Twenty-five years in British Guiana

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Title:
Twenty-five years in British Guiana
Physical Description:
x, 364 p. : illus., port. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Kirke, Henry, 1842-1925
Publisher:
Negro Universities Press
Place of Publication:
Westport, Conn.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Guyana   ( lcsh )
Social life and customs -- Guyana   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Guyana

Notes

General Note:
Reprint of the 1898 ed.
General Note:
This text planned for use in the Panama Silver, Asian Gold course to be taught at three institutions starting in Fall 2013.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Book is a reprint of a 1898 book with no copyright notice on the front pages. Per Internet Archive copy, this is not in copyright: http://archive.org/details/twentyfiveyearsi00kirkrich
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 00103470
lccn - 77106841
isbn - 0837134633
ocm00103470
Classification:
lcc - F2371 .K59 1970
ddc - 918.8/1/032
System ID:
AA00014523:00001


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UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


LATIN AMERICAN COLLECTION






















TWENTY-FIVE YEARS
IN

BRITISH GUIANA















At41 f l-
A147-







TWENTY-FIVE YEARS


BRITISH


GUIANA


HENRY KIRKE, M.A., B.C.L., Oxox.
FORMERLY SHERIFF OF' 1)EMERALRA
AUTHOR OF TIE FIRST ENGLISH CONQUEST OF CANADA," ETC ., ETU.



WITH MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS





H
NEGRO UNIVERSITIES PRESS
WESTPORT, CONNECTICUT








237/

) '70

i r77c


LAI N
AME16








Originally published in 1898
by Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., London

Reprinted in 1970 by
Negro Universities Press
A Division of Greenwood Press, Inc.
Westport, Connecticut
Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 77-106841
SBN 8371-3463-3


Printed in the United States of America

















CONTENTS




CHAPTER I.
PAGE
Introduction-Changes in twenty-five years-First impressions of
British Guiana-Mosquitoes-Frogs-Georgetown-Houses in
Guiana-Drainage-Heat and damp-Society-Absence of the
leisured and literary classes -Newspaper press- Anthony
Trollope-Boddam-Whetham-Monotony of life-Position of
British Guiana unknown-Travellers' tales-Climate-Early
burials -Yellow fever- Funerals- Difficulty of burial--
Leprosy-Hospitals ... ...... .. ... ...


CHAPTER II.
A thirsty country-Swizzles-Georgetown Club-Visits of the fleet-
Swizzleiana-Pepper-pot-Miss Gerty's kitten-Planters-Mr.
Henry Clementson-His burglary-Medical service-Old-time
doctors-The Bar-Dick Whitfield-Lynch-Samuel T. Fitz-
Herbert-Macaronic verses-Church endowments-Cake walks
-Rally of the tribes-Ladies in British Guiana-Sexual re-
lations-Establishments-Children of the poor-Quasi-slavery
-Roman Dutch Law-Emancipation of women-Tigress of
Tiger Bay-Tim Sugar-Assaulting the sheriff ... ... 23


CHAPTER III.

Colonel Foster-Foster-" Home "-Coloured gentry-Census papers
-Curious returns-The Zoo in Georgetown-List of animals-
German warships-Learning a new language-Plain vernacular
a 3










CONTENTS


PAGE
-Amusements in British Guiana-Racing-D'Urban race-
course-Blood stock-Georgetown races-Belfield-Cricket-
Ted Wright-English teams-Chinese cricketers-Black players
-Dancing-Creole-Congo-Hindoo-Reminiscences-Officials
-X Beke-Military force-White troops-West Indian Regi-
ment-Soldiers' burial-ground-98th Regiment-Withdrawal of
troops-Venezuelan raid-Uruan-Capture of the post-Vixen
-'Varsity dinner-Mr. James Crosby-Crosby office-Insect
plagues-Cockroaches-Ants-Centipedes-Hardbacks-Mara-
buntas-Electric light-Gas-Beckwith's hotel ... ... 50


CHAPTER IV.
Equatorial zone-Tropical vegetation-Forests-Striking effects-
Gardens in British Guiana-Fauna-Shooting-Game bags-
Muscovy ducks-Hoatzin-Jaguars-Waracabra tigers-Deer
-Peccary-Tapir-Monkeys Iguanas Snakes-Fishing-
Cuffum-Lukananni-Cannibal snakes-Essequibo and Aroa-
bisce coast-Old-time planters Racecourse Hospitality-
Practical jokes-Clergy-Dean Austin-Rev. William Brett-
St. John's Church-Medical officers-Riot on the coast-An
awkward predicament-A faithful sentry-Sheriff Humphreys
-Miss Anna Austin ... ... ... ... ... 79


CHAPTER V.
Monotony of life-Trips in the bush-Pomeroon journey-Tappa-
cooma Lake-Aripiaco Creek-Cabacaburi Mission-Mr. and
Mrs. Heard-Medora-Bishop Austin-Maccaseema-McClin-
tock-Indian chief-Im Thurn-Bivouac-Benaboo-Howling
baboons-Caribsettlement-Piwarrie-CaptainJeffreys-Indian
names-Samboura-Cooking under difficulties-Indian dance-
A sunken boat-Anna Regina-Onomatopoetic birds-Super-
naam Indian Mission-Sermon-Huis t' Dieren-Boiler explo-
sion-Manslaughter-Coolie settlement ... ... ... 107


CHAPTER VI.
Ikarakka Lake-Capoey racecourse-Riding catastrophe-Marooning
-Ituribisce Creek-Indian settlements-Flights of butterflies-
Arawak Indians-Duffryn Mission-Manatee Island-Dauntless










CONTENTS


PAGE
Bank-Manatees at the Aquarium and the Zoo-Bartica,
Essequibo River-Gold discovery-Rev. William Pierce-Rail-
ways-Christian mission-Rev. Thomas Youd-Church-
Situation for a future city-Mechanics under indenture-Peter
McPherson-His death Better success Africans-Congo
language-Thick skins-Jubilee at Hampton Court-Firework
display ... ... ... ... ... ... 129



CHAPTER VII.

Bovianders Aboriginal Indians Indian women-Waterton-
George Augustus Sala-Piwarrie-Character of Indians-
Kanaima-Murder of Simon the Arawak's wife-Indian im-
passivity-Impatience of confinement-Doctrine of clothes-
Old customs-Floating shops-Smuggling-Akyma-Bremner
family-Old graves-A tomb in the wilderness-Alaric Watts
-Sebacabra- Fishing Old woodskin-Dances-Christian-
burgh-Paterson-Dalgin-Sergeant Alleyne-Surgical opera-
tions-Mora-Sergeant Blunt-Brittlebank-Miscegenation-
Napier's "Peninsular War "-Kroomen-Joe-Arecuna Indians
-Maroons ... ... ... ... ... ... 147



CHAPTER VIII.

Decay of river population-Rise of the gold industry-Kanaimapoo
-Mecropie-Water-mammas Coomarroo Vampire bats-
George Couchman-Visit to the Orarumalali Falls-Derrire Hill
-Comarramarra-Koomparoo Rapids-Camanna fish-Car-
roquia-Eneyeudah Mission-Thunderstorm-Great Falls--
Snakes-Palaver with the Indians-Captain Tiger -Dyed
Indians-Scarlet dog-Her Majesty's penal settlement--Massa-
runi River-Ticket-of-leave men-Convicts-Their sentiments
-Confidence in magistrates-The wife of Ramdass-Kykoveral
-Fort Island-Fred Hamblin-Theatrical entertainment-
West Indian Regiment-Colonel Fygelmesy-New Amsterdam
ball-Old Woolward-Life in New Amsterdam-Dr. Hackett-
Anthony Trollope-Official etiquette-D. M.Gallagher-Lunatic
Asylum-Corentyne coast-Smuggling-Wild-duck shooting
-Elections-Vendues-Atlantic voyages ... ... ... 174









CONTENTS


CHAPTER IX.
PAGE
Emancipation-Immigration schemes-East Indians Chinese-
Dangerous characters-The coolie-Invested savings-Mowla
Buksh-Chan-a-fook, the burglar and murderer-Execution of
Chinese at Suddie-Christian Chinese-Their honesty and
sincerity- Opium-smoking Gambling Chinese settlement,
Camounie Creek-Queer dishes-Chinese immigrants ex Corona
-Similarity of appearance-Concubines-Suicides-East Indian
immigrants-Scarcity of women-Difficulty in obtaining wives
-Polyandry-Purchase of wives-Girl or cow-Adultery-
Frequent murders-Case of Seecharam-Mutilation and murder
of his wife-Execution of Seecharam-Transmigration of souls
-Indian superstitions-Marriage at Aurora-Tragic results ... 206



CHAPTER X.

Perjury: in the Divorce Court; generally; amongst Hindoos-
Family ties-Caste-Case of Rookminia-Perjury a duty-Her
imprisonment-Release-Gratitude-Various races and creeds
in British Guiana-Variety of judicial oaths-Curious Chinese
oaths-Hindoo beliefs-Results of education-Names of children,
Hindi, Congo-Bindharry and his pretty daughters-A dis-
appointed lover-Large amount of savings made by coolies-
Mootee-Champagne-drinking-Deposit in the Bank of Bengal
-Hardships of coolies returning to India-Extortion by priests
and relatives-Marriage contracts-Consideration money-
Baboo English-Marriages between children-Complications-
Fatalism-Oriental imagery-" Found dead "-Mortuary ... 232



CHAPTER XI.

Negro population-Their manners and habits-Slavery-The African
at home-Ashanti-Benin-Amelioration of slavery in the
colony-Fine race-Nocturnal habits-Servants-Stealing or
taking-Oratory and letter-writing-A little knowledge is a
dangerous thing-Amusing witnesses-Curious use of words-
Intoxication, definition of-What is heaven?-Miscegenation
-Half-and-half illegitimacy-Mulattoes-Division of races-
Illegitimate births-Marriage garments-" Love, honour, and









CONTENTS


PAGE
obey "-An uncertain husband-Wifely obedience-Dangers of
marriage-A provident husband-Consolation for widows-
High-sounding titles-Judas Iscariot-The Goddess of Chaste
-What is a bachelor ?-Au revoir-Want of midwives; their
ignorance and brutality ... ... ... .. 252



CHAPTER XII.

Good conduct of the coloured people-Occasional outbreaks-Riots
in Georgetown-Portuguese shopkeepers-Antipathy between
them and the masses-Murder of Julia Chase-March, 1889-
Assault in the market-Rising of the people-Police-Special
constables-Streetfighting-Incendiary fires-West Indian Regi-
ment-Volunteers-Proclamation-Permission to fire-Result
-Arrival of blue-jackets and marines of H.M.S. Canada-
Unfortunate murder-Running amok-Excitement-Emptying
the gaol-Ludicrous results-Compensation for damage done
by rioters-Creole superstitions-Obeah-Poisoning-Education
Want of reverence Confirmation Jumping Jenny -
Coloured gentlemen-Extension of the franchise-A local civil
service-Painless dentistry-A state of prognostication-The
benefits of corporation ... ... ... .. ... 271



CHAPTER XIII.

Criminals-Murderers I have known-Causes of murder-Origin of
crime-Cause of crime in British Guiana-Classification of
criminals-Amount of crime-Its cause-Scarcity of women-
Colonial laws-Brutal child-wife murder-Jealousy-Revenge-
Execution of felons-Composure of condemned men-Brain
exhaustion-Murder of Mrs. Walsh-Terrible scene-Walsh's
strange defence and behaviour-Trial and execution-Murders
by Portuguese-Texeira-Excitement of his countrymen-
Murders by Arabs-Cayenne-Escaped convicts-Annamese
and Tonquinese criminals-Numerous languages spoken in
sheriff's office-Interpreters and their manners-Russian va-
grants-National odours-Executioners-Hamlet-His bungling
and brutality-Execution of Butler-Painful scene-Brown-
The difficulties of a sheriff ... ... ... ... 290










CONTENTS


CHAPTER XIV.
PAGE
Moral education-Filthy dwellings of the poor-Corporation of
Georgetown-Want of benefactors-Paul de Saffon-Trotman
-Disapproval of criminals-Its absence-Bantus-Immorality
-Concubinage-Industrial schools-Whipping-Flogging as a
deterrent-A careless warder-Jack in office-A hopeless case
-Female obstinacy-Burglary-Blackman-Betrayed by a
woman-An ingenious thief-Death by lightning-Curious
results-A jealous Mohammedan-Mutilation-A strange case
-Murder without a motive-An injured damsel-Her revenge
-The biter bit ... ... ... ... ... 308



CHAPTER XV.
Bishop Austin-Consecration of the new cathedral-His farewell
address-Climate of British Guiana-Educational difficulties-
Curse of tropical service-Planters' troubles-Fall in price of
sugar-Bounty-fed beet-The immigration system-The East
Indian at home-Change for the better-His position in Deme-
rara-Magistrates' Courts-Oriental imagery-Famine in India
-Plenty in British Guiana-Malingerers-A paradise for the
poor-Village communities-Colonial peasantry-Gold industry
-Diamonds-How to make British Guiana prosperous ... 329




APPENDIX A. ... ... ... .. ... ... 347
APPENDIX B.-GLOSSARY OF CREOLE Wonus ... ... 348
APPENDIX C. ... ... ... ... ... ... 354


... ... ... 359


INDEX ...















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS




THE AUTHOB ... ... (From a Photo) Frontispiece
TO FACE PAGE
GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, GEORGETOWN, MAY T (From a ioto) 2
4TH, 1874 ... ... ...
SEA WALL, GEORGETOWN ... ... ... ,, 14
LEPEBS' HUT, KAOW ISLAND, ESSEQUIBO RIVE ,, 22
CREOLE OF SURINAM ... ... ... o ea 28
FRUIT GIRL ... ... ... ... (From a Photo) 28
IN THE WET SAVANNAH ... ... ... ,, 80
VIEW ON THE ESSEQUIBO RIVER, BRITISH GUIANA ,, 134
ON THE POTATO RIVER, BRITISH GUIANA ... ,, 136
VIEW FROM GOLD HILL, DEMERARA RIVER ...From a keth 174
GOLD-MINERS' CAMP, ESSEQUIBO RIVER ... (From a Photo) 176
ON THE CORENTYNE RIVER, BRTIH GUIANA ... ,, 196
THE THOUSAND ISLES, CORENTYNE RIVER ... ,, 200
CHINESE DoaTOR, GEORGETOWN ... ... 212
CHINESE IMMIGRANT AND HIS WIFE, BRITISH GUIANA ., 212
ACCAWOIO INDIANS, DEMERARA RIVER ... 230
EAST INDIAN IMMIGRANTS, BRITISH GUIANA ... ,, 230
COOLIE GIRL, BRITISH GUIANA ... ... 260
"TIGRESS OF TIGER BAY" ... ... ... 260
AVENUE OF PALMS, WAKENAAM ... ... ,, 284
















TWENTY-FIVE YEARS
IN

BRITISH GUIANA



CHAPTER I.
Introduction-Changes in twenty-five years-First impressions of British
Guiana-Mosquitoes--Frogs-Georgetown-Houses in Guiana-
Drainage-Heat and damp-Society-Absence of the leisured and
literary classes -Newspaper press--Anthony Trollope--Boddam-
Whetham-Monotony of life-British Guiana-Its position unknown
-Travellers' tales-Climate-Early burials-Yellow fever-Funerals
-Difficulty of burial-Leprosy-Hospitals.

IN one of her interesting-books, Mrs. Oliphant
refuses to include under the head of "literature"
Reminiscences and Recollections, as she says that
they are only written to gratify the vanity of
garrulous old men, and are of no value from a
literary point of view. This may be true, but at
the same time it cannot be denied that even the
worst written and most stupid book of reminiscences
may contain some valuable facts, and anecdotes
may therein be treasured up which may prove of
great value to the future historian or sociologist.
B







2 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

How much do we not owe to the many diaries
and reminiscences written by Englishmen and
Frenchmen during the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries? So, despite Mrs. Oliphant's strictures,
and disregarding the fact that some "indolent
reviewers," if they condescend to notice this book,
may put me down as a garrulous and vain old man,
I shall proceed to write down my "Recollections
of British Guiana as it was during my connection
with the colony from 1872 to 1897, in the hope
that my readers, gentle or otherwise, may find
something therein both to amuse and instruct
them.
Colonies change so rapidly, both as to men,
manners, and customs, that the colony of British
Guiana when I left it was totally different from
the colony as I found it. The land itself had
changed; old landmarks had disappeared, and
new ones sprung up; flourishing islands are in
existence where not long ago the tide ebbed and
flowed; railways and steam vessels are now hurry-
ing through vast territories only known twenty
years ago to the fierce Carib or placid Arawak;
gold diggers and diamond searchers are swarming
up every great river and gloomy creek, and the
whole face of the country is being rapidly changed.
And with this change of circumstances the people
have changed. The old quaint manners and
habits have disappeared; the old legends are
vanishing; the people dress and talk as others;
the electric light illuminates their houses; the
tramcar patrols their streets; the silk chimney-

























10'


..


















f... .I -



OVERIMEK' BUILDINGS, GEORGETOW, MAY 4IH 1874.







2IEBT IMPRESSIONS


pot of civilization is constantly in evidence; and
they are as other men. The world is gradually
acquiring a painful similarity; in a few hundred
years every one will dress alike and speak the
same language, and the human race will be reduced
to one dull commonplace level of uniformity.
After the lapse of so many years, it is difficult
to remember what made the most impression upon
a stranger landing in British Guiana at George-
town. I believe what struck me most were the
mosquitoes and the frogs. To new-comers the
mosquitoes are more than a nuisance, they cause
actual pain and inconvenience: I have known
people unable to put on their boots for weeks
owing to the inflammation caused by these pests.
In such a damp climate, and where the country
is intersected in all directions by canals and
trenches, frogs enjoy a sort of paradise. There
are a great variety of batrachians, from the tiny
little piping frogs that hide themselves in goblets
and water bottles, to the huge bull frog that
bellows in the marshes. The noise caused by
these animals in Georgetown at certain times of
the year is deafening to a new-comer,,but it is
curious that after a time you become so accus-
tomed to it that it passes without notice, unless
your attention is specially called to it, or it is
unusually vociferous.
Georgetown, the capital of British Guiana, the
Venice of the West Indies, as it has been called,
is certainly a strange place, and one calculated to
excite the interest and admiration of every one.







4 TWENTY-FIVE YEABS IN BRITISH GUIANA

Beneath the level of the sea at springtides, the
city is defended from the waves of the Atlantic by a
granite breakwater two miles long, stretching from
Fort William Frederick at the mouth of the river
Demerara to Plantation Kitty on the East coast:
great granite groins run out from it into the sea
every sixty yards or so, to break the force of the
waves; whilst the wall, which is twenty-five feet
wide on the top, is utilized as a promenade and
health resort in the afternoons and evenings.
This sea wall was commenced in 1858, and was
not completed until 1892. It was built principally
by convict labour, and all the granite was brought
from the penal settlement on the Massaruni River.
The streets in Georgetown are all rectangular; the
city is intersected in all directions by open canals
and drains, which are crossed by innumerable
bridges. These, at the time I first went out to
the colony, were made of wood, which have since
been replaced by handsome structures built of
iron and cement. Main Street is certainly one
of the prettiest streets I ever saw. About forty
yards wide, it is divided up the middle by a wide
canal full of the Victoria Regia lily, the canal,
and the roads on each side,, being shaded by an
avenue of saman trees. Handsome houses, painted
white, or some bright colour, are built on each
side of the street, nearly all of which are surrounded
by gardens, full of crotons, palms, poinsettias,
bourgainvilleas, and all sorts of bright-hued plants
and flowers; on some of the trees can be seen
clusters of cattleyas with their mauve and rose-







A MASS OF OESSPOOLS


coloured flowers; from another an oncidium throws
out its racemes of odorous petals, four to five feet
in length. The Brick dam, as it is called, is
another beautiful boulevard more than a mile in
length, bordered on both sides by lovely flowering
trees and lofty palms.
Houses in Guiana are almost entirely made of
wood, raised upon brick pillars from eight to ten
feet high, to enjoy the breeze, and avoid damp
and malaria. The colony provides excellent hard-
wood timber which will last for ages, but for
cheapness builders, whilst using colony timber
for the framework of the houses, use American
lumber for the walls and partitions. This soon
rots, the ants and the damp climate destroy it
rapidly, and the outside of a house, despite fre-
quent paintings, will require renewal every ten
years. The system of drainage is primitive. The
rain water is drained off by the canals, which are
connected with the Demerara River by sluices, the
doors of which can only be opened for twelve
hours in the day, when the tide is falling or only
just beginning to rise. The house drainage is
poured into cesspools, which are unlined, so that
it soaks into the ground. These pits are rarely
emptied, and when this is done, another pit is
dug in the compound, and the filth from one
poured into the other. In this way the whole
city is becoming a mass of cesspools, which it will
be dangerous to disturb. No wonder that the late
Surgeon-General (Dr. Grieve) spoke out plainly
about this suicidal policy, but nothing has been







6 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

done to remedy the evil. Since writing the above,
the Town Council of Georgetown have bestirred
themselves; odourless excavators have been pur-
chased, which clean out the cesspools, but the
filthy habit still prevails of emptying their contents
into the river, causing frightful stenches and mal-
odourous deposits. But let us leave this very
unsavoury reminiscence.
The principal recollections that one has of
British Guiana are of its heat and dampness. It
is one of the hottest places in the world, that is,
as regards mean temperature all the year round,
night and day. The temperature is never excessive,
as in some parts of India and Africa in the summer,
but there is no compensation in the shape of a
cool season such as those places enjoy in the winter.
Without change, the shade temperature remains
the same for weeks and months, varying from
820 to 88; sometimes, when there has been a very
heavy fall of rain and no sun for two days, the
mercury will register 780, when we all shiver and
shake, put on mackintoshes, and long for the sun
and warmth. Again, at the end of the dry season,
when the thunder clouds are piling up in the
south, the mercury sportively leaps up to 90, and
remains there for a day or two, until thunder and
rain bring it down a little. I once saw a ther-
mometer which registered 55, but some wag had
put it into the ice chest, and flourished it about
in support of his assertion that it was a cold night.
As to rain, I cannot say that it always rains, but
I will say that there are very few days in the year








TROPICAL RAINFALL


when it never rains in some part of the country.
The rainfall of the colony on the coast varies from
90 to 140 inches, so it cannot be called a dry
country, although droughts lasting for several
months occasionally occur. One thing is satis-
factory-when it does rain there is no doubt about
it, the water comes down with a rush and a pelt
which leaves no doubt or anxiety in the mind as
to whether it is raining or not. It always amused
me when I returned to England to hear people
arguing whether it rained or not, and flattening
their noses against the window-pane to see, or
putting out their hands to feel for, the drops of
rain. Sometimes the rainfall was somewhat phe-
nomenal. I remember sixteen inches falling in
one night, and more than two inches one morning
during the half-hour in which we were taking our
breakfast.
I may say at once that I have no intention of
putting anything into this book which could hurt
any person's feelings, so I shall abstain from writing
any scandals about the friends or associates
amongst whom I spent so many happy years of my
life. The white population of British Guiana
differs little from a similar class in England.
Society is composed of the usual elements, officials,
professional men, merchants and planters with
their wives and families, who are as well bred and
well educated as people of the same avocations in
other countries. If there be any distinction to be
made, I think I should give it in favour of the
colonists. Certainly in no other place have I







8 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA

seen such sympathy, hospitality, and generosity
as I have seen displayed in British Guiana. Of
course during a long sojourn in the colony, I have
known some strange characters, and had some
strange experiences, but I should be sorry to rake
up old stories which would be of no benefit to my
readers, and might give pain to many innocent
persons; so if any old colonist opens these pages
in the hope of reviving the memories of bygone
scandals and iniquities, I fear that he will be
disappointed. It is impossible to avoid some
unpleasant details if I am to give a truthful im-
pression of the colony, but I have introduced as
few as possible; and the individuals who were
responsible for them will only be recognized by
those who were well aware of the facts before I
narrated them. It is true that in most colonies
there are a few black sheep, who have been shipped
thither by despairing friends and relations, after
having failed to find them any satisfactory position
in England; but the majority of the ruling caste
are energetic men who, failing to find an opening
for their talents in their native land, have pushed
towards that Greater Britain beyond the seas,
where there is still elbow-room for all who want
to work.
The only material difference between society
in British Guiana and Great Britain, is in the
absence of the leisured and literary classes. It is
difficult, if not impossible, to find an idle man in
the colony. Those who have amassed enough
money to enable them to live at ease, take their







LOCAL JOURNALS


flight to healthier climes; and when any worker
feels the necessity for rest, he seeks it in a sea
voyage and change of scene. The absence of all
artistic and literary society might by some be
deemed a drawback.
During my stay in the colony, it was my good
fortune to meet many highly educated men, clas-
sical and mathematical scholars, men of great
erudition, botanists, zoologists, and the learned in
other lines-not a few were well known in the
world of letters-but still they were in a very
small minority, and, unlike leaven, they had no
influence upon the general lump. When we turn
to art, it must be confessed that we were singularly
wanting. A few there were who tried to arouse
some feeling for the true and the beautiful in art
and nature, but the seed fell on barren ground
and produced no fruit. But young and vigorous
communities are too much occupied in providing
for the necessities of life to have time for art
studies, which must be sought amongst old and
somewhat decaying civilizations. In one respect
the colony was singularly fortunate, in the pos-
session of an independent and well-conducted
press. The newspapers published in the colony,
although few in number, were excellent in material,
and will compare favourably with the journals of
much larger and more influential communities. I
would especially mention The Argosy, a weekly
newspaper, owned, edited, and published by my
friend Mr. James Thomson, which is by far the
highest class newspaper published in the West







10 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

Indies, and which owes its inception and pros-
perity to the individual exertions of its owner.
I have had occasion, in writing these Reminis-
cences, to refer frequently to the old files of The
Argosy, from which I have refreshed my memory
as to several occurrences, and to which I am in-
debted for some amusing anecdotes illustrating
my remarks on men and things.
This is not a guide book, and Georgetown is
now so well known, that any one curious on the
subject can find a description of the place in
various books of travel. Perhaps the best and
most humorous account of the colony and its
capital is to be found in Anthony Trollope's
"West Indies and Spanish Main." Boddam-
Whetham, in his Roraima book, gives an accurate
and well-painted sketch of the city. But I think
no one has yet given a true word-painting which
can convey to the reader any idea of the excessive
brightness of the place, caused by the width of
the streets, the red roads, numerous fine white
buildings and churches, the wealth of foliage and
flower everywhere conspicuous,-all lit up with an
intense equatorial sunshine.
The city is embowered in trees: its aspect
from the top of the lighthouse is of a sea of palms,
out of which rise at intervals towers, spires, and
campanile. For a great part of the year, the
flamboyant trees make your eyes ache with the
gorgeousness of their scarlet flowers, whilst in
September and October the long-johns break
the sky line with their rich cream-coloured plumes,







MONOTONY OF LIFE


changing week by week to a real burnt sienna.
The brilliancy of the flowers is rivalled by the
gay scarlets, yellows, and greens, which clothe
the limbs of the delicate Hindoos and stalwart
negresses perambulating the streets. One of the
greatest drawbacks to the colony as a residence,
is the monotony of existence within its borders.
There is no winter, nor autumn, nor spring-it is
one perpetual summer. One day is like another,
except that some days it rains and on others it
does not, and for a few months the weather is
hotter and more unpleasant than usual. There
is never a cold breeze, no gales, no hurricanes;
the earthquakes are insignificant; the thunder-
storms on the coast infrequent and inoffensive.
The food is always the same; the same tough,
insipid meat and sodden vegetables; lean fowls
and tasteless fish; oranges, pine apples, and
bananas, all the year round; mangoes for six
months; sapodillas and star-apples are almost
always with us. It is this sameness of food which
makes us so greedy when we go home. How you
revel in the variety of fish, flesh, and fowl, the
tender spring vegetables, the luscious strawberries,
the fruit tart with cream! oh heavens!, how
delicious they were It were worth several years
of exile to experience the joy of quaffing a
draught of English beer, and the sitting down
to the fried sole and delicious bread and butter
of an English breakfast.
The three colonies of Essequibo, Berbice, and
Demerara were amalgamated into one Government,








12 TWENTY-FIVE YEABBS IN BRITISH GUIANA

under the name of British Guiana, in 1831,
and Major-General Sir Benjamin Durban was
appointed, by that excellent monarch King
William IV., to be the first Governor and Com-
mander-in-chief in and over the colony of British
Guiana, Vice-Admiral and Ordinary of the same.
These territories, which had been conquered from
the Dutch, returned to them at the Peace of
Amiens, reconquered and retained in the sub-
sequent wars, lie in the equatorial belt of South
America, and form part of the great territory of
Guyana. The other divisions of this region belong
to the Venezuelans, the Dutch, and the French,
and are called respectively Guyana, Surinam, and
Cayenne. Surinam once belonged to us, but we
exchanged it with the Dutch for the flourishing
settlement of New York. By this bargain we
thought we had done Mynheer in the eye, but it
turned out otherwise, as the Dutch still possess
Surinam, whilst we have lost New York. It is a
curious fact that when the Spaniards first dis-
covered Guyana they named two rivers falling
into the Atlantio Dessequibo and Di Mirari; one
of these rivers has lost the D, and the other has
retained it, so they have become Essequibo and
Demerary. I give these geographical facts,
because the position of British Guiana on the
map of the world is generally unknown in English
society. During my several furloughs, when I
have visited my native land, I have been con-
gratulated by my acquaintances on looking so
well, despite the climate of Africa, which they







TRAVELLERS' STORIES


understood was so insalubrious: and when I told
one friend, a vicar of the Anglican Church, that
I had been some time in Demerara, he astonished
me by saying that he had always been informed
that Demerara was the richest island in the
Caribbean Sea. It was no use asserting that
Guiana was not in Africa, and that Demerara was
not an island, so I gave it up, and accepted
meekly my insular and African position. But why
should we scoff at these good people for their
ignorance, when an Under-Secretary of State in
the House of Commons gravely asserted that
Demerara was an island, and none of his hearers
in that august assembly could venture offhand to
contradict him. Since writing the above, the
dispute with Venezuela and the United States
over the boundary question, and the establishment
of gold mines in the north-west district, have made
the colony better known in Europe.
It is difficult for us poor travellers to do or
say what is right; stay-at-home people always
know so much more about the countries we have
visited than we do. I remember once indulging
in some yarns which were swallowed greedily by
my audience, until I asserted that in Berbice I
had seen muscovy ducks, which weighed from six
to eight pounds each, and which roosted and built
their nests in trees, which statement was received
with howls of incredulity and derision; whereas
it is quite true, and more credible than several
travellers' stories with which I had regaled them.
It was the old story over again of the flying fish







14 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

and Pharaoh's chariot wheels. Give a dog a bad
name and you may as well hang him. Certainly
this is true of British Guiana. When one men-
tions Demerara in England, we are gravely in-
formed that it is impossible for a white man to
live there for a year; and when I assert that
I have lived there off and on for twenty-five
years, I am regarded as an accomplished liar.
This bad name was acquired in the earlier part
of the century, when white troops were sent to
the colony from Halifax and other cold stations,
when they died in great numbers from yellow
fever and strong rum. The sanitary arrangements
of the barracks were defective, in fact, were con-
spicuous by their absence, the men were grossly
overcrowded, and the natural results followed.
There have also been many cases where young
men coming from England, who neglect the most
ordinary precautions for the preservation of health
in a tropical country, have died after a few weeks'
residence, and the news of this, when carried
home, has confirmed the prejudice against the
colony. An English barrister, who had been
appointed as a stipendiary magistrate in the
colony, was introduced to me, and he asked me
whether the climate was as fatal as he had been
told in England. I said, No; your life is quite
safe if you avoid three or four things. The heat
and moisture of the climate produce profuse
perspirations, so be careful never to sit down
and go to sleep in your damp clothes; don't
expose yourself to the sun, and for some time be







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['To face p. 14.







CLIMATE


careful not to exhaust yourself by over-exertion."
What was the result ? A fortnight afterwards he
rode a mule round an estate in the hot sun, then
played several sets of lawn tennis; drove home in
his wet clothes; on arrival, feeling exhausted, he
threw himself into a hammock in the open gallery,
with a cool sea-breeze blowing upon him; fell
asleep; awoke up at midnight in a roasting fever;
was dead in forty-eight hours, and buried in ten
more. This was not an isolated case; I have
known the same thing happen over and over
again. What man in England, who is in his
senses, would go to sleep in his wet clothes after
hunting or shooting? Yet people in Demerara
do what they would never dream of doing in
England, and then, when they get ill, they abuse
the climate.
There is one dreadful consequence of the
climate which strikes every one, i.e. the necessity
for almost immediate burial after death. No
corpse can be retained in a house more than
twenty hours, and, when the cause of death has
been yellow fever, almost immediate burial is
necessary. I have known cases where dissolution
absolutely began before death, when the ex-
tremities were black before the breath was out
of the body. In many cases it has been found
necessary to wrap the body immediately after
death in a cotton sheet soaked in carbolic acid,
prepared beforehand, and thrust it into a coffin,
and screw it down at once. When Mr. G. died
suddenly one Sunday afternoon, under somewhat







16 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

suspicious circumstances, although I held an
inquest a few hours after death, his body was
actually melting away from his bones. The doctor
I had summoned refused to make a post-mortem
examination, as the body was too much decayed;
the jury held their nostrils as they viewed the
body, and we had to adjourn to another house to
finish the investigation.
It adds another terror to death when you stand
by the grave hearing the solemn Burial Service of
the Church read over the remains of one with
whom you had been drinking and laughing forty-
eight hours before. Still it is wonderful how
callous one becomes. I can remember how, in
1882, I slept at the hotel, having a dead man in
the room on one side of me, and a dying one on
the other. Tropical hotels are not like English
ones-everything is open for coolness, so that
almost every sound can be heard from one room
to another. The dead man, poor fellow, was quiet
enough, but poor Blair's groans disturbed, me
sometimes in the night, and I went into his room
two or three times to see if I could be of any use
to him; but nothing availed, and he was dead
before breakfast in the morning. One curious thing
about yellow fever is that there is often a sort of
rally after the beginning of the attack, when the
patient feels quite strong, and insists upon getting
up and going out. I remember one young man
who had the fever was reported to be very ill.
I went to inquire about him, and, to my astonish-
ment, I was told that he had gone out. Feeling








YELLOW FEVER


better, he had got out of bed, dressed, and started
off to walk to the sea-wall and back, a distance
of about two miles. He returned in a state of
exhaustion, and was dead twenty-four hours after-
wards. Young Miles got out of his bed and wrote
a letter to his mother, telling her that she would
be sorry to hear that he was going to die-which
he did, poor boy, a few hours afterwards.
I was Sheriff of Essequibo at the beginning of
the epidemic of 1881, and many young men and
maidens were sent down thither to be out of
Georgetown, where the fever was most prevalent.
So we were very lively on the coast, and had some
pleasant picnics and dances. I recall vividly one
picnic on the sandhills behind Johanna Cecilia.
Young Tengely was one of us-a bright young
fellow, who was amusing us with songs, accom-
panying himself on the banjo. As we were ex-
changing farewells after the picnic, Tengely said
to me, "I must say good-bye to you, Sheriff, as
I am off to town to-morrow." I urged him not
to go, as the fever was still serious in town; but
he said he must go, there was no danger, he was
not afraid. Within a week he was dead and
buried.
Some people who went up to Georgetown
brought the fever down with them to the coast.
I remember a poor young Scotchman, an overseer
at Plantation Reliance, who was down with yellow
fever. I went over to see him with the manager
of the estate and the district medical officer. The
doctor was at his wits' end; the fever was so high
C








18 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

that the patient's skin seemed absolutely to burn
your fingers as you touched him. We soaked
sheets in water and sprinkled them with lime-
juice, and rolled him up in them; but they were
dry and hard almost as soon as put on, the heat
of his body was so great. All our efforts were
unavailing, and he died in a few hours.
Many of the victims of yellow fever turn quite
dark after death, others a bright orange. I never
shall forget my horror when I called to inquire
after the health of a bright, blue-eyed, flaxen-
haired child, of about eleven years of age, who
was down with fever. Her father came to the
door, and, as I asked after the child, he said,
" Come here." I followed him upstairs into his
daughter's room, and there was the poor child
lying dead, her hair cut off, her limbs and face
black and discoloured. She had died only an
hour before.
But don't let any of my readers go away with
the impression, because such horrors as I have
described occasionally take place, that British
Guiana is a white man's grave. Far from it. It
is true that epidemics of yellow fever occur at
long intervals, and that there are always a few
sporadic cases in the colony; nor can it be denied
that malarial fever prevails to a very serious
extent, which, after several attacks, may prove
fatal. But, on the other hand, the fatal fevers
of Europe-typhoid, typhus, and scarlet-are
almost unknown. I have never known a case of
small-pox or diphtheria during my residence there.








FUNERALS


The prevailing causes of death are heart disease
in every form, phthisis and pneumonia, diseases
of the liver and kidneys, and of course fevers,
malarial and bilious. During twenty-five years'
service in the colony I have only once been
seriously ill, and have always at other times
enjoyed excellent health.
In the old days, when white men were few and
generally without kith or kin in the country, a
funeral was always attended by all the white
population, who saw their brother colonist decently
and honourably buried. When the necessity for
this attendance had ceased, the custom still
continued, and now, when any one well known in
society dies, a notice is sent round and all the
world goes to the funeral. I have counted a
hundred private carriages in a funeral cort6ge.
Funerals take place at 8 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. If
you die before 4 p.m. on Wednesday, your funeral
will be at 8 a.h. on Thursday. If you expire after
4 p.m. on Thursday, your funeral will be at 4.30
p.m. the next day, unless, as very often happens,
a medical man, for sanitary reasons, considers
that the funeral should take place earlier.
It used to be the custom to send round funeral
notices to all the acquaintances of the deceased.
These printed circulars, edged with black, were
headed "Memento Mori," and were derived from
the Dutch, who called them Doed Briefen."
Owing to the low-lying land, burials are some-
times attended with difficulty. When graves are
dug they frequently become full of water, and







20 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

I have known cases where funerals were delayed
owing to the necessity of bailing out the water.
In the cemetery of Le Repentir, which is the
principal burying-place for Georgetown, most of
the coffins are placed in a shallow hole, barely
a foot deep, and are then built over with bricks
and mortar, and covered with cemented concrete.
The heat and rain frequently crack this covering
in a short time, and I have seen coffins exposed
to view of persons who have only been buried
a few months before.
Cremation is much needed in the colony; in
fact, there is no place where, for sanitary reasons,
it ought to be more enforced. The present system
of burial is most detrimental to health in all coun-
tries, but in Demerara it is absolutely suicidal. It
is, however, a remarkable fact that all vestiges of
the dead are wanting in a few years. In the old
Bourda cemetery are many family vaults in
which no one is now allowed to be buried without
special permission from the Town Council. I have
known two instances where such burials took place
when I was present. When the vaults were
opened, in one case the inside was absolutely
empty, although a person had been buried there
within the memory of many persons then present;
in the other, which had held two coffins, two or
three well-polished bones were in one corner and
nothing else. Damp, ants, rats, and land crabs
must be accountable for the disappearance of
body, coffin, and everything, not even the metal
fittings of the coffins being found.







LEPERS


Another dreadful and disgusting feature in
West Indian life is in the number of lepers which
exist. Despite the dictum of the College of
Physicians, we, who have lived with lepers in
our midst, are fully satisfied that leprosy is
contagious under certain circumstances; so efforts
are made in a perfunctory way by the Government
to isolate the lepers from the rest of the com-
munity. But the laws on the subject are very
insufficiently carried out; numbers of lepers are
seen abroad in the streets; and, although there
are leper asylums for men and women, they are
not prevented from strolling into the neighboring
roads and villages. Nothing can exceed the
horror caused by a visit to these asylums: I
used to feel sick for days afterwards. In old
days, the lepers were isolated and kept on an
island in the Massaruni River called Kaow Island,
below the penal settlement, where they were
attended by the surgeon of that institution.
Divine service was held every Sunday on the
island in a small church provided for the purpose,
the chaplain of the settlement being the officiating
priest. For some reason or another it was decided
to move the lepers to the main land, and a party
of police were sent up to see to their deportation
and to destroy their settlement, to prevent people
from squatting there and so becoming infected
with leprosy. I accompanied the Inspector of
police who commanded the detachment, and felt
as if I were committing sacrilege when I helped
to set fire to the building, where for so many years







22 TWENTY-FIVE YEABS IN BBITISH GUIANA

the services and the sacraments of the Church
had been held and administered.
Perhaps there is no country in the world which,
for its size and population, has so many hospitals
as British Guiana. Besides large public hospitals
in each of the three counties of Essequibo,
Demerara, and Berbice, there is a hospital on
every sugar estate (about a hundred in number),
each making up from twenty-five to one hundred
beds, according to the size of the plantation and
the number of Indian immigrants indentured
to the estate. Each hospital is placed under a
qualified dispenser and nurses, and is visited
three or four times a week by the district medical
officer.
The colonial hospital in Georgetown is one of
the largest in the colonies, making up as it does
more than eight hundred beds. The deaths, alas I
are also very numerous. I have been in the
mortuary when there were five corpses awaiting
interment, and we had to turn them all over and
examine them so as to identify one over which I
thought it necessary to hold an inquest.















































LEPERS' HUT, KAOW ISLAND, EBSEQUIBO RIVER.


[To face p. 22.


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( 23 )


CHAPTER II.
A thirsty country-Swizzles-Georgetown Club-Visits of the fleet-
Swizzleiana-Pepper-pot-Miss Gerty's kitten-Planters-Mr. Henry
Clementson-His burglary-Medical Service-Old-time doctors-
The Bar-Dick Whitfield-Lynch-Samuel T. Fitz-Herbert-Maca-
ronic verses-Church endowments-Cake walks-Rally of the tribes
-Ladies in British Guiana-Sexual relations-Establishments-
Children of the poor-Quasi-slavery-Roman Dutch law-Emanci-
pation of women-Tigress of Tiger Bay-Tim Sugar-Assaulting the
sheriff.

THERE is great truth in the soldier's remark that
Demerara was a rare place where there's lots of
drink, and you're always 'a dry." The perpetual
state of perspiration in which one lives in the
colony creates a perpetual thirst, and I know no
place where drinking is carried out on more scien-
tific principles. The drink, sui generis, of the
country is the swizzle. This subtle and delicious
compound is-sometimes ignominiously confounded
with the cocktail, but though related, they are not
identical. The cocktail is a stronger, shorter, and
less sophisticated drink than the swizzle; there
is no disguise about it; you know you are drinking
something hot and strong, thinly disguised by the
ice which cools without quenching its potency.
But in the swizzle the potency is so skilfully







24 TWENTY-FIVE YEABS IN BRITISH GUIANA

veiled that the unsuspecting imbiber never dis-
covers he is taking anything stronger than milk,
until he finds that his head is going round, and
that the road seems to be rising up and trying to
slap him in the face.
The ingredients of a swizzle are simple enough;
a small glass of hollands, ditto of water, half a
teaspoonful of Augostura bitters, a small quantity
of syrup or powdered white sugar, with crushed
ice ad libitum; this concoction is whipped up by
a swizzle-stick twirled rapidly between the palms
of the hands until the ice is melted, and the liquid
is like foaming pink cream, to be swallowed at one
draught and repeated quantum suff. This seems
simple enough, but it is only one person in a
hundred who can make a perfect swizzle; there
must be a purity in the materials, an exactitude
in the proportions, and a faculty for handling the
swizzle-stick, which can only be acquired by long
study and devoted attention.
The swizzle-stick is cut in the forests from a
small bush, which grows so that the shoots all
radiate from a common centre; so that when cut
and trimmed to a proper length, you have a stick
about fourteen inches long, as thick as a pen-
handle, with four or five short spurs about an inch
long radiating from the end. These shrubs gene-
rally grow in sandy places, and are numerous
enough, as an old colonist remarked one day when
he and I were cutting swizzle-sticks, See how
good Providence is to provide us with swizzle-
sticks in this thirsty country!" Whisky or








GEOBGETOWN CLUB


brandy may be used instead of hollands for
swizzles, according to the taste of the drinker. A
swizzle is generally taken before breakfast and
dinner; but pray remember that we get up at six
o'clock, and work hard till ten, when we breakfast,
and it is really not only a pleasant but a whole-
some beverage. In Georgetown the sound of the
swizzle-stick is heard all day; it is one of the
common objects of the country, like those plagues
the frogs and mosquitoes. There is no wrong
without a remedy, and the soothing swizzle makes
you forget the one and despise the other. The
Georgetown Club is the headquarters of the perfect
swizzle. This club, which was founded in 1858,
has obtained a world-wide renown for hospitality
and good cheer. There is an unwritten law in
the club that no one shall drink alone, so the
unwary stranger, who is admitted within its sacred
portals, finds himself invited to drink by thirty or
forty gentlemen on hospitality intent, and not
wishing to appear rude and disobliging by refusing,
finds himself by eventide very much mixed, and
wondering how he is to find his way to his
virtuous couch. Always hospitable to strangers,
the Georgetown Club puts forth its full force when
the colony is honoured by a visit from some of the
ships of Her Majesty's navy. All the officers of
the fleet are made honorary members; all their
drinks are paid for; luncheons and dinners are
provided for them; they can play billiards and
cards all day and night free of charge. It is a
perfect heaven for midshipmen and lieutenants.








26 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

In fact, the whole colony goes mad when the fleet
visits its shores, and spends money recklessly in
balls and fetes, so that it becomes necessary to
send round a picket of police every night to pull
the midshipmen out of the canals which bisect
all the streets. The big ships could never come
nearer than fifteen miles from the city owing to
the shoal-water, so that the naval officers were
not able to show much return for our hospitality;
but that was not what we wanted; we were only
too glad to see them. However, the officers felt
otherwise, and a handsome chiming-clock and a
great silver punch-bowl, now in the Georgetown
Club, testify to the gratitude of the sailors who,
at different times, have enjoyed our welcome.
The swizzle has inspired our local poets to
celebrate its fame in doggerel verse. One gentle-
man invokes his favourite drink as a goddess under
the name of Swizzleiana:-
"When the rosy morn is breaking
And the moon pales in the west,
Then I call for thee, my darling,
Waiting, longing to be blest.
Swizzleiana! bewitching maiden I
Let me kiss thy rosy lips.
"When the noontide heat is glowing,
And I dally in the shade,
Then to calm my pulses throbbing,
Sweet! I call thee to mine aid.
Swizzleiana I bewitching maiden I
Cool my burning lips with thine.
When the sun is quickly sinking,
And the toil of life is o'er,
Then I hear thy gentle sighing,
And I call for thee once more.









SWIZZLEIANA


Swizzleiana bewitching maiden I
Quench my troubles with thy kiss.

"Rosy, sweet, and cool and creaming,
Who with thee can e'er compare?
Eve, and noon, and dewy morning
Thou must come to me, my fair.
Swizzleiana! bewitching maiden!
Let me ever call thee mine "
H.K.

My old friend Benson Maxwell, a son of the
Sir Benson Maxwell, Chief Justice of the Straits
Settlements, had evidently read Longfellow, for
he published a parody on a well-known poem,
as follows :-

"I know a mixture fair to see-
Take care !
It can both sweet and bitter be-
Beware beware!
Trust it not.
It is fooling thee.

"It has two blends of great renown-
Take care I
It gives new life as it goes down-
Beware etc.

"It has a crown of pearly hue-
Take care I
It looks a tempting, harmless brew-
Beware! etc.

"It has a charm to lull your pain-
Take care I
It bids you come, and come again-
BewareI etc.

It gives a fillip of delight-
Take care!
It has a power to make you tight-
Beware I" etc., etc.








28 TWENTY-FIVE YEABB IN BRITISH GUTANA

What the swizzle is to the drinking world, the
pepper-pot is to The eating. This renowned dish
is not so generally used as was formerly the case,
but it is still respected in odd nooks and corners of
the colony, where it is kept going from year to
year without ever once getting empty; meat of
any kind being added to it day by day, cassareep
as required, and peppers and black sugar according
to taste. In one country household, not long ago,
a particular pepper-pot was never absent from the
breakfast-table, and the host prided himself on its
antiquity, which was frequently the theme of con-
versation when an honoured guest was being
entertained. One day he was explaining to an
English traveller that it was the only really cha-
racteristic dish in the colony; it was like the
pot-au-feu in France; it was the curry of the
West Indies; it was the receptacle of every kind
of meat, wild and tame, even to monkeys. And,
I assure you," he said, "they are splendid in the
pot-as good as labba. In fact, it is the house-
keeper's blessing, and always a change at the
breakfast-table, for you don't know what the spoon
will bring up, wild or tame, ox or pig. For
instance, what is this ? "
Here the host.placed on his plate an unshapely,
bedraggled-looking mass, which he, with all his
experience of the pepper-pot, could not classify.
"John" (to the butler), what is this ? "
John looked at it for a moment, and then
exclaimed-
"Well done! Sah, if that ain't Miss Gerty's













































FRUIT GIRL. CREOLE OF SUBIKAM.







PLANTERS


kitten It must have fallen in and drowded; and
Miss Gerty and the missy blaming me because he
didn't dey. Oh, me lard, sah, I is well glad
that kitten is found at las !"
The number of white persons in the colony was
very small in comparison with the rest of the
population, numbering only about sixteen thousand,
three-fourths of whom were Portuguese from
Madeira and the Azores. Children born in the
colony of white parents are called Creoles; but
the name Creole is, in common parlance, indis-
criminately and incorrectly used for all colony bred
persons and animals. Black and coloured children
are called Creoles, and we hear of Creole horses
and Creole sheep.
Thirty years ago the planters were the great
men in the colony; they were autocrats on their
own estates, and for miles around; they were
J.P.'s, and sat on the bench with the judge at the
Inferior Criminal Courts; they were described in
the Official Gazette as "gentlemen in charge of
sugar estates," and, to Sir Henry des Voeux's
indignation, they took precedence of stipendiary
magistrates; storekeepers bowed down before them,
and bankers did them reverence. But that was all
changed before I left the colony-the old style of
manager had disappeared. Most of the old planters
were men of grand physique and great strength of
character, with much ability and perseverance,
but they were ill-educated and prejudiced, rough-
mannered men who had been nurtured in the evil
days of slavery. Some of the younger generation







30 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

were still powers in the land when I first went out,
and several of them were good friends of mine.
Mr. Edmund Field, of plantation Great Diamond,
brother of Lord Justice Field; the Honourable
William Russell, the "Sugar King," as he was
called; and Mr. A. C. Macalman, were men of
superior intelligence and social standing. One
old planter, Mr. Henry Clementson, proprietor of
Cuming's Lodge, was an eccentric man. I often
went to his estate to spend Sunday with him. One
afternoon we were smoking in his gallery, when we
saw a waggon with a runaway horse dash along the
road and upset just in front of Clementson's drive;
one of its occupants was thrown out with violence,
and lay on his back without moving. I started up,
and was hurrying to his assistance, when Clement-
son called out, "Where are you going?" "To
help that poor man; he may be killed." Then
what the devil does he mean by coming and
dying on my road l" At one time Clementson
kept a store in Water Street, Georgetown; and,
as the fashion then was, he slept over his shop.
One night he was awakened by a noise in his
room, and, looking up, he saw a black man, almost
naked, turning over the things on his dressing-
table and opening his drawers. Clementson noise-
lessly slipped out of bed and made for the thief,
who, hearing a sound, turned round, and seeing
Clementson, who was a big man, and looked his
biggest in his loose pyjamas, coming towards him,
made for the door; but Clementson was too quick
for him, and, as the thief passed into the landing,








MEDICAL BER VICE


jumped upon his back, and, putting his arms tight
round his neck, was carried by the man headlong
down the staircase into the street, where he
tumbled, sprawling and yelling, into the gutter,
Clementson still riding him like the old man of
the sea.
The police were attracted to the spot by the
noise, and the burglar was safely lodged in gaol.
He was tried at the next sessions, and was sen-
tenced to penal servitude at Massaruni for five
years. About four years or so afterwards Cle-
mentson was sitting in his counting-house, when
a big, burly nigger came in grinning and touching
his wool. "Well," said Clementson, "what do
you want ?" "You no know me, sah ?" "No,
I don't." "Hi! me Gad I and yourself de same
gentleman me carry on me back down into do
street, and yourself too heavy for true." "Oh,
it's you, you villain, is it ?" shouted Clementson.
" Get out of this at once." Hi, Massa Clement-
son, gie me bit o' work now." But Clementson
refused to have anything to do with him, so he
went away grumbling at the ingratitude of
mankind.
Of professional men the doctors were the most
numerous, as might be expected. British Guiana
is an ideal country for medical men. According
to the Blue Book for 1895, which is lying before
me, there were forty-six medical men in the
Government service, one of whom drew 1100 as
pay; another, 1000; eleven received 900; five,
800; seven, 700; six, 525; six, 500; two,








32 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

450; two, 425; two, 400; and three, 300 per
annum. And all whose salaries were under 900
received every year an increment to their salary
of 25 until they reached that desirable result.
In addition, each district medical officer drew
100 a year travelling allowance, and enjoyed
private practice, which was, in some cases, very
lucrative. In Georgetown one well-known and
popular medico has for many years made more
than 3000 per annum in addition to his official
pay. There were also about half a dozen medical
men who were not in the Government service,
so I think we were well provided with medical
attendance, considering that the whole population
of the colony was only about 280,000 souls.
But although we may grumble at the cost, it
must be confessed that the service is a credit to
the Colony, and the members of it are, with few
exceptions, highly trained, competent men. The
old type of doctors has quite died out, the believer
in calomel and quinine-the old twenty and twenty-
four dose, as it was called. I heard an anecdote
of one of the old-time medicos. A Scotch youth
had yellow fever, and a Scotch doctor was sent
for to prescribe for him.
"I shall dee, I shall dee cried the poor boy.
Dee and be d- d I said the doctor; but
you shall take sixty grains of calomel first."
The Bar in British Guiana, like most colonies,
was composed of a very mixed lot of men. There
were white, black, and coloured; some old Oxford
or Cambridge men; others the grandsons of old








BARRISTERS-AT-LA W


slaves, who, by perseverance and energy, had
raised themselves to the dignity of esquiress,
barristers-at-law." Several of the barristers were
men who had failed in other pursuits, and, having
the gift of the gab, had been called to the Bar
in England, and returned to make what they could
in the land of their adoption. One of the best
and most amusing of these was. Dick Whitfield,
who had formerly been a dry-goods merchant; but
failing in that interesting occupation, and being a
voluble Irishman, he turned his thoughts to the
law, and after an absence in England of a couple
of years, returned a full-fledged barrister. Dick
was an eloquent man, and would have succeeded
very well at the Bar had he not been addicted
to too much joviality, so that he got rather
muddled in his head, and was sometimes not quite
sure what he was talking about.
On one occasion I was presiding over a trial
in Georgetown where the prisoner was accused
of murder, and, as the custom was, Dick Whitfield
had been assigned as his counsel. The case was
a clear and simple one, and I was rather curious
to hear what the learned counsel could say in
defence. He called no witnesses, but proceeded
to address the jury. May it please your honour,
gentlemen of the jury, when God planted Adam
and Eve in the Garden of Eden, they lived a life of
blissful innocence and happiness. Joy was theirs,
the fruits of the earth were their food, the limpid
streams their only drink; they knew neither care
nor sorrow. But, alas the devil entered in; the








34 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

tempter was there,"-and so on, for some ten
minutes. I interposed, "Really, Mr. Whitfield,
I cannot see what this has to do with the case.
You must come to the point." "I am coming
to the point, your honour." However, he still
went on with his biblical narrative; but when he
had got as far as Noah's Ark, I again interrupted
him. Really, Mr. Whitfield, I cannot allow you
to waste the time of the court in this way. Con-
fine yourself to the case." But it was no use,
he went on rambling over all kinds of subjects,
sacred and profane, until he wound up abruptly
by an impassioned appeal to the jury not to send
the unfortunate man in the dock to a violent
death, drew an affecting picture of the man's
weeping widow and wailing children (there was
no evidence that the prisoner had any children,
and he was being tried for murdering his wife),
and ended by a commonplace peroration, imploring
the jury to remember the sanctity of their oaths
and not condemn an innocent man. All his
eloquence was of no avail. The man was con-
victed, sentenced by me to death, and was hanged
in due course of law.
On another occasion, in the old Court rooms
in the Public Buildings, I was presiding in the
first court, when our proceedings were more or
less interrupted by the great noise which some
one was making in the precincts of the adjoining
court. Marshal," I said, "who is making that
noise? Tell him to be quiet." The marshal
returned, but the noise continued. "Marshal,







DICK WRITFIELD


make that man be quiet-or bring him before me,
and I will commit him." The marshal retired
again, and came back alone. When I glared at
him, he replied with a covert smile, "Please,
your honour, the noise is caused by Mr. Whitfield
addressing the jury in the other court." It was
Dick's burning eloquence that was raising all the
echoes in the old Public Buildings.
Once in Berbice, at the Criminal Sessions,
the Supreme Court was opened with the usual
ceremonies. I was on the Bench; there were two
or three barristers at the Bar, amongst them
Whitfield, who had a very boiled look about his
eyes. A prisoner was arraigned, and, as soon as
the clerk of the court had read the indictment,
Dick arose, and said, "I wish your honour to take
an exception to this indictment." "Very well,
Mr. Whitfield," said I; "now is the time to do
so." Whitfield then began some rambling remarks
which I didn't follow; so, after a few minutes,
I remarked, "I don't follow you, Mr. Whitfield."
I was saying, your honour," and so on, as before.
"I really cannot follow you, Mr. Whitfield."
"Perhaps your honour would allow me to see the
indictment." "Certainly," said I. The document
was handed to him. After gazing at it for some
time, "I beg your honour's pardon," he said,
handing back the parchment to the clerk, "I
thought it was the other man," and sat down
amidst a general tittering in the court. He had
mistaken the case for one in which he was
engaged. During the same session, however,







36 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

Dick scored one off us. He was defending a
prisoner, and one of the principal witnesses for
the defence, who had been examined before the
committing magistrate, and whose deposition was
before me, was never called by Whitfield, and, as
the Attorney-General had expected to extract some
information from this witness in cross-examination,
it was natural and right that, in his reply to the
jury, he should comment upon the fact that this
witness had not been called for the defence. Dick
sat tight and said nothing. When, in my turn, I
proceeded to sum up the case to the jury, I also,
in reviewing the evidence, commented upon the
fact that the principal witness for the defence had
not been called, and remarked that the Attorney-
General's strictures on his absence were well
merited. Then Whitfield arose, "I beg your
honour's pardon for interrupting you, but perhaps
I had better explain why the witness in question
was not called; because he is beyond your
honour's jurisdiction-he is dead." And he sat
down with a placid smile on his countenance,
which was reflected in the faces of the jury.
Another time when I was sitting in Chambers
in the first week in the year and proceeding to
transact business, Whitfield burst into the room,
and seizing one of my hands, exclaimed, "A happy
new year to your honour God bless you! Don't
you wish we were all back in old England." Judge
and Bar were much astonished at this outburst.
Mr. Lynch, the elder, was a barrister, who for
many years filled a large space in the eye of the








SAMUEL T. FITZ-HERBERT


public, both literally and metaphorically. He was
a large and powerful negro with a soft voice and
pleasant manners. He was very successful in
defending prisoners, and was an adept at bullying
witnesses and extorting admissions in good Old
Bailey style. The late Mr. William Russell once
described him as "a good shovelman spoiled,"
which came to Lynch's ears, and which he never
forgot. Once Russell had a lawsuit, and his
adversary having briefed the leading members of
the Bar, Russell was advised to go to Lynch.
When Russell went to that gentleman's office and
explained his errand, he was met with the remark,
"So you have been compelled to come to the
spoiled shovelman after all."
In 1872 Mr. J. Trounsell Gilbert was Attorney-
General of the colony. Mr. William Haynes
Smith (afterwards Sir W. Haynes Smith, K.C.M.G.,
Governor of the Leeward Islands) was Solicitor-
General. Mr. Gilbert soon afterwards died, when
Mr. Smith became Attorney-General, and Mr.
Atkinson (the present Mr. Justice Atkinson)
Solicitor-General. My greatest chum at that time
was Samuel T. Fitz-Herbert, a Cambridge graduate,
and a barrister who was practising in Georgetown.
He was a bright, clever little man, fond of his
rubber, game of billiards, and cheery glass. He
was a gentleman, and at that time the manners
and customs of the Bar in Georgetown were not to
his taste. Touting and all kinds of unprofessional
conduct were rampant, and he could not descend
to such practices; so he found himself somewhat









38 TWENTY-FIVE YEABS IN BRITISH GUIANA

isolated, and the ground cut from under his feet.
He did not stay long in -the colony, but exchanged
it for the more congenial soil of New Zealand,
where he married and prospered. Fitz-Herbert
had a great facility for writing verses, humorous
or macaronic, parodies, and such like. When we
were separated, I used to receive from him comical
letters in rhyme, one or two of which are worth
repeating. For example, take the following
sapphics, parody of the celebrated needy knife-
grinder of Canning and Frere:-
"Lazy H. Kirke, whatever are you doing ?
Why are you not here, toiling at the great work,
Which shall exalt its editors as heroes
Of immigration ?
"Say, does the fragrant weed nicotiana,
Stowed in a shapely calumet of meerschaum,
Not without Bass his amber-beaded nectar,
Woo thee to leisure?
"No such excuse have you, you lazy beggar,
Saving that mentioned in the second stanza;
Snug in armchair methinks I see thee lying,
Lazily dreaming.
"Are you at leisure meditating coolie
Cases, which may be brought before your washup
When on next Monday you sit as a great sti-
pendiary Justice?
"Hang round the doorway Asiatic suitors;
Lie on the table summonses neglected;
Flutter notes not decipherable by your
Own coadjutor.
"Lazy, unfeeling, swizzle-loving justice!
Shameless, work-shrinking, putter-off of duty,
I have a crow to pick with you, your washup,
Over a cocktail.


S. T. F.


" May, 1873."









PARODIES 39

There is a genuine ring about these verses.
Another amusing parody was sent to me from
Suddie, whither Fitz-Herbert had gone to defend
a prisoner at the Essequibo Criminal Sessions:-

From Suddie's sea-washed station,
Aurora's sandy plain,
Where growth each plantation,
Th' almighty sugar-cane:
Down Essequibo river,
By water, mule and mail,
Come jurors to deliver
The prisoners from the jail.

What though with misplaced kindness,
The Governor allows
The coolie in his blindness
To chop his erring spouse:
What though the daring nigger
Still steals the straying goat,
Yet still we'll make him bigger
In light grey prison coat.

"In vain with native rudeness
Both Carbery and Lynch,
And Atkinson, with shrewdness,
Would make the jurors flinch.
Shall we who clothe in linen
And wash ourselves with soap,
Shall we to coolies sinning
Deny the hempen rope ?

"Assizes oh, Assizes I
The awful sound proclaim I
Till coolies and their wiveses
Shall tremble at its name.
Tell, telegraph, the story,
The credit and renown,
Till spreads the jurors' glory
From Suddie to Georgetown;

"Till o'er the peaceful native
A blessed quiet reigns,









40 TWENTY-FIVE YEABS IN BRITISH GUIANA

Till he's a thing creative
Of sugar from the canes.
Till happy immigration
Be freed from every toil,
And minus legislation,
Each vacuum pan shall boil."

Hec tibi mittebam calamo current magister.
Fausta satis sedes ipse magis Valeo.
Me tamen expects aderit quum tertia Luna;
Nil mihi rescribas sum rediturus enim."

I was living at the Thomas House, near
Georgetown, and the night before the Durban
race meeting I had asked Fitz-Herbert to dine
with me. He was unfortunately laid up with a
small wound caused by some poisonous insect, and
Dr. Cameron would not allow him to walk. So
he sent me the following absurd verses:-

Damuate notes, multo damnatius iste
Kwcvros penne mussat in aure sons.
Heu! Thomasina domus quam long est semita, quantum
Vulneris inviti per mea membra dabas !
Testator Cameron per honorem Pharmacopolae
Ut nimis hesterno vespere gressus erim.
In pede vulnus inest, distillat vulnere virus,
Et mea per sellas forma supina cubat.
Necnon crass metuo ludos ut cernere possim
Quum quatitur sonitu quadrupedante solum.
TrAa9et p ipuam, nam sic cecinere poetce
Si tu faustus eris quod tibi sunt numeri?
In festus sperat vice verst et ccetera (Flaccus).
Sic veteri calamo vIcwro7 editor,
Sic inter risus sic inter pocula Bassi,
Haec temera e thalamo carmina condiderim.
At Carolus (sacer iste puer) mihi nuntiat Indos
Usum grandiloque legis habere mece.
Jamque Vale I feror umbrella circumdatus albt.
Sacra tibi et sponse proxima pocula erunt.
Ant. XV. Kal. Ap. et pridie ludos Romanos.







THE WHALE'S BELLY


I remember on one occasion trying a case in
the Supreme Court (limited jurisdiction) in which
the defendant was called Jonas. The learned
barrister, who appeared for him, had an unfortunate
habit of bullying his own witnesses, if they did
not say exactly what he wanted them to say; so
he used to attack them with, My dear man, do
attend to me! My good fellow, if you cannot
speak up I must abandon your case!" That was
not what you told me in my chambers," etc. In
this case, as the defendant Jonas was rather
obscure in his answers, counsel became exasperated,
and shouted out, My good man Jonas, do come
out of that whale's belly of yours, and answer the
questions properly!" This was too much both
for the court and Jonas-the former became
hilarious, and the latter irascible.
There being no circuits nor benchers in the
colony, practices which would be looked upon with
abhorrence by English barristers were continu-
ally common amongst members of the local Bar.
Advertising and touting were not unknown. Any
fees were accepted. One coloured barrister is said
to have defended a prisoner before a magistrate, his
honorarium being a box of sardines. This may be
an exaggeration, but I know that two dollars were
often accepted as a fee in such cases. There
was little or no distinction between barrister and
solicitor, except that barristers and advocates had
the sole right of audience in the supreme civil
and criminal courts sitting in their full jurisdic-
tion. There were, however, many lawyers who







42 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

upheld the dignity of their profession, and never
condescended to low practices.
Few things in Great Britain have occasioned
more disputes and jealousies than the rich endow-
ments of the Anglican and Presbyterian Churches.
They have stirred up the bile of all the numerous
Nonconforming sects throughout the country.
Our predecessors in British Guiana were endowed
with wisdom enough to see this; so, to prevent
such squabbles, and to induce the different
religious sects to live in harmony, they, instead
of discountenancing endowment, went into the
other extreme and endowed them all. The
Anglican, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and
Wesleyan Churches were all well endowed by the
State, and even the stubborn Congregationalist is
not too proud to accept an occasional grant from
the Government for his Church and missions.
Churches not receiving State aid are often hard
pressed to find the sinews of war. Theirs is a
hard fight, and their ministers deserve the highest
credit for their efforts to maintain their position
among Christian sects. They are compelled to
consult every sentiment and weakness of their
flocks to attain their ends; jealousy, emulation,
love of dress and display, are all appealed to,
and not in vain. Cake walks, pink teas, "rallies
of the tribes," are resorted to to raise money.
Some of these performances seem childish and
even sometimes ludicrous, but I suppose they
attain their object, and the end justifies the
means.







CARE WALEB


A cake walk is conducted as follows. All the
members of a congregation are invited to subscribe
and take tickets, costing a bitt, or a bitt and a
half, or a shilling each. Several cakes are baked
-cake-making being a specialty amongst the
coloured folk-and on an appointed evening all
the subscribers flock to the chapel or schoolroom
in their best clothes. The organist takes his seat
at the harmonium or piano at the end of the
room, with his back to the guests. The sub-
scribers form a procession, two and two, and we
may be sure that lovers, engaged couples, and
mutual admirers manage to get together. A small
flag is then handed to the leader, the music strikes
up, and the subscribers march round the room in
time, singing as they go; the flag is handed from
one couple to the next at each verse of the hymn
or song, and so travels down the line until the
music suddenly stops, when the couple in whose
possession the flag is found are declared winners
of a cake; and so it goes on till the cakes and
the guests are exhausted.
A "rally of the tribes" is a more complicated
business. There are twelve tribes of Israel, each
commanded by a captain and lieutenant. The
numbers of each tribe are unlimited, and may
consist of as many persons as can be persuaded
to enlist. A card is given to each member for
collecting subscriptions. Bitts, sixpences, and
shillings are collected, which are represented on
the cards by dots, circles, and stars respectively.
The rally is held in the church, and each tribe








44 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

has to hold a stall, decorated with palms and
flowers, for the accommodation of its members.
On the Sunday when the rally is held all the
people assemble at an appointed place, each person
wearing a band with the name and colour of his
tribe, the captains' bands being more conspicuous
than the others. When properly marshalled under
their respective banners, all the tribes march in
procession to the church, singing, Onward, Chris-
tian soldiers," and perambulate the sacred edifice
before entering, after which the usual Sunday
service proceeds, each tribe occupying its own
stall. There are three services in the day, and
after each service four of the tribes report. The
minister calls each tribe by name, which under
its captain marches to the Communion rails. The
captain, in a loud voice, announces that the tribe
of Gad, or whatever tribe it may be, is prepared
to report. "Report, then," replies the minister.
The captain then reads out the subscription col-
lected by his tribe. After the four tribes have
reported, the procession is reformed and marches
out of the church to the rendezvous, and there dis-
perses. The rally is the most successful mode of
raising money; sometimes hundreds of dollars are
collected. As in European countries, the women
are the chief supporters of the ministers, and what
with their rallies, pink teas, jealousy Sundays, cake
walks, Christmas trees, and blue-paper collections,
raise a considerable sum of money annually for
the services of their Church.
I cannot leave this part of my subject without







WOMEN IN BRITISH GUIANA


saying something about the fair sex, the ladies
of British Guiana; but here I feel that I am
treading on delicate ground. The relation between
the sexes in young communities or in slavery-
tainted colonies is not so well regulated as in
older and more advanced civilizations. Mrs.
Grundy did not thrive in British Guiana as in
more temperate climes. Perhaps the damp, warm
climate was relaxing to the moral as well as the
physical fibre of the community. As this book
is not written "for men only," I shall have to
omit many interesting and peculiar incidents of
life in the colony, although I am told that the
New Woman is only too glad to hear and discuss
the most unsavoury sexual details. In the earlier
part of the century there were few white women
in the colony, so it was customary for the managers
of estates, merchants, and other white men, to
have what was called an establishment, presided
over by a black or coloured woman, who looked
after the servants and the comfort of her master
generally.
The offspring of this connection were, as a
rule, kindly treated by their father, who brought
them up, sent them to Scotland or England to be
educated, and of such are most of the coloured
doctors, barristers, etc., whom we have in our
midst. By degrees, as ladies began to accompany
their husbands to the colony, and communication
with England became more frequent and more
rapid, and when men went home to get married,
and a regular English society was forming itself,







46 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

these establishments began to be regarded with
disfavour, and, as the cause of them was removed,
they gradually disappeared. The objection to the
negro taint, the "touch of the tar-brush" as it
is locally called, is not so strong as in America
and some of the West Indian islands. Several
white men have married quadroon women, who
are now holding a high position in local society.
English women seem to stand the climate better
than men. It is true that they lose their roses
and become pale, and some of them suffer from
debility and anemia; but the death rate amongst
them is not half that of men, and they very rarely
succumb to yellow fever. This may be owing to
their more temperate lives, and their freedom from
exposure and fatigue.
With regard to the sexual morality of the lower
classes of the community, it may be gathered from
these pages when I come to deal with the different
races which compose it. The standard is very
low, but outward decency is regarded, and a lady
can walk about the streets of Georgetown at any
hour of the day or night without seeing any of
those external symptoms of vice which disgrace
so many English cities. One of the saddest
features of the colony is the condition of the
children of the poor. There seems to be a spirit
of lawlessness amongst them, an impatience of
control, a thirst for independence and license
which bodes ill for their future and the future of
the colony. The boys are idle and dissolute, the
girls dirty, foul-mouthed, and dishonest. At an








CHILDREN OF THE POOR


age so early as to be almost incredible, many of
the former become thieves, and the latter pros-
titutes. This state of things is owing in a large
degree to the casual connections which are made
between the sexes, the offspring of which are
generally abandoned by the father and neglected
by the mother, so that they either die or grow up
as I have described. The infant mortality in the
colony is frightful, and often called forth the
stringent remarks of the late Dr. Manget when
he was Surgeon-General of the colony. There is
a curious kind of quasi-slavery existing. Every
black and coloured woman in the country, except
the very poorest, has always some girl in her
possession whom she, as she describes it, cares
for;" that is, the child works for her all day,
sweeps, goes errands, and performs all menial
offices, in return for which she gets blows and
curses, no pay, a pittance of food, a cotton frock,
and a pair of drawers, and the bare floor to sleep
upon. These girls have been given up by their
mothers, who found them an incumbrance, or who
were too poor to support them. Of course, when
the unfortunate girls reach the age of thirteen or
fourteen they are sold to some Portuguese shop-
keeper by their mistress, or else, anticipating
matters, they each choose a boy for themselves
and go off with him.
The Roman Dutch Law, which is the common
law of the colony, must be held responsible for
some of the irregular connections entered into
by the more respectable black and coloured








48 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

people. By the subsequent marriage of their
parents, children born before wedlock are legiti-
mized; so many respectable girls become con-
cubines to men and live with them for years,
being wives in all but name, in the hope and
expectation that their keepers will marry them
eventually, and place them and their children in
a legitimate position. Such being the law, the
concubine, so long as she lives with a bachelor,
has a recognized status, and is not an object of
reproach as in other countries.
At a wedding party in Berbice, when the
health of the bride and bridegroom had been
warmly drunk, the fond bridegroom rushed into
a bedroom, brought out a fine two-year-old boy,
placed him on the festal table, and said, "Isn't
he a beauty-our only son, and he is two years
old to-day ?"
In the colony, the women are quite emancipated
and act independently; if one man vexes them or
ill-uses them they leave him and go to another.
The black women are quite as strong as the
men; taking the average, I should say they were
stronger, and quite ready for a fight at any time.
I remember one woman who was called the Tigress
of Tiger Bay (a low locality in the city); she was
a match for any three policemen, and was a terror
to the neighbourhood.
Another woman, who went by the soubriquet of
Tim Sugar, was a rival of Jane Cakebread, as she
had been in prison more than fifty times. When-
ever she was released she always celebrated the








ASSAULTING THE SHERIFF


event by getting drunk, stripping off her clothes,
and in her nudity dancing a wild can-can on the
pavement.
I was once a cause of merriment to my friends
by an adventure which happened to me, and
which was thus described in a local newspaper:-
"ASSAULTING THE SHERIFF.-At the close of the
performance in the Philharmonic Hall, while the
audience were wending homewards, several officers
of the fleet amongst them, a young lady, disposed
to be friendly to the visitors, gave a staid, dignified-
looking swell a ringing slap on a stoutish part of
his body, and called out in complimentary glee,
'Hi here's a real nice fat one.' She thought
she was doing honour to the Queen's navy, but
when the gentleman turned round she found she
had made an awful mistake. The poor frightened,
innocent thing ran off screaming, 'Ow Ow! me
gad me gad I'd tink it was sailor and it am
the Sheriff herself' "








50 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA


CHAPTER III.
Colonel Foster-Foster -"Home "-Coloured gentry-Census paper-
Curious returns-The Zoo in Georgetown-List of animals-German
warship-Learning a new language-Plain vernacular-Amusements
in British Guiana-Racing-D'Urban racecourse-Blood stock-
Georgetown races-Belfield-Cricket-Ted Wright-English teams
-Chinese cricketers-Black players-Dancing-Creole- Congo-
Hindoo-Reminiscences-Officials in British Guiana-X Beke-
Military force-White troops-West Indian Regiment-Soldiers burial-
ground-98th regiment-Withdrawal of troops-Venezuelan raid-
Uman-Capture of the post-Vixen-'Varsity dinner-Mr. James
Crosby-Crosby office-Insect plagues-Cockroaches-Ants-Centi-
pedes-Hardbacks- Marabuntas Electric light-Gas-Beckwith's
hotel.

ONE of the most amusing and interesting men in
the colony was my old friend Colonel Foster-
Foster. A cadet of an old Cumberland house, he
had joined the army, but seeing no chance of
active service, he accepted a commission in the
Austrian cavalry, and with his regiment saw con-
siderable service in Italy and elsewhere. He was
a blood of the old type, and bore on his body the
scars of many wounds received in action or in
duels; the most remarkable one being a red line
six inches long, which showed where an enemy's
sabre had inflicted a serious scalp wound. When
the Crimean War broke out, Foster volunteered







COLONEL FOSTEB-FOSTEB


for service in the English army. Of course red
tape prevented him being employed with the
regulars, but he was placed in command of a body
of Turkish irregulars or Bashi-Bazouks. These
were good fighting material, and Foster soon
brought them into action. After the close of the
war, Foster's fighting days were over; he obtained
a grant of land in Vancouver's Island, and, when
there, commanded a battalion of volunteers or
militia, I forget which. He was subsequently
appointed a stipendiary magistrate in British
Guiana. In the course of his campaigns, he had
gone through very varied experiences; and, like
most old warriors, he was great at spinning yarns.
One of his best stories-and one which it required
several splits to get out of him-was about the
Crime. "When I was in command of part of
the Turkish contingent, the Russians one night
made a furious sortie upon our position. After
some hard fighting we drove them back. As we
were repairing damages, the Duke of Cambridge
rode up with his staff, and called out in a loud
voice, Who commands this detachment?' I
stepped forward, and saluting, said, 'I do, your
royal Highness.' 'Your royal Highness be t-- d,
sir I' cried the duke, leaning forward on his horse,
and grasping me warmly by the hand, Call me
George-call me George I'"
The colonel was a great cook, and very par-
ticular about his food. The cooks in Demerara
have a bad habit of cooking joints of meat early
in the afternoon, and then warming them up again







52 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

just before they are wanted for dinner. This arises
in the main from their ignorance as to the length
of time required to roast or boil any particular
piece of meat. The colonel had a great hatred
of this practice, which he said, and justly, made
the meat sodden and tasteless. One day, when
I was staying with him, he said, about half-past
five o'clock, I have a new Johnny as cook, so we
had better go and see how he is getting on, and
tell him to put the meat to roast; so we stalked
into the kitchen, where we saw the beautiful little
sirloin, on which the colonel's principal hopes for
dinner rested, already cooked, and cooling out on
the dresser. The colonel's moustache bristled
with rage, his face became purple; and, seizing
the unfortunate cook by the scruff of his neck,
shouted out, "Oh, you're another of these hell-
fire warmers-up, are you ? Out you go And
giving the writhing man a vigorous kick, he sent
him flying down the steps headlong into the com-
pound below.
One of the most touching incidents of colonial
life is the universal use of the word "home"
amongst all classes of the community, when speak-
ing of England. A colonist never says that he is
going to England or Scotland, as the case may be;
he always says he is "going home." In his con-
versation he always talks of "home." "When
I was last at home." "They do these things
differently at home." "What's the news from
home?" are phrases continually used. This
assumes a somewhat ludicrous aspect when you







"HOME"


hear these phrases from the mouths of black and
coloured people, who, in many cases, have never
even visited any part of Europe. We had a good
laugh at the expense of a young coloured youth,
who was swaggering about and saying that he
"was going home by the next mail; when an
elderly Scotch gentleman quietly asked him, Oh,
you are going home, are you ? And what part of
Africa may that be ? "
The conceit and affectation of some of the
young generation of mulattoes and quadroons is
astonishing. I am delighted to see any young
coloured man by honest work and good behaviour
raise himself to a high position amongst his fellow
colonists, and many have done so. In my time
there was a coloured chief justice in Barbados,
a coloured solicitor-general in Trinidad, and in
Demerara we had coloured gentlemen as legis-
lators, magistrates, barristers, clergymen, mayors,
and doctors, and they were treated with as much
respect as white men in similar positions; but
when these gentry began to talk of their family
and home," and sport crests, and coats-of-arms,
one was inclined to laugh, remembering from
whence they sprung.
The population of British Guiana increases
very slowly; the death-rate is so much higher
than the birth-rate, that there would be an actual
decrease if it were not for the immigrants brought
from India and the West Indian Islands. As in
England, a decennial census of the people is taken.
This is a matter of some difficulty, and the returns







54 TWENTY-FIVE YEABB IN BRITISH GUIANA

are sometimes very peculiar. The people cannot
understand the several headings, and how tV9
columns are to be filled up.
The following examples from the census papers
of 1881 were collected by an enumerator as a
sample of the eccentricity or ignorance of the
people. One citizen gave his name as "John,"
head of the family, is a male;" and then under
the column of "Profession, Rank, or Occupation,"
he puts down, "Can't get nothing to do for the last
six months, and can't pay house rent, has got a
keeper and four children, they in Barbados, but is
coming to Demerara." This same column of pro-
fession, rank, or occupation is filled in with some
peculiar information, e.g. one person's occupation
is put down as "sickly;" one is an "invalid;"
another is "cuck;" whilst one admits he is an
"' idler;" and another ambitious person claims to be
a "scoller;" one says he is a "farmer, sick of a
cough;" and one yearling's occupation is entered as
"sucker." The column devoted to deaf and dumb,
blind, or imbecile, or idiot and lunatic persons
is not less interesting. One man says that he has
no infurrities ; the next man in the list writes
dito;" whilst a neighbour says he is "romantic;"
another says he had "no orflections;" whilst one
citizen puts down as an affliction that he has "been
black from his birth;" another that she is cob in
complexion; and a third that she has a black
mother and a Portuguese father." An east coast
resident says he was born at "Larry Sophenear,"
which is his way of spelling Le Resouvenir. One







CENSUS BETUBRS


man returns himself as having been "born near
town, and is belong to the Weslen Church." One
gentleman, employed in working a punt, indulged
himself in a long family history. After entering
his name and occupation, he enters his wife's
name-" is my wife, is a female, not married yet,
but will marry she in May; she is dimisticated, is
close washer. She is not inflicted, and is got two
boy children for Joe in Barbados, and two is dead.
Is got two for me, they can't read nor right yet."
Under the column "Relationship to Head of
Family" many peculiar entries were made, owing
to the social conditions of the population. Most
of the lady friends of doubtful relationship are put
down as "wives," although the next column
unblushingly puts down their condition as "un-
married." In many cases, however, there is no
attempt at concealment, and they are variously
described as mistress," keeper," etc., although
one man in plain language describes his friend as
" concubine." One gentleman makes a distinction
by putting himself down as "head keeper." In
the column headed condition as to Marriage"
one gentleman writes "community of goods;"
whilst one old lady describes her three daughters
as "virgins." One lady in plain language ,writes
"knot." In fact, she is a knotty individual, as
she describes her occupation as nothingg in
particular," and her infirmities also as "knot."
The column of occupation reveals the fact that
four-fifths of the women living alone are "washers."
There are, however, exceptions. One of the lonely







56 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

ones describes herself as a bottle swopper;" and
another says that "she cook for sheself." One
gentleman is proud to say that he is a porter in
the mercantile line." Most people have some
knowledge as to where they were born, but in that
column one entry is "no say." Under the head
" Infirmities, Deaf, Lunatic," etc., an old man, after
describing himself as "lonely," adds he "loose a
leg." One lady is suffering from "stomach pains;"
but another is "healthy generally, but at present
suffering slightly from fever." One wag says his
only infirmity is "want of money." A very
afflicted family is that of a certain enumerator who
writes himself down as suffering from structure;"
his wife from nervousness;" his son is "partly
rupted;" and his daughters have "dry belly
ache." One poor man, utterly ignoring the
columnar divisions of the paper, gives us the
following pathetic tale: Me name is James
Horner, i is 32 years old, and i work punt in the
river, i is married, but keep one Barbadian woman
who dead November last year, she name Rebecca
Kemp clothes washer 28 year old and she dead
November last year and i too sorry for she."
When I was chairman of the Directorate I tried
to establish a Zoo in the Botanic Gardens in
Georgetown. At first the idea was taken up with
enthusiasm, and subscriptions and animals poured
in upon me in embarrassing profusion; but I was
called away to act as Attorney-General of Jamaica,
and after my departure the project languished, and
the animals either died or were sent to the English








THE ZOO


Zoo. It may amuse my readers to see a list of the
animals which were sent to me during the first
few weeks of the undertaking. When we had a
large python in a tub under the house, an ant bear
in the stable, a hacka tiger in the scullery, and
several small evil smelling mammals all about, my
wife began to object, as she was persuaded that
the python would arise some night in his might
and make a meal off one of the children, and the
small mammals were disgusting to her olfactory
nerves. An armadillo that I bought dug a hole in
the garden and produced a litter of five young
ones. They were the most comical little beasts
-just like grey india rubber dolls, and when you
squeezed them they squeaked in the same way.
A Brazilian porcupine got away one night; the
next morning I saw an excited crowd in the next
street, and a black boy rushed in to us, exclaiming,
"Please, sah, they be find your pimplerhaag"
(prickly pig).

LIST OF ANIMALS PRESENTED OR PURCHASED.


Small Sloth ... .
Ocelot
Hacka tiger... ...
Sackiwinkie monkey
Ring tail monkey ...
Toucan ...
Porcupine ...
Rattlesnake ... ...
Large Anaconda ...
Yrwarri rat ... .
Beza monkey ...
Red howling baboon
Brazilian porcupine ...
Two Curassow ...


Purchased.
From Mr. Morrison.
Presented by Hon. Howell Jones.
Purchased.

Presented by Mr. G. Humphreys.
S Mr. Wood Davis.
,, Mrs. ThornhilL
,, Mrs. Bridges.
S Mrs. Murray.
Purchased.
Presented by Mr. Brodie.
,, Mr. Kaufman.








