition that they should receive no
reward for such service. They both
contracted the fever and recovered; I
Moran is now in the employ of the
Commission on the Isthmus. After ex-
tensive experiments, the mosquito trans-
mission theory came to be fully accepted
by experts on tropic diseases.
By this knowledge the work on the
Isthmus was greatly simplified. The
prophylactic method of fighting yellow
fever and reducing nala rin was found to
be in the extermination of the mosquito
as far as possible, and screening dwel-
lings against them. As soon as wire
netting could be brought to the Isthmus
all buildings in the Canal Zone were
properly screened. The destructive
methods consist in the draining of low
places, removal of vegetation, in the
damp shade of which mosquitoes breed, A mosquito disguise, which took first prize in the
and the killing of larvae by oiling poolS masquerade contest in Panama Carnival of 1904.
and streams that could not be drained.
At the outset, Colonel Gorgas was hampered by the failure of the Com-
mission in Washington to realize the immediate necessity for large expenditures


The genus Stegomyia mosquito, male and female. The female on the left, the male in the
center and the larva on the right. The species has distinctive markings, and the harp-shaped
design near the head is found on no other mosquito. The male does not bite, and is, therefore,
harmless; it is the female that causes all the trouble.
[ 82]


/1
/
" /
/

















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f.. '-


It took months of labor, and sortie after sortie, before the mosquito horde began to thin. A
gang of about 900 natives was at one time engaged with ladders and paste, sealing all the crevices
in the houses in Panama, prior to fumigation. Streets were paved, a water system installed, and
a general clean-up was made.


[ 83 ]






C9ED b"ADJIIVIDED 0---CTE O 3 UUIITED








.- .

-' .v...=

The quarantine station on Culebra Island in Panama Bay. Owing to the fact that the Isthmus
is hemmed in on both sides, by plague-infected ports, the most rigid precautions are observed, and
steamers from these ports are held in quarantine, unless they have been seven days at sea.
for the purpose of exterminating the mosquito. This was later remedied, and
the purse strings were loosened. An outbreak of yellow fever among the
recently unacclimated Americans began in December, 1904, and lasted until
December, 1905. During the epidemic there were in all 246 cases and 34 deaths.
Of this number, 134 of the cases and all of the deaths were among canal
employes. The constantly increasing headway made by the disease in the
early months of 1905 caused a panic among the employes. A great many of
them left the Isthmus as soon as they could obtain accommodations on the
overcrowded steamships. This was an object lesson, and resulted in a partial
suspension of actual canal construction work until the eradication of yellow
fever was effected. In addition to a rigid quarantine, a relentless fight was
waged against the mosquito, with the result that the last case of yellow fever
occurred in May, 1906, two years after the work started.
THE FIGHT ON THE MOSQUITO
When a case of yellow fever was reported or found by one of the corps of


Colon Hospital, on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus. It stands on the sea beach, and some
of the wards are built over the water.
f 84 1















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a


iJ Im

UI-i
i~~ iI1~


.d* ; +~~


The above comparison of-before and after paving-is not exaggerated. When the Ameri-
cans took charge of the work many of the streets in Colon and Panama City were veritable bogs
in the rainy season. Now, both cities compare favorably in clean, well paved streets, with others
of their size.
[ 85


': :I
:n 'd


-~J~tll






J >A DIVI DED --< q E__ WO_-I TTUNITED


inspectors in the course of a house-to-house search for cases, the patient was
immediately taken to the hospital and placed in a room protected by screening.
The next step was the thorough fumigation of the house from which the patient
had been removed, in order to kill any infected mosquitoes that might remain.
Finally an endeavor was made to locate and fumigate the source of infection.
When the epidemic of 1905 was at its height, the plan of fumigating every house
in the cities of Panama and Colon, whether or not there had been cases of yellow
fever in them, was carried out. The native residents at first submitted to the
fumigation with poor grace, as they are immune and could not see the necessity


The Dispensary at Ancon. Dispensaries and Field Hospitals are maintained at all the
important Canal Zone settlements for first aid treatment.
for it. Later, they became more reconciled, but complaints were numerous.
There is now pending in Congress a claim for $50,000 to cover damages due
to a fire in the Malambo district of Panama in the spring of 1905, which is
claimed to have been started by the overturning of a fumigating oven.
The fight against the Anopheles, the malaria-carrying mosquito, has been
continuous, for it is next to impossible to eliminate it entirely. This species,
unlike the Stegomyia, is strong on the wing and is, therefore, able to enter the
cities and villages after breeding in the swamps and stagnant pools in the out-
skirts. To counteract this as much as possible, miles of drainage ditches have
been constructed in the vicinity of the canal towns; small streams are kept
cleaned out to facilitate the flow of water; swamps have been filled in and grass
and rank vegetation kept cut. Regulations are also enforced against allowing
[ 86 3


cMp












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.- -4kr
.-: -WA.- RD3 I_ A D IAN-D:



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The Government operates two main hospitals. One at Ancon and the other at Colon. The
Ancon Hospital is the larger and best equipped, with a reputation in the Tropics second to none.
It was begun by the French in 1883, but many improvements have been made by the Americans.