58 TWENTY-FIVE YEABS IN BBITISH G IANA
Homed owl ... ... Presented by Mr. Odlum.
Large python ... ... ,, Mr. Long.
Sackiwinkie monkey ... ,, Mr. Bridges.
Large ocelot ... ... ,, Mr. Curtis.
Labba (hollow-cheeked paca) ,, Mr. Ibbott.
Toucan ... ... ... ,, Mr. Crosby.
Pair of ring doves ... ... ,, Mr. Odlum.
An Accourie ... ... ,
Four peacocks ... ... ,, Mrs. Gemmel.
Water haas ... ... ... ,, Mr. Hewick.
Armadillo ... ... ... ,, Captain Arnot.
Large ant eater ... ... Purchased.
Although the Zoo was a failure, we kept some
interesting animals in the gardens. In one lake
were two mannatee, and great was our excitement
when one day we found a young one playing on
its mother's back. Two tapirs, locally called
mypourie, wandered about at their pleasure; some
water haas played about in a small pond; and a
few of the graceful deer of Guiana grazed in a
paddock. As to birds, the gardens were full of
them. My daughter, Mrs. Percival and her
husband, published a list of those they had per-
sonally observed, amounting to one hundred and
twenty distinct kinds.
We sometimes received visits from the French
and German warships. I can remember when a
German training ship came to the colony many
years ago. The captain and his officers were a
jovial crew, and fully appreciated and reciprocated
the lavish hospitality which was showered upon
them. The German Consul gave a ball in their
honour; in the card-room I made the fourth in
a rubber, with the gallant captain as my partner.
As we picked up our cards after the first deal, he







BSTANGE TONGUES


said to me, "Mein Herr! ven I 'ave a tromp I
plays a tromp, and ven I don't play a tromp, you
will know I 'ave not got a tromp." And so he
did, and the result was that I lost twenty-six
shillings in the first two rubbers. It is a curious
fact that the first words of a new language, which
are acquired by casual intercourse with its speakers,
are generally vituperative or indecent ones. The
first Hindustani words learnt by the English
soldier are those of cursing and abuse. I have
heard an English gentleman pour out a string of
abusive epithets upon some unfortunate natives,
which, if they had been translated into their
native tongue, the most blasphemous bargees would
have shrunk from using. Cursing in Hindustani
is of extreme ingenuity, and puts to shame the
monotonous expletives of our native land. I once
travelled with a Frenchman, who was proud of
his knowledge of the English language, which he
said he had acquired by residence in England, but
his conversation was seasoned with vulgar and
indecent words. Amongst such a polyglot people
as those inhabiting British Guiana, the first efforts
of each race to acquire the language of the other
strikingly illustrates my proposition. On one
occasion a Hindoo boy about eleven years old was
brought before me, having been summoned by
an old black man for using abusive and insulting
words to him. I explained the charge to the boy,
asked him whether he did it or not, to which he
promptly answered, "It's a bl- y lie, sir." He
had no intention of being disrespectful to the







60 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA

court, but wished to explain his innocence
in the usual vernacular which he heard in the
village.
An east coast parson held a baptismal service.
The candidate was not an infant in arms, but a
sturdy three-year-old Creole coolie boy. He was
with difficulty coaxed to the font, and the priest
began to read the office. All went well until he
dipped his hand into the font and sprinkled the
water on the up-turned face of the boy, who not
understanding the nature of the ceremony, darted
a surprised and angry look at the parson, yelled
out, "You d-d beast!" and attempted to run
away. The parson said he never was so shocked
in his life.
A story was current in the colony of a Portu-
guese recently arrived from Madeira, who, wishing
to propitiate a coloured maiden, whose charms
had touched his susceptible nature, was heard
murmuring in mellifluous accents under her window
the only English words which he had acquired,
" Son of a beetch, son of a beetch," and was much
astonished when he was violently assaulted by the
outraged damsel.
Amongst the black people there are some words
which have been handed down from their Congo
ancestors, the original meaning of which they have
forgotten, but they know they are very bad words,
and the use of them to each other by black women
generally results in violent assault and bloodshed.
Such words as Kokkabuddoo" and "Pe-h6,"
applied to a woman, are supposed to be the last







BACKING


resource of foul abuse, but I never yet met any
person who could explain to me what the words
meant.
Amusements in British Guiana are much the
same as in other English tropical colonies. The
energy of the English race shows itself in an
exposure to the sun and a scorn for the heat, which
excites the wonder and contempt of foreigners.
Cricket and lawn tennis flourish exceedingly;
rifle shooting and racing have their old-established
clubs; golf has been started, but has not caught
on, although it would seem to be a game peculiarly
suited to the climate. Racing is the most popular
amusement amongst all classes. There were race
meetings at different parts of the colony at a
remote period of its history; but a regular race club
was not established until 1829, when the first
meeting was held at Colony House on the 28th of
September in that year, His Excellency Sir Benja-
min Durban presiding. The existing racecourse,
which was presented to the club by the same
Governor, and named after him the Durban Race-
course, is just outside the limits of Georgetown.
It is an oval, one mile and ninety-six yards in cir-
cumference, and cost 11,580 guilders to make tp.
The course is perfectly flat, like the surrounding
country, with some sharp curves. There are two
meetings annually, spring and autumn, when about
1500 is given in prizes at each meeting, besides a
cup, value 50, presented by the Governor. The
first races on the Durban Course were held on the
3rd and 4th of November, 1829, and, with the







62 TWENTY-FIVE YEABB IN BRITISH GUIANA

exception of three years (1843-45), they have been
held regularly ever since.
In the early days of racing we find some good
bloodstock in the colony: amongst others, Cobb,"
by Popinjay, out of Muck-bird, formerly belonging
to Lord Glenorchy; "Murillo," by Magistrate-
Rosalba, bred by the Earl of Derby, and foaled in
1824. In 1834 Mr. Edward Duffy advertises in
the local papers his bloodstock, etc., for sale. A
thoroughbred entire horse, Morpeth," by Roller;
two brood mares; also the slaves Joseph and
Tommy, both young men and well disposed."
Later on we see advertised the thoroughbred horse
" Croft," by Whalebone, dam by Lancer-Priscilla,
by Highflyer; also the stud horse Gift," bred by
Lord Bangor, got by Collector, dam by Queens-
bury. The principal jockeys in those days were
white boys from England; their names were
George Farrell, Caldow, James Watson, Davis.
"Lord George," which belonged to my old friend
Mr. H. G. Parnell, was a distinguished racer. He
was a brown entire horse by Lannercost, and half-
brother to Van Tromp, winner of the Epsom Derby
in 1847. Another horse of his called Lucy," a
brown filly, was by Charles XII., winner of the St.
Leger, Liverpool Cup, etc.
The Colony Cup was established in 1829, and
the Durban Course Cup in 1852. In later years
good horses have been imported regularly, so that
in the veins of our Creole horses runs some of the
best blood of the English turf. "Little Hampton"
and "St. Bruno were amongst the sires, and of







OCICKET


the dams the pick was that grand mare Dagmar,
daughter of Peter, who for two years swept the
board at all the race meetings in the West Indies.
The races were always well attended by all
classes; white, black, coloured, Hindoo, Chinese,
Portuguese, all meet and jostle one another on the
course; the noise is deafening, the excitement
intense, especially when some horses from Trinidad
or Barbados are entered, when colonial rivalry is
in full swing. Gambling, cheating, drinking, and
fighting go on in a most cheerful way, and no one
seems much the worse for it. There is always an
immense amount of wrangling between the black
people over a bet, the loser not wishing to disgorge,
and if there be a stake-holder he is generally absent
when the race is over. I once asked my butler,
Bailey, if he had been betting at the races, and he
replied, "No, sir; how I bet, suppose I lose, I
lose; suppose I win, I must fight for my money."
There is a good country meeting held twice a
year at Belfield on the East coast, where an
amusing day can be spent.
There is an excellent cricket ground belonging
to the Georgetown Cricket Club, with a fine
pavilion, and all the paraphernalia of a first-class
ground. The turf is as good as that of an English
county club, although sometimes, when it is most
wanted, it is flooded with water and more suited
for a regatta than a cricket match. A Challenge
Cup has been established to be competed for by
Trinidad, Barbados, and British Guiana, and the
contests for its possession produce good cricket and







64 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

much local enthusiasm. In 1895 Mr. R. S. Lucas
brought a team of English cricketers to the West
Indies, and they played two matches in Demerara;
and in 1897 Lord Hawke visited the colony with
Messrs. Leveson-Gower, P. Warner, Bardswell,
Bromley-Davenport, Heseltine, and other good
cricketers. We had some good cricketers in the
G.C.C., notable amongst others, Mr. Edward
Fortescue Wright, Inspector of Police, who had
been well known in Gloucestershire as a cricketer
before he came to the colony, and who made for
himself a lasting name in West Indian cricket
annals. He was an excellent all-round cricketer,
good bowler, brilliant field, and one of the hardest
hitters I ever saw. It was a splendid sight to see
Ted Wright, when he was well set at the wicket,
open his shoulders and knock the balls about; the
first whack up against the palings, the second over
the pavilion into the road beyond, another went
flying into the Lamaha Canal; and all without any
apparent effort. In a match against Trinidad, in
1883, he beat their whole eleven off his own bat.
At athletic sports I have seen him throw a cricket
ball 119 yards.
The drawback to cricket in the colony was the
absence of any club able to compete with the
GC.C.. on anything like equal terms. Once
the club received a challenge from a club of
Chinese cricketers to play the second eleven
of the G.C.C. It was an amusing match. The
G.C.C. won the toss and went in; they made
one hundred and fifty, without the loss of a







CHINESE OBICKET


wicket, so the innings was declared closed, and
the Celestials took to the wickets., About the third
ball the captain was given out l.b.w., but he
refused to go, saying, "Me no play that way."
In the next over he was caught by the wicket-
keeper, but he still refused to budge; and it was
not until his middle stump was knocked out of
the ground by a yorker that he allowed he was
out, and stalked off to the pavilion muttering
strange Chinese oaths. Despite their sticking
principles, the Chinese eleven were disposed of
for thirty-six runs; and in the follow on they were
not more successful. The black and coloured
people are madly fond of cricket, every available
open space of ground is full of them playing the
game in one form or another. Little boys play
on the sides of the streets with an empty kerosine
oil tin for wickets, and the rib of a palm leaf for
a bat. Some of them attain a certain proficiency
in the game. I remember at a celebrated match
between the Government secretariat and the police,
the Inspector-General put on police-constable
David to bowl. He was an enormous black man,
six feet six inches in height, and as he bowled
he retired twenty yards behind the wicket and
advanced to the attack whirling his right arm
round like a windmill; when he reached the
bowling crease he stopped short and delivered a
terrific underhand grub straight on the wicket,
which somewhat disconcerted the batsman, who
was not accustomed to such a style of bowling.
Dancing is also a favourite diversion. Creoles,
F







66 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

white, black, and brown, all dance spontaneously;
they require no teaching. The black people dance
beautifully; I never saw better waltzing in my life
than at some of their dignity balls.
Dances are frequent in Georgetown; and there
are a number of places called practising rooms "
much frequented by the young coloured people,
where other amusements besides dancing are, I
fear, practised. At their balls, dancing is kept
up with spirit from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m.; the people
behave very well, and there is little or no drunken-
ness. At their fancy dress balls, the costumes of
the black people are marvellous. At one to which
I had been invited, a tall, stout, black woman
represented Queen Victoria; she had the place
of honour on the dais; an obsequious courtier was
fanning her, and, seeing that her Majesty was
perspiring freely under her robes and crown,
suggested a little iced water, but the Queen
replied, "No buddy no water, me tak' a little
able (strong) punch."
The Africans (Congos, Kroomen, etc.) have
some native dances which they perform at times,
such as the kumfoo and others; but these are of
a grossly lascivious nature and not often to be
witnessed. The Hindoos have nautch dances at
the festival of the Mohurrun and at weddings, but
the dancers are almost always boys dressed up as
girls.
Most books of reminiscences are filled with the
author's recollections of great men, royalties,
authors, statesmen whom he has met, what they







B MINISCENCEB


said, what they wore, and what they did; bonsmots
and quips sparkle in their pages, and although
many of them are chestnuts, and have been told
over and over again, they help to enliven their
chapters, and leave the reader with the impression
that the author has, during his life, moved in the
highest circles; like Mr. Turveydrop's reminis-
cences of the Prince Regent, they are evidence
that he was fitted to shine in the best society
My readers might naturally expect from me similar
records. I might be expected to give details of
interviews with the royal princes, noble lords, and
gallant admirals who, during my residence in the
colony, visited the shores of British Guiana.
The many excellent gentlemen who have resided
amongst us as governors might provide a fund of
anecdote and wit; but, to tell the truth, I have not
the slightest recollection of any anecdote or witty
remark associated in any way with these illustrious
visitors or great men. One comical incident I
recall which occurred in the Executive Council.
A Government official had been suspended, and
was being examined as to his misdeeds before that
tribunal, when one of the members asked the
culprit, "Mr. B- I understand, sir, that you
are living in adultery." No, sir," was the reply,
"I am living in a two-storey house."
Guiana, like other British possessions, boasted
a governor and commander-in-chief, a colonial
secretary, an auditor-general, a receiver-general,
an immigration agent-general, an attorney-gene-
ral, a solicitor-general, a postmaster-general, an







68 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

inspector-general, a surgeon-general, an adminis-
trator-general, other generals, and innumerable
subordinate officials, who were all required to
govern a population as big as that of a fourth-rate
English town. I have already stated that what
astonished me most on arrival in the colony were
the frogs and the mosquitoes; but I must add
that when I found that the President of the United
States, who ruled over more than 50,000,000 of
people, received a salary of 5000 and a residence,
whilst the Governor of British Guiana, who
governed a population of 250,000, received 5000
and a residence, 2500 for contingencies, and all
his wines and spirits admitted duty free, I was
still more astonished. The Yankees seem to have
discovered some disparity in the salaries, for I
understand of late years that they have raised the
pay of their President to 10,000.
There was one notable exception to the general
dulness of our official class, and that was our
genial Administrator-General, who could pour forth
an endless stream of anecdote, and who, under the
nom de plume X Beke, has published some amusing
yarns about his experiences as a Government
official in the West Indian Islands. He was more
fortunate than I have been, though it must be
confessed that some of his stories might have
reference to what happened in the island of Bara-
taria under Sancho Panza's beneficent rule.
In the old days a considerable military force
was maintained in British Guiana. There were
troops in Georgetown, New Amsterdam, and







MILITARY FOBCE8


detachments were stationed at Mahaica, Fort
Wellington, and Aberdeen. The mortality among
the soldiers was excessive. Owing to the stu-
pidity of the War Office, regiments were generally
brought down from Halifax or Canada, often at
the most unfavourable season, and crowded into
insanitary barracks. Yellow fever carried them
off by scores; and at last the home authorities
refused to send any more white troops to the
colony; so we were relegated to the protection of
the West Indian Regiments, which were composed
of negroes officered by Englishmen.
Hundreds of gallant men, who had fought in
the Peninsula and Waterloo, left their bones in the
dreary soldiers' burial-ground at Eve Leary, unre-
corded and uncared for. It will ever be a pleasing
reminiscence for me that, owing to the assistance
of Lord Gormanston-himself an old soldier-I
was able to make their graveyard somewhat decent,
enclosing it with a neat fence, and planting it with
ornamental trees. When I first went out, Deme-
rara was the headquarters of the 2nd West Indian
Regiment, Colonel Wise in command. When the
first Ashanti war broke out, the regiment was sent
to Cape Coast Castle, and their place was tem-
porarily filled by a company of the 98th Regiment
from Barbados, under Major Scheberras, with
Captain Tibbs and Lieutenant Allen. The general
in Barbados was much alarmed about the health
of these white troops sent to our pestilential
shores, and ordered the officer in command to send
him frequent telegrams and reports. But so much







70 TWENTY-FIVE YEASS IN BRITISB GUIANA

changed were the drainage and accommodation
of the barracks that, although the white troops
remained with us more than a year, not a single
man died, and very few found their way into the
sick list.
When the Ashanti campaign was over, we had
alternate detachments from the 1st and 2nd West
Indian Regiments; but their numbers were gradu-
ally diminished, until, in 1890, the troops were
withdrawn altogether, and we were told to protect
ourselves, which we have done by forming a body
of armed police, and by the establishment of a
militia force. Our dispute with Venezuela and
the United States about our boundary necessitated
additional precautions, so two Maxim guns were
imported, and Fort William Frederick, at the
mouth of the Demerara River, was armed with
modern artillery.
In 1893 some Venezuelan soldiers made a raid
upon our territory in anticipation of Dr. Jameson's
celebrated invasion of the Transvaal, but they lost
themselves in the bush, and after enduring great
hardships from hunger, damp, and insects, were dis-
covered, to the number of twelve, by some Indians,
who guided them down to Bartica, where they
were arrested by the magistrate. He didn't know
what to do with them, but as they had some rusty
old rifles with them, he ordered them to be charged
for carrying guns without a license, and as they
had no money to pay their fines, he sent them to
the Georgetown Gaol. Here the Governor released
them, fed and clothed them, and sent them by the







'VARSITY DINNER


first steamer to Bolivar. Uruan was our outpost
up the Cuyuni; and in 1894 Inspectors Barnes
and Baker were seized by the Venezuelans and
carried away, and the police-station was looted.
I had given Barnes my little fox-terrier bitch
"Vixen," when I was going on leave, and he took
her with him to Uruan. Unfortunately she died
there, and Barnes buried her, and put up a monu-
ment over her grave. When the Venezuelans
descended upon them, the ignorant soldiers thought
that poor Vixen's tombstone was a boundary mark,
so they dragged it out with great indignation, and
hurled it into the river.
Like most English colonies, we established an
annual 'Varsity dinner, where we have mustered
as many as sixteen graduates of Oxford and Cam-
bridge. Foremost amongst them was that grand
old man, for fifty-two years Bishop of Guiana,
William Pieroy Austin, prelate of the most dis-
tinguished order of St. Michael and St. George,
who took the greatest interest in these convivial
meetings, and always attended when he was in
the colony. Amongst others I may mention his
son, the Rev. William G. Austin, of Magdalen,
Oxford, who rowed in the 'Varsity crew at Putney;
Mr. James Crosby, of Trinity College, Cambridge,
of whom more anon; Edward Everard Rushworth,
of St. John's, Oxford, who administered the
government of the colony in 1873-74. Three
judges of the Supreme Court, John Hampden
King, of Skimmery; C. H. Lovesey, of Queen's,
Oxford; and John Tankerville Goldney, Cambridge,








72 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

now Chief Justice of Trinidad. The Rev. Canon
Smith, of St. John's, Cambridge, was a regular
subscriber to these dinners; and I can recall J.
Ernest Tinn6, of Trinity College, Oxford; Gilbert
Robertson Sandbach, of Brasenose; Alfred Parker,
of University; Edward Everard im Thurn, of
Trinity College, Oxford; Exley Percival, of Brase-
nose, and many others.
Mr. James Crosby was one of the best-known
men in the West Indies. Educated at Trinity
College, Cambridge, he was called to the Bar, and
was employed by some sugar proprietors to plead
their cause in the courts of St. Vincent. Here
he continued to practise, and obtained a moderate
success. There was a good story told about him
in St. Vincent. He had defended a murderer
before the Supreme Court, but the man was con-
victed, as Crosby thought, on insufficient evidence;
so he appealed to the Governor, who, however,
refused to interfere with the finding of the court.
So when Crosby went to inform the prisoner, he
was highly indignant, and told the doomed man,
"Never mind, never mind; let them hang you,
and then they shall see what the consequences will
be to them; but the poor man did not see it in
the same light. Mr. Crosby was appointed Immi-
gration Agent-General and Protector of Immi-
grants in British Guiana, and there he so identified
himself for nearly thirty years with the welfare of
the large East Indian population, that he became
a sort of deity and impersonation of protection, so
the department was called Crosby Office." The








CROSBY SAHIB


chief himself was known as "Burra Crosby Sahib;"
and all the sub-immigration agents lost their per-
sonality, and were known as "Chota Crosby
Sahibs; and although the old man has been dead
and gone for many years, his successors have been
compelled to bear his name, and every coolie in
difficulty announces his intention of going "to
see Crosby."
Mr. Crosby died in 1880, having had apparently
as many lives as the proverbial cat. He was an
energetic old man, and although seventy years of
age would go to balls and dance away like a
youngster. On one occasion at the Assembly
Rooms, as the company were leaving at 3 a.m.,
and we were lighting our cigars in the hall, he
astonished us by precipitating himself down the
staircase, and falling headlong into a large flower-
tub; he was picked up and sent home in charge
of a medical man, but next day he turned up all
right. A few weeks afterwards he went to a
croquet party at Government House, and hasten-
ing across the ground to shake hands with a lady
friend, he tripped over a hoop, and fell into a box
full of mallets, breaking one of his ribs. Shortly
afterwards, when he had repaired damages, he paid
a visit to England. On his return in the Don,
they encountered bad weather; but the dauntless
Crosby must go up on deck to see what was going
on, so not unnaturally he fell head-foremost down
the companion, and broke his collar-bone and one
of his ribs, besides spraining his wrist. This kept
him quiet for the rest of the voyage; but not many








74 TWENTY-FIVE YEABS IN BRITISH GUIANA
months afterwards, he broke a bone in one of
his legs, and taking to his bed, he never left it
again alive.
To residents in equatorial climes the immense
insect tribe is a source of annoyance; their name
is legion, for they are many. The great chestnut-
coloured cockroaches are destructive, foul-smelling
brutes, to be slain without benefit of clergy. Ants
of all sizes and colours simply exist in billions,
black, red, brown, white, and grey, varying in size
from the huge solitary ant as big as an English
spider, to the minute sugar ants, of which several
hundreds could stand on a shilling without
crowding.
Ants are ubiquitous; if you leave a little sugar
at the bottom of your coffee cup, in a few minutes
it is covered with ants; if you kill a cockroach
and leave its carcass on the floor, in a short time
it is hidden under a swarm of ants, and in a couple
of hours all sign of it has disappeared. There are
great columns of ants called yakman, which march
through the country, devouring everything as they
pass. If your house is in the line of march, you
must vacate it till the column has passed, which
sometimes takes two or three days. One good thing
they do, they clear your house of vermin, devouring
every centipede, scorpion, and cockroach, and all
the young bats and mice which cannot save them-
selves by flight.
Brown centipedes six inches long are common
in old houses, and smaller and more venomous
black ones have a nasty habit of hiding in one's







INSECT PLAGUES


boots. I remember one day in the seventies I
was dining with Edmund Field at Plantation Great
Diamond; a Captain Ross from England was
staying with him, and coming in late, he ran up-
stairs to dress for dinner as quickly as possible.
Before long, we heard him coming gaily downstairs
humming a tune, which was suddenly turned into
a yell, and when we hurried out to see what was
the matter, we saw poor Ross sitting on the stairs
tugging frantically at one of his dress boots, which
he flung off, and then sat nursing his foot and
groaning. Field picked up the discarded boot,
and giving it a shake, out dropped a small black
centipede which had been curled up inside.
Ammonia and other remedies were applied to the
suffering foot, but although Ross joined us at
dinner, he had lost all his appetite.
When the rains begin, Georgetown is invaded
by a kind of black beetle, locally known as hard-
backs." These are sometimes so numerous as to
interfere with our social functions. Dining one
night at the Mess of the 2nd West Indian Regiment,
at Eve Leary Barracks, we couldn't eat our dinners
for the showers of hardbacks which fell into our
soup and wine, filled our hair, and crawled down
our backs.
On another occasion, at a grand ball at the
Assembly Rooms, the hardbacks were so numerous
that men with brooms were employed to sweep the
floor, piling the beetles into buckets for removal;
dancing was out of the question, as with every
step you crushed a hardback; and if, as the poet







76 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA

says, the beetle crushed beneath the heel feels
the same pang as when a giant dies," the amount
of anguish in that ball-room on that night must
have been stupendous. The ladies were tormented
as the insects filled their hair, and crawled up
their dresses and down their necks.
Flying ants are also at times a great nuisance,
as they hustle into the room by thousands, and
the moment they touch anything their wings drop
off, and they run about in all directions. New-
comers are often startled by the great green mantis,
who alights upon their heads and folds his hands
in an attitude of prayer. A large brown wasp,
called a marabunta, builds his pretty paper combs
under the eaves and galleries of our houses; his
sting is severe; whilst the mason bees build their
curious circular mud-houses,like rows of Esquimaux
huts, on the backs of your books and sofas, and on
the fronts of your pictures and your blinds.
The electric light was introduced into the city
some years ago, and it was a curious sight to see
the great arc-lights surrounded by myriads of
insects, moths, hardbacks, beetles, until the ground,
for yards around, was black with their fallen bodies.
Gas was first used in 1872; the first gas-lit
ball was in February, 1873, when Admiral Fan-
shawe and the North American fleet paid us a
visit. The negroes were much astonished at the
new light; they could not understand how it burnt
without oil; they were continually climbing up
the lamp-posts, putting their fingers in the flame
and exclaiming, Eh! me Gad it burn."








BEOKWITH'S HOTEL


When I first went out to the colony, there was
only one decent .hotel in Georgetown, kept by a
sturdy old Yorkshireman and his wife, by name
Beckwith, where I secured a bed on my arrival.
Dining with Mr. Stephens two nights afterwards, I
returned to the hotel about 11 p.m., and was sur-
prised to find it locked up, all lights extinguished,
and no signs of life about the place. I hammered
at the door for some time without success; at last
some one descended the stairs and opened the door,
and I beheld old Mr. Beckwith in his night-gown
and night-cap, with a lighted candle in his hand. I
asked him what the devil he meant by locking me
out of the house, and threatened to leave him and
go elsewhere in the morning. "You may go as
soon as you like," he replied. So feeling snubbed
and angry, I retired to my room. Next morning
I related my experiences to Alexander Reid, the
manager of the Colonial Bank, and announced my
intentions of leaving Beckwith's at once, and going
to a better managed place. He laughed and said,
" But where will you go ? There is no other hotel
which is fit for you to stop in." So I had to make
the best of it; and hearing that Mr. Beckwith
came from Leeds, I began to talk to him about his
native town, the improvements made since he left
it, the new' Town Hall, the new bridge at the
bottom of Briggate, etc., until I won the old man's
heart, and over a glass of his particular sherry
we became quite chummy, and he told me that
if I ever expected to be out late to tell him,
and he would order some one to sit up for me.








78 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

Beckwith was what 'Arry would call a arbitrary
gent." He caught one of his boarders, a gentle-
man connected with the Panama Telegraph Co.,
making love to the ladies' maid, and he put him
out of the hotel, bag and baggage, in an hour.
His amorous propensities got the same gentleman
into further trouble, for going to St. Thomas, and
being caught by the Governor of that island making
love to one of his daughters, he was ordered to
leave the island within twenty-four hours and
never return.








( 79 )


CHAPTER IV.
Equatorial zone-Tropical vegetation-Forests-Striking effects-Gardens
in British Guiana-Fauna-Shooting-Game bags-Muscovy ducks
-Hoatzin-Jaguars-Waracabra tigers-Deer-Peccary-Tapir-
Monkeys-Iguanas Snakes Fishing-Cuffum-Lukananni-Can-
nibal snakes-Essequibo and Aroabisce coast--Old-time planters-
Racecourse-Hospitality-Practical jokes-Clergy-Dean Austin-
Rev. William Brett-St. John's Church-Medical officers-Riot on
the coast-An awkward predicament-A faithful sentry-Sheriff
Humphreys-Anna Austin.

THE world, according to the geography books of
our youth, is divided into five zones-two frigid,
two temperate, and one tropic-although a little
girl of mine, in answer to her governess, described
the latter as the intemperate zone-an unconscious
sarcasm. But there is another zone, rarely men-
tioned by the teachers of youth, but which has
been clearly delineated by Wallace, Bates, and
other naturalists, viz. the equatorial belt, which
stretches about ten degrees on each side of the
equator. The climate, flora and fauna, of this
region differ materially from the other portions of
the tropics.
"Within this belt hurricanes and typhoons are
unknown, whereas they are felt at their worst
between the tropical line and the equatorial;








80 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA

vegetation is of the most luxuriant nature,
temperature being high, rain abundant, and wind-
storms absent. But, despite their grandeur and
density, visitors to this region are generally dis-
appointed by the equatorial forests. They have
heard of the gorgeous flowers of the tropics, and
they expect to see something extraordinary and
striking to the eye. As a matter of fact the
tropical forest is singularly sombre and devoid of
bright colour; any flowers that exist are at the
top of the trees, one hundred feet above your head,
whither also fly the bright butterflies, and the
brighter birds which feed upon them. You may
journey for hundreds of miles through tropical
forests without seeing any bright flowers or con-
spicuous masses of colour. At times such things
happen. I remember once on a reach of the
Demerara River for about three miles the trees
of the forest on one side of the stream were
covered with a bright purple creeper, which fell
in festoons from the tops of the trees, and was
reflected at length in the placid water. Lit up
by the slanting rays of the sun, the woods pre-
sented a blaze of glory which I have rarely seen
equalled.
Of course, in cultivated places, where trees
are planted for effect or use, some grand aspects
are created. I remember, in Jamaica, driving for
a mile through an avenue of flamboyant trees
which were literally covered with their brilliant
crimson and scarlet flowers; the effect was painful
to the eyes, so vivid and gorgeous were the tones.







pi


-*r .A:


IN THE WET SAVANNAH.


.,,, .'., "* .,'.". 11 .. : ... ," .:

.. ;- o, '. ,. ,.:.,,.
:


'"' '''`



"''
I;
~ ~L~d


L To face p. 80.








GARDENS IN GUIANA


Another time, riding in Trinidad down a gorge
from the mountains, the whole valley before us
was filled with a rich golden glow, caused by the
setting sun shining on the flowering oronoque
trees, which lined both sides of the valley. In
Demerara about sunset, when the flowers open,
a broad trench, forty feet wide and a mile long,
filled with the Victoria Regia lily, is a wonderful
spectacle. The air is laden with the heavy scent
from the flowers, rising between the great round
leaves four to five feet wide. At the Cabacaburi
mission, on the Pomeroon River, there was a huge
ceiba tree, whose trunk shot up for seventy feet
in the air before the branches began to expand.
This trunk was entirely surrounded and hidden
by a gorgeous coloured climbing plant, which,
when in full flower, turned the old ceiba into a
pillar of gold, seventy feet high, and four to six
feet wide, which, under the blaze of the setting
sun, presented a floral spectacle which I have
never seen surpassed.
Gardens in British Guiana are, as a rule, dis-
appointing, and, after a time, one looks upon them
as frauds. Roses, except the strong tea-scented
ones like Marechal Niel, will not flower success-
fully. There are no flowering plants such as
abound in English gardens and greenhouses. The
only conspicuous and beautiful objects are the
flowering trees and creepers-the bourgainvillia,
alamanda, various tropoeolums, and ipomoeas,
with the magnificent blue convolvolus, called
"morning glory," and the lovely pink coraleta,




Full Text

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES LATIN AMERICAN COLLECTION ) UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES LATIN AMERICAN COLLECTION )

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TWENTY-FIVE YEARS I S BRITISH GUIANA TWENTY-FIVE YEARS I S BRITISH GUIANA

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TWENTY -FIVE YEARS BRITISH GUIANA BY HENIW KmKI!:, bf.A., B.C.L., Oxo" \Ul'UU!( 01" "l'W'; IrmS"r CO:>1QUY.S"1' OF C A.'(AlJ.\. p," n.:. wr...,. WITH MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS NEGRO UNIVERSITIES PRESS WESTPORT, CONNECTICUT TWENTY -FIVE YEARS BRITISH GUIANA BY HENIW KmKI!:, bf.A., B.C.L., Oxo" \Ul'UU!( 01" "l'W'; IrmS"r CO:>1QUY.S"1' OF C A.'(AlJ.\. p," n.:. wr...,. WITH MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS NEGRO UNIVERSITIES PRESS WESTPORT, CONNECTICUT

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;237/ /
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OONTENTS 0 0 CHAPTE R 1. Introduction Changes in twentyfive years-First impressions of British Guiana-Mosqu itoes-Frogs-Georgetown-Houscs in Guiana-D rainagc -Eeat and damp-Society-Absence o f tho leisured and literary classes-Newspaper press-Anthony Whetham-Monotony of life-Pos ition of British Guiana unknown-Travellers' tales-Climate-Early burials Y ellow fever Funerals Difficulty of burial-PAGE Leprosy-Hos pitals ... ... ... 1 C H AP TER II. A thirsty country-Swizzles George town Club-Visits of the flcctSwizzleiana-Peppe r-pot-Miss Gerty's kitten-P lanters-Mr. H enry Clementson-His burglary-Medical ser vice-Oldtime doctors Tho Bar-Dick Whi lficld-Lynch-Samuel T. FitzH crbert-MaCIll'onic verses-Church endowments-Cakewalk s -Rally of the tribes-Ladies i n Brit i sh Guiana-Sexual reo f the poor-Quilsi-slavery R oman Dutch L aw-Emancipation of women-Tigress of Tiger Bay Tim SlIgar-ASSI',ulting the sheriff ... ... 2 3 C HAPT E R III. Coloncll i'oster-Foster-" Homc "-Col omed gentry-Census pape r s -Cu r ious returns The Zoo in George town-L ist of animalsGerman wars hipsLearning II. new language-Plain vernacular 3 OONTENTS 0 0 CHAPTE R 1. Introduction Changes in twentyfive years-First impressions of British Guiana-Mosqu itoes-Frogs-Georgetown-Houscs in Guiana-D rainagc -Eeat and damp-Society-Absence o f tho leisured and literary classes-Newspaper press-Anthony Whetham-Monotony of life-Pos ition of British Guiana unknown-Travellers' tales-Climate-Early burials Y ellow fever Funerals Difficulty of burial-PAGE Leprosy-Hos pitals ... ... ... 1 C H AP TER II. A thirsty country-Swizzles George town Club-Visits of the flcctSwizzleiana-Peppe r-pot-Miss Gerty's kitten-P lanters-Mr. H enry Clementson-His burglary-Medical ser vice-Oldtime doctors Tho Bar-Dick Whi lficld-Lynch-Samuel T. FitzH crbert-MaCIll'onic verses-Church endowments-Cakewalk s -Rally of the tribes-Ladies i n Brit i sh Guiana-Sexual reo f the poor-Quilsi-slavery R oman Dutch L aw-Emancipation of women-Tigress of Tiger Bay Tim SlIgar-ASSI',ulting the sheriff ... ... 2 3 C HAPT E R III. Coloncll i'oster-Foster-" Homc "-Col omed gentry-Census pape r s -Cu r ious returns The Zoo in George town-L ist of animalsGerman wars hipsLearning II. new language-Plain vernacular 3

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V I OON1'ENTS -Amusements in British Guiana-Racing-D'Urbllll racecourse-Blood stock-Georgetown races-Belfield-CricketTed Wright-Englis h teams-Chinese cricketers-Black players -Dancing-Creole-Congo-Hindoo-Rcminiscences-Officials -X Boke-Military forceWh ite troops-West Indian R egi -ment-Sol diers' b urial-groun d-98Ul Regiment-Wi thdrawa l o f troops-Venezuelan raid-Uruall-Capture o f the post Vixen -'Varsi ty dinn er-Mr. J ames Crosby-Crosby office-I nsect plo.gues--Cockroachcs-Ants-Centipedes-Ha r dbncks-Mara -PAGE buntas Electric light-Gas-Beckwith's hotel,.. ... 50 CHAPTER IV. E quatorial zone-Tropical vegeta.tion-Forests-Striking eflectsGardens ill British Guiflna-Fauna-Shooting-Game bagsMuscovy ducks-Hontzin-Jaguarn-W aracabra tigers-Deer -Peccary-Tilpir-Monkeys-Igu anas -Snakes-FishingCuffum-Lukananni-Cannibal snakcs-E sscquibo and Aroa bisee coast-Old-time planters-Racecourse HospitnlityPrac tical jokes-Cler gy-Dean Austin-Rev. William BrettSt. J o hn 's Church M edical officers-Riot on th e coast-An awk w ard predicament A faithfu l sentry-Sheriff Hu mphreys :Miss Anm Austin .. ... ... .. 70 CHAPTER V. M onoton y o f life-Trips in t h e bush-Pomeroon journey-Tappac ooma Lake-Aripiaco Crcek-Cabacaburi Mission-Mr. and Mrs. Heard-Medorn-Bishop Austin-Maeca seema-McClin tock Indi an chief-1 m Thurn Bivouac-Benaboo-Howling baboons-C a ribsettlement-Piwarrie-Captain Jeffreys-I ndian names-Samboma-Coolcing under difficulties-Indian danceA sunk en boat-Anna. Reg ina-Onomat opoetic birds-Supernaam Indi an Mission-Sermon Hui s t' Dieren-B oiler explo-sion-Manslau g hter-Coolie set tlement ... .. ... 107 CHAPTER VI. Ikarakka L ake-Capec y racecourse-Riding catastrophe-Marooning -lturibisce Creek-Indian settlements-Flig h ts of butterflicsArnwnk I lldians-Duffryn Mission-Manatee I sl and Dau ntlcss V I OON1'ENTS -Amusements in British Guiana-Racing-D'Urbllll racecourse-Blood stock-Georgetown races-Belfield-CricketTed Wright-Englis h teams-Chinese cricketers-Black players -Dancing-Creole-Congo-Hindoo-Rcminiscences-Officials -X Boke-Military forceWh ite troops-West Indian R egi -ment-Sol diers' b urial-groun d-98Ul Regiment-Wi thdrawa l o f troops-Venezuelan raid-Uruall-Capture o f the post Vixen -'Varsi ty dinn er-Mr. J ames Crosby-Crosby office-I nsect plo.gues--Cockroachcs-Ants-Centipedes-Ha r dbncks-Mara -PAGE buntas Electric light-Gas-Beckwith's hotel,.. ... 50 CHAPTER IV. E quatorial zone-Tropical vegeta.tion-Forests-Striking eflectsGardens ill British Guiflna-Fauna-Shooting-Game bagsMuscovy ducks-Hontzin-Jaguarn-W aracabra tigers-Deer -Peccary-Tilpir-Monkeys-Igu anas -Snakes-FishingCuffum-Lukananni-Cannibal snakcs-E sscquibo and Aroa bisee coast-Old-time planters-Racecourse HospitnlityPrac tical jokes-Cler gy-Dean Austin-Rev. William BrettSt. J o hn 's Church M edical officers-Riot on th e coast-An awk w ard predicament A faithfu l sentry-Sheriff Hu mphreys :Miss Anm Austin .. ... ... .. 70 CHAPTER V. M onoton y o f life-Trips in t h e bush-Pomeroon journey-Tappac ooma Lake-Aripiaco Crcek-Cabacaburi Mission-Mr. and Mrs. Heard-Medorn-Bishop Austin-Maeca seema-McClin tock Indi an chief-1 m Thurn Bivouac-Benaboo-Howling baboons-C a ribsettlement-Piwarrie-Captain Jeffreys-I ndian names-Samboma-Coolcing under difficulties-Indian danceA sunk en boat-Anna. Reg ina-Onomat opoetic birds-Supernaam Indi an Mission-Sermon Hui s t' Dieren-B oiler explo-sion-Manslau g hter-Coolie set tlement ... .. ... 107 CHAPTER VI. Ikarakka L ake-Capec y racecourse-Riding catastrophe-Marooning -lturibisce Creek-Indian settlements-Flig h ts of butterflicsArnwnk I lldians-Duffryn Mission-Manatee I sl and Dau ntlcss

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CONTENTS Bank-Manatees at the Aquarium and the Zoo-Barticn, Essequibo Hiver Gold discovery-Rev. William Pierce Rnil ways Christian mission-nov. ']'homas Youd-ChurchSituation for a future city-Mechanics under indenture-Peter McPherson His death Better success Africans-Congo language-Thick skins-Jubilcc at Hampton Court.-Firework va di9play ... ... ... ..' .. 129 CHAPTER VII. Boviandors Aboriginal Indian s Indian womeo-Watcrton George Augustus Sala-Piwo.rrie-Character of IndiansKanaima-Murder of Simon the Arawak's wife-Indian impassivity Impatience of confinement-Doctrine of clothesOld customs-Floating shops-Smuggling-Akyma-Bremner family-Old graves-A tomb in the wilderness-Alaric Watts -Sebacnbra Fi sbing -Old woodskin-Dauces-Cbristian burgh-Paterson-Dalgin-Sergeant Alleyne Surgical opera tions-Mora-Sergeant Blunt-Brittlebank-MiscegenntionNapier's "Peninstllar 'Var "-Kroomen-J oe-Arecuna Indian s -Maroons ... ... ... ... ... .. 147 CHAPTER VIII. Decay of river populo.tion-Rise of the gold industry Kanaimapoo -Mecropio-Water.mammas-Coomarroo-Vampire batsGeorge Couehman-Vi:;it to tbe Orarumalali Falls-Derrire Hill -Comarrnmarra-Koomparoo Rapids-Camanna fish-Car roquia Eneyeudah Mission-Thunderstorm-Great FallsSnakes Pal aver with the Indinn:;-Captain Tiger--"":Dycd Indians-Scarlet dog-Her Majesty's penal settlement-Massa runi River--Tickct-of-Icavc men-Convicts-Thcir sentiments -Confidence in magistrates-The wifo of Ramdass-Kykoveral -Fort Island-Fred Hamblin-Theatrica l entertainment-West Indi an Hegiment-Colonel Fygclmesy-New Amsterdam ball-Old Woolward Lif e in New Amsterdam-Dr. HackettAnthony 'l'rollope-Official etiquette-D. M. Gallagher-Lunatic Asylum-Corentyne coast-Smuggling-Wild-duck shooting -Elections-Vendues-Atlantic voyages... ... 174 CONTENTS Bank-Manatees at the Aquarium and the Zoo-Barticn, Essequibo Hiver Gold discovery-Rev. William Pierce Rnil ways Christian mission-nov. ']'homas Youd-ChurchSituation for a future city-Mechanics under indenture-Peter McPherson His death Better success Africans-Congo language-Thick skins-Jubilcc at Hampton Court.-Firework va di9play ... ... ... ..' .. 129 CHAPTER VII. Boviandors Aboriginal Indian s Indian womeo-Watcrton George Augustus Sala-Piwo.rrie-Character of IndiansKanaima-Murder of Simon the Arawak's wife-Indian impassivity Impatience of confinement-Doctrine of clothesOld customs-Floating shops-Smuggling-Akyma-Bremner family-Old graves-A tomb in the wilderness-Alaric Watts -Sebacnbra Fi sbing -Old woodskin-Dauces-Cbristian burgh-Paterson-Dalgin-Sergeant Alleyne Surgical opera tions-Mora-Sergeant Blunt-Brittlebank-MiscegenntionNapier's "Peninstllar 'Var "-Kroomen-J oe-Arecuna Indian s -Maroons ... ... ... ... ... .. 147 CHAPTER VIII. Decay of river populo.tion-Rise of the gold industry Kanaimapoo -Mecropio-Water.mammas-Coomarroo-Vampire batsGeorge Couehman-Vi:;it to tbe Orarumalali Falls-Derrire Hill -Comarrnmarra-Koomparoo Rapids-Camanna fish-Car roquia Eneyeudah Mission-Thunderstorm-Great FallsSnakes Pal aver with the Indinn:;-Captain Tiger--"":Dycd Indians-Scarlet dog-Her Majesty's penal settlement-Massa runi River--Tickct-of-Icavc men-Convicts-Thcir sentiments -Confidence in magistrates-The wifo of Ramdass-Kykoveral -Fort Island-Fred Hamblin-Theatrica l entertainment-West Indi an Hegiment-Colonel Fygclmesy-New Amsterdam ball-Old Woolward Lif e in New Amsterdam-Dr. HackettAnthony 'l'rollope-Official etiquette-D. M. Gallagher-Lunatic Asylum-Corentyne coast-Smuggling-Wild-duck shooting -Elections-Vendues-Atlantic voyages... ... 174

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Vlll CONTENTS CHAPTER IX. PA-Gt: schemes-East Indians -ChinescDangerous characters-Th e coolie-Invested sa vings-MawIn. Buksh-Cho.n.a -f ook th e burglar and murderer-Executio n of Chinese at Suddie-Christian Chinese-Their h o n est y and sin cerity Opium -smokin g Gambling Chinese se ttlement, Camounie Creek-Queer dishes-Chinese immigrants ex Corona -Similarity of appearance-Concubin es---Suicides-East Indian immigrants-Scarcity of women-Difficulty in obtaining wives -Polyandry-Purchase of wives-Gir l o r cow-AdultcryFrequent murders-Casc of Seecbaram-Mutilation and murder ofbis wife-Ex e cut i on of Seecharam-Transmigrat ion of souls -Indian superstitions-M arriage at Aurora-Tragic r esu l ts ... 206 CHAPTER X. PCljllry: in the Div orce COllrt; gcncrn lly j amon gst HindoosFamily ties-Caste-Case of Rookminia-Perjury a duty-Her imprisonmcnt-Rclease-Gmtitllde-Va riou s races and creeds in British Guiana-Variety of judicial oaths-Curious Chinese 00. th8-Hindoo beliefs-Resultsof education-Names of children, Hindi, Congo-Bindharry and his pr etty daughters-A dis appointed lover-L arge amount of savings made b y cooliesM ootee-Champagnedrinking-D epo8 it in the Bank of B enga l -Hardships of coolies returning t o India-Extortio n by pri ests and r e l a tives-Marria ge con tracts-Consideratio n moneyllaboo English-Marriages between childrcn-Complications }'atalism-Orienta l imagery-" Found dead "-Mortuary... 232 CHAPTER XI. p opuln ti o n Their manners and habits-Slavery-The Ardcan at home-.Ashanti-Bcnin-Ame liorati o n o f slavery in the colony-}'ine race N octurn a l habits-Serva ntB-Stealing o r taking-Omtory nnd l ette r-writing-A littlo knowl edge i s a uangcrous thing-Amusing witness es-Curious use of word s Intoxica tion, definition of-Wha t is heav en ?-Miscegenation -Half-and-half illegitim a cy -Mulat toes-Division of races lll egiti mate births-M arr i age gar ments-" Lov e hon o ur nnd Vlll CONTENTS CHAPTER IX. PA-Gt: schemes-East Indians -ChinescDangerous characters-Th e coolie-Invested sa vings-MawIn. Buksh-Cho.n.a -f ook th e burglar and murderer-Executio n of Chinese at Suddie-Christian Chinese-Their h o n est y and sin cerity Opium -smokin g Gambling Chinese se ttlement, Camounie Creek-Queer dishes-Chinese immigrants ex Corona -Similarity of appearance-Concubin es---Suicides-East Indian immigrants-Scarcity of women-Difficulty in obtaining wives -Polyandry-Purchase of wives-Gir l o r cow-AdultcryFrequent murders-Casc of Seecbaram-Mutilation and murder ofbis wife-Ex e cut i on of Seecharam-Transmigrat ion of souls -Indian superstitions-M arriage at Aurora-Tragic r esu l ts ... 206 CHAPTER X. PCljllry: in the Div orce COllrt; gcncrn lly j amon gst HindoosFamily ties-Caste-Case of Rookminia-Perjury a duty-Her imprisonmcnt-Rclease-Gmtitllde-Va riou s races and creeds in British Guiana-Variety of judicial oaths-Curious Chinese 00. th8-Hindoo beliefs-Resultsof education-Names of children, Hindi, Congo-Bindharry and his pr etty daughters-A dis appointed lover-L arge amount of savings made b y cooliesM ootee-Champagnedrinking-D epo8 it in the Bank of B enga l -Hardships of coolies returning t o India-Extortio n by pri ests and r e l a tives-Marria ge con tracts-Consideratio n moneyllaboo English-Marriages between childrcn-Complications }'atalism-Orienta l imagery-" Found dead "-Mortuary... 232 CHAPTER XI. p opuln ti o n Their manners and habits-Slavery-The Ardcan at home-.Ashanti-Bcnin-Ame liorati o n o f slavery in the colony-}'ine race N octurn a l habits-Serva ntB-Stealing o r taking-Omtory nnd l ette r-writing-A littlo knowl edge i s a uangcrous thing-Amusing witness es-Curious use of word s Intoxica tion, definition of-Wha t is heav en ?-Miscegenation -Half-and-half illegitim a cy -Mulat toes-Division of races lll egiti mate births-M arr i age gar ments-" Lov e hon o ur nnd

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CONTENTS obey -An uncertain husband-Wifely obedience-Dangers of marriage-A provident husband-ConBolation for widowsHigh-sounding titles-Judas Iscariot-The Goddess of Chaste What is a bachelor?-.Au revoir -Want of midwives; their IX l'AG!'. ignorance and brutality ... ... ... ." CHAP'l'ER XII. Good conduct of tho coloured people-Occasional outbreaks-Uiob; in Georgetown-Portuguese shopkeepers Antipathy between them and the masses Murder of Julia. Chase March, 1 889 -Assault in the market-Rising of the people-Police-Special constables-Street fighting-Incendiary firesWest Indian Regiment-Volunteers-Proc1amation Permission to fire-Result -Arrival of blue-jackets and marines of H .M.S. CanadaUnfortunate murder-Running amok-Excitemcnt-Emptying the gaol-Ludicrous results-Compensation for dnmage done byrioters-Creolesllperst i t ions-Obeah-Poisoning-Educatioll Want of reverence Confirmation Jumping JennyColoured gentlemen-Extension of the franchise-A local civil service-Paiu less dentistry-A state of prognosticntion Thc benefits of corporation ... ... ... ... ." 271 CHAPTER XIII. Criminals-Murderers I have known Causes of murder-Origin of crime-Cause of c rime in British Guiana-Classification of criminals-Amount of crime-Ita cause Scarcity of womenColoniallaws -Brut.o.l chi ld-\vife murder-Jealousy-RevengeExecution of felons-Composure of condemned men-Brain exhaustion-Murder of Mrs. Walsh Terrible scene Walsh's strange defence and behaviour-Trial and execution-Murders by Portuguese-Texeim-Excitement of his countrymen Murders by Arnbs-Cayenlle-Escaped convicts-Annamese and Tonqu i nese criminals-Numero u s languages spoken in sheritr's office-Interpreters and tlleir manners Russian va grants-National odours-Executioners-Hamlet-His bungling nnd bmtality Execution of Butler Painfu l scene-Brown The diflicultici:I of n sherin' ,.. ... ... ... 290 CONTENTS obey -An uncertain husband-Wifely obedience-Dangers of marriage-A provident husband-ConBolation for widowsHigh-sounding titles-Judas Iscariot-The Goddess of Chaste What is a bachelor?-.Au revoir -Want of midwives; their IX l'AG!'. ignorance and brutality ... ... ... ." CHAP'l'ER XII. Good conduct of tho coloured people-Occasional outbreaks-Uiob; in Georgetown-Portuguese shopkeepers Antipathy between them and the masses Murder of Julia. Chase March, 1 889 -Assault in the market-Rising of the people-Police-Special constables-Street fighting-Incendiary firesWest Indian Regiment-Volunteers-Proc1amation Permission to fire-Result -Arrival of blue-jackets and marines of H .M.S. CanadaUnfortunate murder-Running amok-Excitemcnt-Emptying the gaol-Ludicrous results-Compensation for dnmage done byrioters-Creolesllperst i t ions-Obeah-Poisoning-Educatioll Want of reverence Confirmation Jumping JennyColoured gentlemen-Extension of the franchise-A local civil service-Paiu less dentistry-A state of prognosticntion Thc benefits of corporation ... ... ... ... ." 271 CHAPTER XIII. Criminals-Murderers I have known Causes of murder-Origin of crime-Cause of c rime in British Guiana-Classification of criminals-Amount of crime-Ita cause Scarcity of womenColoniallaws -Brut.o.l chi ld-\vife murder-Jealousy-RevengeExecution of felons-Composure of condemned men-Brain exhaustion-Murder of Mrs. Walsh Terrible scene Walsh's strange defence and behaviour-Trial and execution-Murders by Portuguese-Texeim-Excitement of his countrymen Murders by Arnbs-Cayenlle-Escaped convicts-Annamese and Tonqu i nese criminals-Numero u s languages spoken in sheritr's office-Interpreters and tlleir manners Russian va grants-National odours-Executioners-Hamlet-His bungling nnd bmtality Execution of Butler Painfu l scene-Brown The diflicultici:I of n sherin' ,.. ... ... ... 290

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x CONTENTS CHAPTER XIV. Moral education-Filthy dwellings of the poor-Corporation of Georgetown-Want of beneFactorsPaul de Saffen-Trotman Disapproval of criminals-Its absence-Bantus-Immorality -Concubinage-Industrial schools Whipping Flogging as a. deterrent-A careless warder-Jack in office-A hope l ess caso Femal o obstinacy-Burglsl'y-BlackmanD etrayed by a woman-An ingenious thiefDeath by lightning Curio u s l'cl:lUlbl-A jealous Mobammedan-Mutilatioll-A !:itl'ange caKe -Mul'dor w i thout a motive-An injured dnw scl Hcl' rovenge PAGE Tho biter bit ... ., ... ... ,.. 308 CHAP1'ER XV. BishOlJ Austin Consecration of the now cathedral-llis farewell address-Climate of British Guiana-Educat ional difficulticl:iCurse of tro pical service-Planters' b'oublcs-Fall in price uf I>uhrar-Bounty-fed heet-'l'he immigration sYiltem-'l'ho Ea!;t Indian at homo-Chango f or tho better -His position in D e m e rara-Magistrate s' Courts-Oriento.l i m ager y Famino ill Indiu -Plenty in British Guiano.-Malingerel'B-A paradiso for the poor-Village commun ities-Colonia l peasantry-Gold i ndustr y -Diamonds-How to make Briti s h Guinna prospe r ous ... APPENDIX A. .. 347 Al'I'E::-;:DL\: 1l.-GwSS.l.RY OF CmWLl:: W01WS 3 48 Al' l'l::SDlX U. .. .. 3M INDEX ::159 x CONTENTS CHAPTER XIV. Moral education-Filthy dwellings of the poor-Corporation of Georgetown-Want of beneFactorsPaul de Saffen-Trotman Disapproval of criminals-Its absence-Bantus-Immorality -Concubinage-Industrial schools Whipping Flogging as a. deterrent-A careless warder-Jack in office-A hope l ess caso Femal o obstinacy-Burglsl'y-BlackmanD etrayed by a woman-An ingenious thiefDeath by lightning Curio u s l'cl:lUlbl-A jealous Mobammedan-Mutilatioll-A !:itl'ange caKe -Mul'dor w i thout a motive-An injured dnw scl Hcl' rovenge PAGE Tho biter bit ... ., ... ... ,.. 308 CHAP1'ER XV. BishOlJ Austin Consecration of the now cathedral-llis farewell address-Climate of British Guiana-Educat ional difficulticl:iCurse of tro pical service-Planters' b'oublcs-Fall in price uf I>uhrar-Bounty-fed heet-'l'he immigration sYiltem-'l'ho Ea!;t Indian at homo-Chango f or tho better -His position in D e m e rara-Magistrate s' Courts-Oriento.l i m ager y Famino ill Indiu -Plenty in British Guiano.-Malingerel'B-A paradiso for the poor-Village commun ities-Colonia l peasantry-Gold i ndustr y -Diamonds-How to make Briti s h Guinna prospe r ous ... APPENDIX A. .. 347 Al'I'E::-;:DL\: 1l.-GwSS.l.RY OF CmWLl:: W01WS 3 48 Al' l'l::SDlX U. .. .. 3M INDEX ::159

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS THE AUTHOR (FrOIn a Photo) lirontispiece TO FAC! 1'AOI> Go't'ERNliENT BUILDINGS, 4TH, 1874 ... (From. a Photo) SEA WALL, GEORGE'fOWN LEPERS' HOT, KAOW ISLAND, ESSEQUIBO RIVEh CREOLE OF SURINAll { From a Sketch} ... by the .Author FRtJ'lT GmL .. (From a Photo) IN THE '"VET SAVANNAH VIEW ON THE ESSEQUIBO R1Vlm, llnITtlm GUIANA ON THE POTA-RO RIVER, BRITISH GUIANA VIEW FROM GoLD HILL, DEMERARA RIVER GoLD-HlNERS' CAMP, EIYIEQUIBO RIVER {From a Sketch} ... by tM .Author ON THE CoRENTYNE RIVER, BRITISH GUIANA THE THOUSAND ISLE!>, CoRENTYNE RrvER eRtNR8E DOOTOU. GEORGETqWN (From a Photo) CHINESE IMMIGRANT AND HIS WIFE, BRITISH GOlAN .... ACOAWOIO INDIANS, DEMERARA RrVER EAST INDIAN blMlGRANTS, BRITISH GUIANA CooLIE GmL, BRITISH GUIANA "'l' lGRESS OF TIGER BAY" ... AVENUE PAr.MS, WAKENAAM 2 14 22 28 28 80 134 136 174 176 196 200 212 212 230 230 260 260 284 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS THE AUTHOR (FrOIn a Photo) lirontispiece TO FAC! 1'AOI> Go't'ERNliENT BUILDINGS, 4TH, 1874 ... (From. a Photo) SEA WALL, GEORGE'fOWN LEPERS' HOT, KAOW ISLAND, ESSEQUIBO RIVEh CREOLE OF SURINAll { From a Sketch} ... by the .Author FRtJ'lT GmL .. (From a Photo) IN THE '"VET SAVANNAH VIEW ON THE ESSEQUIBO R1Vlm, llnITtlm GUIANA ON THE POTA-RO RIVER, BRITISH GUIANA VIEW FROM GoLD HILL, DEMERARA RIVER GoLD-HlNERS' CAMP, EIYIEQUIBO RIVER {From a Sketch} ... by tM .Author ON THE CoRENTYNE RIVER, BRITISH GUIANA THE THOUSAND ISLE!>, CoRENTYNE RrvER eRtNR8E DOOTOU. GEORGETqWN (From a Photo) CHINESE IMMIGRANT AND HIS WIFE, BRITISH GOlAN .... ACOAWOIO INDIANS, DEMERARA RrVER EAST INDIAN blMlGRANTS, BRITISH GUIANA CooLIE GmL, BRITISH GUIANA "'l' lGRESS OF TIGER BAY" ... AVENUE PAr.MS, WAKENAAM 2 14 22 28 28 80 134 136 174 176 196 200 212 212 230 230 260 260 284

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PAGE 17

TWENTY-FIVE YEARS BRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER 1. Introduction-Changes in twenty-five years-First impressions of British Guiana.-Mosquitoes-Frogs-Ge orgetown-Houses in GnianaDrainage-Hent and damp-Society-Absence o f the leisured and literary cInsses -Newspaper press -Anthony Trollope -BoddamWhetham-Monotony of life-British Guiana-Its position unknown -Travellers' tale s-Climate-Early burials-Yellow f ever-Funerals -Difficulty of burial-Lepro sy-Hospitals IN one of her interesting books, Mrs. Oliphant refuses to include under the head of literature" Reminiscences aud Recollections, as she says that they are only written to gratify the vanity of garrulous old men, and are of no value from a literary point of view. This may be true, but at the same time it caJlnot be denied that even the worst written and most stupid book of reminiscences may conts in some valuable faots, and anecdotes may therein be treasured up which may prove of great value to the future historian or sooiologist. B TWENTY-FIVE YEARS BRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER 1. Introduction-Changes in twenty-five years-First impressions of British Guiana.-Mosquitoes-Frogs-Ge orgetown-Houses in GnianaDrainage-Hent and damp-Society-Absence o f the leisured and literary cInsses -Newspaper press -Anthony Trollope -BoddamWhetham-Monotony of life-British Guiana-Its position unknown -Travellers' tale s-Climate-Early burials-Yellow f ever-Funerals -Difficulty of burial-Lepro sy-Hospitals IN one of her interesting books, Mrs. Oliphant refuses to include under the head of literature" Reminiscences aud Recollections, as she says that they are only written to gratify the vanity of garrulous old men, and are of no value from a literary point of view. This may be true, but at the same time it caJlnot be denied that even the worst written and most stupid book of reminiscences may conts in some valuable faots, and anecdotes may therein be treasured up which may prove of great value to the future historian or sooiologist. B

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2 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA How much do we not owe to the many diaries and reminiscences Wlitten by Englishmen and Frenchmen during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? So, despite Mrs. Oliphant's strictures, and disregarding the fact that some "iudolent reviewers," if they condescend to notice this book, may put me down as a garrulous and vajn old man, I shall proceed to write down my "Recollections of British Guiana" as it was dU1'ing my connection with the oolony from 1872 to 1897, in the hope that my readers, gentle or otherwise, may find something therein both to amuse and instruct them. Colouies ohange so rapidly, both as to men, manners, and customs, that the colcny of British Guiana when I left it was totally different from the colony as I found it. The land itself had changed; old landmarks had disappeared, and new ones sprung up; flourishing islands are in existence where not long ago the tide ebbed and flowed; railways and steam vessels are now hurry ing through vast territories only known twenty years ago to the fierce Carib or placid Arawak; gold diggers and diamond searchers are swarming up every great river and gloomy creek, and the whole face of the country is being rapidly changed. And with this change of ciroumstanoes the people have changed. The old quaint ma, nners and habits have disappeared; the old legends are vanishing; the people dress and talk as others; the electric light illuminates their houses; the tramcar patrols their streets; the silk ohimuey- 2 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA How much do we not owe to the many diaries and reminiscences Wlitten by Englishmen and Frenchmen during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? So, despite Mrs. Oliphant's strictures, and disregarding the fact that some "iudolent reviewers," if they condescend to notice this book, may put me down as a garrulous and vajn old man, I shall proceed to write down my "Recollections of British Guiana" as it was dU1'ing my connection with the oolony from 1872 to 1897, in the hope that my readers, gentle or otherwise, may find something therein both to amuse and instruct them. Colouies ohange so rapidly, both as to men, manners, and customs, that the colcny of British Guiana when I left it was totally different from the colony as I found it. The land itself had changed; old landmarks had disappeared, and new ones sprung up; flourishing islands are in existence where not long ago the tide ebbed and flowed; railways and steam vessels are now hurry ing through vast territories only known twenty years ago to the fierce Carib or placid Arawak; gold diggers and diamond searchers are swarming up every great river and gloomy creek, and the whole face of the country is being rapidly changed. And with this change of ciroumstanoes the people have changed. The old quaint ma, nners and habits have disappeared; the old legends are vanishing; the people dress and talk as others; the electric light illuminates their houses; the tramcar patrols their streets; the silk ohimuey-

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FIRST IMPRESSIONS 3 pot of civilization is constantly in evidence; and they are as other men. The world is gradually acquiring a painful similaxity; in a few hundred years every one will dress alike and speak the same language, and the human race will be reduced to one dull commonplace level of uniformity. After the lapse of so many years, it is difficult to remember what made the most impression upon a stranger landing in British Guiana at George town. I believe what struck me most were the mosquitoes and the frogs. To new comers the mosquitoes are more than a nuisance, they oause actual pajn and inconveuience: I have known people unable to put on their boots for weeks owing to the inflammation caused by these pests. In such a damp climate, and where the cOlmtry is intersected in all directions by canals and trenches, frogs enjoy a sort of paradise. There are a great variety of batrachians, from the tiny little piping frogs that hide themselves in goblets and water bottles, to the huge bull frog that bellows in the marshes. The noise caused by these animals in Georgetown at certajn times of the year is deafening to a new-comer, but it is curious that after a time you become so accus tomed to it that it passes without notice, unless your attention is speoially called to it, or it is unusually vociferous. Georgeto wn, the capital of British Guiana, the Venice of the West Indies, as it has been called, is certajnly a strange place, and one calculated to excite the interest and admiration of everyone. FIRST IMPRESSIONS 3 pot of civilization is constantly in evidence; and they are as other men. The world is gradually acquiring a painful similaxity; in a few hundred years every one will dress alike and speak the same language, and the human race will be reduced to one dull commonplace level of uniformity. After the lapse of so many years, it is difficult to remember what made the most impression upon a stranger landing in British Guiana at George town. I believe what struck me most were the mosquitoes and the frogs. To new comers the mosquitoes are more than a nuisance, they oause actual pajn and inconveuience: I have known people unable to put on their boots for weeks owing to the inflammation caused by these pests. In such a damp climate, and where the cOlmtry is intersected in all directions by canals and trenches, frogs enjoy a sort of paradise. There are a great variety of batrachians, from the tiny little piping frogs that hide themselves in goblets and water bottles, to the huge bull frog that bellows in the marshes. The noise caused by these animals in Georgetown at certajn times of the year is deafening to a new-comer, but it is curious that after a time you become so accus tomed to it that it passes without notice, unless your attention is speoially called to it, or it is unusually vociferous. Georgeto wn, the capital of British Guiana, the Venice of the West Indies, as it has been called, is certajnly a strange place, and one calculated to excite the interest and admiration of everyone.

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4 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA Beneath the level of the sea at springtides, the city is defended from the waves of the Atlantic by a granite breakwater two miles long, stretching from Fort William Frederick at the mouth of the river Demerara to Plantation Kitty on the East coast: great granite groins run out from it into the sea every sixty yards or so, to break the force of the waves; whilst the wall, which is twenty-five feet wide on the top, is utilized as a promenade and health resort in the afternoons and evenings. This sea wall was commenced in 1858, and was not completed until 1892. It was built principally by oonvict labour, and all the granite was brought from the penal settlement on the Massaruni River. The streets in Georgeto wn are all reotangular; the city is interseoted in all directions by open canals and drajDS, whioh are orossed by innumerable bridges. These, at the time I first went out to the colony, were made of wood, which have since been replaced by handsome structures built of iron and oement. Main Street is certajnly one of the prettiest streets I ever saw. About forty yards wide, it is divided up the middle by a wide canal full of the Victoria Regia lily, the canal, and the roads on each side" being shaded by an avenue of saman trees. Handsome houses, pajnted white, or some bright colour, are built on eaoh side of the street, nearly all of whioh are surrounded by gardens, full of orotonE, palms, poinsettias, bourgainvilleas, and all sorts of bright-hued plants and flowers; on some of the trees can be seen clusters of cattleyas with their mauve and rose- 4 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA Beneath the level of the sea at springtides, the city is defended from the waves of the Atlantic by a granite breakwater two miles long, stretching from Fort William Frederick at the mouth of the river Demerara to Plantation Kitty on the East coast: great granite groins run out from it into the sea every sixty yards or so, to break the force of the waves; whilst the wall, which is twenty-five feet wide on the top, is utilized as a promenade and health resort in the afternoons and evenings. This sea wall was commenced in 1858, and was not completed until 1892. It was built principally by oonvict labour, and all the granite was brought from the penal settlement on the Massaruni River. The streets in Georgeto wn are all reotangular; the city is interseoted in all directions by open canals and drajDS, whioh are orossed by innumerable bridges. These, at the time I first went out to the colony, were made of wood, which have since been replaced by handsome structures built of iron and oement. Main Street is certajnly one of the prettiest streets I ever saw. About forty yards wide, it is divided up the middle by a wide canal full of the Victoria Regia lily, the canal, and the roads on each side" being shaded by an avenue of saman trees. Handsome houses, pajnted white, or some bright colour, are built on eaoh side of the street, nearly all of whioh are surrounded by gardens, full of orotonE, palms, poinsettias, bourgainvilleas, and all sorts of bright-hued plants and flowers; on some of the trees can be seen clusters of cattleyas with their mauve and rose-

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.4 M.4SS OF CESSPOOLS 5 coloured flowers; from another an oncidium throws out its racemes of odorous petals, four to five feet in length. The Brick dam, as it is called, is another beautiful boulevard more than a mile in length, bordered on both sides by lovely flowering trees and lofty pa, lms. Houses in Guiana are almost entirely made of wood, raised upon brick pillars from eight to ten feet high, to enjoy the breeze, and avoid damp and malaria. 'rhe colony provides excellent hard wood tircber which will last for ages, but for oheapness builders, whilst using colony tircber for the framework of the houses, use American lumber for the walls and partitions. This soon rots, the ants and the damp clircate destroy it rapidly, and the outside of a house, despite fre, quent pa, intings, will require renewal every ten years. The system of drajnage is primitive. The rajn water is drained off by the canals, which are connected with the Demerara River by sluices, the doors of which can only be opened for twelve hours in the day, when the tide is falling or only just beginning to rise. The house drajnage is poured into cesspools, whioh are nnlined, so that it soaks into the ground. These pits are rarely emptied, and when this is done, another pit is dug in the compound, and the filth from one poured into the other. In this way the whole city is becoming a mass of cesspools, which it will be dangerous to disturb. No wonder that the lute Surgeon-General (Dr. Grieve) spoke out plajnly about this suicidal policy, but nothing has been .4 M.4SS OF CESSPOOLS 5 coloured flowers; from another an oncidium throws out its racemes of odorous petals, four to five feet in length. The Brick dam, as it is called, is another beautiful boulevard more than a mile in length, bordered on both sides by lovely flowering trees and lofty pa, lms. Houses in Guiana are almost entirely made of wood, raised upon brick pillars from eight to ten feet high, to enjoy the breeze, and avoid damp and malaria. 'rhe colony provides excellent hard wood tircber which will last for ages, but for oheapness builders, whilst using colony tircber for the framework of the houses, use American lumber for the walls and partitions. This soon rots, the ants and the damp clircate destroy it rapidly, and the outside of a house, despite fre, quent pa, intings, will require renewal every ten years. The system of drajnage is primitive. The rajn water is drained off by the canals, which are connected with the Demerara River by sluices, the doors of which can only be opened for twelve hours in the day, when the tide is falling or only just beginning to rise. The house drajnage is poured into cesspools, whioh are nnlined, so that it soaks into the ground. These pits are rarely emptied, and when this is done, another pit is dug in the compound, and the filth from one poured into the other. In this way the whole city is becoming a mass of cesspools, which it will be dangerous to disturb. No wonder that the lute Surgeon-General (Dr. Grieve) spoke out plajnly about this suicidal policy, but nothing has been

PAGE 24

6 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRlTISH aUIANA done to remedy the evil. Since writing the above, the Town Council of Georgeto wn have bestirred themselves; odourless excavators have been pur chased, which clean out the cesspools, but the filthy habit still prevails of emptying their contents into the river, causing frightful stenches and mal odourous deposits. But let us leave this very unsavonry remmlscence. The principal recollections that one has of British Guiana are of its heat and dampness. It is one of the hottest places in the world, that is, as regards mean temperature all the year round, night. and day. The temperature is never excessive, as in some parts of India and Africa in the summer, but there is no compensation in the shape of a cool season such as those places enjoy in the winter. Without change, the shade temperature remains the same for weeks and months, varying from 820 to 88 ; sometimes, when there has been a very heavy fall of rsjn and no sun for two days, the mercury will register 78 when we all shiver and shake, put on mackintoshes, and long for the sun and warmth. Agajn, at the end of the dry season, when the thunder clouds are piling up in the south, the mercury sportively leaps up to 90, and remains there for a day or two, until thunder .and rain bring it down a little. I once saw a thermometer which registered 55 but some wag had put it into the ice chest, and flourished it about in support of his assertion that it was a cold night. As to rain, I oannot say that it always rains, but I will say that there are very few days in the year 6 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRlTISH aUIANA done to remedy the evil. Since writing the above, the Town Council of Georgeto wn have bestirred themselves; odourless excavators have been pur chased, which clean out the cesspools, but the filthy habit still prevails of emptying their contents into the river, causing frightful stenches and mal odourous deposits. But let us leave this very unsavonry remmlscence. The principal recollections that one has of British Guiana are of its heat and dampness. It is one of the hottest places in the world, that is, as regards mean temperature all the year round, night. and day. The temperature is never excessive, as in some parts of India and Africa in the summer, but there is no compensation in the shape of a cool season such as those places enjoy in the winter. Without change, the shade temperature remains the same for weeks and months, varying from 820 to 88 ; sometimes, when there has been a very heavy fall of rsjn and no sun for two days, the mercury will register 78 when we all shiver and shake, put on mackintoshes, and long for the sun and warmth. Agajn, at the end of the dry season, when the thunder clouds are piling up in the south, the mercury sportively leaps up to 90, and remains there for a day or two, until thunder .and rain bring it down a little. I once saw a thermometer which registered 55 but some wag had put it into the ice chest, and flourished it about in support of his assertion that it was a cold night. As to rain, I oannot say that it always rains, but I will say that there are very few days in the year

PAGE 25

TROPIOAL RAINFALL 'T when it never rains in some part of the country. The rainfall of the colony on the coast varies from 90 to 140 inches, so it cannot be called a dry country, although droughts lasting for several months occasionally occur. One thing is satisfactory-when it does rain there is no doubt about it, the water comes down with a rush and a pelt which leaves no doubt or anxiety in the mind as to whether it is r.jning or not. It always amused me when I returned to England to hear people argning whether it r.jned or not, and flattening their noses against the window-pane to see, or putting out their hands to feel for, the drops of rain. Sometimes the rajnfall was somewhat phe nomenal. I remember sixteen inches falling in one night, and more than two inches one morning during the half-hour in which we were taking our breakfast. I may say at once that I have no intention of putting anything into this book which could hurt any person's feelings, so I shall abstaiu from writing any scandals about the friends or associates amongst whom I spent so many happy years of my life. The white population of British Guiana differs little from a similar class in England. Society is composed of the usual elements, bflicials, professional men, merchants and planters with their wives and families, who are as well bred and well educated as people of the same avocations in other countries. If there be any distinction to be made, I think I should give it in favour of the colonists. Certainly in no other place have I TROPIOAL RAINFALL 'T when it never rains in some part of the country. The rainfall of the colony on the coast varies from 90 to 140 inches, so it cannot be called a dry country, although droughts lasting for several months occasionally occur. One thing is satisfactory-when it does rain there is no doubt about it, the water comes down with a rush and a pelt which leaves no doubt or anxiety in the mind as to whether it is r.jning or not. It always amused me when I returned to England to hear people argning whether it r.jned or not, and flattening their noses against the window-pane to see, or putting out their hands to feel for, the drops of rain. Sometimes the rajnfall was somewhat phe nomenal. I remember sixteen inches falling in one night, and more than two inches one morning during the half-hour in which we were taking our breakfast. I may say at once that I have no intention of putting anything into this book which could hurt any person's feelings, so I shall abstaiu from writing any scandals about the friends or associates amongst whom I spent so many happy years of my life. The white population of British Guiana differs little from a similar class in England. Society is composed of the usual elements, bflicials, professional men, merchants and planters with their wives and families, who are as well bred and well educated as people of the same avocations in other countries. If there be any distinction to be made, I think I should give it in favour of the colonists. Certainly in no other place have I

PAGE 26

8 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA seen suoh sympathy, hospitality, and generosity as I have seen displayed in British Guiana. Of course during a long sojourn in the colony, I have known some strange characters, and had some strange experiences, but I should be sorry to rake up old stories whioh would be of no benefit to my readers, and might give pain to many innooent persons; so if any old oolonist opens these pages in the hope of reviving the memories of bygone scandals and iniqnities, I fear that he will be disappointed. It is impossible to avoid some unpleasant details if I am to give a truthful im pression of the colony, but I have introduced as few as possible; and the individuals who were responsible for them will only be recognized by those who were well aware of the faots before I narrated them. It is true that in most colonies there are a few black sheep, who have been shipped thither by despairing friends and relations, after having failed to find them any satisfaotory position in England; but the majority of the ruling caste are energetio men who, failing to find an opening for their talents in their native land, have pushed towards that Greater Britain beyond the seas, where there is still elbow-room for all who want to work. The only material difference between in British Gniana and Great Britain, is in the absence of the leisured and literary classes. It is difficult, if not impossible, to find an idle man in the colony. Those who have amassed enough money to enable them to live at ease, take their 8 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA seen suoh sympathy, hospitality, and generosity as I have seen displayed in British Guiana. Of course during a long sojourn in the colony, I have known some strange characters, and had some strange experiences, but I should be sorry to rake up old stories whioh would be of no benefit to my readers, and might give pain to many innooent persons; so if any old oolonist opens these pages in the hope of reviving the memories of bygone scandals and iniqnities, I fear that he will be disappointed. It is impossible to avoid some unpleasant details if I am to give a truthful im pression of the colony, but I have introduced as few as possible; and the individuals who were responsible for them will only be recognized by those who were well aware of the faots before I narrated them. It is true that in most colonies there are a few black sheep, who have been shipped thither by despairing friends and relations, after having failed to find them any satisfaotory position in England; but the majority of the ruling caste are energetio men who, failing to find an opening for their talents in their native land, have pushed towards that Greater Britain beyond the seas, where there is still elbow-room for all who want to work. The only material difference between in British Gniana and Great Britain, is in the absence of the leisured and literary classes. It is difficult, if not impossible, to find an idle man in the colony. Those who have amassed enough money to enable them to live at ease, take their

PAGE 27

LOOAL JOURNALS 9 flight to healthier climes; and when any worker feels the necessity for rest, he seeks it in a sea voyage and change of scene. The absence of all artistic and literary society might by some be deemed a drawback. During my stay in the colony, it was my good fortune to meet many highly edncated men, clas sical and mathematical scholars, men of great erudition, botanists, zoologists, and the learned in other lines-not a few were well known in the world of letters-but still they were in a very small minority, and, unlike leaven, they had no influence upon the general lump. When we turn to art, it must be confessed that we were singularly wanting. A few there were who tried to arouse some feeling for the true and the beautiful in art and nature, but the seed fell on barren ground and produced no fruit. But young and vigorous communities are too much occupied in providing for the necessities of life to have time for art studies, whioh must be sought amongst old and somewhat decaying civilizations. In one respect the colony was singularly fortunate, in the pos session of an independent and well-conducted press. The newspapers published in the although few in number, were excellent in material, and will compare favourably with the journals of much larger and more influential communities. I would especially mention 17 .. Argosy, a weekly newspaper, owned, edited, and published by my friend Mr. James Thomson, which is by far the higl
PAGE 28

10 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Indies, and whi c h owes its inception and pros perity to the individual exertions of its owner. I have had occasion, in writing these Remjnjg.. cences, to refer frequently to the old files of The Argosy, from which I have refreshed my memory as to s everal occurrences, and to which I am in debted for some amusing anecdotes illustrating my remarks on men and things. This is not a guide book, and Georgetown is now so well known, that anyone curious on the subject can find a description of the place in various books of travel. Perhaps the best and most humorous account of the colony and its capital is to be found in Anthony Trollope's West Indies and SpaJJish Main." Boddam Whetham, in his Roraima book, gives an accurate and well-painted sketch of the city. But I think no one has yet given a true word-painting which can convey to the reader any idea of the exces s ive bri g htness of the place, caused by the width of the streets, the red roads, numerous fine white buildings and churches, the wealth of foliage and flower everywhere conspicuous,-alllit up with an intense equatOlial sunshine. The city is embowered in trees: its aspeot from the top of the lighthouse is of a sea of paJms, out of which rise at intervals towers, spires, and campaJJi1e. For a great part of the year, the flamboyant trees make your eyes ache with the gorgeousness of theu sCMlet flowers, whilst in September and October the long-johns break the sky line with their rich cream-coloured plumes, 10 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Indies, and whi c h owes its inception and pros perity to the individual exertions of its owner. I have had occasion, in writing these Remjnjg.. cences, to refer frequently to the old files of The Argosy, from which I have refreshed my memory as to s everal occurrences, and to which I am in debted for some amusing anecdotes illustrating my remarks on men and things. This is not a guide book, and Georgetown is now so well known, that anyone curious on the subject can find a description of the place in various books of travel. Perhaps the best and most humorous account of the colony and its capital is to be found in Anthony Trollope's West Indies and SpaJJish Main." Boddam Whetham, in his Roraima book, gives an accurate and well-painted sketch of the city. But I think no one has yet given a true word-painting which can convey to the reader any idea of the exces s ive bri g htness of the place, caused by the width of the streets, the red roads, numerous fine white buildings and churches, the wealth of foliage and flower everywhere conspicuous,-alllit up with an intense equatOlial sunshine. The city is embowered in trees: its aspeot from the top of the lighthouse is of a sea of paJms, out of which rise at intervals towers, spires, and campaJJi1e. For a great part of the year, the flamboyant trees make your eyes ache with the gorgeousness of theu sCMlet flowers, whilst in September and October the long-johns break the sky line with their rich cream-coloured plumes,

PAGE 29

MONOTONY OF LIFE 11 ohanging week by week to a real burnt sienna. The brillianoy of the Howers is rivalled by the gay soarlets, yellows, and greens, which clothe the limbs of the delicate Hindoos and stalwart negresses perambulating the streets. One of the greatest drawbacks to the colony as a residence, is the monotony of existence within its borders. There is no winter, nor autumn, nor spring-it is one perpetual summer. One day is like another, except that some days it r,jus and on others it does not, and for a few months the weather is hotter and more unpleasant than usual. There is never a cold breeze, no gales, no hurricanes; the earthquakes are insignificant; the thunder storms on the coast infrequent and inoffensive. The food is always the same; the same tough, insipid meat and sodden vegetables; lean fowls and tasteless fish; oranges, pine apples, and bananas, all the year round; mangoes for six months; sapodillas and star-apples are almost always with us. It is this sameness of food which makes us so greedy when we go home. How you revel in the variety of fish, Hesh, and fowl, the tender spring vegetables, the lu sc ious strawberries, the fruit tart with cream! oh heavens I, how delicious they were! It were worth several years of exile to experience the joy of quaffing a draught of English beer, and the sitting down to the fried sole and delicious bread and butter of an English breakfast. The three oolonies of Essequibo, Berbioe, and Demerara were amalgamated into one Government, MONOTONY OF LIFE 11 ohanging week by week to a real burnt sienna. The brillianoy of the Howers is rivalled by the gay soarlets, yellows, and greens, which clothe the limbs of the delicate Hindoos and stalwart negresses perambulating the streets. One of the greatest drawbacks to the colony as a residence, is the monotony of existence within its borders. There is no winter, nor autumn, nor spring-it is one perpetual summer. One day is like another, except that some days it r,jus and on others it does not, and for a few months the weather is hotter and more unpleasant than usual. There is never a cold breeze, no gales, no hurricanes; the earthquakes are insignificant; the thunder storms on the coast infrequent and inoffensive. The food is always the same; the same tough, insipid meat and sodden vegetables; lean fowls and tasteless fish; oranges, pine apples, and bananas, all the year round; mangoes for six months; sapodillas and star-apples are almost always with us. It is this sameness of food which makes us so greedy when we go home. How you revel in the variety of fish, Hesh, and fowl, the tender spring vegetables, the lu sc ious strawberries, the fruit tart with cream! oh heavens I, how delicious they were! It were worth several years of exile to experience the joy of quaffing a draught of English beer, and the sitting down to the fried sole and delicious bread and butter of an English breakfast. The three oolonies of Essequibo, Berbioe, and Demerara were amalgamated into one Government,

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12 TWENTY-FIVE YE.!.BS IN BBITISH GUliN.!. under the name of British Guiana, in 1831, and Major-General Sir Benjamin Durban was appointed, by that excellent monarch King William IV., to be the first Governor and Com mander-in-chief in and over the colony of British Guiana, Vice-Admiral and Ordinary of the same. These territories, which had been conquered from the Dutch, returned to them at the Peace of Amiens, reoonquered and retajned in the sub sequent wars, lie in the equatorial belt of South America, and form part of the great territory of Guyana. The other divisions of this region belong to the Venezuelans, the Dutch, and the French, and are called respectively Guyana, Surinam, and Cayenne_ Surinam once belonged to us, but we exchanged it with the Dutch for the flourishing settlement of N e w York. By this bargain we thought we had done Mynheer in the eye, bnt it turned ont otherwise, as the Dutch still possess Surinam, whilst we have lost New York. It is a curions fact that when the SpaJliards first dis covered Guyana they named two rivers falling into the Atlantio Dessequibo and Di Mirari; one of these rivers has lost the D, and the other has retained it, so they have become Essequibo and Demerary. I give these geographical facts, because the position of British Guiana on the map of the world is generally unknown in English society. During my several furloughs, when I have visited my native land, I have been con gratulated by my acquajntances on looking so well, despite the climate of Africa, which they 12 TWENTY-FIVE YE.!.BS IN BBITISH GUliN.!. under the name of British Guiana, in 1831, and Major-General Sir Benjamin Durban was appointed, by that excellent monarch King William IV., to be the first Governor and Com mander-in-chief in and over the colony of British Guiana, Vice-Admiral and Ordinary of the same. These territories, which had been conquered from the Dutch, returned to them at the Peace of Amiens, reoonquered and retajned in the sub sequent wars, lie in the equatorial belt of South America, and form part of the great territory of Guyana. The other divisions of this region belong to the Venezuelans, the Dutch, and the French, and are called respectively Guyana, Surinam, and Cayenne_ Surinam once belonged to us, but we exchanged it with the Dutch for the flourishing settlement of N e w York. By this bargain we thought we had done Mynheer in the eye, bnt it turned ont otherwise, as the Dutch still possess Surinam, whilst we have lost New York. It is a curions fact that when the SpaJliards first dis covered Guyana they named two rivers falling into the Atlantio Dessequibo and Di Mirari; one of these rivers has lost the D, and the other has retained it, so they have become Essequibo and Demerary. I give these geographical facts, because the position of British Guiana on the map of the world is generally unknown in English society. During my several furloughs, when I have visited my native land, I have been con gratulated by my acquajntances on looking so well, despite the climate of Africa, which they

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TR..i. VELLERS' STORIES 13 understoou was so insalubrious: and when I told one friend, a vicar of the Anglican Church, that I had been some time in Demerara, he astonished me by saying that he had always been informed that Demerara was the richest island in the Caribbean Sea. It was no use asserting that Gniana was not in Africa, and that Demerara was not an island, so I gave it up, and accepted meekly my insular and Mrican position. But why should we scoff at these good people for their ignorance, when an Under-Secretary of State in the House of Commons gravely asserted that Demerara was an island, and none of his hearers in that august assembly could venture offhand to contradict him. Since writing the above, the dispute with Venezuela and the United States over the boundary question, and the establishment of gold mines in the north-west district, have made the colony better known in Europe. It is difficult for us poor travellers to do or say what is right; stay-at-home people always know so much more about the countries we have visited than we do. I remember once indulging in some yarns which were swallowed greedily by my audience, until I asserted that in Berbice I had seen muscovy ducks, which weighed from six to eight pounds each, and which roosted and built their nests in trees, which statement was received with howls of incredulity and derision; whereas it is quite true, and more credible than several travellers' stories with which I had regaled them. It was the old story over again of the flying fish TR..i. VELLERS' STORIES 13 understoou was so insalubrious: and when I told one friend, a vicar of the Anglican Church, that I had been some time in Demerara, he astonished me by saying that he had always been informed that Demerara was the richest island in the Caribbean Sea. It was no use asserting that Gniana was not in Africa, and that Demerara was not an island, so I gave it up, and accepted meekly my insular and Mrican position. But why should we scoff at these good people for their ignorance, when an Under-Secretary of State in the House of Commons gravely asserted that Demerara was an island, and none of his hearers in that august assembly could venture offhand to contradict him. Since writing the above, the dispute with Venezuela and the United States over the boundary question, and the establishment of gold mines in the north-west district, have made the colony better known in Europe. It is difficult for us poor travellers to do or say what is right; stay-at-home people always know so much more about the countries we have visited than we do. I remember once indulging in some yarns which were swallowed greedily by my audience, until I asserted that in Berbice I had seen muscovy ducks, which weighed from six to eight pounds each, and which roosted and built their nests in trees, which statement was received with howls of incredulity and derision; whereas it is quite true, and more credible than several travellers' stories with which I had regaled them. It was the old story over again of the flying fish

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14 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA and Pharaoh's chariot wheels. Give a dog a bad name and you may as well hang him. Certainly this is true of British Guiana. When one men tions Demerara in England, we are gravely informed that it is impossible for a white man to live there for a year; and when I assert that I have lived there off and on for twenty-five years, I am regarded as an accomplished liar. This bad name was acquired in the earlier part of the century, when white troops were sent to the colony from Halifax and other cold stations, when they died in great numbers from yellow fever and strong rum. The sauitary arrangements of the barracks were defective, in fact, were con spicuous by their absence, the men were g rossly overcrowded, and the natural results followed. There have also been many cases where young men coming frolll England, who neglect the most ordinary precautions for the preservation of health in a tropioal country, have died after a few weeks' residence, and the news of this, when oarried home, has oonfirmed the prejudice against the colony. An English barrister, who had been appointed as a stipendiary magistrate in the oolony, was introduced to me, and he asked me whether the olimate was as fatal as he had been told in England. I said, "No; your life is quite safe if you avoid three or four things. The heat and moisture of the climate produce profuse perspirations, so be careful never to sit down and go to s l eep in your damp clothes; don't expose yourself to the sun, and for some time be 14 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA and Pharaoh's chariot wheels. Give a dog a bad name and you may as well hang him. Certainly this is true of British Guiana. When one men tions Demerara in England, we are gravely informed that it is impossible for a white man to live there for a year; and when I assert that I have lived there off and on for twenty-five years, I am regarded as an accomplished liar. This bad name was acquired in the earlier part of the century, when white troops were sent to the colony from Halifax and other cold stations, when they died in great numbers from yellow fever and strong rum. The sauitary arrangements of the barracks were defective, in fact, were con spicuous by their absence, the men were g rossly overcrowded, and the natural results followed. There have also been many cases where young men coming frolll England, who neglect the most ordinary precautions for the preservation of health in a tropioal country, have died after a few weeks' residence, and the news of this, when oarried home, has oonfirmed the prejudice against the colony. An English barrister, who had been appointed as a stipendiary magistrate in the oolony, was introduced to me, and he asked me whether the olimate was as fatal as he had been told in England. I said, "No; your life is quite safe if you avoid three or four things. The heat and moisture of the climate produce profuse perspirations, so be careful never to sit down and go to s l eep in your damp clothes; don't expose yourself to the sun, and for some time be

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OLlMATE 15 careful not to exhaust yourself by over-exertiou." What was the result? A fortnight afterwards he rode a mule round an estate in the hot sun, then played several sets of lawn tennis; drove home in his wet clothes; on arrival, feeling exhausted, he threw himself into a hammock in the open gallery, with a cool sea-breeze blowing upon him; fell asleep; awoke up at midnight in a roasting fever; was dead in forty-eight hours, and buried in ten more. This was not an isolated case; I have known the same thing happen over and over agAin. What man in England, who is in his senses, would go to sleep in his wet clothes after hunting or shooting? Yet people in Demerara do what they would never dream of doing in England, and then, when they get ill, they abuse the climate. There is one dreadful consequence of the climate which strikes every one, i.e. the necessity for almost immediate burial after death. No corpse oan be retajned in a house more than twenty hours, and, when the canse of death has been yellow fever, almost immediate burial is necessary. I have known cases where dissolntion absolutely began before death, when the ex tremities were blaok before the breath was out of the body. In many oases it has been found necessary to wrap the body immediately after death in a cotton sheet soaked in carbolio aoid, prepared beforehand, and thrust it into a ooffin, and screw it down at once. When Mr. G. died snddenly one Sunday afternoon, under somewhat OLlMATE 15 careful not to exhaust yourself by over-exertiou." What was the result? A fortnight afterwards he rode a mule round an estate in the hot sun, then played several sets of lawn tennis; drove home in his wet clothes; on arrival, feeling exhausted, he threw himself into a hammock in the open gallery, with a cool sea-breeze blowing upon him; fell asleep; awoke up at midnight in a roasting fever; was dead in forty-eight hours, and buried in ten more. This was not an isolated case; I have known the same thing happen over and over agAin. What man in England, who is in his senses, would go to sleep in his wet clothes after hunting or shooting? Yet people in Demerara do what they would never dream of doing in England, and then, when they get ill, they abuse the climate. There is one dreadful consequence of the climate which strikes every one, i.e. the necessity for almost immediate burial after death. No corpse oan be retajned in a house more than twenty hours, and, when the canse of death has been yellow fever, almost immediate burial is necessary. I have known cases where dissolntion absolutely began before death, when the ex tremities were blaok before the breath was out of the body. In many oases it has been found necessary to wrap the body immediately after death in a cotton sheet soaked in carbolio aoid, prepared beforehand, and thrust it into a ooffin, and screw it down at once. When Mr. G. died snddenly one Sunday afternoon, under somewhat

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16 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA suspicious circumstances, although I held an inquest a few hours after death, his body was actually melting away from his bones. The doctor I had summoned refused to make a post-mortem examination, as the body was too much decayed; the jury held their nostrils as they viewed the body, and we had to adjourn to another house to finish the investigation. It adds another terror to death when you stand by the grave hearing the solemn Burial Service of the Chnrch read over the remains of one with whom you had been drinking and laughing forty eight honrs before. Still it is wonderful how callous one becomes. I can remember how, in 1882, I slept at the hotel, having a dead man in the room on one side of me, and a dying one on the oth e r. Tropical hotels are not like English ones-everything is open for coolness, so that almost every sound oan be heard from one room to another. The dead man, poor fellow, was quiet enough, but poor Blair's groans distnrbed me sometimes in the night, and I went into his room two or three times to see if I could be of any use to him; but nothing availed, and he was dead before breakfast in the morning. One curious thing about yellow fever is that there is often a sort of rally after the beginning of the attack, when the patient feels qnite strong, and insists upon getting up and going out. I remember one young man who had the fever was reported to be very ill. I went to inquire about him, and, to my astonish ment, I was told that he had gone out. Feeling 16 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA suspicious circumstances, although I held an inquest a few hours after death, his body was actually melting away from his bones. The doctor I had summoned refused to make a post-mortem examination, as the body was too much decayed; the jury held their nostrils as they viewed the body, and we had to adjourn to another house to finish the investigation. It adds another terror to death when you stand by the grave hearing the solemn Burial Service of the Chnrch read over the remains of one with whom you had been drinking and laughing forty eight honrs before. Still it is wonderful how callous one becomes. I can remember how, in 1882, I slept at the hotel, having a dead man in the room on one side of me, and a dying one on the oth e r. Tropical hotels are not like English ones-everything is open for coolness, so that almost every sound oan be heard from one room to another. The dead man, poor fellow, was quiet enough, but poor Blair's groans distnrbed me sometimes in the night, and I went into his room two or three times to see if I could be of any use to him; but nothing availed, and he was dead before breakfast in the morning. One curious thing about yellow fever is that there is often a sort of rally after the beginning of the attack, when the patient feels qnite strong, and insists upon getting up and going out. I remember one young man who had the fever was reported to be very ill. I went to inquire about him, and, to my astonish ment, I was told that he had gone out. Feeling

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YELLOW FEVER 17 better, he had got out of bed, dressed, aud started off to walk to the sea-wall and back, a distance of about two miles. He returned in a state of exhaustion, and was dead twenty-four hours after wards. Young Miles got out of his bed and wrote a letter to his mother, telling her that she would be sorry to hear that he was going to die-which he did, poor boy, a few hours afterwards. I was Sheriff of Essequibo at the beginning of the epidemic of 1881, and many young men and maidens were sent down thither to be out of Georgetown, where the fever was most prevalent. So we were very lively on the coast, and had some pleasant picnics and dances. I recall vividly one picnio on the sandhills behind JohaJJna Ceoilia. Young Tengely was one of us-a bright young fellow, who was amusing us with songs, acoom panying himself on the banjo. As we were ex ohanging farewells after the picnic, Tengely said to me, "I must say good-bye to you, Sheriff, as I am off to town to-morrow." I urged him not to go, as the fever was still serious in town; but he said he must go, there was no danger, he was not afraid. Within a week he was dead and buried. Some people who went up to Georgetown brought the fever down with them to the coast. I remember a poor young Scotchman, an overseer at Plantation Reliance, who was down with yellow fever. I went over to see him with the manager of the estate and the district medical officer. The doctor was at his wits' eud; the fever was so high c YELLOW FEVER 17 better, he had got out of bed, dressed, aud started off to walk to the sea-wall and back, a distance of about two miles. He returned in a state of exhaustion, and was dead twenty-four hours after wards. Young Miles got out of his bed and wrote a letter to his mother, telling her that she would be sorry to hear that he was going to die-which he did, poor boy, a few hours afterwards. I was Sheriff of Essequibo at the beginning of the epidemic of 1881, and many young men and maidens were sent down thither to be out of Georgetown, where the fever was most prevalent. So we were very lively on the coast, and had some pleasant picnics and dances. I recall vividly one picnio on the sandhills behind JohaJJna Ceoilia. Young Tengely was one of us-a bright young fellow, who was amusing us with songs, acoom panying himself on the banjo. As we were ex ohanging farewells after the picnic, Tengely said to me, "I must say good-bye to you, Sheriff, as I am off to town to-morrow." I urged him not to go, as the fever was still serious in town; but he said he must go, there was no danger, he was not afraid. Within a week he was dead and buried. Some people who went up to Georgetown brought the fever down with them to the coast. I remember a poor young Scotchman, an overseer at Plantation Reliance, who was down with yellow fever. I went over to see him with the manager of the estate and the district medical officer. The doctor was at his wits' eud; the fever was so high c

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18 TWENTY-}'IVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUI.4NA that the patient's skin seemed absolutely to burn your fingers as you touched bim. We soake,l sheets in water and sprinkled them with lime juice, and rolled him up in them; but they were dry and hard almost as soon as put on, the heat of his body was so great. All our efforts were unavAjling, and he died in a few hours. Many of the victims of yellow fever turn quite dark after death, others a bright orange. I never shall forget my horror when I called to inquire after the health of a bright, blue-eyed, flaxen haired child, of about eleven years of age, who was down with fever. Her father came to the door, and, as I asked after the child, he said, Come here." I followed him upstairs into his daughter's room, and there was the poor child lying dead, her hair cut off, her limbs and face black and discoloured. She had died only an hour before. But don't let any of my readers go away with the impression, because such horrors as I have described occasionally take place, that British Guiana is a white man's grave. Far from it. It is trne that epidemics of yellow fever occur at long intervals, and that there are always a few sporadio cases in the colony; nor can it be denied that malarial fever prevails to It very serious extent, which, after several attaoks, may prove fatal. But, on the other hand, the fatal fevers of Europe-typhoid, typhus, and scarlet are almost unknown. I have never known a case of small-pox or diphtheria during my residence there. 18 TWENTY-}'IVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUI.4NA that the patient's skin seemed absolutely to burn your fingers as you touched bim. We soake,l sheets in water and sprinkled them with lime juice, and rolled him up in them; but they were dry and hard almost as soon as put on, the heat of his body was so great. All our efforts were unavAjling, and he died in a few hours. Many of the victims of yellow fever turn quite dark after death, others a bright orange. I never shall forget my horror when I called to inquire after the health of a bright, blue-eyed, flaxen haired child, of about eleven years of age, who was down with fever. Her father came to the door, and, as I asked after the child, he said, Come here." I followed him upstairs into his daughter's room, and there was the poor child lying dead, her hair cut off, her limbs and face black and discoloured. She had died only an hour before. But don't let any of my readers go away with the impression, because such horrors as I have described occasionally take place, that British Guiana is a white man's grave. Far from it. It is trne that epidemics of yellow fever occur at long intervals, and that there are always a few sporadio cases in the colony; nor can it be denied that malarial fever prevails to It very serious extent, which, after several attaoks, may prove fatal. But, on the other hand, the fatal fevers of Europe-typhoid, typhus, and scarlet are almost unknown. I have never known a case of small-pox or diphtheria during my residence there.

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FUNERALS 19 The prevailing canses of death are heart disease in every form, phthisis and pneumonia, diseases of the liver and kidneys, and of conrse fevers, malarial and bilious. Dnring twenty-five years' service in the colony I have only once been seriously ill, and have always at other times enjoyed excellent health. In the old days, when white men were few and generally without kith or kin in the country, a funeral was always attended by all the white population, who saw their brother colonist decently and hononrably bnried. When the necessity for this attendance had ceased, the oustom still oontinned, and now, when anyone well known in society dies, a notice is sent round and all the world goes to the funeral. I have counted a hundred private carriages in a funeral cortege. Funerals take place at 8 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. If you die before 4 p.m. on Wednesday, yonr funeral will be at 8 a.rh. on Thnrsday. If you expire after 4 p.m. on Thursday, yonr funeral will be at 4.30 p.m. the next day, unless, as very often happens, a medical man, for sanitary reasons, considers that the funeral should take place earlier. It used to be the oustom to send round funeral notices to all the acquaintances of the deceased. These printed circulars, edged with blaok, were headed" Memento Mori," and were derived from the Dutch, who oalled them" Doed Briefen." Owing to the low-lying land, bnrials are some times attended with difficulty. When graves are dug they frequently beoome full of water, and FUNERALS 19 The prevailing canses of death are heart disease in every form, phthisis and pneumonia, diseases of the liver and kidneys, and of conrse fevers, malarial and bilious. Dnring twenty-five years' service in the colony I have only once been seriously ill, and have always at other times enjoyed excellent health. In the old days, when white men were few and generally without kith or kin in the country, a funeral was always attended by all the white population, who saw their brother colonist decently and hononrably bnried. When the necessity for this attendance had ceased, the oustom still oontinned, and now, when anyone well known in society dies, a notice is sent round and all the world goes to the funeral. I have counted a hundred private carriages in a funeral cortege. Funerals take place at 8 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. If you die before 4 p.m. on Wednesday, yonr funeral will be at 8 a.rh. on Thnrsday. If you expire after 4 p.m. on Thursday, yonr funeral will be at 4.30 p.m. the next day, unless, as very often happens, a medical man, for sanitary reasons, considers that the funeral should take place earlier. It used to be the oustom to send round funeral notices to all the acquaintances of the deceased. These printed circulars, edged with blaok, were headed" Memento Mori," and were derived from the Dutch, who oalled them" Doed Briefen." Owing to the low-lying land, bnrials are some times attended with difficulty. When graves are dug they frequently beoome full of water, and

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20 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA I have known cases where funerals were delayed owing to the necessity of bailing out the water. In the cemetery of Le Repentir, which is the principal burying-place for Georgetown, most of the coffins are placed in a shallow hole, barely a foot deep, and are then built over with bricks and mortar, and covered with cemented concrete. The heat and rain frequently crack this covering in a short time, and I have seen coffins exposed to view of persons who have only been buried a few months before. Cremation is much needed in the colony; in fact, there is no place where, for sanitary reasons, it ought to be more enforced. The present system of burial is most detrimental to health in all coun tries, but in Demerara it is absolutely suicidal. It is, however, a remarkable fact that all vestiges of the dead are wanting in a few years. In the old Bourda cemetery are many family vaults in which no one is now allowed to be buried without special permission from the Town Council. I have known two instances where such burials took place when I was present. When the vaults were opened, in one case the inside was absolutely empty, although a person had been buried there within the memory of many persons then present; in the other, which had held two coffins, two or three well-polished bones were in one corner and nothing else. Damp, ants, rats, and land crabs must be accountable for the disappearance of body, coffin, and everything, not even the metal fittings of the coffins being found. 20 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA I have known cases where funerals were delayed owing to the necessity of bailing out the water. In the cemetery of Le Repentir, which is the principal burying-place for Georgetown, most of the coffins are placed in a shallow hole, barely a foot deep, and are then built over with bricks and mortar, and covered with cemented concrete. The heat and rain frequently crack this covering in a short time, and I have seen coffins exposed to view of persons who have only been buried a few months before. Cremation is much needed in the colony; in fact, there is no place where, for sanitary reasons, it ought to be more enforced. The present system of burial is most detrimental to health in all coun tries, but in Demerara it is absolutely suicidal. It is, however, a remarkable fact that all vestiges of the dead are wanting in a few years. In the old Bourda cemetery are many family vaults in which no one is now allowed to be buried without special permission from the Town Council. I have known two instances where such burials took place when I was present. When the vaults were opened, in one case the inside was absolutely empty, although a person had been buried there within the memory of many persons then present; in the other, which had held two coffins, two or three well-polished bones were in one corner and nothing else. Damp, ants, rats, and land crabs must be accountable for the disappearance of body, coffin, and everything, not even the metal fittings of the coffins being found.

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LEPERS 21 Another dreadful and disgusting feature in West Indian life is in the number of lepers which exist. Despite the dictum of the College of Physicians, we, who have lived with lepers in our midst, are fully satisfied that leprosy is contagious under certain circumstances; so efforts are made iu a perfunctory way by the Government to isolate the lepers from the rest of the com munity. But the laws on the subject are very insufficiently carried out; numbers of lepers are seen abroad in the streets; and, although there are leper asylums for men and women, they are not prevented from strolling into the neighbouring roads and villages. Nothing can exceed the horror caused by a visit to these asylums: I used to feel sick for days afterwards. In old days, the lepers were isolated and kept on an island in the Massaruni River called Kaow Island, below the penal settlement, where they were attended by the surgeon of that institution. Divine service was held every Sunday on the island in a small church provided for the purpose, the chaplain of the settlement being the officiating priest. For some reason or another it was decided to move the lepers to the main land, and a party of police were sent up to see to their deportation and to destroy their settlement, to prevent people from squatting there and so becoming infected with leprosy. I accompanied the Inspector of police who commanded the detachment, and felt as if I were committing sacrilege when I helped to set fire to the building, where for so many years LEPERS 21 Another dreadful and disgusting feature in West Indian life is in the number of lepers which exist. Despite the dictum of the College of Physicians, we, who have lived with lepers in our midst, are fully satisfied that leprosy is contagious under certain circumstances; so efforts are made iu a perfunctory way by the Government to isolate the lepers from the rest of the com munity. But the laws on the subject are very insufficiently carried out; numbers of lepers are seen abroad in the streets; and, although there are leper asylums for men and women, they are not prevented from strolling into the neighbouring roads and villages. Nothing can exceed the horror caused by a visit to these asylums: I used to feel sick for days afterwards. In old days, the lepers were isolated and kept on an island in the Massaruni River called Kaow Island, below the penal settlement, where they were attended by the surgeon of that institution. Divine service was held every Sunday on the island in a small church provided for the purpose, the chaplain of the settlement being the officiating priest. For some reason or another it was decided to move the lepers to the main land, and a party of police were sent up to see to their deportation and to destroy their settlement, to prevent people from squatting there and so becoming infected with leprosy. I accompanied the Inspector of police who commanded the detachment, and felt as if I were committing sacrilege when I helped to set fire to the building, where for so many years

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22 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA the services and the sacraments of the Church had beeu held and administered. Perhaps there is no country in the world whioh, for its size and population, has so many hospitals as British Guiana. Besides large publio hospitals in eaoh of the three oounties of Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice, there is a hospital on every sugar estate (about a hundred in number), each making up from twenty-five to one hundred beds, according to the size of the plantation and the number of Indian immigrants indentured to the estate. Each hospital is plaoed undor a qualified dispenser and nurses, and is visited three or four times a week by the district medical officer. The colonial hospital in Georgetown is one of the largest in the colonies, making up as it does more than eight hundred beds. The deaths, alas! are also very numerous. I have been in the mortuary when there were five corpses awaiting interment, and we had to turn them all over and examine them so as to identify one over whioh I thought it necessary to hold an inquest. 22 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA the services and the sacraments of the Church had beeu held and administered. Perhaps there is no country in the world whioh, for its size and population, has so many hospitals as British Guiana. Besides large publio hospitals in eaoh of the three oounties of Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice, there is a hospital on every sugar estate (about a hundred in number), each making up from twenty-five to one hundred beds, according to the size of the plantation and the number of Indian immigrants indentured to the estate. Each hospital is plaoed undor a qualified dispenser and nurses, and is visited three or four times a week by the district medical officer. The colonial hospital in Georgetown is one of the largest in the colonies, making up as it does more than eight hundred beds. The deaths, alas! are also very numerous. I have been in the mortuary when there were five corpses awaiting interment, and we had to turn them all over and examine them so as to identify one over whioh I thought it necessary to hold an inquest.