[ 87 ]


: .


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f f -igr : ;.. 7'






c~-NED T k;WPYJ.D4Z~~lf B- U~E;~O 2-JrITED


There are 47 wards in the Ancon Hospital, and this is the interior of one of them. The white
American employes, European laborers and the negroes, are cared for in separate wards. There
are private wards also, and one for charity cases. The Canal Commission furnishes free medical
treatment to all of its employes.

any water receptacles, like tin cans, etc., being thrown into the bush where they
might fill during a rainstorm and make ideal breeding places for the mosquito
larvae. Such possible breeding places as cannot be eliminated by draining
and filling are sprayed with a form of oil, called larvaecide, which destroys
the mosquito larvae as they come to the surface of the water to breathe. In
spite of all these efforts there are many cases of malaria, but the number has
been rapidly reduced, and the type of disease has been reduced from a virulent
to a comparatively mild type. While the mortality from malaria was never so
high as other forms of tropic disease, Colonel Gorgas always considered it one
of the most important on account of the heavy sick rate. Medicinally, the
disease is treated by quinine, many thousands of pounds of which have been
used in the hospitals and issued from the dispensaries maintained in each canal
zone village. CLEANING HOUSE

While a war of extermination was being waged against the mosquito, it
was also absolutely necessary to clean house, especially in the cities of Panama
and Colon. The latter place, the site of which was partly a tidal swamp, had
to be filled in. Proper sewer systems were installed in both cities, where none
existed before, unless the open drains in the streets, filled with refuse and other
filth, could be called sewers. Suitable water systems also had to be introduced,
for up to July 4,.1905, the supply of water was drawn from the cisterns which
were allowed to fill during the rainy seasons, or from wells, and afterward
peddled from door to door by the aguadores or water cartmen. When the
water was turned on, all cisterns were closed. Likewise the streets which
became virtually mud holes in the rainy season were properly paved with brick
or graded. A method of garbage disposal was also provided, for up to this time
[88
*







_E_ T_-PI f IVIMDED "I W-- U0 _D,_TNITED

buzzards were the only scavengers. Now, the streets are kept swept and the
garbage is collected every night from especially designed containers which every
householder is supposed to have. It is then transported to low swampy places
in the outskirts of the cities where it is burned, the ashes being used as a fill.
In the Canal Zone, garbage is usually destroyed at incinerating plants. In
Panama and Colon the collection is made by the health department of the Canal
Commission. All the street, sewer and water improvements in these cities
(lone by the engineering department of the Canal Commission will be paid for
by the Republic of Panama from its water rates, on the amortization plan.
The money advanced by the United States, about $3,500,000, is to be repaid in
50 years from July 1, 1907, but at the present rate of payment, settlement will
have been made much sooner.
The villages in the Canal Zone along the line of the Canal were not so
filthy as Panama and Colon, but were without sewer and water svts'teml. Since
then several reservoirs have been constructed, and all houses are connected with
sewer systems. Macadam roads have gradually replaced trails; garbage is
collected daily and properly disposed of; grass and other tropic vegetation is
kept cut down in the vicinity of dwellings, and well-kept gardens and hedges
make the construction villages appear like model towns. Strict sanitary
regulations are enforced in all the Canal Zone towns, as well as in the cities of
Panama and Colon, and each place has its sanitary inspectors, or inspector.
RESULTS HAVE JUSTIFIED THE COST
With cleanliness alone, however, the high sick and death rate could not be
materially reduced. The successful war on the mosquito, which was started