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( 23 ) CHAPTER II. A thirsty country-Swizzles-Georgetown Club-Visits o f the fleetSwizzleio.na-Pepper-pot-Mlss G erty's kitten-Planters-Mr. H enry Clementson-His burglary-Medical Service-Old-time doctors The Bar-Dick Whitfield-Lynch-Samuel T. Fitz-Herbert---Maco.ronic verses-Church enrlowments-Cake w alks-Rally of the tribes -Ladies in British Guiana-Sexual relations-EstablishmentBChildren of the poor-Quasi-slo.very-Roman Dutch lo.:w-Em anci pation of women-Tigress of Tiger Bay-Tim SugarAssa ultin g tha. sheriff. THERE is great truth in the soldier's remark that Demerara was a "rare place where there's lots of drink, and you're always 'a dry." The perpetual state of perspiration in which one lives in the colony creates a perpetual thirst, and I know no place where drinking i s carried out on more scien tific principles. The drink, $ui generis, of the country is the swizzle. This subtle and delicious compound is sometimes ignominiously oonfounded with the cocktail, but though related, they are not identical. The cocktail is a stronger, shorter, and less sophisticated drink than the swizzle; there is no disguise about it ; you know you are drinking something hot and strong, thinly disguised by the ice which cools without quenohing its potency. But in the swizzle the potency is so skilfully ( 23 ) CHAPTER II. A thirsty country-Swizzles-Georgetown Club-Visits o f the fleetSwizzleio.na-Pepper-pot-Mlss G erty's kitten-Planters-Mr. H enry Clementson-His burglary-Medical Service-Old-time doctors The Bar-Dick Whitfield-Lynch-Samuel T. Fitz-Herbert---Maco.ronic verses-Church enrlowments-Cake w alks-Rally of the tribes -Ladies in British Guiana-Sexual relations-EstablishmentBChildren of the poor-Quasi-slo.very-Roman Dutch lo.:w-Em anci pation of women-Tigress of Tiger Bay-Tim SugarAssa ultin g tha. sheriff. THERE is great truth in the soldier's remark that Demerara was a "rare place where there's lots of drink, and you're always 'a dry." The perpetual state of perspiration in which one lives in the colony creates a perpetual thirst, and I know no place where drinking i s carried out on more scien tific principles. The drink, $ui generis, of the country is the swizzle. This subtle and delicious compound is sometimes ignominiously oonfounded with the cocktail, but though related, they are not identical. The cocktail is a stronger, shorter, and less sophisticated drink than the swizzle; there is no disguise about it ; you know you are drinking something hot and strong, thinly disguised by the ice which cools without quenohing its potency. But in the swizzle the potency is so skilfully

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24 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA veiled that the uususpecting imbiber never dis covers he is taking anything stronger than milk, until he finds that his head is going round, and that the road seems to be rising up and trying to slap him in the face. The ingredients of a swizzle are simple enough; a small glass of hollands, ditto of water, half a teaspoonful of Augostura bitters, a small quantity of syrup or powdered white sugar, with crushed ice ad libitum; this concoction is whipped up by a swizzle-stick twirled rapidly between the pa lms of the hands until the ice is melted, and the liquid is like foaming pink cream, to be swallowed at one draught and repeated quantum suff. This seems simple enough, but it is only one person in a hundred who can make a perfect swizzle; there must be a purity in the materials, an exactitude in the proportions, and a faculty for handling the swizzle-stick, which can ouly be acquired by long study and devoted attention. The swizzle-stick is cut in the forests from a small bush, which grows so that the shoots all radiate from a common centre; so that when cut and trimmed to a propel' length, you have a stick about fourteen inches long, as thick as a pen handle, with four or five short spurs about an inoh long radiating from the end. These shrubs gene rally grow in sandy places, and are numerous enough, as an old colonist remarked one day when he and I were cutting swizzle-sticks, "See how good Providence is to provide us with swizzle sticks in this thirsty country!" Whisky or 24 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA veiled that the uususpecting imbiber never dis covers he is taking anything stronger than milk, until he finds that his head is going round, and that the road seems to be rising up and trying to slap him in the face. The ingredients of a swizzle are simple enough; a small glass of hollands, ditto of water, half a teaspoonful of Augostura bitters, a small quantity of syrup or powdered white sugar, with crushed ice ad libitum; this concoction is whipped up by a swizzle-stick twirled rapidly between the pa lms of the hands until the ice is melted, and the liquid is like foaming pink cream, to be swallowed at one draught and repeated quantum suff. This seems simple enough, but it is only one person in a hundred who can make a perfect swizzle; there must be a purity in the materials, an exactitude in the proportions, and a faculty for handling the swizzle-stick, which can ouly be acquired by long study and devoted attention. The swizzle-stick is cut in the forests from a small bush, which grows so that the shoots all radiate from a common centre; so that when cut and trimmed to a propel' length, you have a stick about fourteen inches long, as thick as a pen handle, with four or five short spurs about an inoh long radiating from the end. These shrubs gene rally grow in sandy places, and are numerous enough, as an old colonist remarked one day when he and I were cutting swizzle-sticks, "See how good Providence is to provide us with swizzle sticks in this thirsty country!" Whisky or

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GEORGETOWN aLUR brandy may be used instead of hollands for swizzles, according to the taste of the drinker. A swizzle is generally taken before breakfast and dinner; but pray remember that we get up at six o'clock, and work hard till ten, when we breakfast, and it is really not only a pleasant but a whole some beverage. In Georgetown the sound of the swizzle-stick is heard all day; it is one of the common objects of the country, like those plagues the frogs and mosquitoes. There is no wrong without a remedy, and the soothing swizzle makes you forget the one and despise the other. The Georgetown Club is the headquarters of the perfect swizzle. This olub, which was founded in 1858, has obtajned a world-wide renown for hospitality and good cheer. There is an unwritten law in the club that no one shall drink alone, so the unwary stranger, who is admitted within its sacred portals, finds himself invited to drink by thirty or forty gentlemen on hospitality intent, and not wishing to appear rude and disobliging by refusing, finds himself by eventide very much mixed, and wondering how he is to find his way to his virtuous couch. Always hospitable to strangers, the Georgetown Club puts forth its full force when the colony is honoured by a visit from some of the ships of Her Majesty's navy. All the officers of the fleet are made honorary members; all their drinks are paid for; luncheons and dinners are provided for them; they can play billiards and cards all day and night free of charge. It is a perfect heaven for midshipmen and lieutenants. GEORGETOWN aLUR brandy may be used instead of hollands for swizzles, according to the taste of the drinker. A swizzle is generally taken before breakfast and dinner; but pray remember that we get up at six o'clock, and work hard till ten, when we breakfast, and it is really not only a pleasant but a whole some beverage. In Georgetown the sound of the swizzle-stick is heard all day; it is one of the common objects of the country, like those plagues the frogs and mosquitoes. There is no wrong without a remedy, and the soothing swizzle makes you forget the one and despise the other. The Georgetown Club is the headquarters of the perfect swizzle. This olub, which was founded in 1858, has obtajned a world-wide renown for hospitality and good cheer. There is an unwritten law in the club that no one shall drink alone, so the unwary stranger, who is admitted within its sacred portals, finds himself invited to drink by thirty or forty gentlemen on hospitality intent, and not wishing to appear rude and disobliging by refusing, finds himself by eventide very much mixed, and wondering how he is to find his way to his virtuous couch. Always hospitable to strangers, the Georgetown Club puts forth its full force when the colony is honoured by a visit from some of the ships of Her Majesty's navy. All the officers of the fleet are made honorary members; all their drinks are paid for; luncheons and dinners are provided for them; they can play billiards and cards all day and night free of charge. It is a perfect heaven for midshipmen and lieutenants.

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26 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA In fact, the whole colony goes mad when the Heet visits its shores, and spends money recklessly in baJJs and fetes, so that it becomes necessary to send ronnd a picket of police every night to pnll the midshipmen out of the canals which bisect aJJ the streets. The big ships could never come nearer than fifteen miles from the city owing to the shoal-water, so that the naval officers were not able to show much return for our hospitality; but that was not what we wanted; we were only too glad to see them. However, the officers felt otherwise, and a handsome chiming-clock and a great silver punch-bowl, now in the Georgetown Club, testify to the gratitude of the sailors who, at different times, have enjoyed our welcome. The swizzle has inspired our local poets to celebrate its fame in doggerel verse. One gentle man invokes his favourite drink as a goddess under the name of Swizzleiana:-II When the rosy morn is breaking And tho moon pales in tho west, Then I call for thee, my darling, Waiting, longiog to be blest. SwizzIeiana! bewitching maiden I Let me kiss thy rOBy lips. II When the noontide heat is glowing, And I dally in the sbade, Then to calm my pulscs throbbing, Sweet I I call thee to mine aid. Swizzleiana I bowitching maiden J Cool my burning lips with thine. II When the sun is quickly sinking, And the toil of life is o'er, Then I hear thy gentle sighing, And I call for thee once more. 26 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA In fact, the whole colony goes mad when the Heet visits its shores, and spends money recklessly in baJJs and fetes, so that it becomes necessary to send ronnd a picket of police every night to pnll the midshipmen out of the canals which bisect aJJ the streets. The big ships could never come nearer than fifteen miles from the city owing to the shoal-water, so that the naval officers were not able to show much return for our hospitality; but that was not what we wanted; we were only too glad to see them. However, the officers felt otherwise, and a handsome chiming-clock and a great silver punch-bowl, now in the Georgetown Club, testify to the gratitude of the sailors who, at different times, have enjoyed our welcome. The swizzle has inspired our local poets to celebrate its fame in doggerel verse. One gentle man invokes his favourite drink as a goddess under the name of Swizzleiana:-II When the rosy morn is breaking And tho moon pales in tho west, Then I call for thee, my darling, Waiting, longiog to be blest. SwizzIeiana! bewitching maiden I Let me kiss thy rOBy lips. II When the noontide heat is glowing, And I dally in the sbade, Then to calm my pulscs throbbing, Sweet I I call thee to mine aid. Swizzleiana I bowitching maiden J Cool my burning lips with thine. II When the sun is quickly sinking, And the toil of life is o'er, Then I hear thy gentle sighing, And I call for thee once more.

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SWIZZLEI.,jN.tJ. Swizzleianll.1 bewitching maiden I Quench my troubles with thy ldss. II Rosy sweet, and cool and cream.ing, Who wit h thee can o 'er compare? Eve, and noon, and d ewy morning Th o u must come to me, my fair. Swizzleiana! b ew itchiog maiden! L e t me ever call thee mine!" H. K. 27 MyoId friend Benson Maxwell, a son of the Sir Benson Maxwell, Chief Justice of the Straits Settlements, had evidently read Longfellow, for he published a parody on a well-known poem, as follows :- III know Ii mixture fair to see--Take care I It cnn b oth sweet and bitter be-Beware I beware I Trust it not. It is fooling thee. "It hns two blends o f great renownTake care I It gives new life as it goes downBeware I etc. It bas a crown of pearly hue-Take care J It looks a tempting, harmless brewDeware I etc. It b as a charm to lull your pnin-'I'aka care I It bids y o u come, and come againBeware I etc. It gives a fillip of delight--T ake care! It has a power to make y o u tight-Beware I etc.} etc SWIZZLEI.,jN.tJ. Swizzleianll.1 bewitching maiden I Quench my troubles with thy ldss. II Rosy sweet, and cool and cream.ing, Who wit h thee can o 'er compare? Eve, and noon, and d ewy morning Th o u must come to me, my fair. Swizzleiana! b ew itchiog maiden! L e t me ever call thee mine!" H. K. 27 MyoId friend Benson Maxwell, a son of the Sir Benson Maxwell, Chief Justice of the Straits Settlements, had evidently read Longfellow, for he published a parody on a well-known poem, as follows :- III know Ii mixture fair to see--Take care I It cnn b oth sweet and bitter be-Beware I beware I Trust it not. It is fooling thee. "It hns two blends o f great renownTake care I It gives new life as it goes downBeware I etc. It bas a crown of pearly hue-Take care J It looks a tempting, harmless brewDeware I etc. It b as a charm to lull your pnin-'I'aka care I It bids y o u come, and come againBeware I etc. It gives a fillip of delight--T ake care! It has a power to make y o u tight-Beware I etc.} etc

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28 TWENTY-FIVE YE&RS IN BRITISH GUUN& What the swizzle is to the drinking world, the pepper-pot is to the eating. This renowned dish is not so generally used as was formerly the oase, but it is still respected in odd nooks and comers of the colony, where it is kept going from year to year without ever once getting empty; meat of any kind being added to it day by day, cassareep as required, and peppers and black sugar according to taste. In one country household, not long ago, a particular pepper-pot was never absent from the breakfast-table, and the host prided himself on its antiquity, which was frequently the theme of con versation when an honoured guest was being entertained. One day he was explajning to an English traveller that it was the only really cha racteristic dish in the colony; it was like the pot-aujeu in France; it was the curry of the West Indies; it was the receptacle of every kind of meat, wild and tame, even to monkeys. "And, I assure you," he sMd, "they are splendid in the pot-as good as labba. In fact, it is the house keeper's blessing, and always a change at the breakfast-table, for you don't know what the spoon will bring up, wild or tame, ox or pig. For instance, what is this? Here the host placed on his plate an unshapely, bedraggled-looking mass, which he, with all his experience of the pepper-pot, could not classify. "John" (to the butler), "what is this?" John looked at it for a moment, and then exclaimed-"Well done I 8ah, if that ain't Miss Gerty's 28 TWENTY-FIVE YE&RS IN BRITISH GUUN& What the swizzle is to the drinking world, the pepper-pot is to the eating. This renowned dish is not so generally used as was formerly the oase, but it is still respected in odd nooks and comers of the colony, where it is kept going from year to year without ever once getting empty; meat of any kind being added to it day by day, cassareep as required, and peppers and black sugar according to taste. In one country household, not long ago, a particular pepper-pot was never absent from the breakfast-table, and the host prided himself on its antiquity, which was frequently the theme of con versation when an honoured guest was being entertained. One day he was explajning to an English traveller that it was the only really cha racteristic dish in the colony; it was like the pot-aujeu in France; it was the curry of the West Indies; it was the receptacle of every kind of meat, wild and tame, even to monkeys. "And, I assure you," he sMd, "they are splendid in the pot-as good as labba. In fact, it is the house keeper's blessing, and always a change at the breakfast-table, for you don't know what the spoon will bring up, wild or tame, ox or pig. For instance, what is this? Here the host placed on his plate an unshapely, bedraggled-looking mass, which he, with all his experience of the pepper-pot, could not classify. "John" (to the butler), "what is this?" John looked at it for a moment, and then exclaimed-"Well done I 8ah, if that ain't Miss Gerty's

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PLANTERS 29 kitten! It must have fallen in and drowded; and Miss Gerty and the missy blaming me because he didn't dey. Oh, me lard, sah, I is well glad that kitten is found at las I Tbe number of white persons in the colony was very small in comparison with the rest of the population, numbering ouly about sixteen thousand, three fourths of whom were Portuguese from Madeira and the Azores. Children born in the colony of white parents are called Creoles; but the name Creole is, in corrimon parlance, indis criminatelyand incorrectly used for all colony bred persons and animals. Black and coloured children are called Creoles, and we hear of Creole horses and Creole sheep. Thirty years ago the planters were the great men in the colony; they were autocrats on their own estates, and for miles around; they were J.P.'s, and sat on the bench with the judge at the Inferior Criminal Courts; they were described in the Official Gazette as "gentlemen in chargo of sugar estates," and, to Sir Henry des Voeux's indignation, they took precedence of stipendiary magistrates; storekeepers bowed down before them, and bankers did them reverence. But that was all changed before I left the colony-the old style of manager had disappeared. Most of the old planters were men of grand physique and great strength of character, with much ability and perseverance, but they were ill-educated and prejudiced, rough mannered men who had been nurtured in the evil days of slavery. Some of the younger generation PLANTERS 29 kitten! It must have fallen in and drowded; and Miss Gerty and the missy blaming me because he didn't dey. Oh, me lard, sah, I is well glad that kitten is found at las I Tbe number of white persons in the colony was very small in comparison with the rest of the population, numbering ouly about sixteen thousand, three fourths of whom were Portuguese from Madeira and the Azores. Children born in the colony of white parents are called Creoles; but the name Creole is, in corrimon parlance, indis criminatelyand incorrectly used for all colony bred persons and animals. Black and coloured children are called Creoles, and we hear of Creole horses and Creole sheep. Thirty years ago the planters were the great men in the colony; they were autocrats on their own estates, and for miles around; they were J.P.'s, and sat on the bench with the judge at the Inferior Criminal Courts; they were described in the Official Gazette as "gentlemen in chargo of sugar estates," and, to Sir Henry des Voeux's indignation, they took precedence of stipendiary magistrates; storekeepers bowed down before them, and bankers did them reverence. But that was all changed before I left the colony-the old style of manager had disappeared. Most of the old planters were men of grand physique and great strength of character, with much ability and perseverance, but they were ill-educated and prejudiced, rough mannered men who had been nurtured in the evil days of slavery. Some of the younger generation

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30 TWENTY-FIVE YE..i.RS IN BRITISH GU1..i.N..i. were still powers in the land when I first went out, and several of them were good friends of mjne. Mr. Edmund Field, of plantation Great Diamond, brother of Lord Justice Field; the Honourable William Russell, the "Sugar King," as he was called; and Mr. A. C. Macalman, were men of superior intelligence and social standing. One old planter, Mr. Henry Clementson, proprietor of Cumjng's Lodge, was an eccentric man. I often went to his estate to spend Sunday with him. One afternoon we were smoking in his gallery, when we saw a waggon with a runaway horse dash along the road and upset just in front of Clementson's drive; one of its occupants was thrown out with violenoe, and lay on his back without moving. I started up, and was hurrying to his assistance, when Clement son called out, "Where are you going?" "To help that poor man; he may be killed." Then what the devil does he mean by coming and dying on my road I" At one time Clementson kept a store in Water Street, Georgetown; and, as the fashion then was, he slept over his shop. One night he was awakened by a noise in his room, and, looking up, he saw a black man, almost naked, turning over the things on his dressing table and opening his drawers. Clementson noise lessly slipped out of bed and made for the thief, who, hearing a sound, turned round, and seeing Clementson, who was a big man, and looked his biggest in his loose pyjamas, coming towards him, made for the door; but Clementson was too quiok for him, and, as the thief passed into the landing, 30 TWENTY-FIVE YE..i.RS IN BRITISH GU1..i.N..i. were still powers in the land when I first went out, and several of them were good friends of mjne. Mr. Edmund Field, of plantation Great Diamond, brother of Lord Justice Field; the Honourable William Russell, the "Sugar King," as he was called; and Mr. A. C. Macalman, were men of superior intelligence and social standing. One old planter, Mr. Henry Clementson, proprietor of Cumjng's Lodge, was an eccentric man. I often went to his estate to spend Sunday with him. One afternoon we were smoking in his gallery, when we saw a waggon with a runaway horse dash along the road and upset just in front of Clementson's drive; one of its occupants was thrown out with violenoe, and lay on his back without moving. I started up, and was hurrying to his assistance, when Clement son called out, "Where are you going?" "To help that poor man; he may be killed." Then what the devil does he mean by coming and dying on my road I" At one time Clementson kept a store in Water Street, Georgetown; and, as the fashion then was, he slept over his shop. One night he was awakened by a noise in his room, and, looking up, he saw a black man, almost naked, turning over the things on his dressing table and opening his drawers. Clementson noise lessly slipped out of bed and made for the thief, who, hearing a sound, turned round, and seeing Clementson, who was a big man, and looked his biggest in his loose pyjamas, coming towards him, made for the door; but Clementson was too quiok for him, and, as the thief passed into the landing,

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MEDI(J.dL BEBVI(JE 31 jumped upon his back, and, putting his arms tight round his neok, was carried by the man headlong down the staircase into the street, where he tumbled, sprawling and yelling, into the gutter, Clementson still riding him like the old man of the sea. The police were attracted to the spot by the noise, and the burglar was safely lodged in gaol. He was tried at the next sessions, and was sen tenced to penal servitude at Massaruni for five years. About four years or so afterwards Cle mentson was sitting in his counting-house, when a big, burly nigger came in grinning and touching his wool. Well," said Clementson, "what do you want?" You no know me, sah?" "No, I don't." Hi I me Gad I and yourself de same gentleman me carryon me back down into de street, and yourself too heavy for true." Oh, it's you, you villain, is it?" shouted Clementson. Get out of this at onoe." "Hi, Massa Clement son, gie me bit 0' work now." But Clementson refused to have anything to do with him, so he went away grumbling at the ingratitude of mankind. Of professional men the dootors were the most numerous, as might be expeoted. British Gniana is an ideal country for medioal men. According to the Blue Book for 1895, whioh is lying before me, there were forty-six medical men in the Government servioe, one of whom drew as pay; another, ; eleven received ; five, ; seven, ; six, ; six, ; two, MEDI(J.dL BEBVI(JE 31 jumped upon his back, and, putting his arms tight round his neok, was carried by the man headlong down the staircase into the street, where he tumbled, sprawling and yelling, into the gutter, Clementson still riding him like the old man of the sea. The police were attracted to the spot by the noise, and the burglar was safely lodged in gaol. He was tried at the next sessions, and was sen tenced to penal servitude at Massaruni for five years. About four years or so afterwards Cle mentson was sitting in his counting-house, when a big, burly nigger came in grinning and touching his wool. Well," said Clementson, "what do you want?" You no know me, sah?" "No, I don't." Hi I me Gad I and yourself de same gentleman me carryon me back down into de street, and yourself too heavy for true." Oh, it's you, you villain, is it?" shouted Clementson. Get out of this at onoe." "Hi, Massa Clement son, gie me bit 0' work now." But Clementson refused to have anything to do with him, so he went away grumbling at the ingratitude of mankind. Of professional men the dootors were the most numerous, as might be expeoted. British Gniana is an ideal country for medioal men. According to the Blue Book for 1895, whioh is lying before me, there were forty-six medical men in the Government servioe, one of whom drew as pay; another, ; eleven received ; five, ; seven, ; six, ; six, ; two,

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32 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA ; two, ; two, .00; and three, per annum. And all whose salaries were under received every year an increment to their salary of until they reached that desirable result. In addition, each district medical officer drew a year travelling allowance, and enjoyed private practice, which was, in some cases, very lucrative. In Georgetown one well-known and popular medico has for many years made more than per annum in addition to his official pay. There were also about half a dozen medioal men who were not in the Government service, so I think we were well provided with medical attendance, considering that the whole population of the colony was only about 280,000 sonls. Bnt although we may grumble at the cost, it must be confessed that the service is a credit to the Colony, and the members of it are, with few exceptions, highly trained, competent men. The old type of doctors has qnite died out, the believer in calomel and quinine-the old twenty and twenty four dose, as it was called. I heard an anecdote of one of the old-time medicos. A Scotch yonth had yellow fever, and a Scotch doctor was sent for to prescribe for him. "I shall dee, I shall dee!" cried the poor boy. Dee and be d d I said the doctor; "but you shall take sixty grains of calomel first." The Bar in British Guiana, like most colonies, was composed of a very mixed lot of men. There were white, black, and coloured; some old Oxford or Cambridge men; others the grandsons of old 32 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA ; two, ; two, .00; and three, per annum. And all whose salaries were under received every year an increment to their salary of until they reached that desirable result. In addition, each district medical officer drew a year travelling allowance, and enjoyed private practice, which was, in some cases, very lucrative. In Georgetown one well-known and popular medico has for many years made more than per annum in addition to his official pay. There were also about half a dozen medioal men who were not in the Government service, so I think we were well provided with medical attendance, considering that the whole population of the colony was only about 280,000 sonls. Bnt although we may grumble at the cost, it must be confessed that the service is a credit to the Colony, and the members of it are, with few exceptions, highly trained, competent men. The old type of doctors has qnite died out, the believer in calomel and quinine-the old twenty and twenty four dose, as it was called. I heard an anecdote of one of the old-time medicos. A Scotch yonth had yellow fever, and a Scotch doctor was sent for to prescribe for him. "I shall dee, I shall dee!" cried the poor boy. Dee and be d d I said the doctor; "but you shall take sixty grains of calomel first." The Bar in British Guiana, like most colonies, was composed of a very mixed lot of men. There were white, black, and coloured; some old Oxford or Cambridge men; others the grandsons of old

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BARRISTERS-A T-LA W 33 slaves, who, by perseverance and energy, had raised themselves to the dignity of "esquires, barristers-at-law." Several of the barristers were men who had failed in other pursuits, and, having the gift of the gab, had been oalled to the Bar in England, and returned to make what they could in the land of their adoption. One of the best and most amusing of these was. Diok Whitfield, who had formerly been a dry-goods merchant; but failing in that interesting oc cupation, and being a voluble Irishman, he turned his thoughts to the law, and after an absence in England of a couple of years, returned a full-fledged barrister. Diok was an eloquent man, and would have succeeded very well at the Bar had he not been addicted to too much joviality, so that he got rather muddled in his head, and was sometimes not qnite sure what he was talking about. On one oooasion I was presiding over a trial in Georgetown where the prisoner was aocused of murder, and, as the custom was, Dick Whitfield had been assigned as his oounsel. The case was a olear and simple one, and I was rather curious to hear what the learned oounsel could say in defence. He called no witnesses, but proceeded to address the jury. "May it please your honour, gentlemen of the jury, when God planted Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, they lived a life of blissful innocence and happiness. Joy was theirs, the fruits of the earth were their food, the limpid streams their ouly drink; they knew neither care nor sorrow. But, alas! the devil entered in; the BARRISTERS-A T-LA W 33 slaves, who, by perseverance and energy, had raised themselves to the dignity of "esquires, barristers-at-law." Several of the barristers were men who had failed in other pursuits, and, having the gift of the gab, had been oalled to the Bar in England, and returned to make what they could in the land of their adoption. One of the best and most amusing of these was. Diok Whitfield, who had formerly been a dry-goods merchant; but failing in that interesting oc cupation, and being a voluble Irishman, he turned his thoughts to the law, and after an absence in England of a couple of years, returned a full-fledged barrister. Diok was an eloquent man, and would have succeeded very well at the Bar had he not been addicted to too much joviality, so that he got rather muddled in his head, and was sometimes not qnite sure what he was talking about. On one oooasion I was presiding over a trial in Georgetown where the prisoner was aocused of murder, and, as the custom was, Dick Whitfield had been assigned as his oounsel. The case was a olear and simple one, and I was rather curious to hear what the learned oounsel could say in defence. He called no witnesses, but proceeded to address the jury. "May it please your honour, gentlemen of the jury, when God planted Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, they lived a life of blissful innocence and happiness. Joy was theirs, the fruits of the earth were their food, the limpid streams their ouly drink; they knew neither care nor sorrow. But, alas! the devil entered in; the

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34 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA tempter was there," -and so on, for some ten minutes. I interposed, "Really, Mr. Whitfield, I cannot see what this has to do with the case. You must come to the point." "I am coming to the point, your honour." However, he still went on with his biblical narrative; but when he had got far as Noah's Ark, I agajn interrupted him. Really, Mr. Whitfield, I cannot allow you to waste the time of the court in this way. Con fine yourself to the case." But it was no use, he went on rambling over all kinds of subjects, sacred and profane, until he wound up abruptly by an impassioned appeal to the jury not to send the unfortunate man in the dock to It violent death, drew an affecting picture of the man's weeping widow and waj]jng children (there was no evidence that the prisoner had any ohildren, and he was being tried for murdering his wife), and ended by a oommonplace peroration, imploring the jury to remember the sanotity of their oaths and not oondemn an innooent man. All his eloquenoe was of no avail. The man was oon vioted, sentenoed by me to death, and was hanged in due oourse oflaw. On another oooasion, in the old Court rooms in the Publio Buildings, I was presiding in the first court, when our prooeedings were more or less by the great noise whioh some one ;was making in the preoinots of the adjoining conrt. "Marshal," I said, "who is making that noise? Tell him to be quiet." The marshal returned, but the noise continued. Marshal, 34 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA tempter was there," -and so on, for some ten minutes. I interposed, "Really, Mr. Whitfield, I cannot see what this has to do with the case. You must come to the point." "I am coming to the point, your honour." However, he still went on with his biblical narrative; but when he had got far as Noah's Ark, I agajn interrupted him. Really, Mr. Whitfield, I cannot allow you to waste the time of the court in this way. Con fine yourself to the case." But it was no use, he went on rambling over all kinds of subjects, sacred and profane, until he wound up abruptly by an impassioned appeal to the jury not to send the unfortunate man in the dock to It violent death, drew an affecting picture of the man's weeping widow and waj]jng children (there was no evidence that the prisoner had any ohildren, and he was being tried for murdering his wife), and ended by a oommonplace peroration, imploring the jury to remember the sanotity of their oaths and not oondemn an innooent man. All his eloquenoe was of no avail. The man was oon vioted, sentenoed by me to death, and was hanged in due oourse oflaw. On another oooasion, in the old Court rooms in the Publio Buildings, I was presiding in the first court, when our prooeedings were more or less by the great noise whioh some one ;was making in the preoinots of the adjoining conrt. "Marshal," I said, "who is making that noise? Tell him to be quiet." The marshal returned, but the noise continued. Marshal,

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DICK WHITFIELD 35 make that man be quiet-or bring him before me, and I will com!llit him." The marshal retired agajn, and came back alone. When I glared at him, he replied with a covert smile, "Please, your honour, the noise is caused by Mr. Whitfield addressing the jury in the other court." It was Dick's burning eloquence that was raising all the echoes in the old Public Buildings. Once in Berbice, at the Criminal Sessions, the Supreme Court was opened with the usual ceremonies. I was on the Bench; there were two or three barristers at the Bar, amongst them Whitfield, who had a very boiled look about his eyes. A prisoner was arraigned, and, as soon as the clerk of the court had read the indictment, Diok arose, and said, "I wish your honour to take an exception to this indictment." "Very well, Mr. Whitfield," said I; "now is the time to do so." Whitfield then began some rambling remarks whioh I didn't follow; so, after a few minutes, I remarked, "I don't follow you, Mr. Whitfield." "I was saying, your honour," and 80 on, as before. "I really cannot follow you, Mr. Whitfield." "Perhaps your honour wonld allow me to see the indictment." "Certainly," said I. The document was handed to him. After gazing at it for some time, "I beg your honour's pardon," he said, handing baok the parchment to the clerk, "I thought it was the other man," and sat down amidst a general tittering in the court. He had mistaken the case for one in whioh he was engaged. During the same session, however, DICK WHITFIELD 35 make that man be quiet-or bring him before me, and I will com!llit him." The marshal retired agajn, and came back alone. When I glared at him, he replied with a covert smile, "Please, your honour, the noise is caused by Mr. Whitfield addressing the jury in the other court." It was Dick's burning eloquence that was raising all the echoes in the old Public Buildings. Once in Berbice, at the Criminal Sessions, the Supreme Court was opened with the usual ceremonies. I was on the Bench; there were two or three barristers at the Bar, amongst them Whitfield, who had a very boiled look about his eyes. A prisoner was arraigned, and, as soon as the clerk of the court had read the indictment, Diok arose, and said, "I wish your honour to take an exception to this indictment." "Very well, Mr. Whitfield," said I; "now is the time to do so." Whitfield then began some rambling remarks whioh I didn't follow; so, after a few minutes, I remarked, "I don't follow you, Mr. Whitfield." "I was saying, your honour," and 80 on, as before. "I really cannot follow you, Mr. Whitfield." "Perhaps your honour wonld allow me to see the indictment." "Certainly," said I. The document was handed to him. After gazing at it for some time, "I beg your honour's pardon," he said, handing baok the parchment to the clerk, "I thought it was the other man," and sat down amidst a general tittering in the court. He had mistaken the case for one in whioh he was engaged. During the same session, however,

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36 TWENTYFIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA Dick scored one off us. He was defending a prisoner, and one of the principal witnesses for the defence, who had been examined before the committing magistrate, and whose deposition was before me, was never called by Whitfield, and, as the AttorneyGeneral had expected to extract some information from this witness in cross examination, it was natural and right that, in his reply to the jury, he should comment upon the fact that this witness had not been called for the defence. Dick sat tight and said nothing. When, in my turn, I proceeded to sum up the case to the jury, I also, in reviewing the evidence, commented upon the fact that the principal witness for the defence had not been called, and remarked that the Attorney General's strictures on his absence were well merited. Then Whitfield arose, "I beg your honour's pardon for interrupting you, but perhaps I had better explain why the witness in question was not called; because he is beyond your honour's jurisdiction-he is dead." And he sat down with a placid smile on his countenance, which was reflected in the faoes of the jury. Another time when I was sitting in Chambers in the first week in the year and proceeding to transact business, Whitfield burst into the room, and seizing one of my hands, exclaimed, "A happy new year to your honour! God bless you! Don't you wish we were all back in old England." Judge and Bar were much astonished at this outburst. Mr. Lynch, the elder, was a barrister, who for wan y years filled a large space in the eye of the 36 TWENTYFIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA Dick scored one off us. He was defending a prisoner, and one of the principal witnesses for the defence, who had been examined before the committing magistrate, and whose deposition was before me, was never called by Whitfield, and, as the AttorneyGeneral had expected to extract some information from this witness in cross examination, it was natural and right that, in his reply to the jury, he should comment upon the fact that this witness had not been called for the defence. Dick sat tight and said nothing. When, in my turn, I proceeded to sum up the case to the jury, I also, in reviewing the evidence, commented upon the fact that the principal witness for the defence had not been called, and remarked that the Attorney General's strictures on his absence were well merited. Then Whitfield arose, "I beg your honour's pardon for interrupting you, but perhaps I had better explain why the witness in question was not called; because he is beyond your honour's jurisdiction-he is dead." And he sat down with a placid smile on his countenance, which was reflected in the faoes of the jury. Another time when I was sitting in Chambers in the first week in the year and proceeding to transact business, Whitfield burst into the room, and seizing one of my hands, exclaimed, "A happy new year to your honour! God bless you! Don't you wish we were all back in old England." Judge and Bar were much astonished at this outburst. Mr. Lynch, the elder, was a barrister, who for wan y years filled a large space in the eye of the

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SAMUEL T. FITZ-HERBERT 37 public, both literally and metaphorically. He was a large and powerful negro with a soft voice and pleasant manners. He was very successful in defending prisoners, and was an adept at bullying witnesses and extorting admissions in good Old Bailey style. The late Mr. William Russell once described him as "a good shovelman spoiled," which came to Lynch's ears, and which he never forgot. Once Russell had a lawsnit, and his adversary having briefed the leading members of the Bar, Russell was advised to go to Lynch. When Russell went to that gentleman's office and explained his errand, he was met with the remark, "So you have been compelled to come to the spoiled shovelman after all." In 1872 Mr. J. Trounsell Gilbert was Attorney General of the colony. Mr. William Haynes Smith (afterwards Sir W. Haynes Smith, K.C.M.G., Governor of the Leeward Islands) was Solicitor General. Mr. Gilbert soon afterwards died, when Mr. Smith became Attorney-General, and Mr. Atkinson (the present Mr. Justice Atkinson) Solicitor-General. My greatest chum at that time was Samuel T. Fitz-Herbert, a Cambridge graduate, aud a barrister who was practisiug in Georgetown. He was a bright, clever little man, fond of his rubber, game of billiards, and cheery glass. He was a gentleman, and at that time the manners and customs of the Bar in Georgetown were not to his taste. Touting and all kinds of unprofessional conduct were rampant, and he could not descend to such practices; so he found himself somewhat SAMUEL T. FITZ-HERBERT 37 public, both literally and metaphorically. He was a large and powerful negro with a soft voice and pleasant manners. He was very successful in defending prisoners, and was an adept at bullying witnesses and extorting admissions in good Old Bailey style. The late Mr. William Russell once described him as "a good shovelman spoiled," which came to Lynch's ears, and which he never forgot. Once Russell had a lawsnit, and his adversary having briefed the leading members of the Bar, Russell was advised to go to Lynch. When Russell went to that gentleman's office and explained his errand, he was met with the remark, "So you have been compelled to come to the spoiled shovelman after all." In 1872 Mr. J. Trounsell Gilbert was Attorney General of the colony. Mr. William Haynes Smith (afterwards Sir W. Haynes Smith, K.C.M.G., Governor of the Leeward Islands) was Solicitor General. Mr. Gilbert soon afterwards died, when Mr. Smith became Attorney-General, and Mr. Atkinson (the present Mr. Justice Atkinson) Solicitor-General. My greatest chum at that time was Samuel T. Fitz-Herbert, a Cambridge graduate, aud a barrister who was practisiug in Georgetown. He was a bright, clever little man, fond of his rubber, game of billiards, and cheery glass. He was a gentleman, and at that time the manners and customs of the Bar in Georgetown were not to his taste. Touting and all kinds of unprofessional conduct were rampant, and he could not descend to such practices; so he found himself somewhat

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38 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA isolated, and the grolmd cnt from under his feet. He did not stay long in -the colony, bnt exchanged it for the more congenial soil of New Zealand, where he married and prospered. Fitz-Herbert had a great facility for writing verses, humorons or macaronic, parodies, and such like. When we were separated, I nsed to receive from him comical letters in rhyme, one or two of which are worth repeating. For example, take the following sapphics, parody of the celebrated needy knife grinder of Canning and Frere;-.1 Lazy H. Kirkc, whatever are you doing? Why are you not here, toiling at the great work, Which shall exalt its editors as heroes Of immigration? .. Say, does the fragrant weed nicotillna, Stowed in a shapely calumet of meerschaum, Not without Bass his amber-beaded nactar, Woo thee to leisure? "No such excuse bave you, you lazy beggar, Saving that mentioned in the second stanza i Snug in armchair methinks I see thee lying, Lazily dreaming .. Are you at leisure meditating coolie Cases, which may he brought before your washup When on next Monday you sit as a great stipendiary Justice? U Hang ronnd the doorway Asiatic suitors; Lie on the table summonses neglected j Flutter notes not decipherable by your Own coadjutor. "Lazy, unfeeling, swizzle-loving justice I Shameless, work-shrinking, putter-off of duty, I have a crow to pick with you, your w8shup, Over a cocktail. II May, 1873." s. T. F. 38 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA isolated, and the grolmd cnt from under his feet. He did not stay long in -the colony, bnt exchanged it for the more congenial soil of New Zealand, where he married and prospered. Fitz-Herbert had a great facility for writing verses, humorons or macaronic, parodies, and such like. When we were separated, I nsed to receive from him comical letters in rhyme, one or two of which are worth repeating. For example, take the following sapphics, parody of the celebrated needy knife grinder of Canning and Frere;-.1 Lazy H. Kirkc, whatever are you doing? Why are you not here, toiling at the great work, Which shall exalt its editors as heroes Of immigration? .. Say, does the fragrant weed nicotillna, Stowed in a shapely calumet of meerschaum, Not without Bass his amber-beaded nactar, Woo thee to leisure? "No such excuse bave you, you lazy beggar, Saving that mentioned in the second stanza i Snug in armchair methinks I see thee lying, Lazily dreaming .. Are you at leisure meditating coolie Cases, which may he brought before your washup When on next Monday you sit as a great stipendiary Justice? U Hang ronnd the doorway Asiatic suitors; Lie on the table summonses neglected j Flutter notes not decipherable by your Own coadjutor. "Lazy, unfeeling, swizzle-loving justice I Shameless, work-shrinking, putter-off of duty, I have a crow to pick with you, your w8shup, Over a cocktail. II May, 1873." s. T. F.

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PARODIES 39 There is a genuine ring about these verses. Another amusing parody was sent to me from Suddie, whither FitzHerbert had gone to defend a prisoner at the Essequibo Criminal Sessions :-II From Suddie's sea-washed station, Aurora's sandy plain, Where groweth each plantation, Tb' almighty eugar-cane : Down Essequibo river, By water, mule and mail, Come jurors to deliver The prisoners from the jail. U What thougb with misplaced kindness, The Governor allows The coolie in his blindness To chop hia erring spouse: What though the daring nigger Still steals the straying goat, Yet still we'll make him figger In light grey prison coat.. .. In vain with native rudeness Both Carbery and Lynch, And AtkinsOll, with shrewdness, Would make the jurors Bincb. ShaU we who clothe in linen And wash ourselves with soap, Shall we to coolies Binning Deny the hempen rope? II Assizes I oh, Assizes! The awful sound proclaim I Till coolies and their mveses Shall tremble at its name. Tell, telegraph, the story, The credit and renown, Till spreads the jurors' glory l!'rom Suddie to Georgetown i .. Till o'er the peaceful native A blessed quiet reigns, PARODIES 39 There is a genuine ring about these verses. Another amusing parody was sent to me from Suddie, whither FitzHerbert had gone to defend a prisoner at the Essequibo Criminal Sessions :-II From Suddie's sea-washed station, Aurora's sandy plain, Where groweth each plantation, Tb' almighty eugar-cane : Down Essequibo river, By water, mule and mail, Come jurors to deliver The prisoners from the jail. U What thougb with misplaced kindness, The Governor allows The coolie in his blindness To chop hia erring spouse: What though the daring nigger Still steals the straying goat, Yet still we'll make him figger In light grey prison coat.. .. In vain with native rudeness Both Carbery and Lynch, And AtkinsOll, with shrewdness, Would make the jurors Bincb. ShaU we who clothe in linen And wash ourselves with soap, Shall we to coolies Binning Deny the hempen rope? II Assizes I oh, Assizes! The awful sound proclaim I Till coolies and their mveses Shall tremble at its name. Tell, telegraph, the story, The credit and renown, Till spreads the jurors' glory l!'rom Suddie to Georgetown i .. Till o'er the peaceful native A blessed quiet reigns,

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40 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Till he's a thing creative Of sugar from the canes. Till happy immigration Be freed fro m every toil, And mWlliJ legislation, Eac h vacuum pan s h a ll boil." (I Hmc tibi mittebam calama currente magister. Fausta satis sedes ipse magis Valeo. Me tamen expectas nderit quum tertia Luna i Nil Ulihi rescribns sum rediturus cnim. I was living at the Thomas House, near Georgetown, and the night before the Durban race meeting I had asked Fitz-Herbert to dine with me. He was unfortunately laid up with a small wound caused by some poisonous insect, and Dr. Cameron would not allow him to walk. So he sent me the following absurd verses :-DamLstre noctes, multo damnlltiu8 iaw Ktw"';,,.o s pannet' mussat in aure sonlls. Hen! Thomasina domns quam longB. est sernita, qunntum Vulneris inviti per mea. membra dabss l Testator Cameron per honorem Pharmacopolne Ut hesterno vespere gressus erim. In pede vulnus inest distillst vulnere virus, Et mea per s ellas forma Bupina Cllbnt. Ne e non crass mettlo ludas ut cernere possim Quum quatitur sonitu quadrupedo.nte solum. T)".i\1I9, KPU,'I), oam sic cecinere poetoo Si tu faustus eris quod tibi sunt numeri ? In festus sperat vic e versA et cretem (Flacclls) Sic veteri calamo V'KOT''I)V meditor, Sic inter risus sic inter pocula Dassi, Haec temera 6 thalamo carmina condidcrim. At Carolus (sacer i ete puer) mihi nuntiat Indos Usum grandiloqure legis habere mere. Jamque Vale I feror umbrella circumdatus alba. Sacra tibi et sponsre proxima pocula crnnt. Ant. XV. Kal. Ap. et pridie lndos Romanos. 40 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Till he's a thing creative Of sugar from the canes. Till happy immigration Be freed fro m every toil, And mWlliJ legislation, Eac h vacuum pan s h a ll boil." (I Hmc tibi mittebam calama currente magister. Fausta satis sedes ipse magis Valeo. Me tamen expectas nderit quum tertia Luna i Nil Ulihi rescribns sum rediturus cnim. I was living at the Thomas House, near Georgetown, and the night before the Durban race meeting I had asked Fitz-Herbert to dine with me. He was unfortunately laid up with a small wound caused by some poisonous insect, and Dr. Cameron would not allow him to walk. So he sent me the following absurd verses :-DamLstre noctes, multo damnlltiu8 iaw Ktw"';,,.o s pannet' mussat in aure sonlls. Hen! Thomasina domns quam longB. est sernita, qunntum Vulneris inviti per mea. membra dabss l Testator Cameron per honorem Pharmacopolne Ut hesterno vespere gressus erim. In pede vulnus inest distillst vulnere virus, Et mea per s ellas forma Bupina Cllbnt. Ne e non crass mettlo ludas ut cernere possim Quum quatitur sonitu quadrupedo.nte solum. T)".i\1I9, KPU,'I), oam sic cecinere poetoo Si tu faustus eris quod tibi sunt numeri ? In festus sperat vic e versA et cretem (Flacclls) Sic veteri calamo V'KOT''I)V meditor, Sic inter risus sic inter pocula Dassi, Haec temera 6 thalamo carmina condidcrim. At Carolus (sacer i ete puer) mihi nuntiat Indos Usum grandiloqure legis habere mere. Jamque Vale I feror umbrella circumdatus alba. Sacra tibi et sponsre proxima pocula crnnt. Ant. XV. Kal. Ap. et pridie lndos Romanos.

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THE WHALE'S BELLY 41 I reme;nber on one occasion trying a case in the Supreme Court (limited jurisdiction) in which the defendant was called Jonas. The learned barrister, who appeared for him, had an unfortunate habit of bullying his own witnesses, if they did not say exactly what he wanted them to say; so he used to attack them with, My dear man, do attend to me!" "My good fellow, if you cannot speak up I must abandon your case!" "That was not what you told me in my chambers," etc. In this case, as the defendant Jonas was rather obscure in his answers, counsel became exasperated, and shouted out, "My good man Jonas, do come out of that whale's belly of yours, and answer the questions properly I" This was too much both for the court and Jonas-the former became hilarious, and the latter irascible. There being no circuits nor benchers in the colony, practices which would be looked upon with abhorrence by English barristers were continu ally common amongst members of the local Bar. Advertising and touting were not unknown. Any fees were accepted. One coloured barrister is said to have defended a prisoner before a magistrate, his honorarium being a box of sardines. This may be an exaggeration, but I know that two dollars were often accepted as a fee in such cases. There was little or no distinction between barrister and solicitor, except that barristers and advocates had the sale right of audience in the supreme civil and criminal courts sitting in their full jurisdic tion. There were, however, many lawyers who THE WHALE'S BELLY 41 I reme;nber on one occasion trying a case in the Supreme Court (limited jurisdiction) in which the defendant was called Jonas. The learned barrister, who appeared for him, had an unfortunate habit of bullying his own witnesses, if they did not say exactly what he wanted them to say; so he used to attack them with, My dear man, do attend to me!" "My good fellow, if you cannot speak up I must abandon your case!" "That was not what you told me in my chambers," etc. In this case, as the defendant Jonas was rather obscure in his answers, counsel became exasperated, and shouted out, "My good man Jonas, do come out of that whale's belly of yours, and answer the questions properly I" This was too much both for the court and Jonas-the former became hilarious, and the latter irascible. There being no circuits nor benchers in the colony, practices which would be looked upon with abhorrence by English barristers were continu ally common amongst members of the local Bar. Advertising and touting were not unknown. Any fees were accepted. One coloured barrister is said to have defended a prisoner before a magistrate, his honorarium being a box of sardines. This may be an exaggeration, but I know that two dollars were often accepted as a fee in such cases. There was little or no distinction between barrister and solicitor, except that barristers and advocates had the sale right of audience in the supreme civil and criminal courts sitting in their full jurisdic tion. There were, however, many lawyers who

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42 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA. upheld the dignity of their profession, and never condescended to low practices. Few things in Great Britain have occasioned more disputes and jealousies than the rioh endow ments of the Anglican and Presbyterian Churches. They have stirred up the bile of nJI the numerous Nonconforming sects throughout the country Our predecessors in British Gniana were endowed with wisdom enough to see this; so, to prevent such squabbles, and to induce the different religious sects to live in harmony, they, instead of discountenancing endowment, went into the other extreme and endowed them nJI. The Anglican, Presbyterian, Roman Catholio, and Wesleyan Churohes were all well endowed by the State, and even the stubborn Congregationalist is not too proud to accept an oocasional grant from the Govarnment for his Church and missions. Churches not receiving State aid are often hard pressed to find the sinews of war. Theirs is a hard fight, and their ministers deserve the highest credit for their efforts to majntain their position among Christian sects. They are oompelled to consult every sentiment and weakness of their flocks to attain their ends; jealousy, emulation, love of dress and display, are nJI appealed to, and not in vain. Cake walks, pink teas, "rallies of the tribes," are resorted to to raise money. Some of these performances seem childish and even sometimes ludicrous, but I suppose they attain their object, and the end justifies the means. 42 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA. upheld the dignity of their profession, and never condescended to low practices. Few things in Great Britain have occasioned more disputes and jealousies than the rioh endow ments of the Anglican and Presbyterian Churches. They have stirred up the bile of nJI the numerous Nonconforming sects throughout the country Our predecessors in British Gniana were endowed with wisdom enough to see this; so, to prevent such squabbles, and to induce the different religious sects to live in harmony, they, instead of discountenancing endowment, went into the other extreme and endowed them nJI. The Anglican, Presbyterian, Roman Catholio, and Wesleyan Churohes were all well endowed by the State, and even the stubborn Congregationalist is not too proud to accept an oocasional grant from the Govarnment for his Church and missions. Churches not receiving State aid are often hard pressed to find the sinews of war. Theirs is a hard fight, and their ministers deserve the highest credit for their efforts to majntain their position among Christian sects. They are oompelled to consult every sentiment and weakness of their flocks to attain their ends; jealousy, emulation, love of dress and display, are nJI appealed to, and not in vain. Cake walks, pink teas, "rallies of the tribes," are resorted to to raise money. Some of these performances seem childish and even sometimes ludicrous, but I suppose they attain their object, and the end justifies the means.

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O..!KE W..!LKS 43 A cake walk is conducted as follows. All the members of a congregation are invited to subscribe and take tickets, costing a bitt, or a bitt and a half, or a sbilling each. Several cakes are baked -cake-making being a specialty amongst the ooloured folk-and on an appointed evening all the subscribers flock to the chapel or schoolroom in their best clothes. The organist takes his seat at the harmonium or piano at the end of the room, with his back to the guests. The sub scribers form a procession, two and two, and we may be sure that lovers, engaged couples, and mutual admirers manage to get together. A small flag is then handed to the leader, the musio strikes up, and the subscribers march round the room in time, singing as they go; the flag is handed from one couple to the next at eaoh verse of the hymn or song, and so travels down the fine until the music suddenly stops, when the couple in whose possession the flag is found are declared winners of a cake; and so it goes on till the cakes and the guests are exhausted. A "rally of the tribes" is a more complicated business. There are twelve tribes of Israel, each commanded by a captain aud lieutenant. The numbers of each tribe are unlimited, and may consist of as many persons as can be persuaded to enlist. A oard is given to each member for collecting subscriptions. Bitts, sixpeuces, and shillings are collected, which are represented on the cards by dots, circles, and stars respectively, The rally is held in the church, and each tribe O..!KE W..!LKS 43 A cake walk is conducted as follows. All the members of a congregation are invited to subscribe and take tickets, costing a bitt, or a bitt and a half, or a sbilling each. Several cakes are baked -cake-making being a specialty amongst the ooloured folk-and on an appointed evening all the subscribers flock to the chapel or schoolroom in their best clothes. The organist takes his seat at the harmonium or piano at the end of the room, with his back to the guests. The sub scribers form a procession, two and two, and we may be sure that lovers, engaged couples, and mutual admirers manage to get together. A small flag is then handed to the leader, the musio strikes up, and the subscribers march round the room in time, singing as they go; the flag is handed from one couple to the next at eaoh verse of the hymn or song, and so travels down the fine until the music suddenly stops, when the couple in whose possession the flag is found are declared winners of a cake; and so it goes on till the cakes and the guests are exhausted. A "rally of the tribes" is a more complicated business. There are twelve tribes of Israel, each commanded by a captain aud lieutenant. The numbers of each tribe are unlimited, and may consist of as many persons as can be persuaded to enlist. A oard is given to each member for collecting subscriptions. Bitts, sixpeuces, and shillings are collected, which are represented on the cards by dots, circles, and stars respectively, The rally is held in the church, and each tribe

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44 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA has to hold a stall, decorated with palms and flowers, for the accommodation of its members_ On the Sunday when the rally is held all the people assemble at an appointed place, each person wearing a band with the name and colonr of his tribe, the captains' bands being more conspicuous than the others. When properly marshalled under their respective banners, all the tribes march in procession to the church, singing, Onward, Christiau soldiers," and perambulate the sacred edifice before entering, after which the usual Sunday service proceeds, each tribe occupying its own stall. There are three services in the day, and after each service four of the tribes report. The minister calls each tribe by name, which under its captain marches to the Communion rails. The captain, in a loud voice, announces that the tribe of Gad, or whatever tribe it may be, is prepared to report. "Report, then," replies the minister. The captain then reads out the subscription col lected by his tribe. After the four tribes have reported, the procession is reformed and marches out of the church to the rendezvous, and there dis perses. The rally is the most successful mode of raising money; sometimes hundreds of dollars are colleoted. As in Enropean countries, the women are the chief supporters of the ministers, and what with their rallies, pink teas, jealousy Sundays, cake walks, Christmas trees, and blue-paper collections, raise a considerable sum of money annually for the services of their Church. I cannot leave this part of my subject without 44 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA has to hold a stall, decorated with palms and flowers, for the accommodation of its members_ On the Sunday when the rally is held all the people assemble at an appointed place, each person wearing a band with the name and colonr of his tribe, the captains' bands being more conspicuous than the others. When properly marshalled under their respective banners, all the tribes march in procession to the church, singing, Onward, Christiau soldiers," and perambulate the sacred edifice before entering, after which the usual Sunday service proceeds, each tribe occupying its own stall. There are three services in the day, and after each service four of the tribes report. The minister calls each tribe by name, which under its captain marches to the Communion rails. The captain, in a loud voice, announces that the tribe of Gad, or whatever tribe it may be, is prepared to report. "Report, then," replies the minister. The captain then reads out the subscription col lected by his tribe. After the four tribes have reported, the procession is reformed and marches out of the church to the rendezvous, and there dis perses. The rally is the most successful mode of raising money; sometimes hundreds of dollars are colleoted. As in Enropean countries, the women are the chief supporters of the ministers, and what with their rallies, pink teas, jealousy Sundays, cake walks, Christmas trees, and blue-paper collections, raise a considerable sum of money annually for the services of their Church. I cannot leave this part of my subject without

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WOMEN IN BRITISH GUIANA 45 saying something about the fair sex, the ladies of British Guiana; but here I feel that I am treading on delicate ground. The relation between the sexes in young communities or in slaveryta;nted colonies is not so well regulated as in older and more advanced civilizations. Mrs. Grundy did not thrive in British Guiana as in more temperate climes. Perhaps the damp, warm climate was rela:xing to the moral as well as the physical fibre of the community. As this book is not written" for men only," I shall have to omit many interesting and peculiar incidents of life in the colony, although I am told that the New Woman is only too glad to hear and discuss the most unsavoury sexual details. In the earlier part of the century there were few white women in the colony, so it was customary for the m a nagers of estates, merchants, and other white m e n, to have what was called an establishment, presided over by a black or coloured woman, who looked after the servants and the comfort of her master generally. The offspring of this connection were, as a rule, kindly treated by their father, who brought them up, sent them to Scotland or England to be educated, and of such are most of the coloured doctors, barristers, eto., whom we have in our midst. By degrees, as ladies began to accompany their husbands to the colony, and communication with England became more frequent and more rapid, and when men went home to get married, and a regular English society was forming itself, WOMEN IN BRITISH GUIANA 45 saying something about the fair sex, the ladies of British Guiana; but here I feel that I am treading on delicate ground. The relation between the sexes in young communities or in slaveryta;nted colonies is not so well regulated as in older and more advanced civilizations. Mrs. Grundy did not thrive in British Guiana as in more temperate climes. Perhaps the damp, warm climate was rela:xing to the moral as well as the physical fibre of the community. As this book is not written" for men only," I shall have to omit many interesting and peculiar incidents of life in the colony, although I am told that the New Woman is only too glad to hear and discuss the most unsavoury sexual details. In the earlier part of the century there were few white women in the colony, so it was customary for the m a nagers of estates, merchants, and other white m e n, to have what was called an establishment, presided over by a black or coloured woman, who looked after the servants and the comfort of her master generally. The offspring of this connection were, as a rule, kindly treated by their father, who brought them up, sent them to Scotland or England to be educated, and of such are most of the coloured doctors, barristers, eto., whom we have in our midst. By degrees, as ladies began to accompany their husbands to the colony, and communication with England became more frequent and more rapid, and when men went home to get married, and a regular English society was forming itself,

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46 TWENTY-FIVE YE.i.RS IN BRITISH GUI.i.N.i. these establishments began to be regarded with disfavour, and, as the cause of them was removed, they gradually disappeared. The objection to the negro taint, the "touch of the tar-brush" as it is locally called, is not so strong as in America and some of the West Indian islands. Several white men have man-ied quadroon women, who are now holding a high position in local society. English women seem to stand the climate better than men. It is true that they lose their roses and become pale, and some of them sulfer from debility and anremia; but the death rate amongst them is not half that of men, and they very rarely succumb to yellow fever. This may be owing to their more temperate lives, and their freedom from exposure and fatigue. With regard to the sexual morality of the lower classes of the community, it may be gathered from these pages when I come to deal with the different races which compose it. The standard is very low, but outward decency is regarded, and a lady can walk about the streets of Georgetown at any hour of the day or night without seeing any of those external symptoms of vice which disgraoe so many English cities. One of the saddest features of the colony is the condition of the children of the poor. There seems to be a spirit of lawlessness amongst them, an impatience of control, a thirst for independence and license which bodes ill for their future and the future of the colony. The boys are idle and dissolute, the girls dirty, foul-mouthed, and dishonest. At an 46 TWENTY-FIVE YE.i.RS IN BRITISH GUI.i.N.i. these establishments began to be regarded with disfavour, and, as the cause of them was removed, they gradually disappeared. The objection to the negro taint, the "touch of the tar-brush" as it is locally called, is not so strong as in America and some of the West Indian islands. Several white men have man-ied quadroon women, who are now holding a high position in local society. English women seem to stand the climate better than men. It is true that they lose their roses and become pale, and some of them sulfer from debility and anremia; but the death rate amongst them is not half that of men, and they very rarely succumb to yellow fever. This may be owing to their more temperate lives, and their freedom from exposure and fatigue. With regard to the sexual morality of the lower classes of the community, it may be gathered from these pages when I come to deal with the different races which compose it. The standard is very low, but outward decency is regarded, and a lady can walk about the streets of Georgetown at any hour of the day or night without seeing any of those external symptoms of vice which disgraoe so many English cities. One of the saddest features of the colony is the condition of the children of the poor. There seems to be a spirit of lawlessness amongst them, an impatience of control, a thirst for independence and license which bodes ill for their future and the future of the colony. The boys are idle and dissolute, the girls dirty, foul-mouthed, and dishonest. At an

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OHILDREN OF THE POOR 47 age so early as to be almost incredible, many of the former become thieves, and the latter pros titutes. This state of things is owing in a large degree to the casual connections which are made between the sexes, the offspring of which are generally abandoned by the father and neglected by the mother, so that they either die or grow up as I have described. The infant mortality in the colony is frightful, and often called forth the stringent remarks of the late. Dr. Manget when he was Surgeon-General of the colony. There is a curious kind of quasi-slavery existing. Every black and coloured woman in the country, except the very poorest, has always some girl in her possession whom she, as she describes it, "cares for;" that is, the child works for her all day, sweeps, goes errands, and performs all menial offices, in return for which she gets blows and curses, no pay, a pittance of food, a cotton frock, and a pair of drawers, and the bare floor to sleep upon. These girls have been given up by their mothers, who found them an incumbrance, or who were too poor to support them. Of course, when the unfortunate girls reaoh the age of thirteen or fourteen they are sold to some Portuguese shop keeper by their mistress, or else, anticipating matters, they each choose a boy for themselves and go off with him. The Roman Dutch Law, which is the common law of the oolony, must be held responsible for some of the irregular connections entered into by the more respectable black and coloured OHILDREN OF THE POOR 47 age so early as to be almost incredible, many of the former become thieves, and the latter pros titutes. This state of things is owing in a large degree to the casual connections which are made between the sexes, the offspring of which are generally abandoned by the father and neglected by the mother, so that they either die or grow up as I have described. The infant mortality in the colony is frightful, and often called forth the stringent remarks of the late. Dr. Manget when he was Surgeon-General of the colony. There is a curious kind of quasi-slavery existing. Every black and coloured woman in the country, except the very poorest, has always some girl in her possession whom she, as she describes it, "cares for;" that is, the child works for her all day, sweeps, goes errands, and performs all menial offices, in return for which she gets blows and curses, no pay, a pittance of food, a cotton frock, and a pair of drawers, and the bare floor to sleep upon. These girls have been given up by their mothers, who found them an incumbrance, or who were too poor to support them. Of course, when the unfortunate girls reaoh the age of thirteen or fourteen they are sold to some Portuguese shop keeper by their mistress, or else, anticipating matters, they each choose a boy for themselves and go off with him. The Roman Dutch Law, which is the common law of the oolony, must be held responsible for some of the irregular connections entered into by the more respectable black and coloured

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{ 48 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA people. By the subsequent marriage of their parents, chirdren born before wedlock are legiti mized; so many respectable girls become con cubines to men and live with them for years, being wives in all but name, in the hope and expectation that their keepers will marry them eventually, and place them and their children in a legitimate position. Such being the law, the concubine, so long as she lives with a bachelor, has a recognized status, and is not an object of reproach as in other countries. At a wedding party in Berbice, when the health of the bride and bridegroom had been warmly drunk, the fond bridegroom rushed into a bedroom, brought out a fine two-year-old boy, placed him on the festal table, and said, "Isn't he a beauty-our only son, and he is two years old to-day? In the colony, the women are quite emanoipated and act independently; if one man vexes them or ill-uses them they leave him and go to another. The black women are quite as strong as the men; taking the average, I shonld say they were stronger, and quite ready for a fight at any time. I remember one woman who was called the Tigress of Tiger Bay (a low locality in the city); she was a match for any three policemen, and was a terror to the neighbourhood. Another woman, who went by'the soubriquet of Tim Sugar, was a rival of Jane Cakebread, as she had been in prison more than fifty times. When ever she was released she always celebrated the { 48 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA people. By the subsequent marriage of their parents, chirdren born before wedlock are legiti mized; so many respectable girls become con cubines to men and live with them for years, being wives in all but name, in the hope and expectation that their keepers will marry them eventually, and place them and their children in a legitimate position. Such being the law, the concubine, so long as she lives with a bachelor, has a recognized status, and is not an object of reproach as in other countries. At a wedding party in Berbice, when the health of the bride and bridegroom had been warmly drunk, the fond bridegroom rushed into a bedroom, brought out a fine two-year-old boy, placed him on the festal table, and said, "Isn't he a beauty-our only son, and he is two years old to-day? In the colony, the women are quite emanoipated and act independently; if one man vexes them or ill-uses them they leave him and go to another. The black women are quite as strong as the men; taking the average, I shonld say they were stronger, and quite ready for a fight at any time. I remember one woman who was called the Tigress of Tiger Bay (a low locality in the city); she was a match for any three policemen, and was a terror to the neighbourhood. Another woman, who went by'the soubriquet of Tim Sugar, was a rival of Jane Cakebread, as she had been in prison more than fifty times. When ever she was released she always celebrated the

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.l.8S.l.ULTING THE SHERIFF 49 event by getting drunk, stripping off her clothes, and in her nudity dancing a wild can-can on the pavement. I was once a cause of merriment to my friends by !tn adventure which happened to me, and whioh was thus described in a local newspaper :-"ASSAULTING THE SHERIFF.-At the close of the performance in the Philharmonic Hall, while the audience were wending homewards, several officers of the fleet amongst them, a young lady, disposed to be friendly to the visitors, gave a staid, dignified looking swell a ringing slap on a stoutish part of his body, and called out in complimentary glee, Hi I here's a real nice fat one.' She thought she was doing honour to the Queen's navy, but when the gentleman turned round she found she had made an awful mistake. The poor frightened, innocent thing ran off screaming, Ow I Ow! me gad I me gad I I'd tink it was sailor and it am the Sheriff heself.'" .l.8S.l.ULTING THE SHERIFF 49 event by getting drunk, stripping off her clothes, and in her nudity dancing a wild can-can on the pavement. I was once a cause of merriment to my friends by !tn adventure which happened to me, and whioh was thus described in a local newspaper :-"ASSAULTING THE SHERIFF.-At the close of the performance in the Philharmonic Hall, while the audience were wending homewards, several officers of the fleet amongst them, a young lady, disposed to be friendly to the visitors, gave a staid, dignified looking swell a ringing slap on a stoutish part of his body, and called out in complimentary glee, Hi I here's a real nice fat one.' She thought she was doing honour to the Queen's navy, but when the gentleman turned round she found she had made an awful mistake. The poor frightened, innocent thing ran off screaming, Ow I Ow! me gad I me gad I I'd tink it was sailor and it am the Sheriff heself.'"

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50 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER III. Colonel -" Home "-Coloured gentry-Ceusus paperCnnous returns-The Zoo in Georgetown-List of animals-German warship-Learning a new language-Plain vernacular-Amusements in British Guiana-Racing-D'Urban racecourse-Blood stockGeorgetown mce s-BeUield-Cricket-Ted Wright-English teams -Chinese cricketers-Black players-Dancing-Creole-CongoHindo o-Reminiscenc es-Ofticials in British Guiana-X BekeMilitary force-White troops-West Indian Regiment-Soldiers burialground-98th regiment-Withdrawal of troops-Venezuelan raidUruan-Capture of the posl;-Vixen-'Varaity dinner-Mr. James Crosby-Crosby office-Insect plagues-Cockroaches-Anta Centipedes-Hardbacks -MarabnntaB -Electric light-Gas-Beckwith'a hote1. ONE of the most amusing and interesting men in the colony was myoId friend Colonel Foster Foster. A oadet of an old Cumberland house he had joined the army, but seeing no ohance of aotive servioe, he aocepted a commission in the Austrian oavalry, and with his regiment saw con siderable service in Italy and elsewhere: He was a blood of the old type, and bore on his body the soars of many wounds received in action or in duels; the most remarkable one being a red line six inches long, whioh showed where an enemy's sabre had inflioted a serious scalp wound. When the Crimean War broke out, Foster volunteered 50 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER III. Colonel -" Home "-Coloured gentry-Ceusus paperCnnous returns-The Zoo in Georgetown-List of animals-German warship-Learning a new language-Plain vernacular-Amusements in British Guiana-Racing-D'Urban racecourse-Blood stockGeorgetown mce s-BeUield-Cricket-Ted Wright-English teams -Chinese cricketers-Black players-Dancing-Creole-CongoHindo o-Reminiscenc es-Ofticials in British Guiana-X BekeMilitary force-White troops-West Indian Regiment-Soldiers burialground-98th regiment-Withdrawal of troops-Venezuelan raidUruan-Capture of the posl;-Vixen-'Varaity dinner-Mr. James Crosby-Crosby office-Insect plagues-Cockroaches-Anta Centipedes-Hardbacks -MarabnntaB -Electric light-Gas-Beckwith'a hote1. ONE of the most amusing and interesting men in the colony was myoId friend Colonel Foster Foster. A oadet of an old Cumberland house he had joined the army, but seeing no ohance of aotive servioe, he aocepted a commission in the Austrian oavalry, and with his regiment saw con siderable service in Italy and elsewhere: He was a blood of the old type, and bore on his body the soars of many wounds received in action or in duels; the most remarkable one being a red line six inches long, whioh showed where an enemy's sabre had inflioted a serious scalp wound. When the Crimean War broke out, Foster volunteered

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COLONEL FOSTERFOSTER 51 for service in the English army. Of course red tape prevented him being employed with the regulars, but he was placed in command of a body of Turkish irregulars or BashiBazouks. These were good fighting material, and Foster soon brought them into action. After the close of the war, Foster's fighting days were over; he obta jned a grant of land in Vancouver's Island, and, when there, commanded a battalion of volunteers or militia, I forget whioh. He. was subsequently appointed a stipendiary magistrate in British Guiana. In the oourse of his campaigns, he had gone through very varied experiences; and, like most old warriors, he was great at spinning yarns. One of his best stories-and one which it required several splits to get out of him-was about the Crimea. "When I was in command of part of the Turkish contingent, the Russians one night made a furious sortie upon our position. After some hard fighting we drove them baok. As we were repairing damages, the Duke of Cambridge rode up with his staff, and called out in a loud voice, 'Who commands this detaohment?' I stepped forward, and saluting, said, 'I do, your royal Highness.' 'Your royal Highness be d, sir I oried the duke, lesOling forward on his horse, and grasping me warmly by the hand, 'Call me GeOl'ge-oall me George I The colonel was a great oook, and very par ticular about his food. The oooks in Demerara have a bad habit of oooking joints of meat early in the afternoon, and then warming them up again COLONEL FOSTERFOSTER 51 for service in the English army. Of course red tape prevented him being employed with the regulars, but he was placed in command of a body of Turkish irregulars or BashiBazouks. These were good fighting material, and Foster soon brought them into action. After the close of the war, Foster's fighting days were over; he obta jned a grant of land in Vancouver's Island, and, when there, commanded a battalion of volunteers or militia, I forget whioh. He. was subsequently appointed a stipendiary magistrate in British Guiana. In the oourse of his campaigns, he had gone through very varied experiences; and, like most old warriors, he was great at spinning yarns. One of his best stories-and one which it required several splits to get out of him-was about the Crimea. "When I was in command of part of the Turkish contingent, the Russians one night made a furious sortie upon our position. After some hard fighting we drove them baok. As we were repairing damages, the Duke of Cambridge rode up with his staff, and called out in a loud voice, 'Who commands this detaohment?' I stepped forward, and saluting, said, 'I do, your royal Highness.' 'Your royal Highness be d, sir I oried the duke, lesOling forward on his horse, and grasping me warmly by the hand, 'Call me GeOl'ge-oall me George I The colonel was a great oook, and very par ticular about his food. The oooks in Demerara have a bad habit of oooking joints of meat early in the afternoon, and then warming them up again

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, 52 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GULfNA just before they are wanted for dinner, This arises in the main from their ignorance as to the length of time reqnired to roast or boil any particular piece of meat. The colonel had a great hatred of this practice, which he said, and justly, made the meat sodden and tasteless. One day, when I was staying with him, he said, about half-past five o'clock, "I have a new Johnny as cook, so we had better go and see how he is getting on, and tell him to put the meat to roast; so we stalked into the kitchen, where we saw the beautiful little sirloin, on which the colonel's principal hopes for dinner rested, already cooked, and cooling out on the dresser. The colonel's moustache bristled with rage, his face became purple; and, seizing the unfortunate cook by the scruff of his neck, shouted out, "Oh, you're another of these hell fire warmers-up, are you? Out you go I" And giving the writhing man a vigorous kick, he sent him flying down the steps headlong into the com pound below. One of the most touching incidents of colonial life is the universal use of the word "home" amongst all classes of the community, when speak ing of England. A colonist never says that he is going to England or Scotland, as the case may be ; he always says he is "going home." In his con versation he always talks of "home." "When I was last at home." "They do these things differently at home." "What's the news from home?" are phrases continually used. This assumes a somewhat ludicrous aspect when you 52 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GULfNA just before they are wanted for dinner, This arises in the main from their ignorance as to the length of time reqnired to roast or boil any particular piece of meat. The colonel had a great hatred of this practice, which he said, and justly, made the meat sodden and tasteless. One day, when I was staying with him, he said, about half-past five o'clock, "I have a new Johnny as cook, so we had better go and see how he is getting on, and tell him to put the meat to roast; so we stalked into the kitchen, where we saw the beautiful little sirloin, on which the colonel's principal hopes for dinner rested, already cooked, and cooling out on the dresser. The colonel's moustache bristled with rage, his face became purple; and, seizing the unfortunate cook by the scruff of his neck, shouted out, "Oh, you're another of these hell fire warmers-up, are you? Out you go I" And giving the writhing man a vigorous kick, he sent him flying down the steps headlong into the com pound below. One of the most touching incidents of colonial life is the universal use of the word "home" amongst all classes of the community, when speak ing of England. A colonist never says that he is going to England or Scotland, as the case may be ; he always says he is "going home." In his con versation he always talks of "home." "When I was last at home." "They do these things differently at home." "What's the news from home?" are phrases continually used. This assumes a somewhat ludicrous aspect when you

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"HOME" 53 hear these phrases from the mouths of black and coloured people, who, in many cases, have never even visited any part of Europe. We had a good laugh at the expense of a young coloured youth, who was swaggering about and saying that he "was going home by the next mail;" when an elderly Scotoh gentleman quietly asked him, "Oh, you are going home, are you? And what part of Africa may that be ? The conceit and affectation of some of the young generation of mulattoes and quadroons is astouishing. I am delighted to see any young colonred man by honest work and good behaviour raise himself to a high position amongst hia fellow colonists, and many have done ao. In my time there waa a coloured chief justioe in Barbadoa, a coloured solicitorgeneral in Trinidad, and in Demerara we had coloured gentlemen aa legis lators, magistrates, barristers, clergymen, mayors, and doctors, and they were treated with as much respect aa white men in similar positiona; but when these gentry began to talk of their family and "home," and sport crests, and coats-oi-arms, one waa inclined to laugh, remembering from whenoe they sprung. The population of British Guiana inoreases very slowly; the death-rate is so much higher than the birth-rate, that there would be an actual decrease if it were not for the immigrants brought from India and the West Indian Islands. As in England, a decennial census of the people ia taken. This is a matter of some difficulty, and the returns "HOME" 53 hear these phrases from the mouths of black and coloured people, who, in many cases, have never even visited any part of Europe. We had a good laugh at the expense of a young coloured youth, who was swaggering about and saying that he "was going home by the next mail;" when an elderly Scotoh gentleman quietly asked him, "Oh, you are going home, are you? And what part of Africa may that be ? The conceit and affectation of some of the young generation of mulattoes and quadroons is astouishing. I am delighted to see any young colonred man by honest work and good behaviour raise himself to a high position amongst hia fellow colonists, and many have done ao. In my time there waa a coloured chief justioe in Barbadoa, a coloured solicitorgeneral in Trinidad, and in Demerara we had coloured gentlemen aa legis lators, magistrates, barristers, clergymen, mayors, and doctors, and they were treated with as much respect aa white men in similar positiona; but when these gentry began to talk of their family and "home," and sport crests, and coats-oi-arms, one waa inclined to laugh, remembering from whenoe they sprung. The population of British Guiana inoreases very slowly; the death-rate is so much higher than the birth-rate, that there would be an actual decrease if it were not for the immigrants brought from India and the West Indian Islands. As in England, a decennial census of the people ia taken. This is a matter of some difficulty, and the returns

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54 TWENTY-FIVE YEAIlS IN BRITISH GUIANA are somet.imes very peculiar. The people cannot nnderstand the several headings, and how tJ... 9 columns are to be Jilled up. The following examples from the census papers of 1881 were collected by an enumerator as a sample of the eccentricity or ignorance of the people. One citizen gave his name as "John," head of the family, is a male;" and then under the column of "Profession, Rank, or Occupation," he puts down, Can't get nothing to do for the last six months, and can't pay house rent, has got a keeper and four children, they in Barbados, but is coming to Demerara." This same column of pro fession, rank, or occupation is filled in with some peculiar information, e.g. one person's occupation is put down as "sickly;" one is an U invalid; another is "cuck; JI whilst one admjts he is an idler; and another ambitious person clBjms to be a Bcoller; one says he is a "farmer, sick of a {lough;" and one yearling's occupation is entered as "sucker." The column devoted to deaf and dumb, blind, or imbecile, or idiot and lunatio persons is not less interesting. One man says that he has no "infurrities;" the next man in the list writes dito;" whilst a neighbour says he is romantic; another says he had "no orfiections;" whilst one citizen puts down as an affiiction that he has "been black from his birth;" another that she is cob in complexion; and a third that she has a "black mother and a Portuguese father." An east coast resident says he was born at "Larry Sophenear," which is his way of spelling Le Resouvenir. One 54 TWENTY-FIVE YEAIlS IN BRITISH GUIANA are somet.imes very peculiar. The people cannot nnderstand the several headings, and how tJ... 9 columns are to be Jilled up. The following examples from the census papers of 1881 were collected by an enumerator as a sample of the eccentricity or ignorance of the people. One citizen gave his name as "John," head of the family, is a male;" and then under the column of "Profession, Rank, or Occupation," he puts down, Can't get nothing to do for the last six months, and can't pay house rent, has got a keeper and four children, they in Barbados, but is coming to Demerara." This same column of pro fession, rank, or occupation is filled in with some peculiar information, e.g. one person's occupation is put down as "sickly;" one is an U invalid; another is "cuck; JI whilst one admjts he is an idler; and another ambitious person clBjms to be a Bcoller; one says he is a "farmer, sick of a {lough;" and one yearling's occupation is entered as "sucker." The column devoted to deaf and dumb, blind, or imbecile, or idiot and lunatio persons is not less interesting. One man says that he has no "infurrities;" the next man in the list writes dito;" whilst a neighbour says he is romantic; another says he had "no orfiections;" whilst one citizen puts down as an affiiction that he has "been black from his birth;" another that she is cob in complexion; and a third that she has a "black mother and a Portuguese father." An east coast resident says he was born at "Larry Sophenear," which is his way of spelling Le Resouvenir. One

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CENSUB lJETUlJlIS 55 man retorns himself as having been "born near town, and is belong to the W eslen Chorch." One gentleman, employed in working a pnnt, indulged himself in a long family history. After entering his name and occupation, he enters his wife's name-" is my wife, is a female, not married yet, but will marry she in May; she is dimisticated, is olose washer. She is not inflioted, and is got two boy children for Joe in Barbados, and two is dead. Is got two for me, they cau't read nor right yet." Under the column "Relationship to Head of Family" many peculiar entries were made, owing to the social oonditions of the population. Most of the lady friends of doubtful relationship are put down as "wives," although the next oolumn nnblushingly puts down their oondition as "nnmarried." In many cases, however, there is no attempt at concealment, and they are variously described as "mjstress," "keeper," etc., although one man in plain language desoribes his friend as concubine." One gentleman makes a distinction by putting himself down as "head keeper." In the oolumn headed "Condition as to Marriage" one gentleman writes "oommunity of goods;" whilst one old lady describes her three daughters as "virgins." One lady in plain language, writes knot." In faot, she is a knotty individual, as she desoribes her oooupation as "knothing in partioular," and her infirmities also as "knot." The column of occupation reveals the fact that foor-fifths of the women living alone are "washers." There are, however, exoeptions. One of the lonely CENSUB lJETUlJlIS 55 man retorns himself as having been "born near town, and is belong to the W eslen Chorch." One gentleman, employed in working a pnnt, indulged himself in a long family history. After entering his name and occupation, he enters his wife's name-" is my wife, is a female, not married yet, but will marry she in May; she is dimisticated, is olose washer. She is not inflioted, and is got two boy children for Joe in Barbados, and two is dead. Is got two for me, they cau't read nor right yet." Under the column "Relationship to Head of Family" many peculiar entries were made, owing to the social oonditions of the population. Most of the lady friends of doubtful relationship are put down as "wives," although the next oolumn nnblushingly puts down their oondition as "nnmarried." In many cases, however, there is no attempt at concealment, and they are variously described as "mjstress," "keeper," etc., although one man in plain language desoribes his friend as concubine." One gentleman makes a distinction by putting himself down as "head keeper." In the oolumn headed "Condition as to Marriage" one gentleman writes "oommunity of goods;" whilst one old lady describes her three daughters as "virgins." One lady in plain language, writes knot." In faot, she is a knotty individual, as she desoribes her oooupation as "knothing in partioular," and her infirmities also as "knot." The column of occupation reveals the fact that foor-fifths of the women living alone are "washers." There are, however, exoeptions. One of the lonely

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56 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA ones describes herself as a "bottle swopper;" and another says that "she cook for sheself." One gentleman is proud to say that he is a porter in the mercantile line." Most people have some knowledge as to where they were born, but in that column one entry is "no say." Under the head "Infirmities, Deaf,Lunatic," etc., an old man, after describing himself as "lonely," adds he "loose a leg." One lady is suffering from" stomach pajDS;" but anotper is "healthy generally, but at present suffering slightly from fever." One wag says his only infirmity is "want of money." A very afilicted family is that of a certajn enumerator who writes himself down as Buffering from "structure; his wife from "nervousness;" his son is "partly rupted ;" and his daughters have "dry belly ache." One poor man, utterly ignoring the columnar divisions of the paper, gives us the following pathetic tale: "Me name is James Horner, i is 32 years old, and i work punt in the river, i is married, but keep one Barbadian woman who dead November last year, she name Rebecca Kemp clothes washer 28 year old and she dead November last year and i too sorry for she." When I was chairman of the Directorate I tried to establish a Zoo in the Botanic Gardens in Georgetown. At first the idea was taken up with enthusiasm, and subscriptions and animals poured in upon me in embarrassing profusion; but I was called away to act as Attorney-General of Jamaica, and after my departure the project languished, and the aJlimals either died or were sent to the English 56 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA ones describes herself as a "bottle swopper;" and another says that "she cook for sheself." One gentleman is proud to say that he is a porter in the mercantile line." Most people have some knowledge as to where they were born, but in that column one entry is "no say." Under the head "Infirmities, Deaf,Lunatic," etc., an old man, after describing himself as "lonely," adds he "loose a leg." One lady is suffering from" stomach pajDS;" but anotper is "healthy generally, but at present suffering slightly from fever." One wag says his only infirmity is "want of money." A very afilicted family is that of a certajn enumerator who writes himself down as Buffering from "structure; his wife from "nervousness;" his son is "partly rupted ;" and his daughters have "dry belly ache." One poor man, utterly ignoring the columnar divisions of the paper, gives us the following pathetic tale: "Me name is James Horner, i is 32 years old, and i work punt in the river, i is married, but keep one Barbadian woman who dead November last year, she name Rebecca Kemp clothes washer 28 year old and she dead November last year and i too sorry for she." When I was chairman of the Directorate I tried to establish a Zoo in the Botanic Gardens in Georgetown. At first the idea was taken up with enthusiasm, and subscriptions and animals poured in upon me in embarrassing profusion; but I was called away to act as Attorney-General of Jamaica, and after my departure the project languished, and the aJlimals either died or were sent to the English

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THE ZOO 57 Zoo. It may amuse my readers to see a list of the animals which were sent to me during the first few weeks of the undertaking. When we had a large python in a tub under the house, an ant bear in the stable, a hacka tiger in the scullery, and severa l small evil smelling mammals all about, my wife began to object, as she was persuaded that the python would arise some night in his might and make a meal off one of the children, and the small mammals were disgusting to her olfa ctory nerves. An armadillo that I bought dug a hole in the gard e n and produced a litter of five young ones. They were the most comical littl e beasts -just like grey india rubber dolls, and when you squeezed them they squeaked in the same way. A Brazilian poroupine got away one night; the next morning I saw an excited crowd in the next street, and a black boy rushed in to us, exclaiming, "Please, s ah, they be find your pimp lerhaag" (prickly pig). LIST OF ANIMALS PRESENTED OR PURCHASED. Smnll Sloth .. ... ... Purchase d O celo t ... ... ... Fro m Mr. Morrison. Ha c ks. tiger ... ... ... Presented by Bon. H owell Jones Sackiwinkie m onkey Purchased Ring tail monkey ... ... Toucan ... ... ... P orcupine ... .. ... Presented by Mr. G Humphre y s Rattlesnake ... ... Mr. W ood Davis Large Ana c onda ... ... Mrs. Thornhill Y rwarri rat ... ... Mrs. Bridges Bezo. monkey ... ... Mrs. Murray Red howling baboo n ... Purchase d Braziliron p orcupine .. ... Pres snted by Mr. Brodie Two CUro.s6ow ... ... Mr. Kaufman. THE ZOO 57 Zoo. It may amuse my readers to see a list of the animals which were sent to me during the first few weeks of the undertaking. When we had a large python in a tub under the house, an ant bear in the stable, a hacka tiger in the scullery, and severa l small evil smelling mammals all about, my wife began to object, as she was persuaded that the python would arise some night in his might and make a meal off one of the children, and the small mammals were disgusting to her olfa ctory nerves. An armadillo that I bought dug a hole in the gard e n and produced a litter of five young ones. They were the most comical littl e beasts -just like grey india rubber dolls, and when you squeezed them they squeaked in the same way. A Brazilian poroupine got away one night; the next morning I saw an excited crowd in the next street, and a black boy rushed in to us, exclaiming, "Please, s ah, they be find your pimp lerhaag" (prickly pig). LIST OF ANIMALS PRESENTED OR PURCHASED. Smnll Sloth .. ... ... Purchase d O celo t ... ... ... Fro m Mr. Morrison. Ha c ks. tiger ... ... ... Presented by Bon. H owell Jones Sackiwinkie m onkey Purchased Ring tail monkey ... ... Toucan ... ... ... P orcupine ... .. ... Presented by Mr. G Humphre y s Rattlesnake ... ... Mr. W ood Davis Large Ana c onda ... ... Mrs. Thornhill Y rwarri rat ... ... Mrs. Bridges Bezo. monkey ... ... Mrs. Murray Red howling baboo n ... Purchase d Braziliron p orcupine .. ... Pres snted by Mr. Brodie Two CUro.s6ow ... ... Mr. Kaufman.

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58 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Horned owl Presented by Mr. Odlum. Large python Mr. Long. Sackiwinkie monkey Mr. Bridges. Large ocelot Mr. Curtis. Labba (hollow-cheeked paca) Mr. Ibbott. Toncan Mr. Crosby Pair o f ring dov es Mr.Odlum An Acconrle Four peacocks Mrs. Gemmel. Water haas ... Mr. Hewick. Armadillo Captain Arnot Largo ant eater Purchnsed Although the Zoo was a failure, we kept some interesting animals in the gardens. In one lake were two mannatee, and great was our excitement when one day we found a young one playing on its mother's back. Two tapirs, locally called mypourie, wandered about at their pleasure; some water haas played about in a small pond; and a few of the graceful deer of Guiana grazed in a paddock. As to birds, the gardens were full of them, My daughter, Mrs. Percival and her husband, published a list of those they had per sonally observed, amounting to one hundred and twenty distinct kinds. We sometimes received visits from the Frenoh and German warships. I can remember when a German trajning ship came to the colony many years ago. The captain and his officers were a jovial crew, and fully appreciated and reciprocated the lavish hospitality wbich was showered upon them. The German Consul gave a ball in their honour; in the card-room I made the fourth in a rubber, with the gallant captajn as my partner. As we picked up our cards after the first deal, he 58 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Horned owl Presented by Mr. Odlum. Large python Mr. Long. Sackiwinkie monkey Mr. Bridges. Large ocelot Mr. Curtis. Labba (hollow-cheeked paca) Mr. Ibbott. Toncan Mr. Crosby Pair o f ring dov es Mr.Odlum An Acconrle Four peacocks Mrs. Gemmel. Water haas ... Mr. Hewick. Armadillo Captain Arnot Largo ant eater Purchnsed Although the Zoo was a failure, we kept some interesting animals in the gardens. In one lake were two mannatee, and great was our excitement when one day we found a young one playing on its mother's back. Two tapirs, locally called mypourie, wandered about at their pleasure; some water haas played about in a small pond; and a few of the graceful deer of Guiana grazed in a paddock. As to birds, the gardens were full of them, My daughter, Mrs. Percival and her husband, published a list of those they had per sonally observed, amounting to one hundred and twenty distinct kinds. We sometimes received visits from the Frenoh and German warships. I can remember when a German trajning ship came to the colony many years ago. The captain and his officers were a jovial crew, and fully appreciated and reciprocated the lavish hospitality wbich was showered upon them. The German Consul gave a ball in their honour; in the card-room I made the fourth in a rubber, with the gallant captajn as my partner. As we picked up our cards after the first deal, he

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STRANGE TONGUES 59 said to me, "Mein Herr! ven I 'ave a tromp I plays a tromp, and ven I don't play a tromp, you will know I 'ave not got a tromp." And so he did, and the result was that I lost twenty-six Bbillings in the first two rubbers. It is a curious fact that the first words of a new language, which are acquired by casual intercourse with its speakers, are generally vituperative or indecent ones. The first Hindustaui words learnt by the English soldier are those of cursing and abuse. I have heard an English gentleman pour out a string of abusive epithets upon some unfortunate natives, which, if they had been translated into their native tongue, the most blasphemous bargees would have shrunk from using. Cursing in Hindustani is of extreme ingenuity, and puts to shame the monotonous expletives of our native land. lance travelled with a Frenchman, who was proud of his knowledge of the English language, which he said he had acquired by residence in England, but his conversation was seasoned with vulgar and indecent words. Amongst such a polyglot people as those inhabiting British Guiana, the first efforts of each race to acquire the language of the other strikingly illustrates my proposition. On one occasion a Hindoo boy about eleven years old was brought before me, having been summoned by an old black man for using abusive and insulting words to him. I explained the charge to the boy, asked him whether he did it or not, to whioh he promptly answered, "It's a bl y lie, sir." He had no intention of being disrespeotful to the STRANGE TONGUES 59 said to me, "Mein Herr! ven I 'ave a tromp I plays a tromp, and ven I don't play a tromp, you will know I 'ave not got a tromp." And so he did, and the result was that I lost twenty-six Bbillings in the first two rubbers. It is a curious fact that the first words of a new language, which are acquired by casual intercourse with its speakers, are generally vituperative or indecent ones. The first Hindustaui words learnt by the English soldier are those of cursing and abuse. I have heard an English gentleman pour out a string of abusive epithets upon some unfortunate natives, which, if they had been translated into their native tongue, the most blasphemous bargees would have shrunk from using. Cursing in Hindustani is of extreme ingenuity, and puts to shame the monotonous expletives of our native land. lance travelled with a Frenchman, who was proud of his knowledge of the English language, which he said he had acquired by residence in England, but his conversation was seasoned with vulgar and indecent words. Amongst such a polyglot people as those inhabiting British Guiana, the first efforts of each race to acquire the language of the other strikingly illustrates my proposition. On one occasion a Hindoo boy about eleven years old was brought before me, having been summoned by an old black man for using abusive and insulting words to him. I explained the charge to the boy, asked him whether he did it or not, to whioh he promptly answered, "It's a bl y lie, sir." He had no intention of being disrespeotful to the

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GO TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA court, but wished to explain his innocence in the usual vernacular which he heard in the village. An east coast parson held a baptismal service. The candidate was not an infant in arms, but a sturdy three-year-old Creole coolie boy. He was with difficulty coaxed to the font, and the priest began to read the office. All went well until he dipped his hand into the font and sprinkled the water on the up-turned face of the boy, who not understanding the nature of the ceremony, darted a surprised and angry look at the parson, yelled out, "You d-d beast I" and attempted to mn away. The parson said he never was so shooked in his life. A story was current in the colony of a Portuguese recently arrived from Madeira, who, wishing to propitiate coloured maiden, whose charms had touched his susceptible nature, was heard murmuring in mellifluous accents under her window the ouly English words which he had acquired, Son of a beetch, son of a beetch," and was much astonished when he was violently assaulted by the outraged damsel. Amongst the black people there are some words which have been handed down from their Congo ancestors, the original meaning of which they have forgotten, but they know they are very bad words, and the use of them to each other by black women generally results in violent assault and bloodshed. Such words as "Kokkabuddoo" and "Pe-he," applied toa woman, are supposed to be the last GO TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA court, but wished to explain his innocence in the usual vernacular which he heard in the village. An east coast parson held a baptismal service. The candidate was not an infant in arms, but a sturdy three-year-old Creole coolie boy. He was with difficulty coaxed to the font, and the priest began to read the office. All went well until he dipped his hand into the font and sprinkled the water on the up-turned face of the boy, who not understanding the nature of the ceremony, darted a surprised and angry look at the parson, yelled out, "You d-d beast I" and attempted to mn away. The parson said he never was so shooked in his life. A story was current in the colony of a Portuguese recently arrived from Madeira, who, wishing to propitiate coloured maiden, whose charms had touched his susceptible nature, was heard murmuring in mellifluous accents under her window the ouly English words which he had acquired, Son of a beetch, son of a beetch," and was much astonished when he was violently assaulted by the outraged damsel. Amongst the black people there are some words which have been handed down from their Congo ancestors, the original meaning of which they have forgotten, but they know they are very bad words, and the use of them to each other by black women generally results in violent assault and bloodshed. Such words as "Kokkabuddoo" and "Pe-he," applied toa woman, are supposed to be the last

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RACING 61 resource of foul abuse, but I never yet met any person who could explain to me what the words meant. Amusements in British Guiana are much the same as in other English tropical colonies. The energy of the English race shows itself in an exposure to the sun and a scorn for the heat, which excites the wonder and contempt of foreigners. Cricket and lawn tennis flourish exceedingly; rifle shooting and racing have their old-established clubs; golf has been started, but has not caught on, although it would seem to be a game peculiarly suited to the climate. Racing is the most popular amusement amongst all classes. There were race meetings at different parts of the colony at a remote period of its history; but a regular race club was not established until 1829, when the first meeting was held at Colony House on the 28th of September in that year, His Excellency Sir Benja min Durban presiding. The existing racecourse, whioh was presented to the club by the same Governor, and named after him the Durban Race oourse, is just outside the limits of Georgetown. It is an oval, one mile and ninety-six yards in cir cumference, and cost 11,580 guilders to make np. The course is perfectly flat, like the surrounding country, with some sharp curves. There are two meetings annually, spring and autumn, when about is given in prizes at each meeting, besides a cup, value presented by the Governor. The first races on the Durban Course were held on the 3rd and 4th of November, 1829, and, with the RACING 61 resource of foul abuse, but I never yet met any person who could explain to me what the words meant. Amusements in British Guiana are much the same as in other English tropical colonies. The energy of the English race shows itself in an exposure to the sun and a scorn for the heat, which excites the wonder and contempt of foreigners. Cricket and lawn tennis flourish exceedingly; rifle shooting and racing have their old-established clubs; golf has been started, but has not caught on, although it would seem to be a game peculiarly suited to the climate. Racing is the most popular amusement amongst all classes. There were race meetings at different parts of the colony at a remote period of its history; but a regular race club was not established until 1829, when the first meeting was held at Colony House on the 28th of September in that year, His Excellency Sir Benja min Durban presiding. The existing racecourse, whioh was presented to the club by the same Governor, and named after him the Durban Race oourse, is just outside the limits of Georgetown. It is an oval, one mile and ninety-six yards in cir cumference, and cost 11,580 guilders to make np. The course is perfectly flat, like the surrounding country, with some sharp curves. There are two meetings annually, spring and autumn, when about is given in prizes at each meeting, besides a cup, value presented by the Governor. The first races on the Durban Course were held on the 3rd and 4th of November, 1829, and, with the

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62 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA exception of three years (1843-45), they have been held regularly ever since. In the early days of raoing we find some good bloodstock in the colony: amongst others, Cobb," by Popinjay, out of Muck-bird, formerly belonging to Lord Glenorchy; "Murillo," by MagistrateRosalba, bred by the Earl of Derby, and foaled in 1824. In 1834 Mr. Edward Duffy advertises in the local papers his bloodstock, etc., for sale. A thoroughbred entire horse, "Morpeth," by Roller; two brood mares; "also the slaves Joseph and Tommy, both young men and well disposed." Later on we see advertised the thoroughbred horse Croft," by Whalebone, dam by Lancer-Priscilla, by Highflyer; also the stud horse" Gift," bred by Lord Bangor, got by Collector, aam by Queens bury. The principal jockeys in those days were white boys from England; their names were George Farrell, Caldow, James Watson, Davis. "Lord George," which belonged to myoid friend Mr. H. G. Parnell, was a distinguished raoer. He was a brown entire horse by LBJlnercost, and half brother to Van Tromp, winner of the Epsom Derby in 1847. Another horse of his called "Lucy," a brown filly, was by Charles XII., winner of the St. Leger, Liverpool Cup, etc. The Colony Cup was established in 1829, and the Durban Course Cup in 1852. In later years good horses have been imported regularly, so that in the veins of our Creole horses runs some of the best blood of the English turf. Little Hampton .. and" St. Bruno" were amongst the sires, and of 62 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA exception of three years (1843-45), they have been held regularly ever since. In the early days of raoing we find some good bloodstock in the colony: amongst others, Cobb," by Popinjay, out of Muck-bird, formerly belonging to Lord Glenorchy; "Murillo," by MagistrateRosalba, bred by the Earl of Derby, and foaled in 1824. In 1834 Mr. Edward Duffy advertises in the local papers his bloodstock, etc., for sale. A thoroughbred entire horse, "Morpeth," by Roller; two brood mares; "also the slaves Joseph and Tommy, both young men and well disposed." Later on we see advertised the thoroughbred horse Croft," by Whalebone, dam by Lancer-Priscilla, by Highflyer; also the stud horse" Gift," bred by Lord Bangor, got by Collector, aam by Queens bury. The principal jockeys in those days were white boys from England; their names were George Farrell, Caldow, James Watson, Davis. "Lord George," which belonged to myoid friend Mr. H. G. Parnell, was a distinguished raoer. He was a brown entire horse by LBJlnercost, and half brother to Van Tromp, winner of the Epsom Derby in 1847. Another horse of his called "Lucy," a brown filly, was by Charles XII., winner of the St. Leger, Liverpool Cup, etc. The Colony Cup was established in 1829, and the Durban Course Cup in 1852. In later years good horses have been imported regularly, so that in the veins of our Creole horses runs some of the best blood of the English turf. Little Hampton .. and" St. Bruno" were amongst the sires, and of

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CBICKET 63 the dams the pick was that grand mare Dagmar, daughter of Peter, who for two years swept the board at all the race meetings in the West Indies. The races were always well attended by all classes; white, black, coloured, Hindoo, Chinese, Portuguese, all meet and jostle one another on the course; the noise is deafening, the excitement intense, especially when some horses !i.om Trinidad or Barbados are entered, when colonial rivalry is in fnll swing. Gambling, cheating, drinking, and fighting go on in a most cheerful way, and no one seems much the worse for it. There is always an immense amount of wrangling between the black people over a bet, the loser not wishing to disgorge, and if there be a stake-holder he is generally absent when the race is over. I onoe asked my butler, Bailey, if he had been betting at the races, and he replied, "No, sir; how I bet, suppose I lose, I lose; suppose I win, I must fight for my money." There is a good country meeting held twice a year at Belfield on the East coast, where an amusing day can be spent. There is an excellent cricket ground belonging to the Georgetown Cricket Club, with a fine pavilion, and all the paraphernalia of a ground. The turf is as good as that of an English county club, although sometimes, when it is most wanted, it is flooded with water and more suited for a regatta than a crioket match. A Challenge Cup has been established to be competed for by Trinidad, Barbados, and British Guiana, and the contests for its possession produce good cricket and CBICKET 63 the dams the pick was that grand mare Dagmar, daughter of Peter, who for two years swept the board at all the race meetings in the West Indies. The races were always well attended by all classes; white, black, coloured, Hindoo, Chinese, Portuguese, all meet and jostle one another on the course; the noise is deafening, the excitement intense, especially when some horses !i.om Trinidad or Barbados are entered, when colonial rivalry is in fnll swing. Gambling, cheating, drinking, and fighting go on in a most cheerful way, and no one seems much the worse for it. There is always an immense amount of wrangling between the black people over a bet, the loser not wishing to disgorge, and if there be a stake-holder he is generally absent when the race is over. I onoe asked my butler, Bailey, if he had been betting at the races, and he replied, "No, sir; how I bet, suppose I lose, I lose; suppose I win, I must fight for my money." There is a good country meeting held twice a year at Belfield on the East coast, where an amusing day can be spent. There is an excellent cricket ground belonging to the Georgetown Cricket Club, with a fine pavilion, and all the paraphernalia of a ground. The turf is as good as that of an English county club, although sometimes, when it is most wanted, it is flooded with water and more suited for a regatta than a crioket match. A Challenge Cup has been established to be competed for by Trinidad, Barbados, and British Guiana, and the contests for its possession produce good cricket and

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64 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA much local enthnsiasm. In 1895 Mr. R. S. Lucas brought a team of English cricketers to the West Indies, and they played two matches in Demerara; and in 1897 Lord Hawke visited the colony with Messrs. Leveson-Gower, P. Warner, Bardswell, Bromley-Davenport, Heseltine, and other good cricketers. We had some good cricketers in the G.C.C., notable amongst others, Ml'. Edward Fortescue Wright, Inspector of Police, who had been well known in Gloucestershire as a cricketer before he came to the colony, and who made for himself a lasting name in West Indian cricket annals. He was an excellent all-round cricketer, good bowler, brilliant field, and one of the hardest hitters I ever saw. It was a splendid sight to see Ted Wright, when he was well set at the wicket, open his shoulders and knock the balls about; the first whack up against the palings, the seDond over the pavilion into the road beyond, another went flying into the Lamaha Canal; and all without any apparent effort. In a match agajnst Trinidad, in 1883, he beat their whole eleven off his own bat. At athletic sports I have seen him throw a cricket ball 119 yards. The drawback to cricket in the colony was the absence of any club able to compete with the G.C.C. on anything like equal terms. Once the club received a challenge from a club of Chinese cricketers to play the second eleven of the G.C.C. It was an amusing match. The G.C.C. won the toss and went in; they made one hundred and fifty, without the loss of a 64 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA much local enthnsiasm. In 1895 Mr. R. S. Lucas brought a team of English cricketers to the West Indies, and they played two matches in Demerara; and in 1897 Lord Hawke visited the colony with Messrs. Leveson-Gower, P. Warner, Bardswell, Bromley-Davenport, Heseltine, and other good cricketers. We had some good cricketers in the G.C.C., notable amongst others, Ml'. Edward Fortescue Wright, Inspector of Police, who had been well known in Gloucestershire as a cricketer before he came to the colony, and who made for himself a lasting name in West Indian cricket annals. He was an excellent all-round cricketer, good bowler, brilliant field, and one of the hardest hitters I ever saw. It was a splendid sight to see Ted Wright, when he was well set at the wicket, open his shoulders and knock the balls about; the first whack up against the palings, the seDond over the pavilion into the road beyond, another went flying into the Lamaha Canal; and all without any apparent effort. In a match agajnst Trinidad, in 1883, he beat their whole eleven off his own bat. At athletic sports I have seen him throw a cricket ball 119 yards. The drawback to cricket in the colony was the absence of any club able to compete with the G.C.C. on anything like equal terms. Once the club received a challenge from a club of Chinese cricketers to play the second eleven of the G.C.C. It was an amusing match. The G.C.C. won the toss and went in; they made one hundred and fifty, without the loss of a

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OHINESE ORIOKET 65 wicket, so the innings was declared closed, and the Celestials took to the wickets. Abont the third ball the captain was given ant l.b.w., but he refused to go, saying, "Me no play that way." In the next over he was caught by the wicket keeper, but he still refused to budge; and it was not until his middle stump was knocked out of the ground by a yorker that he allowed he was out, and stalked off to the pavilion muttering strange Chinese oaths. Despite their stickiug principles, the Chinese eleven were disposed of for thirtysix runs; and in the follow on they were not more successful. The black and coloured people a1e madly fond of cricket, every available open space of ground is full of them playing the game in one form or another. Little boys play on the sides of the streets with an empty kerosine oil tin for wickets, and the rib of a palm leaf for a bat. Some of them atta ,in a certain proficiency in the game. I remember at a celebrated match between the Government secretariat and the police, the Inspector-General put on police-constable David to bowl. He was an enormous black man, six feet six inches in height, and as he bowled he retired twenty yards behind the wicket and advanced to the attack whirling his right arm ronnd like a windmill; when he reached the bowling crease he stopped short and delivered a terrifio underhand grub straight on the wicket, which somewhat disconcerted the batsman, who was not accnstomed to snch a style of bowling. Dancing is also a favourite diversion. Creoles, .. OHINESE ORIOKET 65 wicket, so the innings was declared closed, and the Celestials took to the wickets. Abont the third ball the captain was given ant l.b.w., but he refused to go, saying, "Me no play that way." In the next over he was caught by the wicket keeper, but he still refused to budge; and it was not until his middle stump was knocked out of the ground by a yorker that he allowed he was out, and stalked off to the pavilion muttering strange Chinese oaths. Despite their stickiug principles, the Chinese eleven were disposed of for thirtysix runs; and in the follow on they were not more successful. The black and coloured people a1e madly fond of cricket, every available open space of ground is full of them playing the game in one form or another. Little boys play on the sides of the streets with an empty kerosine oil tin for wickets, and the rib of a palm leaf for a bat. Some of them atta ,in a certain proficiency in the game. I remember at a celebrated match between the Government secretariat and the police, the Inspector-General put on police-constable David to bowl. He was an enormous black man, six feet six inches in height, and as he bowled he retired twenty yards behind the wicket and advanced to the attack whirling his right arm ronnd like a windmill; when he reached the bowling crease he stopped short and delivered a terrifio underhand grub straight on the wicket, which somewhat disconcerted the batsman, who was not accnstomed to snch a style of bowling. Dancing is also a favourite diversion. Creoles, ..

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, 66 TWENTY-FIVE YE4RS IN RRITISH GUI4N.A white, black, and brown, all dance spontaneously; they require no teaching. The black people dance beautifully; I never saw better waltzing in my life than at some of their dignity baIls. Dances are frequent in Georgetown; and there are a nllID ber of plaoes called" praotising rooms" much frequented by the young coloured people, where other amusements besides dancing are, I fear, practised. At their balls, dancing is kept up with spirit from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m.; the people behave very well, and there is little or no drunken ness. At their fancy dress baIls, the costumes of the black people are marvellous. At one to which I had been invited, a taIl, stout, black woman represented Queen Victoria; she had the place of honour on the dais; an obsequious courtier was fanning her, and, seeing that her Majesty was perspiring freely nnder her robes and crown, snggested a little iced water, but the Queen replied, "No buddy no waater, me tak' a little able (strong) pnnch." The Africans (Congos, Kroomen, etc.) have some native dances which they perform at times, such as the kumfoo and others; but these are of a grossly lascivious nature and not often to be witnessed. The Hindoos have nautch dances at the festival of the Mohurrun and at weddings, but the dancers are almost always boys dressed up as girls. Most books of reminiscences are filled with the authcr's recollections of great men, royalties, authors, statesmen whom he has met, what they 66 TWENTY-FIVE YE4RS IN RRITISH GUI4N.A white, black, and brown, all dance spontaneously; they require no teaching. The black people dance beautifully; I never saw better waltzing in my life than at some of their dignity baIls. Dances are frequent in Georgetown; and there are a nllID ber of plaoes called" praotising rooms" much frequented by the young coloured people, where other amusements besides dancing are, I fear, practised. At their balls, dancing is kept up with spirit from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m.; the people behave very well, and there is little or no drunken ness. At their fancy dress baIls, the costumes of the black people are marvellous. At one to which I had been invited, a taIl, stout, black woman represented Queen Victoria; she had the place of honour on the dais; an obsequious courtier was fanning her, and, seeing that her Majesty was perspiring freely nnder her robes and crown, snggested a little iced water, but the Queen replied, "No buddy no waater, me tak' a little able (strong) pnnch." The Africans (Congos, Kroomen, etc.) have some native dances which they perform at times, such as the kumfoo and others; but these are of a grossly lascivious nature and not often to be witnessed. The Hindoos have nautch dances at the festival of the Mohurrun and at weddings, but the dancers are almost always boys dressed up as girls. Most books of reminiscences are filled with the authcr's recollections of great men, royalties, authors, statesmen whom he has met, what they

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REMINISOENOES 67 said, what they wore, and what they did; bonsmots and quips sparkle in their pages, and although many of them are chestnuts, and have been told over and over again, they help to enliven their chapters, and leave the reader with the impression that the author has, during his life, moved in the highest circles; like Mr. Turveydrop's remiuis cenoes of the Prinoe Regent, they are evidence that he was fitted to shine in the best society My readers might naturally expect from me similar records. I might be expeoted to give details of interviews with the royal princes, noble lords, and gallant a,dmirals who, during my residenoe in the colony, visited the shores of British Guiana. The many excellent gentlemen who have resided amongst us as governors might provide a fund of anecdote and wit; but, to tell the truth, I have not the slightest recollection of any aneodote or witty l'emark associated in any way with these illustrious visitors or great men. One comical incident I recall which occurred in the Exeoutive Council. A Government official had been suspended, and was being examined as to his misdeeds before that tribunal, when one of the members asked the culprit, "Mr. B I understand, sir, that you are living in adultery." "No, sir," was the reply, I am living in a two-storey house." Guiana, like other British possessions, boasted a governor and commander-in-chief, a colouial secretary, an auditor.general, a receiver-general, an immigration agent-general, an attorney-gene ral, a solicitor'general, a postmaster-general, an REMINISOENOES 67 said, what they wore, and what they did; bonsmots and quips sparkle in their pages, and although many of them are chestnuts, and have been told over and over again, they help to enliven their chapters, and leave the reader with the impression that the author has, during his life, moved in the highest circles; like Mr. Turveydrop's remiuis cenoes of the Prinoe Regent, they are evidence that he was fitted to shine in the best society My readers might naturally expect from me similar records. I might be expeoted to give details of interviews with the royal princes, noble lords, and gallant a,dmirals who, during my residenoe in the colony, visited the shores of British Guiana. The many excellent gentlemen who have resided amongst us as governors might provide a fund of anecdote and wit; but, to tell the truth, I have not the slightest recollection of any aneodote or witty l'emark associated in any way with these illustrious visitors or great men. One comical incident I recall which occurred in the Exeoutive Council. A Government official had been suspended, and was being examined as to his misdeeds before that tribunal, when one of the members asked the culprit, "Mr. B I understand, sir, that you are living in adultery." "No, sir," was the reply, I am living in a two-storey house." Guiana, like other British possessions, boasted a governor and commander-in-chief, a colouial secretary, an auditor.general, a receiver-general, an immigration agent-general, an attorney-gene ral, a solicitor'general, a postmaster-general, an

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68 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUU.NA inspeotor-general, a surgeon-general, an adminis trator-general, other generals, and innumerable subordinate offioials, who were all required to govern a population as big as that of a fourth-rate English town. I have already stated that what astonished me most on arrival in the oolony were the frogs and the mosquitoes; but I must add that when I found that the President of the United States, who ruled over more than 50,000,000 of people, reoeived a salary of and a residenoe, whilst the Governor of British Guiana, who governed a population of 250,000, received and a residenoe, for oontingenoies, and all his wines and spirits admitted duty free, I was still more astonished. The Yankees seem to have disoovered some disparity in the salaries, for I nnderstand of late years that they have raised the pay of their President to ,000. There was one notable exoeption to the general dulness of our offioial olass, and that was our genial Administrator-General, who oould pour forth an endless stream of aneodote, and who, under the nom de plume X Beke, has published some amusing yams about his experienoes as a Government {)ffioial in the West Indian Islands. He was more fortunate than I have been, though it must be oonfessed that some of his stories might have referenoe to what happened in the island of Bara taria under Sanoho Panza's benefioent rule. In the old days a oonsiderable military foroe was ma;ntained in British Guiana. There were troops in Georgetown, New Amsterdam, and 68 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUU.NA inspeotor-general, a surgeon-general, an adminis trator-general, other generals, and innumerable subordinate offioials, who were all required to govern a population as big as that of a fourth-rate English town. I have already stated that what astonished me most on arrival in the oolony were the frogs and the mosquitoes; but I must add that when I found that the President of the United States, who ruled over more than 50,000,000 of people, reoeived a salary of and a residenoe, whilst the Governor of British Guiana, who governed a population of 250,000, received and a residenoe, for oontingenoies, and all his wines and spirits admitted duty free, I was still more astonished. The Yankees seem to have disoovered some disparity in the salaries, for I nnderstand of late years that they have raised the pay of their President to ,000. There was one notable exoeption to the general dulness of our offioial olass, and that was our genial Administrator-General, who oould pour forth an endless stream of aneodote, and who, under the nom de plume X Beke, has published some amusing yams about his experienoes as a Government {)ffioial in the West Indian Islands. He was more fortunate than I have been, though it must be oonfessed that some of his stories might have referenoe to what happened in the island of Bara taria under Sanoho Panza's benefioent rule. In the old days a oonsiderable military foroe was ma;ntained in British Guiana. There were troops in Georgetown, New Amsterdam, and

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MILIT.A.RY FORUES 69 detachments were stationed at Mahaica, Fort Wellington, and Aberdeen. The mortality among the soldiers was excessive. Owing to the stu pidity of the War Office, regiments were generally brought down from Halifax or Canada, often at the most unfavourable season, and crowded into insanitary barracks. Yellow fever carried them off by scores; and at last the home authorities refused to send any more white troops to the colony; so we were relegated to the protection of the West Indian Regiments, which were composed of negroes officered by Englishm en. Hundreds of gallant men, who had fought in the Peninsula and Waterloo, left their bones in the dreary soldiers' burialground at Eve Leary, ,mre corded and uncared for. It will ever be a pleasing reminiscence for me that, owing to the assistance of Lord Gormanston-himself an old soldier-I was able to make their graveyard somewhat decent, enclosing it with a neat fence, and planting it with ornamental trees. When I first went out, Deme rara was the headquarters of the 2nd W est Indian Regiment, Colonel Wise in command. When the first Ashanti war broke out, the regiment was sent to Cape Coast Castle, and their place was tem porarily filled by a company of the 98th Regiment from Barbados, under Major Scheberras, with Captain Tibbs and Lieutenant Allen. The general in Barb.ados was much alarmed about the health of these white troops sent to our pestilential shores, and ordered the officer in command to send him frequent telegrams and reports. But so much MILIT.A.RY FORUES 69 detachments were stationed at Mahaica, Fort Wellington, and Aberdeen. The mortality among the soldiers was excessive. Owing to the stu pidity of the War Office, regiments were generally brought down from Halifax or Canada, often at the most unfavourable season, and crowded into insanitary barracks. Yellow fever carried them off by scores; and at last the home authorities refused to send any more white troops to the colony; so we were relegated to the protection of the West Indian Regiments, which were composed of negroes officered by Englishm en. Hundreds of gallant men, who had fought in the Peninsula and Waterloo, left their bones in the dreary soldiers' burialground at Eve Leary, ,mre corded and uncared for. It will ever be a pleasing reminiscence for me that, owing to the assistance of Lord Gormanston-himself an old soldier-I was able to make their graveyard somewhat decent, enclosing it with a neat fence, and planting it with ornamental trees. When I first went out, Deme rara was the headquarters of the 2nd W est Indian Regiment, Colonel Wise in command. When the first Ashanti war broke out, the regiment was sent to Cape Coast Castle, and their place was tem porarily filled by a company of the 98th Regiment from Barbados, under Major Scheberras, with Captain Tibbs and Lieutenant Allen. The general in Barb.ados was much alarmed about the health of these white troops sent to our pestilential shores, and ordered the officer in command to send him frequent telegrams and reports. But so much

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70 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA changed were the drajnage and accommodation of the barraoks that, although the white troops remained with us more than a year, not a single man died, and very few found their way into the sick list. When the Ashanti oampaign was over, we had alternate detachments from the 1st and 2nd West Indian Regiments; but their numbers were gradu ally diminished, until, in 1890, the troops were withdra wn altogether, and we were told to protect ourselves, which we have done by forming a body of armed police, and by the establishment of a militia force. Our dispute with Venezuela and the United States about our boundary necessitated additional precautions, so two Maxim guns were imported, and Fort William Frederick, at the mouth of the Demerara River, was armed with modern artillery_ In 1893 some Venezuelan soldiers made a raid upon our territory in anticipation of Dr. Jameson's celebrated invasion of the Transvaal, but they lost themselves in the bush, and after enduring great hardships from hunger, damp, and insects, were dis covered, to the number of twelve, by some Indians, who guided them down to Banioa, where they were arrested by the magistrate. He didn't know what to do with them, but as they had some rusty old rifles with them, he ordered them to be charged for carrying guns without a lioense, and as they had no money to pay their fines, he sent them to the Georgetown Gao!. Here the Governor released them, fed and clothed them, and sent them by the 70 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA changed were the drajnage and accommodation of the barraoks that, although the white troops remained with us more than a year, not a single man died, and very few found their way into the sick list. When the Ashanti oampaign was over, we had alternate detachments from the 1st and 2nd West Indian Regiments; but their numbers were gradu ally diminished, until, in 1890, the troops were withdra wn altogether, and we were told to protect ourselves, which we have done by forming a body of armed police, and by the establishment of a militia force. Our dispute with Venezuela and the United States about our boundary necessitated additional precautions, so two Maxim guns were imported, and Fort William Frederick, at the mouth of the Demerara River, was armed with modern artillery_ In 1893 some Venezuelan soldiers made a raid upon our territory in anticipation of Dr. Jameson's celebrated invasion of the Transvaal, but they lost themselves in the bush, and after enduring great hardships from hunger, damp, and insects, were dis covered, to the number of twelve, by some Indians, who guided them down to Banioa, where they were arrested by the magistrate. He didn't know what to do with them, but as they had some rusty old rifles with them, he ordered them to be charged for carrying guns without a lioense, and as they had no money to pay their fines, he sent them to the Georgetown Gao!. Here the Governor released them, fed and clothed them, and sent them by the

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'V..I.RSITY DINNER 71 first steamer to Bolivar. Uruan was our outpost up the Cuynni; and in 1894 Inspectors Barnes and Baker were seized by the Venezuelans and carried away, and the police-station was looted. I had given Barnes my little fox-terrier bitch Vixen," when I was going on leave, and he took her with him to Uruall. Unfortunately she died there, and Barnes buried her, and put up a monument over her grave. When the Venezuelans descended upon them, the ignorant soldiers thought that poor Vixen's tombstone was a boundary mark, so they dragged it out with great indignation, and hurled it into the river. Like most English colonies, we established an annual 'Varsity dinner, where we have mustered as many as sixteen graduates of Oxford and Cam bridge. Foremost amongst them was that grand old man, for fifty-two years Bishop of Gniana, William Pieroy Austin, prelate of the most dis tinguished order of St. Michael and St_ George, who took the greatest interest in these convivial meetings, and always attended when he was in the colony. Amongst others I may mention his son, the Rev. William G. Austin, of Magdalen, Oxford, who rowed in the 'Varsity crew at Putney; Mr. James Crosby, of Trinity College, Cambridge, of whom more anon; Edward Everard Rushworth, of St. John's, Oxford, who administered the government of the colony in 1873-74. Three judges of the Supreme Court, John Hampden King, of Skimmery; C. H. Lovesey, of Queen's, Oxford; and John Tankerville Goldney, Cambridge, 'V..I.RSITY DINNER 71 first steamer to Bolivar. Uruan was our outpost up the Cuynni; and in 1894 Inspectors Barnes and Baker were seized by the Venezuelans and carried away, and the police-station was looted. I had given Barnes my little fox-terrier bitch Vixen," when I was going on leave, and he took her with him to Uruall. Unfortunately she died there, and Barnes buried her, and put up a monument over her grave. When the Venezuelans descended upon them, the ignorant soldiers thought that poor Vixen's tombstone was a boundary mark, so they dragged it out with great indignation, and hurled it into the river. Like most English colonies, we established an annual 'Varsity dinner, where we have mustered as many as sixteen graduates of Oxford and Cam bridge. Foremost amongst them was that grand old man, for fifty-two years Bishop of Gniana, William Pieroy Austin, prelate of the most dis tinguished order of St. Michael and St_ George, who took the greatest interest in these convivial meetings, and always attended when he was in the colony. Amongst others I may mention his son, the Rev. William G. Austin, of Magdalen, Oxford, who rowed in the 'Varsity crew at Putney; Mr. James Crosby, of Trinity College, Cambridge, of whom more anon; Edward Everard Rushworth, of St. John's, Oxford, who administered the government of the colony in 1873-74. Three judges of the Supreme Court, John Hampden King, of Skimmery; C. H. Lovesey, of Queen's, Oxford; and John Tankerville Goldney, Cambridge,

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72 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN IJRITISH GUIANA now Chief Justice of Triuidad. The Rev. Canon Smith, of St. John's, Cambridge, was a regular subscriber to these dinners; and I cau recall J. Ernest Tinn e of Triuity College, Oxford; Gilbert Robertson Sandbach, of Brasenose; Alfred Parker, of Uuiversity; Edward Everard im Thurn, of Trinity College, Oxford; Exley Percival, of Brase nose, and many others. Mr. James Crosby was one of the best-known men in the West Indies. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was called to the Bar, and was employed by some sugar proprietors to plead their cause in the courts of St. Vincent. Here he continued to practise, and obtained a moderate success. There was a good story told about him in St. Vincent. He had defended .. murderer before the Supreme Court, but the man was con victed, as Crosby thought, on insuffioient evidence; 80 he appealed to the Governor, who, however, refused to interfere with the finding of the court So when Crosby went to inform the prisoner, he was highly indignant, and told the doomed man, U Never mind, never mind; let them hang you, and then they shan see what the consequenoes will be to them;" but the poor man did not see it in the same light. Mr. Crosby was appointed Immi gration Agent-General and Protector of Immi grants in British Guiana, and there he 60 identified himself for nearly thirty years with the welfare of the large East Indian population, that he became a Bort of deity and impersonation of protection, so the department was called" Crosby Office." The 72 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN IJRITISH GUIANA now Chief Justice of Triuidad. The Rev. Canon Smith, of St. John's, Cambridge, was a regular subscriber to these dinners; and I cau recall J. Ernest Tinn e of Triuity College, Oxford; Gilbert Robertson Sandbach, of Brasenose; Alfred Parker, of Uuiversity; Edward Everard im Thurn, of Trinity College, Oxford; Exley Percival, of Brase nose, and many others. Mr. James Crosby was one of the best-known men in the West Indies. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was called to the Bar, and was employed by some sugar proprietors to plead their cause in the courts of St. Vincent. Here he continued to practise, and obtained a moderate success. There was a good story told about him in St. Vincent. He had defended .. murderer before the Supreme Court, but the man was con victed, as Crosby thought, on insuffioient evidence; 80 he appealed to the Governor, who, however, refused to interfere with the finding of the court So when Crosby went to inform the prisoner, he was highly indignant, and told the doomed man, U Never mind, never mind; let them hang you, and then they shan see what the consequenoes will be to them;" but the poor man did not see it in the same light. Mr. Crosby was appointed Immi gration Agent-General and Protector of Immi grants in British Guiana, and there he 60 identified himself for nearly thirty years with the welfare of the large East Indian population, that he became a Bort of deity and impersonation of protection, so the department was called" Crosby Office." The

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CROSBY SAHIB 73 chief himself was known as "Burra Crosby Sahib; and all the sub-immigration agents lost their per Banality, and were known as "Chota CraBby Sahibs ; and although the old man has been dead and gone for many years, his successors have been compelled to bear his name, and every coolie in difficulty announces his intention of going "to see CraBby." Mr. Crosby died in 1880, having had apparently as many lives as the proverbial oat. He was an energetic old man, and although seventy years of age would go to balls and dance away like a youngster. On one occasion at the Assembly Rooms, as the company were leaving at 3 a.m., and we were lighting our cigars in the hall, he astonished us by precipitating himself down the staircase, and falling headlong into a large flowertub; he was picked up and sent home in charge of a medical man, but next day he turned up all right. A few weeks afterwards he went to a croquet party at Government House, and hasten ing across the ground to shake hands with a lady friend, he tripped over It hoop, and fell into a box full of mallets, breaking one of his ribs. Shortly afterwards, when he had repaired damages, he paid a visit to England. On his return in the Don, they encountered bad weather; but the dauntless Crosby must go up on deck to see what was going on, so not unnaturally he fell head-foremost down the companion, and broke his collar-bone and one of his ribs, besides spro,ining his wrist. This kept him quiet for the r es t of the voyage; but not many CROSBY SAHIB 73 chief himself was known as "Burra Crosby Sahib; and all the sub-immigration agents lost their per Banality, and were known as "Chota CraBby Sahibs ; and although the old man has been dead and gone for many years, his successors have been compelled to bear his name, and every coolie in difficulty announces his intention of going "to see CraBby." Mr. Crosby died in 1880, having had apparently as many lives as the proverbial oat. He was an energetic old man, and although seventy years of age would go to balls and dance away like a youngster. On one occasion at the Assembly Rooms, as the company were leaving at 3 a.m., and we were lighting our cigars in the hall, he astonished us by precipitating himself down the staircase, and falling headlong into a large flowertub; he was picked up and sent home in charge of a medical man, but next day he turned up all right. A few weeks afterwards he went to a croquet party at Government House, and hasten ing across the ground to shake hands with a lady friend, he tripped over It hoop, and fell into a box full of mallets, breaking one of his ribs. Shortly afterwards, when he had repaired damages, he paid a visit to England. On his return in the Don, they encountered bad weather; but the dauntless Crosby must go up on deck to see what was going on, so not unnaturally he fell head-foremost down the companion, and broke his collar-bone and one of his ribs, besides spro,ining his wrist. This kept him quiet for the r es t of the voyage; but not many

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74 1'WENTY-FIVE IN BRITIS H months afterwards, he broke a bone in one of his legs, and ta king to his bed, he never left it again alive. To residents in equatorial climes the immense insect tribe is a SOUIce of annoyance; their name is legion, for they are many. The great che stuut coloured cockroaches are destructive, foul-smelling brutes, to be slain without benefit of clergy. Ants of all sizes and COIOUIS simply exist in billions, black, red, brown, white, and grey, varying in size from the huge solitary ant as big as an English spider, to the minute sugar ants, of which several hundreds could stand on a shilling without crowding. Ants are ubiquitous; if you leave a little sugar at the bottom of your coffee cup, in a few minutes it is covered with ants; if you kill a cockroach and leave its carcass on the fioor, in a short time it is hidden under a swarm of ants, and in a couple of hours all sign of it has disappeared. There are great columns of ants called yakman, which march through the country, devouring everything as they pass. If your house is in the line of march, you must vaoate it till the column has passed, which sometimes takes two or three days. One good thing they do, they clear your house of vermin, devouring every centipede, scorpion, and cockroach, and all the young bats and mice which cannot save themselves by flight. Brown centipedes six inches long are common in old houses, and smaller and more venomous black ones have a nasty habit of hiding in one's 74 1'WENTY-FIVE IN BRITIS H months afterwards, he broke a bone in one of his legs, and ta king to his bed, he never left it again alive. To residents in equatorial climes the immense insect tribe is a SOUIce of annoyance; their name is legion, for they are many. The great che stuut coloured cockroaches are destructive, foul-smelling brutes, to be slain without benefit of clergy. Ants of all sizes and COIOUIS simply exist in billions, black, red, brown, white, and grey, varying in size from the huge solitary ant as big as an English spider, to the minute sugar ants, of which several hundreds could stand on a shilling without crowding. Ants are ubiquitous; if you leave a little sugar at the bottom of your coffee cup, in a few minutes it is covered with ants; if you kill a cockroach and leave its carcass on the fioor, in a short time it is hidden under a swarm of ants, and in a couple of hours all sign of it has disappeared. There are great columns of ants called yakman, which march through the country, devouring everything as they pass. If your house is in the line of march, you must vaoate it till the column has passed, which sometimes takes two or three days. One good thing they do, they clear your house of vermin, devouring every centipede, scorpion, and cockroach, and all the young bats and mice which cannot save themselves by flight. Brown centipedes six inches long are common in old houses, and smaller and more venomous black ones have a nasty habit of hiding in one's

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INSEOT PLAGUES 75 boots. I remember one day in the seventies I was dining with Edmund Field at Plantation Great Diamond; a Captajn Ross from England was staying with him, and ooming in late, he ran np stairs to dress for dinner as quickly as possible. Before long, we heard him coming gaily downstairs humming a tune, which was snddenly tnrned into a yell, and when we hurned out to see what was the matter, we saw poor Ross sitting on the stairs tugging frantically at one of his dress boots, which he flung off, and then sat nursing his foot and groaning. Field picked up the disoarded boot, and giving it a shake, out dropped a small black centipede which had been ourled up inside. Ammonia and other l'emedies were applied to the suffering foot, but although Ross joined us at dinner, he had lost all his appetite. When the rains begin, Georgeto"""m'n is invaded by a kind of black beetle, looally known as "hardbacks." These are sometimes so numerous as to interfere with our sooial funotions. Dining one night at the Mess of the 2nd West Indian Regiment, at Eve Leary Barracks, we conldn't eat our dinners for the showers of hardbacks whioh fell into our soup and wine, filled our hair, and orawled down our backs. On another oooasion, at a grand ball at the Assembly Rooms, the hardbaoks were so nnmerous that men with brooms were employed to sweep the floor, piling the beetles into buokets for removal; danoing was out of the question, as with every step you crushed a hardback; and if, as the poet INSEOT PLAGUES 75 boots. I remember one day in the seventies I was dining with Edmund Field at Plantation Great Diamond; a Captajn Ross from England was staying with him, and ooming in late, he ran np stairs to dress for dinner as quickly as possible. Before long, we heard him coming gaily downstairs humming a tune, which was snddenly tnrned into a yell, and when we hurned out to see what was the matter, we saw poor Ross sitting on the stairs tugging frantically at one of his dress boots, which he flung off, and then sat nursing his foot and groaning. Field picked up the disoarded boot, and giving it a shake, out dropped a small black centipede which had been ourled up inside. Ammonia and other l'emedies were applied to the suffering foot, but although Ross joined us at dinner, he had lost all his appetite. When the rains begin, Georgeto"""m'n is invaded by a kind of black beetle, looally known as "hardbacks." These are sometimes so numerous as to interfere with our sooial funotions. Dining one night at the Mess of the 2nd West Indian Regiment, at Eve Leary Barracks, we conldn't eat our dinners for the showers of hardbacks whioh fell into our soup and wine, filled our hair, and orawled down our backs. On another oooasion, at a grand ball at the Assembly Rooms, the hardbaoks were so nnmerous that men with brooms were employed to sweep the floor, piling the beetles into buokets for removal; danoing was out of the question, as with every step you crushed a hardback; and if, as the poet

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76 TWEliTY-FlVE YEARS IN RRITlSH GUIANA says, the beetle crushed beneath the heel feels the same pang as when a giant dies," the amount of anguish in that ball-room on that night must have been stupendous. The ladies were tormented as the insects filled their hair, and crawled up their dresses and down their necks. Flying ants are also at times a great nuisance, as they hustle into the room by thousands, and the moment they touch anything their wings drop off, and they run about in all directions. New comers are often startled by the great green mantis, who alights upon their heads and folds his hands in an attitude of prayer. A large brown wasp, called a marabunta, builds his pretty paper combs under the eaves and galleries of our houses; his sting is severe; whilst the mason bees build their curious circular mud-houses, like rows ofEsquimaux huts, all the backs of your books and sofas, and on the fronts of your piotures and your blind s The electric light was introduced into the city some years ago, and it was a curious sight to see the great arc-lights surrounded by myriads of insects, moths, hardbacks, beetles, until the ground, for yards around, was black with their fallen bodies. Gas was first used in 1872; the first gas-lit ball was in February, 1873, when Admiral Fanshawe and the North American fleet paid us a visit. The negroes were much astonished at the new light; they could not understand how it bumt without oil; they were continually climbing up the lamp-posts, putting their fingers in the flame and exclaiming, Eh! me Gad! it bum." 76 TWEliTY-FlVE YEARS IN RRITlSH GUIANA says, the beetle crushed beneath the heel feels the same pang as when a giant dies," the amount of anguish in that ball-room on that night must have been stupendous. The ladies were tormented as the insects filled their hair, and crawled up their dresses and down their necks. Flying ants are also at times a great nuisance, as they hustle into the room by thousands, and the moment they touch anything their wings drop off, and they run about in all directions. New comers are often startled by the great green mantis, who alights upon their heads and folds his hands in an attitude of prayer. A large brown wasp, called a marabunta, builds his pretty paper combs under the eaves and galleries of our houses; his sting is severe; whilst the mason bees build their curious circular mud-houses, like rows ofEsquimaux huts, all the backs of your books and sofas, and on the fronts of your piotures and your blind s The electric light was introduced into the city some years ago, and it was a curious sight to see the great arc-lights surrounded by myriads of insects, moths, hardbacks, beetles, until the ground, for yards around, was black with their fallen bodies. Gas was first used in 1872; the first gas-lit ball was in February, 1873, when Admiral Fanshawe and the North American fleet paid us a visit. The negroes were much astonished at the new light; they could not understand how it bumt without oil; they were continually climbing up the lamp-posts, putting their fingers in the flame and exclaiming, Eh! me Gad! it bum."

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BEOKWITH' S HOTEL 77 When I first went out to the colony, there was only one decent hotel in Georgetown, kept by a sturdy old Yorkshireman and his wife, by name Beckwith, where I secured a bed on my arrival. Diniug with Mr. Stephens two nights afterwards, I returned to the hotel about 11 p.m., and was sur prised to find it locked up, all lights extinguished, and no signs of life about the place. I hammered at the door for some time without success; at last some one descended the stairs and opened the door, and I beheld old Mr. Beckwith in his night-gown and night-cap, with a lighted candle in his hand. I asked him what the devil he meant by locking me out of the house, and threatened to leave him and go elsewhere in the morning. You may go as soon as you like," he replied. So feeling snubbed and angry, I retired to my room. Next morning I related my experiences to Alexander Reid, the manager of the Colouial Bank, and announced my intentions of leaving Beckwith's at once, and going to a better managed place. He laughed and said, But where will you go? There is no other hotel which is fit for you to stop in." So I had to make the best of it; and hearing that Mr. Beckwith came from Leeds, I began to talk to him about his native town, the improvements made since he left it, the new Town Hall, the new bridge at the bottom of Briggate, etc., until I won the old man's heart, and over a glass of his particular sherry we became quite chummy, and he told me that if I ever expected to be out late to tell him, and he would order some one to sit up for me. BEOKWITH' S HOTEL 77 When I first went out to the colony, there was only one decent hotel in Georgetown, kept by a sturdy old Yorkshireman and his wife, by name Beckwith, where I secured a bed on my arrival. Diniug with Mr. Stephens two nights afterwards, I returned to the hotel about 11 p.m., and was sur prised to find it locked up, all lights extinguished, and no signs of life about the place. I hammered at the door for some time without success; at last some one descended the stairs and opened the door, and I beheld old Mr. Beckwith in his night-gown and night-cap, with a lighted candle in his hand. I asked him what the devil he meant by locking me out of the house, and threatened to leave him and go elsewhere in the morning. You may go as soon as you like," he replied. So feeling snubbed and angry, I retired to my room. Next morning I related my experiences to Alexander Reid, the manager of the Colouial Bank, and announced my intentions of leaving Beckwith's at once, and going to a better managed place. He laughed and said, But where will you go? There is no other hotel which is fit for you to stop in." So I had to make the best of it; and hearing that Mr. Beckwith came from Leeds, I began to talk to him about his native town, the improvements made since he left it, the new Town Hall, the new bridge at the bottom of Briggate, etc., until I won the old man's heart, and over a glass of his particular sherry we became quite chummy, and he told me that if I ever expected to be out late to tell him, and he would order some one to sit up for me.

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78 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Beckwith was what 'Any would call a "harbitrary gent." He caught one of his boarders, a gentle man connected with the Panama Telegraph Co., making love to the ladies' maid, and he put him out of the hotel, bag and baggage, in an hour. His amorous propensities got the same gentleman into further trouble, for going to St. Thomas, and being caught by the Governor of that island ma.king love to one of his daughters, he was ordered to leave the island within twenty-four hours and never return. 78 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Beckwith was what 'Any would call a "harbitrary gent." He caught one of his boarders, a gentle man connected with the Panama Telegraph Co., making love to the ladies' maid, and he put him out of the hotel, bag and baggage, in an hour. His amorous propensities got the same gentleman into further trouble, for going to St. Thomas, and being caught by the Governor of that island ma.king love to one of his daughters, he was ordered to leave the island within twenty-four hours and never return.

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( 79 ) CHAPTER IV. Equatorial zone-Tropical vegetation-Forests-Strikingeffects Gardens in British Guiana-Fauna-Shooting-Game ducks -Hoatzio-Jagnars-Waracahra tigers-Deer-Peccary-Tapir_ Monkeys-lguanlUl --Fishing-Cuffum-Lukan&DDi_Can_ nibal snakes-Esseqnibo snd Aroabisce coast-Old-time plantersRacecourse-Hospitality-Practical jokes----Clergy-Dean AustinRev. William Brett-St. John's Church-Medical officers-Riot on the coast-An awkward predicament A faithful sentry-Sheriff' Humphreys-Anna Austin. THE world, according to the geography books of our youth, is divided into five zones-two frigid, two temperate, and one tropic-although a little girl of mine, in answer to her governess, described the latter as the intemperate zone-an unconscious sarcasm. But there is another zone, rarely men tioned by the teachers of youth, but which has been clearly delineated by Wallace, Bates, and other naturalists, viz. the equatorial belt, which stretches about ten degrees on eaoh side of the equator. The olimate, flora and fauna, of this region differ materially from the other portions of the tropics Within this belt hurrioanes and typhoons are nnknown, whereas they are felt at their worst between the tropical line and the equatorial; ( 79 ) CHAPTER IV. Equatorial zone-Tropical vegetation-Forests-Strikingeffects Gardens in British Guiana-Fauna-Shooting-Game ducks -Hoatzio-Jagnars-Waracahra tigers-Deer-Peccary-Tapir_ Monkeys-lguanlUl --Fishing-Cuffum-Lukan&DDi_Can_ nibal snakes-Esseqnibo snd Aroabisce coast-Old-time plantersRacecourse-Hospitality-Practical jokes----Clergy-Dean AustinRev. William Brett-St. John's Church-Medical officers-Riot on the coast-An awkward predicament A faithful sentry-Sheriff' Humphreys-Anna Austin. THE world, according to the geography books of our youth, is divided into five zones-two frigid, two temperate, and one tropic-although a little girl of mine, in answer to her governess, described the latter as the intemperate zone-an unconscious sarcasm. But there is another zone, rarely men tioned by the teachers of youth, but which has been clearly delineated by Wallace, Bates, and other naturalists, viz. the equatorial belt, which stretches about ten degrees on eaoh side of the equator. The olimate, flora and fauna, of this region differ materially from the other portions of the tropics Within this belt hurrioanes and typhoons are nnknown, whereas they are felt at their worst between the tropical line and the equatorial;

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80 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISlI GUIANA vegetation is of the most luxuriant nature, temperature being high, rain abundant, and wind storms absent. But, despite their grandeur and density, visitors to this region are generally dis appointed by the equatorial forests. They have heard of the gorgeous flowers of the tropics, and they expect to see something extraordinary and striking to the eye. As a matter of fact the tropical forest is singularly sombre and devoid of bright colour; any flowers that exist are at the top of the trees, one hundred feet above your head, whither also fly the bright butterflies, and the brighter birds which feed upon them. You may journey for hundreds of miles through tropical forests without seeing any bright flowers or con spicuous masses of colour. At times such things happen. I remember once on a reach of the Demerara River for about three miles the trees of the forest on one side of the stream were covered with a bright purple creeper, which fell in festoons from the tops of the trees, and was reflected at length in the placid water. Lit up by the slanting rays of the sun, the woods pre sented a blaze of glory which I have rarely seen equalled. Of course, in cultivated places, where trees are planted for effect or use, some grand aspects are created. I remember, in Jamaica, driving for a mile through an avenue of flamboyant trees which were literally covered with their brilliant crimson and scarlet flowers; the effect was painful to the eyes, so vivid and gorgeous were the tones. 80 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISlI GUIANA vegetation is of the most luxuriant nature, temperature being high, rain abundant, and wind storms absent. But, despite their grandeur and density, visitors to this region are generally dis appointed by the equatorial forests. They have heard of the gorgeous flowers of the tropics, and they expect to see something extraordinary and striking to the eye. As a matter of fact the tropical forest is singularly sombre and devoid of bright colour; any flowers that exist are at the top of the trees, one hundred feet above your head, whither also fly the bright butterflies, and the brighter birds which feed upon them. You may journey for hundreds of miles through tropical forests without seeing any bright flowers or con spicuous masses of colour. At times such things happen. I remember once on a reach of the Demerara River for about three miles the trees of the forest on one side of the stream were covered with a bright purple creeper, which fell in festoons from the tops of the trees, and was reflected at length in the placid water. Lit up by the slanting rays of the sun, the woods pre sented a blaze of glory which I have rarely seen equalled. Of course, in cultivated places, where trees are planted for effect or use, some grand aspects are created. I remember, in Jamaica, driving for a mile through an avenue of flamboyant trees which were literally covered with their brilliant crimson and scarlet flowers; the effect was painful to the eyes, so vivid and gorgeous were the tones.

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GARDENS IN GUIANA 81 Another time, riding in Trinidad down a gOl'ge from the monntains, the whole valley before ns was filled with a rich golden glow, cansed by the setting sun shinjng on the flowering oronoque trees, which lined both sides of the valley. In Demerara abont snnset, when the fiowers open, a broad trench, forty feet wide and a mile long, filled with the Victoria Regia lily, is a wonderful spectacle. The air is laden with the heavy scent from the flowers, rising between the great round leaves fonr to five feet wide. At the Cabacabnri mission, on the Pomeroon River, there was a hnge ceiba tree, whose trunk shot np for seventy feet in the air before the branches began to expand. This trunk was enth'ely surrounded and hidden by a gorgeous coloured climbing plant, which, when in full flower, turned the old ceiba into a pillar of gold, seventy feet high, and four to six feet wide, which, under the blaze of the setting sun, presented a floral spectacle which I have never Been surpassed. Gardens in British Guiana are, as a rule, dis appointing, and, after a time, one looks upon them as frands. Roses, except the stroug tea-scented ones like Marechal Niel, will not flower success fully. There are no flowering plants such as abound in English gardens and greenhouses. The only conspicuous and beautiful objects are the flowering trees and creepers-the bourgainvillia, alamanda, various tropoeolums, and ipomoeas, with the magnificent blue convolvolus, called "morning glory," and the lovely pink cOl'aleta, GARDENS IN GUIANA 81 Another time, riding in Trinidad down a gOl'ge from the monntains, the whole valley before ns was filled with a rich golden glow, cansed by the setting sun shinjng on the flowering oronoque trees, which lined both sides of the valley. In Demerara abont snnset, when the fiowers open, a broad trench, forty feet wide and a mile long, filled with the Victoria Regia lily, is a wonderful spectacle. The air is laden with the heavy scent from the flowers, rising between the great round leaves fonr to five feet wide. At the Cabacabnri mission, on the Pomeroon River, there was a hnge ceiba tree, whose trunk shot np for seventy feet in the air before the branches began to expand. This trunk was enth'ely surrounded and hidden by a gorgeous coloured climbing plant, which, when in full flower, turned the old ceiba into a pillar of gold, seventy feet high, and four to six feet wide, which, under the blaze of the setting sun, presented a floral spectacle which I have never Been surpassed. Gardens in British Guiana are, as a rule, dis appointing, and, after a time, one looks upon them as frands. Roses, except the stroug tea-scented ones like Marechal Niel, will not flower success fully. There are no flowering plants such as abound in English gardens and greenhouses. The only conspicuous and beautiful objects are the flowering trees and creepers-the bourgainvillia, alamanda, various tropoeolums, and ipomoeas, with the magnificent blue convolvolus, called "morning glory," and the lovely pink cOl'aleta,

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82 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA pinkest of pink flowers, flower continually all the year round, and cover house, verandas, and palings with never-ending beauty. There are many flowering tl'ees, which once a year are a blaze of glory; but the flower borders can only be filled by cratons of many kinds, poinsettias, coleus, and such bright-leaved plants, whioh look always gay, and furnish a wealth of colour. Caladiums are a troublesome weed in the canefields, and silver ferns border every watercourse. Ferns are beautiful, and grow luxuriantly. Orchids, except when in flower, are hideous plants, and are best kept out of sight. One of the ouly snccessful pot plants is the lovely eucharis lily, which is easily grown, and flowers luxuriantly; zinnias, cockscombs, balsams, sunflowers, grow np, flower, and die, with a rapidity which is astounding, and it is only by continuous sowings that any show of such flowers can be maintained. Nothing in British Guiana is done in moderation; you are either drowned out with water, or else scorched to death by the sun. One day you will be digging little trenches to get rid of the wet; and in a week you will be watering vigorously with a hose to prevent all your plants dying of drought. Two or three days of scorching sun and drying trade wind will change a blooming garden into a desert, nuless constant care be exercised. The soil is a stiff clay, which craoks and gapes under drought, and the surface becomes baked into a substance like adobe. All the sand, ashes, manure, etc., which you put on it, and dig into it, seem to 82 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA pinkest of pink flowers, flower continually all the year round, and cover house, verandas, and palings with never-ending beauty. There are many flowering tl'ees, which once a year are a blaze of glory; but the flower borders can only be filled by cratons of many kinds, poinsettias, coleus, and such bright-leaved plants, whioh look always gay, and furnish a wealth of colour. Caladiums are a troublesome weed in the canefields, and silver ferns border every watercourse. Ferns are beautiful, and grow luxuriantly. Orchids, except when in flower, are hideous plants, and are best kept out of sight. One of the ouly snccessful pot plants is the lovely eucharis lily, which is easily grown, and flowers luxuriantly; zinnias, cockscombs, balsams, sunflowers, grow np, flower, and die, with a rapidity which is astounding, and it is only by continuous sowings that any show of such flowers can be maintained. Nothing in British Guiana is done in moderation; you are either drowned out with water, or else scorched to death by the sun. One day you will be digging little trenches to get rid of the wet; and in a week you will be watering vigorously with a hose to prevent all your plants dying of drought. Two or three days of scorching sun and drying trade wind will change a blooming garden into a desert, nuless constant care be exercised. The soil is a stiff clay, which craoks and gapes under drought, and the surface becomes baked into a substance like adobe. All the sand, ashes, manure, etc., which you put on it, and dig into it, seem to

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a..JME 83 disappear like magic. The learned gardener and botanist, who for many years was superiutendent of the Botanic Gardens, has often told me that, in all his life, he never knew any soil so unsnitable for gardening purposes as the soil in the neigh bourhood of Georgetown. Despite the enormous forests swarming with animal life which stretch for two thonsand miles to the south and west of British Gniana, and the innnmerable rivers and streams which ponr through the colony into the Atlantic Ocean, the amount of shooting and fishing to be enjoyed is very limitei!. In the forest itself the bush is so thick that YOIl cannot see ten yards ahead, and the Ilndergrowth so dense that you might be snrrollnded by game, withollt being aware of theu' presence. I have spent many days shooting with the Indians, and of my own nnaided efforts I should never have killed or seen anything; bllt the natives .. are endowed with what seems to us a marvellou.s facilIty for discovering the hallnts of birds and beasts, and with their help I was sometimes able to kill a few marolldies, a kind of wild turkey, and maam, a sort of large rail. Monkeys and sloths may often be killed; and in some places water haas and labba are plentiful. The Indian hunter never fires his gun unless he is certain to kill. Time is no object to him, whereas powder and shot are valuable; he will waste a charge upon a deer, labba, or mypourie (tapir), because he con siders it worth the expense; bllt in shooting marondi or powis, he will lie on his belly for an a..JME 83 disappear like magic. The learned gardener and botanist, who for many years was superiutendent of the Botanic Gardens, has often told me that, in all his life, he never knew any soil so unsnitable for gardening purposes as the soil in the neigh bourhood of Georgetown. Despite the enormous forests swarming with animal life which stretch for two thonsand miles to the south and west of British Gniana, and the innnmerable rivers and streams which ponr through the colony into the Atlantic Ocean, the amount of shooting and fishing to be enjoyed is very limitei!. In the forest itself the bush is so thick that YOIl cannot see ten yards ahead, and the Ilndergrowth so dense that you might be snrrollnded by game, withollt being aware of theu' presence. I have spent many days shooting with the Indians, and of my own nnaided efforts I should never have killed or seen anything; bllt the natives .. are endowed with what seems to us a marvellou.s facilIty for discovering the hallnts of birds and beasts, and with their help I was sometimes able to kill a few marolldies, a kind of wild turkey, and maam, a sort of large rail. Monkeys and sloths may often be killed; and in some places water haas and labba are plentiful. The Indian hunter never fires his gun unless he is certain to kill. Time is no object to him, whereas powder and shot are valuable; he will waste a charge upon a deer, labba, or mypourie (tapir), because he con siders it worth the expense; bllt in shooting marondi or powis, he will lie on his belly for an

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84 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA hour, watching a small flock feeding, until two or three of the unsuspecting birds get their heads in the line of fire, befcre he draws the trigger. Our game bags would rather astonish the English sportsman. Turning over my diaries, I find an entry under September 8th, 1873. "Mora, upper Demerara River, went out shooting with Simon (an Arawak Indian), killed five maroudies, one monkey, two acouries, one armadillo, nd two snakes." Sometimes at favourable seasons large bags may be made. A party of five gentlemen, shooting for a week on the Abary Creek in October, 1894, made a record score, fishing and shooting. Their list of slain was as follows:-105 pigeons, 12 parrots, 2 cranes, 57 iguanas, 5 toucans, 5 carouws, 1 macaw, 37 muscovy ducks, 29 quaacks, 10 bitterns, 15 sundries (including negrocop and heeries), 1 water haas, 1 manatee, 274 fish (cuffum, lukananni, yarrow, eta.). On the flat bare coast lands negrocop and white cranes are at times seen in large numbers; and ourri-curri and spoonbills may be shot by enthusiastic sportsmen; but what we understand in England by a day's shooting can seldom be enjoyed; the nearest approach to it is when the golden plover and snipe are in season, when good bags may be made in the swampy pastures on the coast. The finest game bird in the country is, without doubt, the wild muscovy duck. This magnificent bird grows to an enormous size, and it takes a very heavy charge and a very straight gun to 84 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA hour, watching a small flock feeding, until two or three of the unsuspecting birds get their heads in the line of fire, befcre he draws the trigger. Our game bags would rather astonish the English sportsman. Turning over my diaries, I find an entry under September 8th, 1873. "Mora, upper Demerara River, went out shooting with Simon (an Arawak Indian), killed five maroudies, one monkey, two acouries, one armadillo, nd two snakes." Sometimes at favourable seasons large bags may be made. A party of five gentlemen, shooting for a week on the Abary Creek in October, 1894, made a record score, fishing and shooting. Their list of slain was as follows:-105 pigeons, 12 parrots, 2 cranes, 57 iguanas, 5 toucans, 5 carouws, 1 macaw, 37 muscovy ducks, 29 quaacks, 10 bitterns, 15 sundries (including negrocop and heeries), 1 water haas, 1 manatee, 274 fish (cuffum, lukananni, yarrow, eta.). On the flat bare coast lands negrocop and white cranes are at times seen in large numbers; and ourri-curri and spoonbills may be shot by enthusiastic sportsmen; but what we understand in England by a day's shooting can seldom be enjoyed; the nearest approach to it is when the golden plover and snipe are in season, when good bags may be made in the swampy pastures on the coast. The finest game bird in the country is, without doubt, the wild muscovy duck. This magnificent bird grows to an enormous size, and it takes a very heavy charge and a very straight gun to

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HOATZIN 85 bring down a full-grown drake in his flight_ The size and fatness of these birds is astonishing, and they make a magnificent dish on the table. Birds weighing from six to eight pounds are frequently shot, and I have heard yarns of drakes reaching ten to twelve pounds; I have never myself seen them larger than eight pounds; but that was qnite big enough to satisfy me. There are also some smaller teal ducks to be met with in the wet savannahs, which are beautiful in plumage and succulent when cooked. Amongst the myriads of birds whioh thrive in British Guiana none is stranger than the one called the hoatzin, canje pheasant, or stinking pheasant. This is a large handsome bird, re sembling, as its name implies, the well-known pheasant of the English woods, and which is found in several parts of the colony. It is most plentiful in the Canje Creek, and lower Berbice River: but they have also been met along the Cotinga River and on the Takutu. They a re not eaten, as far as we know, by men or anjmals, owing to a peculiar and unpleasant odour exhaling from the flesh, especially when the bird is dead. But the great peculiarity of the hoatzin lies in the fact that it is a species apart, a sort of survival from antediluvian times: it is distinctly arohaic, presenting affinities not only with many extinct kinds of birds, but also with the lower classes of the batrachians and reptiles. Of large game few are killed; jaguars are common, but are only destroyed when they become HOATZIN 85 bring down a full-grown drake in his flight_ The size and fatness of these birds is astonishing, and they make a magnificent dish on the table. Birds weighing from six to eight pounds are frequently shot, and I have heard yarns of drakes reaching ten to twelve pounds; I have never myself seen them larger than eight pounds; but that was qnite big enough to satisfy me. There are also some smaller teal ducks to be met with in the wet savannahs, which are beautiful in plumage and succulent when cooked. Amongst the myriads of birds whioh thrive in British Guiana none is stranger than the one called the hoatzin, canje pheasant, or stinking pheasant. This is a large handsome bird, re sembling, as its name implies, the well-known pheasant of the English woods, and which is found in several parts of the colony. It is most plentiful in the Canje Creek, and lower Berbice River: but they have also been met along the Cotinga River and on the Takutu. They a re not eaten, as far as we know, by men or anjmals, owing to a peculiar and unpleasant odour exhaling from the flesh, especially when the bird is dead. But the great peculiarity of the hoatzin lies in the fact that it is a species apart, a sort of survival from antediluvian times: it is distinctly arohaic, presenting affinities not only with many extinct kinds of birds, but also with the lower classes of the batrachians and reptiles. Of large game few are killed; jaguars are common, but are only destroyed when they become

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86 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA a nuisance by destroying cattle. They are very bold, and come quite near to town in search of their prey. Mr. David Spence, all overseer on one of the sugar estates, is a noted tiger slayer (the jaguars and all the great cats are locally called tigers). He has killed many tigers at the back of the estates on the east coast: one at Plantation "Ogle," only three miles from Georgetown, which measured eight feet from the nose to the end of the tail. The jaguar is the handsomest of the great cats: he is taller and stouter than a leopard, and his tail is shorter. There are several kinds of leopards in the interior of the colony, one quite black, and another with a curious mottled and striped skin, which is called the "clouded tiger." There is a mysterious beast in the forest called by the native Indians the" waraeabra tiger." All travellers in the forests of Guiana speak of this dreaded animal, but strange to say, nono of them appear to have seen it. The Indians profess the greatest terror of it. It is said to hunt in packs (which tigers never do), and when its howls awake the echoes of the forest, the Indians at once take to their canoes and wood skins as the only safe refuge from its ravages. Mr. C. Barrington Brown, in his book "Canoe and Camp Life in British Guiana," says that one day, when ho was on the Curiebrong River, a branch of the Massaruni, he had. a curious encounter with these a.nimals. To quote his words: "I was busy writing letters when my attention was attracted by Oul 86 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA a nuisance by destroying cattle. They are very bold, and come quite near to town in search of their prey. Mr. David Spence, all overseer on one of the sugar estates, is a noted tiger slayer (the jaguars and all the great cats are locally called tigers). He has killed many tigers at the back of the estates on the east coast: one at Plantation "Ogle," only three miles from Georgetown, which measured eight feet from the nose to the end of the tail. The jaguar is the handsomest of the great cats: he is taller and stouter than a leopard, and his tail is shorter. There are several kinds of leopards in the interior of the colony, one quite black, and another with a curious mottled and striped skin, which is called the "clouded tiger." There is a mysterious beast in the forest called by the native Indians the" waraeabra tiger." All travellers in the forests of Guiana speak of this dreaded animal, but strange to say, nono of them appear to have seen it. The Indians profess the greatest terror of it. It is said to hunt in packs (which tigers never do), and when its howls awake the echoes of the forest, the Indians at once take to their canoes and wood skins as the only safe refuge from its ravages. Mr. C. Barrington Brown, in his book "Canoe and Camp Life in British Guiana," says that one day, when ho was on the Curiebrong River, a branch of the Massaruni, he had. a curious encounter with these a.nimals. To quote his words: "I was busy writing letters when my attention was attracted by Oul

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WARAOABRA TIGERS 87 two dogs, which had been tied up, barking furiously, followed by a great stir in the camp. Then some voices proclaimed loudly, The tigers are coming! and one man called to me to come down as quickly as possible to the boats and bring my gun. "Thinking at the moment that a couple of jaguars had been heard close by, I seized my gun and made a rush down the slope, eager to get a shot at one, when, to my surprise, I found the beach deserted. Where some twenty Indians had been camped, there was now not even a hammock left; a!! had suddenly and completely vBJlished, leaving only a stray hammock pole and the smouldering fires. My men had all taken to the boat, and had it afloat, with the bow barely grounded, in readiness to shove off. They greeted me with ories of, 'Quiok, quick I the waracabra tigers are coming!' There was quite a flutter of relief amongst them when the boat was pushed off into ruid-stream, when they a!! began to talk excitedly over our escape. The dogs still gave tongue, and were even more excited than the men, the hair on their backs standing erect as they suifl'ed the air iIi 'the direction of the camp. I eagerly inquired what were waracabra tigers, and was hastily informed they were sma!! but ex ceedingly ferocious tigers; that they hnnted in packs, and were not frightened by camp fire s or anything except the barking of dogs. We crossed the river, and as we stopped a shrill scream rent the air from the opposite side of the river, not two hundred yards above our camp, and waking up echoes WARAOABRA TIGERS 87 two dogs, which had been tied up, barking furiously, followed by a great stir in the camp. Then some voices proclaimed loudly, The tigers are coming! and one man called to me to come down as quickly as possible to the boats and bring my gun. "Thinking at the moment that a couple of jaguars had been heard close by, I seized my gun and made a rush down the slope, eager to get a shot at one, when, to my surprise, I found the beach deserted. Where some twenty Indians had been camped, there was now not even a hammock left; a!! had suddenly and completely vBJlished, leaving only a stray hammock pole and the smouldering fires. My men had all taken to the boat, and had it afloat, with the bow barely grounded, in readiness to shove off. They greeted me with ories of, 'Quiok, quick I the waracabra tigers are coming!' There was quite a flutter of relief amongst them when the boat was pushed off into ruid-stream, when they a!! began to talk excitedly over our escape. The dogs still gave tongue, and were even more excited than the men, the hair on their backs standing erect as they suifl'ed the air iIi 'the direction of the camp. I eagerly inquired what were waracabra tigers, and was hastily informed they were sma!! but ex ceedingly ferocious tigers; that they hnnted in packs, and were not frightened by camp fire s or anything except the barking of dogs. We crossed the river, and as we stopped a shrill scream rent the air from the opposite side of the river, not two hundred yards above our camp, and waking up echoes

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88 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA in the forest, died away as suddenly as it rose. This was answered by another cry, coming from the depths of the forest, the intervals being filled up by low growls and trumpeting sounds, which smote most disagreeably on the ear. Gradually the cries became f.jnter and fainter, as the band retired from our vicinity, till they utterly died away. Seeing nothing of them, and hearing their diabolioal screams, I pictured them in my mind as It withering soourge sweeping through the forest. The call of these BJJimals resembles that of the waracabra or trumpet bird (Psophia crepitans), hence they have obtained the name of waracabl'a tigers. The Accawoio Indians call them y'agamisheri, and say that they vary in size as well as in colour. As many as a hundred have been seen in a pack." Mr. Bernard told me that a similar adventure with waracabra tigers occurred to him up the Massaruni River. These strange animals cannot be felidre, as they are never known to hunt in packs. Their screams recall recollections of the packs of jaokals in India; so I suspect they must be animals of the jackal or wolf tribe, especially as they are said to live in the mountains, and only come to the low land in the dry seaSOll, aud when pressed by hunger. I was reading the other day about the wild dogs in India, which are detested by the shikari, as they sweep whole districts of game, and even attack the imperial tiger in his lair. It is possible these waracabra tigers mny be a similar species. There are three kinds of deer which are 88 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA in the forest, died away as suddenly as it rose. This was answered by another cry, coming from the depths of the forest, the intervals being filled up by low growls and trumpeting sounds, which smote most disagreeably on the ear. Gradually the cries became f.jnter and fainter, as the band retired from our vicinity, till they utterly died away. Seeing nothing of them, and hearing their diabolioal screams, I pictured them in my mind as It withering soourge sweeping through the forest. The call of these BJJimals resembles that of the waracabra or trumpet bird (Psophia crepitans), hence they have obtained the name of waracabl'a tigers. The Accawoio Indians call them y'agamisheri, and say that they vary in size as well as in colour. As many as a hundred have been seen in a pack." Mr. Bernard told me that a similar adventure with waracabra tigers occurred to him up the Massaruni River. These strange animals cannot be felidre, as they are never known to hunt in packs. Their screams recall recollections of the packs of jaokals in India; so I suspect they must be animals of the jackal or wolf tribe, especially as they are said to live in the mountains, and only come to the low land in the dry seaSOll, aud when pressed by hunger. I was reading the other day about the wild dogs in India, which are detested by the shikari, as they sweep whole districts of game, and even attack the imperial tiger in his lair. It is possible these waracabra tigers mny be a similar species. There are three kinds of deer which are

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MOJ.VKEYS 89 frequently met with and shot on the savannahs, but their flesh is, as a rule, dry and tasteless. Two kinds of wild pigs roam throngh the forests, the wild boar and collared peccary, locally known as the karouni and abouya; the tapir crashes through the undergrowth and rolls in the mud on the banks of the forest pools, but it is a long and tedious pro cess to get within shot of any of them. Sometimes, indeed, droves of wild hogs invade the provision grounds on the banks of tbe rivers, and are slaughtered in great numbers by the infuriated farmers. Animals of the monkey tribe are, of course, exceedingly common. The red howling baboons assemble in flocks, and make night hideous with their strange roarings. When I was living in Esseqnibo, an oronoque tree opposite my bedroom windows was sometimes alive with a flock of the lovely little sackiwinkie monkeys. Green and black-tailed monkeys were always to be found within a mile of my house. I have often shot monkeys, but I was cured of this bad habit in 1879. Walking aback of Belfield, in Essequibo, I shot at a monkey which was climbing up the trunk of a tree, and brought it to the ground. I went up to where it fell, and,.saw it sitting on the ground with the most piteous expression of countenance I ever saw. The tears were running down its cheeks; it was uttering a low moaning sound, and gazing into my face, pointed to its brenst, whence the blood was oozing through the wounds which I had caused, as much as to say, "Oh, cruel man! see what you MOJ.VKEYS 89 frequently met with and shot on the savannahs, but their flesh is, as a rule, dry and tasteless. Two kinds of wild pigs roam throngh the forests, the wild boar and collared peccary, locally known as the karouni and abouya; the tapir crashes through the undergrowth and rolls in the mud on the banks of the forest pools, but it is a long and tedious pro cess to get within shot of any of them. Sometimes, indeed, droves of wild hogs invade the provision grounds on the banks of tbe rivers, and are slaughtered in great numbers by the infuriated farmers. Animals of the monkey tribe are, of course, exceedingly common. The red howling baboons assemble in flocks, and make night hideous with their strange roarings. When I was living in Esseqnibo, an oronoque tree opposite my bedroom windows was sometimes alive with a flock of the lovely little sackiwinkie monkeys. Green and black-tailed monkeys were always to be found within a mile of my house. I have often shot monkeys, but I was cured of this bad habit in 1879. Walking aback of Belfield, in Essequibo, I shot at a monkey which was climbing up the trunk of a tree, and brought it to the ground. I went up to where it fell, and,.saw it sitting on the ground with the most piteous expression of countenance I ever saw. The tears were running down its cheeks; it was uttering a low moaning sound, and gazing into my face, pointed to its brenst, whence the blood was oozing through the wounds which I had caused, as much as to say, "Oh, cruel man! see what you

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90 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA have done!" I was filled with remorse, had the poor beast taken to my house, bound up its wounds and nUl'sed it, but without avail; the poor animal died the same night. I have never since that day fired at a monkey. Iguanas are common all over the colony, and are shot or trapped for the table, as they make a delicious fricassee or curry, almost rivaJling the celebrated crapauds which I enjoyed in Dominica. Guiana is the home of the great snakes. The huge anacondas and pythons reach their greatest bulk in the moist forests of the interior, but they are frequently met, and of a large size too, on the coast. I have killed and seen killed many camou dies, as they are looally called. The largest I ever s",w was eighteen feet long, and as thick as a man's thigh. This one was measUl'ed immediately after death. Skins are not to be trusted for measure ment, as they are very supple, and can be stretched when drying to one-third more than their natural length. I have, however, no doubt that anacondas have been seen and killed in Guiana more than thirty feet in length. I have only once known a camoudie attack a man. A coolie was getting water by the side of a water-path, when a camoudie shot over him and wrapped itself round his body and left arm. Fortunately his right arm was left free, so, seizing his cutlass, he chopped the snake with it and severed its backbone, which rendered it powerless. The snake was only eight feet long, and why it attacked the man I cannot imagine. When I was living in Essequibo the camoudies 90 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA have done!" I was filled with remorse, had the poor beast taken to my house, bound up its wounds and nUl'sed it, but without avail; the poor animal died the same night. I have never since that day fired at a monkey. Iguanas are common all over the colony, and are shot or trapped for the table, as they make a delicious fricassee or curry, almost rivaJling the celebrated crapauds which I enjoyed in Dominica. Guiana is the home of the great snakes. The huge anacondas and pythons reach their greatest bulk in the moist forests of the interior, but they are frequently met, and of a large size too, on the coast. I have killed and seen killed many camou dies, as they are looally called. The largest I ever s",w was eighteen feet long, and as thick as a man's thigh. This one was measUl'ed immediately after death. Skins are not to be trusted for measure ment, as they are very supple, and can be stretched when drying to one-third more than their natural length. I have, however, no doubt that anacondas have been seen and killed in Guiana more than thirty feet in length. I have only once known a camoudie attack a man. A coolie was getting water by the side of a water-path, when a camoudie shot over him and wrapped itself round his body and left arm. Fortunately his right arm was left free, so, seizing his cutlass, he chopped the snake with it and severed its backbone, which rendered it powerless. The snake was only eight feet long, and why it attacked the man I cannot imagine. When I was living in Essequibo the camoudies

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C,;MOUDIES 91 used to eat all my ducks. One day when I was in my bath I heard the cook calling out, "Master, master, come quick!" so, picking up my gun, I rushed downstairs into the compound, and saw a great commotion in the water of the trench behind the house, and the wing of a duck showing above water. I fired both barrels into the turmoil, and killed a young camoudie nearly five feet long, and also a fat dtlCk which had been seized by the snake, but which I recovered and subsequently ate for my dinner. In my excitement I had forgotten my condition, but the giggling of the women and girls who had collected reminded me that I was stark naked, so I bolted upstairs in some confusion. There are many other kinds of snakes of smaller dimensions, some of which are venomous, but I never heard of any fatal accident from their bites. Your dogs, however, are often killed by them when you at'e out shooting or hunting. There are also many beautif,,1 snakes which ore quite harmless, but which are always destroyed by the ignorant, who have the impression that all snakes are dangerous. Rattlesnakes are very common iu some parts of the oolony, and at'e dangerout when irritated. Coming back to my sporting reminiscences, I remember that the fishing was very good at certa ,in times and places. It was only about the time of my at'rival in the colony that any attempts were made to catch fish with the artificial fly, although it was well known that the native Indians some times caught fish by skimming a hook, to which C,;MOUDIES 91 used to eat all my ducks. One day when I was in my bath I heard the cook calling out, "Master, master, come quick!" so, picking up my gun, I rushed downstairs into the compound, and saw a great commotion in the water of the trench behind the house, and the wing of a duck showing above water. I fired both barrels into the turmoil, and killed a young camoudie nearly five feet long, and also a fat dtlCk which had been seized by the snake, but which I recovered and subsequently ate for my dinner. In my excitement I had forgotten my condition, but the giggling of the women and girls who had collected reminded me that I was stark naked, so I bolted upstairs in some confusion. There are many other kinds of snakes of smaller dimensions, some of which are venomous, but I never heard of any fatal accident from their bites. Your dogs, however, are often killed by them when you at'e out shooting or hunting. There are also many beautif,,1 snakes which ore quite harmless, but which are always destroyed by the ignorant, who have the impression that all snakes are dangerous. Rattlesnakes are very common iu some parts of the oolony, and at'e dangerout when irritated. Coming back to my sporting reminiscences, I remember that the fishing was very good at certa ,in times and places. It was only about the time of my at'rival in the colony that any attempts were made to catch fish with the artificial fly, although it was well known that the native Indians some times caught fish by skimming a hook, to which

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92 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA two or three bright-coloured feather shreds were attached, backwards and forwards over the water. However, it was soon discovered that several fish would rise at a fly, and some good sport was experienced. The finest fish for sporting purposes is the cuffum, a large fish of the herring species. Myoid friend, B. J. Godfrey, always asserted that it is the same fish as the tarpon, which affords such splendid sport in the lagoons of Florida, and I believe he was right. It is a handsome fish, silvery, like a salmon, with large scales, and the gamest fish I ever hooked. He has been caught in our rivers and creeks up to 20 lbs. in weight, and when hooked he makes some determined rushes. When he finds he cannot free himself, he makes tremendous leaps in the air, coming down with a splash that makes you tremble for your tackle. The cuffum has a bony palate, and the sides of his mouth are like parchment, so tbat it is very difficult to hook him securely. A dozen fish may be touched for one that is landed. He is generally caught with a red and white maokerel or gaudy salmon fly; but the largest fish are oaught with live bait, like trolling for pike. As I have said, I have never known ouffum caught with a rod over 20 lbs. in weight; but I have seen a fish over 5 ft. in length, which was oaught in a net off the mouth of the Mahaioa Creek. The lukananni is a beautiful fish, something like an English perch, and is a most excellent fish for the table when fresh oaught; unlike the cuffum, which is rather poor und bony. The lukananni 92 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA two or three bright-coloured feather shreds were attached, backwards and forwards over the water. However, it was soon discovered that several fish would rise at a fly, and some good sport was experienced. The finest fish for sporting purposes is the cuffum, a large fish of the herring species. Myoid friend, B. J. Godfrey, always asserted that it is the same fish as the tarpon, which affords such splendid sport in the lagoons of Florida, and I believe he was right. It is a handsome fish, silvery, like a salmon, with large scales, and the gamest fish I ever hooked. He has been caught in our rivers and creeks up to 20 lbs. in weight, and when hooked he makes some determined rushes. When he finds he cannot free himself, he makes tremendous leaps in the air, coming down with a splash that makes you tremble for your tackle. The cuffum has a bony palate, and the sides of his mouth are like parchment, so tbat it is very difficult to hook him securely. A dozen fish may be touched for one that is landed. He is generally caught with a red and white maokerel or gaudy salmon fly; but the largest fish are oaught with live bait, like trolling for pike. As I have said, I have never known ouffum caught with a rod over 20 lbs. in weight; but I have seen a fish over 5 ft. in length, which was oaught in a net off the mouth of the Mahaioa Creek. The lukananni is a beautiful fish, something like an English perch, and is a most excellent fish for the table when fresh oaught; unlike the cuffum, which is rather poor und bony. The lukananni

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FISIIIN(J 93 are very plentiful in the creeks when the water is running off the savannahs, and the fish are making their way into the rivers. They are caught with a large trout or small saJmon fly, and are very game so long as they are running under water or leaping above it. If, however, after a few minutes' playing, you can get their heads above water, they open their large mouths, and seem to get helpless for a time, and may then be caught in the landing net, so long as the line is not slackened for an instant. They are caught from! lb. to 6 Ibs. in weight. They are It bold fish, and bite freely, generally taking the fly under water. Their mouths are large, so the flies used should not be small; and as the waters of the colony are all dark, it is desirable t(} work with bright-hued flies. I have known some excellent sport with luka nanni. Mr. George Bagot, of Annandale, killed in one day over 100 fish, from 1 lb. to 6 Ibs. in weight. Mr. M. Keppel North and myself in two days caught 155 lukananni, weighing from t lb. to 5 Ibs. each, average weight about It Ibs., all with the artificial fly. We only fished for about five hours each day. On another occasion, Captain Arnott, Mr. John Menzies, and myself caught 172 lukananni in one day. Lukananni bite best from 7 to 10 a.m., and from 4 to 6 p.m. The cuffum prefers the very early morning and late evening, and may be caught on moonlight nights with an artificial white moth. The best rod for both fish is a short salmon-rod, with long tapering salmon-line. There are some FISIIIN(J 93 are very plentiful in the creeks when the water is running off the savannahs, and the fish are making their way into the rivers. They are caught with a large trout or small saJmon fly, and are very game so long as they are running under water or leaping above it. If, however, after a few minutes' playing, you can get their heads above water, they open their large mouths, and seem to get helpless for a time, and may then be caught in the landing net, so long as the line is not slackened for an instant. They are caught from! lb. to 6 Ibs. in weight. They are It bold fish, and bite freely, generally taking the fly under water. Their mouths are large, so the flies used should not be small; and as the waters of the colony are all dark, it is desirable t(} work with bright-hued flies. I have known some excellent sport with luka nanni. Mr. George Bagot, of Annandale, killed in one day over 100 fish, from 1 lb. to 6 Ibs. in weight. Mr. M. Keppel North and myself in two days caught 155 lukananni, weighing from t lb. to 5 Ibs. each, average weight about It Ibs., all with the artificial fly. We only fished for about five hours each day. On another occasion, Captain Arnott, Mr. John Menzies, and myself caught 172 lukananni in one day. Lukananni bite best from 7 to 10 a.m., and from 4 to 6 p.m. The cuffum prefers the very early morning and late evening, and may be caught on moonlight nights with an artificial white moth. The best rod for both fish is a short salmon-rod, with long tapering salmon-line. There are some

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94 TWENTY FIVE YEARS IN RRI7TSH GUIANA other kinds of fish, which are sometimes caught when trying for nobler game. The warrow, which is a very fair tablefish, and almost as game as a trout, which it resembles in shaps, though its blackish colour compares unfavourably with the speckled beauties of our home streams and lakes. This fish rises freely at a red mackerelfly with most of the white wings cut off, which I imagine they took for the scarlet dragonfly of the colony, and it was after seeing several of these risen at I tried this lure. They run very evenly just over ;\-lb. each, and rise freely in the early morning in perfectly still water, where no lukananni would stir, if the fly was thrown so as to drop lightly under or close to the sedges on the further bank The wabri is an inferior fish of a deep, flat shape. It is tolerably game, though it does not leap like the three firstnamed fish. It is generally caught with bait, but will take a fly. I have taken none over;\lb. The sunfish will take a bright.coloured fly in rather shallow water. A fair fish for the table, and handsome, but not very game when hooked. Weighs from;\lb. to t lb. The dog.fish is a savage.looking pikelike fish, beautifully shot with changing colours when fresh out of the water. I have caught a few when fishing for lukananni, and they made a good fight for their size, which was rarely over;\lb. When upon a fishing excursion-as fish in the tropics will not keep more than two or three hours -we erect a barbacote and smoke all the fish 94 TWENTY FIVE YEARS IN RRI7TSH GUIANA other kinds of fish, which are sometimes caught when trying for nobler game. The warrow, which is a very fair tablefish, and almost as game as a trout, which it resembles in shaps, though its blackish colour compares unfavourably with the speckled beauties of our home streams and lakes. This fish rises freely at a red mackerelfly with most of the white wings cut off, which I imagine they took for the scarlet dragonfly of the colony, and it was after seeing several of these risen at I tried this lure. They run very evenly just over ;\-lb. each, and rise freely in the early morning in perfectly still water, where no lukananni would stir, if the fly was thrown so as to drop lightly under or close to the sedges on the further bank The wabri is an inferior fish of a deep, flat shape. It is tolerably game, though it does not leap like the three firstnamed fish. It is generally caught with bait, but will take a fly. I have taken none over;\lb. The sunfish will take a bright.coloured fly in rather shallow water. A fair fish for the table, and handsome, but not very game when hooked. Weighs from;\lb. to t lb. The dog.fish is a savage.looking pikelike fish, beautifully shot with changing colours when fresh out of the water. I have caught a few when fishing for lukananni, and they made a good fight for their size, which was rarely over;\lb. When upon a fishing excursion-as fish in the tropics will not keep more than two or three hours -we erect a barbacote and smoke all the fish

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RIVER FISH 95 that we cannot eat at the time. These smoked fish will keep for a long time, and make excellent soup, or, if soaked in water for a short time, are good fried with butter. There are some excellent fish caught in the rivers of the interior by the Indians with night and spring-lines, and by poisoning the water, such as the bajmaira, the pacu, and the low-law-the latter, a huge fish, is sometimes caught from 50 lbs. to 70 lbs. iu weight; but these are no use for sporting purposes. A low-low was caught at Christianburg, on the Demeram River, in March, 188.6,9 ft. long, 4 ft. in girth; fins 13 ins. by 10 ins., and width of mouth 18 ins. Cartaback may be caught with a rod and line, if you bait with kneaded bread or paste, and let your bait float on the surface of the water. These fish abound in the Essequibo and Massaruni rivers, and sometimes scale 5 lbs. to 6 lbs. It is difficult to say when is the best time for fly-fishing. In the middle of the dry season, when the savannahs have drained into the creeks, I have always found to be a good time to fish. When there is too much water the people say, "The fish wa'ak in the savan." CulIum and lnkanann; can only be caught in running watel'; it is no use fishing for them when the water is stagnant. Warrow, sun-fish, and wabri, on the other hand, seem to prefer the still water. A day's fishing in Demerara wonld surprise old Isaac Walton and his friend Cotton. No walking by pellucid streams, l'uffied by the cool March winds. The angler, tossing in his RIVER FISH 95 that we cannot eat at the time. These smoked fish will keep for a long time, and make excellent soup, or, if soaked in water for a short time, are good fried with butter. There are some excellent fish caught in the rivers of the interior by the Indians with night and spring-lines, and by poisoning the water, such as the bajmaira, the pacu, and the low-law-the latter, a huge fish, is sometimes caught from 50 lbs. to 70 lbs. iu weight; but these are no use for sporting purposes. A low-low was caught at Christianburg, on the Demeram River, in March, 188.6,9 ft. long, 4 ft. in girth; fins 13 ins. by 10 ins., and width of mouth 18 ins. Cartaback may be caught with a rod and line, if you bait with kneaded bread or paste, and let your bait float on the surface of the water. These fish abound in the Essequibo and Massaruni rivers, and sometimes scale 5 lbs. to 6 lbs. It is difficult to say when is the best time for fly-fishing. In the middle of the dry season, when the savannahs have drained into the creeks, I have always found to be a good time to fish. When there is too much water the people say, "The fish wa'ak in the savan." CulIum and lnkanann; can only be caught in running watel'; it is no use fishing for them when the water is stagnant. Warrow, sun-fish, and wabri, on the other hand, seem to prefer the still water. A day's fishing in Demerara wonld surprise old Isaac Walton and his friend Cotton. No walking by pellucid streams, l'uffied by the cool March winds. The angler, tossing in his

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96 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA hammock, is awakened by the roaring of the red howling baboons, just as the break of dawn l'eddens the Eastern skies. Mter a hasty toilet and a cup of steaming coffee, as soon as there is light enough to see his flies, our fisherman sallies out with his rod, to cast his line in the brown waters of the Lama or Maduni. Clad in the lightest garments, his head protected from the sun by a wide felt wide-awake, he is a prey to innumerable mosquitoes and sand-flies, which bite and sting at their pleasure. Before 8 a.m. the fierce horizontal rays of the sun burn his back, arms, and hands, so that they become swollen and scarlet, and, reflected from the water, take the skin off his nose. Still the undaunted sportsman feels indifferent to all these disagreeables if he hooks a cuffum of ten pounds, and sees the sun sparkling on his silver scales as he leaps madly into the air, trying to rid himself of the cruel hook embedded in his jaw, or hears the scream of his reel, and feels with a thrill of excitement the mad rush of a five-pound lukananni boring its way through the brown water. As in Engbnd, fish are capricious. Some days they allow themselves to be caught with ease, at other times they are sulky or off their feed, and refuse the most tempting lure. Patience and perseverance" is the motto for the angler in Demerara, as elsewhere. Considerable excitement was caused in London society a year or two ngo when it was announced that one of the large snakes at the Zoo had 96 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA hammock, is awakened by the roaring of the red howling baboons, just as the break of dawn l'eddens the Eastern skies. Mter a hasty toilet and a cup of steaming coffee, as soon as there is light enough to see his flies, our fisherman sallies out with his rod, to cast his line in the brown waters of the Lama or Maduni. Clad in the lightest garments, his head protected from the sun by a wide felt wide-awake, he is a prey to innumerable mosquitoes and sand-flies, which bite and sting at their pleasure. Before 8 a.m. the fierce horizontal rays of the sun burn his back, arms, and hands, so that they become swollen and scarlet, and, reflected from the water, take the skin off his nose. Still the undaunted sportsman feels indifferent to all these disagreeables if he hooks a cuffum of ten pounds, and sees the sun sparkling on his silver scales as he leaps madly into the air, trying to rid himself of the cruel hook embedded in his jaw, or hears the scream of his reel, and feels with a thrill of excitement the mad rush of a five-pound lukananni boring its way through the brown water. As in Engbnd, fish are capricious. Some days they allow themselves to be caught with ease, at other times they are sulky or off their feed, and refuse the most tempting lure. Patience and perseverance" is the motto for the angler in Demerara, as elsewhere. Considerable excitement was caused in London society a year or two ngo when it was announced that one of the large snakes at the Zoo had

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AROABISOE OOAST 97 swallowed one of its companions but little smaller thau itself. A similar circumstance happened at the museum iu Georgetown in 1887, where a decisive combat took place between a small boa constrictor and a large yellow-tail snake. The yellow-tail was placed in the cage with the boa, which immediately seized the intruder round the neck and body, in order to constrict it. The yellow-tail objected to this so strenuously that he forced asunder the grasp of the boa, and, seizing it by the head, placed himself outside of his assailant; so the boa paid the penalty of his rashness, and afforded a meal for his opponent. When I saw the yello.w-tail a few days afterwards, he seemed quite well-furnished and comfortable. The left bank of the Essequibo River, for thirty miles before it debouches into the Atlantic Ocean, was, at one time, a garden of fertility; no fewer than forty-two estates were located on its shores. It was called in old times the Aroabisoe coast, which has since been corrupted into Arabian, but was commonly known to the populace as Capoey, from a creek of that name in the centre of the district, where the old county jail was situated. In what are oalled the good old days, the whole coast was under cultivation; and, as each of the forty-two estates had a manager and one or two overseers, there was a lively interchange of hospi talities, and meetings for the purposes of horse raoing and cock-fighting, with the usual acoom paniment of innumerable sangarees. There are three or four small lakes a few miles aback of the AROABISOE OOAST 97 swallowed one of its companions but little smaller thau itself. A similar circumstance happened at the museum iu Georgetown in 1887, where a decisive combat took place between a small boa constrictor and a large yellow-tail snake. The yellow-tail was placed in the cage with the boa, which immediately seized the intruder round the neck and body, in order to constrict it. The yellow-tail objected to this so strenuously that he forced asunder the grasp of the boa, and, seizing it by the head, placed himself outside of his assailant; so the boa paid the penalty of his rashness, and afforded a meal for his opponent. When I saw the yello.w-tail a few days afterwards, he seemed quite well-furnished and comfortable. The left bank of the Essequibo River, for thirty miles before it debouches into the Atlantic Ocean, was, at one time, a garden of fertility; no fewer than forty-two estates were located on its shores. It was called in old times the Aroabisoe coast, which has since been corrupted into Arabian, but was commonly known to the populace as Capoey, from a creek of that name in the centre of the district, where the old county jail was situated. In what are oalled the good old days, the whole coast was under cultivation; and, as each of the forty-two estates had a manager and one or two overseers, there was a lively interchange of hospi talities, and meetings for the purposes of horse raoing and cock-fighting, with the usual acoom paniment of innumerable sangarees. There are three or four small lakes a few miles aback of the

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-98 TWENTY-FIrE YEARS IN RRITISH GaUNA estates, surrounded by low sand-hills. On the banks of these lakes the planters erected small wooden shanties, where they could sling their hammocks, and to which they used to resort from Saturday to Monday, and on public holidays, and pass the time in card-playing, drinking, bathing, and generally cool.iilg out. A racecourse was laid out near the Capoey Lake, where the plante!'s rode their creole ponies and mules in friendly rivalry. But emancipation, the fall in the price of sugar, and the great expense attending the employment of East Indian immigrants, led to the ruin of soores of plantations; so, one by one, the beautiful fertile estates on the coast dropped out of cultivation. When I was Sheriff of Essequibo, from 1877 to 1882, there were only thirteen estates in existence which were making sugar; and now these have been reduced to seven, through the amalgamation of two or three estates into one, which, however, by improved cultivation and machinery produce almost as much sugar as the previous thirteen. But although we could only boast of a reduced number of estates, and oonsequent managers and -their subordinates, the ooast had not degenerated from its ancient hospitality and desire to make life endurable under a tropical sky. The raoes on the old Capoey racecourse were revived; monthly dances were given by the leading planters and officials; a small billiard -and reading club was started at Zorg; and there was a general freedom of intercourse and pronounced joviality, which -98 TWENTY-FIrE YEARS IN RRITISH GaUNA estates, surrounded by low sand-hills. On the banks of these lakes the planters erected small wooden shanties, where they could sling their hammocks, and to which they used to resort from Saturday to Monday, and on public holidays, and pass the time in card-playing, drinking, bathing, and generally cool.iilg out. A racecourse was laid out near the Capoey Lake, where the plante!'s rode their creole ponies and mules in friendly rivalry. But emancipation, the fall in the price of sugar, and the great expense attending the employment of East Indian immigrants, led to the ruin of soores of plantations; so, one by one, the beautiful fertile estates on the coast dropped out of cultivation. When I was Sheriff of Essequibo, from 1877 to 1882, there were only thirteen estates in existence which were making sugar; and now these have been reduced to seven, through the amalgamation of two or three estates into one, which, however, by improved cultivation and machinery produce almost as much sugar as the previous thirteen. But although we could only boast of a reduced number of estates, and oonsequent managers and -their subordinates, the ooast had not degenerated from its ancient hospitality and desire to make life endurable under a tropical sky. The raoes on the old Capoey racecourse were revived; monthly dances were given by the leading planters and officials; a small billiard -and reading club was started at Zorg; and there was a general freedom of intercourse and pronounced joviality, which

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PRAOTIOAL JOKES 99 sometimes rather scandalized onr more prudish colonists from town. Practical jokes were not unknown, and dinner parties often bore a close resemblance to the ancient feasts of the Centaurs and Lapithm. On one festive occasion, at the honse of a leading planter, dinner was only half over when a stalwart Scotch manager mounted on the dining-table, and, dancing a. reel, kicked the wine-glasses into thEi faces of the guests. These naturally retaliated with tumblers and decanters, when the table, suddenly giving way in the centre, precipitated the dancer to the ground, with several of the other guests, and amidst the debris of the dinner, the whole ending in a general scrimmage. I need not say there were no ladies at these feasts. The same terpsichorean gentleman once har nessed a pair of bullocks to a friend's waggon, instead of his horses; so when his friend left the house on a dark night, under the influence of an excellent dinner and several stirrup cups, he was carried whither he would not, and, despite all his tugging aud multiform swearing, was landed in a cattle-shed by his astonished steeds. I am afraid we were !'ather a wild lot on the coast in those uays; and our pastors, whatever we may say about our masters, were, as a rule, of the signpost order, pointing the way, but n ot troubling to go themselves. From these strictures on the clergy, I am glad to be able to exempt two holy and noble men, who blessed the coast with their labours, viz. the PRAOTIOAL JOKES 99 sometimes rather scandalized onr more prudish colonists from town. Practical jokes were not unknown, and dinner parties often bore a close resemblance to the ancient feasts of the Centaurs and Lapithm. On one festive occasion, at the honse of a leading planter, dinner was only half over when a stalwart Scotch manager mounted on the dining-table, and, dancing a. reel, kicked the wine-glasses into thEi faces of the guests. These naturally retaliated with tumblers and decanters, when the table, suddenly giving way in the centre, precipitated the dancer to the ground, with several of the other guests, and amidst the debris of the dinner, the whole ending in a general scrimmage. I need not say there were no ladies at these feasts. The same terpsichorean gentleman once har nessed a pair of bullocks to a friend's waggon, instead of his horses; so when his friend left the house on a dark night, under the influence of an excellent dinner and several stirrup cups, he was carried whither he would not, and, despite all his tugging aud multiform swearing, was landed in a cattle-shed by his astonished steeds. I am afraid we were !'ather a wild lot on the coast in those uays; and our pastors, whatever we may say about our masters, were, as a rule, of the signpost order, pointing the way, but n ot troubling to go themselves. From these strictures on the clergy, I am glad to be able to exempt two holy and noble men, who blessed the coast with their labours, viz. the

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100 TWENTY-FIVE YE..!.RS IN BBITISH GUl..!.N..!. Venerable Dean Austin and the Rev. William Brett, the apostle of the Indians-two men who would have adorned any ministry in any country. The Rev. William Austin, Rural Dean of Esse quibo, was cousin to the first Lord Aberdare, and also to the first Bishop of Gniana. He was, when I knew him, a singularly tall, handsome, and benevolent old man, with long grey hair raJling to the collar of his coat. He had been rector of St. John's Church in Esseqnibo for fifty years, during which time he had only once taken a holiday to the old country. He was simple in bis babits, and was like a venerable patriarch of the olden time. He belonged to the old evangelical school, and had no sympathy with ritualism or sacerdotalism. It was a pleasant sight to see him standing at the west door of his church on Sunday mornings welcoming all the people that came to church, rich or poor, black or white; and when he saw the church beginning to fill he would look at his watch and say to the old verger, "I think we may begin now, Thomas; bring me my surplice," whioh he donned, talking pleasantly all the time. The church was, of course, open all round, and as we sat in our pews we could look out into the blazing sun shiee, and see the lizards darting over the silent graves, and the kiskadees quarrelling in the mango trees. Three large sand-box trees towered along side the sacred edifioe, in whose welcome shade waggons, buggies, and other traps were grouped, awaiting their owners. During service goats belonging to the neighbours had an unfortunate 100 TWENTY-FIVE YE..!.RS IN BBITISH GUl..!.N..!. Venerable Dean Austin and the Rev. William Brett, the apostle of the Indians-two men who would have adorned any ministry in any country. The Rev. William Austin, Rural Dean of Esse quibo, was cousin to the first Lord Aberdare, and also to the first Bishop of Gniana. He was, when I knew him, a singularly tall, handsome, and benevolent old man, with long grey hair raJling to the collar of his coat. He had been rector of St. John's Church in Esseqnibo for fifty years, during which time he had only once taken a holiday to the old country. He was simple in bis babits, and was like a venerable patriarch of the olden time. He belonged to the old evangelical school, and had no sympathy with ritualism or sacerdotalism. It was a pleasant sight to see him standing at the west door of his church on Sunday mornings welcoming all the people that came to church, rich or poor, black or white; and when he saw the church beginning to fill he would look at his watch and say to the old verger, "I think we may begin now, Thomas; bring me my surplice," whioh he donned, talking pleasantly all the time. The church was, of course, open all round, and as we sat in our pews we could look out into the blazing sun shiee, and see the lizards darting over the silent graves, and the kiskadees quarrelling in the mango trees. Three large sand-box trees towered along side the sacred edifioe, in whose welcome shade waggons, buggies, and other traps were grouped, awaiting their owners. During service goats belonging to the neighbours had an unfortunate

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RIOT IN ESSEQUIBO 101 habit of invading the church and disturbing our devotions. I remember on one occasion the Venerable Dean was reading the first lesson, when he suddenly stopped and oalled out, "Thomas, Thomas, why don't you drive that goat out of my waggon; don't you see it is eating the cushions? and, as Thomas departed on his errand, the lesson was resumed. There were three medical districts on the coast, and it was a curious fact that out of the medical officers in charge at differe"t times no less than three became insane, and two committed suicide, during the fonr years of my shrievalty. Our commuuication with the rest of the colony was effected by a small paddle steamer, which left the capital on three days every week at 7 a.m., reaching the coast about noon, and returning the same day. My first visit to the Arabian coast was under rather exciting circumstances. In October, 1872, a serious riot had taken place on Plantation Devonshire Castle at the extreme north of the coast; a conflict had taken place between the armed police and the East Indian immigrants, in which nine of the latter had been killed and several wounded. A company of the West Indian Regiment had been sent down and quartered on the estate. In consequence of the inquiry which was taking place in Georgetown in December, 1872, I was ordered by the Governor to go down at once and take over the whole distriot during the absenoe of the regular magistrates, who were summoned to the inquiry. I reoeived my RIOT IN ESSEQUIBO 101 habit of invading the church and disturbing our devotions. I remember on one occasion the Venerable Dean was reading the first lesson, when he suddenly stopped and oalled out, "Thomas, Thomas, why don't you drive that goat out of my waggon; don't you see it is eating the cushions? and, as Thomas departed on his errand, the lesson was resumed. There were three medical districts on the coast, and it was a curious fact that out of the medical officers in charge at differe"t times no less than three became insane, and two committed suicide, during the fonr years of my shrievalty. Our commuuication with the rest of the colony was effected by a small paddle steamer, which left the capital on three days every week at 7 a.m., reaching the coast about noon, and returning the same day. My first visit to the Arabian coast was under rather exciting circumstances. In October, 1872, a serious riot had taken place on Plantation Devonshire Castle at the extreme north of the coast; a conflict had taken place between the armed police and the East Indian immigrants, in which nine of the latter had been killed and several wounded. A company of the West Indian Regiment had been sent down and quartered on the estate. In consequence of the inquiry which was taking place in Georgetown in December, 1872, I was ordered by the Governor to go down at once and take over the whole distriot during the absenoe of the regular magistrates, who were summoned to the inquiry. I reoeived my

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102 TWENTY-FlVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA orders at 10 p.m., and as the steamer left at 7 a.m. next morning, there was not much titr2 to lose; but r was up to time, and at 7 a.m. we cast off from the stelling, and were soon steaming down the muddy waters of the Demerara River towards the broad Atlantic on my way to the Arabian coast of Essequibo. In those days the steamer stopped at Airey Hall, about two miles from Buddie, where are the Government head quarters, court house, gaol, barracks, etc. r was met by the inspector of police for the county, who drove me to Buddie, where r found every one on the alert, sentries posted, and the police armed with Enfield rifles and ball cartridge. Mter luncheon the inspector and myself drove down the coast. We were both armed with re volvers, and armed and mounted orderlies trotted on each side of our waggon. I found these pre cautions irksome and unnecessary, and after the first day of my stay abolished them, and went about unattended and unarmed. At Devonshire Castle, eighteen miles from Buddie, we found a company of the 2nd West Indian Regiment and a large body of police. As the riot was effectually quelled, r had no occasion to call out the men for any service except sentry-go for the protection of the manufactories and public buildings, as the coolies had threatened to burn them down. A schooner was kept riding at anchor off Buddie, so that in case of the general rising, of which we were warned, the white women and children might be placed in safety. 102 TWENTY-FlVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA orders at 10 p.m., and as the steamer left at 7 a.m. next morning, there was not much titr2 to lose; but r was up to time, and at 7 a.m. we cast off from the stelling, and were soon steaming down the muddy waters of the Demerara River towards the broad Atlantic on my way to the Arabian coast of Essequibo. In those days the steamer stopped at Airey Hall, about two miles from Buddie, where are the Government head quarters, court house, gaol, barracks, etc. r was met by the inspector of police for the county, who drove me to Buddie, where r found every one on the alert, sentries posted, and the police armed with Enfield rifles and ball cartridge. Mter luncheon the inspector and myself drove down the coast. We were both armed with re volvers, and armed and mounted orderlies trotted on each side of our waggon. I found these pre cautions irksome and unnecessary, and after the first day of my stay abolished them, and went about unattended and unarmed. At Devonshire Castle, eighteen miles from Buddie, we found a company of the 2nd West Indian Regiment and a large body of police. As the riot was effectually quelled, r had no occasion to call out the men for any service except sentry-go for the protection of the manufactories and public buildings, as the coolies had threatened to burn them down. A schooner was kept riding at anchor off Buddie, so that in case of the general rising, of which we were warned, the white women and children might be placed in safety.