...... 0 .
Along the coast a few miles from Panama City, is a Leper colony of 24 persons, called Palo
Seco. This is the colony house and surroundings. The lepers are well treated, and have all the
creature comforts furnished free by the Government, and spend a part of their time growing veg-
etables for their own consumption.
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AW TA~ED DIVIDED D -c- crTT~I W 1/O.M, UNJTE

by Colonel Gorgas when the engineers were busy constructing water works and
sewers, has freed the Isthmus of its reputation as a pest hole, and has made its
sick and mortality rate compare favorably with cities in the United States, or
any other parts of the civilized world. The following tables indicate the effec-
tiveness of the preventive work of sanitation on the Isthmus:
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF DEATH RATES AMONG CANAL EMPLOYES ON
THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA UNDER THE ORIGINAL FRENCH COMPANY
FOR 1884, THE YEAR THE MAXIMI'M NUMBER OF EMPLOYES
WERE WORKING, AND THE AMERICAN COMMISSION,
1904 TO 1912, INCLUSIVE.

Death Rate per
Avcra g No. of No. of Deaths, 1,000
Year. Employes. Disease Only. Disease Only. Lives Saved.

1884 ...... 17,436 1,198 68.69 ......

1904 ...... 6,213 55 8.84 422
1905 ...... 16,512 412 24.96 722
1906 ...... 26,547 1,046 39.40 778
1907 ...... 39,238 964 24.57 1,731
1908 ...... 43,891 381 8.68 2,634
1909...... 47,167 356 7.55 2,884
1910 ...... 50,802 381 7.50 3,109
1911 ...... 48,876 374 7.65 2,983
1912 ..... 50,893 325 6.37 3,172
Total for nine years. .................. ............ 18,435

TOTAL POPULATION OF PANAMA, COLON AND CANAL ZONE AND DEATH
RATES IN SAME.

Year. Population. Annual Average Lives Saved.
Death Rate per 1000

1904 ......... 35,000 52.45 .....
1905 ......... 56,624 49.94 142
1906 ......... 73,264 49.10 299
1907 ......... 102,133 33.63 1,922
1908 ......... 120,097 24.83 3,317
1909 ......... 135,180 18.19 4,631
1910......... 151,591 21.18 4,740
1911 ......... 156,936 21.46 4,863
1912......... 146,510 20.49 4,682
1913 (June 30) 130,456 21.10* 4,090
Total for nine and a half years...... -............ .. 28,686
*Computed on six months' figures, but averaged for a year.


Only two cases of bubonic plague have developed on the Isthmus
American occupation. These occurred in Balboa, the first in June,
[ 90]


since
1905.












































































Panama, Colon, and the towns in the Canal Zone were without water mains or sewers in 1904.
Eight reservoirs have been built, and now water is plentiful; sewers ramify the cities, and the gar-
bage is collected daily and burned. Many good roads have also been built, and the Las Sabanas
road is much used by automobile and horseback riders. The United States advanced the money
for this work, but Panama is to pay it back inside of 50 years.
S91 ]
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C TIAN- DIVIDED D--acE WOIJD,TTNITED


On the Mount Hope Road between Cristobal and Gatun, is Mount Hope Cemetery, once
known as Monkey Hill, where thousands of French Canal employes, victims of yellow fever, lie
buried. Under American supervision the cemetery has been greatly beautified. Each of its aven-
ues is lined with a different kind of fruit tree.

The village was immediately cleaned and disinfected, and a crusade against
rats, the fleas of which are the carriers of buboinc, was started. A "rat"
brigade was set at work in Panama; rat traps were issued free to all persons who
wished them, and a bounty was placed on each rat delivered to the health
department.
In addition to the preventive work done by the Department of Sanitation,
it maintains two large hospitals, one at Colon and the other at Ancon, and each
settlement has a dispensary with a physician in charge. There is also main-
tained a large asylum for the insane at Ancon, while at Palo Seco, a few miles
east of Panama, there is an asylum for lepers. There is also a sanitarium on
Taboga Island, about 12 miles out in the Bay of Panama, where convalescent
white patients are given a week or more to renew fever and work-worn tissues.
One of the most important things shown by the success of sanitary work on
the Isthmus has been expressed by Colonel Gorgas many times, as follows:
"Natives in the tropics, with the same sanitary precautions that are taken in the
temperate zones, can be just as healthy and have just as small a death rate as
inhabitants in the temperate zones. To bring this about no elaborate ma-
chinery is necessary. The result can be attained by any community, no matter
how poor, if it is willing to spend sufficient labor in cleaning, and to observe
well-known rules with regard to disease. The Anglo-Saxon can lead just as
healthy a life, and live just as long in the tropics as he can in his native climate."
The total cost of the work of the Department of Sanitation up to the first
of July, 1913, was $16,250,164.93. This seems to be an excessive cost until it is
considered that this amount includes the maintenance of modern hospitals,
f 92 ]