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A FAITHFUL SENTRY 103 One amusing incident occurred of which I was the victim. As everything seemed quiet and no danger was apprehended, we somewhat relaxed Oill' precautions. I was staying at the Court House in the judge's lodgings, over which a sentry was placed day and night. A password and countersign were daily issued by me, and the sentries were ordered to shoot anyone who attempted to pass at night without giving the password. I had been dining with the sheriff, and was returning to my quarters cheerfully with a cigar in my mouth ahout 11 p.m., when I was confronted by the black sentry, who, bringing his rifle down to the order, called out, "Who go dere?" I was somewhat startled. I had forgotten the sentry, and, what was worse, I had entirely for gotten the password. I knew that the sentries were pioked men, generally Africans, who had served in a West Indian regiment, and who were noted for strict obedience to orders; so I knew if he had been ordered to shoot anyone who trie d to pass without giving the word, he would do so to a moral. This was pleasant J I attempted to temporize. "Look here, you know me, my good man." "What de word?" shouted the sentry, rattling his arms. That was just what I wanted to know. I heard the man cock his rifle, and knew he would let drive at me in another minute, so I made an undignified stragetic movement to the rear, so as to place the inspector's house betwixt myself and the enemy. Satisfied by this manreuvre that I was a dangerous character, the sentry began A FAITHFUL SENTRY 103 One amusing incident occurred of which I was the victim. As everything seemed quiet and no danger was apprehended, we somewhat relaxed Oill' precautions. I was staying at the Court House in the judge's lodgings, over which a sentry was placed day and night. A password and countersign were daily issued by me, and the sentries were ordered to shoot anyone who attempted to pass at night without giving the password. I had been dining with the sheriff, and was returning to my quarters cheerfully with a cigar in my mouth ahout 11 p.m., when I was confronted by the black sentry, who, bringing his rifle down to the order, called out, "Who go dere?" I was somewhat startled. I had forgotten the sentry, and, what was worse, I had entirely for gotten the password. I knew that the sentries were pioked men, generally Africans, who had served in a West Indian regiment, and who were noted for strict obedience to orders; so I knew if he had been ordered to shoot anyone who trie d to pass without giving the word, he would do so to a moral. This was pleasant J I attempted to temporize. "Look here, you know me, my good man." "What de word?" shouted the sentry, rattling his arms. That was just what I wanted to know. I heard the man cock his rifle, and knew he would let drive at me in another minute, so I made an undignified stragetic movement to the rear, so as to place the inspector's house betwixt myself and the enemy. Satisfied by this manreuvre that I was a dangerous character, the sentry began

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104 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA to stalk me round the building, with his gun in both hands ready for action. As soon as I got round the inspeotor's house, I bolted up the baok steps like Ii lamp-lighter and broke in upon the astonished inspector, who was just turning into bed. At first he thought that another riot had broken out, aud was hurrying into his trousers and shouting for his sword, but I stopped him by telling him the absurd dilemma I was in. He roared with laughter, and it was some time before he could recover suffioiently to tell me the password for the day. Armed with this, I looked out cautiously and saw my friend prowling round the house, waiting to have a pot shot at me in case I should bolt. I shouted out the word to him, and, the inspector coming do wn with me, we satisfied the sentry that I was an honest citizen, and I went up to my quarters. The next morning I Bent for the man, who began to express his s o rrow for having "tronbled me," but I stopped him, telling him he was a first-rate sentry, and gave him five shillings. The inquiry in Georgetown was at length conoluded, and the resident magistrates returned to the coast. The Sherifi' of Essequibo at that time was Mr. W. H. Humphreys, a man about sixty-five years of age, who had served the colony well for nearly forty years. He was somewhat eccentric in his manners and conver s ation. I remember when I went to look him up at Maria's Lodge, where he then lived, to report on my doings during his absenoe, he met me standing in the gallery: as I mounted the steps, and 104 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA to stalk me round the building, with his gun in both hands ready for action. As soon as I got round the inspeotor's house, I bolted up the baok steps like Ii lamp-lighter and broke in upon the astonished inspector, who was just turning into bed. At first he thought that another riot had broken out, aud was hurrying into his trousers and shouting for his sword, but I stopped him by telling him the absurd dilemma I was in. He roared with laughter, and it was some time before he could recover suffioiently to tell me the password for the day. Armed with this, I looked out cautiously and saw my friend prowling round the house, waiting to have a pot shot at me in case I should bolt. I shouted out the word to him, and, the inspector coming do wn with me, we satisfied the sentry that I was an honest citizen, and I went up to my quarters. The next morning I Bent for the man, who began to express his s o rrow for having "tronbled me," but I stopped him, telling him he was a first-rate sentry, and gave him five shillings. The inquiry in Georgetown was at length conoluded, and the resident magistrates returned to the coast. The Sherifi' of Essequibo at that time was Mr. W. H. Humphreys, a man about sixty-five years of age, who had served the colony well for nearly forty years. He was somewhat eccentric in his manners and conver s ation. I remember when I went to look him up at Maria's Lodge, where he then lived, to report on my doings during his absenoe, he met me standing in the gallery: as I mounted the steps, and

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ANNA AUSTIN 105 before I could grasp his outstretched hand, he said "Red or white?" What?" I exclaimed my wide-opened eyes expressing my surprise. "Red or white?" he repeated, as I grasped his welcoming hand. I was at a loss. Were red and white the coloU1's respectively of Tory and Radical in the county, or were they the mystic symbols of some occult society? "I beg your pardon," I stammered, "but I don't understand." "Will you take red gin or white gin? And then I knew that the sheriff was npholding the old hospitable custom of the country of meeting the guest on the threshold with a drink, and helping him to depart with a stirrup cup. I have spoken already of the Rev. William Austin, rector of St. John's. One of his daughters, Miss Anna Austin, has devoted her life to a small mission school at the mouth of the Itlirabisoe Creek, not far from St. John's Churoh. Here this exemplary woman has lived for years, surrounded by the gentle Indian people, whose children she has taught to read and sew, whose wives she has protected when the men were away, fishing and wood-cutting. She has heen a sort of protecting goddess to these poor people, a small remnant of the once great Arawak tribe. This good lady nurses the sick, advises and guides the whole community, teaches the children, and hy her example and precept prevents crime and immo rality. Her people are devotedly attached to her, and her sole recompense has been their love and devotion. Miss Austin was no austere religieuse ; ANNA AUSTIN 105 before I could grasp his outstretched hand, he said "Red or white?" What?" I exclaimed my wide-opened eyes expressing my surprise. "Red or white?" he repeated, as I grasped his welcoming hand. I was at a loss. Were red and white the coloU1's respectively of Tory and Radical in the county, or were they the mystic symbols of some occult society? "I beg your pardon," I stammered, "but I don't understand." "Will you take red gin or white gin? And then I knew that the sheriff was npholding the old hospitable custom of the country of meeting the guest on the threshold with a drink, and helping him to depart with a stirrup cup. I have spoken already of the Rev. William Austin, rector of St. John's. One of his daughters, Miss Anna Austin, has devoted her life to a small mission school at the mouth of the Itlirabisoe Creek, not far from St. John's Churoh. Here this exemplary woman has lived for years, surrounded by the gentle Indian people, whose children she has taught to read and sew, whose wives she has protected when the men were away, fishing and wood-cutting. She has heen a sort of protecting goddess to these poor people, a small remnant of the once great Arawak tribe. This good lady nurses the sick, advises and guides the whole community, teaches the children, and hy her example and precept prevents crime and immo rality. Her people are devotedly attached to her, and her sole recompense has been their love and devotion. Miss Austin was no austere religieuse ;

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106 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA she was a jolly, plump lady, with a beaming smile, and always ready for any reasonable amusement. I can recall two or three merry evenings at the mission, when we used to dance in the school room, the open windows and doors almost blocked up by the faces of the Indian women and children, who were curious to see how the "buckras" enjoyed themselves. 106 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA she was a jolly, plump lady, with a beaming smile, and always ready for any reasonable amusement. I can recall two or three merry evenings at the mission, when we used to dance in the school room, the open windows and doors almost blocked up by the faces of the Indian women and children, who were curious to see how the "buckras" enjoyed themselves.

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( 107 ) CHAPTER V. Monotony of life-Trips in the busb-Pomeroon jonmey-TapplI.cooma Lnke-Aripii\co Creek-Cabacaburi Mission-Mr. nnd Mrs. Heard -Medoro. -Bishop Austin -Macca.seema -McClintoc k -Indian Chief-1m Thurn-Biv o uo.c-Benaboo--Howling baboons-Carib Settlement-Piwarrie Captain Jeffreys-Indian names-Snmbourn. -Cooking under difficulties -Indian dance A sunken boatAnna R egino.-Onomatopoetic birds-Superoaam Indian 1.IissionSermon-Huis t'Dieren-Boiler explosion-Mo.nslaughter-Coolie S ettlement. I HA VB spoken in another place of the monotony of life in British Guiana. This is sometimes broken by pleasant trips into the bush for shooting and exploring. Visitors to the colony have expressed snrprise that more of these trips are not taken by the inhabitants; but we are a bnsy people, and have some difficulty in getting away from our work, and besides, the trnth is, that such trips are very expensive: boats and boatmen have to be hired; all provisions have to be carried with you; hammocks, cooking utensils, etc., provided. Even a short trip of three or four days will cost a party of four twenty-five dollars a-head. During my sojourn in the colony I enjoyed many excursions into the bush, but as they were more or less alike, I will only give one in detail, ( 107 ) CHAPTER V. Monotony of life-Trips in the busb-Pomeroon jonmey-TapplI.cooma Lnke-Aripii\co Creek-Cabacaburi Mission-Mr. nnd Mrs. Heard -Medoro. -Bishop Austin -Macca.seema -McClintoc k -Indian Chief-1m Thurn-Biv o uo.c-Benaboo--Howling baboons-Carib Settlement-Piwarrie Captain Jeffreys-Indian names-Snmbourn. -Cooking under difficulties -Indian dance A sunken boatAnna R egino.-Onomatopoetic birds-Superoaam Indian 1.IissionSermon-Huis t'Dieren-Boiler explosion-Mo.nslaughter-Coolie S ettlement. I HA VB spoken in another place of the monotony of life in British Guiana. This is sometimes broken by pleasant trips into the bush for shooting and exploring. Visitors to the colony have expressed snrprise that more of these trips are not taken by the inhabitants; but we are a bnsy people, and have some difficulty in getting away from our work, and besides, the trnth is, that such trips are very expensive: boats and boatmen have to be hired; all provisions have to be carried with you; hammocks, cooking utensils, etc., provided. Even a short trip of three or four days will cost a party of four twenty-five dollars a-head. During my sojourn in the colony I enjoyed many excursions into the bush, but as they were more or less alike, I will only give one in detail,

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108 TWENTY-J!'1VE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA which may be taken as a sample of the rest. In 1880 we went for a jolly trip up the Pomeroon River. Our party consisted of Sir Charles B. Mitchell, now G.C.M.G., and Governor of the Straits Settlements; Charlie Forbes, brother-in law to Sir Cornelius Kortright, at that time Governor of the colony; W. F. Bridges, a magistrate in Berbice; Wm. Shields, manager of La Belle Alliance, and myself. Our rendezvous was at Shields' place, as he had agreed to lend us a boat and provide palMlers. So one morning at 6 a.m. we found ourselves on the side line dam of La Belle Alliance, with our hammocks and other impedimenta. Here we found a somewhat old tent boat awaiting us, and five black men as paddlers, whose appearance did not impress any of us very favourably. However, we packed our traps in the boat as well as we could, which was not an easy matter. There wele five of us, and five of the crew; we all had hammocks to sleep in, a change of clothes in case of getting wet; rugs and blankets for the hammocks, as the early mornings are damp and chilly when one camps out. We had to carry food for us all for five days, not forgetting drinks; a frying-pan, saucepans, etc., for cooking; besides a couple of guns with cartridges, fishing-rods aud sketching materials. However, everything was stowed away at last, and we started up the water-path, which brings fresh water to the estate from the Tappacooma Lake, a sheet of water partly natural, partly 108 TWENTY-J!'1VE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA which may be taken as a sample of the rest. In 1880 we went for a jolly trip up the Pomeroon River. Our party consisted of Sir Charles B. Mitchell, now G.C.M.G., and Governor of the Straits Settlements; Charlie Forbes, brother-in law to Sir Cornelius Kortright, at that time Governor of the colony; W. F. Bridges, a magistrate in Berbice; Wm. Shields, manager of La Belle Alliance, and myself. Our rendezvous was at Shields' place, as he had agreed to lend us a boat and provide palMlers. So one morning at 6 a.m. we found ourselves on the side line dam of La Belle Alliance, with our hammocks and other impedimenta. Here we found a somewhat old tent boat awaiting us, and five black men as paddlers, whose appearance did not impress any of us very favourably. However, we packed our traps in the boat as well as we could, which was not an easy matter. There wele five of us, and five of the crew; we all had hammocks to sleep in, a change of clothes in case of getting wet; rugs and blankets for the hammocks, as the early mornings are damp and chilly when one camps out. We had to carry food for us all for five days, not forgetting drinks; a frying-pan, saucepans, etc., for cooking; besides a couple of guns with cartridges, fishing-rods aud sketching materials. However, everything was stowed away at last, and we started up the water-path, which brings fresh water to the estate from the Tappacooma Lake, a sheet of water partly natural, partly

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BUSH TRAVELLING 109 artificial, which supplies the estates of North Essequibo with fresh water. We reached the lock at eleven, where we breakfasted, and starting in an hour we soon crossed the lake, which is about two miles in breadth, stopping at the overflow on the western side. Here we nnloaded our boat, and dragging it np and down two ladders constructed for that purpose, we launched it again into the Tappacooma Creek, a small stream which runs down towards the Pomel'oon. The creek was very narrow and tortuous, and overhung with dense forest growth, so that in some places it was almost dark, although the sun was high in the heavens; innnmerable Ilianes threatened to destroy our tent, which we had to remove; and it was necessary to keep a sharp look out and have a cutlass handy to prevent ourselves from being dragged out of the boat by the strong bush ropes. Frogs were croaking in all directions, the shrill cry of the oicada echoed through the forest; great metallic sky-blue bntterflies flitted lazily through the gloom, as we twisted and turned through the dark brown water. At length the creek grew wider and we debouched into the Aripiaco, a fine stream about two hundred yards wide, and bordered on both sides by dense forests. Merrily we paddled along; Mitchell seized .. paddle and worked away with a will, whilst we all joined in one of the wild creole boat-songs, which always seem to infuse double energy into the paddlers' arms. At the rate we travelled, our day's journey was soon over, and at 5 p.m. we turned BUSH TRAVELLING 109 artificial, which supplies the estates of North Essequibo with fresh water. We reached the lock at eleven, where we breakfasted, and starting in an hour we soon crossed the lake, which is about two miles in breadth, stopping at the overflow on the western side. Here we nnloaded our boat, and dragging it np and down two ladders constructed for that purpose, we launched it again into the Tappacooma Creek, a small stream which runs down towards the Pomel'oon. The creek was very narrow and tortuous, and overhung with dense forest growth, so that in some places it was almost dark, although the sun was high in the heavens; innnmerable Ilianes threatened to destroy our tent, which we had to remove; and it was necessary to keep a sharp look out and have a cutlass handy to prevent ourselves from being dragged out of the boat by the strong bush ropes. Frogs were croaking in all directions, the shrill cry of the oicada echoed through the forest; great metallic sky-blue bntterflies flitted lazily through the gloom, as we twisted and turned through the dark brown water. At length the creek grew wider and we debouched into the Aripiaco, a fine stream about two hundred yards wide, and bordered on both sides by dense forests. Merrily we paddled along; Mitchell seized .. paddle and worked away with a will, whilst we all joined in one of the wild creole boat-songs, which always seem to infuse double energy into the paddlers' arms. At the rate we travelled, our day's journey was soon over, and at 5 p.m. we turned

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110 TWENTY-FiVE YEARS iN BRiTISH OUIANA into the broad waters of the P ome roon, which at its junction with tne Aripiaco is a fine river, a quart e r of a mile wide. Turning to the l eft half an h our's pull brought u s to the landing-place of the Oabacaburi Mission, which is plac ed on a small hill on the right bank o f the river. Here we were welcomed by Mr. Heard, the missionary, and carried by him up to his hou se where we were most hospitably entertained by Mrs. Heard and her charming daughter, Nellie T o wnsend. The mission buildings are, of course, all constructed of wood. The missionary is his own architect, and the whole work has been done by the Indians under his guidance. They consist of a roomy house for the missi o nary' s family, with Bome outhouses; a pretty little church, a schoolroom, school-muster's hou se, and a number of Indian benabs, where the inmates of the mission and vis itors can sling their hammocks and cook their food. And surely no monarch of the earth hac ever a more glorious resting-place than these children of the forest. Their graveyard is a splendid grove of bamboos, which has been so cleared that the great graceful plants form groups of Huted columns, their magnificent fronds m eet ing over head from all sides, exactly like the crypt in some medireval min ste r. It was refre shing to meet people who were so thoroughly happy and useful as these good mi ss ion a rie s One would have expected that ladie s banished into -the wilderness, would have taken up their cross, p e rform e d their duty with a smile, thinking 110 TWENTY-FiVE YEARS iN BRiTISH OUIANA into the broad waters of the P ome roon, which at its junction with tne Aripiaco is a fine river, a quart e r of a mile wide. Turning to the l eft half an h our's pull brought u s to the landing-place of the Oabacaburi Mission, which is plac ed on a small hill on the right bank o f the river. Here we were welcomed by Mr. Heard, the missionary, and carried by him up to his hou se where we were most hospitably entertained by Mrs. Heard and her charming daughter, Nellie T o wnsend. The mission buildings are, of course, all constructed of wood. The missionary is his own architect, and the whole work has been done by the Indians under his guidance. They consist of a roomy house for the missi o nary' s family, with Bome outhouses; a pretty little church, a schoolroom, school-muster's hou se, and a number of Indian benabs, where the inmates of the mission and vis itors can sling their hammocks and cook their food. And surely no monarch of the earth hac ever a more glorious resting-place than these children of the forest. Their graveyard is a splendid grove of bamboos, which has been so cleared that the great graceful plants form groups of Huted columns, their magnificent fronds m eet ing over head from all sides, exactly like the crypt in some medireval min ste r. It was refre shing to meet people who were so thoroughly happy and useful as these good mi ss ion a rie s One would have expected that ladie s banished into -the wilderness, would have taken up their cross, p e rform e d their duty with a smile, thinking

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OLlBAOABURI MISSION III their life was a martyrdom for Christ's sake. But with Mrs. Heard and Miss Townsend the mission was a labour of love; they were devoted to the Pomeroon, they loved the river and Cabacaburi; they made friends of the gentle Indians, and taught them, not only to read, Wlite, and spell, but trained them to habits of temperance and chastity; and what was perhaps harder still, attempted to train the boys to regular labour in their fields and gardens. We slung our hammocks in the schoolroom, and at 7 p.m. sat down to a sumptuous dinner, which Mrs. Heard provided. Creole soup, began the feast, followed by many luxuries, amongst which figured the dainty duraquarra and noble powis, and other delicate birds and fishes of the forest and stream. We were waited npon by two charm ing young Indian maidens with bare feet and ankles, clad in neat print gowns, with their splendid black hair neatly braided and tied with coloured ribbons. One of them had been named Medora at her baptism. She was a pretty girl, with a sweet expression, and a great friend of mine. Once, when our dear old Lord Bishop (Austin) was paying a pastoral visit to Cabacaburi, Medora had been instructed by Mrs. Heard to call the Bishop" My Lord," when she spoke to him. The little maid was anxious to learn and to please, but was some what appalled at the six feet three inches of aproned humanity which the good bishop presented to her view; so at dinner, in handing him the mustard, she forgot her lesson in its entirety, and said, OLlBAOABURI MISSION III their life was a martyrdom for Christ's sake. But with Mrs. Heard and Miss Townsend the mission was a labour of love; they were devoted to the Pomeroon, they loved the river and Cabacaburi; they made friends of the gentle Indians, and taught them, not only to read, Wlite, and spell, but trained them to habits of temperance and chastity; and what was perhaps harder still, attempted to train the boys to regular labour in their fields and gardens. We slung our hammocks in the schoolroom, and at 7 p.m. sat down to a sumptuous dinner, which Mrs. Heard provided. Creole soup, began the feast, followed by many luxuries, amongst which figured the dainty duraquarra and noble powis, and other delicate birds and fishes of the forest and stream. We were waited npon by two charm ing young Indian maidens with bare feet and ankles, clad in neat print gowns, with their splendid black hair neatly braided and tied with coloured ribbons. One of them had been named Medora at her baptism. She was a pretty girl, with a sweet expression, and a great friend of mine. Once, when our dear old Lord Bishop (Austin) was paying a pastoral visit to Cabacaburi, Medora had been instructed by Mrs. Heard to call the Bishop" My Lord," when she spoke to him. The little maid was anxious to learn and to please, but was some what appalled at the six feet three inches of aproned humanity which the good bishop presented to her view; so at dinner, in handing him the mustard, she forgot her lesson in its entirety, and said,

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112 TWENTY-FIVE YEilRS IN RRITISH GUIilNA "Please, God, will you have some mustard?" Naturally, this excited much mirth, in which the dear old man joined as freely as anyone. I remember a somewhat similar occurrence on the Demerara railway. It was nearly dark, and the bishop was sitting opposite to me in a saloon carriage. As we stopped at Betterverwagting, some rude black women, as their custom then was, thrus t their heads in at the windows to criticize the passengers. One of them catching sight of the bishop, who had a very large and striking appearance, exclaimed, "Ow, me Gad! what is dis ? to whom another woman scornfully replied, What! You no know he Why, that me Lard Gad de Bishop." But I am wandering away from Cabacaburi. Mter our dinner and a cigar, we were ready for our hammocks. Next morning saw us all up at five, when a run down the hill, a pluuge into the river, and a cup of steaming hot coffee soon fitted us for another day's work. The black men from the coast had been very noisy and troublesome, had brought some rum with them, and they demanded so many things, and were so impudent, that we discharged them on the spot, and gave them a corial to take them back home. With Mr. Heard's help, we engaged a crew of Indians, who proved excellent boatmen, and good quiet fellows. We left Cabacaburi about eight, and pulling up the river about two miles we came to Maccaseema, the residence of the magistrate of the distriot. Here we landed, and 112 TWENTY-FIVE YEilRS IN RRITISH GUIilNA "Please, God, will you have some mustard?" Naturally, this excited much mirth, in which the dear old man joined as freely as anyone. I remember a somewhat similar occurrence on the Demerara railway. It was nearly dark, and the bishop was sitting opposite to me in a saloon carriage. As we stopped at Betterverwagting, some rude black women, as their custom then was, thrus t their heads in at the windows to criticize the passengers. One of them catching sight of the bishop, who had a very large and striking appearance, exclaimed, "Ow, me Gad! what is dis ? to whom another woman scornfully replied, What! You no know he Why, that me Lard Gad de Bishop." But I am wandering away from Cabacaburi. Mter our dinner and a cigar, we were ready for our hammocks. Next morning saw us all up at five, when a run down the hill, a pluuge into the river, and a cup of steaming hot coffee soon fitted us for another day's work. The black men from the coast had been very noisy and troublesome, had brought some rum with them, and they demanded so many things, and were so impudent, that we discharged them on the spot, and gave them a corial to take them back home. With Mr. Heard's help, we engaged a crew of Indians, who proved excellent boatmen, and good quiet fellows. We left Cabacaburi about eight, and pulling up the river about two miles we came to Maccaseema, the residence of the magistrate of the distriot. Here we landed, and

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M.J.CC.J.SEEM.J. 113 went up a low hill to the house. It was a tumble down old timber structure in bad repair, surrounded by trees and palms, and looking mouldy and un healthy. The old magistrate met us on the steps, and welcomed us to his house. McClintock was a cadet of an old family in the north of Ireland, who had come out to Demerara as a plan tel, but not succeeding in that, and having a perfect mania for bush life, he accepted the office of post-holder and superintendent of rivers and creeks in the Pomeroon River. He was a J.P., and when the superintendents were abolished, he was made special magistrate in the Pomeroon district. There he lived for forty years, isolated from all society and all amusements except, what he enjoyed most, shooting and fishing in the interminable forests of his district. He lived amongst and with the Indians; attached to himself several Indian women, and lived a free and independent life. He was an upright, honest man; a good painstaking magis trate, although his work in that direction was not overwhelming, arid despite his long isolation from his compeers, he always retained the manners and habits of a gentleman of birth and education, At the time we visited him, he was nearly seventy years of age, tall, with long grizzled locks and a matted beard and moustache, whioh looked as if it seldom saw a comb. After chatting for a short time, McClintock insisted upon our drink ing something, and he produced from a corner of his gallery some bottles which looked like grimy old wine-bottles, and whioh he announced was r M.J.CC.J.SEEM.J. 113 went up a low hill to the house. It was a tumble down old timber structure in bad repair, surrounded by trees and palms, and looking mouldy and un healthy. The old magistrate met us on the steps, and welcomed us to his house. McClintock was a cadet of an old family in the north of Ireland, who had come out to Demerara as a plan tel, but not succeeding in that, and having a perfect mania for bush life, he accepted the office of post-holder and superintendent of rivers and creeks in the Pomeroon River. He was a J.P., and when the superintendents were abolished, he was made special magistrate in the Pomeroon district. There he lived for forty years, isolated from all society and all amusements except, what he enjoyed most, shooting and fishing in the interminable forests of his district. He lived amongst and with the Indians; attached to himself several Indian women, and lived a free and independent life. He was an upright, honest man; a good painstaking magis trate, although his work in that direction was not overwhelming, arid despite his long isolation from his compeers, he always retained the manners and habits of a gentleman of birth and education, At the time we visited him, he was nearly seventy years of age, tall, with long grizzled locks and a matted beard and moustache, whioh looked as if it seldom saw a comb. After chatting for a short time, McClintock insisted upon our drink ing something, and he produced from a corner of his gallery some bottles which looked like grimy old wine-bottles, and whioh he announced was r

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114 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA some wine which he had bought when he was expecting a visit from his cousin, Admiral Sir Leopold McClintock In vajn we tried to excuse ourselves; he insisted upon our drinking some, and rather than hurt his feelings we consented_ He poured out hock and burgundy into tumblers, and presented us with the nectar, which we gulped down like medicine_ Imagine our feelings I The wine had stood on an end in a hot gallery for years; the corks were dried up; the wine was hopelessly ullaged, flat as ditch-water, sour as vinegar. We paid our host a hasty adieu, and hurried down the hill to the boat_ Not a word was said until we were off, when we exchanged glances, and Shields broke out, "For God's sake, a glass of brandy!" A flask was produced, and we took a good shot all round; but I don't think that glass of wine at Maccaseema will fade from Oul' memories as long as life lasts_ There is a good story told about old McClintock. When his cousin, the admiral, visited British Guiana, his flagship could not come within sixteen miles of the shore, owing to the shallow water_ As the Bellerophon, with the admiral on board, WitS lying at anchor off the coast, rolling her yards nearly into the water, the quarter-master of the watch came up to the captain and, touching his cap, said, "Indian chief coming aboard, sir." The captain took his glasses, and sure enough saw a large canoe, propelled by a dozen Indians, approaching the ship; in the stern of the ship sat a tall man in an odd-looking tall hat. The captain 114 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA some wine which he had bought when he was expecting a visit from his cousin, Admiral Sir Leopold McClintock In vajn we tried to excuse ourselves; he insisted upon our drinking some, and rather than hurt his feelings we consented_ He poured out hock and burgundy into tumblers, and presented us with the nectar, which we gulped down like medicine_ Imagine our feelings I The wine had stood on an end in a hot gallery for years; the corks were dried up; the wine was hopelessly ullaged, flat as ditch-water, sour as vinegar. We paid our host a hasty adieu, and hurried down the hill to the boat_ Not a word was said until we were off, when we exchanged glances, and Shields broke out, "For God's sake, a glass of brandy!" A flask was produced, and we took a good shot all round; but I don't think that glass of wine at Maccaseema will fade from Oul' memories as long as life lasts_ There is a good story told about old McClintock. When his cousin, the admiral, visited British Guiana, his flagship could not come within sixteen miles of the shore, owing to the shallow water_ As the Bellerophon, with the admiral on board, WitS lying at anchor off the coast, rolling her yards nearly into the water, the quarter-master of the watch came up to the captain and, touching his cap, said, "Indian chief coming aboard, sir." The captain took his glasses, and sure enough saw a large canoe, propelled by a dozen Indians, approaching the ship; in the stern of the ship sat a tall man in an odd-looking tall hat. The captain

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McOLINTOOK-IM THURN 115 knocked at the admiral's cabin-door and reported, "Indian chief coming aboru:d, sir." "Very well," said the admiral; "man the gangway to receive Indian chief." But when the canoe came along side, it was seen that the supposed Indian chief was a white man in a very old-fashioned topper, who, when with some difficulty he climbed up the ladder on to the deck, asked to see his cousin, the admiral. This was McClintock, who, hearing that the flagship was lying out at Sea, had ventured in one of his largest canoes to pay her a visit. McClintook retired a year or two after our visit, and his place was given to Mr. Everard im Thurn, an Oxford graduate, and a man of great literary ability and much tll-ste. Im Thurn rebuilt Macca seema, laid out the grounds with lovely shrubs and paJms, loaded the verandah and surrounding trees with orchids, laid out a gravel tennis court, and made the place into a perfect paradise. When I stayed with him, in 1887, I was amazed at the ohange he had effeoted in the place in so short a time. But in the forests of Gniana one mnst live in perpetual watchfulness agsjnst damp, insects, and parasitic growth. A few mO!l.ths of neglect will ruin a house and garden; and when Mr. 1m Thurn was promoted, and left Macca seema, a very short time elapsed before it had fallen back into its old state. We left Maccaseema about ten o'clock, and, pulling up the river, we reached a sand bank about one O'clock, where we bivouacked and breakfasted. Mitchell and Bridges attacked a small dry tree McOLINTOOK-IM THURN 115 knocked at the admiral's cabin-door and reported, "Indian chief coming aboru:d, sir." "Very well," said the admiral; "man the gangway to receive Indian chief." But when the canoe came along side, it was seen that the supposed Indian chief was a white man in a very old-fashioned topper, who, when with some difficulty he climbed up the ladder on to the deck, asked to see his cousin, the admiral. This was McClintock, who, hearing that the flagship was lying out at Sea, had ventured in one of his largest canoes to pay her a visit. McClintook retired a year or two after our visit, and his place was given to Mr. Everard im Thurn, an Oxford graduate, and a man of great literary ability and much tll-ste. Im Thurn rebuilt Macca seema, laid out the grounds with lovely shrubs and paJms, loaded the verandah and surrounding trees with orchids, laid out a gravel tennis court, and made the place into a perfect paradise. When I stayed with him, in 1887, I was amazed at the ohange he had effeoted in the place in so short a time. But in the forests of Gniana one mnst live in perpetual watchfulness agsjnst damp, insects, and parasitic growth. A few mO!l.ths of neglect will ruin a house and garden; and when Mr. 1m Thurn was promoted, and left Macca seema, a very short time elapsed before it had fallen back into its old state. We left Maccaseema about ten o'clock, and, pulling up the river, we reached a sand bank about one O'clock, where we bivouacked and breakfasted. Mitchell and Bridges attacked a small dry tree

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116 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA with their cutlasses to make firewood; but a oouple of strokes brought down upon their devoted heads a shower of large black ants, which began biting them ferociously; they yelled and danced about, and at last took headers into the ri'Ver, as the only way of getting rid of their tormentors. It was impossible to help laughing, although they suffered considerably. Mter breakfast we started again. The Pomeroon, like most South American rivers, is a dark brown stream rushing down between interminable forests without a single break to vary the monotony. The banks are low and swampy, except when low sand ridges cross the line of the stream. This part of the colony is very tbinly inhabited; since leaving Maccaseema we had not seen a human being, nor a single buck hut; so as the Indian boatmen told us that we could not reach any settlement before dark, we prepared to camp out in the bush. About 4.30 we reached a spot that was three feet above the water level, and which seemed dry and airy, so we landed. Selecting four trees, we cleared away the low scrub, and cutting four strong posts, we drove them into the ground, and leaned them agajnst the trees, to which we bound them with strong bush-ropes; two or three poles were then laid across between the ends of the posts and the trees, so forming two strong cross-bars about six feet from the ground. Our hammocks were all slung side by side from ridge-pole to ridge-pole. We then cut a number of large troolie palm leaves, which grow twenty 116 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA with their cutlasses to make firewood; but a oouple of strokes brought down upon their devoted heads a shower of large black ants, which began biting them ferociously; they yelled and danced about, and at last took headers into the ri'Ver, as the only way of getting rid of their tormentors. It was impossible to help laughing, although they suffered considerably. Mter breakfast we started again. The Pomeroon, like most South American rivers, is a dark brown stream rushing down between interminable forests without a single break to vary the monotony. The banks are low and swampy, except when low sand ridges cross the line of the stream. This part of the colony is very tbinly inhabited; since leaving Maccaseema we had not seen a human being, nor a single buck hut; so as the Indian boatmen told us that we could not reach any settlement before dark, we prepared to camp out in the bush. About 4.30 we reached a spot that was three feet above the water level, and which seemed dry and airy, so we landed. Selecting four trees, we cleared away the low scrub, and cutting four strong posts, we drove them into the ground, and leaned them agajnst the trees, to which we bound them with strong bush-ropes; two or three poles were then laid across between the ends of the posts and the trees, so forming two strong cross-bars about six feet from the ground. Our hammocks were all slung side by side from ridge-pole to ridge-pole. We then cut a number of large troolie palm leaves, which grow twenty

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OAMPING OUT 117 feet long, and, sticking the ends into the ground, we leaned them over the ridge-poles as that they met in the middle forming an arch, whioh made an excellent roof, and would have turned a sharp shower. The inside of the benaboo was strewn with dry pa lm leaves, the hammocks were slung up, and then all was ready for the night. The whole place was put up in less than an hour, and proved an excellent sleeping-place. Of course, with the exception of Forbes and Shields, we were good bushmen, and Forbes himself had spent several years on a sheep farm in Australia, so we were qnite at home in our camp. A large fire was soon blazing; some saucepans were ranged over it, and already gave out symptoms of soup and stew. Two large logs were rolled up as seats, so when our dinner was ready we had a right merry meal, washed down with beer and brandy and water; when djnner was over, inDumerable songs and yams, accompa,nied by many pipes, led us far into the night. It was oalm and warm, a full moon riding in the sky, which was quite luminous, and showed out in strong relief the outline of every leaf over our heads. At last we turned into our hammocks, and I was dropping off to sleep when I was roused by the most infernal barking and roaring. Attraoted by our fire and singing, a troop of howling baboons had come over the trees, and were making night hideous by their yells. Shields, who was not acquajnted with the brutes, shook my hammock violently, and whispered, "What on earth is OAMPING OUT 117 feet long, and, sticking the ends into the ground, we leaned them over the ridge-poles as that they met in the middle forming an arch, whioh made an excellent roof, and would have turned a sharp shower. The inside of the benaboo was strewn with dry pa lm leaves, the hammocks were slung up, and then all was ready for the night. The whole place was put up in less than an hour, and proved an excellent sleeping-place. Of course, with the exception of Forbes and Shields, we were good bushmen, and Forbes himself had spent several years on a sheep farm in Australia, so we were qnite at home in our camp. A large fire was soon blazing; some saucepans were ranged over it, and already gave out symptoms of soup and stew. Two large logs were rolled up as seats, so when our dinner was ready we had a right merry meal, washed down with beer and brandy and water; when djnner was over, inDumerable songs and yams, accompa,nied by many pipes, led us far into the night. It was oalm and warm, a full moon riding in the sky, which was quite luminous, and showed out in strong relief the outline of every leaf over our heads. At last we turned into our hammocks, and I was dropping off to sleep when I was roused by the most infernal barking and roaring. Attraoted by our fire and singing, a troop of howling baboons had come over the trees, and were making night hideous by their yells. Shields, who was not acquajnted with the brutes, shook my hammock violently, and whispered, "What on earth is

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118 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA that? Being somewhat vexed, I replied, "Tigers." "Are they very near?" "Very," said I, and taking advantage of a lull in the chorus, I dropped asleep. Poor Shields lay awake half the night, expecting to be devoured by wild beasts. He was sleepy and cross in the morning, when Bridges asked him if he had heard the baboons last night. "Oh, those were baboons, were they? What an awful noise they make! But what were they saying?" I don't know," replied Bridges. "I don't belong to the same species. We were up before sunrise, and found it cold and damp, the dew falling like rain, so a drop of gin and a hot cup of coft'ee were served out all round, and we were afloat as the heavens flushed with rosy light at the approach of the god of day. We paddled along all the day, the river being tortuous and much narrower. There was not much life to be seen, except some toucans, galdings, cranes, kingfishers, and humming birds, some of which we shot. We also bagged two duckIers, a kind of duck, but with a somewhat fishy flavour. At five p.m. we reached the first Carib settlement, situated on a sand hill about forty feet high. Here we landed, and received a visit from the Carib chief, who came to welcome us. He was aocompanied by about thirty men and women, girls and boys. They are a fine race of Indians, taller and better made than any I had seen in the colony. The young, unmarried ladies were qnite naked except for the small square 118 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA that? Being somewhat vexed, I replied, "Tigers." "Are they very near?" "Very," said I, and taking advantage of a lull in the chorus, I dropped asleep. Poor Shields lay awake half the night, expecting to be devoured by wild beasts. He was sleepy and cross in the morning, when Bridges asked him if he had heard the baboons last night. "Oh, those were baboons, were they? What an awful noise they make! But what were they saying?" I don't know," replied Bridges. "I don't belong to the same species. We were up before sunrise, and found it cold and damp, the dew falling like rain, so a drop of gin and a hot cup of coft'ee were served out all round, and we were afloat as the heavens flushed with rosy light at the approach of the god of day. We paddled along all the day, the river being tortuous and much narrower. There was not much life to be seen, except some toucans, galdings, cranes, kingfishers, and humming birds, some of which we shot. We also bagged two duckIers, a kind of duck, but with a somewhat fishy flavour. At five p.m. we reached the first Carib settlement, situated on a sand hill about forty feet high. Here we landed, and received a visit from the Carib chief, who came to welcome us. He was aocompanied by about thirty men and women, girls and boys. They are a fine race of Indians, taller and better made than any I had seen in the colony. The young, unmarried ladies were qnite naked except for the small square

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OARIB INDIANS 119 queyo suspended from their waists; the manied ones wore a short petticoat made of fibre, though one or two donned calico petticoats, which no doubt they had got at the mission, as Mrs. Heard would not allow them to land there without a s kirt on. One young girl, just budding into womanhood, excited our admiration; she was a perfect figure, like a brown Hebe. We were invited up to the settlement, where we found a number of large, well-built benabs, and about fifty Indians. They had some large fields of cassava, and seemed well nourished and contented. They were preparing for a piwarrie feast, to wbich we were invited the next evening; so all the old women were sitting round massive bowls chewing roasted cassava bread, and spitting it out into the bowls. It is then mixed with warm water, and soon ferments in the hot sun. To my mind it is a disgusting drink, but the Indians are very fond of it. To see a circle of old wrinkled hags sitting round a cauldron chewing the burnt cassava, the red liquor oozing out of the corners of their mouths, and running down their skinny breasts, as they, one by one, vomit out the contents of their mouths into the bowl, is not an appetizing spectacle. After that, a little piwarrie goes a long way. The chief gave us two benabs in which to sling our hammocks, so we were soon comfortably settled. This Carib chief, whose Indian name was as long as my arm, was generally known as Captain Jeffreys, and was as alT8.J't. an old OARIB INDIANS 119 queyo suspended from their waists; the manied ones wore a short petticoat made of fibre, though one or two donned calico petticoats, which no doubt they had got at the mission, as Mrs. Heard would not allow them to land there without a s kirt on. One young girl, just budding into womanhood, excited our admiration; she was a perfect figure, like a brown Hebe. We were invited up to the settlement, where we found a number of large, well-built benabs, and about fifty Indians. They had some large fields of cassava, and seemed well nourished and contented. They were preparing for a piwarrie feast, to wbich we were invited the next evening; so all the old women were sitting round massive bowls chewing roasted cassava bread, and spitting it out into the bowls. It is then mixed with warm water, and soon ferments in the hot sun. To my mind it is a disgusting drink, but the Indians are very fond of it. To see a circle of old wrinkled hags sitting round a cauldron chewing the burnt cassava, the red liquor oozing out of the corners of their mouths, and running down their skinny breasts, as they, one by one, vomit out the contents of their mouths into the bowl, is not an appetizing spectacle. After that, a little piwarrie goes a long way. The chief gave us two benabs in which to sling our hammocks, so we were soon comfortably settled. This Carib chief, whose Indian name was as long as my arm, was generally known as Captain Jeffreys, and was as alT8.J't. an old

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120 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA scoundrel as ever I met. The bishop, in one of his trips to the Pomeroon, had fallen in with Jeffreys, had baptized him, and subsequently con firmed him, so the old scoundrel used to go to meet the bishop, when visiting Cabacaburi, and take the sacrament with him. He was a fearful nuisance .to me during our stay. I had charge of the grog; so first thing in the morning he would come and squat at the foot of my hammock, put his hand on his stomach, groan and say he felt very bad. This was all to get brandy. At last I got tired of this arrangement, so I got a tumbler and filled it with rum, bitters, Worcester sauce, laudanum, and chlorodyne. I told Jeffreys it was good medicine, and he took it off like a man; but he turned up again some hours afterwards, and said he wanted some more of that medicine, it had done him so much good. It is a curious thing that you can never discover an Indian's real name. It is given him with some solemnity when he is an infant, but he never divulges it, nor is he ever oalled by it. He is always known by some nickname or name of distinction for his prowess in war, hunting, or fishing. We passed a quiet night, and next morning, leaving our heavy baggage under the charge of one of our men, we started up the river. The season had been unusually dry for the time of year, so the river was very low. We had paddled about two hours when our progress was stopped by two large trees, which had fallen across the stream and formed, with accumulated sand, a kind 120 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA scoundrel as ever I met. The bishop, in one of his trips to the Pomeroon, had fallen in with Jeffreys, had baptized him, and subsequently con firmed him, so the old scoundrel used to go to meet the bishop, when visiting Cabacaburi, and take the sacrament with him. He was a fearful nuisance .to me during our stay. I had charge of the grog; so first thing in the morning he would come and squat at the foot of my hammock, put his hand on his stomach, groan and say he felt very bad. This was all to get brandy. At last I got tired of this arrangement, so I got a tumbler and filled it with rum, bitters, Worcester sauce, laudanum, and chlorodyne. I told Jeffreys it was good medicine, and he took it off like a man; but he turned up again some hours afterwards, and said he wanted some more of that medicine, it had done him so much good. It is a curious thing that you can never discover an Indian's real name. It is given him with some solemnity when he is an infant, but he never divulges it, nor is he ever oalled by it. He is always known by some nickname or name of distinction for his prowess in war, hunting, or fishing. We passed a quiet night, and next morning, leaving our heavy baggage under the charge of one of our men, we started up the river. The season had been unusually dry for the time of year, so the river was very low. We had paddled about two hours when our progress was stopped by two large trees, which had fallen across the stream and formed, with accumulated sand, a kind

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SAMBOURA 121 of dam. We were all ordered overboard, and by main force we dragged the old boat over the obstruction. Several times in the next three miles we were obliged to lighten the boat, till at last, beyond a spot called Samboura, we were forced to give up the attempt to proceed any further in our boat, the river being only navigable by Indian woodskins. Samboura is a pretty place; the river here is fnll of granite rocks and saud banks, the water is beautifnlly clear, the banks high, and the forest growth dense and varied. We pulled up one little rapid, and, finding we could go no higher, we stopped and played about in the delicious water. We landed at the site of a deserted Indian camp, enjoyed a hearty luncheon, or late breakfast, and tried in VBjn to catch some lukananni. Setting our fac e s homewards, we paddled down to our last night's camp, the old boat leaking dreadfully all the way. When we reached our camp, I set to work to cook our dinner; and finding a large buck pot, a thought of some good creole soup flashed across my mind; so, putting the pot on the fire with a quart of water inside, I put in a tin or meat, some sausages, tin of peas, some plantains and buck yams, with some salt and Worcester sauce, and left it to boil. Unfortunately, my scnllery maid, an Indian boy, seeing an open tin of sardines, thought it was. a pity to waste it, so he turned it, oil and all, into the pot. However, the soup, when cooked, was pronounced good, and we enj oyed a hearty dinner. SAMBOURA 121 of dam. We were all ordered overboard, and by main force we dragged the old boat over the obstruction. Several times in the next three miles we were obliged to lighten the boat, till at last, beyond a spot called Samboura, we were forced to give up the attempt to proceed any further in our boat, the river being only navigable by Indian woodskins. Samboura is a pretty place; the river here is fnll of granite rocks and saud banks, the water is beautifnlly clear, the banks high, and the forest growth dense and varied. We pulled up one little rapid, and, finding we could go no higher, we stopped and played about in the delicious water. We landed at the site of a deserted Indian camp, enjoyed a hearty luncheon, or late breakfast, and tried in VBjn to catch some lukananni. Setting our fac e s homewards, we paddled down to our last night's camp, the old boat leaking dreadfully all the way. When we reached our camp, I set to work to cook our dinner; and finding a large buck pot, a thought of some good creole soup flashed across my mind; so, putting the pot on the fire with a quart of water inside, I put in a tin or meat, some sausages, tin of peas, some plantains and buck yams, with some salt and Worcester sauce, and left it to boil. Unfortunately, my scnllery maid, an Indian boy, seeing an open tin of sardines, thought it was. a pity to waste it, so he turned it, oil and all, into the pot. However, the soup, when cooked, was pronounced good, and we enj oyed a hearty dinner.

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122 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA Mterwards we went up tv ,he Carib settlement, and found the people beginning tbeir piwarrie dance. They were already half drunk, and we saw enough both of their dance and themselves in a very short time. We turned into our hammocks and slept as weIl as we could amidst aJl the noise around us. The Indians fiIl themselves with piwarrie until they can hold no more, and then discharging it aJl out, begin afresh. Mter performing this feat several times, they become quite dl'Unk and stupid. This may seem very savage and disgusting, but I have seen the students of the polished University of Heidelburg do the same thing when drinking beer. About 1. a.m. MitcheIl came to my hammock, and, waking me up, told me our boat had fiIled with water and sunk in the river. This was pleasant, as she was the only link connecting us with civilization; so as early as possible in the morning we were at work, bailed out the boat, drew her on shore, and proceeded to caJk her seams with mud and grass; and in this rotten craft we started homeward. After a long day's pull with the stream we reached Cabacaburi Mission about 6 p.m. The boat certainly kept afloat, but we were obliged to bail away all the time. We spent the night at the mission, and the next day returned to the Essequibo coast by the Aripiaeo and Tap paeooma Lake, down the Anna Regina water-path to the estate of that name, where we were hospitably entertained by the genial manager. In all countries and languages there are certain 122 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA Mterwards we went up tv ,he Carib settlement, and found the people beginning tbeir piwarrie dance. They were already half drunk, and we saw enough both of their dance and themselves in a very short time. We turned into our hammocks and slept as weIl as we could amidst aJl the noise around us. The Indians fiIl themselves with piwarrie until they can hold no more, and then discharging it aJl out, begin afresh. Mter performing this feat several times, they become quite dl'Unk and stupid. This may seem very savage and disgusting, but I have seen the students of the polished University of Heidelburg do the same thing when drinking beer. About 1. a.m. MitcheIl came to my hammock, and, waking me up, told me our boat had fiIled with water and sunk in the river. This was pleasant, as she was the only link connecting us with civilization; so as early as possible in the morning we were at work, bailed out the boat, drew her on shore, and proceeded to caJk her seams with mud and grass; and in this rotten craft we started homeward. After a long day's pull with the stream we reached Cabacaburi Mission about 6 p.m. The boat certainly kept afloat, but we were obliged to bail away all the time. We spent the night at the mission, and the next day returned to the Essequibo coast by the Aripiaeo and Tap paeooma Lake, down the Anna Regina water-path to the estate of that name, where we were hospitably entertained by the genial manager. In all countries and languages there are certain

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ONOMATOPOETIC BIRDS 123 animals and birds which are known by names descriptive of the cries which they utter. British Gniana is no exception to this rnle, in fact, the number of birds so familiarly named is somewhat large. Walking through the Botanic Gardens in the evening, elies of "Kill a cow! kill a cow! IJ are heard from the bush. This is a curious bird, known to the learned as Aramides cayennensis. Early in the morning, when you are tumbling out of yOUl' hammock near some Indian camp, yOUl' ears are assailed by Clies of "Han-na-qua! han-aqua! the call of a pheasant-like bird, which gives it its name. The greenheart bird (Lathria cinerea) acquired its Indian name, pee-pee-yo, from the shlill cry it utters when swinging on a bough of its favourite tree. The powis, shypook, quaack, and qU'estceque dit, all derive their names from the valious sounds which they give forth. The calf-bird, clothed in sober olive, prevents the weary traveller from sleeping, by imitating the bellowings of a cow deprived of its calf; whilst the bell-bird (Cam panera) in the forest tolls the knell of a lost soul. The splendid hia-hia parrot acquired th .. t name from its utterances as it raises its tartan frill and welcomes the lising sun. The birds known to the creoles by the singular names of "work, work, work to hell" and" wife-sick" certainly give utterance to sounds resembling those words, and are rivalled, but not equalled, by the little songsters known as Tom Pitcher (Saltata,' magnus) and twa-twa. The latter is an aristocratio bird, as he is always ONOMATOPOETIC BIRDS 123 animals and birds which are known by names descriptive of the cries which they utter. British Gniana is no exception to this rnle, in fact, the number of birds so familiarly named is somewhat large. Walking through the Botanic Gardens in the evening, elies of "Kill a cow! kill a cow! IJ are heard from the bush. This is a curious bird, known to the learned as Aramides cayennensis. Early in the morning, when you are tumbling out of yOUl' hammock near some Indian camp, yOUl' ears are assailed by Clies of "Han-na-qua! han-aqua! the call of a pheasant-like bird, which gives it its name. The greenheart bird (Lathria cinerea) acquired its Indian name, pee-pee-yo, from the shlill cry it utters when swinging on a bough of its favourite tree. The powis, shypook, quaack, and qU'estceque dit, all derive their names from the valious sounds which they give forth. The calf-bird, clothed in sober olive, prevents the weary traveller from sleeping, by imitating the bellowings of a cow deprived of its calf; whilst the bell-bird (Cam panera) in the forest tolls the knell of a lost soul. The splendid hia-hia parrot acquired th .. t name from its utterances as it raises its tartan frill and welcomes the lising sun. The birds known to the creoles by the singular names of "work, work, work to hell" and" wife-sick" certainly give utterance to sounds resembling those words, and are rivalled, but not equalled, by the little songsters known as Tom Pitcher (Saltata,' magnus) and twa-twa. The latter is an aristocratio bird, as he is always

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124 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA obsequiously followed by an attendant, who is con temptuously called" twa-twa slave," but known to oruithologists as OryzObOTUS torridW!. But it is the goat-sucker family to whioh we must look for sounds most nearly approaching human utterances. As in Europe, the whip-poor-. will gives out his plaintive note to the still evening air; and it is rather startling to a new-comer to be greeted, as he steps out of his boat on the river's bank, by a pert little biJ:d that exclaims, "Who are you? who are you? There are two biJ:ds of this species (Nictibi1!s),known as jumbi biJ:ds, whose cries exactly resemble the moaning aud sobbing of some woman in great distress; they utter pa.in fully weird cries and shrieks, suggesting sometimes the awful agony and despair of lost souls, to the terror of youngsters and horror of adults. Another Indian mission, founded by the Church of Scotland, is established on a small sand hill up the Supernaam Creek, which falls into the Esse quibo River about twelve miles to the south of Suddie. I paid a visit to this mission in 1880, in company with Doctor and Mrs. Forte and their children, and one of the leading planters on the coast. Mr. Walker, the gentleman in charge of the mission, received us very kindly, and plaoed his house at our disposal. There was a large wooden church, which could accommodate about three or four hunmed people. The next day, which was Sunday, we were preparing to go to church, for which a large number of Indians were assembling, when Mr. Walker came to me, and 124 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA obsequiously followed by an attendant, who is con temptuously called" twa-twa slave," but known to oruithologists as OryzObOTUS torridW!. But it is the goat-sucker family to whioh we must look for sounds most nearly approaching human utterances. As in Europe, the whip-poor-. will gives out his plaintive note to the still evening air; and it is rather startling to a new-comer to be greeted, as he steps out of his boat on the river's bank, by a pert little biJ:d that exclaims, "Who are you? who are you? There are two biJ:ds of this species (Nictibi1!s),known as jumbi biJ:ds, whose cries exactly resemble the moaning aud sobbing of some woman in great distress; they utter pa.in fully weird cries and shrieks, suggesting sometimes the awful agony and despair of lost souls, to the terror of youngsters and horror of adults. Another Indian mission, founded by the Church of Scotland, is established on a small sand hill up the Supernaam Creek, which falls into the Esse quibo River about twelve miles to the south of Suddie. I paid a visit to this mission in 1880, in company with Doctor and Mrs. Forte and their children, and one of the leading planters on the coast. Mr. Walker, the gentleman in charge of the mission, received us very kindly, and plaoed his house at our disposal. There was a large wooden church, which could accommodate about three or four hunmed people. The next day, which was Sunday, we were preparing to go to church, for which a large number of Indians were assembling, when Mr. Walker came to me, and

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THE BE.J.UTY OF L.J.BOUR 125 asked me if I would say a few words to the congre gation, as they would be glad to hear something from their sheriff. I agreed offhand, but was rather dismayed when in church, after he had prayed and read a chapter from the Bible, the good minister descended from his pulpit, came to my pew, and led me up into his place. There was no time to think, so I plunged boldly in medias res Taking my text from the beginning of the Bible, And God placed man in the Garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it," I expatiated to my atten tive hearers on the beauty of labour; that God, in His wisdom, knew that Adam, even in Eden, would not have been happy, had he nothing for his hands to do, and had he been compelled to remBjn in idleness; drawing the moral, that if idleness would turn even Eden into an abode of unhappiness, how muoh more would it be so here, where Satan is always finding some misohief for idle hands to do. I pointed out that life was not to be spent in idling in a hammook smoking, with an oocasional carouse, but in useful labour. eto., eto. My planter friend was delighted with the dis course. "Great Scott I Sheriff," he said to me, after ohurch, "that was a grand sermon! How much will you oharge for preaohing it on my estate every Sunday? I wish my people saw the beauty of labour." The missionary, in his annual report to the parent society in England, naturally mentioned my disoourse amongst other ooour renoes, and I was muoh amused at the reoeipt, some months afterwards, of a letter from a religious THE BE.J.UTY OF L.J.BOUR 125 asked me if I would say a few words to the congre gation, as they would be glad to hear something from their sheriff. I agreed offhand, but was rather dismayed when in church, after he had prayed and read a chapter from the Bible, the good minister descended from his pulpit, came to my pew, and led me up into his place. There was no time to think, so I plunged boldly in medias res Taking my text from the beginning of the Bible, And God placed man in the Garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it," I expatiated to my atten tive hearers on the beauty of labour; that God, in His wisdom, knew that Adam, even in Eden, would not have been happy, had he nothing for his hands to do, and had he been compelled to remBjn in idleness; drawing the moral, that if idleness would turn even Eden into an abode of unhappiness, how muoh more would it be so here, where Satan is always finding some misohief for idle hands to do. I pointed out that life was not to be spent in idling in a hammook smoking, with an oocasional carouse, but in useful labour. eto., eto. My planter friend was delighted with the dis course. "Great Scott I Sheriff," he said to me, after ohurch, "that was a grand sermon! How much will you oharge for preaohing it on my estate every Sunday? I wish my people saw the beauty of labour." The missionary, in his annual report to the parent society in England, naturally mentioned my disoourse amongst other ooour renoes, and I was muoh amused at the reoeipt, some months afterwards, of a letter from a religious

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126 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA female relative in England, who congratulated me on my efforts on behalf of heathen missions, and hoped that the Lord would bless my work. Between Suddie and Amora, on the Arabian coast, was a sugar estate, called Huis t' Dieren. When I was appointed Sheriff of Essequibo, the place had gone down very low, and was only making about one hundred and fifty hogsheads of common process sugar; the buildings were in a dilapidated condition, and everything pointed to a rapid descent to ruin; but I was not prepared for the terrible and dramatic exit which it made from the ranks of cultivated estates. One night the Inspector-General of Police, who was paying an official visit to the coast, was dining with me. We sat in the gallery after dinner smoking and yarning till ten o'clock. The General said he must go, as he was tired and sleepy after a hard day's work, so with a final split whisky and soda, he retired, wishing me "Good night." His wishes were not fulfilled. About twenty minutes after wards, as I was undressing to go to bed, I heard my name called out, and looking out of the window, I saw the from the police barracks, who said the Inspector-General wished me to come over to the barracks, as there had been a dreadful accident at Huis t' Dieren, and he was going there at once. I was soon dressed again, and hurried over to the barracks, where I found the General waitirg. We were soon in his waggon, and driving off to the ill-fated estate. Half an hour's drive brought us to the spot, and then we discovered that 126 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA female relative in England, who congratulated me on my efforts on behalf of heathen missions, and hoped that the Lord would bless my work. Between Suddie and Amora, on the Arabian coast, was a sugar estate, called Huis t' Dieren. When I was appointed Sheriff of Essequibo, the place had gone down very low, and was only making about one hundred and fifty hogsheads of common process sugar; the buildings were in a dilapidated condition, and everything pointed to a rapid descent to ruin; but I was not prepared for the terrible and dramatic exit which it made from the ranks of cultivated estates. One night the Inspector-General of Police, who was paying an official visit to the coast, was dining with me. We sat in the gallery after dinner smoking and yarning till ten o'clock. The General said he must go, as he was tired and sleepy after a hard day's work, so with a final split whisky and soda, he retired, wishing me "Good night." His wishes were not fulfilled. About twenty minutes after wards, as I was undressing to go to bed, I heard my name called out, and looking out of the window, I saw the from the police barracks, who said the Inspector-General wished me to come over to the barracks, as there had been a dreadful accident at Huis t' Dieren, and he was going there at once. I was soon dressed again, and hurried over to the barracks, where I found the General waitirg. We were soon in his waggon, and driving off to the ill-fated estate. Half an hour's drive brought us to the spot, and then we discovered that

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TR.AGEDY .AT BUIS T' DIEREN 127 a dreadful occurrence had taken place. .A. large boiler used in the sugar works had exploded. The whole top of the boiler, a mass of iron weighing two tons, had been hurled through the trees for a hundred and fifty yards, and all the steam and boiling water had been shot out upon the un fortunate negresses, who had been carrying megass near the boiler, a large number of whom were scalded by the water and steam, seven of them so severely as to necessitate their immediate removal to a house which was extemporized into a hospitaL Three of the women were so much injured that they died almost immediately, and so were saved from much dreadful suffering; two more lingered on for some time in torments, before death put an end to their sufferings; the other injured people recovered. It was an awful sight to see the poor people; in some of the worst cases the black skin had been almost entirely scalded off, leaving the flesh bright red, and the wool had come off their heads. Others were in patches of black and red, as if affiicted by some dreadful kind of leprosy. The medical officer of the district did a'll in his power for the poor people, bnt that was not much. After making the necessary arrangements for the coroner's inquest, and for the custody of the bodies, the Inspeotor-General and myself drove sadly back, and were not in bed till two a.m. At the inquest it was proved that the old boiler was unfit to stand more than a limited pressure of steam; but the ignorant engineer had placed on TR.AGEDY .AT BUIS T' DIEREN 127 a dreadful occurrence had taken place. .A. large boiler used in the sugar works had exploded. The whole top of the boiler, a mass of iron weighing two tons, had been hurled through the trees for a hundred and fifty yards, and all the steam and boiling water had been shot out upon the un fortunate negresses, who had been carrying megass near the boiler, a large number of whom were scalded by the water and steam, seven of them so severely as to necessitate their immediate removal to a house which was extemporized into a hospitaL Three of the women were so much injured that they died almost immediately, and so were saved from much dreadful suffering; two more lingered on for some time in torments, before death put an end to their sufferings; the other injured people recovered. It was an awful sight to see the poor people; in some of the worst cases the black skin had been almost entirely scalded off, leaving the flesh bright red, and the wool had come off their heads. Others were in patches of black and red, as if affiicted by some dreadful kind of leprosy. The medical officer of the district did a'll in his power for the poor people, bnt that was not much. After making the necessary arrangements for the coroner's inquest, and for the custody of the bodies, the Inspeotor-General and myself drove sadly back, and were not in bed till two a.m. At the inquest it was proved that the old boiler was unfit to stand more than a limited pressure of steam; but the ignorant engineer had placed on

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128 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA the governor, which regulates the safety valve, weights belonging to another boiler, which wonld have reqnired more than twice the force to have blown out than the boiler itself was calculated to sustain. No wonder that the boiler exploded; it is strange it lasted so long. Thejury, by my direction, found a verdict ofmanslaughteraglJ,inst the engineer in charge of the works, and I issued a warrant for his arrest. This accident, or rather wilful negligence, gave the coup de grace to the estate, which went out of cultivation, and was soon afterwards purchased by the Government for a coolie settlement, where grants of land were made to East Indian immi grants in lieu of the back passage to India to which they are entitled. A number of the immigrants settled there; and soon a small Hindoo temple reared its head near the spot where the oatastrophe occurred, and bright-eyed Indian children play on the top of the boiler, whioh lies imbedded in the ground only a yard or two from the public road. 128 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA the governor, which regulates the safety valve, weights belonging to another boiler, which wonld have reqnired more than twice the force to have blown out than the boiler itself was calculated to sustain. No wonder that the boiler exploded; it is strange it lasted so long. Thejury, by my direction, found a verdict ofmanslaughteraglJ,inst the engineer in charge of the works, and I issued a warrant for his arrest. This accident, or rather wilful negligence, gave the coup de grace to the estate, which went out of cultivation, and was soon afterwards purchased by the Government for a coolie settlement, where grants of land were made to East Indian immi grants in lieu of the back passage to India to which they are entitled. A number of the immigrants settled there; and soon a small Hindoo temple reared its head near the spot where the oatastrophe occurred, and bright-eyed Indian children play on the top of the boiler, whioh lies imbedded in the ground only a yard or two from the public road.

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( 129 ) CHAPTER VI. Ikarakka Lake-Capoe y cata stropbe-marooningIturibisce Creek-Indian settlemenfa-Fligbts of butterfiies-Arawak Indiana---Duffryn mission-Manatee I s land-Dauntless bank-Man a te e s at the Aquarinm and the Zoo-Bartica Essequibo Riv er-Go ld discovery-Rev. William Pierce-Bailways-Christian mie9i.on-Rev. Thome s Y o ud-Church-Situati o n f o ra future c ity-Mechani cs under indenture-Pe ter McPh erson-His death-Better s u c c ess-Africans -Co n go language-Thic k skin s-Jubilee at Hampton C ourt-Firew ork display. ABOUT four or five miles inland from the Aroabisce coast stretches a oordon of small lakes formed by creeks, whioh spread over the savannahs; in the wet season of oonsiderable extent, but in the dry ,eduoed to sheets of water from one to three miles square. The most southerly one was the lkarakka Lake, formed by the Ituribisoe, Mashaboo, and other small streams. The Tappacooma was the most northerly, and between them were the Capoey and Reliance lakes. Near the Capoey Lake was the old raceoourse, where in the prosperous days of the oolony horse-racing was carried on with much success. In my time, we revived the race meeting, oleaned and repaired the old course, and enjoyed some good sport there. When we were repairing the course, we had some pleasant rides -( 129 ) CHAPTER VI. Ikarakka Lake-Capoe y cata stropbe-marooningIturibisce Creek-Indian settlemenfa-Fligbts of butterfiies-Arawak Indiana---Duffryn mission-Manatee I s land-Dauntless bank-Man a te e s at the Aquarinm and the Zoo-Bartica Essequibo Riv er-Go ld discovery-Rev. William Pierce-Bailways-Christian mie9i.on-Rev. Thome s Y o ud-Church-Situati o n f o ra future c ity-Mechani cs under indenture-Pe ter McPh erson-His death-Better s u c c ess-Africans -Co n go language-Thic k skin s-Jubilee at Hampton C ourt-Firew ork display. ABOUT four or five miles inland from the Aroabisce coast stretches a oordon of small lakes formed by creeks, whioh spread over the savannahs; in the wet season of oonsiderable extent, but in the dry ,eduoed to sheets of water from one to three miles square. The most southerly one was the lkarakka Lake, formed by the Ituribisoe, Mashaboo, and other small streams. The Tappacooma was the most northerly, and between them were the Capoey and Reliance lakes. Near the Capoey Lake was the old raceoourse, where in the prosperous days of the oolony horse-racing was carried on with much success. In my time, we revived the race meeting, oleaned and repaired the old course, and enjoyed some good sport there. When we were repairing the course, we had some pleasant rides -

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130 l'WENTY-F1VE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA aback from Plantation L'Union. Dawson, the manager of that estate; Low, of Aurora, and myself, often rode round in the cool mornings to see how the work was progressing. After leaving the estate, we rode up a steep but low sand reef, and then a path, a mile long through low bush, led on to the sandy savannah on which the racecourse was situated. Retnrning home one morning, in the exube ranoe of our spirits we raced round the course, and dashed into the bush at a dangerous speed, as the path was not straight, and the branches of the trees in places crossed the path. Low was leading on a great mule; I followed, riding Mark Twain, a well-known racer. Excited by the gallop, the brute became nnmanageable, I couldn't hold him, and it was as much as I could do to keep my seat and prevent myself from being swept off by the branches. As we neared the steep slope leading down to the estate, I heard Low shouting out, "Hold hard, Sheriff I" but I was powerle.s. On dashed Mark Twain, and with a tremendous shock, collided with Low and his mule, who went down before us like ninepins. I reeled in my saddle, but before I recovered myself I was down the slope and careering along the side line dam of L'Union. Dawson was splitting his sides with laughter; Low's language was sulphurous, and it was fortunate for me that I was far away from him when he remounted his mule. The other lakes were favourite resorts for picnics; and many happy days have we spent 130 l'WENTY-F1VE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA aback from Plantation L'Union. Dawson, the manager of that estate; Low, of Aurora, and myself, often rode round in the cool mornings to see how the work was progressing. After leaving the estate, we rode up a steep but low sand reef, and then a path, a mile long through low bush, led on to the sandy savannah on which the racecourse was situated. Retnrning home one morning, in the exube ranoe of our spirits we raced round the course, and dashed into the bush at a dangerous speed, as the path was not straight, and the branches of the trees in places crossed the path. Low was leading on a great mule; I followed, riding Mark Twain, a well-known racer. Excited by the gallop, the brute became nnmanageable, I couldn't hold him, and it was as much as I could do to keep my seat and prevent myself from being swept off by the branches. As we neared the steep slope leading down to the estate, I heard Low shouting out, "Hold hard, Sheriff I" but I was powerle.s. On dashed Mark Twain, and with a tremendous shock, collided with Low and his mule, who went down before us like ninepins. I reeled in my saddle, but before I recovered myself I was down the slope and careering along the side line dam of L'Union. Dawson was splitting his sides with laughter; Low's language was sulphurous, and it was fortunate for me that I was far away from him when he remounted his mule. The other lakes were favourite resorts for picnics; and many happy days have we spent

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IKARAKKA LAKE 131 there fishing, sketching, and bathing: marooning in the roughest way, doing our own cooking and washing up. There is good camping-ground by the Ikarakka Lake, and as that was easiest of access from Suddie, it was the favourite resort. There were two routes to it; you could walk aback for about five or six miles, through bush and swamp, or else you could proceed up the creek in a batteau, which is much the most com fortable way, especially if ladies are of the party. The Ituribisce Creek is very tortuous: the lower part is lined by the common swamp grass, mocco maceo, bundurie pimpler, and dwalf-palms; but after an hour's paddling the oharacter of the banks change, and a forest growt.h of wallaba, mora, and arrisaroo replaces the uninteresting swamp growth. Splendid groups of mamcole and cokerite palms at times meet the eye, whilst various ferns, orchids, and climbing plants attract attention. The aJJimallife is not numerous, a few sakawinki monkeys and groups of the tiny mouse coloured long-nosed bats are met with. Perched on some high dead branch, the great-billed buzzard or the leaden-headed falcon kite may startle the air with its shrill, harsh cry; flocks of parrots, macaws, or paroquets, may pass overhead; the mournful cry of the trogon or the plaintive cooing of the wood dove may be heard, mingled with the varied notes of the mocking bird and the taps of the woodpecker. The humming birds are numerous and beautiful. The curator of our local museum procured speoimens of nine or ten species, including IKARAKKA LAKE 131 there fishing, sketching, and bathing: marooning in the roughest way, doing our own cooking and washing up. There is good camping-ground by the Ikarakka Lake, and as that was easiest of access from Suddie, it was the favourite resort. There were two routes to it; you could walk aback for about five or six miles, through bush and swamp, or else you could proceed up the creek in a batteau, which is much the most com fortable way, especially if ladies are of the party. The Ituribisce Creek is very tortuous: the lower part is lined by the common swamp grass, mocco maceo, bundurie pimpler, and dwalf-palms; but after an hour's paddling the oharacter of the banks change, and a forest growt.h of wallaba, mora, and arrisaroo replaces the uninteresting swamp growth. Splendid groups of mamcole and cokerite palms at times meet the eye, whilst various ferns, orchids, and climbing plants attract attention. The aJJimallife is not numerous, a few sakawinki monkeys and groups of the tiny mouse coloured long-nosed bats are met with. Perched on some high dead branch, the great-billed buzzard or the leaden-headed falcon kite may startle the air with its shrill, harsh cry; flocks of parrots, macaws, or paroquets, may pass overhead; the mournful cry of the trogon or the plaintive cooing of the wood dove may be heard, mingled with the varied notes of the mocking bird and the taps of the woodpecker. The humming birds are numerous and beautiful. The curator of our local museum procured speoimens of nine or ten species, including

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132 TWENTY-FIVE YEA.RS IN BRITISH GUIA.NA. the grand king humming bird (Pyra sa pella), the sabre wing, greenlet, golden throat, the hermit, ruby, and topaz, the blue-ohinned sapphire, and the mango. Flapping along lazily on the wing, the magnificent blue and blne-barred morpho butterflies are seen, at some seasons in great numbers; whilst ocoasionally other speoies, suoh as swallow-tails, helioonias, uranias, and yellows, dart along before the boat, or pass it into the forest. All around the pieroing shrill sound of the oioadas may be heard; whilst with a droning flight the great wood-boring bees visit flower after flower in search of their nectar. When attacking flowers, which their great size prevents them from entering, these bees bore a hole in the base of the flower, and extract the honey through that aperture. Gradually the size of the trees diminishes as we approach the open savannah. Along the margin of the lake the great eeta palms grow in clumps, forming small island groups; on the sandy elevations which slope gently down to the water, the little settlements of the Arawak Indians are situated, their benabs surrounded by coconuts, guavas, and cashews. The awarra paJm abounds, rendered remarkable by its bunches of golden yellow fruit, which also overspreads the ground and affords fine food to the accourie, labba, and armadillo. Pine apples abound and grow in wild luxuriance. The fishing and shooting about the lake is not good; there are too many Indians; and you may take it a s a broad rule in British Guiana, 132 TWENTY-FIVE YEA.RS IN BRITISH GUIA.NA. the grand king humming bird (Pyra sa pella), the sabre wing, greenlet, golden throat, the hermit, ruby, and topaz, the blue-ohinned sapphire, and the mango. Flapping along lazily on the wing, the magnificent blue and blne-barred morpho butterflies are seen, at some seasons in great numbers; whilst ocoasionally other speoies, suoh as swallow-tails, helioonias, uranias, and yellows, dart along before the boat, or pass it into the forest. All around the pieroing shrill sound of the oioadas may be heard; whilst with a droning flight the great wood-boring bees visit flower after flower in search of their nectar. When attacking flowers, which their great size prevents them from entering, these bees bore a hole in the base of the flower, and extract the honey through that aperture. Gradually the size of the trees diminishes as we approach the open savannah. Along the margin of the lake the great eeta palms grow in clumps, forming small island groups; on the sandy elevations which slope gently down to the water, the little settlements of the Arawak Indians are situated, their benabs surrounded by coconuts, guavas, and cashews. The awarra paJm abounds, rendered remarkable by its bunches of golden yellow fruit, which also overspreads the ground and affords fine food to the accourie, labba, and armadillo. Pine apples abound and grow in wild luxuriance. The fishing and shooting about the lake is not good; there are too many Indians; and you may take it a s a broad rule in British Guiana,

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FLIGHTS OF BUTTERFLIES 133 that many Indians means little game, and vice versd. One of the most curious sights I ever saw in the colony was a flight of butterflies which passed my house in Buddie. They were the common white and yellow kind, but a column of them, which darkened the sky in its flight, was passing my house for two days without intermission. The inseots were flying swiftly, and were not more than two yards apart. The stream was more than a mile wide, for I walked for that distanoe across them, and how high they reached of course I could not tell. Whether they flew at night I oannot say. It would be impossible to caloulate their numbe,s, and whence they oame and whither they were going was equally unknown. The Indians say such flights are a sign of coming droughts. Onoe in a local steamer, as we were crossing from Leguan to Wakenaam, we passed through a similar column of the lovely green and black velvet swallow-tail butterfly. There were a number of Arawak Indians still living on the banks of the Ituribisce and Mashaboo Creeks, and during my stay on the coast I paid them many visits, and knew many of them inti mately. They were a very quiet, shy people, and always kept out of the way of strangers. They were all under the care of Miss Austin, and periodically visited her mission, and always went there for advice and assistance in their tronbles, mental and physical. Besides the creeks men tioned, Dean Austin had obt.jned for the Indians FLIGHTS OF BUTTERFLIES 133 that many Indians means little game, and vice versd. One of the most curious sights I ever saw in the colony was a flight of butterflies which passed my house in Buddie. They were the common white and yellow kind, but a column of them, which darkened the sky in its flight, was passing my house for two days without intermission. The inseots were flying swiftly, and were not more than two yards apart. The stream was more than a mile wide, for I walked for that distanoe across them, and how high they reached of course I could not tell. Whether they flew at night I oannot say. It would be impossible to caloulate their numbe,s, and whence they oame and whither they were going was equally unknown. The Indians say such flights are a sign of coming droughts. Onoe in a local steamer, as we were crossing from Leguan to Wakenaam, we passed through a similar column of the lovely green and black velvet swallow-tail butterfly. There were a number of Arawak Indians still living on the banks of the Ituribisce and Mashaboo Creeks, and during my stay on the coast I paid them many visits, and knew many of them inti mately. They were a very quiet, shy people, and always kept out of the way of strangers. They were all under the care of Miss Austin, and periodically visited her mission, and always went there for advice and assistance in their tronbles, mental and physical. Besides the creeks men tioned, Dean Austin had obt.jned for the Indians

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134 TWENTY-FIVE Y EARS IN RRITISH GUIANA permission from tbe Government to fish and hunt on Manatee Island, a small island in the Essequibo River opposite Suddie, which has, however, for some years been llDit ed to the adjacent Tiger Island. It is most curious to see how, owing to the strong tides and currents, land is destroyed and created in the great rivers of tbe colony. To the north-east of Leguan there is now a large island, called the Dauntless Bank, two miles long, covered with trees, which had no existence when I went to the colony in 1872. Anotber island is rapidly forming to the south of Tiger Island, where a few years ago was deep water. In othel' places whole estates have been taken over by the sea, and the surf now breaks with a deafening roar over a beach that was once cane fields, the old buildings and houses lying buried beneath the waves. Talking of Manatee Island reminds me that, in 1878 two Indians brought me a young manatee for sale, which they had canght off tbe island, and wanted ten dollars for it. I refnsed to buy, but advised them to send it to town. They did so, and it was purcba se d by the captain of a Glasgow direct steamer, who took it home in a turtle tank. It was bought by the Westminster Aquarinm for and, when I visited London and the Aquarium a few months afterwards, I was asked to pay an extra shilling to see the mermaid from South America, the same poor brute which I had refused to purchase for ten dollars a short time before. 134 TWENTY-FIVE Y EARS IN RRITISH GUIANA permission from tbe Government to fish and hunt on Manatee Island, a small island in the Essequibo River opposite Suddie, which has, however, for some years been llDit ed to the adjacent Tiger Island. It is most curious to see how, owing to the strong tides and currents, land is destroyed and created in the great rivers of tbe colony. To the north-east of Leguan there is now a large island, called the Dauntless Bank, two miles long, covered with trees, which had no existence when I went to the colony in 1872. Anotber island is rapidly forming to the south of Tiger Island, where a few years ago was deep water. In othel' places whole estates have been taken over by the sea, and the surf now breaks with a deafening roar over a beach that was once cane fields, the old buildings and houses lying buried beneath the waves. Talking of Manatee Island reminds me that, in 1878 two Indians brought me a young manatee for sale, which they had canght off tbe island, and wanted ten dollars for it. I refnsed to buy, but advised them to send it to town. They did so, and it was purcba se d by the captain of a Glasgow direct steamer, who took it home in a turtle tank. It was bought by the Westminster Aquarinm for and, when I visited London and the Aquarium a few months afterwards, I was asked to pay an extra shilling to see the mermaid from South America, the same poor brute which I had refused to purchase for ten dollars a short time before.

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BABTlCA 135 In September, in 1875, I was in the Zoo in Regent's Park, and saw an unfortunate manatee in the seal-pond. The temperature was then cold, faJling to the forties at night; and I told the man, who was feeding it with lettuce leaves, that it would never live in that temperature, as it came from a country where the water was never colder than seventy-eight degrees. I was not surprised, two days afterwards, to see "Death ofthe Manatee" at the head of a paragraph in a morning journal. Since the gold industry was started, it has been found necessary to establish a town at the little settlement of Bartica on the Essequibo River, and an ordinanoe for that purpose was passed in 1887. When the first rumours of gold having been found in the Cuynni were succeeded, after many years, by the actual discovery of gold in paying quantities in the Essequibo; when the Pumni was found to be a mine of wealth, and the Potaro, with its neighbouring oreeks, was described as a very Pactolus, then it was found necessary to establish some central dep6t from whence the gold industry could be regulated-a place where labourers could be registered when going up to work, and searched when coming down; where boats could be inspected and licensed, and competent boat hands hired; where the magistrates could adjudicate upon the gold disputes, and the Government officers could issue prospecting and other licenses; where a hospital for the sick could be established, and a. lock-up for the disorderly; where the dead could be buried, BABTlCA 135 In September, in 1875, I was in the Zoo in Regent's Park, and saw an unfortunate manatee in the seal-pond. The temperature was then cold, faJling to the forties at night; and I told the man, who was feeding it with lettuce leaves, that it would never live in that temperature, as it came from a country where the water was never colder than seventy-eight degrees. I was not surprised, two days afterwards, to see "Death ofthe Manatee" at the head of a paragraph in a morning journal. Since the gold industry was started, it has been found necessary to establish a town at the little settlement of Bartica on the Essequibo River, and an ordinanoe for that purpose was passed in 1887. When the first rumours of gold having been found in the Cuynni were succeeded, after many years, by the actual discovery of gold in paying quantities in the Essequibo; when the Pumni was found to be a mine of wealth, and the Potaro, with its neighbouring oreeks, was described as a very Pactolus, then it was found necessary to establish some central dep6t from whence the gold industry could be regulated-a place where labourers could be registered when going up to work, and searched when coming down; where boats could be inspected and licensed, and competent boat hands hired; where the magistrates could adjudicate upon the gold disputes, and the Government officers could issue prospecting and other licenses; where a hospital for the sick could be established, and a. lock-up for the disorderly; where the dead could be buried,

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136 TWENTY-FIVE YE,dRS IN DRlTISH GULd.N4 and the living entertajned; so Bartica was chosen and founded, and is now able to meet all the requirements detailed above. A glance at the map of Guiana will convince the most sceptical what a wise choice has been made. The gold area seems to be very widely distributed; but there is no doubt that the bulk of it is embraced by that wide stretch of the colony which is drained by the Essequibo, Cuynni, and Massarnni rivers and their tributaries; so that all the traffic to and from these auriferous districts will be by means of these rivers, or by railways or roads constructed on their banks. The three rivers converge at Bartica, and the vast flood of their united waters is borne on the bosom of the Essequibo, past her hundred isles, into the great basin of the At!"ntic. It is true that gold has been found in the Barima and Barama rivers, and also in the Upper Demerara; but Georgetown can supply all the wants of the latter district, whilst a suitable place in the north-west has been found for a central station. SOllie of the greatest cities of old and modern times owe their rise and grandeur to their positions in the fork between two great rivers, which gave them unrivalled advantages for defence and oom merce. Lyons and St. Louis are two of the most striking modern examples, and there is no reason to doubt that, in years to come, Bartica will rival those great centres of trade and civilization. [Since writing the above, a railway has been made 136 TWENTY-FIVE YE,dRS IN DRlTISH GULd.N4 and the living entertajned; so Bartica was chosen and founded, and is now able to meet all the requirements detailed above. A glance at the map of Guiana will convince the most sceptical what a wise choice has been made. The gold area seems to be very widely distributed; but there is no doubt that the bulk of it is embraced by that wide stretch of the colony which is drained by the Essequibo, Cuynni, and Massarnni rivers and their tributaries; so that all the traffic to and from these auriferous districts will be by means of these rivers, or by railways or roads constructed on their banks. The three rivers converge at Bartica, and the vast flood of their united waters is borne on the bosom of the Essequibo, past her hundred isles, into the great basin of the At!"ntic. It is true that gold has been found in the Barima and Barama rivers, and also in the Upper Demerara; but Georgetown can supply all the wants of the latter district, whilst a suitable place in the north-west has been found for a central station. SOllie of the greatest cities of old and modern times owe their rise and grandeur to their positions in the fork between two great rivers, which gave them unrivalled advantages for defence and oom merce. Lyons and St. Louis are two of the most striking modern examples, and there is no reason to doubt that, in years to come, Bartica will rival those great centres of trade and civilization. [Since writing the above, a railway has been made

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R.tlPlD8 137 from the Demerara River to the Essequibo, forming a quioker and more direot route to the Upper Essequibo and Potaro rivers, so the importanoe of Bartioa will be diminished.] As the visitor passes up the avenue leading to the church at Bartica, he will see an unpre tentious monument on his left hand, ereoted to the memory of the Rev. Wm. Pierce and his family, who all, except one little boy, who was saved by an Indian, perished some years ago in the rapids of the Essequibo, giving a mute, but solemn, warning to all who would seek to penetrate into the wilds in search of wealth-a sermon in stone not to be disregarded. AIl the three great rivers which centre at Bartica are sown with rapids, whose rooks, like the dragons which guarded the fabled gardens of the Hesperides, are ready to tear in pieces the rash intruder who attempts to grasp the golden fruit. In these dangerous passes many a life has fallen victim to the lust for gold; many a promising venture has been wreoked ere it came near its basis of opera tions. It would seem sometimes as if the old Indian legends were true, and these rushing waters were peopled by water-mammas and other water spirits, whioh dragged down into their horrid depths all those who attempt to pass the m without due propitiation. Several suggestions have been made to avoid this loss of life and goods, the most reasonable of which seems to me to build a light, narrow-gauge railway from Bartica, up the left baJJk of the E s sequibo, until the I'apids R.tlPlD8 137 from the Demerara River to the Essequibo, forming a quioker and more direot route to the Upper Essequibo and Potaro rivers, so the importanoe of Bartioa will be diminished.] As the visitor passes up the avenue leading to the church at Bartica, he will see an unpre tentious monument on his left hand, ereoted to the memory of the Rev. Wm. Pierce and his family, who all, except one little boy, who was saved by an Indian, perished some years ago in the rapids of the Essequibo, giving a mute, but solemn, warning to all who would seek to penetrate into the wilds in search of wealth-a sermon in stone not to be disregarded. AIl the three great rivers which centre at Bartica are sown with rapids, whose rooks, like the dragons which guarded the fabled gardens of the Hesperides, are ready to tear in pieces the rash intruder who attempts to grasp the golden fruit. In these dangerous passes many a life has fallen victim to the lust for gold; many a promising venture has been wreoked ere it came near its basis of opera tions. It would seem sometimes as if the old Indian legends were true, and these rushing waters were peopled by water-mammas and other water spirits, whioh dragged down into their horrid depths all those who attempt to pass the m without due propitiation. Several suggestions have been made to avoid this loss of life and goods, the most reasonable of which seems to me to build a light, narrow-gauge railway from Bartica, up the left baJJk of the E s sequibo, until the I'apids

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138 7'WENTY-FIYE YE,a,RS IN BRITISH aUU.N,a, are past, when there would be smooth water up to the Potaro and other gold-bearing rivers and creeks. This railway would open up a district full of valuable timber, and would be available for the timber-cutters as well as for the gold diggers. If the first railway were a success, a branch could be run up the right bank of the Massaruni, past Calacoon, skirting the Marechal Falls, up to the Puruni gold-fields; and, if our neighbours in Venezuela will lay aside the sword and take to the pickaxe and shovel, might be connected with a line from the Yuruari Valley, and bring the wealth of that great district through the channels of the Essequibo to the port of Georgetown. Perhaps the Venezuelans have already aban doned for agricultural pursuits, for Mr. McTurk tells us that he saw five Venezuelan generals working as labourers, and a field-marshal looking after his master's asses, in which occu pation, like Saul the son of Kish, he may find a kingdom. I paid a visit to Bartica in 1891. Its situation, as I have said, is admirable enough, though the land near the river is rather low, and requires drainage, as the high spring tides swamp the lowest lots; but as the town extends inland the ground gradually rises, until elevated sites are reached upon which will be reared the houses of our future merchants. The limits of the present town are confined, the whole area laid out being only half a square mile, but it can be expanded on three sides to meet the necessities of trade and 138 7'WENTY-FIYE YE,a,RS IN BRITISH aUU.N,a, are past, when there would be smooth water up to the Potaro and other gold-bearing rivers and creeks. This railway would open up a district full of valuable timber, and would be available for the timber-cutters as well as for the gold diggers. If the first railway were a success, a branch could be run up the right bank of the Massaruni, past Calacoon, skirting the Marechal Falls, up to the Puruni gold-fields; and, if our neighbours in Venezuela will lay aside the sword and take to the pickaxe and shovel, might be connected with a line from the Yuruari Valley, and bring the wealth of that great district through the channels of the Essequibo to the port of Georgetown. Perhaps the Venezuelans have already aban doned for agricultural pursuits, for Mr. McTurk tells us that he saw five Venezuelan generals working as labourers, and a field-marshal looking after his master's asses, in which occu pation, like Saul the son of Kish, he may find a kingdom. I paid a visit to Bartica in 1891. Its situation, as I have said, is admirable enough, though the land near the river is rather low, and requires drainage, as the high spring tides swamp the lowest lots; but as the town extends inland the ground gradually rises, until elevated sites are reached upon which will be reared the houses of our future merchants. The limits of the present town are confined, the whole area laid out being only half a square mile, but it can be expanded on three sides to meet the necessities of trade and

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B.J.RTIC.J. MISSION 139 population. Bartica can boast of two or three decent hotels, an extensive market-at my visit destitute of things marketable, unless about fifty black men in hammocks could be reckoned in that category-a dispensary, several good stores, andperhaps unnecessary to add-thriving rum shops. There seems an absence of the female element, except of a certain class, and few children or fowls; but these defects will be easily remedied. The hospital is a large, roomy edifice, and a broad draining-trench has been dug round the future city. A new police-station near the present stelling has been erected, which adds to the appearance of the town and the comfort of the force. Bartica, or "red earth "-probably the same red earth from which, according to the Talmud, man was first created-was originllliy granted for religious uses. It was one of the earliest mis si onary settlements in the colony under British rnle. The original site was about a mile to the west of the Grove, where a grant of land was obtained from Sil' Benjamin D'Urban. The mis sion was removed to its present position in 1837, when a grant of five hundred and sixty acres was obtained from the Crown. Under the fostering care of the Rev. Thomas Youd, the mission obtained a certajn amount of success. It was visited by Bishop Coleridge, of Barbados, in 1838, and a church was built dedicated to St. John the Baptist, the evangelist of the desert, and con secrated by the Lord Bishop of Guiana on the B.J.RTIC.J. MISSION 139 population. Bartica can boast of two or three decent hotels, an extensive market-at my visit destitute of things marketable, unless about fifty black men in hammocks could be reckoned in that category-a dispensary, several good stores, andperhaps unnecessary to add-thriving rum shops. There seems an absence of the female element, except of a certain class, and few children or fowls; but these defects will be easily remedied. The hospital is a large, roomy edifice, and a broad draining-trench has been dug round the future city. A new police-station near the present stelling has been erected, which adds to the appearance of the town and the comfort of the force. Bartica, or "red earth "-probably the same red earth from which, according to the Talmud, man was first created-was originllliy granted for religious uses. It was one of the earliest mis si onary settlements in the colony under British rnle. The original site was about a mile to the west of the Grove, where a grant of land was obtained from Sil' Benjamin D'Urban. The mis sion was removed to its present position in 1837, when a grant of five hundred and sixty acres was obtained from the Crown. Under the fostering care of the Rev. Thomas Youd, the mission obtained a certajn amount of success. It was visited by Bishop Coleridge, of Barbados, in 1838, and a church was built dedicated to St. John the Baptist, the evangelist of the desert, and con secrated by the Lord Bishop of Guiana on the

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140 TWE.VTY-1<'1YE YEARB IN BRITISH GUIANA 5th of January, 1843, in the presence of Governor Light and a distinguished company. I doubt whether in any part of the world oan be found suoh an unrivalled site for a city as Bartica presents. Washed on two sides by the waters of two great rivers, she faces the Atlantic breeze, tempered by a passage of thiJ:ty miles over a hundred isles clothed in tropical verdure. To the north stretches a mass of fresh water fed by the Massaruni, Essequibo, Cuynni, and their myriad tributary streams, so as to make a great inland lake, dotted in all directions with islands, varying in size from huge Hog Island, nearly as large as Barbados, to the lovely little Sail Rock, smallest of small islets, bnt said to be the most densely populated in the world, for on its solitary tree hangs a buge nest of ants. To the south stretch two thousand miles of almost virgin forest and savannah, intersected by ranges of hills, and deep rivers broken by many a thundering fall and noisy rapid; forests, rich in greenheart, mora, ballata, and odoriferous gums; savannabs, which will support cattle by thousands; hills, rich in gold, which for myriads of years have been awaiting the pick of the miner; rivers whose banks are gleaming with golden showers, richer than those wbich deceived Danae of old. Seen even now in the early morn bathed in sunshine, more golden than her dreams, she seems a fairy village; all sordid details are effaced, all oommon objeots a,e transfigured, and nothing but beauty in oolour and form remains. The mangoes, with their varied 140 TWE.VTY-1<'1YE YEARB IN BRITISH GUIANA 5th of January, 1843, in the presence of Governor Light and a distinguished company. I doubt whether in any part of the world oan be found suoh an unrivalled site for a city as Bartica presents. Washed on two sides by the waters of two great rivers, she faces the Atlantic breeze, tempered by a passage of thiJ:ty miles over a hundred isles clothed in tropical verdure. To the north stretches a mass of fresh water fed by the Massaruni, Essequibo, Cuynni, and their myriad tributary streams, so as to make a great inland lake, dotted in all directions with islands, varying in size from huge Hog Island, nearly as large as Barbados, to the lovely little Sail Rock, smallest of small islets, bnt said to be the most densely populated in the world, for on its solitary tree hangs a buge nest of ants. To the south stretch two thousand miles of almost virgin forest and savannah, intersected by ranges of hills, and deep rivers broken by many a thundering fall and noisy rapid; forests, rich in greenheart, mora, ballata, and odoriferous gums; savannabs, which will support cattle by thousands; hills, rich in gold, which for myriads of years have been awaiting the pick of the miner; rivers whose banks are gleaming with golden showers, richer than those wbich deceived Danae of old. Seen even now in the early morn bathed in sunshine, more golden than her dreams, she seems a fairy village; all sordid details are effaced, all oommon objeots a,e transfigured, and nothing but beauty in oolour and form remains. The mangoes, with their varied

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INDENTURED MECHANICS 141 tints of green and russet; the towering royal palms; the coconuts, with fronds of every shade from gamboge to burnt sienna; the warm, grey houses, with roofs of purple wallaba not yet toned down to drab; the numerous little stellings, each a focus for flashing rays of living water; a score of boats sleeping on the waters; the living crowds of every colour of skin and dress; the brown, nude boys and girls bathing on the strand, their lithe wet bodies glowing with saffron tints under the solar rays; above all, a sky of scintillating blue reflected in a magic mirror of placid water ;-all these combined to form a picture of beauty which, once seen, will never be forgotten. In olden days, after the abolition of slavery, it was customary to introduce mechanics from Great Britain, who, in return for a free passage and regular employment, were indentured for five years to the estate whose proprietors brought them out. When the indentures had expired they generally continned to work on the plantation, and acquired some wealth, which they invested in real property, and became useful and inde pendent colonists. One of these men was Peter McPherson, of Perth and Dunkeld. He was a wheelwright, and, by the exercise of his trade, had made some money, which enabled him to pur chase the abandoned estate on which he resided. When I knew him he was an old man, nearly as old as his house, which was a somewhat rickety structure. Raised on ten-foot pillars, the two storied manager's house was at oue time a decent INDENTURED MECHANICS 141 tints of green and russet; the towering royal palms; the coconuts, with fronds of every shade from gamboge to burnt sienna; the warm, grey houses, with roofs of purple wallaba not yet toned down to drab; the numerous little stellings, each a focus for flashing rays of living water; a score of boats sleeping on the waters; the living crowds of every colour of skin and dress; the brown, nude boys and girls bathing on the strand, their lithe wet bodies glowing with saffron tints under the solar rays; above all, a sky of scintillating blue reflected in a magic mirror of placid water ;-all these combined to form a picture of beauty which, once seen, will never be forgotten. In olden days, after the abolition of slavery, it was customary to introduce mechanics from Great Britain, who, in return for a free passage and regular employment, were indentured for five years to the estate whose proprietors brought them out. When the indentures had expired they generally continned to work on the plantation, and acquired some wealth, which they invested in real property, and became useful and inde pendent colonists. One of these men was Peter McPherson, of Perth and Dunkeld. He was a wheelwright, and, by the exercise of his trade, had made some money, which enabled him to pur chase the abandoned estate on which he resided. When I knew him he was an old man, nearly as old as his house, which was a somewhat rickety structure. Raised on ten-foot pillars, the two storied manager's house was at oue time a decent

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142 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA and commodions building; bnt it had fallen into grievous disrepair-the floors were full of gaps, where the boards had fallen through, and 'the gaps had to be crossed by planks. Between the pillars were stored numbers of old cart and waggon wheels, and broken bodies of traps, which a,fforded convenient roosting-places for numerous fowls, whilst goats, sheep, cattle and horses congregated under the building, the eflluvium from these animals risiug up into the house through the broken flooring. Peter was a canny Scot, and not given to wasteful ways; he was, however, rather too fond of grog, and once a year he went" on the bust." He used to saddle his old grey pony, and start off up the coast, calling upon every manager on his way. He had a carouse at each house, where, if his host were friendly, he would spend the night; but often as not he was seen lying asleep by the road-side, whilst the steady old pony cropped the grass beside him. In this way he journeyed up the coast as far as Spring Garden, and then, turn ing his pony'. head, would work his way back again in the same manner. These expeditions lasted about three weeks; aud when he reached his home he unsaddled his pony, turning her out to graze, and settled down until his wanderjahr came upon him .gain. In his latter days he became rather silly, and got the impression that a niece who lived with him was trying to poison him. He sent for Mr. R. G. Duncan, who had known Peter y e ars before, and told him that he 142 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA and commodions building; bnt it had fallen into grievous disrepair-the floors were full of gaps, where the boards had fallen through, and 'the gaps had to be crossed by planks. Between the pillars were stored numbers of old cart and waggon wheels, and broken bodies of traps, which a,fforded convenient roosting-places for numerous fowls, whilst goats, sheep, cattle and horses congregated under the building, the eflluvium from these animals risiug up into the house through the broken flooring. Peter was a canny Scot, and not given to wasteful ways; he was, however, rather too fond of grog, and once a year he went" on the bust." He used to saddle his old grey pony, and start off up the coast, calling upon every manager on his way. He had a carouse at each house, where, if his host were friendly, he would spend the night; but often as not he was seen lying asleep by the road-side, whilst the steady old pony cropped the grass beside him. In this way he journeyed up the coast as far as Spring Garden, and then, turn ing his pony'. head, would work his way back again in the same manner. These expeditions lasted about three weeks; aud when he reached his home he unsaddled his pony, turning her out to graze, and settled down until his wanderjahr came upon him .gain. In his latter days he became rather silly, and got the impression that a niece who lived with him was trying to poison him. He sent for Mr. R. G. Duncan, who had known Peter y e ars before, and told him that he

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PETER McPHERSON 143 was dying, and that his niece was killing him; and despite Mr. Duncan's attempts to soothe him, the old man was not to be persuaded. His mind began to ramble, and his thoughts went back to the rocks and streams of his native land, and he recited, with tears rolling down his withered cheeks, those touching lines of Burns-"Ye banks and braes o' bonnie Doon, How can ye bloom sae fresh and fair, How can ye chant, ye little birds, And I Bae weary fu' 0' care. Thou'U break my heart, thon warbling bird That wantons through the flowering thorn i Thou minds me 0' departed joY8J Departed-never to return." The heat and stress of tropic toil, his many years of exile were forgotten, he was hack in his own be loved Scotland, and with the words of her greatest poet on his lips the old man sank baok and died. Perth and Dnnkeld, where McPherson lived and died, is on the north end of the Aroabisce coast, faoing the Atlantic. About five miles beyond was Better Sucoess, the last place on the coast, as it trends round towards the Pomeroon, and the extremity of my district as sheriff. Better Suooess was an old, abandoned estate, where lived a number of Africans in a state of primitive barbarism. The front dams of tbe estate had been broken down by the sea, and the tide swept in and out, under and around, the houses of the inhabitants, which were built on greenheart piles; the road was washed away, and the only means of approach was in bateaux. I once went to PETER McPHERSON 143 was dying, and that his niece was killing him; and despite Mr. Duncan's attempts to soothe him, the old man was not to be persuaded. His mind began to ramble, and his thoughts went back to the rocks and streams of his native land, and he recited, with tears rolling down his withered cheeks, those touching lines of Burns-"Ye banks and braes o' bonnie Doon, How can ye bloom sae fresh and fair, How can ye chant, ye little birds, And I Bae weary fu' 0' care. Thou'U break my heart, thon warbling bird That wantons through the flowering thorn i Thou minds me 0' departed joY8J Departed-never to return." The heat and stress of tropic toil, his many years of exile were forgotten, he was hack in his own be loved Scotland, and with the words of her greatest poet on his lips the old man sank baok and died. Perth and Dnnkeld, where McPherson lived and died, is on the north end of the Aroabisce coast, faoing the Atlantic. About five miles beyond was Better Sucoess, the last place on the coast, as it trends round towards the Pomeroon, and the extremity of my district as sheriff. Better Suooess was an old, abandoned estate, where lived a number of Africans in a state of primitive barbarism. The front dams of tbe estate had been broken down by the sea, and the tide swept in and out, under and around, the houses of the inhabitants, which were built on greenheart piles; the road was washed away, and the only means of approach was in bateaux. I once went to

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144 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA this place to open an inquest over a man, who was supposed to have been murdered. I was astonished to see such numbers of fine stalwart people. Thei>: food was principally fish and rice; the former caught in great numbers out of the sea, the latter grown by coolies on a neighboming settlement. As the tide was up, the people were wading through the water in all directions, most of them without clothes; only the older women seemed to think it was necessary to cover their nakedness in any way, although a few of the men sported a ragged pair of trousers or au old shirt. There are several settlements of these Africans in various parts of the colony. They are a fine, hardy race, hard working and prosperous, very different from the ordinary Creole black man. They are the descendants of thirteen thousand Congos, Man dingoes, and tribes, who were taken out of oaptured slavers and landed in the country, where they readily found employment. The language these people talk is very peculiar, and perfectly unintelligible to a stranger. Mr. Michael MoTurk, special magistrate, has made himself quite familiar with their peculiar tongue. Under the nom de plume of Quow he has published some amusing anecdotes in the Congo lingo. Witnesses of this race are a puzzle tD judges and the despair of barristers. Some of these Congos have remarkably thick skins, and are real pachyderms. When I was presiding over the Supreme Criminal Court at Sud die, a woman named Sa rah Aroher, a 144 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA this place to open an inquest over a man, who was supposed to have been murdered. I was astonished to see such numbers of fine stalwart people. Thei>: food was principally fish and rice; the former caught in great numbers out of the sea, the latter grown by coolies on a neighboming settlement. As the tide was up, the people were wading through the water in all directions, most of them without clothes; only the older women seemed to think it was necessary to cover their nakedness in any way, although a few of the men sported a ragged pair of trousers or au old shirt. There are several settlements of these Africans in various parts of the colony. They are a fine, hardy race, hard working and prosperous, very different from the ordinary Creole black man. They are the descendants of thirteen thousand Congos, Man dingoes, and tribes, who were taken out of oaptured slavers and landed in the country, where they readily found employment. The language these people talk is very peculiar, and perfectly unintelligible to a stranger. Mr. Michael MoTurk, special magistrate, has made himself quite familiar with their peculiar tongue. Under the nom de plume of Quow he has published some amusing anecdotes in the Congo lingo. Witnesses of this race are a puzzle tD judges and the despair of barristers. Some of these Congos have remarkably thick skins, and are real pachyderms. When I was presiding over the Supreme Criminal Court at Sud die, a woman named Sa rah Aroher, a

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JUBILEE FIREWORKS 145 Barbadian, was indioted for feloniously wounding a man named Nurse. After some quarrelling, the two had caught hold of one another and fallen to the ground, when the woman, drawing a razor out of her pocket and opening it with her teeth, slashed the man over the face and hands and neok, inflioting several serious wounds. Nurse, who was a Congo man, was taken to the hospital, where his wounds were stitohed up by Dr. Castor, the medioal officer of the district. At the trial, Dr. Castor, in his evidence, stated that he had never kno wn any man with such a thiok skin; he broke two medical needles in trying to pieroe it to put in the stitohes, and at last was driven to use a bradawl. During the Jubilee celebration, in 1887, the proprietors of Plantation Hampton Court, on the Essequibo coast, determined to give their em ployes a treat, and ordered a large supply of fireworks from England for their amusement. On the night selected for the display, fifteen hundred East Indian immigrants, reinforoed by large numbers of creoles from the neighbouring villages, assembled iu a field in front of the manager's house. I had been invited, as sheriff of the county, to see the display, and assist in the discbarge; so, after an early dinner at 6.30, we sallied out about eight, and piling all the fireworks on a mule cart, drove it down to the field. The manager, the head overseer, Dawson, manager of L'Union, and myself, were in oharge. The cart was put in position, the mule and cart man JUBILEE FIREWORKS 145 Barbadian, was indioted for feloniously wounding a man named Nurse. After some quarrelling, the two had caught hold of one another and fallen to the ground, when the woman, drawing a razor out of her pocket and opening it with her teeth, slashed the man over the face and hands and neok, inflioting several serious wounds. Nurse, who was a Congo man, was taken to the hospital, where his wounds were stitohed up by Dr. Castor, the medioal officer of the district. At the trial, Dr. Castor, in his evidence, stated that he had never kno wn any man with such a thiok skin; he broke two medical needles in trying to pieroe it to put in the stitohes, and at last was driven to use a bradawl. During the Jubilee celebration, in 1887, the proprietors of Plantation Hampton Court, on the Essequibo coast, determined to give their em ployes a treat, and ordered a large supply of fireworks from England for their amusement. On the night selected for the display, fifteen hundred East Indian immigrants, reinforoed by large numbers of creoles from the neighbouring villages, assembled iu a field in front of the manager's house. I had been invited, as sheriff of the county, to see the display, and assist in the discbarge; so, after an early dinner at 6.30, we sallied out about eight, and piling all the fireworks on a mule cart, drove it down to the field. The manager, the head overseer, Dawson, manager of L'Union, and myself, were in oharge. The cart was put in position, the mule and cart man

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146 TWENTY-FIVE IN BRITISH sent away, and we commenced operations. After the discharge of a few preliminary mines and rockets, Dawson went to the cart for a fresh supply, and as he was exploring its recesses, a lighted port fire which he held in his hand fell down into the midst of the fireworks. When he saw what had happened, and surmising what would soon happen, he shouted an alarm to us, and seizing hold of the manager, they both lay down on their faces in a dry trench a few yards off. The head overseer and myself ran for our lives and got behind a big ceiba tree; and then began a display of fireworks, which lasted about ten minutes, worthy of the Orystal Palace; mines exploded, rookets shot about in all directions, catharine-wheels gyrated in the most eccentric manner; fixed pieces were wandering about the pasture, hissing and fizzing; jaoks-in-the-box exploded one after another in friendly rivalry; Roman candles kept up a fusillade of coloured 1)alls, a perfect bombardment. With pallid faces, lit up with lights of all colours, we shrank behind our friendly tree, expecting every minute to be impaled by some wandering rocket. As for the spectators, they were in a frenzy of delight; they had never seen such a tomasha before. They danced, and shouted, and yelled, and rolled on the ground in their excitement. Fortunately, the display was too good to last long; Boon all the brilliancy departed, and we were left in darkness, smoke, and a fonl smell, but, happily, safe in wind and limb. 146 TWENTY-FIVE IN BRITISH sent away, and we commenced operations. After the discharge of a few preliminary mines and rockets, Dawson went to the cart for a fresh supply, and as he was exploring its recesses, a lighted port fire which he held in his hand fell down into the midst of the fireworks. When he saw what had happened, and surmising what would soon happen, he shouted an alarm to us, and seizing hold of the manager, they both lay down on their faces in a dry trench a few yards off. The head overseer and myself ran for our lives and got behind a big ceiba tree; and then began a display of fireworks, which lasted about ten minutes, worthy of the Orystal Palace; mines exploded, rookets shot about in all directions, catharine-wheels gyrated in the most eccentric manner; fixed pieces were wandering about the pasture, hissing and fizzing; jaoks-in-the-box exploded one after another in friendly rivalry; Roman candles kept up a fusillade of coloured 1)alls, a perfect bombardment. With pallid faces, lit up with lights of all colours, we shrank behind our friendly tree, expecting every minute to be impaled by some wandering rocket. As for the spectators, they were in a frenzy of delight; they had never seen such a tomasha before. They danced, and shouted, and yelled, and rolled on the ground in their excitement. Fortunately, the display was too good to last long; Boon all the brilliancy departed, and we were left in darkness, smoke, and a fonl smell, but, happily, safe in wind and limb.