E J)6-1;D IVIMDED -Zcj7 O BTN UNITED

dispensaries, and quarantine stations at Colon and Panama, costing more than
half of the total amount. To this is added the cost of street cleaning and
garbage collecting, draining and reclaiming swamp land, the salaries of some
15 chaplains, the care of cemeteries and the carrying on of a general under-
taking and embalming business. Colonel Gorgas when he said that it is within
the power of the people of tropic countries to be just as healthy as those in the
temperate zones, figures the actual cost of sanitary work on the Isthmus to the
American Government will be a little more than a cent a day per capital, based
on a population of 140,000.
RIGID QUARANTINE MAINTAINED
Since May, 1904, the quarantine on the Isthmus has been under American
control with stations at Colon, and on Culebra Island near the Pacific entrance
to the canal. In spite of the fact that ports on both sides of the Isthmus, north
and south of Colon and Panama, have been infected with bubonic plague,
cholera, smallpox and yellow fever, the quarantine has been successfully main-
tained. All employes of the Commission arriving on the Isthmus have to
submit to vaccination unless they can show a good scar. Ships arriving at the
Isthmus from infected ports are required to fulfill seven days of quarantine from
the time of their departure. Guayaquil, Ecuador, where yellow fever has been
endemic since the first white man landed on the west coast of South America,
and where bubonic plague has recently gained a foothold, is about four days
steaming for fast ships. As ships stopping at Guayaquil load and unload cargo
where they are in danger of infection, it is necessary for them to be fumigated
before they sail for Panama, and it is also necessary that the 7-day period of
quarantine be fulfilled from the time of such fumigation. Ships making the
trip in four days would, therefore, have to lay in quarantine at Culebra Island
hree days before they could unload their cargo and discharge passengers at


Ancon Cemetery.
[ 93









C; iJ&- -
-M t
111


Taboga Island, 12 miles out from the main land, in Panama Bay. It is noted for its sea bathing,
and its pineapples. The native section is primitive and picturesque and contains one of the old-
est churches in this section.

Balboa. In case a ship arrives which cannot show a certificate that all regu-
lations have been properly complied with before leaving Guayaquil, then it is-
ncce(ssary that the vessel be fu iga ted on its arrival at Panama, and pass through
the 7-day detention period at that port. On the Atlantic side, at the present
time, ships sailing from La Guaira, Venezuela, are compelled to consume seven
days, and from Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, they are compelled
to consume six days from the time of sailing. With a rigid quarantine at the
two ports of the Canal, and with the effective work of the sanitary inspectors
kept up as it has been in the past, it seems improbable that a serious epidemic
of yellow fever will ever break out on the Isthmus again.


The Canal Commission's Sanitarium on Taboga Island, where all sick white employes are
sent to convalesce. The employes are given 30 days vacation each year, with full pay, and .30
days sick leave each year, when necessary.
r 94 1










.5P


i N the month of September, 1904, the Canal force was at its lowest
Point, numbering about 500. In November, 1905, the force had been
increased to approximately 17,000, and in November, 1906, it was
-practically the same. The following tables show the highest monthly
record for each year since 1906:
1907-October ....... 31,967 1911--December ....... 37,826
1908-April........... 33,170 1912-November ....... .40,159
1909-October ....... 35,405 1913-March .......... 44,733
1910-March ........38,676
The Canal force reached its highest point in March, 1913, with 44,733 men,
divided as follows: Panama railroad, 5,248; Panama railroad commissary,
1,274; Isthmian Canal Commission, 32,567; contractors, 5,644; total, 44,733.
Of the above, the "gold" force, composed almost entirely of Americans,
numbered 4,487; West Indian laborers employed by the Commniniion, 10,406;
West Indian artisans employed by the Comniisioin, 13,065; European laborers
employed by the Commission, 4,609. The balance was in the employ of the
Panama railroad and of the contractors. Most of the West Indian laborers
received 10 and 13 cents an hour, while a few received as high as 20 cents
an hour. The European laborers received 16 and 20 cents an hour. The
West Indian artisans were for the greater part paid on a monthly basis, the
balance receiving from 16 to 44 cents an hour.
GETTING THE FORCE TOGETHER
As the work of making the Isthmus a healthful place in which to live
progressed and better living conditions were inaugurated, the work of recruiting
and maintaining a labor force became easier. However, it was never possible
to keep a stable force and, under the best conditions, the American force changed
[ 95 1