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( 147 ) CHAPTER VII. Bovianders-Aboriginal Indians-Indian women-Waterton-G. A. S.Piwarrie-Cbaracter of Indians-Ko.naima-Murder of Simon the Arawak's wife-Indian impassivity-Impatien ce of confinement-Doctrine of c1othes-Old customs-Floating shops-SmugglingAkyma-Bremner family-Old graves-A tomb in the wildemes,,".Alaric Watts -Sebacabra. Fishing -Old woodskin -DancesCbristianburgh -Patersoo-Dalgin Sergeant Alleyno Surgical operations -Mora-Sergeant nIunt---Brittlebank MiscegenationNapier's Peninsular War-Kroomen-Joc-Arecuna IndiansMaroons. AMONGST the numerous interesting races, pure or half caste, which inhabit British Guiana, must be reckoned the Bovianders, who live up the numerous rivers of the colony, and who are the descendants of the old Dutch settlers by Indian squaws. In no place in the world have native Indians been better treated than in British Guiana. By the Dutch and the English equally they have been protected both as to their persons and property; so that though two hundred years or more have passed since the country was first settled by Europeans, the Indians still exist in considerable numbers, and in close propinquity to the settlements. It is not my intention to give a history of the ( 147 ) CHAPTER VII. Bovianders-Aboriginal Indians-Indian women-Waterton-G. A. S.Piwarrie-Cbaracter of Indians-Ko.naima-Murder of Simon the Arawak's wife-Indian impassivity-Impatien ce of confinement-Doctrine of c1othes-Old customs-Floating shops-SmugglingAkyma-Bremner family-Old graves-A tomb in the wildemes,,".Alaric Watts -Sebacabra. Fishing -Old woodskin -DancesCbristianburgh -Patersoo-Dalgin Sergeant Alleyno Surgical operations -Mora-Sergeant nIunt---Brittlebank MiscegenationNapier's Peninsular War-Kroomen-Joc-Arecuna IndiansMaroons. AMONGST the numerous interesting races, pure or half caste, which inhabit British Guiana, must be reckoned the Bovianders, who live up the numerous rivers of the colony, and who are the descendants of the old Dutch settlers by Indian squaws. In no place in the world have native Indians been better treated than in British Guiana. By the Dutch and the English equally they have been protected both as to their persons and property; so that though two hundred years or more have passed since the country was first settled by Europeans, the Indians still exist in considerable numbers, and in close propinquity to the settlements. It is not my intention to give a history of the

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148 TWENTY-FIYE YE.dBB IN BBITISH GU/.dN.d various Indian tribes, or to describe their habits; the curious in such matters can refer to the works of 1m Thurn, Brett, and Barrington Brown, who have fully treated this interesting subject. In slavery times both the Dutch and the English Governments subsidized the Indians, or bucks, as they are locally called; and in return the natives used to track and capture all the runaway slaves or convicts who had escaped into the vast forests, which stretched for two thousand miles to the south of the colony. The Indians were never ill treated, and enjoy some advantages denied to the colonists. The Indian pays no tax of any kind; his dog and his gun, his oaSsava field, his village of palm-thatched huts provide no revenue for the State. He is allowed to cut timber and bush on Crown lands without license or payment of royalty. When he visits the capital, a special landing-place is provided for him, near to which is erected a commodious shed, where he can sling his hammook. It was no uncom m on thing to meet in the busiest and most thronged street in Georgetown a party of Indians devoid of clothes, with the exception of the smallest of aprons, walking unconcernedly along-the women with naked babies slung on their backs, the men carrying live parrots and macaws on their shoulders for sale or bargain. The wife of one of our governors was much scan dalized at meeting one of these parties, when she was shopping in Water Street; so she persuaded her husband to is s ue an order that all Indian women landing in the town should be presented 148 TWENTY-FIYE YE.dBB IN BBITISH GU/.dN.d various Indian tribes, or to describe their habits; the curious in such matters can refer to the works of 1m Thurn, Brett, and Barrington Brown, who have fully treated this interesting subject. In slavery times both the Dutch and the English Governments subsidized the Indians, or bucks, as they are locally called; and in return the natives used to track and capture all the runaway slaves or convicts who had escaped into the vast forests, which stretched for two thousand miles to the south of the colony. The Indians were never ill treated, and enjoy some advantages denied to the colonists. The Indian pays no tax of any kind; his dog and his gun, his oaSsava field, his village of palm-thatched huts provide no revenue for the State. He is allowed to cut timber and bush on Crown lands without license or payment of royalty. When he visits the capital, a special landing-place is provided for him, near to which is erected a commodious shed, where he can sling his hammook. It was no uncom m on thing to meet in the busiest and most thronged street in Georgetown a party of Indians devoid of clothes, with the exception of the smallest of aprons, walking unconcernedly along-the women with naked babies slung on their backs, the men carrying live parrots and macaws on their shoulders for sale or bargain. The wife of one of our governors was much scan dalized at meeting one of these parties, when she was shopping in Water Street; so she persuaded her husband to is s ue an order that all Indian women landing in the town should be presented

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INDIAN WOMEN 149 with a petticoat each; so for a short time each bewildered buckeen was presented with a short flannel petticoat on her arrival in town. Not knowing the use of this modest article of apparel, she generally tied it round her neck, and proceeded to the nearest grog-shop, where she exchanged it for a bottle of rum, and walked about as before naked and not ashamed. The Indian women make very good wives, hard-working and virtuous, so, as they are not uncomely when young, it is not surprising that many of the early settlers took Indian girls as wives or housekeepers; and the Bovianders I mentioned are the descendants of these alliances. Sometimes men in the higher ranks of life inter married with Indian women, and such an alliance was not looked upon by society with the same dis favour which, at all times, had been associated with any connection with the negro population. The great Waterton's wife was the daughter of Captajn Edmundstone and an Arawak girl, the daughter of a ohief of that tribe; George Augustus Sala, who was born in Demerara, used to boast that his mother was the daughter of an Indian chief; and there is more than one family of posi tion in the colony now, who show unmistakable signs of Indian desoent. When I was in oharge of the Upper Demerara River, I was brought into intimate contaot with the Indians of the Arawak, Accawoio, and Macusi tribes, and always found them very quiet, well behaved people, except when under the influence INDIAN WOMEN 149 with a petticoat each; so for a short time each bewildered buckeen was presented with a short flannel petticoat on her arrival in town. Not knowing the use of this modest article of apparel, she generally tied it round her neck, and proceeded to the nearest grog-shop, where she exchanged it for a bottle of rum, and walked about as before naked and not ashamed. The Indian women make very good wives, hard-working and virtuous, so, as they are not uncomely when young, it is not surprising that many of the early settlers took Indian girls as wives or housekeepers; and the Bovianders I mentioned are the descendants of these alliances. Sometimes men in the higher ranks of life inter married with Indian women, and such an alliance was not looked upon by society with the same dis favour which, at all times, had been associated with any connection with the negro population. The great Waterton's wife was the daughter of Captajn Edmundstone and an Arawak girl, the daughter of a ohief of that tribe; George Augustus Sala, who was born in Demerara, used to boast that his mother was the daughter of an Indian chief; and there is more than one family of posi tion in the colony now, who show unmistakable signs of Indian desoent. When I was in oharge of the Upper Demerara River, I was brought into intimate contaot with the Indians of the Arawak, Accawoio, and Macusi tribes, and always found them very quiet, well behaved people, except when under the influence

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150 TWENTY-FIVE YE,jRS IN BRITISB GUUN,j of their native drink, piwarrie, when they became beastly and quarrelsome. Piwarrie is an intoxi cating drink, made in a particularly nasty way, which I have already described in a previous chapter. For some days after a debauch the men are of no use, but lie in their hammocks in a state of stupor. Too much indulgence in piwarrie pro duces a disease of the rectum, which is peculiar to these Indians. The Indian is not a very amiable character; he is essentially seWsh, grasp ing, improvident, and lazy. Like other aboriginal tribes, he is capable of great endurance both in working and in abstinence from food. He is sullen and revengeful, but not hasty in temper; and he is a fairly good husband and father, though, of course, he treats his wives as slaves, and makes them do all the hard work in the field, as well as in the benab. On the whole, the Indian is a very inoffensive person to his neighbours, and although not a productive citizen, he is an inexpensive one, as he gives but little trouble to the police or the magistrates. The only time when Indians come seriously into conflict with the authorities is when they carry out tueir native custom of the kanaima, or the avenging of blood. The Indian kanaima is like the Corsican vendetta; the executioner is selected by lot from the family of the slain, and he indefatigably follows his victim, like a stoat following a hare, until he meets and kills him. One Indian, against whom a kanaima had been preached, was followed for 150 TWENTY-FIVE YE,jRS IN BRITISB GUUN,j of their native drink, piwarrie, when they became beastly and quarrelsome. Piwarrie is an intoxi cating drink, made in a particularly nasty way, which I have already described in a previous chapter. For some days after a debauch the men are of no use, but lie in their hammocks in a state of stupor. Too much indulgence in piwarrie pro duces a disease of the rectum, which is peculiar to these Indians. The Indian is not a very amiable character; he is essentially seWsh, grasp ing, improvident, and lazy. Like other aboriginal tribes, he is capable of great endurance both in working and in abstinence from food. He is sullen and revengeful, but not hasty in temper; and he is a fairly good husband and father, though, of course, he treats his wives as slaves, and makes them do all the hard work in the field, as well as in the benab. On the whole, the Indian is a very inoffensive person to his neighbours, and although not a productive citizen, he is an inexpensive one, as he gives but little trouble to the police or the magistrates. The only time when Indians come seriously into conflict with the authorities is when they carry out tueir native custom of the kanaima, or the avenging of blood. The Indian kanaima is like the Corsican vendetta; the executioner is selected by lot from the family of the slain, and he indefatigably follows his victim, like a stoat following a hare, until he meets and kills him. One Indian, against whom a kanaima had been preached, was followed for

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INDIAN KANMMA 151 two years by his executioner, who at last met him aud killed him in front of the Government Build ings in Georgeto wn. An interesting and curious case of kanajma came under my own knowledge, when I was Sheriff of Essequibo, the particulars of which I think are worth narrating. On the left bank of the Aripiaco, which pours its tribntary waters into the Pomeroon River, just below the lovely Indian mission of Cabacaburi, stood the house of Robert Simon, an Arawak Indian. It was built in the usual Indian fashion, abont fifty yards from the baJJk of the liver, and consisted of a roof of troolie palm leaves, supported on poles and rafters of wallaba and cedar wood. The eaves of the roof projeoted about three feet on all sides to keep out the glare of the sun and the beating rajn, as there were no walls to the building. Three or four dirty hammocks, made of the fibre of the eeta palm, were suspended from the cross poles; a small fire smouldered at one end of the benab, near to which were some rude implements of cookery, calabashes, gourds, a matapie, sieve, an iron pot, and a great earthenware jar full of water. Slung along the rafters were some long arrows and short spears, and a rusty single-barrelled percns sion gun was leaning agajnst a comer post. There was a small clearing round the house, beyond which was an apparently impenetrable forest of that rich tropical growth peculiar to the equatorial zone. Simon was, as I have said, an Arawak Indian, one of that great tribe which was at one time so INDIAN KANMMA 151 two years by his executioner, who at last met him aud killed him in front of the Government Build ings in Georgeto wn. An interesting and curious case of kanajma came under my own knowledge, when I was Sheriff of Essequibo, the particulars of which I think are worth narrating. On the left bank of the Aripiaco, which pours its tribntary waters into the Pomeroon River, just below the lovely Indian mission of Cabacaburi, stood the house of Robert Simon, an Arawak Indian. It was built in the usual Indian fashion, abont fifty yards from the baJJk of the liver, and consisted of a roof of troolie palm leaves, supported on poles and rafters of wallaba and cedar wood. The eaves of the roof projeoted about three feet on all sides to keep out the glare of the sun and the beating rajn, as there were no walls to the building. Three or four dirty hammocks, made of the fibre of the eeta palm, were suspended from the cross poles; a small fire smouldered at one end of the benab, near to which were some rude implements of cookery, calabashes, gourds, a matapie, sieve, an iron pot, and a great earthenware jar full of water. Slung along the rafters were some long arrows and short spears, and a rusty single-barrelled percns sion gun was leaning agajnst a comer post. There was a small clearing round the house, beyond which was an apparently impenetrable forest of that rich tropical growth peculiar to the equatorial zone. Simon was, as I have said, an Arawak Indian, one of that great tribe which was at one time so

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152 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA formidable to the earlier invaders of Guiana, but now only a remnant-about two thousand quiet, peaceable souls, who spend their time in fishing, hunting, and wood-cutting. Some years before the occurrences I am about to mention, Simon had married an Arawak girl, daughter of an Indian who lived at Maccaseema, the residence of the magis trate, Mr. MoClintock. Simon's wife led the usual hard life of the Indian squaw, expected to be always at work, to weed the oassava field, to bring the roots from the field to the house, a distance of more than two miles, in a heavy quaick sus pended by a band from her forehead; to rub the roots on the grater till reduced to pow del', then to squeeze out the deadly juice in the matapie; and, finally, to grind the hnnks of pressed cassava into flour, and bake the oassava cakes aver the fire. She had to carry all the loads, to nurse the babies, to keep the fire alight all night; in faot, to be her husband's slave. But as this is the common lot of Indian squaws, Simon's gentle wife would have thought herself no worse off than other women if it had not been that Simon, for some reason or other, ill-treated her after the birth of their third child. The woman became siokly; she did not recover quickly from her confinement. Most Indian women when their babies are bam carry them to the river and wash them, and, after washing themselves, go on with their work as if nothing had happened. The happy husband, on the other hand, lies in his hammock for several days, and receives the congratulations of his friends. 152 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA formidable to the earlier invaders of Guiana, but now only a remnant-about two thousand quiet, peaceable souls, who spend their time in fishing, hunting, and wood-cutting. Some years before the occurrences I am about to mention, Simon had married an Arawak girl, daughter of an Indian who lived at Maccaseema, the residence of the magis trate, Mr. MoClintock. Simon's wife led the usual hard life of the Indian squaw, expected to be always at work, to weed the oassava field, to bring the roots from the field to the house, a distance of more than two miles, in a heavy quaick sus pended by a band from her forehead; to rub the roots on the grater till reduced to pow del', then to squeeze out the deadly juice in the matapie; and, finally, to grind the hnnks of pressed cassava into flour, and bake the oassava cakes aver the fire. She had to carry all the loads, to nurse the babies, to keep the fire alight all night; in faot, to be her husband's slave. But as this is the common lot of Indian squaws, Simon's gentle wife would have thought herself no worse off than other women if it had not been that Simon, for some reason or other, ill-treated her after the birth of their third child. The woman became siokly; she did not recover quickly from her confinement. Most Indian women when their babies are bam carry them to the river and wash them, and, after washing themselves, go on with their work as if nothing had happened. The happy husband, on the other hand, lies in his hammock for several days, and receives the congratulations of his friends.

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MURDER 153 Simon's wife, being sickly, oould not perform her usual laborious tasks, so her husband first abused her, and then beat her. Driven to desperation by his ill-treatment, she complained of him to her father and brothers at Maccaseema, and they came over to the Aripiaco and remonstrated with Simon. But he was sulky and took their interference with a bad graoe; iu fact, told them to mind their own business. The ill-usage went on, nay, was inten sified by the interference of her brothers, kindly meant, but unwise, as such proceedings usually are. Simon got sulkier, and his temper was not improved by some bad rum, which he now imbibed on Saturdays, and which generally gave him a splitting headache for a day or two afterwards. One day in a fit of rage and drunkenness he ga.ve his unfortunate wife a kick in the stomach (she was again advanced in pregnancy), which felled her to the ground, and brought on violent sickness and fainting. She took to her ha.mmock and died about two days afterwards. Simon reported her death to the good missionary at Cabacaburi, who came to the Indian hut and read the burial service over the poor woman as she was laid in her final resting place, beneath the bamboos of the forest. Meanwhile the fact of her death reached the ears of her father and brothers at Maccaseema, and rumours of cruelty and violence acoompanied it. From what they heard they made up their minds, and not without reason, that Simon had killed their daughter and sister, and by the Indian law his life must pay the debt of murder. MURDER 153 Simon's wife, being sickly, oould not perform her usual laborious tasks, so her husband first abused her, and then beat her. Driven to desperation by his ill-treatment, she complained of him to her father and brothers at Maccaseema, and they came over to the Aripiaco and remonstrated with Simon. But he was sulky and took their interference with a bad graoe; iu fact, told them to mind their own business. The ill-usage went on, nay, was inten sified by the interference of her brothers, kindly meant, but unwise, as such proceedings usually are. Simon got sulkier, and his temper was not improved by some bad rum, which he now imbibed on Saturdays, and which generally gave him a splitting headache for a day or two afterwards. One day in a fit of rage and drunkenness he ga.ve his unfortunate wife a kick in the stomach (she was again advanced in pregnancy), which felled her to the ground, and brought on violent sickness and fainting. She took to her ha.mmock and died about two days afterwards. Simon reported her death to the good missionary at Cabacaburi, who came to the Indian hut and read the burial service over the poor woman as she was laid in her final resting place, beneath the bamboos of the forest. Meanwhile the fact of her death reached the ears of her father and brothers at Maccaseema, and rumours of cruelty and violence acoompanied it. From what they heard they made up their minds, and not without reason, that Simon had killed their daughter and sister, and by the Indian law his life must pay the debt of murder.

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154 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA About a week after his wife's funeral Simon was sitting on his hammock in his benab mending a fishing-line. It was about eleven o'clock, when few Indians do any work. He had visited his night lines in the river during the early morn; some fish caught by him were already in the pepper-pot simmering over the fire. His three little children, entirely naked, were rolling about in the sand with all the chaste indecency of childhood, playing with each other and teasing a sakawinki monkey, which was tied by a cord round its waist to one of the uprights of the benab. A warracabra or trumpet bird was hopping about, and pecking at the ears of a mangy-looking, half-starved cur, who was taking a bellyful of sunshine, as he had little else to fill his inside. The whole scene was quivering in a golden haze caused by the intense heat. A woodskin canoe drew up to Simon's landing, out of which stepped four men, the father and three brothers of Simon's wife, and having fastened the wood skin to a tree with a piece of Iliane, they marched in single file up to the benab, where they saw Simon sitting inside on his hammock; so they passed him and sat down in a rowan a fallen tree, which lay in the shade a little way from the benab. Two of the men carried guns, the single barrelled Birmingham guns which are usually s old to native tribes; the other two had their bows with arrows whose heads were dipped in the deadly wourali poison. 154 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA About a week after his wife's funeral Simon was sitting on his hammock in his benab mending a fishing-line. It was about eleven o'clock, when few Indians do any work. He had visited his night lines in the river during the early morn; some fish caught by him were already in the pepper-pot simmering over the fire. His three little children, entirely naked, were rolling about in the sand with all the chaste indecency of childhood, playing with each other and teasing a sakawinki monkey, which was tied by a cord round its waist to one of the uprights of the benab. A warracabra or trumpet bird was hopping about, and pecking at the ears of a mangy-looking, half-starved cur, who was taking a bellyful of sunshine, as he had little else to fill his inside. The whole scene was quivering in a golden haze caused by the intense heat. A woodskin canoe drew up to Simon's landing, out of which stepped four men, the father and three brothers of Simon's wife, and having fastened the wood skin to a tree with a piece of Iliane, they marched in single file up to the benab, where they saw Simon sitting inside on his hammock; so they passed him and sat down in a rowan a fallen tree, which lay in the shade a little way from the benab. Two of the men carried guns, the single barrelled Birmingham guns which are usually s old to native tribes; the other two had their bows with arrows whose heads were dipped in the deadly wourali poison.

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DEATH OF SIMON 155 Not a word was spoken. The children stopped in their play, and, with instinctive fear, ran and hid in the dense bush. Simon, after a glance at the men, went on with his mending. The four men sat on the log and gazed on the ground. Not a sound was heard except the hum of innumerable insects, the distant boom of the bull frog, and the shrill chattering of the captive monkey. At length Simon, tired of waiting, got up, and, taking his pepper-pot off the fire, began to eat, dipping the cassava cake into the pot. His appetite was not good, which is not surprising under the circum stances, so he soon completed his meal. As he replaced the pepper-pot he cast a hasty glance around, and seeing his gun in a corner, took it up, and rapidly slinging a piece of bam boo containing powder, shot, and oaps round his neck, he hoped to slip out at the end of the benab, and, by a rapid dive into the bush, which was quite familiar to him, escape from the men who were watching him; but as he made the first step out of his dwelling, the hitherto motionless men sprang to their feet, and in an instant an arrow was quivering in his thigh, and the discharge of two guns straight into his back brought him to the ground. Rushing upon him, the four men with the butts of their guns and with sticks beat the unfortunate Simon to death. When they were satisfied that he was dead, the avengers of blood dragged the body away, taking care none of them to enter the shadow of the dead man's house, until they came to the grave of their relative, the dead man's wife. But their work was DEATH OF SIMON 155 Not a word was spoken. The children stopped in their play, and, with instinctive fear, ran and hid in the dense bush. Simon, after a glance at the men, went on with his mending. The four men sat on the log and gazed on the ground. Not a sound was heard except the hum of innumerable insects, the distant boom of the bull frog, and the shrill chattering of the captive monkey. At length Simon, tired of waiting, got up, and, taking his pepper-pot off the fire, began to eat, dipping the cassava cake into the pot. His appetite was not good, which is not surprising under the circum stances, so he soon completed his meal. As he replaced the pepper-pot he cast a hasty glance around, and seeing his gun in a corner, took it up, and rapidly slinging a piece of bam boo containing powder, shot, and oaps round his neck, he hoped to slip out at the end of the benab, and, by a rapid dive into the bush, which was quite familiar to him, escape from the men who were watching him; but as he made the first step out of his dwelling, the hitherto motionless men sprang to their feet, and in an instant an arrow was quivering in his thigh, and the discharge of two guns straight into his back brought him to the ground. Rushing upon him, the four men with the butts of their guns and with sticks beat the unfortunate Simon to death. When they were satisfied that he was dead, the avengers of blood dragged the body away, taking care none of them to enter the shadow of the dead man's house, until they came to the grave of their relative, the dead man's wife. But their work was

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156 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA not done yet. True, he was dead, the murderer of their sister, but his jumbi or spirit might rise and haunt them for the deed they had done; so with a sharp machete they hacked off the dead man's head, and, after laying it for a moment on his wife's tomb, they buried it about fifty yards from the place, where the truuk was afterwards diRposed of. All was now over-the murder of the woman had been avenged-the kanaima had been accom plished; but the avengers knew they had violated the laws imposed upon them by the conquerors of their country, so they went to Mr. McClintook, the three brothers, the father being left at home, and gave themselves up to him, saying, "We have killed Robert Simon because he murdered our sister." The kind-hearted old magistrate, who had lived amongst the Indians all his life, and had known these boys since they were born, wouldn't believe them, but they persisted in their statement, and offered to take him and show him where the body was buried. At last they persuaded him that they spoke the truth; so he made out an arrest warrant and arrested them. As there was no look up within thirty miles, he said to them, "Now, boys, you are arrested, aud you must not leave my house until I tell you." To this they consented, and bringing their hammooks they slung them up under the magistrate's house, and slept that night the sleep of the just. At that time I was Sheriff of Essequibo, so Mr. McClintock sent a message to me by an Indian, who came in his CRnoe up the Aripiilco 156 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA not done yet. True, he was dead, the murderer of their sister, but his jumbi or spirit might rise and haunt them for the deed they had done; so with a sharp machete they hacked off the dead man's head, and, after laying it for a moment on his wife's tomb, they buried it about fifty yards from the place, where the truuk was afterwards diRposed of. All was now over-the murder of the woman had been avenged-the kanaima had been accom plished; but the avengers knew they had violated the laws imposed upon them by the conquerors of their country, so they went to Mr. McClintook, the three brothers, the father being left at home, and gave themselves up to him, saying, "We have killed Robert Simon because he murdered our sister." The kind-hearted old magistrate, who had lived amongst the Indians all his life, and had known these boys since they were born, wouldn't believe them, but they persisted in their statement, and offered to take him and show him where the body was buried. At last they persuaded him that they spoke the truth; so he made out an arrest warrant and arrested them. As there was no look up within thirty miles, he said to them, "Now, boys, you are arrested, aud you must not leave my house until I tell you." To this they consented, and bringing their hammooks they slung them up under the magistrate's house, and slept that night the sleep of the just. At that time I was Sheriff of Essequibo, so Mr. McClintock sent a message to me by an Indian, who came in his CRnoe up the Aripiilco

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INDIAN IMPASSIVITY 157 and Tappacooma rivers, across the Tappacooma Lake, and down the Anna Regina water-path to the police-station on that estate, where I was holding court. I communicated the contents of the note to the county inspector, who proceeded at once with some black policemen to the scene of the catastrophe. The bodies were found buried as I have decribed, and at the request of the Gover nor I beld the investigation into the murder in the court-room at Anna Regina. My troubles were very slight. When the charge was read to them, all the three Indian brothers said, "Yes, we kill him, because he killed our sister." Depositions were taken, but the accused never cross-examined the witnesses, and seemed to think tbat I was taking much trouble to no purpose. They were quite harmless-looking young men, with the broad, beardless faces, small eyes, and straight black hair of their race. I committed them for trial at the Criminal Sessions, and they were removed to the county gaol at Suddie. My house was nearly opposite the gaol, and, about two days afterwards, my quiet was invaded by about twelve Arawak women and children, the belongings of the men, who brought their ham mocks and quietly slung them under my house, where they established themselves to await the turn of events. It was in vain that I requested them to remove, that I told them that it was useless for them to remain there; with the stolidity of their race they listened to me, but never budged a foot. How they lived I cannot imagine; they INDIAN IMPASSIVITY 157 and Tappacooma rivers, across the Tappacooma Lake, and down the Anna Regina water-path to the police-station on that estate, where I was holding court. I communicated the contents of the note to the county inspector, who proceeded at once with some black policemen to the scene of the catastrophe. The bodies were found buried as I have decribed, and at the request of the Gover nor I beld the investigation into the murder in the court-room at Anna Regina. My troubles were very slight. When the charge was read to them, all the three Indian brothers said, "Yes, we kill him, because he killed our sister." Depositions were taken, but the accused never cross-examined the witnesses, and seemed to think tbat I was taking much trouble to no purpose. They were quite harmless-looking young men, with the broad, beardless faces, small eyes, and straight black hair of their race. I committed them for trial at the Criminal Sessions, and they were removed to the county gaol at Suddie. My house was nearly opposite the gaol, and, about two days afterwards, my quiet was invaded by about twelve Arawak women and children, the belongings of the men, who brought their ham mocks and quietly slung them under my house, where they established themselves to await the turn of events. It was in vain that I requested them to remove, that I told them that it was useless for them to remain there; with the stolidity of their race they listened to me, but never budged a foot. How they lived I cannot imagine; they

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158 TWENTY-FIVE YE.dRS IN BRITISH GUJAN.d never Btole anything of mine, and I never gave them anything, except some bread and cakes to the little children. I gave the women paBBes BometimeB to Bee their hUBbands in gaol. The SeBsionB came in due courBe; the Chief JUBtice came down to Suddie to deliver the gaol; and, amongBt others, these three unfortunate men were brought before him. They made no defence, and were, of courBe, found guilty and Bentenced to death by hanging. The aboriginal IndianB of Guiana-in fact, of any country-cannot endure confinement. AccUBtomed to wander at will through the foreBtB and over the riverB of his Bplendid country, the native Indian pineB away in confinement; like a wild bird, he beatB his breast against the wallB of hiB prison, and cries, "Give me freedom, or I die!" An Indian confined in the wooden lock-up at Malali tried to eat hiB way out with hiB teeth. It waB pitiable to Bee theBe poor men after only six weekB' confinement in priBon. They were the shadowB of their former plump selveB, although by my orderB aB much liberty had been given to them aB waB oompatible with security. After they were Bentenced to death I wrote to the Governor on their behalf, and forwarded a petition which had been Bigned by the rector of the pariBh and Bome other kind folk. His Excellency took a merciful view of their case, and commuted their sentence to one of penal servitude for life. But waB it a merciful view? Perhaps they had better been hanged. Immured in the penal settlement 158 TWENTY-FIVE YE.dRS IN BRITISH GUJAN.d never Btole anything of mine, and I never gave them anything, except some bread and cakes to the little children. I gave the women paBBes BometimeB to Bee their hUBbands in gaol. The SeBsionB came in due courBe; the Chief JUBtice came down to Suddie to deliver the gaol; and, amongBt others, these three unfortunate men were brought before him. They made no defence, and were, of courBe, found guilty and Bentenced to death by hanging. The aboriginal IndianB of Guiana-in fact, of any country-cannot endure confinement. AccUBtomed to wander at will through the foreBtB and over the riverB of his Bplendid country, the native Indian pineB away in confinement; like a wild bird, he beatB his breast against the wallB of hiB prison, and cries, "Give me freedom, or I die!" An Indian confined in the wooden lock-up at Malali tried to eat hiB way out with hiB teeth. It waB pitiable to Bee theBe poor men after only six weekB' confinement in priBon. They were the shadowB of their former plump selveB, although by my orderB aB much liberty had been given to them aB waB oompatible with security. After they were Bentenced to death I wrote to the Governor on their behalf, and forwarded a petition which had been Bigned by the rector of the pariBh and Bome other kind folk. His Excellency took a merciful view of their case, and commuted their sentence to one of penal servitude for life. But waB it a merciful view? Perhaps they had better been hanged. Immured in the penal settlement

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THE DOOTRINE OF OLOTHES 159 on the banks of the Massarnni, these poor men pined away. Two of them soon died, and the third was released, as the surgeon certified that his life would also be sacrificed if he were kept any longer in the prison. When the convicts had left Suddie for the settlement my encampment of Indians broke np and disappeared as quietly and mysteriously as they arrived. One of the principal causes of the exterruina tion of native races before European civilization is the absurd practice of making these poor people wear clothes. The climate of Guiana is exceed ingly warm and moist; up the rivers scarcely a day passes without several showers of rain; the natives, in consequence, go about in a nude state, and the rain as it falls runs off their oiled backs like water off the proverbial duck. But when, by the efforts of some well-meaning but misdirected missionary, they don clothes they soon become victims of phthisis and pneumouia, their clothes getting wet through and drying on their bodies several times a day. It is not from want of knowledge of clothes that the Indian goes naked. That absurd parody which says-CI Lo the poor Indian, whos e untutored mind Wears nought in front and g oes all bare behiud," is really a libel on the race, as they do so, not from an "untutored mind," but because they know by experience that such a want of costume is necessary for their habits and climate. Wearing of clothes is merely conventional; and if we all went about naked, in a few days no one would notice it. THE DOOTRINE OF OLOTHES 159 on the banks of the Massarnni, these poor men pined away. Two of them soon died, and the third was released, as the surgeon certified that his life would also be sacrificed if he were kept any longer in the prison. When the convicts had left Suddie for the settlement my encampment of Indians broke np and disappeared as quietly and mysteriously as they arrived. One of the principal causes of the exterruina tion of native races before European civilization is the absurd practice of making these poor people wear clothes. The climate of Guiana is exceed ingly warm and moist; up the rivers scarcely a day passes without several showers of rain; the natives, in consequence, go about in a nude state, and the rain as it falls runs off their oiled backs like water off the proverbial duck. But when, by the efforts of some well-meaning but misdirected missionary, they don clothes they soon become victims of phthisis and pneumouia, their clothes getting wet through and drying on their bodies several times a day. It is not from want of knowledge of clothes that the Indian goes naked. That absurd parody which says-CI Lo the poor Indian, whos e untutored mind Wears nought in front and g oes all bare behiud," is really a libel on the race, as they do so, not from an "untutored mind," but because they know by experience that such a want of costume is necessary for their habits and climate. Wearing of clothes is merely conventional; and if we all went about naked, in a few days no one would notice it.

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160 TWENTY-FIVE YE';RS IN BRITISH GUI.;NA When I was first brought into contact with the Indians of Guiana, the sight of the Indian girls and women entirely nude, with the exception of a bead apron about eight inches square called a queyo, used to astouish me; but after a day or two one acoepted the fact as a matter of course, and one never seemed to notice whether they were nude or not. The Indians are quite capable of making clothes. 'fhey weave strong cloth for baby slings, lapps, and other purposes, make excellent hammocks, and construct feather crowns of great beauty and ingenuity. Their baskets are neatly woven in geometric patterns, and the women's queyos are elegant specimens of beadwork. It is a dangerous experiment to interfere with the immemorial oustoms and habits of an ancient race, and to preach to them doctrines strange and unnatural. Infanticide is a crime unknown amongst the aboriginal Indians of Guiana, but it was my pajn ful duty to preside over the trial of a young Indian woman for the murder of her new-born ohild. The motive for the murder could be clearly traced to the teaching of the well-meaning and kind-hearted lady missionary, who had been for years impressing upon the Indian girls the hitherto unknown doctrine that it would be a shame and disgrace for them to have a child before marriage; so this unfortunate girl strangled and buried in the sand the new-born babe, which in her untutored days she would have washed and pressed to her bosom. Owing to the privileges granted to the Indians, 160 TWENTY-FIVE YE';RS IN BRITISH GUI.;NA When I was first brought into contact with the Indians of Guiana, the sight of the Indian girls and women entirely nude, with the exception of a bead apron about eight inches square called a queyo, used to astouish me; but after a day or two one acoepted the fact as a matter of course, and one never seemed to notice whether they were nude or not. The Indians are quite capable of making clothes. 'fhey weave strong cloth for baby slings, lapps, and other purposes, make excellent hammocks, and construct feather crowns of great beauty and ingenuity. Their baskets are neatly woven in geometric patterns, and the women's queyos are elegant specimens of beadwork. It is a dangerous experiment to interfere with the immemorial oustoms and habits of an ancient race, and to preach to them doctrines strange and unnatural. Infanticide is a crime unknown amongst the aboriginal Indians of Guiana, but it was my pajn ful duty to preside over the trial of a young Indian woman for the murder of her new-born ohild. The motive for the murder could be clearly traced to the teaching of the well-meaning and kind-hearted lady missionary, who had been for years impressing upon the Indian girls the hitherto unknown doctrine that it would be a shame and disgrace for them to have a child before marriage; so this unfortunate girl strangled and buried in the sand the new-born babe, which in her untutored days she would have washed and pressed to her bosom. Owing to the privileges granted to the Indians,

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AEYMA 161 many low class white and coloured men manied Indian women, and in the names of their wives carried on a trade in timber, shingles, gum, etc., to their mutual advantage. Punts covered with thatched roofs, and made into a kind of house boats, sail up the rivers laden with oanned pro visions, calioo, print, guns, powder, beer, and the prohibited rum, and traffic with the natives for timber, shingles, and other forest produots. The sale of rum in British Guiana is surrounded by every restriotion possible to invent, but the most stringent laws are sometimes evaded. Commis sariat offioers are always on the look out for these floating shops, and board them on every opportunity to search for rum. Some of the punts have false bottoms, under whioh lie snugly hid the prohibited bottles. Sometimes the rum is oanied in large demijohns, whioh, securely oorked, are sunk under the river's bank, when any alarm is raised. One Boviander family on the Demerara River lived at a lovely plaoe oalled Akyma, on a little hill, rising about thirty feet from the river, and orowned with feathery bamboos and tall ouourite and manioole palms. Their name was Bremner, and their immediate anoestor was a Dutohman, who had been post-holder at the Government post of Sebaoabra, a hill on the right bank of the river about ninety miles from Georgetown. The post-holder had married an Arawak woman, and after living to a good age, he was drowned whilst shooting the Malali rapids about ten miles M AEYMA 161 many low class white and coloured men manied Indian women, and in the names of their wives carried on a trade in timber, shingles, gum, etc., to their mutual advantage. Punts covered with thatched roofs, and made into a kind of house boats, sail up the rivers laden with oanned pro visions, calioo, print, guns, powder, beer, and the prohibited rum, and traffic with the natives for timber, shingles, and other forest produots. The sale of rum in British Guiana is surrounded by every restriotion possible to invent, but the most stringent laws are sometimes evaded. Commis sariat offioers are always on the look out for these floating shops, and board them on every opportunity to search for rum. Some of the punts have false bottoms, under whioh lie snugly hid the prohibited bottles. Sometimes the rum is oanied in large demijohns, whioh, securely oorked, are sunk under the river's bank, when any alarm is raised. One Boviander family on the Demerara River lived at a lovely plaoe oalled Akyma, on a little hill, rising about thirty feet from the river, and orowned with feathery bamboos and tall ouourite and manioole palms. Their name was Bremner, and their immediate anoestor was a Dutohman, who had been post-holder at the Government post of Sebaoabra, a hill on the right bank of the river about ninety miles from Georgetown. The post-holder had married an Arawak woman, and after living to a good age, he was drowned whilst shooting the Malali rapids about ten miles M

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162 TWENTY-FIVE YE..!RS IN RRITISH GUI..!N..! above his house, and was buried in his pepper garden. In travelling up the rivers, we found that all the old settlements contain the graves of their former owners, sometimes for several genera tions, covered by gravestones rudely carved with nAmes and dates. Bremner fils had established himself at Akyrna in his father's lifetime; he married a half-caste woman, and had a numerous family of sons and daughters. When I first knew him, he was a man of about fifty-five years of age, very stout and lazy, who spent his days in loafing about and smoking his pipe. His wife, who was a very energetic woman, carried on all the business, took out the woodcutting grants, looked after the wood-cutters, saw the punts loaded, sold the timber, and spent the money. Their house was a good two-storied wooden building, raised upon high brick pillars, access to which was made by an ornamental oast iron staircase, which Bremner in his younger and more active days had imported from England, and to which he always pointed with undisguised pride. On my last visit to Akyma, I found that the old house had fallen down and disappeared, and nothing was left but some broken-down brick pillars and the cast-iron staircase, standing erect and alone, leading nowhere, and of use to no one. I slept at Bremner's house on several occasions on my way up and down the river, which was a tedious process, as there was no steamer in those days, and pulling a tent boat against the tide was a slow mode of progression. I always found old 162 TWENTY-FIVE YE..!RS IN RRITISH GUI..!N..! above his house, and was buried in his pepper garden. In travelling up the rivers, we found that all the old settlements contain the graves of their former owners, sometimes for several genera tions, covered by gravestones rudely carved with nAmes and dates. Bremner fils had established himself at Akyrna in his father's lifetime; he married a half-caste woman, and had a numerous family of sons and daughters. When I first knew him, he was a man of about fifty-five years of age, very stout and lazy, who spent his days in loafing about and smoking his pipe. His wife, who was a very energetic woman, carried on all the business, took out the woodcutting grants, looked after the wood-cutters, saw the punts loaded, sold the timber, and spent the money. Their house was a good two-storied wooden building, raised upon high brick pillars, access to which was made by an ornamental oast iron staircase, which Bremner in his younger and more active days had imported from England, and to which he always pointed with undisguised pride. On my last visit to Akyma, I found that the old house had fallen down and disappeared, and nothing was left but some broken-down brick pillars and the cast-iron staircase, standing erect and alone, leading nowhere, and of use to no one. I slept at Bremner's house on several occasions on my way up and down the river, which was a tedious process, as there was no steamer in those days, and pulling a tent boat against the tide was a slow mode of progression. I always found old

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WAYSIDE GRAVES 163 Bremner ready for a drink and a chat, but I always had to provide the grog from my own stores. He was then too lazy to travel, but he had a rooted dread of rapids. "No more rapids for me," he used to say; they drowned my father, and they nearly drowned me, so no more rapids for me." As I was strolling over the hill on which the house stands, under the shadow of a noble bamboo, I came across a grave marked by a wooden head board, from which time had erased all remnants of name and date. On inquiry from old Bremner, he informed me that it was the grave of a young English or German naturalist, who had been collecting speoimens up the river, and who was brought down by his Indian boatmen dying of fever, one night some years ago. The poor man was a corpse before morning, and the same day was laid in a grave beneath the bamboos. The Bremners put up the board with his name and the date of his death upon it; but tropical rajn and sun had quickly removed all trace of these, and the family themselves had even forgotten his name. This was not the first unknown grave I had met with in this country, and standing by it, I could not but reoall those beautiful and appro priate lines by Alario Watts-" He l eft his h o m e with a swelling sail, Of fame and f ortune dreaming, And a spirit as free 88 the vernal gale, And the p ennon above him streaming. He reached his goal; 'neath a sultry sun In a d i stant hmd they've l aid him, WAYSIDE GRAVES 163 Bremner ready for a drink and a chat, but I always had to provide the grog from my own stores. He was then too lazy to travel, but he had a rooted dread of rapids. "No more rapids for me," he used to say; they drowned my father, and they nearly drowned me, so no more rapids for me." As I was strolling over the hill on which the house stands, under the shadow of a noble bamboo, I came across a grave marked by a wooden head board, from which time had erased all remnants of name and date. On inquiry from old Bremner, he informed me that it was the grave of a young English or German naturalist, who had been collecting speoimens up the river, and who was brought down by his Indian boatmen dying of fever, one night some years ago. The poor man was a corpse before morning, and the same day was laid in a grave beneath the bamboos. The Bremners put up the board with his name and the date of his death upon it; but tropical rajn and sun had quickly removed all trace of these, and the family themselves had even forgotten his name. This was not the first unknown grave I had met with in this country, and standing by it, I could not but reoall those beautiful and appro priate lines by Alario Watts-" He l eft his h o m e with a swelling sail, Of fame and f ortune dreaming, And a spirit as free 88 the vernal gale, And the p ennon above him streaming. He reached his goal; 'neath a sultry sun In a d i stant hmd they've l aid him,

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164 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA And stranger-forms bent 0'01' his grave, Whilst the last sad rites were paid him. But why repine? Can he feel the rays That pestilent SUD sheds o'er him? U I was anxious at one time to attempt a collection of the inscriptions on the numerous old graves which are scattered about the oolony, and I made an appeal to the clergy, officials, and general publio to aid me in the matter. With that purpose I had a leaflet printed, expJa;ning my wants, and quoting the lines of Alario Watts as above. I forwarded these leaflets to all persons in authority, and amongst others to Inspector Stevenson on the west ooast, and he in his turn sent them on to the dillerent polioe-stations in his district. He was astonished at receiving the following report :-SERGEANT BROWN to INSPECTOR STEVENSON. "Fellowship Station. "Received your instruotions. Have made all inquiries, and searohed the country. No grave of Alaric Watts discovered; name not known in the neighbourhood.' The old post of Sebacabra is an interesting place. A granite hill rises abruptly from the river, blocking its course, and forcing it to make a sharp curve to the left. The hill is nearly denuded of trees, which have been out down to allow the grass to grow for cattle; here and there clumps of pa,lms and bamboos break the skyline, or stand out against the hill. On the shelving 164 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA And stranger-forms bent 0'01' his grave, Whilst the last sad rites were paid him. But why repine? Can he feel the rays That pestilent SUD sheds o'er him? U I was anxious at one time to attempt a collection of the inscriptions on the numerous old graves which are scattered about the oolony, and I made an appeal to the clergy, officials, and general publio to aid me in the matter. With that purpose I had a leaflet printed, expJa;ning my wants, and quoting the lines of Alario Watts as above. I forwarded these leaflets to all persons in authority, and amongst others to Inspector Stevenson on the west ooast, and he in his turn sent them on to the dillerent polioe-stations in his district. He was astonished at receiving the following report :-SERGEANT BROWN to INSPECTOR STEVENSON. "Fellowship Station. "Received your instruotions. Have made all inquiries, and searohed the country. No grave of Alaric Watts discovered; name not known in the neighbourhood.' The old post of Sebacabra is an interesting place. A granite hill rises abruptly from the river, blocking its course, and forcing it to make a sharp curve to the left. The hill is nearly denuded of trees, which have been out down to allow the grass to grow for cattle; here and there clumps of pa,lms and bamboos break the skyline, or stand out against the hill. On the shelving

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SEB.4.0.4.BR.4. 165 granite rocks at the river's' brink the house is built, surrouuded by fruit treeR. When I first visited the river, Seba belonged to a woodcutter named Allicock, who lived there with his wife, pretty little daughter, and sister-in-law. Mrs. Allicook was a white lady of Scotch desoent, and a very handsome, dignified body she was. There was a deep pool in the river in front of the house, and this we used to draw with a seine on moon light nights, landing at times a great Dumber of strange and bright-hued fishes. One night, as we were hauling, paddling slowly in two boats, the seine felt very heavy, and we thought that we had made a fine haul of fish, when suddenly from the centre of the net arose .. huge monster, black as ink against the moonlight, with great dark jaws extended into the air. With loud ex olamations of terror, the Indians dropped the lines, and, with a sudden splash, the monster fell back into the deep. "Good heavens, Allicock I what is that?" I exclaimed. I don't know," said he ; "never saw anything like it before." The bucks were taJking in a low voioe amongst themselves, and I caught the word "water-mamma," which is a legendary monster, supposed to inhabit certain reaches of the river, and to drag unfortunate wayfarers under the waves. However, water mamma or not, we must have it out if we can; so the men resumed the ropes, and began hauling again, and once more the formidable monster reared up its bulk as before, and fell back with a resounding splash. Allicock burst out laughing. SEB.4.0.4.BR.4. 165 granite rocks at the river's' brink the house is built, surrouuded by fruit treeR. When I first visited the river, Seba belonged to a woodcutter named Allicock, who lived there with his wife, pretty little daughter, and sister-in-law. Mrs. Allicook was a white lady of Scotch desoent, and a very handsome, dignified body she was. There was a deep pool in the river in front of the house, and this we used to draw with a seine on moon light nights, landing at times a great Dumber of strange and bright-hued fishes. One night, as we were hauling, paddling slowly in two boats, the seine felt very heavy, and we thought that we had made a fine haul of fish, when suddenly from the centre of the net arose .. huge monster, black as ink against the moonlight, with great dark jaws extended into the air. With loud ex olamations of terror, the Indians dropped the lines, and, with a sudden splash, the monster fell back into the deep. "Good heavens, Allicock I what is that?" I exclaimed. I don't know," said he ; "never saw anything like it before." The bucks were taJking in a low voioe amongst themselves, and I caught the word "water-mamma," which is a legendary monster, supposed to inhabit certain reaches of the river, and to drag unfortunate wayfarers under the waves. However, water mamma or not, we must have it out if we can; so the men resumed the ropes, and began hauling again, and once more the formidable monster reared up its bulk as before, and fell back with a resounding splash. Allicock burst out laughing.

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166 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA "I know what it is, sir; it is an old sunk wood skin I" And so it was. A woodskin is an Indian oanoe, made from the bark of the bullet tree, and kept open by two pieces of wood stretched across and fastened by lliones. Being somewhat pointed at both ends, as it was hauled np it seemed like the head of a huge alligator ag jnst the bright moonlight. A dance was a great institution amongst the river folk. As many of them came from long distances, it was not thought worth while to spend only a few hours in dancing. On one occasion, when I was present, at Seba, the company met at six p.m., began dancing soon afterwards, kept it up till four a.m., and, after a long rest in the daytime, began again with renewed energy at sunset, and danced on to another dawn. The band consisted of an old 'cello, a fiddle, a triangle, and a tom-tom. Christianburgh, about seventy miles from Georgetown, was the residence of a Scotch family named Paterson. The house was one of the largest and best built in the colony. A .large sawmill is near the house, worked by water-power, and behind stretch the red, shingle-roofed cottages of the employ es. The landing-place was marked by a fiagstaff, and flanked by two old Dutch cannon, which thundered forth a welcome when the Governor or some other swell paid a visit to the river. The interior of the house was a sur prise to me when I first entered it, as it seemed to trans port on e back to the old country. There 166 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA "I know what it is, sir; it is an old sunk wood skin I" And so it was. A woodskin is an Indian oanoe, made from the bark of the bullet tree, and kept open by two pieces of wood stretched across and fastened by lliones. Being somewhat pointed at both ends, as it was hauled np it seemed like the head of a huge alligator ag jnst the bright moonlight. A dance was a great institution amongst the river folk. As many of them came from long distances, it was not thought worth while to spend only a few hours in dancing. On one occasion, when I was present, at Seba, the company met at six p.m., began dancing soon afterwards, kept it up till four a.m., and, after a long rest in the daytime, began again with renewed energy at sunset, and danced on to another dawn. The band consisted of an old 'cello, a fiddle, a triangle, and a tom-tom. Christianburgh, about seventy miles from Georgetown, was the residence of a Scotch family named Paterson. The house was one of the largest and best built in the colony. A .large sawmill is near the house, worked by water-power, and behind stretch the red, shingle-roofed cottages of the employ es. The landing-place was marked by a fiagstaff, and flanked by two old Dutch cannon, which thundered forth a welcome when the Governor or some other swell paid a visit to the river. The interior of the house was a sur prise to me when I first entered it, as it seemed to trans port on e back to the old country. There

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SERGEANT ALLEYNE 167 was, of course, an absence of carpets and curtains, but the furniture had all come from Scotland. many years before. There was a large grand father's clock ticking solemnly aga, inst the wall; an old spindle-legged sideboard, with brass handles of lions' heads, with rings in their mouths; large horsehair-covered chairs; thin-legged tables, and badly-pajnted oil portraits in dingy gilt frames agajnst the walls. Upstairs, the bedrooms were nearly filled with huge wooden four-post beds, with heavy testers, into which one had to climb with the help of a chaD:. The dignified old widow who, in my time, presided over the establishment, was a fit jewel for such a case; she was a living proof of the healthiness of the river for persons of temperate habits, as she retained her strength of mind and body to the last, and died at the advanced age of eighty-eight years. One of the most remarkable characters on the river was an old black man, named Alleyne, a sergeant of rural constables, who had charge of the Dalgin district. There were no police up the river higher than Hyde Park, a small village, twenty-five miles from town, opposite the Chinese settlement on the Camounie Creek; the reIDajnder of the river was guarded by mral constables, of which Alleyne was chief at Dalgin, and a man named Blunt (of whom more later) at Mora. Dalgin station was a low thatched house, in which one little room was reserved for the magistrate on his periodical visits, the narrow gallery being SERGEANT ALLEYNE 167 was, of course, an absence of carpets and curtains, but the furniture had all come from Scotland. many years before. There was a large grand father's clock ticking solemnly aga, inst the wall; an old spindle-legged sideboard, with brass handles of lions' heads, with rings in their mouths; large horsehair-covered chairs; thin-legged tables, and badly-pajnted oil portraits in dingy gilt frames agajnst the walls. Upstairs, the bedrooms were nearly filled with huge wooden four-post beds, with heavy testers, into which one had to climb with the help of a chaD:. The dignified old widow who, in my time, presided over the establishment, was a fit jewel for such a case; she was a living proof of the healthiness of the river for persons of temperate habits, as she retained her strength of mind and body to the last, and died at the advanced age of eighty-eight years. One of the most remarkable characters on the river was an old black man, named Alleyne, a sergeant of rural constables, who had charge of the Dalgin district. There were no police up the river higher than Hyde Park, a small village, twenty-five miles from town, opposite the Chinese settlement on the Camounie Creek; the reIDajnder of the river was guarded by mral constables, of which Alleyne was chief at Dalgin, and a man named Blunt (of whom more later) at Mora. Dalgin station was a low thatched house, in which one little room was reserved for the magistrate on his periodical visits, the narrow gallery being

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168 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA used as a court-room_ There was no lock-up; so, when I sentenced a man to imprisonment, Sergeant Alleyne used to chain him to a tree by the leg, until a convenient time arrived to send him to town_ The house swarmed with bats, cockroaches, and all sorts of vermin; but one gets accustomed to these things in time, aud they never disturbed my slumbers as I rocked in my long grass hammock slung from the roof trees_ Alleyne was a Barbadian by birth, and had been a slave in his youth_ He came to British Guiana, when only a lad, in his master's train, and was employed as a wood-cutter and sawyer_ When he became free, after Emanci pation Day, he worked on his own account, and soon acquired enough money to take out a wood cutting license, and, as green-heart was then selling at a go o d price, he prospered, bought two lots of land at Dalgin, and built the house which I have described_ He was an honest, pleasant, respectful old gentleman, and many a yarn he would spin about his experiences in the old days_ He was a great authority in the river; people came to consult him on questions of law, 01' cla;m his protection in any difficulty_ He also kept a small stock of simple medicines, which he sold to the sick, and had self-confidence enough to perform, on occ8sions, surgical operations. He described one to me. A man came to him suft"ering from a large tumour on his back, which Alleyne said must be removed. "But, surely, you didn't 168 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA used as a court-room_ There was no lock-up; so, when I sentenced a man to imprisonment, Sergeant Alleyne used to chain him to a tree by the leg, until a convenient time arrived to send him to town_ The house swarmed with bats, cockroaches, and all sorts of vermin; but one gets accustomed to these things in time, aud they never disturbed my slumbers as I rocked in my long grass hammock slung from the roof trees_ Alleyne was a Barbadian by birth, and had been a slave in his youth_ He came to British Guiana, when only a lad, in his master's train, and was employed as a wood-cutter and sawyer_ When he became free, after Emanci pation Day, he worked on his own account, and soon acquired enough money to take out a wood cutting license, and, as green-heart was then selling at a go o d price, he prospered, bought two lots of land at Dalgin, and built the house which I have described_ He was an honest, pleasant, respectful old gentleman, and many a yarn he would spin about his experiences in the old days_ He was a great authority in the river; people came to consult him on questions of law, 01' cla;m his protection in any difficulty_ He also kept a small stock of simple medicines, which he sold to the sick, and had self-confidence enough to perform, on occ8sions, surgical operations. He described one to me. A man came to him suft"ering from a large tumour on his back, which Alleyne said must be removed. "But, surely, you didn't

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MORA 169 ,.ttempt it?" said r. "You should have sent the man to the Colonial Hospital." "Dh yes, sir; I laid him on his face, and cut out the tumour with a small butcher's knife." "Good gracious! But how did the man stand it?" Dh, I gave him half a bottle of brandy to deaden the pain! But he groaned a great deal." "I should think he did," said I, laughing; but I warned him that he must not do such a thing again, as the man might have died, in which event Alleyne would have been tried for manslaughter. Alleyne was thrice married, and survived all his wives. Mora, another station higher up the river, near the Malali Rapids, was a still more dilapidated place than Dalgin. There was originally a wood cutting grant there belonging to a man named Brittlebank, who sometime in the thirties obtained a grant of occupancy from the Government, and built a substantial house about one hundred yards from the river. The house was in bad repair when I first knew it, and consisted of one sitting-room and two small bedrooms; the sitting-room was used by the magistrate on his visits, as a court room and dining-room by day, and as a bedroom by night. Sleeping applianoes are easy in the bush, and oonsist of an Indian hammock slung from rings which have been screwed into the beams which support the rafters. FOl bathing, we repaired to the river, and a small mirror hanging on the wall of the house was the only accessory to our toilet. Mora House was surrounded by enormous MORA 169 ,.ttempt it?" said r. "You should have sent the man to the Colonial Hospital." "Dh yes, sir; I laid him on his face, and cut out the tumour with a small butcher's knife." "Good gracious! But how did the man stand it?" Dh, I gave him half a bottle of brandy to deaden the pain! But he groaned a great deal." "I should think he did," said I, laughing; but I warned him that he must not do such a thing again, as the man might have died, in which event Alleyne would have been tried for manslaughter. Alleyne was thrice married, and survived all his wives. Mora, another station higher up the river, near the Malali Rapids, was a still more dilapidated place than Dalgin. There was originally a wood cutting grant there belonging to a man named Brittlebank, who sometime in the thirties obtained a grant of occupancy from the Government, and built a substantial house about one hundred yards from the river. The house was in bad repair when I first knew it, and consisted of one sitting-room and two small bedrooms; the sitting-room was used by the magistrate on his visits, as a court room and dining-room by day, and as a bedroom by night. Sleeping applianoes are easy in the bush, and oonsist of an Indian hammock slung from rings which have been screwed into the beams which support the rafters. FOl bathing, we repaired to the river, and a small mirror hanging on the wall of the house was the only accessory to our toilet. Mora House was surrounded by enormous

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170 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISlI GUIANA mango and orange trees; the mangoes were as large as English oaks, and the fruit of the oranges was the best I ever tasted. It was a lovely spot, and many a happy day I spent there, wa.Jking, shooting, fishing, and sketching. As I have said, the post was in charge of a man named Arthur Blunt, a quadroon, the offspring of a Scotchman and a mu.Jatto woman. His father had sent him to Glasgow as a boy, where he had received a fair education. He had been a wood-cutter on a small scale, and obtaining a grant near Mora, had established himself in Brittlebank's house. Brittle bank himself had been dead somo years; he is said to have been a miserly man, who buried his money under the hearth in his kitchen. Large sums were s aid to be so concealed, and after his death treasure-seekers used to visit his old quarters and dig about in all likely places in the hope of some rich discovery. One man is reputed to have returned to town and set up a shop, no one knowing where he got the money to stock it. The ghost of Brittlebank is said to haunt his old place, and may be seen hunting about and wringing his hands over his lost treasure. Blunt had been thrice married. His first wife wa s an Arawak Indian; his second a Miss Forsyth, s ister to Mrs. Allicock, of Seba; and his third a mu.Jatto girl, who had inherited a buxom figure and a small fortune from her parents. He had children by all his wives, and they formed a strange variety of human types. British Guiana would have afforded an interesting study for 170 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISlI GUIANA mango and orange trees; the mangoes were as large as English oaks, and the fruit of the oranges was the best I ever tasted. It was a lovely spot, and many a happy day I spent there, wa.Jking, shooting, fishing, and sketching. As I have said, the post was in charge of a man named Arthur Blunt, a quadroon, the offspring of a Scotchman and a mu.Jatto woman. His father had sent him to Glasgow as a boy, where he had received a fair education. He had been a wood-cutter on a small scale, and obtaining a grant near Mora, had established himself in Brittlebank's house. Brittle bank himself had been dead somo years; he is said to have been a miserly man, who buried his money under the hearth in his kitchen. Large sums were s aid to be so concealed, and after his death treasure-seekers used to visit his old quarters and dig about in all likely places in the hope of some rich discovery. One man is reputed to have returned to town and set up a shop, no one knowing where he got the money to stock it. The ghost of Brittlebank is said to haunt his old place, and may be seen hunting about and wringing his hands over his lost treasure. Blunt had been thrice married. His first wife wa s an Arawak Indian; his second a Miss Forsyth, s ister to Mrs. Allicock, of Seba; and his third a mu.Jatto girl, who had inherited a buxom figure and a small fortune from her parents. He had children by all his wives, and they formed a strange variety of human types. British Guiana would have afforded an interesting study for

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ARTHUR BLUNT 171 Darwin, Spencer, and other ethnologists and sociologists, as owing to the numerous and distinct races inhabiting the colony, the most curious results of miscegenation are obtained. One of the prettiest girls I ever saw in the colony was the offspring of a Madras coolie and an Acoawoio Indian. Blunt often accompanied me as my pilot up the rapids when I visited the higher reaches of the river, and I was much amused by his stories of river life, and by his comments on men and things. I remember how startled I was when I first knew him. We were paddling along under a broiling sky, between the high banks of forest which lined either side of the river. Blunt had the rudder-lines in his hands. We had not spoken for some minutes, when he turned to me and said, "What is your opinion, sir? Do you think Massena or Sault was the greatest general?" Great Scott! man," I exclaimed, "what do you know about Massena or Sault?" It turned out that a bug-hunter who visited the Demerara River had been assisted by Blunt, and knowing his love of reading, had sent him some books, amongst which was Napier's" Peninsular War/' hence Blunt's inquiries. However, it was rather a startling question to be asked by a bare-footed Bovianaer under the circumstances, and I felt somewhat at a loss to give an immediate opinion. At St. Helena I believe Napoleon gave his verdict in favour of Soult. My crew on the river was composed of Kroomen ARTHUR BLUNT 171 Darwin, Spencer, and other ethnologists and sociologists, as owing to the numerous and distinct races inhabiting the colony, the most curious results of miscegenation are obtained. One of the prettiest girls I ever saw in the colony was the offspring of a Madras coolie and an Acoawoio Indian. Blunt often accompanied me as my pilot up the rapids when I visited the higher reaches of the river, and I was much amused by his stories of river life, and by his comments on men and things. I remember how startled I was when I first knew him. We were paddling along under a broiling sky, between the high banks of forest which lined either side of the river. Blunt had the rudder-lines in his hands. We had not spoken for some minutes, when he turned to me and said, "What is your opinion, sir? Do you think Massena or Sault was the greatest general?" Great Scott! man," I exclaimed, "what do you know about Massena or Sault?" It turned out that a bug-hunter who visited the Demerara River had been assisted by Blunt, and knowing his love of reading, had sent him some books, amongst which was Napier's" Peninsular War/' hence Blunt's inquiries. However, it was rather a startling question to be asked by a bare-footed Bovianaer under the circumstances, and I felt somewhat at a loss to give an immediate opinion. At St. Helena I believe Napoleon gave his verdict in favour of Soult. My crew on the river was composed of Kroomen

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172 1'WENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA from Africa; they were splendid men, with filed teeth, and tattooed on their noses and cheeks. They were tireless oarsmen and splendid swimmers; and when their arms hecame a little weary, they roused their spirits by chanting wild Kroo songs, which marked time to the measnred beat of the oars. Joe, my stroke and capts.in, was a sterling sober man, to be trusted to the end with life and property. He amused me often by his solicitude for my welfare. Once we had penetrated beyond the Great Falls to a country unknown to us all. Before sunset we landed at a sand hill to make our camp for the night, and unexpectedly found our selves near a camp of Arecuna and Macusi Indians, who had gathered together for a piwarrie feast. I went amongst them, but found them half drunk, and in consequence ruder and surlier than any Indians I had met before. However, I slung my hammock near the waterside, and lulled by the singing and other sounds of revelry, soon slept the sleep of the just. I was awakened by some one shak.ing my hammock, and called out, Who is that? 11 "It's me, Bass," said Joe's voice. "What do you want?" "Bass, this no good place; too much bad man here." "Oh, nonsense; go to sleep." But nothing would stop him; he kept shaking my hammock and saying, "Let we go, Bass; not good for stop," until he finally worried me out of my hammock, which he quickly unslung, and guiding me to the boat, I was soon aboard, and rolled up in my rug under the awning 172 1'WENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA from Africa; they were splendid men, with filed teeth, and tattooed on their noses and cheeks. They were tireless oarsmen and splendid swimmers; and when their arms hecame a little weary, they roused their spirits by chanting wild Kroo songs, which marked time to the measnred beat of the oars. Joe, my stroke and capts.in, was a sterling sober man, to be trusted to the end with life and property. He amused me often by his solicitude for my welfare. Once we had penetrated beyond the Great Falls to a country unknown to us all. Before sunset we landed at a sand hill to make our camp for the night, and unexpectedly found our selves near a camp of Arecuna and Macusi Indians, who had gathered together for a piwarrie feast. I went amongst them, but found them half drunk, and in consequence ruder and surlier than any Indians I had met before. However, I slung my hammock near the waterside, and lulled by the singing and other sounds of revelry, soon slept the sleep of the just. I was awakened by some one shak.ing my hammock, and called out, Who is that? 11 "It's me, Bass," said Joe's voice. "What do you want?" "Bass, this no good place; too much bad man here." "Oh, nonsense; go to sleep." But nothing would stop him; he kept shaking my hammock and saying, "Let we go, Bass; not good for stop," until he finally worried me out of my hammock, which he quickly unslung, and guiding me to the boat, I was soon aboard, and rolled up in my rug under the awning

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.Jlf..dROONS 173 I completed my broken slumbers. When I awoke it was broad daylight, and we were some miles from our Indian friends. On cross-questioning Joe, he said that the Indians were getting very drunk and quarrelsome; they had bows, guns, and knives, and he was afraid they might do us some injury. I couldn't help thinking that he had one thought for me and another for himself and his chums, as there is no love lost between the Indians and the Africans, as in the old days the Indians were subsidized by the Government to catch all runaway slaves. These runaway slaves were sometimes not captured, but formed settle ments in the forest, and were known as maroons. These men took Indian wives, and their de scendants were gradually absorbed in the Indian stock; but you can still trace the negro blood. In a trip which I made up the Berbice River with myoId friend Bridges, M. Ledoux, Vice-Consul of France, and Arthur Braud, of Man Repos, we met at the Vieruni Creek and at Tiger Hill a number of Indians who had curly hair, and other marks of the negro type about them. .Jlf..dROONS 173 I completed my broken slumbers. When I awoke it was broad daylight, and we were some miles from our Indian friends. On cross-questioning Joe, he said that the Indians were getting very drunk and quarrelsome; they had bows, guns, and knives, and he was afraid they might do us some injury. I couldn't help thinking that he had one thought for me and another for himself and his chums, as there is no love lost between the Indians and the Africans, as in the old days the Indians were subsidized by the Government to catch all runaway slaves. These runaway slaves were sometimes not captured, but formed settle ments in the forest, and were known as maroons. These men took Indian wives, and their de scendants were gradually absorbed in the Indian stock; but you can still trace the negro blood. In a trip which I made up the Berbice River with myoId friend Bridges, M. Ledoux, Vice-Consul of France, and Arthur Braud, of Man Repos, we met at the Vieruni Creek and at Tiger Hill a number of Indians who had curly hair, and other marks of the negro type about them.

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174 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUUNA CHAPTER VIII. Decay of river population-Rise of the gold industry-KanaimapooMecropie-WatermammaB Coomarroo-Vampire bats-George Couchman-Visit to the Orarumalali Falls-Derrira Hill-Comarrn marra-Koomparoo Rapids-Camanna fiBh-Carroquia-Eneyeudah mission-Tbundcrstorm-Great Falls-Snakes-Palaver with the Indians-Captain Tiger-Dyed Indians-Scarlet dog-Her Majesty's penal ecttlement-Massaruni River-Ticket..-of-leave rnen-Convicts -Their sentiments-Confidence in magistrates-The wife of Ramdass -Kykoveral-Fort Island-Fl'ed Hamblin-Tbeatricn1 entertain-meot-West Indian Regiment-Colonel Fygelmcsy-New Amsterdam ball-Old Woolward-Life in New Amsterdam-Dr. HackettAnthony Trollops-Official etiquette-D. M. Gallagher-Lunatic Asylum Corentyne coast Smuggling Wild duck sbooting ElectionsVendue-Atlantic voyages. THE river population has much decreased of late years, owing, in a great degree, to the decline in the timber trade. N early all the old house. belonging to a sturdy race of Bovianders have disappeared. Wooden buildings in the damp heat of the equatorial belt are soon destroyed, if abandoned for a few years. Ants, beetles, and other vermin finish the damage which damp has begun, and, in a few years, a heap of bricks, where the kitchen and house-pillars stood, are the sole remains of a once flourishing homestead. Two or three 174 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUUNA CHAPTER VIII. Decay of river population-Rise of the gold industry-KanaimapooMecropie-WatermammaB Coomarroo-Vampire bats-George Couchman-Visit to the Orarumalali Falls-Derrira Hill-Comarrn marra-Koomparoo Rapids-Camanna fiBh-Carroquia-Eneyeudah mission-Tbundcrstorm-Great Falls-Snakes-Palaver with the Indians-Captain Tiger-Dyed Indians-Scarlet dog-Her Majesty's penal ecttlement-Massaruni River-Ticket..-of-leave rnen-Convicts -Their sentiments-Confidence in magistrates-The wife of Ramdass -Kykoveral-Fort Island-Fl'ed Hamblin-Tbeatricn1 entertain-meot-West Indian Regiment-Colonel Fygelmcsy-New Amsterdam ball-Old Woolward-Life in New Amsterdam-Dr. HackettAnthony Trollops-Official etiquette-D. M. Gallagher-Lunatic Asylum Corentyne coast Smuggling Wild duck sbooting ElectionsVendue-Atlantic voyages. THE river population has much decreased of late years, owing, in a great degree, to the decline in the timber trade. N early all the old house. belonging to a sturdy race of Bovianders have disappeared. Wooden buildings in the damp heat of the equatorial belt are soon destroyed, if abandoned for a few years. Ants, beetles, and other vermin finish the damage which damp has begun, and, in a few years, a heap of bricks, where the kitchen and house-pillars stood, are the sole remains of a once flourishing homestead. Two or three

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KANAIMAPOO 175 stately oabbage palms, and some huge mango, mange, and calabash trees show where the hands of man once laboured to make a home in the forest. Now there are police-stations at different plaoes for a hundred miles np the river; a bi-weekly steamer carries offioials, polioe, and mails seventy miles of that distance, and a steam launch runs up to the first rapids. A railway has been constructed to unite the Demerara and Esseqnibo rivers; a gold mine had been worked at a spot just below the Great Falls. So the old life of the river has passed away, and it has become a mere highway for gold-diggers and speculators. The gold company up the Demerara River was called the Ranajmapoo, whioh reminds me of an old Accawoio chief of the same name, who lived on a sand hill near the place where the mine is now located. When I first saw him, in 1872, he was a very old man-tall for an Indian, his whole body covered with innumerable wrinkles. He was attired in the customary lapp, suspended from a string round his waist, and on his head an enormous black beaver topper, which had been presented to him by a former governor. He carried in his hand a long waJking-stick with a round knob on the topthe emblem of his anthority. He was a wonderful spectacle, and had a very good opinion of himself. "De Gubna," he told me in his broken English, "he tell me Kanaimapoo you come town; we make you Gubment Sectry, anyting you like; but when me tought ob de oassada me couldn't go." KANAIMAPOO 175 stately oabbage palms, and some huge mango, mange, and calabash trees show where the hands of man once laboured to make a home in the forest. Now there are police-stations at different plaoes for a hundred miles np the river; a bi-weekly steamer carries offioials, polioe, and mails seventy miles of that distance, and a steam launch runs up to the first rapids. A railway has been constructed to unite the Demerara and Esseqnibo rivers; a gold mine had been worked at a spot just below the Great Falls. So the old life of the river has passed away, and it has become a mere highway for gold-diggers and speculators. The gold company up the Demerara River was called the Ranajmapoo, whioh reminds me of an old Accawoio chief of the same name, who lived on a sand hill near the place where the mine is now located. When I first saw him, in 1872, he was a very old man-tall for an Indian, his whole body covered with innumerable wrinkles. He was attired in the customary lapp, suspended from a string round his waist, and on his head an enormous black beaver topper, which had been presented to him by a former governor. He carried in his hand a long waJking-stick with a round knob on the topthe emblem of his anthority. He was a wonderful spectacle, and had a very good opinion of himself. "De Gubna," he told me in his broken English, "he tell me Kanaimapoo you come town; we make you Gubment Sectry, anyting you like; but when me tought ob de oassada me couldn't go."

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176 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Cassava is the favourite and principal food of the Indians, which the chief evidently thought he could not get in Georgetown. Mecropie is the name of a hill beyond the Malali Rapids. It has a bad reputation with the Indians, and they are a.l ways unusually silent and watchful as they glide round the deep pool which lies under its shadow. If it be possible, as it often is, to find an eetaboo, they will pass through it to avoid the dreaded hill. They have a legend that some black runaway slaves were shot there, and thrown from the hill into the river, where they were turned into water-mammas, and these water mammas are always on the look-out for unwary travellers, upset their canoes, and drag them down into horrid depths. The Indians thoroughly believe in these water-spirits, and that great danger awaits anyone who passeB by their caves and retreatB. There are different kinds of water-mammas. Some are extremely beautiful, Circe-like creatureB, with golden hair and Bweet voices, and, when they sing, madnesB seizes the traveller, and he leaps into the water, and sinkB for ever beneath the waves; others are hideouB, like MeduBa, with snakes twined round their headB and bosomB, and with their huge claw-like handB they drag boatB down and drown their occupantB. Circes, mermaids, and BirenB Beem to be as well known in the New World aB in the Old. At Coomarroo, above Akyma, a Frenchman had eBtabliBhed himself, Bquatting on Crown land. Like mos t of hiB nation, he waB of an excitable 176 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Cassava is the favourite and principal food of the Indians, which the chief evidently thought he could not get in Georgetown. Mecropie is the name of a hill beyond the Malali Rapids. It has a bad reputation with the Indians, and they are a.l ways unusually silent and watchful as they glide round the deep pool which lies under its shadow. If it be possible, as it often is, to find an eetaboo, they will pass through it to avoid the dreaded hill. They have a legend that some black runaway slaves were shot there, and thrown from the hill into the river, where they were turned into water-mammas, and these water mammas are always on the look-out for unwary travellers, upset their canoes, and drag them down into horrid depths. The Indians thoroughly believe in these water-spirits, and that great danger awaits anyone who passeB by their caves and retreatB. There are different kinds of water-mammas. Some are extremely beautiful, Circe-like creatureB, with golden hair and Bweet voices, and, when they sing, madnesB seizes the traveller, and he leaps into the water, and sinkB for ever beneath the waves; others are hideouB, like MeduBa, with snakes twined round their headB and bosomB, and with their huge claw-like handB they drag boatB down and drown their occupantB. Circes, mermaids, and BirenB Beem to be as well known in the New World aB in the Old. At Coomarroo, above Akyma, a Frenchman had eBtabliBhed himself, Bquatting on Crown land. Like mos t of hiB nation, he waB of an excitable

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VAMPIRE BATS 177 temperament, and when he was in his cups he formed the impression that the Indians were coming to murder him; so every boat or canoe he saw approaching his landing, he greeted with a charge of shot from his fowling-piece. These friendly attentions prevented him from being troubled with many afternoon callers, so he was left alone, and, I believe, perished miserably. Vampire bats are very troublesome to travellers in the forests of Guiana. Whenever I slept out in the bush, I had a lamp burning over my hammock to scare them away. Old Mr. Couch man, a coloured woodcutter aud J.P. up the Demerara River, amused me by a story of a missionary, who stopped at his house in his travels. When the worthy man retired to his hammock in the open gallery, Couchman advised him to allow him to hang a lamp over his sleeping place, but it was refused, the missionary saying that he put his trust in a higher power. About one a.m. Couchman was aroused by shouts from the missionary, "Mr. Couchman I Mr. Couchman! come quick I" Running to his assistance, Couchman found that a vampire bat had settled above the unfortunate man's nose, bitten out a triangular piece of skin, and from the wound the blood had trickled down over his beard and shirt. Blunt once showed me fifteen marks on his feet and legs which vampires had made. When they fasten on to you, they fan you gently with their wings, and you never awaken until the loss of blood causes an unpleasant sensation. VAMPIRE BATS 177 temperament, and when he was in his cups he formed the impression that the Indians were coming to murder him; so every boat or canoe he saw approaching his landing, he greeted with a charge of shot from his fowling-piece. These friendly attentions prevented him from being troubled with many afternoon callers, so he was left alone, and, I believe, perished miserably. Vampire bats are very troublesome to travellers in the forests of Guiana. Whenever I slept out in the bush, I had a lamp burning over my hammock to scare them away. Old Mr. Couch man, a coloured woodcutter aud J.P. up the Demerara River, amused me by a story of a missionary, who stopped at his house in his travels. When the worthy man retired to his hammock in the open gallery, Couchman advised him to allow him to hang a lamp over his sleeping place, but it was refused, the missionary saying that he put his trust in a higher power. About one a.m. Couchman was aroused by shouts from the missionary, "Mr. Couchman I Mr. Couchman! come quick I" Running to his assistance, Couchman found that a vampire bat had settled above the unfortunate man's nose, bitten out a triangular piece of skin, and from the wound the blood had trickled down over his beard and shirt. Blunt once showed me fifteen marks on his feet and legs which vampires had made. When they fasten on to you, they fan you gently with their wings, and you never awaken until the loss of blood causes an unpleasant sensation.

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178 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA In September, 1873, during one of my magis terial circuits, r paid a visit to the Oraru-Malali Falls of the Demerara River for the first time. r was staying with Mr. George Couchman at his house, "The Retreat," when he offered to take me up, an offer which r gladly accepted. It was on the 10th of September, at 5 a.m., when we made a start. After pulling for a few hours we passed Derrire Hill, the highest r had as yet seen in Demerara. The river about here is very lovely; no houses, not even buck-huts; for miles we never saw a soul. The stream was very strong, so our progress was not rapid. We stopped about noon for breakfast at a pretty place called Coomarra mara, where is a small creek of clear water, like rain-water, unlike most of the rivers and creeks in the colony, whose waters are the colour of weak coffee. We climbed a steep sand bank, which was surmounted by two or three buck-huts, in which we found a couple of good-looking girls swinging in their hammocks. One of them had just been confined, and r nearly sat down upon the baby, which was rolled up in another hammock, and quite invisible. We had a merry breakfast, although the heat was frightful, and startiug again at 1 p.m., two hours' pulling brought us to the foot of the Koomparoo Rapids. The entrance to the rapid was almost closed up by low rocks, bright crimson purple in colour, one or two of the largest covered with bush; but there were two fair chaunels through which the river rushed. For a mile we went up the swirling waters to the 178 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA In September, 1873, during one of my magis terial circuits, r paid a visit to the Oraru-Malali Falls of the Demerara River for the first time. r was staying with Mr. George Couchman at his house, "The Retreat," when he offered to take me up, an offer which r gladly accepted. It was on the 10th of September, at 5 a.m., when we made a start. After pulling for a few hours we passed Derrire Hill, the highest r had as yet seen in Demerara. The river about here is very lovely; no houses, not even buck-huts; for miles we never saw a soul. The stream was very strong, so our progress was not rapid. We stopped about noon for breakfast at a pretty place called Coomarra mara, where is a small creek of clear water, like rain-water, unlike most of the rivers and creeks in the colony, whose waters are the colour of weak coffee. We climbed a steep sand bank, which was surmounted by two or three buck-huts, in which we found a couple of good-looking girls swinging in their hammocks. One of them had just been confined, and r nearly sat down upon the baby, which was rolled up in another hammock, and quite invisible. We had a merry breakfast, although the heat was frightful, and startiug again at 1 p.m., two hours' pulling brought us to the foot of the Koomparoo Rapids. The entrance to the rapid was almost closed up by low rocks, bright crimson purple in colour, one or two of the largest covered with bush; but there were two fair chaunels through which the river rushed. For a mile we went up the swirling waters to the

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ENEYEUDAff MISSION 179 head of the rapid, where another ledge of rocks seemed to bar our exit. In getting round to the most practicable channel, we were washed on to a gravel bank. All hands overboard to track the boat off, then all in at once, and pull like fury to avoid the back eddy, and take us over the race. However, it was all accomplished safely, and we were soon in smooth water. We met some bucks in their woodskins above the rapids, and they gave us some camanna, a fish like a small bream, with half a dozen large scarlet spots on each side, which were pretty to look at, and good for food. A few miles further we passed Caroquia, which is another place avoided by the Indians. Their water mammas in this place take the shape of huge scarlet macaws, which rise out of the river and drag them beneath the water, woodskins and all. We had the usual thunderstorm at 4.30, and when it cleared away we could see the lofty hill behind the Great Falls looking black and solemn; agajDst its dark background could be seen the mist from the cataract rising and floating away in white streamers, whilst the vivid lightning behind the hill threw its outlines into high relief. It was quite dark when we reached th'e hill on which the Eneyeudah Mission was built. We scrambled up, and were guided to the wretched hut inhabited by the superintendent, a miserable old man who did nothing but bewail his rheumatism and dismal fate. He brightened up as he watched the unpaoking of the stores; his eyes sparkled at sight of my brandy bottle, and in his eagerness ENEYEUDAff MISSION 179 head of the rapid, where another ledge of rocks seemed to bar our exit. In getting round to the most practicable channel, we were washed on to a gravel bank. All hands overboard to track the boat off, then all in at once, and pull like fury to avoid the back eddy, and take us over the race. However, it was all accomplished safely, and we were soon in smooth water. We met some bucks in their woodskins above the rapids, and they gave us some camanna, a fish like a small bream, with half a dozen large scarlet spots on each side, which were pretty to look at, and good for food. A few miles further we passed Caroquia, which is another place avoided by the Indians. Their water mammas in this place take the shape of huge scarlet macaws, which rise out of the river and drag them beneath the water, woodskins and all. We had the usual thunderstorm at 4.30, and when it cleared away we could see the lofty hill behind the Great Falls looking black and solemn; agajDst its dark background could be seen the mist from the cataract rising and floating away in white streamers, whilst the vivid lightning behind the hill threw its outlines into high relief. It was quite dark when we reached th'e hill on which the Eneyeudah Mission was built. We scrambled up, and were guided to the wretched hut inhabited by the superintendent, a miserable old man who did nothing but bewail his rheumatism and dismal fate. He brightened up as he watched the unpaoking of the stores; his eyes sparkled at sight of my brandy bottle, and in his eagerness

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180 TWENTY-FIVE IN BRITISH to mink a glassful which I gave him he spilt some of the liquid down his grey beard. Every thing was soaking wet with the tremendous rain; but as the floor in old Shaw's (the superintendent's) hut seemed pretty dry, Couchman and I slung our hammocks there. Sergeant Alleyne and the men went into the church, which consisted of a dozen poles supporting a roof of cucurrite palm leaves. We managed to dine in a rough way, and, after a cup of good tea, turned into our hammocks with a cigar. Certainly a cigar in your hammock in the b.,lmy air of a tropical night is a pleasing sensation. We were soon asleep, to be rudely awakened by a violent thunder-storm. The thunder shook our frail house, the lightning dazzled us with its incessant glare, and the rain came down in torrents. Loud grumblings from Couchman; the r .in was pouring into his hammock, so he tumbled out. Oh I" said I, "I am quite dry; come and sling near to me." AlaE< I I had hardly spoken when splodge I splodge I came the r .in in my face. It was no use moving, so I wrapped myself in a rug, spread my overcoat as well as I could over me, and wished for the dawn. The longest night must end, so at last the day broke, and a strong cup of coffee, with an egg beaten up in it snd well laced with brandy, Bet us all to rights. As soon as it was light we set off to the falls, leaving Alleyne and one of the hands to cook breakfast, taking a tall Accawoio Indian with us: The morning was damp and misty, but by 7 a.m. the sun shone out, and 180 TWENTY-FIVE IN BRITISH to mink a glassful which I gave him he spilt some of the liquid down his grey beard. Every thing was soaking wet with the tremendous rain; but as the floor in old Shaw's (the superintendent's) hut seemed pretty dry, Couchman and I slung our hammocks there. Sergeant Alleyne and the men went into the church, which consisted of a dozen poles supporting a roof of cucurrite palm leaves. We managed to dine in a rough way, and, after a cup of good tea, turned into our hammocks with a cigar. Certainly a cigar in your hammock in the b.,lmy air of a tropical night is a pleasing sensation. We were soon asleep, to be rudely awakened by a violent thunder-storm. The thunder shook our frail house, the lightning dazzled us with its incessant glare, and the rain came down in torrents. Loud grumblings from Couchman; the r .in was pouring into his hammock, so he tumbled out. Oh I" said I, "I am quite dry; come and sling near to me." AlaE< I I had hardly spoken when splodge I splodge I came the r .in in my face. It was no use moving, so I wrapped myself in a rug, spread my overcoat as well as I could over me, and wished for the dawn. The longest night must end, so at last the day broke, and a strong cup of coffee, with an egg beaten up in it snd well laced with brandy, Bet us all to rights. As soon as it was light we set off to the falls, leaving Alleyne and one of the hands to cook breakfast, taking a tall Accawoio Indian with us: The morning was damp and misty, but by 7 a.m. the sun shone out, and

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ORAR u-M.
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182 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA. orchids, ferns, selaginellas, and mosses
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INDI.4N PALA VEB 183 to be the most deadly snake in the country. The other was the lanaria, a large snake, about six feet long, bluish-grey back and whitish belly; it is also poisonous, and a cannibal, devouring other smaller snakes. In the mean while, Alleyne had mustered the Indians, nnder their chief, Captain Tiger, for a palaver. They were all of the Accawoio race, a tallish, handsome people with straight black hair, small eyes, and high cheek-bones. They were all almost entirely nnde, except Capta in Tiger, who rejoiced in a striped cotton shirt and felt wideawake. The younger women were not bad looking, but many of them were in a condition more interesting than elegant. The children were pretty, though very pot-bellied, and they crawled about my feet with complete confidence. I harangued the people, through Couchman ae interpreter, and told them of their good deeds and misdeeds. It was a curious scene: myself in cricketing flannels, cigar in mouth; Captsjn Tiger standing opposite with his legs wide apart; a double row of bucks sqnatting on their hams on one side, a number of women standing or sqnatting on the other; the perpendicular sun and dark shadows; the rude buck-huM and graceful palms; the glaring white sand, across which numerous lizards were darting; in the background, the dark hills and the roar of the distant cataract. The palaver was soon over, some medicine and tobacco distributed, farewells said, and we were afloat agajn, this time with our INDI.4N PALA VEB 183 to be the most deadly snake in the country. The other was the lanaria, a large snake, about six feet long, bluish-grey back and whitish belly; it is also poisonous, and a cannibal, devouring other smaller snakes. In the mean while, Alleyne had mustered the Indians, nnder their chief, Captain Tiger, for a palaver. They were all of the Accawoio race, a tallish, handsome people with straight black hair, small eyes, and high cheek-bones. They were all almost entirely nnde, except Capta in Tiger, who rejoiced in a striped cotton shirt and felt wideawake. The younger women were not bad looking, but many of them were in a condition more interesting than elegant. The children were pretty, though very pot-bellied, and they crawled about my feet with complete confidence. I harangued the people, through Couchman ae interpreter, and told them of their good deeds and misdeeds. It was a curious scene: myself in cricketing flannels, cigar in mouth; Captsjn Tiger standing opposite with his legs wide apart; a double row of bucks sqnatting on their hams on one side, a number of women standing or sqnatting on the other; the perpendicular sun and dark shadows; the rude buck-huM and graceful palms; the glaring white sand, across which numerous lizards were darting; in the background, the dark hills and the roar of the distant cataract. The palaver was soon over, some medicine and tobacco distributed, farewells said, and we were afloat agajn, this time with our

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184 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA faces homewards. Merrily the boat shot down the stream, the Kroomen finding the work very different to the previous day, for, although we did not start until noon, we were at Mr. Couchman's by 5 p.m., doing in five hours what took us twelve on the previous day. On our way down we saw some strange figures on the river's bank, so I sent Alleyne to bring them for inspection. Mter some diffioulty he persuaded them to come with him, and he returned with four bucks in their usual undress, and with their legs painted a bright vermilion. We discovered that they were Accawoios from the Potaro River, and were returning home by the Koomparoo path to the Essequibo River. There were two men, a young woman and an old one. They had a dog with them pa;nted all over with vermilion, which made it look frightful. This painting was to keep off that irritating tiok called bOte rouge or patouche. We shot the Koomparoo Rapids without diffi oulty, the boat leaping and rushing the waters like a horse. By Demre Hill we heard the note of the eoarnanya, which the Indians say always fore tells good news to anyone who hears it. One of the prettiest places in the colony is Her Majesty's penal settlement, on the left bank of the Massaruni River, about sixty miles from George town, and three miles above Bartica. It is situated on a low granite hill, which slopes down to the river; it was established in 1845. When I came to the colony there was no Inspector of prisons, so 184 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA faces homewards. Merrily the boat shot down the stream, the Kroomen finding the work very different to the previous day, for, although we did not start until noon, we were at Mr. Couchman's by 5 p.m., doing in five hours what took us twelve on the previous day. On our way down we saw some strange figures on the river's bank, so I sent Alleyne to bring them for inspection. Mter some diffioulty he persuaded them to come with him, and he returned with four bucks in their usual undress, and with their legs painted a bright vermilion. We discovered that they were Accawoios from the Potaro River, and were returning home by the Koomparoo path to the Essequibo River. There were two men, a young woman and an old one. They had a dog with them pa;nted all over with vermilion, which made it look frightful. This painting was to keep off that irritating tiok called bOte rouge or patouche. We shot the Koomparoo Rapids without diffi oulty, the boat leaping and rushing the waters like a horse. By Demre Hill we heard the note of the eoarnanya, which the Indians say always fore tells good news to anyone who hears it. One of the prettiest places in the colony is Her Majesty's penal settlement, on the left bank of the Massaruni River, about sixty miles from George town, and three miles above Bartica. It is situated on a low granite hill, which slopes down to the river; it was established in 1845. When I came to the colony there was no Inspector of prisons, so

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H. M. PENAL SETTLEMENT 185 one of the stipendiary magistrates was detailed by the Governor every month to visit and inspect the penal settlement, and report on its condition. I was sent up twice on this errand, and enjoyed the trip, as the country was pretty, and a pleasant change from the dismal flatness of the coast. I remember old General Munro, who was commanding the troops ill the West Indies, went up with me on one occasion, aud he was so pleased with the settlement that he told Governor Scott on his return, "Why don't you all go and live up the Massaruni, and send the convicts to Georgeto wn ? They are much better located than you are." On another occasion I paid a visit in distin guished company. One dull morning in April, 1874, the s.s. Rattlesnake left the steamer stelling in Georgetown at 8 a.m., bound for the penal settlement. Our party consisted of H.E. Sir J. R. Longden, with his private secretary, Fred Hamblin; Edward N. Walker, Acting Government Secretary, now Sir Edw. Noel Walker, K.C.M.G., Colonial Secretary of Ceylon; Mr. N. Cox, Inspec tor-General of Police; Mr. W B. Pollard, Colonial Civil Engineer; Mrs. Kirke, and myself. The water was calm as we steamed into the and, although a slight shower fell, it was fine weather when we turned into the vast estuary of the Essequibo (twenty miles wide), passing the island of Leguan between 10 and 11 a.m. We steamed quickly through the hundred islands of the Esseqnibo, and turned into the Massaruni abont 3.30 p.m. We left Bartica, and passing H. M. PENAL SETTLEMENT 185 one of the stipendiary magistrates was detailed by the Governor every month to visit and inspect the penal settlement, and report on its condition. I was sent up twice on this errand, and enjoyed the trip, as the country was pretty, and a pleasant change from the dismal flatness of the coast. I remember old General Munro, who was commanding the troops ill the West Indies, went up with me on one occasion, aud he was so pleased with the settlement that he told Governor Scott on his return, "Why don't you all go and live up the Massaruni, and send the convicts to Georgeto wn ? They are much better located than you are." On another occasion I paid a visit in distin guished company. One dull morning in April, 1874, the s.s. Rattlesnake left the steamer stelling in Georgetown at 8 a.m., bound for the penal settlement. Our party consisted of H.E. Sir J. R. Longden, with his private secretary, Fred Hamblin; Edward N. Walker, Acting Government Secretary, now Sir Edw. Noel Walker, K.C.M.G., Colonial Secretary of Ceylon; Mr. N. Cox, Inspec tor-General of Police; Mr. W B. Pollard, Colonial Civil Engineer; Mrs. Kirke, and myself. The water was calm as we steamed into the and, although a slight shower fell, it was fine weather when we turned into the vast estuary of the Essequibo (twenty miles wide), passing the island of Leguan between 10 and 11 a.m. We steamed quickly through the hundred islands of the Esseqnibo, and turned into the Massaruni abont 3.30 p.m. We left Bartica, and passing

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186 TWENTY-FIVE IN RRITISH Kaow Island and its leper asylum on our right, we soon came in sight of the prison. We landed at 4 p.m., and walked up a steep path to the commissioner's house, where quarters were assigned to us. There are about two hundred to two hundred and fifty convicts at Massaruni, though of course their number varies. They are principally em ployed in quarrying granite, which is sent to Georgetown for bnilding and paving purposes. The whole of the sea-wail, two miles in length, is built of granite from the penal settlement. There is also a large farm on which the weaker men are employed; and large quantities of vegetables are raised for the use of the convicts, and cows and sheep supply the establishment with milk and meat. The convicts are well looked after, and seem to lead a pleasant life; in fact, the old hands are seldom averse to returning thither. Captain Portlock Dadson, a late superintendent of the settlement, told me that when he was building the new stone jetty and river-wall at the stelling his foreman and best mason was 11 sturdy old convict, whose long term of penal servitude was just expiring, and he was about to be released on ticket-of-leave; so Captain Dadson said to him, "I am sorry, William, you are going out to morrow, for I don't know whom I can get to take your place as foreman." The man replied, (C Don't vex, Bass; me Boon come back again and finish the job." And so he did. Before many weeks were over he was sent back to the penal 186 TWENTY-FIVE IN RRITISH Kaow Island and its leper asylum on our right, we soon came in sight of the prison. We landed at 4 p.m., and walked up a steep path to the commissioner's house, where quarters were assigned to us. There are about two hundred to two hundred and fifty convicts at Massaruni, though of course their number varies. They are principally em ployed in quarrying granite, which is sent to Georgetown for bnilding and paving purposes. The whole of the sea-wail, two miles in length, is built of granite from the penal settlement. There is also a large farm on which the weaker men are employed; and large quantities of vegetables are raised for the use of the convicts, and cows and sheep supply the establishment with milk and meat. The convicts are well looked after, and seem to lead a pleasant life; in fact, the old hands are seldom averse to returning thither. Captain Portlock Dadson, a late superintendent of the settlement, told me that when he was building the new stone jetty and river-wall at the stelling his foreman and best mason was 11 sturdy old convict, whose long term of penal servitude was just expiring, and he was about to be released on ticket-of-leave; so Captain Dadson said to him, "I am sorry, William, you are going out to morrow, for I don't know whom I can get to take your place as foreman." The man replied, (C Don't vex, Bass; me Boon come back again and finish the job." And so he did. Before many weeks were over he was sent back to the penal

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CONVICTS 187 settlement for ten years, for burglary and larceny, and was able to superintend the completion of the work. The convicts of superior education-white men who cannot work under a tropical sun-are em ployed as clerks, book-keepers, and billiard-markers. On one occasion, playing a game of billiards, our marker was a young Portuguese, who had been tried and sentenced to death for the brutal murder of a girl in Georgetown. In later days, when I have visited the settle ment, I have recognized scores of men who have been before me when sitting as judge or magistrate, and they generally recognize me; many of them smile and touch their caps; a few scowl at me with such a ferocious aspect that I am pleased to think sentries with loaded rifles are surrounding us. But this is an exception, for, as a rule, con victs and prisoners bear no grudge against the judge or magistrate who tries and sentences them; their hatred is directed aga.inst the persons who caused their arrest, or who gave evidence aga.inst them. They clearly understand that the magis trates and police are pa.id officials who must do their duty and earn their pay. I have often been addressed in the most friendly manner by men whom I had sentenced to imprisonment, and who seemed qnite hurt if I didn't remember them and all their troubles. But the greatest mark of confidence ever shown to me was by an East Indian immigrant in Esse quibo. He was a splendid man, tall and handsome, CONVICTS 187 settlement for ten years, for burglary and larceny, and was able to superintend the completion of the work. The convicts of superior education-white men who cannot work under a tropical sun-are em ployed as clerks, book-keepers, and billiard-markers. On one occasion, playing a game of billiards, our marker was a young Portuguese, who had been tried and sentenced to death for the brutal murder of a girl in Georgetown. In later days, when I have visited the settle ment, I have recognized scores of men who have been before me when sitting as judge or magistrate, and they generally recognize me; many of them smile and touch their caps; a few scowl at me with such a ferocious aspect that I am pleased to think sentries with loaded rifles are surrounding us. But this is an exception, for, as a rule, con victs and prisoners bear no grudge against the judge or magistrate who tries and sentences them; their hatred is directed aga.inst the persons who caused their arrest, or who gave evidence aga.inst them. They clearly understand that the magis trates and police are pa.id officials who must do their duty and earn their pay. I have often been addressed in the most friendly manner by men whom I had sentenced to imprisonment, and who seemed qnite hurt if I didn't remember them and all their troubles. But the greatest mark of confidence ever shown to me was by an East Indian immigrant in Esse quibo. He was a splendid man, tall and handsome,

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188 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA a driver on Plantation Johanna Cecilia, but he had a violent temper, and would often strike the men under his charge, sometimes very severely. He had been brought before me, as sheriff, on two occasions, and I had fined him, and on the last appearance I had warned him that next time he was convicted of a similar offence he must go to gaol. Some weeks afterwards he was again brought before me at Suddie, charged with assaulting and beating an indentured immigrant at Johanna Cecilia. He pleaded guilty, and, reminding him of my promise, I sentenced him to thirty days' imprisonment with hard labour. He salaamed in silence as he left the dock. The next morning, as I was sitting in my gallery at Sarnia House, a fine, tall Hindoo arrived, leading a very pretty young Indian woman, covered with jewelry, and attired in bright colours. They came upstairs into the gallery, and after profound salaams the man said, "Sahib, you sent me brudder gaol yesterday." "Oh," I said, "is RamdasB your brother?" "Yes, and me brudder say, suppose magistrate sahib send em gaol, wife take em and tell magistrate sahib for keep em, so sahib me bring em," pointing to the young lady, who gave me a raking look out of her large eyes, and then turned them modestly to the fioor. It was some time before I could convince him that such a thing was impossible; till at last they went away much disappointed, the young lady pouting somewhat spret", injuria form",. Young handsome women, whose husbands are sent to gaol, run great risks on 188 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA a driver on Plantation Johanna Cecilia, but he had a violent temper, and would often strike the men under his charge, sometimes very severely. He had been brought before me, as sheriff, on two occasions, and I had fined him, and on the last appearance I had warned him that next time he was convicted of a similar offence he must go to gaol. Some weeks afterwards he was again brought before me at Suddie, charged with assaulting and beating an indentured immigrant at Johanna Cecilia. He pleaded guilty, and, reminding him of my promise, I sentenced him to thirty days' imprisonment with hard labour. He salaamed in silence as he left the dock. The next morning, as I was sitting in my gallery at Sarnia House, a fine, tall Hindoo arrived, leading a very pretty young Indian woman, covered with jewelry, and attired in bright colours. They came upstairs into the gallery, and after profound salaams the man said, "Sahib, you sent me brudder gaol yesterday." "Oh," I said, "is RamdasB your brother?" "Yes, and me brudder say, suppose magistrate sahib send em gaol, wife take em and tell magistrate sahib for keep em, so sahib me bring em," pointing to the young lady, who gave me a raking look out of her large eyes, and then turned them modestly to the fioor. It was some time before I could convince him that such a thing was impossible; till at last they went away much disappointed, the young lady pouting somewhat spret", injuria form",. Young handsome women, whose husbands are sent to gaol, run great risks on

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KYKOVERAL 189 sugar estates, where there are scores of young men unprovided with wives; so I presume that Ramdass preferred that the sheriff alone should look after his wife, rather than leave her to the tender mercies of his countrymen. We were comfortably established in the com missioner's house, which is one of the finest houses in the colony, built entirely of crab-wood. My wife strolled with me over to the cemetery and the farm, whilst the Governor and other officials inspected the prison. We spent two pleasant days at Massarunj, visiting various places of interest---a village of Accawoio Indians on the banks of the Cuynni; the island of Kykoveral, which was in old days the seat of the Dutch governors, and where may still be seen a noble arched gateway, the entrance to the old fort. We had two amusing accidents during our stay. At breakfast one morning, sitting opposite the Governor, and arguing warmly with him on some subject, my chair, undermined by wood ants, collapsed altogether, and I shot under the table. The surgeon and two other gentlemen rushed at me, and dragged me out; the former, tbinking I had a fit, was dancing round like Bob ,Sawyer with his lancet; however, nothing but laughter occurred. Agsjn, we had all retired to rest one night, when we were awakened by an astounding noise, which resounded through the house like thunder. The men rushed out to see what had happened, and discovered tbat one of the hooks which supported Willie Pollard's hammock haa KYKOVERAL 189 sugar estates, where there are scores of young men unprovided with wives; so I presume that Ramdass preferred that the sheriff alone should look after his wife, rather than leave her to the tender mercies of his countrymen. We were comfortably established in the com missioner's house, which is one of the finest houses in the colony, built entirely of crab-wood. My wife strolled with me over to the cemetery and the farm, whilst the Governor and other officials inspected the prison. We spent two pleasant days at Massarunj, visiting various places of interest---a village of Accawoio Indians on the banks of the Cuynni; the island of Kykoveral, which was in old days the seat of the Dutch governors, and where may still be seen a noble arched gateway, the entrance to the old fort. We had two amusing accidents during our stay. At breakfast one morning, sitting opposite the Governor, and arguing warmly with him on some subject, my chair, undermined by wood ants, collapsed altogether, and I shot under the table. The surgeon and two other gentlemen rushed at me, and dragged me out; the former, tbinking I had a fit, was dancing round like Bob ,Sawyer with his lancet; however, nothing but laughter occurred. Agsjn, we had all retired to rest one night, when we were awakened by an astounding noise, which resounded through the house like thunder. The men rushed out to see what had happened, and discovered tbat one of the hooks which supported Willie Pollard's hammock haa

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190 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA been drawn out by his weight, and he had shot out on his head on to the floor with a mighty crash. On our way back to town we landed at Fort Island in the Essequibo River, which was the seat of government under the Dutch, after they left Kykoveral, where the commandant of Essequibo lived and ruled. We inspected the old fort, the citadel of which is a definable ruin. Of the ancient Court of Policy Hall and adjoining ohurch, the walls are still standing, and in the church there can still be deciphered the inscriptions on the tombs of the defunct worthies who lie buried within its precincts. Sir James Longden took great interest in these antiquities, and obtained an annual grant of money from the Combined Court to be devoted to their preservation. I have mentioned Fred Hamblin, the Governor's nephew and private secretary. He was one of the most charming men I ever met, and my most intimate friend from '74, until he left the colony. I never knew any man who could equal him in endurance. Many a night he has passed at the barracks dancing and card-playing, not going home till 6 a.m., yet at 7 a.m., after a bath and a cup of coffee, he would be found sitting in his office, calmly writing out despatches for the Secretary of State. I can recall some wild pranks which we were guilty of at this time. One night we had been acting Don C;;esar de Bazan at the Philharmonic Hall; I had been the "Don," and Hamblin had taken another character. We were 190 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA been drawn out by his weight, and he had shot out on his head on to the floor with a mighty crash. On our way back to town we landed at Fort Island in the Essequibo River, which was the seat of government under the Dutch, after they left Kykoveral, where the commandant of Essequibo lived and ruled. We inspected the old fort, the citadel of which is a definable ruin. Of the ancient Court of Policy Hall and adjoining ohurch, the walls are still standing, and in the church there can still be deciphered the inscriptions on the tombs of the defunct worthies who lie buried within its precincts. Sir James Longden took great interest in these antiquities, and obtained an annual grant of money from the Combined Court to be devoted to their preservation. I have mentioned Fred Hamblin, the Governor's nephew and private secretary. He was one of the most charming men I ever met, and my most intimate friend from '74, until he left the colony. I never knew any man who could equal him in endurance. Many a night he has passed at the barracks dancing and card-playing, not going home till 6 a.m., yet at 7 a.m., after a bath and a cup of coffee, he would be found sitting in his office, calmly writing out despatches for the Secretary of State. I can recall some wild pranks which we were guilty of at this time. One night we had been acting Don C;;esar de Bazan at the Philharmonic Hall; I had been the "Don," and Hamblin had taken another character. We were

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WILD PRANKS 191 both dressed in the height offashion; velvet coats slashed with satin, deep lace collars and frills, pink satin tights, boots and spurs, long curled wigs and large hats with white plumes, large swords at our sides, and got-up faces; we looked two proper ruffians_ After the performance, dressed as we were, the whole company adjourned to the barracks at Eve Leary for supper; and at 1 a.m., after the ladies had retired, some one proposed 100, and we adjourned upstairs to Colonel Mould's rooms, and sat down to cards. We played on until the morning gun fired at 5 a.m., when some one suggested it was about time to go home; but a big pool was on, and then some one was looed again, so that before everything was satisfactorily settled it was broad daylight, and all the people were turning out to market. We then realized the state we were in. It was impossible to get a cab, so, as each moment made things worse, Hamblin and I pulled our large hats over our faces, drew our swords and started at full pace over the parade ground, down Parade Street, across the canal bridge and railway, shouting, waving our swords, and scattering the people as we tore along. Cries of Ow! ow! oh, me Gad! what is this? met us on all sides as we dashed down M Bjn Street, and I bolted into my lodgings at the corner of Newmarket Street, and nearly frightened myoId landlady, Miss Rose, into a fit as I met her on the staircase. Some of the young officers of the West Indian Regiment were wild devils. Two of them played WILD PRANKS 191 both dressed in the height offashion; velvet coats slashed with satin, deep lace collars and frills, pink satin tights, boots and spurs, long curled wigs and large hats with white plumes, large swords at our sides, and got-up faces; we looked two proper ruffians_ After the performance, dressed as we were, the whole company adjourned to the barracks at Eve Leary for supper; and at 1 a.m., after the ladies had retired, some one proposed 100, and we adjourned upstairs to Colonel Mould's rooms, and sat down to cards. We played on until the morning gun fired at 5 a.m., when some one suggested it was about time to go home; but a big pool was on, and then some one was looed again, so that before everything was satisfactorily settled it was broad daylight, and all the people were turning out to market. We then realized the state we were in. It was impossible to get a cab, so, as each moment made things worse, Hamblin and I pulled our large hats over our faces, drew our swords and started at full pace over the parade ground, down Parade Street, across the canal bridge and railway, shouting, waving our swords, and scattering the people as we tore along. Cries of Ow! ow! oh, me Gad! what is this? met us on all sides as we dashed down M Bjn Street, and I bolted into my lodgings at the corner of Newmarket Street, and nearly frightened myoId landlady, Miss Rose, into a fit as I met her on the staircase. Some of the young officers of the West Indian Regiment were wild devils. Two of them played

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192 TWENTY-FIVE YE';RS 1-'1 BRITISH GUUN'; a joke which might have cost them their com missi o ns. The American Consul at that time in Georgetown was Colonel Fygelmesy, a Hungarian warrior and patriot, aide-de-camp to Kossuth, and a b eau s abr e ur. Proud and particular, he was just the butt for these wild dare-devils. In front of his house the Consul had erected a huge flag-staff which he had designedly made taller than the neighbouring one at Government House, so that the Stars and Stripes might flaunt in the breeze higher than the Union Jack. This offended the soldiers; so one night two of them, having shot an old camon crow, and purchased a useful arlicle of bedroom furniture which is usually kept con cealed, fastened the two together and hoisted them up to the t o p of the Am e rican Consul's flag-staff. Intense was the wrath of that warnor when he arose in the morning, and saw these vile objects suspended in the place where the flag of his adopted country should wave. Dressing in haste, he rushed over to Government House, demanded an audience of the Governor, and the detection and punishment of these miscreants who had insulted the United States flag. He reported the matter to his Government, and made such a fuss over the incident that the Governor ordered every inquiry to be made by the police. But senior Inspector Hill, who was detailed for this service, and who was a great friend of the soldiers, whilst prosecuting his inquiries with great apparent vigour, t o ok care that nothing incriminating any cne should be discovered. Many of us knew the 192 TWENTY-FIVE YE';RS 1-'1 BRITISH GUUN'; a joke which might have cost them their com missi o ns. The American Consul at that time in Georgetown was Colonel Fygelmesy, a Hungarian warrior and patriot, aide-de-camp to Kossuth, and a b eau s abr e ur. Proud and particular, he was just the butt for these wild dare-devils. In front of his house the Consul had erected a huge flag-staff which he had designedly made taller than the neighbouring one at Government House, so that the Stars and Stripes might flaunt in the breeze higher than the Union Jack. This offended the soldiers; so one night two of them, having shot an old camon crow, and purchased a useful arlicle of bedroom furniture which is usually kept con cealed, fastened the two together and hoisted them up to the t o p of the Am e rican Consul's flag-staff. Intense was the wrath of that warnor when he arose in the morning, and saw these vile objects suspended in the place where the flag of his adopted country should wave. Dressing in haste, he rushed over to Government House, demanded an audience of the Governor, and the detection and punishment of these miscreants who had insulted the United States flag. He reported the matter to his Government, and made such a fuss over the incident that the Governor ordered every inquiry to be made by the police. But senior Inspector Hill, who was detailed for this service, and who was a great friend of the soldiers, whilst prosecuting his inquiries with great apparent vigour, t o ok care that nothing incriminating any cne should be discovered. Many of us knew the

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NEW .&MSTERD.&M 193 oulprits, but of course we all sat tight and said nothiug. In the same year, 1874, a grand ball was given to the Governor and Lady Longden in New Amsterdam, the capital of Berbice. Danoing and drinking were kept up with bpirit until 5.30 a.m., when the last of the ladies disappeared. Some enthusiastic Scotchmen and Irishmen then began dancing reels. I walked over to the hotel at six, had a shower bath and some hot coffee, put on morning clothes and returned to the Town Hall, where I found some mad fellows still shouting and skipping about, whilst a wild Irishman had taken off his coat, was trailing it along the floor and requesting the company generally to tread on the tail of it. I joined the vice-regal party at 8 a.m., on board the s.s. Bermce, and we started for George town, where, after a rough voyage, we arrived at 3 p.m., and had just time for three hours' sleep before dressiug for an official dinner at Government House. And all this with the thermometer never below 86 No wonder our livers used to get out of order; but it was all put down to "that dreadful olimate." Old Woolward, the oaptain of the Don, used to say "Demerara, yes you have fever in Demerara, and not oontent with that, but you must import more of it in wooden oases containing twelve bottles eaob." New Amsterdam in the seventies was a delight ful place to visit. It was full of pretty women and jovial men, who were profuse in their hospitality. o NEW .&MSTERD.&M 193 oulprits, but of course we all sat tight and said nothiug. In the same year, 1874, a grand ball was given to the Governor and Lady Longden in New Amsterdam, the capital of Berbice. Danoing and drinking were kept up with bpirit until 5.30 a.m., when the last of the ladies disappeared. Some enthusiastic Scotchmen and Irishmen then began dancing reels. I walked over to the hotel at six, had a shower bath and some hot coffee, put on morning clothes and returned to the Town Hall, where I found some mad fellows still shouting and skipping about, whilst a wild Irishman had taken off his coat, was trailing it along the floor and requesting the company generally to tread on the tail of it. I joined the vice-regal party at 8 a.m., on board the s.s. Bermce, and we started for George town, where, after a rough voyage, we arrived at 3 p.m., and had just time for three hours' sleep before dressiug for an official dinner at Government House. And all this with the thermometer never below 86 No wonder our livers used to get out of order; but it was all put down to "that dreadful olimate." Old Woolward, the oaptain of the Don, used to say "Demerara, yes you have fever in Demerara, and not oontent with that, but you must import more of it in wooden oases containing twelve bottles eaob." New Amsterdam in the seventies was a delight ful place to visit. It was full of pretty women and jovial men, who were profuse in their hospitality. o

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194 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Never was such drinking. There used to be current in the colony some doggerel verses about swizzles, which ran as follows :-II Essequibo for length, Demerara for stren gth, The city for plenty o f iceBut Berbiea likes it long, And Berbice likes it strong And often, which really is nice! Doctor Hackett was the leading medical man, and one of the leaders of society. He nsed to give excellent dumers, and was the prince of good fellows. One evening I was dining with him alone, and he asked me after dinner to excuse him, as he must go to the public hospital to see a man, one of whose leg s he had just taken oft'. I asked to be allowed to accompany him. Whe n we got to the man's b e dside, he turned his head in a drowsy way, and said, "Ow! Dactah me mind move me, me consent for you take oft' me leg." The doctor was delighted, and stammered out, "Why, you d-d old fool, your leg has been oft' hours ago." Anthony Trollope, in his amusing book The We s t Indies and Spanish Main, says, that in New Amsterdam three people make a crowd. Old Paris Britton's house, at which the novelist s tayed, and which he called the best hotel in the West Indies, has long been pulled down. New Amsterdam is more like a Dutch town than an English one. It is certajnly, especially of late years, a rather sleepy place. The old capital of Berbice was Fort 194 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA Never was such drinking. There used to be current in the colony some doggerel verses about swizzles, which ran as follows :-II Essequibo for length, Demerara for stren gth, The city for plenty o f iceBut Berbiea likes it long, And Berbice likes it strong And often, which really is nice! Doctor Hackett was the leading medical man, and one of the leaders of society. He nsed to give excellent dumers, and was the prince of good fellows. One evening I was dining with him alone, and he asked me after dinner to excuse him, as he must go to the public hospital to see a man, one of whose leg s he had just taken oft'. I asked to be allowed to accompany him. Whe n we got to the man's b e dside, he turned his head in a drowsy way, and said, "Ow! Dactah me mind move me, me consent for you take oft' me leg." The doctor was delighted, and stammered out, "Why, you d-d old fool, your leg has been oft' hours ago." Anthony Trollope, in his amusing book The We s t Indies and Spanish Main, says, that in New Amsterdam three people make a crowd. Old Paris Britton's house, at which the novelist s tayed, and which he called the best hotel in the West Indies, has long been pulled down. New Amsterdam is more like a Dutch town than an English one. It is certajnly, especially of late years, a rather sleepy place. The old capital of Berbice was Fort

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LE.A.DING OFFIOULS 195 Nassau, many miles up the Berbice River. There are a great number of old Diltch tombs scattered about the country; some of the inscriptions on them are curious. On one, which commemorates the death of a man's wife and his two sons all in the same year, instead of the usual consolatory text, the sturdy Mynheer had relieved his sorrow and disgust by the words, "Gott vordamm Berbice" (God d-n Berbice). When the Governor and .Lady Longden went up to Berbice, I was residing in New Amsterdam as junior puisne judge. Of course the expected arrivals caused a flutter amongst the officials, and I was rather amused by their conduct. The morning of the day on which the Governor was expected, I received a visit from the Sheriff of Berbice, who said he had come to consult me as to whether he was not as sheriff the leading official in the county, and ought to be the person to receive the Governor, and give his arm to Lady Longden. I said certainly, no doubt about it. He expressed his gratitude and departed. Shortly afterwards, the Assistant Government SecretllJ:ywas ushered in, and put the same question. I assured him there could be no doubt that, as he was the head of the executive branch of the Civil Service, he was the leading official. So they were both satisfied, but I was in a dilemma. I saw them, in my mind's eye, both rushing at Lady Longden, and nearly upsetting that charming lady in the eagerness of self assertion. But, as good luck would have it, I heard that the Governor was LE.A.DING OFFIOULS 195 Nassau, many miles up the Berbice River. There are a great number of old Diltch tombs scattered about the country; some of the inscriptions on them are curious. On one, which commemorates the death of a man's wife and his two sons all in the same year, instead of the usual consolatory text, the sturdy Mynheer had relieved his sorrow and disgust by the words, "Gott vordamm Berbice" (God d-n Berbice). When the Governor and .Lady Longden went up to Berbice, I was residing in New Amsterdam as junior puisne judge. Of course the expected arrivals caused a flutter amongst the officials, and I was rather amused by their conduct. The morning of the day on which the Governor was expected, I received a visit from the Sheriff of Berbice, who said he had come to consult me as to whether he was not as sheriff the leading official in the county, and ought to be the person to receive the Governor, and give his arm to Lady Longden. I said certainly, no doubt about it. He expressed his gratitude and departed. Shortly afterwards, the Assistant Government SecretllJ:ywas ushered in, and put the same question. I assured him there could be no doubt that, as he was the head of the executive branch of the Civil Service, he was the leading official. So they were both satisfied, but I was in a dilemma. I saw them, in my mind's eye, both rushing at Lady Longden, and nearly upsetting that charming lady in the eagerness of self assertion. But, as good luck would have it, I heard that the Governor was

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196 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA coming overland, and would not arrive at Blair mont Ferry, opposite the town, until abont 4 p.m.; whereas Lady Longden was coming by stealller, and would reach New Amsterdalll about 3 p.lll.; so I wrote to the sheriff and told him the Governor would arrive at Blairmont about 4 p.lll., and that he as sheriff of the county, ought to meet him; and I wrote to the Assistant Government Secretary, and told him that Lady Longden would arrive at three, in the steamer, and that he, as the leading official, must meet her, and lead her ashore. And so it came off, and both these great men were satisfied. Once, iu New Amsterdam, at a serni-public dinner, D. M. Gallagher, who was at the time Assistant Government Secretary, returned thanks for the Qneen when her health was drnnk; so he was promptly dubbed "Prince of Wales," and retained that name for some time. Not long afterwards Gallagher obta.ined leave of absence, and, on his way to England, he spent a day in Georgetown. Entering the Georgetown Club, he was boisterously greeted by our old friend R. W. Imlach, who slapped him on the back, exclaiming, "So, Gallagher, my boy, you are going home to see your august mamma? The Innatic asylum for the colony is located near New Amsterdam, in the old military barracks. It was most excellently managed by Dr. Grieve (afterwards Surgeon-General), who had similar experience in England before he came to the colony. I was conducted on one occasion throngh 196 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA coming overland, and would not arrive at Blair mont Ferry, opposite the town, until abont 4 p.m.; whereas Lady Longden was coming by stealller, and would reach New Amsterdalll about 3 p.lll.; so I wrote to the sheriff and told him the Governor would arrive at Blairmont about 4 p.lll., and that he as sheriff of the county, ought to meet him; and I wrote to the Assistant Government Secretary, and told him that Lady Longden would arrive at three, in the steamer, and that he, as the leading official, must meet her, and lead her ashore. And so it came off, and both these great men were satisfied. Once, iu New Amsterdam, at a serni-public dinner, D. M. Gallagher, who was at the time Assistant Government Secretary, returned thanks for the Qneen when her health was drnnk; so he was promptly dubbed "Prince of Wales," and retained that name for some time. Not long afterwards Gallagher obta.ined leave of absence, and, on his way to England, he spent a day in Georgetown. Entering the Georgetown Club, he was boisterously greeted by our old friend R. W. Imlach, who slapped him on the back, exclaiming, "So, Gallagher, my boy, you are going home to see your august mamma? The Innatic asylum for the colony is located near New Amsterdam, in the old military barracks. It was most excellently managed by Dr. Grieve (afterwards Surgeon-General), who had similar experience in England before he came to the colony. I was conducted on one occasion throngh

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CORENTYNE COAST 197 the asylum by the worthy doctor, and when we were passing through the women's wards a young, handsome quadroon girl, with long black hair falling down her back, rose from the bed on which she had been listlessly lying, and, advancing to me with rapid steps, threw her arms tight round my neck, and buried her face on my manly bosom with a sigh of relief. I naturally clasped my arm round the fair maiden, wondering what was going to happen next, and casting appealing looks at the doctor. He, unromantic person, seized the girl by the arm, and spoke to her sharply and severely, at which she released her hold, and went back sadly to her couch. The doctor said she was distraught by love betrayed, and perhaps I bore some resemblance to the lost one. At the extreme east of the colony stretches the Corentyne coast, bordering the river of that name, which divides British Guiana from the Dutch colony of Surinam. At the time I am writing about there was much smuggling across the Corentyne River. Nickerie, at the month of the river on the Dntch ooast, was the starting place for nnmerous boats laden with gin, brandy, and other oontraband goods, whioh were landed at oonvenient plaoes on the English territory. Early in the seventies I was staying at Whim with the aoting magistrate in oharge of that distriot. One morning when we oame downstairs we saw in the gallery a large box painted green. "What is this?" said the beak. "It looks un oommonly like a oase of gin," said I. "Dear CORENTYNE COAST 197 the asylum by the worthy doctor, and when we were passing through the women's wards a young, handsome quadroon girl, with long black hair falling down her back, rose from the bed on which she had been listlessly lying, and, advancing to me with rapid steps, threw her arms tight round my neck, and buried her face on my manly bosom with a sigh of relief. I naturally clasped my arm round the fair maiden, wondering what was going to happen next, and casting appealing looks at the doctor. He, unromantic person, seized the girl by the arm, and spoke to her sharply and severely, at which she released her hold, and went back sadly to her couch. The doctor said she was distraught by love betrayed, and perhaps I bore some resemblance to the lost one. At the extreme east of the colony stretches the Corentyne coast, bordering the river of that name, which divides British Guiana from the Dutch colony of Surinam. At the time I am writing about there was much smuggling across the Corentyne River. Nickerie, at the month of the river on the Dntch ooast, was the starting place for nnmerous boats laden with gin, brandy, and other oontraband goods, whioh were landed at oonvenient plaoes on the English territory. Early in the seventies I was staying at Whim with the aoting magistrate in oharge of that distriot. One morning when we oame downstairs we saw in the gallery a large box painted green. "What is this?" said the beak. "It looks un oommonly like a oase of gin," said I. "Dear

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198 TWEN1'Y-FIVE YEAlIS IN BRITISH GUIANA me, so it does! Let us see." So, calling for a chopper, he prized open the lid, and there, in innocent repose, stood fifteen flasks of gin. "Really, it looks like gin," said his worship; "but If_with a twinkle in his eye-"you cannot be certBjn unless you taste it." So a flask was uncorked, and we both sampled the liquor, which turned out to be gin, and very good gin too. "It must have been left here by mistake. I never ordered any gin. However, we must keep it for the owner, whoever he is." So the case was securely looked up in the storeroom. In the evening we went out to shoot pigeons. Returning in the dusk, a man stopped our waggon, and, speaking to the magistrate, said, "I hope you got the box of dried fish all right, sir." Oh, it's you who sent the fish? Yes; it came all right, and" -slipping a five-dollar note into the man's hand"I hope you will be able to catch some more." The man took the money, smiled, touched his hat, and disappeared. It is a wonder that there is not more smuggling, considering the difference in price of smuggled and duty-paid spirits. Drink is in itself so cheap. There is whisky sold now in Demerara at $6.50 and $7 a case of twelve quarts. The duty is about $3 a case, so that only leaves $3.50 or $4 to pay for the bottles, corks, cases, packing, straws, draw ing, bottling, porterage, railway charges, ship !reight, tonnage, harbour dues, etc. What can be the original price of the whisky, if it is to pay any profit to the seller? Good Demerara 198 TWEN1'Y-FIVE YEAlIS IN BRITISH GUIANA me, so it does! Let us see." So, calling for a chopper, he prized open the lid, and there, in innocent repose, stood fifteen flasks of gin. "Really, it looks like gin," said his worship; "but If_with a twinkle in his eye-"you cannot be certBjn unless you taste it." So a flask was uncorked, and we both sampled the liquor, which turned out to be gin, and very good gin too. "It must have been left here by mistake. I never ordered any gin. However, we must keep it for the owner, whoever he is." So the case was securely looked up in the storeroom. In the evening we went out to shoot pigeons. Returning in the dusk, a man stopped our waggon, and, speaking to the magistrate, said, "I hope you got the box of dried fish all right, sir." Oh, it's you who sent the fish? Yes; it came all right, and" -slipping a five-dollar note into the man's hand"I hope you will be able to catch some more." The man took the money, smiled, touched his hat, and disappeared. It is a wonder that there is not more smuggling, considering the difference in price of smuggled and duty-paid spirits. Drink is in itself so cheap. There is whisky sold now in Demerara at $6.50 and $7 a case of twelve quarts. The duty is about $3 a case, so that only leaves $3.50 or $4 to pay for the bottles, corks, cases, packing, straws, draw ing, bottling, porterage, railway charges, ship !reight, tonnage, harbour dues, etc. What can be the original price of the whisky, if it is to pay any profit to the seller? Good Demerara

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WILD DUOK SHOOTING 199 rum is quoted in Loudon at Is. a gallon, i.e. 28. for a dozen reputed quarts. The duty on this is 288., and your wine-merchant puts on 68. for his profit, so you pay 368. for what is not worth 28.; for the wine-merchant buys the rum at 38 ovel' proof, and, with hot water, reduces it to 20 under proof, thereby almost doubling its volume by reducing its strength. Up the Corentyne River, at a creek called Sisters, used to be the best shooting-ground for Muscovy ducks. On one occasiou thete were four of us shooting in the creek, one of whom was Dr. Hackett. We were gliding slowly and noiselessly down the creek, two in each corial, looking out for the birds. The doctor, to obtain a better range, had perched himself on a gin-case, which he had balanced in the prow of the corial. Two fine ducks came down the creek over our heads; the doctor fired his first barrel as they were comiug towards him, missed, and, to get It second shot, threw himself back to get well in front of the birds. This action dislodged the gin case, and, to our horror, the doctor went heels over head into the creek, his gun exploding as he went over. He soon reappe ared at the surface, spluttering and cursing, but still holding on to his gun; but we could hardly drag him out for laughter. In the olden days, when our staple industly wa s prosperous, and a good sugar estate "yielded an earl's income," money was spent in greater profusion than nowadays, and hospitality flourished WILD DUOK SHOOTING 199 rum is quoted in Loudon at Is. a gallon, i.e. 28. for a dozen reputed quarts. The duty on this is 288., and your wine-merchant puts on 68. for his profit, so you pay 368. for what is not worth 28.; for the wine-merchant buys the rum at 38 ovel' proof, and, with hot water, reduces it to 20 under proof, thereby almost doubling its volume by reducing its strength. Up the Corentyne River, at a creek called Sisters, used to be the best shooting-ground for Muscovy ducks. On one occasiou thete were four of us shooting in the creek, one of whom was Dr. Hackett. We were gliding slowly and noiselessly down the creek, two in each corial, looking out for the birds. The doctor, to obtain a better range, had perched himself on a gin-case, which he had balanced in the prow of the corial. Two fine ducks came down the creek over our heads; the doctor fired his first barrel as they were comiug towards him, missed, and, to get It second shot, threw himself back to get well in front of the birds. This action dislodged the gin case, and, to our horror, the doctor went heels over head into the creek, his gun exploding as he went over. He soon reappe ared at the surface, spluttering and cursing, but still holding on to his gun; but we could hardly drag him out for laughter. In the olden days, when our staple industly wa s prosperous, and a good sugar estate "yielded an earl's income," money was spent in greater profusion than nowadays, and hospitality flourished

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200 TWENTY-FiVE YE.4RS IN BRITISH OUI.4N.4 exceedingly. When the elections to our local Parliament took place, it was customary for the candidates to send champagne to the returning officer for the refreshment of their supporters. When I was Sheriff of Essequibo and, conse quently, returning-officer for the county, I enjoyed a contested election-it was a break iu the monotony of my work, and, as each candidate sent me a case of champagne, it was an agreeable ceremony. The supporters of the candidates, who collected on the nomination day, rarely exceeded twenty, and, as the nomination took place at nine a.m., they never drank more than four or five bottles of champagne, so I carried the re mainder home in my waggon. When Dare and Halliday contested the seat in Esseqnibo, we not only got our champagne, but the latter gentleman brought a special steamer from Georgetown to Suddie, and entertained on board a number of his friends and supporters with a sumptuous luncheon. The champagne and luncheon so in spired two ardent supporters of Halliday, that, invading his house, they carried off to the poll an old bed-ridden gentleman residing at Plantation Johanna Cecilia, and made him record his vote for their candidate, with the l'esuIt that the old man died the next day. As his relations and heirs were glad to be rid of him, nothing was said about it, and it only came to my ears some time afterwards. A country auction sale-a vendue, as it was called-was one of the pleasant customs almo t 200 TWENTY-FiVE YE.4RS IN BRITISH OUI.4N.4 exceedingly. When the elections to our local Parliament took place, it was customary for the candidates to send champagne to the returning officer for the refreshment of their supporters. When I was Sheriff of Essequibo and, conse quently, returning-officer for the county, I enjoyed a contested election-it was a break iu the monotony of my work, and, as each candidate sent me a case of champagne, it was an agreeable ceremony. The supporters of the candidates, who collected on the nomination day, rarely exceeded twenty, and, as the nomination took place at nine a.m., they never drank more than four or five bottles of champagne, so I carried the re mainder home in my waggon. When Dare and Halliday contested the seat in Esseqnibo, we not only got our champagne, but the latter gentleman brought a special steamer from Georgetown to Suddie, and entertained on board a number of his friends and supporters with a sumptuous luncheon. The champagne and luncheon so in spired two ardent supporters of Halliday, that, invading his house, they carried off to the poll an old bed-ridden gentleman residing at Plantation Johanna Cecilia, and made him record his vote for their candidate, with the l'esuIt that the old man died the next day. As his relations and heirs were glad to be rid of him, nothing was said about it, and it only came to my ears some time afterwards. A country auction sale-a vendue, as it was called-was one of the pleasant customs almo t

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PUBLIO VENDUE 201 peculiar to the colony. When a manager of an estate was leaving the colony or removing to another part of the country, he held an auction sale of all his effects-furniture, plate, glass, china, horses, carriages, cattle, pigs, poultry, plants, ferns, etc. This was advertised in the local newspapers for some time; the auctioneer also sent reminders to those of the manager's friends whom he thought were most likely to purchase. On the day of the sale, if the manager were a popular man, all the offioials, managers, clergy, and overseers within twenty miles would assemble at the place of sale. If it was a large affair, a special steamer or a special train would bring a large contingent from Georgetown. The compound around the house would be filled with waggons, dog-carts, and every kind of vehicle. The public would begin to arrive about ten a.m., and would pour in for hours. At eleven o'clock the auctioneer would Jead the way into a large room specially prepared, where was spread out a splendid cold breakfast, to which the guests sat down. Turkeys, hams, rounds of beef and saddles of mutton, mayonnaise of salmon and crab-backs quickly disappeared, washed down by beer, champagne, whisky, and soda. Primed by this good cheer, and wishing to help so hospitable a host, the purchasers were very brisk in their bids, and the auction proved a great success. In friendly rivalry, and with much chaff, men would bid agajnst one another, in many instances not knowing what they were buying; and roars of laughter would greet an PUBLIO VENDUE 201 peculiar to the colony. When a manager of an estate was leaving the colony or removing to another part of the country, he held an auction sale of all his effects-furniture, plate, glass, china, horses, carriages, cattle, pigs, poultry, plants, ferns, etc. This was advertised in the local newspapers for some time; the auctioneer also sent reminders to those of the manager's friends whom he thought were most likely to purchase. On the day of the sale, if the manager were a popular man, all the offioials, managers, clergy, and overseers within twenty miles would assemble at the place of sale. If it was a large affair, a special steamer or a special train would bring a large contingent from Georgetown. The compound around the house would be filled with waggons, dog-carts, and every kind of vehicle. The public would begin to arrive about ten a.m., and would pour in for hours. At eleven o'clock the auctioneer would Jead the way into a large room specially prepared, where was spread out a splendid cold breakfast, to which the guests sat down. Turkeys, hams, rounds of beef and saddles of mutton, mayonnaise of salmon and crab-backs quickly disappeared, washed down by beer, champagne, whisky, and soda. Primed by this good cheer, and wishing to help so hospitable a host, the purchasers were very brisk in their bids, and the auction proved a great success. In friendly rivalry, and with much chaff, men would bid agajnst one another, in many instances not knowing what they were buying; and roars of laughter would greet an

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202 TWENTY-FIYE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA ardent bidder when he was found to have pur chased for twenty dollars a little cruet-stand worth five shillings. Brandy, whisky, and soda were freely circulated all day; cigars were pre sented to all his personal friends by the genial host, who moved about amongst the crowd, re ceiving friendly greetings from all. The early tropical night would have begun to close ill upon the scene before the last lot was disposed of and the excited buyers on their way home, sometimes, it mus t he confessed, driving in a somewhat eccentric manner, and retaining no recollection of what they had bought. A list of their purchases arrived next morning from the auctioneer, when they wondered how they could have made such fools of themselves as to buy a lot of things which they didn't want at extravagant prices. In going backwards and forwards to my official duties in British Guiana, I have crossed the Atlantic fourteen times. None of these voyages have presented any features of interest. I have never been wrecked, nor have our ships suffered from severe gales or fire. One voyage, however, was somewhat memorable, and deserves a short notice. In April, 1878, I was going home on leave; but when we arrived at Barbados we were informed that the ocean steamer Tasmanian, in which we were to cross the Atlantic, had been wrecked at Ponts, in Puerto Rico, and that we must either wait for the next mail or go home in the Tiber, which was a small inter-colonial steamer. Many of the passengel's, and most of 202 TWENTY-FIYE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA ardent bidder when he was found to have pur chased for twenty dollars a little cruet-stand worth five shillings. Brandy, whisky, and soda were freely circulated all day; cigars were pre sented to all his personal friends by the genial host, who moved about amongst the crowd, re ceiving friendly greetings from all. The early tropical night would have begun to close ill upon the scene before the last lot was disposed of and the excited buyers on their way home, sometimes, it mus t he confessed, driving in a somewhat eccentric manner, and retaining no recollection of what they had bought. A list of their purchases arrived next morning from the auctioneer, when they wondered how they could have made such fools of themselves as to buy a lot of things which they didn't want at extravagant prices. In going backwards and forwards to my official duties in British Guiana, I have crossed the Atlantic fourteen times. None of these voyages have presented any features of interest. I have never been wrecked, nor have our ships suffered from severe gales or fire. One voyage, however, was somewhat memorable, and deserves a short notice. In April, 1878, I was going home on leave; but when we arrived at Barbados we were informed that the ocean steamer Tasmanian, in which we were to cross the Atlantic, had been wrecked at Ponts, in Puerto Rico, and that we must either wait for the next mail or go home in the Tiber, which was a small inter-colonial steamer. Many of the passengel's, and most of

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TRANSATLANTIO VOYAGE 203 the ladies, went ashore, but I decided to go on, so was transhipped to the Tiber, which sailed in a few hours for St. Lucia, there to await the passengers and crew of the wrecked vessel. We rema;ned three days in St. Lucia. There were no troops there in those days, and it was a dreary spot socially, but the island itself was one of the most beautiful in the West Indies. We found a few ponies, and on these rode up and down the rough mountain roads; we explored the inns and stores of Castries; held smoking concerts iu the public square; and, I fear, scandalized the re spectable inhabitants by our noisy conduct. At last the Amo arrived, bringing the passengers and stores from the Tasmanian. The transfer to the Tiber was made as quickly as possible, and we were soon under way. The ship was crowded: the holds and cabius and decks were crammed with coal, stores, passengers, and stewards; even the spar-deck was cumbered with barrels of beer and soda-water, and it was well for us that we had fine weather, as we were not in a condition to face a storm. As to the passengers, every cabin was full up; those who could not get berths slept on sofas, under tables, anywhere they could find a place. I was in a small cabiu iu the fore saloon, with old Dr. Henery, and Keighley, of the 2nd West Indian Regiment. A number of wild young men had joined us from the Tasmanian; young coffee planters from Costa Rica, and gold -di ggers from Mexico. One man, who had been collectiug orchids iu Guatemala for a London nurseryman, TRANSATLANTIO VOYAGE 203 the ladies, went ashore, but I decided to go on, so was transhipped to the Tiber, which sailed in a few hours for St. Lucia, there to await the passengers and crew of the wrecked vessel. We rema;ned three days in St. Lucia. There were no troops there in those days, and it was a dreary spot socially, but the island itself was one of the most beautiful in the West Indies. We found a few ponies, and on these rode up and down the rough mountain roads; we explored the inns and stores of Castries; held smoking concerts iu the public square; and, I fear, scandalized the re spectable inhabitants by our noisy conduct. At last the Amo arrived, bringing the passengers and stores from the Tasmanian. The transfer to the Tiber was made as quickly as possible, and we were soon under way. The ship was crowded: the holds and cabius and decks were crammed with coal, stores, passengers, and stewards; even the spar-deck was cumbered with barrels of beer and soda-water, and it was well for us that we had fine weather, as we were not in a condition to face a storm. As to the passengers, every cabin was full up; those who could not get berths slept on sofas, under tables, anywhere they could find a place. I was in a small cabiu iu the fore saloon, with old Dr. Henery, and Keighley, of the 2nd West Indian Regiment. A number of wild young men had joined us from the Tasmanian; young coffee planters from Costa Rica, and gold -di ggers from Mexico. One man, who had been collectiug orchids iu Guatemala for a London nurseryman,

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204 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA was nicknamed "Roots;" another good-looking, rakish fellow was called "Charcoal," from the refrain of a comic song which he was fond of singing. A jovial young fellow, who was lame and used crutches, received the soubriquet of Quadruped." Dr. Henery, emerging on deck in the morning, was immediately hailed as "Be aconsfield," owing to his resemblance to that eminent statesman. Keighley was a wild devil, fond of practical jokes, so it was not long before he tried them on, with the usual results. Roots" had a large garden syringe, so, wishing to pay of!' Keighley, he stole quietly into our cabin one night, and discharged the syringe full of dirty water into, as he thought, Keighley's ear, as he lay in his bunk; but in the dim light he had made a mistake, and poor Dr. Henery was the recipient of his favours. The Doctor's shouts woke up Keighley and myself, and we sallied out with sticks to get at "Roots," but starting into the fore saloon, we fell over and into a lot of men sleeping on the deck, who received us with blows and curses, and a general miUe ensued. These rows occulTed every night, until one exasperated traveller brought out a revolver, and, loading it before our eyes, said he should begin shooting if he were disturbed again. The captain got alarmed, and stationed two armed quarter-masters in the saloon every night. "Roots" and had their grog stopped at the bar, and our nights were afterwards not often disturbed. Of course, we had two breakfasts and two 204 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA was nicknamed "Roots;" another good-looking, rakish fellow was called "Charcoal," from the refrain of a comic song which he was fond of singing. A jovial young fellow, who was lame and used crutches, received the soubriquet of Quadruped." Dr. Henery, emerging on deck in the morning, was immediately hailed as "Be aconsfield," owing to his resemblance to that eminent statesman. Keighley was a wild devil, fond of practical jokes, so it was not long before he tried them on, with the usual results. Roots" had a large garden syringe, so, wishing to pay of!' Keighley, he stole quietly into our cabin one night, and discharged the syringe full of dirty water into, as he thought, Keighley's ear, as he lay in his bunk; but in the dim light he had made a mistake, and poor Dr. Henery was the recipient of his favours. The Doctor's shouts woke up Keighley and myself, and we sallied out with sticks to get at "Roots," but starting into the fore saloon, we fell over and into a lot of men sleeping on the deck, who received us with blows and curses, and a general miUe ensued. These rows occulTed every night, until one exasperated traveller brought out a revolver, and, loading it before our eyes, said he should begin shooting if he were disturbed again. The captain got alarmed, and stationed two armed quarter-masters in the saloon every night. "Roots" and had their grog stopped at the bar, and our nights were afterwards not often disturbed. Of course, we had two breakfasts and two

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REVENGE IS SWEET 205 dinners. Keighley and I dined at the first dinner, and there was a crusty old gentleman in the second detachment who used to come to the top of the companion as we were cracking our nuts and enjoying a glass of port after dinnel', and make audible remarks about keeping the table so long-" Guzzling fellows," and such like. We didn't like this, so we marked down the old gentleman to his lair at night, which we found was under one of the dining-saloon tables; so one night, when the old gentleman was snoring under his table, lying on his back, "Roots," Keighley, and Co. lashed his arms and legs to the table-legs with the dinner napkins. Wanting to turn in his sleep, he couldn't move, and waking up, he began to roar at the top of his voice, till everyone rushed into the saloon to see what was the matter. Despite these, and various other amusements, it was an uncomfortable voyage, and we were all glad when we anchored inside Plymouth breakwater. REVENGE IS SWEET 205 dinners. Keighley and I dined at the first dinner, and there was a crusty old gentleman in the second detachment who used to come to the top of the companion as we were cracking our nuts and enjoying a glass of port after dinnel', and make audible remarks about keeping the table so long-" Guzzling fellows," and such like. We didn't like this, so we marked down the old gentleman to his lair at night, which we found was under one of the dining-saloon tables; so one night, when the old gentleman was snoring under his table, lying on his back, "Roots," Keighley, and Co. lashed his arms and legs to the table-legs with the dinner napkins. Wanting to turn in his sleep, he couldn't move, and waking up, he began to roar at the top of his voice, till everyone rushed into the saloon to see what was the matter. Despite these, and various other amusements, it was an uncomfortable voyage, and we were all glad when we anchored inside Plymouth breakwater.

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206 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER IX. Emancipo.tion-Immigratio n schemes-En s t Indians-Chinese---DangerouB characters-The coolie-Invested saviogs-Mowla Buks b-Cban-arook-The burglar and murderer-Execution of Chinese at SuddieChristian Chinese-Their honesty and sincerity-Opium-smoking GambHng-Settlcm e nt-Camounie Creek-Queer dishes-Chinese immigrants ex II Corona "-Similarity of appearanca-ConcubinesSuicides-Ell8 t Indian immigrants-Scarcity of women-Difficulty in obtaining wiyes-Polyandry-Purchase of wives-Girl or cowAdultery-Frequent murders-Cnse of Seechnram-Mutilation and murder of his wife-Execution of Seecharam-Transmigration of sQuls-Indian superstitions -Marriage at Aurora-Tragic results. AFTER the abolition of slavery it was found im possible to carryon the cultivation of sugar estates in the West Indies and British Guiana without a steady and reliable supply of labour. The slaves, being free, understood freedom to mean that they need not work any more, and, as tropical conditions impose no very severe penalties on the idle, such as quickly overtake them in countries where labour is abundant and where there is a winter to face, they were able to persist in their views of the privileges of freedom. So the colon ists were driven to import labour from afar, which laid the foundation for the present scheme of East Indian immigration, which has proved to be of equal benefit to the planters and the immigrants 206 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER IX. Emancipo.tion-Immigratio n schemes-En s t Indians-Chinese---DangerouB characters-The coolie-Invested saviogs-Mowla Buks b-Cban-arook-The burglar and murderer-Execution of Chinese at SuddieChristian Chinese-Their honesty and sincerity-Opium-smoking GambHng-Settlcm e nt-Camounie Creek-Queer dishes-Chinese immigrants ex II Corona "-Similarity of appearanca-ConcubinesSuicides-Ell8 t Indian immigrants-Scarcity of women-Difficulty in obtaining wiyes-Polyandry-Purchase of wives-Girl or cowAdultery-Frequent murders-Cnse of Seechnram-Mutilation and murder of his wife-Execution of Seecharam-Transmigration of sQuls-Indian superstitions -Marriage at Aurora-Tragic results. AFTER the abolition of slavery it was found im possible to carryon the cultivation of sugar estates in the West Indies and British Guiana without a steady and reliable supply of labour. The slaves, being free, understood freedom to mean that they need not work any more, and, as tropical conditions impose no very severe penalties on the idle, such as quickly overtake them in countries where labour is abundant and where there is a winter to face, they were able to persist in their views of the privileges of freedom. So the colon ists were driven to import labour from afar, which laid the foundation for the present scheme of East Indian immigration, which has proved to be of equal benefit to the planters and the immigrants

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CHINESE IMJfIGRIlNTS 207 themselves. Owing to various causes, the supply of Indian was fluctuating, so the planters, considering it were wise to have two strings to their bow, advised the Government to open an agency in China for the introduction of Chinese immigrants. Unfortunately, owing to the duplicity of the Chinese Government and the rascality of the native sub agents, instead of agrioulturallabourers, the emigrant ships were in many cases filled up in part with the offscour ings of Canton-gaol-birds, stUrdy beggars, loafers, and vagabonds. These, when they arrived in the colony, and had been allotted to estates, showed no inclination for sustained toil in the fields, and nearly all of them deserted after a few months' experience. Some joined a community of their countrymen, who had settled on one of the nnmer ous creeks up the Demerara River; others took to peddling, rum-smuggling, illicit distillation, keep ing gambling-houses and brothels; whilst the worst amongst them returned to their former occnpations of burglary, robbery, and petty larceny. As these last were powerful ruffians, and always carried a large, sharp, two-edged knife, which they never scrupled to use to avoid capture, it may well be supposed that they were a terror to all law-abiding citizens. Several cases of robbery, burglary and attempted murder, perpetrated by Chinese, came under my immediate notice when I was first appointed as a stipendiary magistrate in Guiana. The most serious of them all occurred on an estate situated on the east bank of the river Demerara. CHINESE IMJfIGRIlNTS 207 themselves. Owing to various causes, the supply of Indian was fluctuating, so the planters, considering it were wise to have two strings to their bow, advised the Government to open an agency in China for the introduction of Chinese immigrants. Unfortunately, owing to the duplicity of the Chinese Government and the rascality of the native sub agents, instead of agrioulturallabourers, the emigrant ships were in many cases filled up in part with the offscour ings of Canton-gaol-birds, stUrdy beggars, loafers, and vagabonds. These, when they arrived in the colony, and had been allotted to estates, showed no inclination for sustained toil in the fields, and nearly all of them deserted after a few months' experience. Some joined a community of their countrymen, who had settled on one of the nnmer ous creeks up the Demerara River; others took to peddling, rum-smuggling, illicit distillation, keep ing gambling-houses and brothels; whilst the worst amongst them returned to their former occnpations of burglary, robbery, and petty larceny. As these last were powerful ruffians, and always carried a large, sharp, two-edged knife, which they never scrupled to use to avoid capture, it may well be supposed that they were a terror to all law-abiding citizens. Several cases of robbery, burglary and attempted murder, perpetrated by Chinese, came under my immediate notice when I was first appointed as a stipendiary magistrate in Guiana. The most serious of them all occurred on an estate situated on the east bank of the river Demerara.

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208 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA The Indian immigrants by honest labour amass considerable amount of money. The coolie, as he is called in the colony, unlike a European, never wastes his acquired wealth in clothes, houses, horses, carriages, and servants; he mains in the same wattle and daub hut, clothes-or rather, does not clothe-himself in the same solitary garment, a rather dirty dhooti, or loin-cloth, and eats the same boiled rice and vegetable ourry as beforetime; but he bnys cows, which are a remunerative investment for his capital, and he loads his wives with about a hnndredweight of silver bangles, armlets, foot-rings, nose-rings, and necklaces, till one feels snrprised how the pretty little women-for most of them are 4 ft. 8 in. or 4 ft. lOin. in height-can walk along under such a burden. For himself he buys sovereigns at the bank, and, sending for a native goldsmith, he keeps him at his hut and under his eyes whilst the cunning man turns the sovereigns into large gold beads, a whole string of which he fastens seourely with a strong cord round his shapely neck. This he wears day and night. I have frequently seen coolies working in a cane piece entirely naked, except for a turban and dhooti, and a string of gold beads or sovereigns round their necks. Mowla Buksh was a driver au Plantation Peter's Hall, an estate on the east bank. He had been fourteen years on the same plaoe, and had lately risen to his present responsible position. He was a well-to-do man, so his wife was weighted with jewelry when she went to town or to the 208 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA The Indian immigrants by honest labour amass considerable amount of money. The coolie, as he is called in the colony, unlike a European, never wastes his acquired wealth in clothes, houses, horses, carriages, and servants; he mains in the same wattle and daub hut, clothes-or rather, does not clothe-himself in the same solitary garment, a rather dirty dhooti, or loin-cloth, and eats the same boiled rice and vegetable ourry as beforetime; but he bnys cows, which are a remunerative investment for his capital, and he loads his wives with about a hnndredweight of silver bangles, armlets, foot-rings, nose-rings, and necklaces, till one feels snrprised how the pretty little women-for most of them are 4 ft. 8 in. or 4 ft. lOin. in height-can walk along under such a burden. For himself he buys sovereigns at the bank, and, sending for a native goldsmith, he keeps him at his hut and under his eyes whilst the cunning man turns the sovereigns into large gold beads, a whole string of which he fastens seourely with a strong cord round his shapely neck. This he wears day and night. I have frequently seen coolies working in a cane piece entirely naked, except for a turban and dhooti, and a string of gold beads or sovereigns round their necks. Mowla Buksh was a driver au Plantation Peter's Hall, an estate on the east bank. He had been fourteen years on the same plaoe, and had lately risen to his present responsible position. He was a well-to-do man, so his wife was weighted with jewelry when she went to town or to the

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BURGL-iRY -iND JWRDER 209 races; and he himself wore at all times round his neck a splendid necklace of gold coins, the centre piece being an American twenty-dollar gold eagle. The sight of this shining in the sun when Mowla went to work had excited the cupidity of Chan-a fook, a Chinese pedlar, petty thief and occasional burglar, who used to perambulate the distriot on his cheating and nefarious transactions. One night Mowla Buksh was asleep on his charpoy, his wife was lying upon another in the same hut, when the door was deftly opened by Chan-a-fook, whose burglarious knowledge was more than a match for the simple fastenings of the coolie's hut. He softly, with cat-like steps on hands and feet, made his way to the Indian's bed. He was entirely naked, exoept for a cloth round his middle, in which he carried his long, sharp, two-edged knife. Raising himself gently up as he approaohed the charpoy, and guided by the even breathing of the sleeper, he placed his left hand to the coolie's throat, and, withdrawing his knife from its sheath, he attempted cautiously to sever the string which supported the necklaoe round the Indian's neck. Whether the string was stronger than he expected, and more force had to he used, or from some other cause, Mowla Buksh awoke, to find the cold steel of the knife aga .inst his throat trying to cut through the string of his necklaoe. With a shout he sprang up. The Chinaman hastily retreated by the open door. Seizing his haokia-stick, and shouting H Chitr I ohitr I" (H Thief I thief I ") as loud as he could, Mowla Buksh rushed after him. The noise p BURGL-iRY -iND JWRDER 209 races; and he himself wore at all times round his neck a splendid necklace of gold coins, the centre piece being an American twenty-dollar gold eagle. The sight of this shining in the sun when Mowla went to work had excited the cupidity of Chan-a fook, a Chinese pedlar, petty thief and occasional burglar, who used to perambulate the distriot on his cheating and nefarious transactions. One night Mowla Buksh was asleep on his charpoy, his wife was lying upon another in the same hut, when the door was deftly opened by Chan-a-fook, whose burglarious knowledge was more than a match for the simple fastenings of the coolie's hut. He softly, with cat-like steps on hands and feet, made his way to the Indian's bed. He was entirely naked, exoept for a cloth round his middle, in which he carried his long, sharp, two-edged knife. Raising himself gently up as he approaohed the charpoy, and guided by the even breathing of the sleeper, he placed his left hand to the coolie's throat, and, withdrawing his knife from its sheath, he attempted cautiously to sever the string which supported the necklaoe round the Indian's neck. Whether the string was stronger than he expected, and more force had to he used, or from some other cause, Mowla Buksh awoke, to find the cold steel of the knife aga .inst his throat trying to cut through the string of his necklaoe. With a shout he sprang up. The Chinaman hastily retreated by the open door. Seizing his haokia-stick, and shouting H Chitr I ohitr I" (H Thief I thief I ") as loud as he could, Mowla Buksh rushed after him. The noise p

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210 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA and shouting roused the other sleepiug coolies in the l'ange, and a dozen men turned out in pursuit; but Mowla Buksh was some way ahead, and gaining rapidly on the Chinaman. The latter, when he found himself in danger of being overtaken and captured, turned sharply round upon his pursuer and, dodging the blow whioh Mowla aimed at him with his stick, plunged his great knife into the coolie's chest. With a groan, the unhappy man fell back on the ground, whilst Chan-a-fook, drawing out the knife, resumed his flight before the rest of the pursuers could reach him. The sight of their wounded comrade roused the re majning pursuers to fresh exertions, and they soon came up with the Chinaman, who was getting blown; but the first up repented of his rashness, for, as he attempted to put his hand on the man's shoulder, he shared the same fate as Mowla Buksh, and fell back mortally wounded. This made the other men more cautious, so with their long haclria-sticks they beat the China man to the ground, but not before he had inflicted several nasty wounds with his razor-edged knife upon their naked bodies. In their rage they continued to beat the now senseless Chinaman, and it is a wonder the man was not killed there and then; but some one in authority came up, and by his instructions the Chinaman and his victims were all conveyed to the Estate's hospital. As the magistrate of the district, I was quickly informed of the occurrence, and drove up at day break to take the depositions of the two stabbed 210 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA and shouting roused the other sleepiug coolies in the l'ange, and a dozen men turned out in pursuit; but Mowla Buksh was some way ahead, and gaining rapidly on the Chinaman. The latter, when he found himself in danger of being overtaken and captured, turned sharply round upon his pursuer and, dodging the blow whioh Mowla aimed at him with his stick, plunged his great knife into the coolie's chest. With a groan, the unhappy man fell back on the ground, whilst Chan-a-fook, drawing out the knife, resumed his flight before the rest of the pursuers could reach him. The sight of their wounded comrade roused the re majning pursuers to fresh exertions, and they soon came up with the Chinaman, who was getting blown; but the first up repented of his rashness, for, as he attempted to put his hand on the man's shoulder, he shared the same fate as Mowla Buksh, and fell back mortally wounded. This made the other men more cautious, so with their long haclria-sticks they beat the China man to the ground, but not before he had inflicted several nasty wounds with his razor-edged knife upon their naked bodies. In their rage they continued to beat the now senseless Chinaman, and it is a wonder the man was not killed there and then; but some one in authority came up, and by his instructions the Chinaman and his victims were all conveyed to the Estate's hospital. As the magistrate of the district, I was quickly informed of the occurrence, and drove up at day break to take the depositions of the two stabbed

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EXECUTION OF CHINBSE 211 men, who were not expected to live long. It was well I went at once, as poor Mowla Buksh and his companion in misfortune died shortly afterwards, having identified the Chinaman as the one who had killed them. The other men who were injured soon recovered, as they had only reoeived flesh wounds, which were not serions. The wretohed Chinaman himself had several bones broken, and had been beaten to a jelly, and it was some months before he was able to appear in court to answer the charges of murder and burglary preferred against him; but eventually I took the depositions and he was committed for trial. He was convicted at the next session of the Supreme Criminal Court, was sentenced to death, and executed in due course. I once presided over the execution of a China man in Essequibo, when I was sheriff there. He was not as stolid as is the custom of his race, but as we went to the scaffold, poured out a torrent of Chinese in a loud and excited voice. Thinking he might be making some request or prayer, I asked the interpreter what he was saying. The man seemed rather embarrassed, but as I pressed for an answer, he replied, "Oh, nothing, sil' j he is only cursing you and the judge." And he went on cursing to the last; even when the rope was round his neck, and the cap dragged over his face, I could heal' his mutterings in the strange Chinese language, half smothered by the white cloth mask, until the tightening of the rope, as he sank down the fatal drop, put an end to his curses for ever. As I have given an account of a bad China-EXECUTION OF CHINBSE 211 men, who were not expected to live long. It was well I went at once, as poor Mowla Buksh and his companion in misfortune died shortly afterwards, having identified the Chinaman as the one who had killed them. The other men who were injured soon recovered, as they had only reoeived flesh wounds, which were not serions. The wretohed Chinaman himself had several bones broken, and had been beaten to a jelly, and it was some months before he was able to appear in court to answer the charges of murder and burglary preferred against him; but eventually I took the depositions and he was committed for trial. He was convicted at the next session of the Supreme Criminal Court, was sentenced to death, and executed in due course. I once presided over the execution of a China man in Essequibo, when I was sheriff there. He was not as stolid as is the custom of his race, but as we went to the scaffold, poured out a torrent of Chinese in a loud and excited voice. Thinking he might be making some request or prayer, I asked the interpreter what he was saying. The man seemed rather embarrassed, but as I pressed for an answer, he replied, "Oh, nothing, sil' j he is only cursing you and the judge." And he went on cursing to the last; even when the rope was round his neck, and the cap dragged over his face, I could heal' his mutterings in the strange Chinese language, half smothered by the white cloth mask, until the tightening of the rope, as he sank down the fatal drop, put an end to his curses for ever. As I have given an account of a bad China-

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212 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA man, I think it is only fair to say that the present Chinese inhabitants of British Guiana are most worthy, law-abiding people, giving little trouble to police or magistrate; industrious, truthful, and honest, they make most excellent citizens. A Chinaman will try to overreach you in making a bargain, but once the bargain is made he will always stick to it with the utmost fidelity. Many of the Chinese have beoome Christians, and ex cellent converts they are. They have built and maintain churches of their own in Georgetown and New Amsterdam, pay their own catechists, and are always ready to subscribe to any Christian charity. I am no great believer in missionary enterprise; I am sure every honest Christian in the colony will confess that the attempt to convert the Hindoo and Mabommedan immigrants to Christiaruty has been an utter failure. But although a captious critic, I am bound to confess that the Chinese converts are, in my opiruon, earnest, believing Christians. It is true that the Chinese have several vices, but they are not worse than those common to Europeans-apium-smoking is one, and there are opium dens in Georgetown; but I doubt whether opium-smoking, uuless it is indulged in to excess, is more injurious than tobacco-smoking, and certainly not half as inju rious as excessive drinking, not even to the man himself, and what a difference to the community! More than half our crime is traceable to the influ ence of drink, but who ever heard of a man who committed a crime under the influence of opium? 212 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA man, I think it is only fair to say that the present Chinese inhabitants of British Guiana are most worthy, law-abiding people, giving little trouble to police or magistrate; industrious, truthful, and honest, they make most excellent citizens. A Chinaman will try to overreach you in making a bargain, but once the bargain is made he will always stick to it with the utmost fidelity. Many of the Chinese have beoome Christians, and ex cellent converts they are. They have built and maintain churches of their own in Georgetown and New Amsterdam, pay their own catechists, and are always ready to subscribe to any Christian charity. I am no great believer in missionary enterprise; I am sure every honest Christian in the colony will confess that the attempt to convert the Hindoo and Mabommedan immigrants to Christiaruty has been an utter failure. But although a captious critic, I am bound to confess that the Chinese converts are, in my opiruon, earnest, believing Christians. It is true that the Chinese have several vices, but they are not worse than those common to Europeans-apium-smoking is one, and there are opium dens in Georgetown; but I doubt whether opium-smoking, uuless it is indulged in to excess, is more injurious than tobacco-smoking, and certainly not half as inju rious as excessive drinking, not even to the man himself, and what a difference to the community! More than half our crime is traceable to the influ ence of drink, but who ever heard of a man who committed a crime under the influence of opium?

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C.A.MOUNIE CREEK 213 The smoking of ganje, or bhang, is a different matter: under its iofInence a man goes raging mad, and is liable to commit the most frightful atrocities. Gambliog is another of their vices, and one which it is impossible to eradicate. A Chinaman, when once inoculated with this disease-for loan call it nothing else-will stake everything. I knew of one case, where a man lost all his money, then his house and furniture, thel). his wife, and then he staked himself as a slave for six months and lost that, and, strange to say, he faithfully worked out his debt of honour, toiliog for his master with out wages for the allotted time, and then began life afresh, a saddened and, let us hope, a wiser man. I dined and slept at the house of a Chinese gentleman, up the Camounie Creek on the Demerara River, one night in the seventies. He was a pleasant, jovial person, and as he understood some English we were able to converse together. He gave me an excellent dinner-tannia soup, roast capon, cold tea, and excellent brandy (Hennessy's XXX). His wife was a jolly, moon-faced woman, with enormous jade earrings, and his children were as fat as butter. TbAJlking him for his hospitality, I expressed a wish that next time I dined with him young roast dog might be one of the dishes. He seemed rather angry at the suggestion. "No good Chinee eat bow-wow; bad Chiueeman, he eat bow-wow. One gets accustomed to queer dishes in the bush. On one occasion, dining with a Chinaman, C.A.MOUNIE CREEK 213 The smoking of ganje, or bhang, is a different matter: under its iofInence a man goes raging mad, and is liable to commit the most frightful atrocities. Gambliog is another of their vices, and one which it is impossible to eradicate. A Chinaman, when once inoculated with this disease-for loan call it nothing else-will stake everything. I knew of one case, where a man lost all his money, then his house and furniture, thel). his wife, and then he staked himself as a slave for six months and lost that, and, strange to say, he faithfully worked out his debt of honour, toiliog for his master with out wages for the allotted time, and then began life afresh, a saddened and, let us hope, a wiser man. I dined and slept at the house of a Chinese gentleman, up the Camounie Creek on the Demerara River, one night in the seventies. He was a pleasant, jovial person, and as he understood some English we were able to converse together. He gave me an excellent dinner-tannia soup, roast capon, cold tea, and excellent brandy (Hennessy's XXX). His wife was a jolly, moon-faced woman, with enormous jade earrings, and his children were as fat as butter. TbAJlking him for his hospitality, I expressed a wish that next time I dined with him young roast dog might be one of the dishes. He seemed rather angry at the suggestion. "No good Chinee eat bow-wow; bad Chiueeman, he eat bow-wow. One gets accustomed to queer dishes in the bush. On one occasion, dining with a Chinaman,

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214 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA we had a peculiar sauce with our fish; it was like clear melted butter, flavoured with some pungent herb. On inquiry I found it was an oil made by melting down the fat which lies like blubber botween the skin and flesh of the great water camoudie, or python, which is so common in the South American rivers. There are several descriptions of python, boa-constrictor, or camoudio, as they are called. They are all very beautiful; one called the iri descent camoudie is a perfect rain bow of colour. Armadillo is very good eating; you bake him like a hedgehog in his shell, which drops off when the meat is cooked. Panots and macaws make excellent soup. The large caterpillars, called groogroo worms because they are usuaUy found in the groogroo palms, are much relished by some people, but I cannot say I like them. Jaguar steaks are eatable, and tapir and capybara make excellent pepper-pot. Monkeys are also very good eating, but I never could stomach them; they are too human. Their flesh becomes quite white when boiled or stewed, and to seo a small white hand dragged out of the pot by a fork is too suggestive of cannibalism to be pleasant. One of the last ship-loads of Chinese landed in the colony came in the Corona. They, like many of their predecessors, were mostly loafers picked up in the great Chinese cities, not many of them being agrioulturists. They were weIl dressed and self-satisfied, always laughing and taJking. They paraded Georgetown like Cook's tourists; they travelled over it from end to end; they climbed 214 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA we had a peculiar sauce with our fish; it was like clear melted butter, flavoured with some pungent herb. On inquiry I found it was an oil made by melting down the fat which lies like blubber botween the skin and flesh of the great water camoudie, or python, which is so common in the South American rivers. There are several descriptions of python, boa-constrictor, or camoudio, as they are called. They are all very beautiful; one called the iri descent camoudie is a perfect rain bow of colour. Armadillo is very good eating; you bake him like a hedgehog in his shell, which drops off when the meat is cooked. Panots and macaws make excellent soup. The large caterpillars, called groogroo worms because they are usuaUy found in the groogroo palms, are much relished by some people, but I cannot say I like them. Jaguar steaks are eatable, and tapir and capybara make excellent pepper-pot. Monkeys are also very good eating, but I never could stomach them; they are too human. Their flesh becomes quite white when boiled or stewed, and to seo a small white hand dragged out of the pot by a fork is too suggestive of cannibalism to be pleasant. One of the last ship-loads of Chinese landed in the colony came in the Corona. They, like many of their predecessors, were mostly loafers picked up in the great Chinese cities, not many of them being agrioulturists. They were weIl dressed and self-satisfied, always laughing and taJking. They paraded Georgetown like Cook's tourists; they travelled over it from end to end; they climbed

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JOVUL OHINESE 215 to the top of its highest buildings the better to enjoy the scenery; they inspected the stores, the churches, the publio buildings. They patronjzed the cabs to a liberal extent, as many as ten of them airing themselves in one vehicle at the same time. They chaffed the lower olasses, and, with the greatest brmMmie, oondescended to shake hands with some gentlemen whose appearance met with their approval. They took over the Governor's fish-pond at Kingston, opened the sluices, drained off the water, and then wading in, amused them selves by oatohing the fish out of the mud, all the time with the greatest hilarity, and with uproarioul> laughter. They celebrated their safe arrival in the oolony by a series of theatrioal entertajnments given under the portico of the Immigration Offioe. Some of them walked into my house, took up the ornaments and photographs on the tables, and inspected the plate on the sideboard; all the time talking in loud voioes, and roaring with laughter. Meeting my little boy, Arnold, a child of four, in the street, one of them picked him up and oarried him for some distanoe on his shoulders, to the amusement of his oomrades, and the terror of the boy's nurse. Only one thing amazed them, and that was a locomotive engine, and it they worshipped as a god. Mr. Crosby, the Immigration Agent-General, was at his wits' end, and, as his oustom was, blessed his soul all day. At last the men were allotted to different estates and sent out of town, but very few of them became steady labourers. JOVUL OHINESE 215 to the top of its highest buildings the better to enjoy the scenery; they inspected the stores, the churches, the publio buildings. They patronjzed the cabs to a liberal extent, as many as ten of them airing themselves in one vehicle at the same time. They chaffed the lower olasses, and, with the greatest brmMmie, oondescended to shake hands with some gentlemen whose appearance met with their approval. They took over the Governor's fish-pond at Kingston, opened the sluices, drained off the water, and then wading in, amused them selves by oatohing the fish out of the mud, all the time with the greatest hilarity, and with uproarioul> laughter. They celebrated their safe arrival in the oolony by a series of theatrioal entertajnments given under the portico of the Immigration Offioe. Some of them walked into my house, took up the ornaments and photographs on the tables, and inspected the plate on the sideboard; all the time talking in loud voioes, and roaring with laughter. Meeting my little boy, Arnold, a child of four, in the street, one of them picked him up and oarried him for some distanoe on his shoulders, to the amusement of his oomrades, and the terror of the boy's nurse. Only one thing amazed them, and that was a locomotive engine, and it they worshipped as a god. Mr. Crosby, the Immigration Agent-General, was at his wits' end, and, as his oustom was, blessed his soul all day. At last the men were allotted to different estates and sent out of town, but very few of them became steady labourers.

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216 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA The Chinese are so much alike in features that it is very difficult to distinguish one man from another; so when they deserted from estates it was diffioult to identify and arrest them. As I have said, there was a Chinese settlement on the Camouuie Creek, opposite Hyde Park Police Station, on the Demerara River, where there is a church and a catechist. Deserters from estates frequently make their way to this settlement, and it would be a bold policeman who would attempt to execute a warrant in its midst. The Chinese, as a rule, work hard and live well; un] ike the East Indian, they mingle freely with the black and coloured races. As Chinese women are scarce, the Chinaman has always a coloured woman as a concubine; and they generally manage to get the best-looking girls in the place. The negro popula tion, who make a butt of the patient Hindoo and bully his life out of him, are afraid of the China man, and leave him alone. The heathen Chinee is, as a rule, a melancholy person: he takes life very seriously, he is not enamoured of it, and deprives himself of it with nonchalanc e on the least provocation -any temporary calamity is sufficient to drive him to the fatal act. A new police-station and lock-up was erected at Anna Regina on the Aroabisce Coast in 1878. For the accommodation of the prisoners a wooden benoh was placed round the walls of the lock-up. Un fortunately, by standing on the bench, a prisoner could reach with his hands the iron-barred ventilators in the wall, so the first Chinaman who 216 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA The Chinese are so much alike in features that it is very difficult to distinguish one man from another; so when they deserted from estates it was diffioult to identify and arrest them. As I have said, there was a Chinese settlement on the Camouuie Creek, opposite Hyde Park Police Station, on the Demerara River, where there is a church and a catechist. Deserters from estates frequently make their way to this settlement, and it would be a bold policeman who would attempt to execute a warrant in its midst. The Chinese, as a rule, work hard and live well; un] ike the East Indian, they mingle freely with the black and coloured races. As Chinese women are scarce, the Chinaman has always a coloured woman as a concubine; and they generally manage to get the best-looking girls in the place. The negro popula tion, who make a butt of the patient Hindoo and bully his life out of him, are afraid of the China man, and leave him alone. The heathen Chinee is, as a rule, a melancholy person: he takes life very seriously, he is not enamoured of it, and deprives himself of it with nonchalanc e on the least provocation -any temporary calamity is sufficient to drive him to the fatal act. A new police-station and lock-up was erected at Anna Regina on the Aroabisce Coast in 1878. For the accommodation of the prisoners a wooden benoh was placed round the walls of the lock-up. Un fortunately, by standing on the bench, a prisoner could reach with his hands the iron-barred ventilators in the wall, so the first Chinaman who

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SOAROITY OF WOMEN 217 was imprisoned in the lock-up immediately hanged himself by strips of his torn-up clothing suspended from the bars of the window. I thought this was an isolated case of temporary insanity, but as all the Chinamen who were temporarily incarcerated in the same place despatched themselves in the same way, it was thought desirable to remove that part of the bench which was under the barred windows. After its removal no more suicides took place. Amongst the East Indian immigmnts intro duced into British Guiana the percentage of women is small; there are, on an average, not more than thirty-five women to every hundred men, so it is impossible to provide each man with a wife. There is great difficulty in persuading women to emigrate from India. Perhaps I am wrong in this, as women in India have little chance of exercising their own will in the matter. I ought to have said that the male relations of a woman wishing to emigrate will do everything in their power to prevent her from doing so. In order, therefore, to procure enough women to make up the complement of a ship, the emigration agents in Calcutta are compelled to ship a number of women recruited from the bazaars, and not of good character. When landed in British Guiana, the Indian coolie, unless he has brought a wife with him, or has persuaded a female on board ship to live with him when he arrives, has very Amall chance of getting a wife until he has worked for some years and amassed sufficient money to enable him to purchase the SOAROITY OF WOMEN 217 was imprisoned in the lock-up immediately hanged himself by strips of his torn-up clothing suspended from the bars of the window. I thought this was an isolated case of temporary insanity, but as all the Chinamen who were temporarily incarcerated in the same place despatched themselves in the same way, it was thought desirable to remove that part of the bench which was under the barred windows. After its removal no more suicides took place. Amongst the East Indian immigmnts intro duced into British Guiana the percentage of women is small; there are, on an average, not more than thirty-five women to every hundred men, so it is impossible to provide each man with a wife. There is great difficulty in persuading women to emigrate from India. Perhaps I am wrong in this, as women in India have little chance of exercising their own will in the matter. I ought to have said that the male relations of a woman wishing to emigrate will do everything in their power to prevent her from doing so. In order, therefore, to procure enough women to make up the complement of a ship, the emigration agents in Calcutta are compelled to ship a number of women recruited from the bazaars, and not of good character. When landed in British Guiana, the Indian coolie, unless he has brought a wife with him, or has persuaded a female on board ship to live with him when he arrives, has very Amall chance of getting a wife until he has worked for some years and amassed sufficient money to enable him to purchase the

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218 TWENTy-nVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA daughter of a fellow-countrymau who is blessed with a family. Owing to the scarcity of females, polyandry is often practised, three or four men living with one woman in apparent contentment. It can well be imagined on a large sugar estate where there are seven or eight hundred East Indians, most of whom are young men, that the husband of an attraotive youug wife has not a very easy life. Every induoement of love and money is tried to seduoe the girl (for she is often only fourteen or fifteen years of age) to leave her husband, or, at any rate, to listen with acquiescence to the tales of love poured into her ears. So a jealons husband has a miserable life. He can never trust his wife out of his sight; when he goes to work he takes her with him, or else leaves her in charge of his mother or some female relative who watohes her all day. It mnst be remembered that with most married couples no love had preceded the marriage ceremony; a young girl of ten 01' twelve years of age is sold to a man like a sheep without asking her consent, so no affection for her spouse can prevent her from dishonouring him. An amusing inoident occurred onoe in court, which throws some light on coolie marriages. A little East Indian girl was giving her evidence about the defendant, who had recently proposed marriage to her nnder peculiar circumstances. The girl's motber owed defendant a debt, in settlement of which he wanted her cow. But he also wanted the woman's daughter, and proposed for her hand, on condition the cow went as dowry. 218 TWENTy-nVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA daughter of a fellow-countrymau who is blessed with a family. Owing to the scarcity of females, polyandry is often practised, three or four men living with one woman in apparent contentment. It can well be imagined on a large sugar estate where there are seven or eight hundred East Indians, most of whom are young men, that the husband of an attraotive youug wife has not a very easy life. Every induoement of love and money is tried to seduoe the girl (for she is often only fourteen or fifteen years of age) to leave her husband, or, at any rate, to listen with acquiescence to the tales of love poured into her ears. So a jealons husband has a miserable life. He can never trust his wife out of his sight; when he goes to work he takes her with him, or else leaves her in charge of his mother or some female relative who watohes her all day. It mnst be remembered that with most married couples no love had preceded the marriage ceremony; a young girl of ten 01' twelve years of age is sold to a man like a sheep without asking her consent, so no affection for her spouse can prevent her from dishonouring him. An amusing inoident occurred onoe in court, which throws some light on coolie marriages. A little East Indian girl was giving her evidence about the defendant, who had recently proposed marriage to her nnder peculiar circumstances. The girl's motber owed defendant a debt, in settlement of which he wanted her cow. But he also wanted the woman's daughter, and proposed for her hand, on condition the cow went as dowry.

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ADULTERY 219 '" No,' said me mudder, 'you can take de gal and leff de cow, no so take de cow, and leff de gal.' Here the little maiden became excited, and with raised voice informed the Court-" And belieb me, Sah, de beast leff me wid me mudder, and took de cow." It is no wonder that a loveless marriage often leads to adultery, and adultery too frequently leads to murder. In European countries the rage of the injured husband is usually directed against the man who has dishonoured his bed and wrecked his home. In the earlier days he would kill him when he met him, or hire an assassin to murder him. Later on in social history he used to parade him at 7 a.m. and shoot him, or be shot himself. Now he tries to cast him for heavy damages in the Divorce Court. But the Asiatic looks upon his wife as the chief offender. If he be a Turk, he ties her up in a sack and sinks her in the sea; if a Rindoo, he mutilates her by chopping off her nose, breasts, or arms, and if in a violent rage, hacks her to pieces with his cutlass. These violent assaults and murders are, unfortunately, very common in Demerara, and I can remember many oases which came under my immediate cogruzance. On one of the largest and best-managed sugar estates on the east bank of the Demerara River there lived an East Indian immigrant named Seecharam. He was a well-to-do man, was the proud possessor of three cows; buried under the floor of his hut were a numerous assortment of ADULTERY 219 '" No,' said me mudder, 'you can take de gal and leff de cow, no so take de cow, and leff de gal.' Here the little maiden became excited, and with raised voice informed the Court-" And belieb me, Sah, de beast leff me wid me mudder, and took de cow." It is no wonder that a loveless marriage often leads to adultery, and adultery too frequently leads to murder. In European countries the rage of the injured husband is usually directed against the man who has dishonoured his bed and wrecked his home. In the earlier days he would kill him when he met him, or hire an assassin to murder him. Later on in social history he used to parade him at 7 a.m. and shoot him, or be shot himself. Now he tries to cast him for heavy damages in the Divorce Court. But the Asiatic looks upon his wife as the chief offender. If he be a Turk, he ties her up in a sack and sinks her in the sea; if a Rindoo, he mutilates her by chopping off her nose, breasts, or arms, and if in a violent rage, hacks her to pieces with his cutlass. These violent assaults and murders are, unfortunately, very common in Demerara, and I can remember many oases which came under my immediate cogruzance. On one of the largest and best-managed sugar estates on the east bank of the Demerara River there lived an East Indian immigrant named Seecharam. He was a well-to-do man, was the proud possessor of three cows; buried under the floor of his hut were a numerous assortment of

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220 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA bangles, nose-jewels, earrings, and necklaces, such as charm the female mind. He had also an account in three figures of dollars in the Government Savings Bank. The wife he had brought with him from the old country was dead, and being still a year on the right side of fifty, he was anxious to prooure a successor. It was not long before his choice fell upon Etwarrea, a pretty little Indian girl born in the colony of wealthy parents. She was eleven years of age, so there was nothing to delay the marriage if Seecharam could gain the consent of the father. So the expectant bridegroom gave a big dinner and invited Etwarrea's father; and after dinner, when the stomach was full and the heart soft, and the blue smoke from their hnbble bubbles was curling ronnd their heads, Seecharam opened his heart to the girl's father, and demanded his daughter in marriage. The wily old man appeared astonished, and said that he had already promised his daughter; but when pressed to name the favoured one he prevaricated, and Seecharam saw he was only trying to gain time. However, the father kept on extolling his daughter's charms, and the number of her suitors, so that no arrangement could be arrived at that night. After some days' arguing and bargaining, Seecharam agreed to give the father a cow nnd a calf, fifty dollars in hard cash, and he was to make a will leaving his future wife, and any children she might have by him, all the remainder of his property. After these preliminaries had been satisfactorily arranged 220 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA bangles, nose-jewels, earrings, and necklaces, such as charm the female mind. He had also an account in three figures of dollars in the Government Savings Bank. The wife he had brought with him from the old country was dead, and being still a year on the right side of fifty, he was anxious to prooure a successor. It was not long before his choice fell upon Etwarrea, a pretty little Indian girl born in the colony of wealthy parents. She was eleven years of age, so there was nothing to delay the marriage if Seecharam could gain the consent of the father. So the expectant bridegroom gave a big dinner and invited Etwarrea's father; and after dinner, when the stomach was full and the heart soft, and the blue smoke from their hnbble bubbles was curling ronnd their heads, Seecharam opened his heart to the girl's father, and demanded his daughter in marriage. The wily old man appeared astonished, and said that he had already promised his daughter; but when pressed to name the favoured one he prevaricated, and Seecharam saw he was only trying to gain time. However, the father kept on extolling his daughter's charms, and the number of her suitors, so that no arrangement could be arrived at that night. After some days' arguing and bargaining, Seecharam agreed to give the father a cow nnd a calf, fifty dollars in hard cash, and he was to make a will leaving his future wife, and any children she might have by him, all the remainder of his property. After these preliminaries had been satisfactorily arranged

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ETW..!RRE..!'S LOVERS 221 the girl was introduced to her future husband, and a short time afterwards their nuptials were celebrated with all the usual feasting and tom-toming. At first everything went smoothly; the little bride settled down to her wifely duties. Her husband was generally kind to her, although he sometimes gave her a good whack with his stick when he came home from work, and found she had been making mud-pies in the road instead of cooking his rice for dinner. His first wife's mother, who lived with them, was a strict duenna, but she didn't ill-use the child, and altogether Etwarrea's lot was better than that of most East Indian wives. But when the young wife became fifteen or sixteen years of age, when her figure had attained its full development-and a lovely little figure it was, too-she began to lend a willing ear to the blandishments of several young men who were anxious to supplant the somewhat aged husband. Scandalous reports about Etwarrea began to be spread, and came to her husband's ears. He said nothing at first, but at last he accused her of infidelity, and as she did not give satisfactory answers, he gave her a severe beating, and locked her up in his room when he went out to his work. The old woman overwhelmed her with reproaches, and altogether poor little Etwarrea was in a bad way. Her affection for her husband was not increased by such treatment, and she consoled herself whenever she dared in the society of the most favoured of her lovers. ETW..!RRE..!'S LOVERS 221 the girl was introduced to her future husband, and a short time afterwards their nuptials were celebrated with all the usual feasting and tom-toming. At first everything went smoothly; the little bride settled down to her wifely duties. Her husband was generally kind to her, although he sometimes gave her a good whack with his stick when he came home from work, and found she had been making mud-pies in the road instead of cooking his rice for dinner. His first wife's mother, who lived with them, was a strict duenna, but she didn't ill-use the child, and altogether Etwarrea's lot was better than that of most East Indian wives. But when the young wife became fifteen or sixteen years of age, when her figure had attained its full development-and a lovely little figure it was, too-she began to lend a willing ear to the blandishments of several young men who were anxious to supplant the somewhat aged husband. Scandalous reports about Etwarrea began to be spread, and came to her husband's ears. He said nothing at first, but at last he accused her of infidelity, and as she did not give satisfactory answers, he gave her a severe beating, and locked her up in his room when he went out to his work. The old woman overwhelmed her with reproaches, and altogether poor little Etwarrea was in a bad way. Her affection for her husband was not increased by such treatment, and she consoled herself whenever she dared in the society of the most favoured of her lovers.

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222 TWENTY-FIVE YEA.RS IN BRITISH GUIA.NA At last her husband's patience was exhansted: he had become convinced that his wife was a faithless woman; he became moody and silent, always brooding over his wrongs. He hardly ever spoke to his wife now, and people who knew the ways of his race watched for what he would do next. One morning Seecharam refused to go to work when the driver came round to turn out the shovel gang. As he was usually a good and steady worker, the overseer left bim alone. When the people had all gone to work, and the nigger yard was almost deserted, Seecharam took his cutlass, or machete, a heavy iron weapon with which canes are cut, and proceeded to sharpen it at the grindstone. Two women saw him doing this, muttering to himself all the while; so, scenting mischief, they went to the range of coolie-rooms, in the gallery of which Etwarrea was sitting sewing, and warned her: "Etwarrea, look to thy self; Seecharam is sharpening his cutlass, his face is hard, and he is talking in his beard." But she only laughed and said, "Never mind what the old fool does; let him sharpen his wits as well as his cntlsss." So they left her, and went after their own business. In the mean while, Seecharam continued to sharpen his cutlsss, feeling the edge with his fingers, until at length he was satisfied with its keenness; then he marched off to his own room, and sat down not far from his wife. She looked up at him and said, Seecharsm, why are you not at work? The manager sahib will 222 TWENTY-FIVE YEA.RS IN BRITISH GUIA.NA At last her husband's patience was exhansted: he had become convinced that his wife was a faithless woman; he became moody and silent, always brooding over his wrongs. He hardly ever spoke to his wife now, and people who knew the ways of his race watched for what he would do next. One morning Seecharam refused to go to work when the driver came round to turn out the shovel gang. As he was usually a good and steady worker, the overseer left bim alone. When the people had all gone to work, and the nigger yard was almost deserted, Seecharam took his cutlass, or machete, a heavy iron weapon with which canes are cut, and proceeded to sharpen it at the grindstone. Two women saw him doing this, muttering to himself all the while; so, scenting mischief, they went to the range of coolie-rooms, in the gallery of which Etwarrea was sitting sewing, and warned her: "Etwarrea, look to thy self; Seecharam is sharpening his cutlass, his face is hard, and he is talking in his beard." But she only laughed and said, "Never mind what the old fool does; let him sharpen his wits as well as his cntlsss." So they left her, and went after their own business. In the mean while, Seecharam continued to sharpen his cutlsss, feeling the edge with his fingers, until at length he was satisfied with its keenness; then he marched off to his own room, and sat down not far from his wife. She looked up at him and said, Seecharsm, why are you not at work? The manager sahib will

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MUTILATION AND DEATH 223 summons you before the magistrate sahib." But he said nothing. Etwarrea looked at him, and then at the gleaming cutlass, and a great fear entered into her soul. She had never seen him look like that before. Her conscience told her she had been very iudiscreet, and she had heard of the vengeance which an Indian husband some times wreaks on his faithless wife; so she quietly rose up, with the intention of slipping away and joining some other men and women who were sitting in the gallery of an adjac "ent range. But ere she had made six strides from her place her husband was after her, and seized her by the right hand with his left. She shrieked aloud as the dreaded cutlass descended with two sharp chops upon her pretty rounded arm, severing it com pletely from her body just below the elbow. Seecharam flung the bleeding limb into her face as she fled from him, shouting out, "Harlot! adulteress! take that !" The unfortunate woman ran on, shrieking and bleeding, till she sank down on the ground, the blood pouring from her severed arteries. Seecharam, returning to his house, threw the bloody cutlass into the room, took his shovel, locked the door, and went out to his work aback of the estate. The injured woman was carried to the hospital on the plantation, where every care was taken of her. The district medical officer was sent for, and he found it was necessary to amputate the arm above the elbow. The poor girl had lost so much blood, and the shock to her system was so great, MUTILATION AND DEATH 223 summons you before the magistrate sahib." But he said nothing. Etwarrea looked at him, and then at the gleaming cutlass, and a great fear entered into her soul. She had never seen him look like that before. Her conscience told her she had been very iudiscreet, and she had heard of the vengeance which an Indian husband some times wreaks on his faithless wife; so she quietly rose up, with the intention of slipping away and joining some other men and women who were sitting in the gallery of an adjac "ent range. But ere she had made six strides from her place her husband was after her, and seized her by the right hand with his left. She shrieked aloud as the dreaded cutlass descended with two sharp chops upon her pretty rounded arm, severing it com pletely from her body just below the elbow. Seecharam flung the bleeding limb into her face as she fled from him, shouting out, "Harlot! adulteress! take that !" The unfortunate woman ran on, shrieking and bleeding, till she sank down on the ground, the blood pouring from her severed arteries. Seecharam, returning to his house, threw the bloody cutlass into the room, took his shovel, locked the door, and went out to his work aback of the estate. The injured woman was carried to the hospital on the plantation, where every care was taken of her. The district medical officer was sent for, and he found it was necessary to amputate the arm above the elbow. The poor girl had lost so much blood, and the shock to her system was so great,

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224 TWENTY-FIVE IN BRITISH that it was evident she had not long to live. The magistrate of the distriot in whioh this happened was sent for to take her dying deposition. Seeoharam had been arrested, and was oon fronted with his viotim; he seemed quite indif ferent and oallous, and showed no sign of emotion. Etwarrea died within two days of the assault upon her, and Seeoharam was oommitted for trial at the next sessions of the Supreme Criminal Court to be held in Georgetown. The evidenoe was so olear against him at the trial that his oonviotion followed as a matter of oourse, ap.d the date of his execution was fixed. The Governor in Council refused to interfere with his sentenoe, so, as Sherifi' of the County, I reoeived the Governor's warrant for the exeoution of the wretohed man. I went to see him the day before he was executed, and told him that he would be hanged at 9 a.m. the next day, and asked him if I could do anything for him-write to his relations in India, or see about his property in the oolony. No; he said he didn't want any thing. I asked him if he would like to see .. priest, or Brahmin. No," he replied; the chaplain of the prison was very kind to bim, and showed him some pretty piotures." He seemed so oalm and self-possessed that I asked him what he expeoted would happen to him when he died. He thought for a few moments, and then said that he believed he should beoome a mule. For how long would you be a mule?" "Well, I don't know. For some years." "And what wililleoome 224 TWENTY-FIVE IN BRITISH that it was evident she had not long to live. The magistrate of the distriot in whioh this happened was sent for to take her dying deposition. Seeoharam had been arrested, and was oon fronted with his viotim; he seemed quite indif ferent and oallous, and showed no sign of emotion. Etwarrea died within two days of the assault upon her, and Seeoharam was oommitted for trial at the next sessions of the Supreme Criminal Court to be held in Georgetown. The evidenoe was so olear against him at the trial that his oonviotion followed as a matter of oourse, ap.d the date of his execution was fixed. The Governor in Council refused to interfere with his sentenoe, so, as Sherifi' of the County, I reoeived the Governor's warrant for the exeoution of the wretohed man. I went to see him the day before he was executed, and told him that he would be hanged at 9 a.m. the next day, and asked him if I could do anything for him-write to his relations in India, or see about his property in the oolony. No; he said he didn't want any thing. I asked him if he would like to see .. priest, or Brahmin. No," he replied; the chaplain of the prison was very kind to bim, and showed him some pretty piotures." He seemed so oalm and self-possessed that I asked him what he expeoted would happen to him when he died. He thought for a few moments, and then said that he believed he should beoome a mule. For how long would you be a mule?" "Well, I don't know. For some years." "And what wililleoome

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HINDOO SUPERSTITIONS 225 of you then?" "Oh, then," he replied, "I ehall become a woman." I thought he must be joking, but he spoke quite seriously, and with an air of conviction. The next morning, punctually at 9 o'clock, I read the deathwarrant to him. He was quite caJm, walked quietly on to the fatal drop, and, as his legs were strapped and the cord and oap adjusted, not a tremor could be seen to pass over his frame; life or death seemed to him a matter of perfeot indifference. I gave the signal, the drop down fell with a loud clanging noise, and Seeoharam had solved the great mystery, and would soon know whether his belief in the trans migration of souls was founded on truth or falsehood. The mild Hindoo is generally worthy of his epithet, but when his passions are roused he becomes violently excited, and is then a dangerous person. He is very superstitious, believes in charms, witches, the evil eye, the turned-down thumb, and all the other absurdities which have at different times enslaved all nations. A ourious and what might have turned out a tragic effect of superstition came under my 'notice in 1880, when I was Sheriff of Essequibo. It happened at Plantation Auro"", at the southern part of the Aroabisce coast, on the occasion of the marriage of two East Indians. Gocool was celebrating the wedding of his eldest son with the daughter of a Hindoo shop keeper from the island of Wakenaam, whioh lies Q HINDOO SUPERSTITIONS 225 of you then?" "Oh, then," he replied, "I ehall become a woman." I thought he must be joking, but he spoke quite seriously, and with an air of conviction. The next morning, punctually at 9 o'clock, I read the deathwarrant to him. He was quite caJm, walked quietly on to the fatal drop, and, as his legs were strapped and the cord and oap adjusted, not a tremor could be seen to pass over his frame; life or death seemed to him a matter of perfeot indifference. I gave the signal, the drop down fell with a loud clanging noise, and Seeoharam had solved the great mystery, and would soon know whether his belief in the trans migration of souls was founded on truth or falsehood. The mild Hindoo is generally worthy of his epithet, but when his passions are roused he becomes violently excited, and is then a dangerous person. He is very superstitious, believes in charms, witches, the evil eye, the turned-down thumb, and all the other absurdities which have at different times enslaved all nations. A ourious and what might have turned out a tragic effect of superstition came under my 'notice in 1880, when I was Sheriff of Essequibo. It happened at Plantation Auro"", at the southern part of the Aroabisce coast, on the occasion of the marriage of two East Indians. Gocool was celebrating the wedding of his eldest son with the daughter of a Hindoo shop keeper from the island of Wakenaam, whioh lies Q

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226 TWENTY-FIYE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA in the estuary of the Essequibo River. The sweet meats had all been prepared, the cakes made, the tom-toms had been tightened, and all the para phernalia of a Hindoo wedding were in readiness. The bridegroom was a fine, handsome, well-grown boy of about thirteen years of age; the bride was a lovely little woman of ten, with the tiniest feet and hands, brilliant black eyes, long lashes, and flowing black tresses, which for the first time were curled up behind her pretty little head. The festivities would last during the inside of a week. On Monday the bride's procession oame in boats from Wakenaam, and were met by the bride groom's friends firing guns, discharging crackers, and beating tom-toms, and was conveyed to the house prepared for her. The night was devoted to feasting, but the tired children who were to be married the next day were soon fast asleep. The morning of the wedding-day was fine and hot; before the sun rose the noisy tom-toms informed the world of what was astir. The bride groom sprang from his charpoy, and rushed out into the warm air, bathing his nude body in the beams of the rising sun. As luck would have it, an old she-goat, with its kid, had wandered into his father's compound, and was nibbling at the vegetables and flowers growing therein, so young Ramlall, as the boy was called, amused himself by hunting the beasts out of the place. He was enjoying this sport, and had pitched a piece of firewood and struck the kid on the leg, causing it to limp grievously, when an old crone, the 226 TWENTY-FIYE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA in the estuary of the Essequibo River. The sweet meats had all been prepared, the cakes made, the tom-toms had been tightened, and all the para phernalia of a Hindoo wedding were in readiness. The bridegroom was a fine, handsome, well-grown boy of about thirteen years of age; the bride was a lovely little woman of ten, with the tiniest feet and hands, brilliant black eyes, long lashes, and flowing black tresses, which for the first time were curled up behind her pretty little head. The festivities would last during the inside of a week. On Monday the bride's procession oame in boats from Wakenaam, and were met by the bride groom's friends firing guns, discharging crackers, and beating tom-toms, and was conveyed to the house prepared for her. The night was devoted to feasting, but the tired children who were to be married the next day were soon fast asleep. The morning of the wedding-day was fine and hot; before the sun rose the noisy tom-toms informed the world of what was astir. The bride groom sprang from his charpoy, and rushed out into the warm air, bathing his nude body in the beams of the rising sun. As luck would have it, an old she-goat, with its kid, had wandered into his father's compound, and was nibbling at the vegetables and flowers growing therein, so young Ramlall, as the boy was called, amused himself by hunting the beasts out of the place. He was enjoying this sport, and had pitched a piece of firewood and struck the kid on the leg, causing it to limp grievously, when an old crone, the

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DEATH OF RAMLALL 227 owner of the goats, came upon the scene, and, with frightful objurgations, proceeded to fescue her property. When she saw the kid was lame she cursed RamlaJ! in a way peculiar to her race, which is most prolific in curses. She hoped his marriage would be unhappy and his bed unfruitful; if he had children, they would have seven fathers; that his wife would be a wh etc. Commend me to an East Indian woman for a foul tongue! The neighbours ran out and rebuked the woman, who departed, muttering curses as she went. The boy was much excited by chasing the goats and by the curses he had received, and pro. oeeded, as many boys will, to relieve his feelings by further exercise. With some other boys he ran about racing and shouting, jumping and play ing all kinds of fantastic tricks, whilst the elders looked on, thinking how he had best enjoy himself now, so soon to be undergoing the responsibilities of the married state. Whether it was the unusual excitement or the extra exertion which caused it caJlnot now be said-perhaps both causes oombined -but of a sudden the boy bridegroom fell down fiat on his faoe, and either died at onoe, or within a few minutes after his faJ!. It would be impossible to depiot the consternai:!.on and rage which filled the hearts of the boy's relations and friends when they became aware of what had happened. They bore the child into his father's house, and laid him on the bed; they chafed his hands, poured cold water on his face; DEATH OF RAMLALL 227 owner of the goats, came upon the scene, and, with frightful objurgations, proceeded to fescue her property. When she saw the kid was lame she cursed RamlaJ! in a way peculiar to her race, which is most prolific in curses. She hoped his marriage would be unhappy and his bed unfruitful; if he had children, they would have seven fathers; that his wife would be a wh etc. Commend me to an East Indian woman for a foul tongue! The neighbours ran out and rebuked the woman, who departed, muttering curses as she went. The boy was much excited by chasing the goats and by the curses he had received, and pro. oeeded, as many boys will, to relieve his feelings by further exercise. With some other boys he ran about racing and shouting, jumping and play ing all kinds of fantastic tricks, whilst the elders looked on, thinking how he had best enjoy himself now, so soon to be undergoing the responsibilities of the married state. Whether it was the unusual excitement or the extra exertion which caused it caJlnot now be said-perhaps both causes oombined -but of a sudden the boy bridegroom fell down fiat on his faoe, and either died at onoe, or within a few minutes after his faJ!. It would be impossible to depiot the consternai:!.on and rage which filled the hearts of the boy's relations and friends when they became aware of what had happened. They bore the child into his father's house, and laid him on the bed; they chafed his hands, poured cold water on his face;

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228 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA called on God with loud cries and gesticulations; but still as death lay the boy-in fact, he was quite dead. But they could not believe it : he must be bewitched; and then the curses of the old woman recurred to their minds, and some cried out, He is possessed of an evil spirit; that foul witch hath bewitched him and cries of anger burst from the crowd, which had collected as news of the boy's death got bruited abroad. "Bring the old hag here, and make her fetch him back to life." A dozen men rushed off to the old woman's hut, and, despite her cries and struggles, dragged her by her arms and hair to the room where the boy lay on his back, unclothed except for the string of beads round his neck, and the sacred thread round his loins. In a moment the infuriated relatives had stripped the wl'etched old woman stark naked, and laid her face downwards on the top of the boy, and then proceeded to lash her over the back, butto cks, and legs with canes, rods, and leathern straps, calling uEon her to bring the child back to life again, and remove the curse she had laid upon him. Needless to say, the boy gave no sign of life. The woman screamed at the top of her voice, shrieking for mercy, but her tormentors were inexorable: the flogging went on till the poor womB 'l'S voice grew weaker and weaker, and soon there would have been another oorpse on the top of the first_ But succour was at hand; one of the overseers of the estate, hearing the shrieks, came to see what was being done, and seeing the infuriated mob 228 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA called on God with loud cries and gesticulations; but still as death lay the boy-in fact, he was quite dead. But they could not believe it : he must be bewitched; and then the curses of the old woman recurred to their minds, and some cried out, He is possessed of an evil spirit; that foul witch hath bewitched him and cries of anger burst from the crowd, which had collected as news of the boy's death got bruited abroad. "Bring the old hag here, and make her fetch him back to life." A dozen men rushed off to the old woman's hut, and, despite her cries and struggles, dragged her by her arms and hair to the room where the boy lay on his back, unclothed except for the string of beads round his neck, and the sacred thread round his loins. In a moment the infuriated relatives had stripped the wl'etched old woman stark naked, and laid her face downwards on the top of the boy, and then proceeded to lash her over the back, butto cks, and legs with canes, rods, and leathern straps, calling uEon her to bring the child back to life again, and remove the curse she had laid upon him. Needless to say, the boy gave no sign of life. The woman screamed at the top of her voice, shrieking for mercy, but her tormentors were inexorable: the flogging went on till the poor womB 'l'S voice grew weaker and weaker, and soon there would have been another oorpse on the top of the first_ But succour was at hand; one of the overseers of the estate, hearing the shrieks, came to see what was being done, and seeing the infuriated mob

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OR BEWITOHED 229 beating the old woman to death, he called a dozen stout negroes, and conveyed the poor creature to the police-station, more dead than alive, and locked her up there for safety. Baulked of their prey, the enraged Hindoos rushed out and spread abroad their tale of woe and bereavement. Sympathy with their wrongs was soon aroused in the breasts of their countrymen, and about a hundred coolies, armed with haclria-sticks, marched to the police station, and demanded that the woman should be gIven up. The manager of the estate became alarmed, and telegraphed to me to come up, as he expected there would be a riot, and the police-station de stroyed. At the same time the Sergeant of Police in charge of Aurora station telegraphed to head quarters for reinforcements. A few minutes after the receipt of the telegram I was on my way to Aurora, leaving orders for twenty policemen, armed with Enfield rifles, to be despatched at once. When I arrived at Am'ora, I found a great mob of coolies round the police-station, brandishing sticks and shouting out threats and curses. I called to one or two of the leaders whom I knew, and asked them what was the matter. They told .me that the woman in the lock-up had bewitched the boy, who was lying in a trance, and that if she did not bring hi m back to life, they would beat her to death. But," I said, are you sure the boy is alive? Perhaps he is dead." No, they were sure he was not dead, he was ouly bewitcned. I went on to the house where the boy was, forcing my OR BEWITOHED 229 beating the old woman to death, he called a dozen stout negroes, and conveyed the poor creature to the police-station, more dead than alive, and locked her up there for safety. Baulked of their prey, the enraged Hindoos rushed out and spread abroad their tale of woe and bereavement. Sympathy with their wrongs was soon aroused in the breasts of their countrymen, and about a hundred coolies, armed with haclria-sticks, marched to the police station, and demanded that the woman should be gIven up. The manager of the estate became alarmed, and telegraphed to me to come up, as he expected there would be a riot, and the police-station de stroyed. At the same time the Sergeant of Police in charge of Aurora station telegraphed to head quarters for reinforcements. A few minutes after the receipt of the telegram I was on my way to Aurora, leaving orders for twenty policemen, armed with Enfield rifles, to be despatched at once. When I arrived at Am'ora, I found a great mob of coolies round the police-station, brandishing sticks and shouting out threats and curses. I called to one or two of the leaders whom I knew, and asked them what was the matter. They told .me that the woman in the lock-up had bewitched the boy, who was lying in a trance, and that if she did not bring hi m back to life, they would beat her to death. But," I said, are you sure the boy is alive? Perhaps he is dead." No, they were sure he was not dead, he was ouly bewitcned. I went on to the house where the boy was, forcing my

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230 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA way in with great difficulty, amongst the wailing women and cursing men. Well," I said, "if he is not dead, let ns take bim to the hospital at once for the doctor sahib to see bim; perhaps he will bring him baok to life." To this they agreed, and, hoisting up the cot on their shoulders, six of the men carried bim off to the hospital, followed by a mob of about two hundred men, women, and children. I had already sent for the medical officer belonging to the district, who arrived soon after I got to the hospital. The boy was carried into the mortuary. I drove all the people out, except about six of the principal men, and these I ordered to leave their heavy hackia-sticks outside. I then locked the door, and took out the key. The doctor felt the boy's pulse, sounded his heart, and then said to me in a low voice, "He is quite dead." So I said to the men, "The doctor sahib says he is dead, and nothing can bring bim back to life. Don't you believe him?" Some said" Yes," others said "No." So I said to the doctor, "A post-mortem examination must be made for the inquest, whioh I shall hold over the body, so you may as well make it at once." Calling for the dispenser of the hospital to bring his implements down, the doctor took out his knives, and opened the boy straight up from his groin to his throat, took out the organs and examined them, found the cause of death, which was the rupture of a blood-vessel in or near the heart, which he showed -to the men, who were watching his proceedings with disgusted 230 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA way in with great difficulty, amongst the wailing women and cursing men. Well," I said, "if he is not dead, let ns take bim to the hospital at once for the doctor sahib to see bim; perhaps he will bring him baok to life." To this they agreed, and, hoisting up the cot on their shoulders, six of the men carried bim off to the hospital, followed by a mob of about two hundred men, women, and children. I had already sent for the medical officer belonging to the district, who arrived soon after I got to the hospital. The boy was carried into the mortuary. I drove all the people out, except about six of the principal men, and these I ordered to leave their heavy hackia-sticks outside. I then locked the door, and took out the key. The doctor felt the boy's pulse, sounded his heart, and then said to me in a low voice, "He is quite dead." So I said to the men, "The doctor sahib says he is dead, and nothing can bring bim back to life. Don't you believe him?" Some said" Yes," others said "No." So I said to the doctor, "A post-mortem examination must be made for the inquest, whioh I shall hold over the body, so you may as well make it at once." Calling for the dispenser of the hospital to bring his implements down, the doctor took out his knives, and opened the boy straight up from his groin to his throat, took out the organs and examined them, found the cause of death, which was the rupture of a blood-vessel in or near the heart, which he showed -to the men, who were watching his proceedings with disgusted

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4N RIDDLE 231 faces. "Are you satisfied, doctor?" said I. "Quite," replied he. "There is no doubt death was caused by the rupture of this blood-vessel, caused by over-excitement and over-exertion, and his death must have been almost instantaneous." The organs were replaced, and the body stitched up, but still the men said nothing. When this was done, I turned to them and exclaimed, Well, is the boy dead now?" One of them, who could speak a little English, replied grimly, Yes, sahib, the doctor sahib kill him good this time." "So the old woman canDot bring bim to life now?" This they admitted. "Then," I said, "you had better leave her alone." To this they maie no reply, so I unlocked the door, and we all sallied out to meet the crowd outside, who had been anxiously awaiting the result of our conference. It was some days before the excitement subsided sufficiently for me to allow the wretched old woman to be liberated; and then she was removed to the hospital, as the injuries she had received had been a great shock to her system. The pretty little bride, widowed before ever she was a wife, returned with her friends to Wakenaam, and by degrees the men at Aurora returned to work, laid down their sticks and took up their shovels, but to this day I believe most of them roajntain that the doctor killed the boy by my orders. 4N RIDDLE 231 faces. "Are you satisfied, doctor?" said I. "Quite," replied he. "There is no doubt death was caused by the rupture of this blood-vessel, caused by over-excitement and over-exertion, and his death must have been almost instantaneous." The organs were replaced, and the body stitched up, but still the men said nothing. When this was done, I turned to them and exclaimed, Well, is the boy dead now?" One of them, who could speak a little English, replied grimly, Yes, sahib, the doctor sahib kill him good this time." "So the old woman canDot bring bim to life now?" This they admitted. "Then," I said, "you had better leave her alone." To this they maie no reply, so I unlocked the door, and we all sallied out to meet the crowd outside, who had been anxiously awaiting the result of our conference. It was some days before the excitement subsided sufficiently for me to allow the wretched old woman to be liberated; and then she was removed to the hospital, as the injuries she had received had been a great shock to her system. The pretty little bride, widowed before ever she was a wife, returned with her friends to Wakenaam, and by degrees the men at Aurora returned to work, laid down their sticks and took up their shovels, but to this day I believe most of them roajntain that the doctor killed the boy by my orders.

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232 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER X. Peljury: in the Divorce Court; genero.lly; amongst Hindoos-Family ties-Caste Case of Rookminia-Perjury a duty-Her imprisonment -Release-Gratitude-Various races and creeds in British Glljana_ Variety of jndicial oaths-Curions Chinese oaths_HindoD beliefResults of education-Names of children, Hindeo, Congo-Bindharry Qnd bis pretty daughters-A djSAppointed lover-Large amount of savings made by coolies-Mootee-Champagne-drinking-Depoait in the Bengal Bank-Hardships of coolies returning to Indis-Extortion by priests and relatives-Marriage contracts Consideration money -Baboo English-Marriages between children-Complicatio,,,nssFata1ism-Oriental imagery-
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FALSE WITNESS 233 committed perjury to save his innocent friend from a shameful death. All of us who have presided at trials, whether criminal or civil, are painfully aware how unreliable most witnesses are, and how they allow their wishes and predilectious to outweigh their love of truth. If such be the state of morals amongst educated Christian people, it cannot be surprising that amongst nations with other morals and diverse religions speAking the truth on all occasions is not considered incumbent or praiseworthy. Amongst the Hindoos, truthfulness is the exception, not the rule. If you ask a Rindoo of inferior position to your own a question, he answers, not according to the facts of the case, but as he believes you wish him to answer; so he generally equivocates, seldom answering directly, in the hope of gleAning from your words and manner in what way you wish him to reply. Witnesses for a lawsuit can be bought in any number, and are instructed as to what they are to say at the trial with con siderable carefulness, and with an eye to cross examination which is truly remarkable. I have often found that the only way to arrive at the truth in a case between two East Indians,. each of whom called numerous witnesses, was to order all witnesses out of court, and then to examine each individually upon some parts of the case which were not directly bearing upon the points at issue, but whioh often revealed the fact that the witnesses could not possibly have been at the place where they swore they had been. For FALSE WITNESS 233 committed perjury to save his innocent friend from a shameful death. All of us who have presided at trials, whether criminal or civil, are painfully aware how unreliable most witnesses are, and how they allow their wishes and predilectious to outweigh their love of truth. If such be the state of morals amongst educated Christian people, it cannot be surprising that amongst nations with other morals and diverse religions speAking the truth on all occasions is not considered incumbent or praiseworthy. Amongst the Hindoos, truthfulness is the exception, not the rule. If you ask a Rindoo of inferior position to your own a question, he answers, not according to the facts of the case, but as he believes you wish him to answer; so he generally equivocates, seldom answering directly, in the hope of gleAning from your words and manner in what way you wish him to reply. Witnesses for a lawsuit can be bought in any number, and are instructed as to what they are to say at the trial with con siderable carefulness, and with an eye to cross examination which is truly remarkable. I have often found that the only way to arrive at the truth in a case between two East Indians,. each of whom called numerous witnesses, was to order all witnesses out of court, and then to examine each individually upon some parts of the case which were not directly bearing upon the points at issue, but whioh often revealed the fact that the witnesses could not possibly have been at the place where they swore they had been. For

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234 TWEm'Y-FIVE YEEIS IN BBITISH GUIANA instance, if it were a question as to the payment of certain money, all the witnesses would be perfectly prepared, under cross-examination, to say when and where the money was paid, how many persons were present at the time, who they were, in whose house, the exact time by the clock, who wrote and who signed the receipt, and all the other minuti., of the transaction; but by asking questions for which they have not been prepared, it may often be discovered that it was impossible for the witnesses to have seen all the transactions which they so glibly described. It is also part of the family religion of the Hindoo that all members of a family should hold together, and should back each other up in all matteI'S before the courts. This especially holds good with regard to the women of the family, who are always held in subjection, and whose sale duty is to obey their husbands, brothers, fathers, fathers-in-law, and mothers-in-law, and to have no opinion of their own in anything. A remarkable instance came to my knowledge in Essequibo; not that I think the circumstances are unusual, but, having been the cause of both a civil and criminal trial, it came into greater prominence than other similar cases whioh had been either undi scove red 01' unnoticed. An East Indian, who was possessed of considerable property in houses and cattle, died on an estate on the Aroabisce coast. He had several children, and, in anticipation of his approaching decease, he gave instructions to the village lawyer for a will 234 TWEm'Y-FIVE YEEIS IN BBITISH GUIANA instance, if it were a question as to the payment of certain money, all the witnesses would be perfectly prepared, under cross-examination, to say when and where the money was paid, how many persons were present at the time, who they were, in whose house, the exact time by the clock, who wrote and who signed the receipt, and all the other minuti., of the transaction; but by asking questions for which they have not been prepared, it may often be discovered that it was impossible for the witnesses to have seen all the transactions which they so glibly described. It is also part of the family religion of the Hindoo that all members of a family should hold together, and should back each other up in all matteI'S before the courts. This especially holds good with regard to the women of the family, who are always held in subjection, and whose sale duty is to obey their husbands, brothers, fathers, fathers-in-law, and mothers-in-law, and to have no opinion of their own in anything. A remarkable instance came to my knowledge in Essequibo; not that I think the circumstances are unusual, but, having been the cause of both a civil and criminal trial, it came into greater prominence than other similar cases whioh had been either undi scove red 01' unnoticed. An East Indian, who was possessed of considerable property in houses and cattle, died on an estate on the Aroabisce coast. He had several children, and, in anticipation of his approaching decease, he gave instructions to the village lawyer for a will

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A FORGED WILL 235 to be drawn up; but before his wishes could be carried out the old man died. Having died without a will, his property would come under the jurisdiction of the Administrator-General, who would take possession of the property, sell it, and divide the proceeds among the heirs-at-law. To avoid this, the eldest son, who lived with his father, obtajned the aid of a black man in the neighbourhood who could read and write, and had a document drawn up, purporting to be the last will and testament of his deceased father, in which the bulk of the property was left to himself; he forged his father's signature, dated the paper on the day before his father's death, and obtajned witnesses who signed the will, amongst others his sister Rookminia, who lived in the house with her father and brother. However, the forgery was so clumsily done, the document at once exciting suspicion, that probate was refused; the son of the deceased Hindoo was arrested, aud, after a full investigation, was committed by me for trial at the Criminal Sessions on a charge of forgery. At the trial he was ably defended by a coloured barrister from Georgetown, who called in his defence, amongst others his sister Rookminia. In her evidence Rookminia swore positively that her old father made his mark to the will before he died; that it was read over to him, and that he was aware of its contents; and that the disposal of the property by the will was what he had always intended, and had spoken about it in her presence A FORGED WILL 235 to be drawn up; but before his wishes could be carried out the old man died. Having died without a will, his property would come under the jurisdiction of the Administrator-General, who would take possession of the property, sell it, and divide the proceeds among the heirs-at-law. To avoid this, the eldest son, who lived with his father, obtajned the aid of a black man in the neighbourhood who could read and write, and had a document drawn up, purporting to be the last will and testament of his deceased father, in which the bulk of the property was left to himself; he forged his father's signature, dated the paper on the day before his father's death, and obtajned witnesses who signed the will, amongst others his sister Rookminia, who lived in the house with her father and brother. However, the forgery was so clumsily done, the document at once exciting suspicion, that probate was refused; the son of the deceased Hindoo was arrested, aud, after a full investigation, was committed by me for trial at the Criminal Sessions on a charge of forgery. At the trial he was ably defended by a coloured barrister from Georgetown, who called in his defence, amongst others his sister Rookminia. In her evidence Rookminia swore positively that her old father made his mark to the will before he died; that it was read over to him, and that he was aware of its contents; and that the disposal of the property by the will was what he had always intended, and had spoken about it in her presence

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236 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA before he died. Despite these positive statements of Rookminia and other witnesses, the man was found guilty, and the judge ordered that Rook roinia should be arrested, and oharged with wiIful and oorrupt perjury. I conducted the preliminary examination, and the evidence presenting a strong prima facie case aga .inst the young woman, who was only eighteen or twenty years of age, married, with two little children, one a baby in arms, she was committed for trial, being admitted to bail in the mean while. Rookminia was tried in due course, found guilty, and the judge, commenting upon the serious nature of the crime, and its frequency amongst her countrymen and countrywomen, sentenoed her to a long term of imprisonment. As sheriff of the county, I visited the gaol weekly, and I was always saddened by the sight of this unfortunate young woman with her baby, for the child was too young to be deprived of its mother's care and sustenance. I was aware that by her own code of morals, if she had refused to give evidence on behalf of her father or her brother in their peril she would have been liable to be stoned to death by their infuriated relatives. A falsehood told in court on behalf of her brother was a venial offence compared to the fearful shame whioh would have been hers if she had failed him in his hour of need. Family affection, the obligations of oaste, of tribal duty, of oustom and religion, were all drawing her by oords which were too strong for her to break, and no idea of the 236 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA before he died. Despite these positive statements of Rookminia and other witnesses, the man was found guilty, and the judge ordered that Rook roinia should be arrested, and oharged with wiIful and oorrupt perjury. I conducted the preliminary examination, and the evidence presenting a strong prima facie case aga .inst the young woman, who was only eighteen or twenty years of age, married, with two little children, one a baby in arms, she was committed for trial, being admitted to bail in the mean while. Rookminia was tried in due course, found guilty, and the judge, commenting upon the serious nature of the crime, and its frequency amongst her countrymen and countrywomen, sentenoed her to a long term of imprisonment. As sheriff of the county, I visited the gaol weekly, and I was always saddened by the sight of this unfortunate young woman with her baby, for the child was too young to be deprived of its mother's care and sustenance. I was aware that by her own code of morals, if she had refused to give evidence on behalf of her father or her brother in their peril she would have been liable to be stoned to death by their infuriated relatives. A falsehood told in court on behalf of her brother was a venial offence compared to the fearful shame whioh would have been hers if she had failed him in his hour of need. Family affection, the obligations of oaste, of tribal duty, of oustom and religion, were all drawing her by oords which were too strong for her to break, and no idea of the

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ROOKMINIA'S GRATITUDE 237 criminality or sinfulness of her action ever entered her head. Her duty seemed clear before her, and she followed it according to her knowledge of what was right and wrong. Acting under this belief, I wrote to the Gover nor, and called his attention to the case of Rookminia, pointing out the peculiar circum. stances of her case. After some correspondence His Excellency agreed to exercise his prerogative of mercy, although, he said, I did not seem to realize the very serious nature of the offence which Rookminia had committed. An order for her re lease was shortly afterwards forwarded to me, which I immediately sent over to the gaol, and the poor woman was accordingly discharged. A few days afterwards, as I was sitting in the gallery of my house, smoking, I saw Rookminia, with some of her family, making the door. They came up into the gallery, and, as I rose up to receive them, Rookminia threw herself fiat upon the fioor, and, embracing my feet, exclajrned in her broken English, "Sahib, you my god! you my god 1" It was with great diffioulty that I extricated myself without hurting the poor woman, who was kissing my boots; but at last I persuaded her to rise, when I took the opportunity for ex pla, ining to her and to her relations the serious consequences which would ensue if they persisted in breaking the laws of their adopted country. With suoh a strange and heterogeneous popu lation as exists in British Guiana, it is somewhat difficult to discriminate between their different ROOKMINIA'S GRATITUDE 237 criminality or sinfulness of her action ever entered her head. Her duty seemed clear before her, and she followed it according to her knowledge of what was right and wrong. Acting under this belief, I wrote to the Gover nor, and called his attention to the case of Rookminia, pointing out the peculiar circum. stances of her case. After some correspondence His Excellency agreed to exercise his prerogative of mercy, although, he said, I did not seem to realize the very serious nature of the offence which Rookminia had committed. An order for her re lease was shortly afterwards forwarded to me, which I immediately sent over to the gaol, and the poor woman was accordingly discharged. A few days afterwards, as I was sitting in the gallery of my house, smoking, I saw Rookminia, with some of her family, making the door. They came up into the gallery, and, as I rose up to receive them, Rookminia threw herself fiat upon the fioor, and, embracing my feet, exclajrned in her broken English, "Sahib, you my god! you my god 1" It was with great diffioulty that I extricated myself without hurting the poor woman, who was kissing my boots; but at last I persuaded her to rise, when I took the opportunity for ex pla, ining to her and to her relations the serious consequences which would ensue if they persisted in breaking the laws of their adopted country. With suoh a strange and heterogeneous popu lation as exists in British Guiana, it is somewhat difficult to discriminate between their different

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238 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA religious faiths, aud, iu judicial matters, to find a means for administering an oath in a way which will be binding upon the consciences of the witnesses. Mohammedan witnesses are sworn on the Koran; but Hindoos were in my time sworn on the Bible-an unknown book to .them, and of no greater sanctity than Johnson's Dic tionary or Bradshaw's Railway Guide. Once a coolie witness, being asked if he was not telling lies, protested his truthfulness, and said, pointing to the Bible in front of him on the rail of the witness-box, "Look, God atop; any other kind of Bible gie urn, me kiss urn same like me talk um." Once, in trying a case between some Chinamen, both parties asked to be allowed to be sworn according to their native customs. To this I agr e ed, but bargaiued they must produce their own crockery, as Government made no allowance for such purpo ses; for I knew that their oaths were always taken with breakage of saucers. When the case was heard, each witness, as he mounted the box, held in his hand a china sauoer, which, after some muttered objurgation, he dashed to the ground in front of the bench. As far as I could understand from the interpreter, each witness expressed a hope that he might be dashed to pieces like that saucer if he did not speak the truth. Whe n the case was over the whole space mund the bench was covered with broken crockery. The most sacred oaths with the Hindoos are by the sacred bull, by holy Gunga, and by their children's heads. In one ca s e of disputed debt, 238 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA religious faiths, aud, iu judicial matters, to find a means for administering an oath in a way which will be binding upon the consciences of the witnesses. Mohammedan witnesses are sworn on the Koran; but Hindoos were in my time sworn on the Bible-an unknown book to .them, and of no greater sanctity than Johnson's Dic tionary or Bradshaw's Railway Guide. Once a coolie witness, being asked if he was not telling lies, protested his truthfulness, and said, pointing to the Bible in front of him on the rail of the witness-box, "Look, God atop; any other kind of Bible gie urn, me kiss urn same like me talk um." Once, in trying a case between some Chinamen, both parties asked to be allowed to be sworn according to their native customs. To this I agr e ed, but bargaiued they must produce their own crockery, as Government made no allowance for such purpo ses; for I knew that their oaths were always taken with breakage of saucers. When the case was heard, each witness, as he mounted the box, held in his hand a china sauoer, which, after some muttered objurgation, he dashed to the ground in front of the bench. As far as I could understand from the interpreter, each witness expressed a hope that he might be dashed to pieces like that saucer if he did not speak the truth. Whe n the case was over the whole space mund the bench was covered with broken crockery. The most sacred oaths with the Hindoos are by the sacred bull, by holy Gunga, and by their children's heads. In one ca s e of disputed debt,

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OOOLIE EDUOATION 239 where the defendant was a stout Hindoo woman, covered with jewelry, and evidently well endowed with this world's goods, the plaintiff said he would give up the case if the defendant would place her hands on her children's heads and swear by the sacred lata and the waters of holy Gunga that she did not owe the money. To this the defendant vehemently objected, saying that she would swear by the book, seizing the Bible, and kissing it violently; and, as she absolutely refused to swear by an oath which the court considered to be binding on her conscience, judgment went against her. I fear that the East Indians who are taught to read and write English in the colonial schools turn their acquired knowledge to evil purposes in many cases. A Hindoo was one day deteoted forging an order on a Portuguese provision-shop for goods, and was remonstrated with by his pastor and master. He replied plaintively, "Boss, honest man no good this country." Another coolie entered a shop, ate and drank until he was full, and when he was asked for his money he laughed at the shopkeeper, and remarked, "Me eat urn plenty, me drink um plenty, me belly full, no money hav' urn, gaol go urn, don't care adam." By which it may seem that the coolie's education in all the elements of civilization has been much advanoed since his introduotion into the colony. It is curious that nations so much unlike as the Congo and the Hindoo should have the same custom of naming their children after the OOOLIE EDUOATION 239 where the defendant was a stout Hindoo woman, covered with jewelry, and evidently well endowed with this world's goods, the plaintiff said he would give up the case if the defendant would place her hands on her children's heads and swear by the sacred lata and the waters of holy Gunga that she did not owe the money. To this the defendant vehemently objected, saying that she would swear by the book, seizing the Bible, and kissing it violently; and, as she absolutely refused to swear by an oath which the court considered to be binding on her conscience, judgment went against her. I fear that the East Indians who are taught to read and write English in the colonial schools turn their acquired knowledge to evil purposes in many cases. A Hindoo was one day deteoted forging an order on a Portuguese provision-shop for goods, and was remonstrated with by his pastor and master. He replied plaintively, "Boss, honest man no good this country." Another coolie entered a shop, ate and drank until he was full, and when he was asked for his money he laughed at the shopkeeper, and remarked, "Me eat urn plenty, me drink um plenty, me belly full, no money hav' urn, gaol go urn, don't care adam." By which it may seem that the coolie's education in all the elements of civilization has been much advanoed since his introduotion into the colony. It is curious that nations so much unlike as the Congo and the Hindoo should have the same custom of naming their children after the

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240 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA day on whioh they were born, and yet it is common to find children so named amongst both races. Doy. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Day. Sunday (Etwar) M onday (Scomar) Tuesday (Mongar) Wednesday ( Boodb) Thursday (Beeky) Friday (Sookh) Saturday (SaDDicber) CoXGO. Quashie Quia Quacco Quamna Yow Quoffie Quamina RDlllr. Male. Etwarroo Soomaroo Mungroo Boodhoo Beekoo Sookhoo Sannicheroo Female. Quasbba. Adjuba. Bamber. Abeoba. Yahba. Afibba. Amimba. Female Etwarria. Soomaria. Mungree. Boodhia. Beekhia. Sookhia. Sannicberry. Quashie, being the first name in the list of Congo names, has given his name to the whole negro race, who are known generally as Quashie. Similarly, so many East Indian names end in sawmy or sammy, such as Ram-sawmy, Mootoo sammy, that the Creoles call all the coolies Sammy. Why all Chinamen are called Johnny I don't know. Portuguese are all called Manny because Manuel is a very common name amongst that race. With regard te caJling children after the day of their birth, my readers will recolleot that Robinson Crusoe called his black man Friday after the day of his oapture. At Plantation Richmond in Essequibo there 240 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA day on whioh they were born, and yet it is common to find children so named amongst both races. Doy. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Day. Sunday (Etwar) M onday (Scomar) Tuesday (Mongar) Wednesday ( Boodb) Thursday (Beeky) Friday (Sookh) Saturday (SaDDicber) CoXGO. Quashie Quia Quacco Quamna Yow Quoffie Quamina RDlllr. Male. Etwarroo Soomaroo Mungroo Boodhoo Beekoo Sookhoo Sannicheroo Female. Quasbba. Adjuba. Bamber. Abeoba. Yahba. Afibba. Amimba. Female Etwarria. Soomaria. Mungree. Boodhia. Beekhia. Sookhia. Sannicberry. Quashie, being the first name in the list of Congo names, has given his name to the whole negro race, who are known generally as Quashie. Similarly, so many East Indian names end in sawmy or sammy, such as Ram-sawmy, Mootoo sammy, that the Creoles call all the coolies Sammy. Why all Chinamen are called Johnny I don't know. Portuguese are all called Manny because Manuel is a very common name amongst that race. With regard te caJling children after the day of their birth, my readers will recolleot that Robinson Crusoe called his black man Friday after the day of his oapture. At Plantation Richmond in Essequibo there

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THE aOURSE OF TRUE LOVE 241 lived an East Indian immigrant named Bind harry, who was wealthy; he had houses and cows, and, above all, three pretty little daughters, who were sought in marriage by all the eligible young men in the neighbourhood. The way I made the acquBjntance of Bindharry and his pretty daughters was as follows: One day, when I was holding court at Anna Regina, a handsome young Creole coolie named Ramdhin asked permission to speak to me, and when allowed to enter my retiring room, sat down at my feet and poured out his woes. He wanted to marry one of Bindharry's daughters, Sunnicheny, so he had been making up to the old man for some time. "Sahib," he said, "me give em cow, me give em money, me give em dinner-two, three dinner-and he promise me de gal, but now he go for give em another man." I sympathized with him, but hinted that it was a delicate matter with which to interfere, and suggested that Bindharry had three daughters: perhaps one of the others would be available. No, he wanted Sunnicherry; she was the eldest, and he need not wait long for her. But if he could not get her, how was he to get his cow, money, and dinners back again? I told him I feared his dinners had gone past recall, but I promised to see what I oould do about the cow and money. I sent for the old man, and spoke to him about the matter. At first, of course, he swore that he had never encouraged Ramdhin, never had any thing from him, neither cows, money, nor dinners. But when some of the bystanders began to murmur R THE aOURSE OF TRUE LOVE 241 lived an East Indian immigrant named Bind harry, who was wealthy; he had houses and cows, and, above all, three pretty little daughters, who were sought in marriage by all the eligible young men in the neighbourhood. The way I made the acquBjntance of Bindharry and his pretty daughters was as follows: One day, when I was holding court at Anna Regina, a handsome young Creole coolie named Ramdhin asked permission to speak to me, and when allowed to enter my retiring room, sat down at my feet and poured out his woes. He wanted to marry one of Bindharry's daughters, Sunnicheny, so he had been making up to the old man for some time. "Sahib," he said, "me give em cow, me give em money, me give em dinner-two, three dinner-and he promise me de gal, but now he go for give em another man." I sympathized with him, but hinted that it was a delicate matter with which to interfere, and suggested that Bindharry had three daughters: perhaps one of the others would be available. No, he wanted Sunnicherry; she was the eldest, and he need not wait long for her. But if he could not get her, how was he to get his cow, money, and dinners back again? I told him I feared his dinners had gone past recall, but I promised to see what I oould do about the cow and money. I sent for the old man, and spoke to him about the matter. At first, of course, he swore that he had never encouraged Ramdhin, never had any thing from him, neither cows, money, nor dinners. But when some of the bystanders began to murmur R

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242 TWENTY-FIVE YE,llIS IN BRITISH GUIANA and I pressed him, he reluctantly admitted that he had received fifty dollars and a cow from Ram dbin. I told him he must keep to his agreement to give his daughter Sunnicherry as wife to Ram dhin, or return the cow and the money. But Ramdbin, although he got his cow and his money back again, was not consoled; he seemed to have set his heart upon the girl, and for several weeks used to come and reiterate his sorrows, until I wearied of him, and told the police to turn him out of the compound. By discreet management old Bindharry dis" posed of all his daughters at excellent prices, and a few years afterwards he sold up all his effects and went back to India, carrying with him more than in cash, besides a quantity of jewelry. When I was in India as Government Emigra tion Agent, a ship with returning coolies was con signed to me. On board was a man named Mootee, whom I remembered as a shopkeeper on the west coast of Demerara. As soon as he arrived at the dep o t at Garden Reach he lodged a complaint against the captain of the ship, whom he accused of drinking his champagne. The. complaint was forwarded to Dr. Grant, at that time Proteotor of Emigrants in Caloutta, and he came to my office to make an investigation into the matter. At first blush it seemed preposterous; as Dr. Grant said, How can a coolie, on b o ard a coolie ship, having a fr e e passage to India, have ohampagne at all?" But when the captain of the ship was called up; he informed us that, just before the ship left the 242 TWENTY-FIVE YE,llIS IN BRITISH GUIANA and I pressed him, he reluctantly admitted that he had received fifty dollars and a cow from Ram dbin. I told him he must keep to his agreement to give his daughter Sunnicherry as wife to Ram dhin, or return the cow and the money. But Ramdbin, although he got his cow and his money back again, was not consoled; he seemed to have set his heart upon the girl, and for several weeks used to come and reiterate his sorrows, until I wearied of him, and told the police to turn him out of the compound. By discreet management old Bindharry dis" posed of all his daughters at excellent prices, and a few years afterwards he sold up all his effects and went back to India, carrying with him more than in cash, besides a quantity of jewelry. When I was in India as Government Emigra tion Agent, a ship with returning coolies was con signed to me. On board was a man named Mootee, whom I remembered as a shopkeeper on the west coast of Demerara. As soon as he arrived at the dep o t at Garden Reach he lodged a complaint against the captain of the ship, whom he accused of drinking his champagne. The. complaint was forwarded to Dr. Grant, at that time Proteotor of Emigrants in Caloutta, and he came to my office to make an investigation into the matter. At first blush it seemed preposterous; as Dr. Grant said, How can a coolie, on b o ard a coolie ship, having a fr e e passage to India, have ohampagne at all?" But when the captain of the ship was called up; he informed us that, just before the ship left the

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MOOTEE'8 GUILE 243 Demerara River, Mootee oame on board in a shore boat, rather drunk, and bringing with him two cases of ohampagoe and a oaBe of Eno'B fruit Balt. After they had been a oouple of daYB at Bea, Mootee came to the oaptain and surgeon-Buperintendent, and asked them to join him in a glaBs of oham pagne. They consented; a bottle waB opened and discussed by the three of them. The next day Mootee came to the capta in and told him that he was not a common coolie, and begged that he might be allowed to sleep in the saloon, and not in the hold with the other coolieB. This the captain refuBed, and told him that aB he had a free paBBage he must fare aB the otherB. Mootee again and again begged the oaptain to let him use the Baloon, and offered him more champagoe, both of whioh were refuBed. So the man got angry, and as Boon aB the Bhip arrived at Calcutta he made this complaint againBt the Bkipper. On inveBti gation we found there waB no truth in the aCCUBation, so we rated Mr. Mootee well, and told him to be gone. In paying the coolies the amount of BavingB entered againBt the name of each, I found that Mootee had the largeBt amount to his credit, viz. After the babooB had paid him off by a cheque on the Ba ,nk of Bengal, he aBked to Bee me, and then Baid, with many Balaams, "Sahib, my people too much tief; BuppoBe money take em, people rob em. Sahib, me give you me money for keep em, and when me come back you give em." No, you villajn," I replied, "for the first thing MOOTEE'8 GUILE 243 Demerara River, Mootee oame on board in a shore boat, rather drunk, and bringing with him two cases of ohampagoe and a oaBe of Eno'B fruit Balt. After they had been a oouple of daYB at Bea, Mootee came to the oaptain and surgeon-Buperintendent, and asked them to join him in a glaBs of oham pagne. They consented; a bottle waB opened and discussed by the three of them. The next day Mootee came to the capta in and told him that he was not a common coolie, and begged that he might be allowed to sleep in the saloon, and not in the hold with the other coolieB. This the captain refuBed, and told him that aB he had a free paBBage he must fare aB the otherB. Mootee again and again begged the oaptain to let him use the Baloon, and offered him more champagoe, both of whioh were refuBed. So the man got angry, and as Boon aB the Bhip arrived at Calcutta he made this complaint againBt the Bkipper. On inveBti gation we found there waB no truth in the aCCUBation, so we rated Mr. Mootee well, and told him to be gone. In paying the coolies the amount of BavingB entered againBt the name of each, I found that Mootee had the largeBt amount to his credit, viz. After the babooB had paid him off by a cheque on the Ba ,nk of Bengal, he aBked to Bee me, and then Baid, with many Balaams, "Sahib, my people too much tief; BuppoBe money take em, people rob em. Sahib, me give you me money for keep em, and when me come back you give em." No, you villajn," I replied, "for the first thing

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244 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA you would do when you came back would be to charge me with stealing of your money." He begged me hard to keep his money for bim, but I steadfastly refused. However, I told him I would take him to the bank, and deposit his money safely for him; so I put him up beside my coach man, and drove bim to the Bank of Bengal. I went in, Mootee following, and asked for Mr. Cruick sbaJlk, the deputy manager. That polite gentleman quickly arrived, and asked me what he could do for me. I told bim that this man-pointing to Mootee-wanted to deposit some money in the bank for six months. Mr. Cruiokshank, looking at bim, said, "We should be glad to oblige you, Mr. Kirke, but we don't take small deposits." Certa;nly Mootee did not look like a capitalist, with his bare legs and feet, hairy and dusty, a dirty white turban on his head, and clothed in an old grimy red militia coat and filthy dhootie. I assured the deputy manager that it was not a very small deposit, but sterling. "What I this man has ? "Certainly;" and I showed him the draft on their own bSJlk for that amount, signed by myself. This satisfied him; the deposit note was quickly made out, and the business soon despatched. Immigrants to British Guiana from India make large Bums of money, but when they return to India with their savings they are generally robbed by their relations. As Mootee said, "My people too much tief." The man has lost caste by crosSing the kala pani, so the priests sweat him of a large sum of money before they will allow bim to 244 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA you would do when you came back would be to charge me with stealing of your money." He begged me hard to keep his money for bim, but I steadfastly refused. However, I told him I would take him to the bank, and deposit his money safely for him; so I put him up beside my coach man, and drove bim to the Bank of Bengal. I went in, Mootee following, and asked for Mr. Cruick sbaJlk, the deputy manager. That polite gentleman quickly arrived, and asked me what he could do for me. I told bim that this man-pointing to Mootee-wanted to deposit some money in the bank for six months. Mr. Cruiokshank, looking at bim, said, "We should be glad to oblige you, Mr. Kirke, but we don't take small deposits." Certa;nly Mootee did not look like a capitalist, with his bare legs and feet, hairy and dusty, a dirty white turban on his head, and clothed in an old grimy red militia coat and filthy dhootie. I assured the deputy manager that it was not a very small deposit, but sterling. "What I this man has ? "Certainly;" and I showed him the draft on their own bSJlk for that amount, signed by myself. This satisfied him; the deposit note was quickly made out, and the business soon despatched. Immigrants to British Guiana from India make large Bums of money, but when they return to India with their savings they are generally robbed by their relations. As Mootee said, "My people too much tief." The man has lost caste by crosSing the kala pani, so the priests sweat him of a large sum of money before they will allow bim to

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COOLIE MARRI.tGES 245 recover his caste. Then the whole of his kindred, tribe, and village community, hearing of his return with, to them, a fabulous sum of money, come down upon him like locusts, and, to use an expres sive Eastern phrase, "eat him up." I remember one family, who returned to India one Christmas tide with a considerable sum of money-about or enough to keep them in luxill'Y in India for the rest of their lives-came back to the depot in a few months, to re-engage and return to British Guiana as indentured immigrants. I asked them how it was, and they told me that the priests and their relations had robbed them of all their money, so they wanted to go back to the colony and earn some more. "Too much bad man this oountry," was their desoription of their native land. As I have said before, the East Indian girls are disposed of in marriage by their father, with out muoh consideration for their personal feelings. Such things are not unknown in fashionable society in England, where there is a marriage market, whioh, though not as open as that of Babylon in old times, has much less excuse. During my magisterial experiences I came aoross a curious marriage contract, whioh was produced in evidenoe. It ran as follows :-"Plantation Brothers, British Guiana County of Berbioe. Contract of marriage entered into on Wednesday 13th February, year of our Lord 1884, between Chootwa, No. 61, ex Loodiana 1860 residing at Plantation Brothers, the father of the COOLIE MARRI.tGES 245 recover his caste. Then the whole of his kindred, tribe, and village community, hearing of his return with, to them, a fabulous sum of money, come down upon him like locusts, and, to use an expres sive Eastern phrase, "eat him up." I remember one family, who returned to India one Christmas tide with a considerable sum of money-about or enough to keep them in luxill'Y in India for the rest of their lives-came back to the depot in a few months, to re-engage and return to British Guiana as indentured immigrants. I asked them how it was, and they told me that the priests and their relations had robbed them of all their money, so they wanted to go back to the colony and earn some more. "Too much bad man this oountry," was their desoription of their native land. As I have said before, the East Indian girls are disposed of in marriage by their father, with out muoh consideration for their personal feelings. Such things are not unknown in fashionable society in England, where there is a marriage market, whioh, though not as open as that of Babylon in old times, has much less excuse. During my magisterial experiences I came aoross a curious marriage contract, whioh was produced in evidenoe. It ran as follows :-"Plantation Brothers, British Guiana County of Berbioe. Contract of marriage entered into on Wednesday 13th February, year of our Lord 1884, between Chootwa, No. 61, ex Loodiana 1860 residing at Plantation Brothers, the father of the

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246 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA bridegroom named Mabadoorlall, and Jllmnee also a free Coolie woman of the same plantation, she is the Mother of the bride named Ramkalya a Coolie girl daughter of Jllmnee. They are bind by promise themselves eaoh other by faithful confi dence according by this contract and Mahadoorlall bridegroom and Ramkalya bride. They both agreed for married each other and both signed before presence of three witnesses whereof herein-undermentioned their names. Firstly the Coolie woman Jumnee acknowledged and received $20 and bind by promise for Chootwa the father of the bridegroom. If my daughter released any time to husband Mohadoorlall after married, she will pay back the $20 and also the whole expense of the marriage, and if Ramkalya keep another husband the same husband will pay the whole amount of this married. This is legal married among them, which they did alway. Their relations in India in the age of puberty propose marriage, on Saturday 16th February 1884 both the bridegroom and the bride did married, and every acqua;nted of this married at PIn Brothers, Berbice, Colony of British Guiana. Signed before three witnesses whereof hereinto mentioned their names on that time of epoch as hereafter. This marriage four wish and in eriedint $89. Eighty njne dollars this is the whole amount expense. Total amount $89." A magistrate in oharge of the East Coast district received the following letter, which disoloses a somewhat singular state of society:-246 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA bridegroom named Mabadoorlall, and Jllmnee also a free Coolie woman of the same plantation, she is the Mother of the bride named Ramkalya a Coolie girl daughter of Jllmnee. They are bind by promise themselves eaoh other by faithful confi dence according by this contract and Mahadoorlall bridegroom and Ramkalya bride. They both agreed for married each other and both signed before presence of three witnesses whereof herein-undermentioned their names. Firstly the Coolie woman Jumnee acknowledged and received $20 and bind by promise for Chootwa the father of the bridegroom. If my daughter released any time to husband Mohadoorlall after married, she will pay back the $20 and also the whole expense of the marriage, and if Ramkalya keep another husband the same husband will pay the whole amount of this married. This is legal married among them, which they did alway. Their relations in India in the age of puberty propose marriage, on Saturday 16th February 1884 both the bridegroom and the bride did married, and every acqua;nted of this married at PIn Brothers, Berbice, Colony of British Guiana. Signed before three witnesses whereof hereinto mentioned their names on that time of epoch as hereafter. This marriage four wish and in eriedint $89. Eighty njne dollars this is the whole amount expense. Total amount $89." A magistrate in oharge of the East Coast district received the following letter, which disoloses a somewhat singular state of society:-

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B..lBOO ENGLISH 247 SIR,-The driver of Plantation Vryheid's Lust by name of SaUck, sold his wife to me for $97. Mter receiving this, he came two week after and take her back. I lost the amount. I beg whether I must bring this case before you or the Supreme. "I am, SiI:, Your obedient servant, KANHOYE his X mark." The Supreme referred to is not, I presome, the Deity, but the Supreme Court of the Colony. The immortal Baboo is not unknown in the colony. Witness the following letter which I received relating to a vacancy in the staff of interpreters in my court :-"SIR,-The humble petitioner has been and will solicitation that I heard the Hindustani interpreter of Sheriffs interpreter he seU left the business, and willing to go to his native country in the second ship, and if Perfector order to the Petitioner for in his compensation in the same business, obcouers I will make arrangements in the Court to look after consigment of Ordinal manner for that Statu quo. Therefore I oblige to bring in my consideration or understanding for the place. And this is my information brought to your Highness for the business, and will divulged, and humbly represents to consent the Petitioner in the same place." Indian girls are married at a very early age, when still children; so efforts have been made in -B..lBOO ENGLISH 247 SIR,-The driver of Plantation Vryheid's Lust by name of SaUck, sold his wife to me for $97. Mter receiving this, he came two week after and take her back. I lost the amount. I beg whether I must bring this case before you or the Supreme. "I am, SiI:, Your obedient servant, KANHOYE his X mark." The Supreme referred to is not, I presome, the Deity, but the Supreme Court of the Colony. The immortal Baboo is not unknown in the colony. Witness the following letter which I received relating to a vacancy in the staff of interpreters in my court :-"SIR,-The humble petitioner has been and will solicitation that I heard the Hindustani interpreter of Sheriffs interpreter he seU left the business, and willing to go to his native country in the second ship, and if Perfector order to the Petitioner for in his compensation in the same business, obcouers I will make arrangements in the Court to look after consigment of Ordinal manner for that Statu quo. Therefore I oblige to bring in my consideration or understanding for the place. And this is my information brought to your Highness for the business, and will divulged, and humbly represents to consent the Petitioner in the same place." Indian girls are married at a very early age, when still children; so efforts have been made in -

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248 TWENTY-FIVE YEAJJS IN BRITISH GUIANA India to raise the age at which marriage can be legally consummated. Muoh indignation has been expressed by European writers on the subject, who seem to have forgotten that not long ago it was a oommon practice amongst the highest classes in England to promote the marriages of their ohildren at a very early age, especially when careful parents wished to secure some young lady with a large dowry. Turning over a volume published by the Historical MSS. Commission, I came across the diary of the Earl of Annesley in the reign of Charles II., in whioh this entry occurs: "May 20th, 1672.-This morning about 10 of the clock at Lambeth the Archbishop of Canterbury married my grandson John Power not eight years old to Mistress Katherine Fitz-Gerald his cousin german about thirteen years old. I gave her in the Chapel there and they answered as well as those of greater age. The wedding dinner and supper I gave them, and the rest of the day, and till 12 at night was spent in dancing, etc., and they lay in my house." The Duke of Grafton, son of Charles II., when a mere boy was married to a pretty girl, daughter of Lord Arlington, and only five years old; Francis II. was only fourteen when he married Mary of Scotland, who was a few months older; and numerous examples could be quoted both from French and English history. Owing to the early marriages of young East Indian girls, some ourious complications have arisen. I remember a case in the Supreme 248 TWENTY-FIVE YEAJJS IN BRITISH GUIANA India to raise the age at which marriage can be legally consummated. Muoh indignation has been expressed by European writers on the subject, who seem to have forgotten that not long ago it was a oommon practice amongst the highest classes in England to promote the marriages of their ohildren at a very early age, especially when careful parents wished to secure some young lady with a large dowry. Turning over a volume published by the Historical MSS. Commission, I came across the diary of the Earl of Annesley in the reign of Charles II., in whioh this entry occurs: "May 20th, 1672.-This morning about 10 of the clock at Lambeth the Archbishop of Canterbury married my grandson John Power not eight years old to Mistress Katherine Fitz-Gerald his cousin german about thirteen years old. I gave her in the Chapel there and they answered as well as those of greater age. The wedding dinner and supper I gave them, and the rest of the day, and till 12 at night was spent in dancing, etc., and they lay in my house." The Duke of Grafton, son of Charles II., when a mere boy was married to a pretty girl, daughter of Lord Arlington, and only five years old; Francis II. was only fourteen when he married Mary of Scotland, who was a few months older; and numerous examples could be quoted both from French and English history. Owing to the early marriages of young East Indian girls, some ourious complications have arisen. I remember a case in the Supreme

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ORIENTAL IM.tJGERY 249 Criminal Conrt in Georgetown, where an East Indian was tried for an indecent assault npon his own wife, who was a girl onder the age of consent. The jnry, onder the jndge's direction, convicted the man, bnt the point of law whether he oould be convicted of snch an offence ag.jnst his own wife was reserved for the Court of Crown Cases, whioh reversed the decision. The Hindoo is more or less a fatalist; what is, must be, and it is no use railing against fate. A coolie who was sick was asked if he did not wish to go to hospital, as the doctor sahib might give him something that would cnre his disease, and he replied, "Yes, me want go 'ospital; suppose me get better God 'elp um, suppose me go dead me don't care adam." The Indian immigrant is an adept in dra.matio display, and his imagination mos riot when depict ing his wrongs and endeavouring to enlist yonr sympathy. A Hindoo labonrer from Plantation Peter's Hall once rushed into my presence, almost naked, covered with black stinking mud, and bleeding from a wonnd on his head. He threw himself at my feet and implored me to defend him from his brutal master, who had severely beaten bim and thrown him into a muddy trenoh, from whioh he had with diffioulty escaped. After a strict and prolonged inquiry, I discovered that the man had become infuriated because he was not allowed to work in the buildings where sngar was being made, but was ordered by the driver to go into the cane-fields to cut oanes; so he chopped ORIENTAL IM.tJGERY 249 Criminal Conrt in Georgetown, where an East Indian was tried for an indecent assault npon his own wife, who was a girl onder the age of consent. The jnry, onder the jndge's direction, convicted the man, bnt the point of law whether he oould be convicted of snch an offence ag.jnst his own wife was reserved for the Court of Crown Cases, whioh reversed the decision. The Hindoo is more or less a fatalist; what is, must be, and it is no use railing against fate. A coolie who was sick was asked if he did not wish to go to hospital, as the doctor sahib might give him something that would cnre his disease, and he replied, "Yes, me want go 'ospital; suppose me get better God 'elp um, suppose me go dead me don't care adam." The Indian immigrant is an adept in dra.matio display, and his imagination mos riot when depict ing his wrongs and endeavouring to enlist yonr sympathy. A Hindoo labonrer from Plantation Peter's Hall once rushed into my presence, almost naked, covered with black stinking mud, and bleeding from a wonnd on his head. He threw himself at my feet and implored me to defend him from his brutal master, who had severely beaten bim and thrown him into a muddy trenoh, from whioh he had with diffioulty escaped. After a strict and prolonged inquiry, I discovered that the man had become infuriated because he was not allowed to work in the buildings where sngar was being made, but was ordered by the driver to go into the cane-fields to cut oanes; so he chopped

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250 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA himself about the head with his cutlass, threw himself into a filthy draining trench, and then ran off to enlist the sympathies of the magistrate against the inhuman planter. On anothsr occasion a fearfnI noise brought me out of my house, when I beheld three Hindoo women prostrate on the ground, howling and tearing their hair, a boy about eleven or twelve years old standing in their midst. When I asked them what was the matter, they pointed to the boy's face, chest, and babba, which were all smeared with fresh blood; and one of them pro duced a medicine-bottle full of bloody-coloured fiuid, which she said was the boy's blood, carefnlly collected from his wounds, which had been caused by a brutal driver on the estate. I examined the boy, and found that he had a small scalp wound about half an inch long, which had bled a little. The women had evidently smeared the blood over his face, body, and clothes; and the bottle con tained onIy water, in which apparently they had washed their blood-stained fingers. A large number of coolies, as they are called, collect in Georgetown, where they gain a pre carious livelihood by working as porters. They are miserable scarecrows, wear little or no olothes, sleep under bridges or verandas, in sawpits and boatsheds, crowd the hospitals and almshouses, and frequently their dead bodies are found in the streets. At one time there was no mortu..,:y in Georgetoww-nn, so there was some difficulty in disposing of 250 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA himself about the head with his cutlass, threw himself into a filthy draining trench, and then ran off to enlist the sympathies of the magistrate against the inhuman planter. On anothsr occasion a fearfnI noise brought me out of my house, when I beheld three Hindoo women prostrate on the ground, howling and tearing their hair, a boy about eleven or twelve years old standing in their midst. When I asked them what was the matter, they pointed to the boy's face, chest, and babba, which were all smeared with fresh blood; and one of them pro duced a medicine-bottle full of bloody-coloured fiuid, which she said was the boy's blood, carefnlly collected from his wounds, which had been caused by a brutal driver on the estate. I examined the boy, and found that he had a small scalp wound about half an inch long, which had bled a little. The women had evidently smeared the blood over his face, body, and clothes; and the bottle con tained onIy water, in which apparently they had washed their blood-stained fingers. A large number of coolies, as they are called, collect in Georgetown, where they gain a pre carious livelihood by working as porters. They are miserable scarecrows, wear little or no olothes, sleep under bridges or verandas, in sawpits and boatsheds, crowd the hospitals and almshouses, and frequently their dead bodies are found in the streets. At one time there was no mortu..,:y in Georgetoww-nn, so there was some difficulty in disposing of

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FOUND DE,dD 251 these corpses. One night I was sitting down to dinner with my wife about 7.15, when I was told that a policeman wanted to see me. I went out and asked, "What is it?" "Please, sir," said the black policeman, "we have found this man dead on the road "-pointing to a dirty old dead coolie on a stretcher-" and we have brought him to you." "What on earth did you bring him here for? Take him away." "Please, sir, where are we to take him to?" "Take him to the Central Police-station." We have taken him there, sir, but the Inspector-General drove u s out, and told us to bring him to you." "The n take him to the Colonial Hospital." After some demur the body was lifted up, and the party moved off. Half an hour afterwards the butler CRme in. "Please, sir, they have brought the body back age,in." I l'Ushed out in a rage. "What do you mean by bringing it back here?" Please, sn:, they said at the hospital that they only took in live people, not dead 'uns." "Take hiln away!" I cried out. "Where shall we take him to?" "Take him to the devil!" "Yes, sir." And at l ast they went away with the corpse; but not know ing where to put it, they l eft it on a butcher's stall in the CummingsbUl'gh Market, in which appro. priate spot I opened an inquest the next morning. I represented the whole matter to the Govern m ent, who afterwards provided a place whel'e dead bodies could be deposited. More recently a suit able mortuary has been provided at Le R e pentir Cemetery. FOUND DE,dD 251 these corpses. One night I was sitting down to dinner with my wife about 7.15, when I was told that a policeman wanted to see me. I went out and asked, "What is it?" "Please, sir," said the black policeman, "we have found this man dead on the road "-pointing to a dirty old dead coolie on a stretcher-" and we have brought him to you." "What on earth did you bring him here for? Take him away." "Please, sir, where are we to take him to?" "Take him to the Central Police-station." We have taken him there, sir, but the Inspector-General drove u s out, and told us to bring him to you." "The n take him to the Colonial Hospital." After some demur the body was lifted up, and the party moved off. Half an hour afterwards the butler CRme in. "Please, sir, they have brought the body back age,in." I l'Ushed out in a rage. "What do you mean by bringing it back here?" Please, sn:, they said at the hospital that they only took in live people, not dead 'uns." "Take hiln away!" I cried out. "Where shall we take him to?" "Take him to the devil!" "Yes, sir." And at l ast they went away with the corpse; but not know ing where to put it, they l eft it on a butcher's stall in the CummingsbUl'gh Market, in which appro. priate spot I opened an inquest the next morning. I represented the whole matter to the Govern m ent, who afterwards provided a place whel'e dead bodies could be deposited. More recently a suit able mortuary has been provided at Le R e pentir Cemetery.

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252 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER XI. Negro population-Their manners and habits-Slavery-The African at home-Amelioration of slavery in the colony-Fine men-Nocturnal habits-Servants in British Guiana-Stealing or taking-Oratory and letter-writing-A little knowledge is a dangerous thing-Amusing witnesses--Cnrious use of words-Intoxication, definition of-What is heaven ?-Miscegenation-Half-and-half illegitimacy-Mulattoes -Division of races-lllegitimate births-Marriage ga.rmenf.su Love, honour, and obey"-An uncertain husband-Wifely obedienceDangers of marria.ge A provident husbsnd-Coosolation for widows -High-sounding titles-Judas Iscariot-Tbe goddess of chasteWhat is 0. bachelor?-Au revoir-Want of midwives i their ignorance and barbarity. THE black population of British Guiana are de scended from the old slaves, who were brought from Africa to work on the cotton and sugar estates in the West Indies. The negro is one of the few aboriginal races whioh can live side by side with the white man and hold his own; in fact, in countries which suit his constitution and habits, he is gradually ousting the white element. The morals and habits of the working.olasses in the colony are not altogether of the best. It is curious to note what a superior class of people the old slaves are to their desoendants. You can always tell the difference at once. The old slaves are so much cleaner both in their persons and 252 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA CHAPTER XI. Negro population-Their manners and habits-Slavery-The African at home-Amelioration of slavery in the colony-Fine men-Nocturnal habits-Servants in British Guiana-Stealing or taking-Oratory and letter-writing-A little knowledge is a dangerous thing-Amusing witnesses--Cnrious use of words-Intoxication, definition of-What is heaven ?-Miscegenation-Half-and-half illegitimacy-Mulattoes -Division of races-lllegitimate births-Marriage ga.rmenf.su Love, honour, and obey"-An uncertain husband-Wifely obedienceDangers of marria.ge A provident husbsnd-Coosolation for widows -High-sounding titles-Judas Iscariot-Tbe goddess of chasteWhat is 0. bachelor?-Au revoir-Want of midwives i their ignorance and barbarity. THE black population of British Guiana are de scended from the old slaves, who were brought from Africa to work on the cotton and sugar estates in the West Indies. The negro is one of the few aboriginal races whioh can live side by side with the white man and hold his own; in fact, in countries which suit his constitution and habits, he is gradually ousting the white element. The morals and habits of the working.olasses in the colony are not altogether of the best. It is curious to note what a superior class of people the old slaves are to their desoendants. You can always tell the difference at once. The old slaves are so much cleaner both in their persons and -

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THE AFRICAN AT HOME 253 in their houses; their manners are courtly and pleasing, and their voioes soft and low. They have all told me that they were better oft' in slavery time than they were after its abolition. I think that much useless sympathy has been expended upon the poor black slave. The lot of a slave upon a sugar plantation was not an un happy one; the Legrees were few and far between, and the majority of the masters were kind, humane men. It is the fashion to talk as if these Africans had been a free peasantry captured by brutal slavers, and enslaved by them. But, as a matter of faot, the poor negro only exchanged one slavery for another less cruel and revolting. All the stories that Mrs. Beecher-Stowe conld collect of the cruelties practised on English sugar estates for two hundred years would be as nothing to the abominable tortures, bloodshed, and inhuman cruelties practised in the kingdoms of Dahomey and Ashanti in a single month. If there be any foundation of fact in Rider Haggard's book N ada, the Lily," the life of an A frican on a plantation must have been a heaven on earth compared to life in such a land of despotism and fetichism. Human life in Africa was a thing of nought. To gratify his lust of blood, or to pro pitiate some infernal deity, a king of Dahomey or chief of Benin would slaughter in cold blood hundreds of men and women: and we all know what our soldiers discovered when Ashanti and Benin were last oaptured. The slaves in Demerara were valuable chattels, to be well fed and well housed, THE AFRICAN AT HOME 253 in their houses; their manners are courtly and pleasing, and their voioes soft and low. They have all told me that they were better oft' in slavery time than they were after its abolition. I think that much useless sympathy has been expended upon the poor black slave. The lot of a slave upon a sugar plantation was not an un happy one; the Legrees were few and far between, and the majority of the masters were kind, humane men. It is the fashion to talk as if these Africans had been a free peasantry captured by brutal slavers, and enslaved by them. But, as a matter of faot, the poor negro only exchanged one slavery for another less cruel and revolting. All the stories that Mrs. Beecher-Stowe conld collect of the cruelties practised on English sugar estates for two hundred years would be as nothing to the abominable tortures, bloodshed, and inhuman cruelties practised in the kingdoms of Dahomey and Ashanti in a single month. If there be any foundation of fact in Rider Haggard's book N ada, the Lily," the life of an A frican on a plantation must have been a heaven on earth compared to life in such a land of despotism and fetichism. Human life in Africa was a thing of nought. To gratify his lust of blood, or to pro pitiate some infernal deity, a king of Dahomey or chief of Benin would slaughter in cold blood hundreds of men and women: and we all know what our soldiers discovered when Ashanti and Benin were last oaptured. The slaves in Demerara were valuable chattels, to be well fed and well housed,

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254 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA to be nursed when sick, and to be taken care of in old age. The slaves could not have been badly used in one respect, for we find that three years after emancipation 101 ex-slaves bought Plantation Friendship, on the east ooast of Demerara, from Dr. Martin for $90,000 oash; and between 1839 and 1854 more than $250,000 were invested in land in that one district by the emancipated labourers. A curious fact, not generally known, is that some of the slaves themselves owned slaves, and were enriohed by their labour. The negro was lustful of power and authority over others; and when he obtained it, exercised it with a harshness and severity which often contrasted unfavourably with the treatment which he himself received from his white master. The negroes, both men and women, are a fine raoe. They have splendid figures, and in size they are far above the average of other races. There is less difference between the sexes than in any other race. The women are as big and power ful as the men; they are quite as independent, and more ready for a fight. You rarely see two black men fighting, but it is a common sight to see two stalwart black women mauling each other. The carriage and walk of the black women is far superior to that of most Europeans. This partly arises from their habit of carrying everything on their heads, but it is also attributable to their perfectly proportioned figures. Unfortunately, of late years the women have acquired the habit of 254 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA to be nursed when sick, and to be taken care of in old age. The slaves could not have been badly used in one respect, for we find that three years after emancipation 101 ex-slaves bought Plantation Friendship, on the east ooast of Demerara, from Dr. Martin for $90,000 oash; and between 1839 and 1854 more than $250,000 were invested in land in that one district by the emancipated labourers. A curious fact, not generally known, is that some of the slaves themselves owned slaves, and were enriohed by their labour. The negro was lustful of power and authority over others; and when he obtained it, exercised it with a harshness and severity which often contrasted unfavourably with the treatment which he himself received from his white master. The negroes, both men and women, are a fine raoe. They have splendid figures, and in size they are far above the average of other races. There is less difference between the sexes than in any other race. The women are as big and power ful as the men; they are quite as independent, and more ready for a fight. You rarely see two black men fighting, but it is a common sight to see two stalwart black women mauling each other. The carriage and walk of the black women is far superior to that of most Europeans. This partly arises from their habit of carrying everything on their heads, but it is also attributable to their perfectly proportioned figures. Unfortunately, of late years the women have acquired the habit of

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OOLOURED SERVANTS 255 employing coolies to carry their baskets for them, so they will soon lose their splendid carriage. Accustomed to nudity for so many centuries, they have not yet learned how to dress with taste. They have a savage's preference for bright colours, which on their stalwart figures look glaring and vulgar; whereas the Hindoo, in as bright and more varied colours, always produces a beautiful harmony. "Judging from the habits of the negro," says Mr. Rodway, "we must presume .that his ancestor was a nocturnal animal. As we approach the torrid zone, we find everywhere a tendency to indulge in the noonday siesta, but in no race is this characteristic so highly developed as in the negro. He will sleep in any position, and under almost all circumstances. At night, on the contrary, they remain wide awake for hours, chattering away like a lot of parrots. At a ball, or a wake, you will find the negro at his liveliest in the small hours of the morning." Our servants in British Guiana were mostly black or coloured people. I cannot say they were good servants; they were mostly idle, dirty, and thoughtless, but they were affectionate and amusing, and, as a rule, fairly honest. They have one peculiarity in drawing the line between steaJing money and appropriating other property. All my servants used to help themselves to my sugar, bread, fish, spirits, beer, or anything to which they had access; but I could leave loose silver or copper about without missing a cent, and they would be furious if you called them thieves because they OOLOURED SERVANTS 255 employing coolies to carry their baskets for them, so they will soon lose their splendid carriage. Accustomed to nudity for so many centuries, they have not yet learned how to dress with taste. They have a savage's preference for bright colours, which on their stalwart figures look glaring and vulgar; whereas the Hindoo, in as bright and more varied colours, always produces a beautiful harmony. "Judging from the habits of the negro," says Mr. Rodway, "we must presume .that his ancestor was a nocturnal animal. As we approach the torrid zone, we find everywhere a tendency to indulge in the noonday siesta, but in no race is this characteristic so highly developed as in the negro. He will sleep in any position, and under almost all circumstances. At night, on the contrary, they remain wide awake for hours, chattering away like a lot of parrots. At a ball, or a wake, you will find the negro at his liveliest in the small hours of the morning." Our servants in British Guiana were mostly black or coloured people. I cannot say they were good servants; they were mostly idle, dirty, and thoughtless, but they were affectionate and amusing, and, as a rule, fairly honest. They have one peculiarity in drawing the line between steaJing money and appropriating other property. All my servants used to help themselves to my sugar, bread, fish, spirits, beer, or anything to which they had access; but I could leave loose silver or copper about without missing a cent, and they would be furious if you called them thieves because they

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256 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA took your food and drinks. A thief is a person who steals money, but a servant only takes his or her master's goods. In their speeches and writings the educated negro almost equals the celebrated Bengali Baboo. I have received many extraordinary and amnsing letters from residents in my different magisterial districts. Take the following as a sample :-" Sm,-You yourself is a mortal man that God Almighty has made, and through your dignity and wisdom Her Majesty has appointed you to assist the Governor to rool the nations. Therefore Sir, you become not only a Magistrate, but as a father for us in this Demerara River District. So, Sir, I trust with all confidence that you will hearken to my humble statement. I am obliged to inform Your Worship that on the 11th March 1874 about seven o'clock in the night I was barbarously beaten by Joseph Adonis and his wife with sticks, and inflict wounds on my body and Bloodshed. Also Deprived me of the sum of twelve dollars and seventy-two cents I had brought from town with me, the very night, was tied into a handker chief and was into my pocket. Both parties deprived me all. I am obliged to confess to Your Worship that I was overtaken in liquor and became drunk, so that I could not defend myself. After wards they hit upon the results of what they had done, they planned out to take the first steps of Law before Your Worship so as to make their ends right, and before I recovered my health from the 256 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA took your food and drinks. A thief is a person who steals money, but a servant only takes his or her master's goods. In their speeches and writings the educated negro almost equals the celebrated Bengali Baboo. I have received many extraordinary and amnsing letters from residents in my different magisterial districts. Take the following as a sample :-" Sm,-You yourself is a mortal man that God Almighty has made, and through your dignity and wisdom Her Majesty has appointed you to assist the Governor to rool the nations. Therefore Sir, you become not only a Magistrate, but as a father for us in this Demerara River District. So, Sir, I trust with all confidence that you will hearken to my humble statement. I am obliged to inform Your Worship that on the 11th March 1874 about seven o'clock in the night I was barbarously beaten by Joseph Adonis and his wife with sticks, and inflict wounds on my body and Bloodshed. Also Deprived me of the sum of twelve dollars and seventy-two cents I had brought from town with me, the very night, was tied into a handker chief and was into my pocket. Both parties deprived me all. I am obliged to confess to Your Worship that I was overtaken in liquor and became drunk, so that I could not defend myself. After wards they hit upon the results of what they had done, they planned out to take the first steps of Law before Your Worship so as to make their ends right, and before I recovered my health from the

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GREOLE ORATORY 257 beating, her hnsband already set np his wife before Your Worship with their complaint. Moreover the Complainer have many witnesses that are living with her in one aboad and her hnsband soporting them. They will no doubt purge them selves before Your Worship, and I having only one thongh a sconstable and slow of speech. I hereby subject myself to Your Worship decision on Court day, and trust that the Almighty will enhauce Your Worship to greater Houour for justice sake." Their speeches are as wouderful as their letters. At a black wedding one of the guests delivered an oration which he had carefully written down. My Friends, it is with feelings of no ordinary nature whioh have actuated my inmost heart on this present occasion, for on such festivities so fnll of mirth and aggrandisement, when the Bridegroom and Bride in all their splendour repair to the house of reception, and there we find fs.miliar friends and neighbours heralding the oonsummation of their enterprise, it fills me with that enthusiasm which otherwise wonld fail to draw out our congratulations And now I must close, and take the phrase Ne quid nemis-, too much of one thing is good for nothing.' Trusting these few remarks may be found multum in pat'va, as I am now attacked with cacoethes loquendi. I shall resort to my ex cathedra, asking the ladies present melodiously to sing for me a verse of the hymn-s GREOLE ORATORY 257 beating, her hnsband already set np his wife before Your Worship with their complaint. Moreover the Complainer have many witnesses that are living with her in one aboad and her hnsband soporting them. They will no doubt purge them selves before Your Worship, and I having only one thongh a sconstable and slow of speech. I hereby subject myself to Your Worship decision on Court day, and trust that the Almighty will enhauce Your Worship to greater Houour for justice sake." Their speeches are as wouderful as their letters. At a black wedding one of the guests delivered an oration which he had carefully written down. My Friends, it is with feelings of no ordinary nature whioh have actuated my inmost heart on this present occasion, for on such festivities so fnll of mirth and aggrandisement, when the Bridegroom and Bride in all their splendour repair to the house of reception, and there we find fs.miliar friends and neighbours heralding the oonsummation of their enterprise, it fills me with that enthusiasm which otherwise wonld fail to draw out our congratulations And now I must close, and take the phrase Ne quid nemis-, too much of one thing is good for nothing.' Trusting these few remarks may be found multum in pat'va, as I am now attacked with cacoethes loquendi. I shall resort to my ex cathedra, asking the ladies present melodiously to sing for me a verse of the hymn-s

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258 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA I How welcome was the call, And sweet the festal day.'" Black people are, as a rule, very improvident, and it is no use arguing with them that it is un wise to eat and drink for one day at an expense which must entail hunger and want on a future day; they will always make such a reply as this: "Please God, me massa, me must drunk to-night; to-morrow ain't come yet." A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. I remember overhearing three black men talking together at a local exhibition held in the Assembly Rooms in Georgetown, where the Colony Arms, with the motto petimusque vicissim were conspicuously displayed. First scholar: "Is what language is this?" (referring to th6 motto). "It must be some of dem foreign tongue." Second scholar: "Yes bo, you is right, is Dntch. Before time, you know, de Calony belang to de Dutch." Third scholar. Dutch, is English. U-S us-Dam us. us poor people." "Dutch who J it ain't no Don't YOil see, D-A-M Dam, Is what buckra always a do But the greatest fun is obtained from the witnesses and prisoners when they appear in the Magistrate's Court. Some of their answers when under examination are witty, some are ludicrous, and the gravity of the presiding magistrate is often sorely tried. A witness in the Supreme Criminal Court was asked if he had done a thing 258 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA I How welcome was the call, And sweet the festal day.'" Black people are, as a rule, very improvident, and it is no use arguing with them that it is un wise to eat and drink for one day at an expense which must entail hunger and want on a future day; they will always make such a reply as this: "Please God, me massa, me must drunk to-night; to-morrow ain't come yet." A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. I remember overhearing three black men talking together at a local exhibition held in the Assembly Rooms in Georgetown, where the Colony Arms, with the motto petimusque vicissim were conspicuously displayed. First scholar: "Is what language is this?" (referring to th6 motto). "It must be some of dem foreign tongue." Second scholar: "Yes bo, you is right, is Dntch. Before time, you know, de Calony belang to de Dutch." Third scholar. Dutch, is English. U-S us-Dam us. us poor people." "Dutch who J it ain't no Don't YOil see, D-A-M Dam, Is what buckra always a do But the greatest fun is obtained from the witnesses and prisoners when they appear in the Magistrate's Court. Some of their answers when under examination are witty, some are ludicrous, and the gravity of the presiding magistrate is often sorely tried. A witness in the Supreme Criminal Court was asked if he had done a thing

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.A OLEVER WITNESS 259 spontaneously. "Dh yes," said the witness. The judge, thinking he did not under s tand, asked him if he knew the meaning of the word. "Dh yes, your Honour, it means to be candid, to be punctual, to be positive." So the judge dried up, seeing that he had met a cleverer man than himself. At the same sessions the judge asked a witness, "Was it a severe blow?" "Yes, sir, it was a oompaotable blow." Judge:" What do you mean? Witness:" Yes, sir, it was a good hard social blow." Bullying barristers of the Old Bailey stamp are not llnkuown in British Gniana, but they often find the witnesses too much for them. Counsel in one case, trying to force his view of a transaction on a witness, said, "Now, sir, what I say is true." Witness:" I no know dat." Counsel: "What do you mean, sir?" Witness:" I kiss book to talk true; yon no kiss book, you hable for lie." A blaok man was being cross-examined by counsel in the Criminal Court, and being rather hard pressed, became indignant and excited, and exclaimed, "Look you; you tink you catch me, but you lie. I been here too often. I been to gaol too; you can't catch me. Bring two Bibles, I kiss dem." Some amusing cross-examinations take place when both witness and prisoner are men of the same class. The black people use words in a curious way-a sort of Alice-in-Wonderland way .A OLEVER WITNESS 259 spontaneously. "Dh yes," said the witness. The judge, thinking he did not under s tand, asked him if he knew the meaning of the word. "Dh yes, your Honour, it means to be candid, to be punctual, to be positive." So the judge dried up, seeing that he had met a cleverer man than himself. At the same sessions the judge asked a witness, "Was it a severe blow?" "Yes, sir, it was a oompaotable blow." Judge:" What do you mean? Witness:" Yes, sir, it was a good hard social blow." Bullying barristers of the Old Bailey stamp are not llnkuown in British Gniana, but they often find the witnesses too much for them. Counsel in one case, trying to force his view of a transaction on a witness, said, "Now, sir, what I say is true." Witness:" I no know dat." Counsel: "What do you mean, sir?" Witness:" I kiss book to talk true; yon no kiss book, you hable for lie." A blaok man was being cross-examined by counsel in the Criminal Court, and being rather hard pressed, became indignant and excited, and exclaimed, "Look you; you tink you catch me, but you lie. I been here too often. I been to gaol too; you can't catch me. Bring two Bibles, I kiss dem." Some amusing cross-examinations take place when both witness and prisoner are men of the same class. The black people use words in a curious way-a sort of Alice-in-Wonderland way

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260 TWENTY-FIVE YE.dRS IN BRITISH GUI.4N.d -meaJling just the opposite of what they intend to say. It is a common practice of theirs, when describing their injuries, to say, "He beat me most meroiful, Bah!" meaning, of COUfse, ULmercifully. "Remember," says the prisoner to the witness, "that yon have a dying soul," meBJljng just the contrary. A prisoner, who was somewhat at a loss for a snbjeot of cross-examina tion, addressed the witness: "Does you know de ninth oommandment?" Witness (with indignation): "Go to bed, man! I got a dying soul to account for, and I ain't going to tell a lie, com mandment or no commandment." After this cross-examination was over, I told the prisoner that he conld address the jury. "Tanks, your honour," he replied, "bnt I is a pore man and can't scaroely dress myself, mnch less all dem gentlemen," which was evidently "meant .sarkastick." In the oolony, as in England, it is diffionlt to obtain a definition of the exaot state of a man under alooholio influenoe The varions shades of drnnkenness are minutely definable. Once I asked a polioeman, when I was holding oourt at Capoey, "Was the prisoner drnnk?" "Drunk, your worship 1 oh no, he was only sooial." And every time you ask the same question you get a different answer. In the minds of most blaok people a man is never drunk unless he lies helpless and insensible, like a log, by the roadside. In Buddie court-room I onoe asked a witness if he were married. "Not yet," he replied, "but 260 TWENTY-FIVE YE.dRS IN BRITISH GUI.4N.d -meaJling just the opposite of what they intend to say. It is a common practice of theirs, when describing their injuries, to say, "He beat me most meroiful, Bah!" meaning, of COUfse, ULmercifully. "Remember," says the prisoner to the witness, "that yon have a dying soul," meBJljng just the contrary. A prisoner, who was somewhat at a loss for a snbjeot of cross-examina tion, addressed the witness: "Does you know de ninth oommandment?" Witness (with indignation): "Go to bed, man! I got a dying soul to account for, and I ain't going to tell a lie, com mandment or no commandment." After this cross-examination was over, I told the prisoner that he conld address the jury. "Tanks, your honour," he replied, "bnt I is a pore man and can't scaroely dress myself, mnch less all dem gentlemen," which was evidently "meant .sarkastick." In the oolony, as in England, it is diffionlt to obtain a definition of the exaot state of a man under alooholio influenoe The varions shades of drnnkenness are minutely definable. Once I asked a polioeman, when I was holding oourt at Capoey, "Was the prisoner drnnk?" "Drunk, your worship 1 oh no, he was only sooial." And every time you ask the same question you get a different answer. In the minds of most blaok people a man is never drunk unless he lies helpless and insensible, like a log, by the roadside. In Buddie court-room I onoe asked a witness if he were married. "Not yet," he replied, "but

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WHAT IS HEAVEN 261 I have a girl named Sarah who is my repeating -.:. r wue. At the same court I was examining a little girl to ascertaiu whether she had religious know ledge enough to understand the nature of an oath; so I asked her if she knew who God was. She said, Yes, she knew God: he lived at Bush Lot; and when I asked her if she knew that there was a heaven and hell, she replied that heaven was a place where lots of faa-faa soup and fish were to he had. I told this story to a brother magistrate, and he capped it by another which happened to him at Belfield. Magistrate, to smaIl boy, aged ten, who ap peared in the witness-box: "Now, boy, do you know what an oath is?" Boy: "Oh yes, sir." Magistrate: "If you were to kiss the Bible and then tell a lie, where would you go to after?" Boy: "I would go to the Portuguee shop, sir." As I have before remarked, the various nation alities and races which inhabit British Guiana have produced most curious effects of miscegena tion, and this has resulted in the most delicate subdivision of social grades. The pure black people despise the mulattoes, who in return look down upon the black; a quadroon takes the pas of a mulatto, and the married women turn up their noses at their sisters living in unlawful unions; the legitimate scorn the illegitimate, and so on. But sometimes distinctions are drawn wbich seem to outsiders rather subtle. A parson WHAT IS HEAVEN 261 I have a girl named Sarah who is my repeating -.:. r wue. At the same court I was examining a little girl to ascertaiu whether she had religious know ledge enough to understand the nature of an oath; so I asked her if she knew who God was. She said, Yes, she knew God: he lived at Bush Lot; and when I asked her if she knew that there was a heaven and hell, she replied that heaven was a place where lots of faa-faa soup and fish were to he had. I told this story to a brother magistrate, and he capped it by another which happened to him at Belfield. Magistrate, to smaIl boy, aged ten, who ap peared in the witness-box: "Now, boy, do you know what an oath is?" Boy: "Oh yes, sir." Magistrate: "If you were to kiss the Bible and then tell a lie, where would you go to after?" Boy: "I would go to the Portuguee shop, sir." As I have before remarked, the various nation alities and races which inhabit British Guiana have produced most curious effects of miscegena tion, and this has resulted in the most delicate subdivision of social grades. The pure black people despise the mulattoes, who in return look down upon the black; a quadroon takes the pas of a mulatto, and the married women turn up their noses at their sisters living in unlawful unions; the legitimate scorn the illegitimate, and so on. But sometimes distinctions are drawn wbich seem to outsiders rather subtle. A parson

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262 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA was making a pastoral visit to his flook, and, speaking to the grandmother of a fine boy some two years old, who was running about the house, said, "What a sad pity such a fine child is illegitimate!" "illegitimate, passon !-youself too I" exclaimed the irate grannie. "His mother is a decetent married woman, she husband a pan boiler in Berbice, married fifteen years Easter coming, and his fadder a mRllager used to be in Essequibo. How you call he illegitimate?" But," gently replied the parson, "if his father was not married to his mother there can be no doubt as to his condition." Well, passon," said the old lady, "if you say his fadder illegitimate I isn't mind, but his mother is a decetent married woman, and if the boy isn't legitimate, he harf and harf." There was an amusing story told of a parson in Antigua. A missionary meeting was being held in the Ohurch schoolroom, when the prooeed ings were intel'rupted by the unseemly behaviour of some mulatto young men who crowded about the doorways, so the parson strode down the building, and addressing the young men, exclaimed, You men, the black people despise you, and the white people despise you, and if you don't behave yourselves bet tel' we will cease to make you." The blaok people, as a rule, bully the un fortunate coolies when they have them at an advantage; but I have seen twenty coolies with hackia-sticks, and led by a white overseer, clear the middle walk of an estate of a mob of blaok 262 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BBITISH GUIANA was making a pastoral visit to his flook, and, speaking to the grandmother of a fine boy some two years old, who was running about the house, said, "What a sad pity such a fine child is illegitimate!" "illegitimate, passon !-youself too I" exclaimed the irate grannie. "His mother is a decetent married woman, she husband a pan boiler in Berbice, married fifteen years Easter coming, and his fadder a mRllager used to be in Essequibo. How you call he illegitimate?" But," gently replied the parson, "if his father was not married to his mother there can be no doubt as to his condition." Well, passon," said the old lady, "if you say his fadder illegitimate I isn't mind, but his mother is a decetent married woman, and if the boy isn't legitimate, he harf and harf." There was an amusing story told of a parson in Antigua. A missionary meeting was being held in the Ohurch schoolroom, when the prooeed ings were intel'rupted by the unseemly behaviour of some mulatto young men who crowded about the doorways, so the parson strode down the building, and addressing the young men, exclaimed, You men, the black people despise you, and the white people despise you, and if you don't behave yourselves bet tel' we will cease to make you." The blaok people, as a rule, bully the un fortunate coolies when they have them at an advantage; but I have seen twenty coolies with hackia-sticks, and led by a white overseer, clear the middle walk of an estate of a mob of blaok

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MARRIAGE GARMENTS 263 men, who ran for their lives. Despite the scarcity of women amongst the East Indian population, it is the rarest thing in the world for an Indian to take up with a black woman. There is a mutual antipathy between the races. A black prisoner once asked a coolie witness, "Yon know me? The Hindoo, with supreme contempt, replied, Me no keep company with black men." The oeremony of marriage is not muoh regarded among the masses in Demerara. In 1885 the per centage of illegitimate births was 61'08, and I don't think matters have improved much since. As a comparison, I may mention that in the same year the percentage in Ireland was only 2'08. One reason why such a minority of the coloured people in British Guiana are married is that they won't marry unless they can do so like white people, with carriages, white satin, and wedding cake. Some of the more respectable people form uuions which last for years, and finally end in marriage, the ohildren often acting as bridesmaids to their mother. It is also absolutely neoessary that proper wedding garments should be worn. A city clergyman, after long and patient entreaty, had prevailed upon a man and woman, both well up in years, who had been "living in sin," to get married. The day was fixed and the bride arrived at ohurch, where the bridegroom had preceded her. What was her horror and indignation to see that he was ill'essed in a short jacket, or jumper, instead of a long blaok frook-coat, which is de rigueur on such oocasions. It was more than she oould MARRIAGE GARMENTS 263 men, who ran for their lives. Despite the scarcity of women amongst the East Indian population, it is the rarest thing in the world for an Indian to take up with a black woman. There is a mutual antipathy between the races. A black prisoner once asked a coolie witness, "Yon know me? The Hindoo, with supreme contempt, replied, Me no keep company with black men." The oeremony of marriage is not muoh regarded among the masses in Demerara. In 1885 the per centage of illegitimate births was 61'08, and I don't think matters have improved much since. As a comparison, I may mention that in the same year the percentage in Ireland was only 2'08. One reason why such a minority of the coloured people in British Guiana are married is that they won't marry unless they can do so like white people, with carriages, white satin, and wedding cake. Some of the more respectable people form uuions which last for years, and finally end in marriage, the ohildren often acting as bridesmaids to their mother. It is also absolutely neoessary that proper wedding garments should be worn. A city clergyman, after long and patient entreaty, had prevailed upon a man and woman, both well up in years, who had been "living in sin," to get married. The day was fixed and the bride arrived at ohurch, where the bridegroom had preceded her. What was her horror and indignation to see that he was ill'essed in a short jacket, or jumper, instead of a long blaok frook-coat, which is de rigueur on such oocasions. It was more than she oould

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264 TWENTY-FIVE YE.4RS IN BRITISII GUUN.4 stand, the insult was overpowering; so she bounced out of church, and went back to her house, saying, "She would be d d if she would marry any man in a common jumper," Even when they are married, the pledge to love, honour, and obey is not very strictly kept by some women. For instance, a married lady, hearing her husband praised by the curate of her parish, exclaimed, Me husbant! Is me husbant you call a good man? He read his Bible? Yes; bnt if you watch you will see it npsy down, and he reading Revelations for Genesis. He ain't nothing but a d--d old hangman! Marriages are made the excuse for a good spree, which is kept np till next morning, and often ends in a free fight and both bride and bride groom appearing before the magistrate. Some times it would seem that the spree is the main object of the wedding, if one can believe the following dil,logue, which was overheard in the street-First lady: "I hear yon bin marry las' week. Is who your husbant?" Second lady: "He from de diggins, but I ain't 'member he name. We had a hable wedding, carriage and everyting. I just hear in de market that me hnsban' gone back to de diggins since Tuesday." Generally something ludicrous happens at these weddings. At a maniage at Mahaicony, after the feast was over, the bridegroom suggested to the bride that it was time to go home. "Eh, eh," said she. "Go home wid yon, onpossible! You mnst be mad!" The bridegroom tried hard 264 TWENTY-FIVE YE.4RS IN BRITISII GUUN.4 stand, the insult was overpowering; so she bounced out of church, and went back to her house, saying, "She would be d d if she would marry any man in a common jumper," Even when they are married, the pledge to love, honour, and obey is not very strictly kept by some women. For instance, a married lady, hearing her husband praised by the curate of her parish, exclaimed, Me husbant! Is me husbant you call a good man? He read his Bible? Yes; bnt if you watch you will see it npsy down, and he reading Revelations for Genesis. He ain't nothing but a d--d old hangman! Marriages are made the excuse for a good spree, which is kept np till next morning, and often ends in a free fight and both bride and bride groom appearing before the magistrate. Some times it would seem that the spree is the main object of the wedding, if one can believe the following dil,logue, which was overheard in the street-First lady: "I hear yon bin marry las' week. Is who your husbant?" Second lady: "He from de diggins, but I ain't 'member he name. We had a hable wedding, carriage and everyting. I just hear in de market that me hnsban' gone back to de diggins since Tuesday." Generally something ludicrous happens at these weddings. At a maniage at Mahaicony, after the feast was over, the bridegroom suggested to the bride that it was time to go home. "Eh, eh," said she. "Go home wid yon, onpossible! You mnst be mad!" The bridegroom tried hard

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DANGERS OF MATRIMONY 265 to teach her her duty, but it was no use. She said she wouldn't leave her pappa, for she always had a decent "karratah," and she didn't know what enoouragement she had given him to make him think she would do suoh a "wutless thing as go to he house." Married women are apt to give themselves airs, so it is as well to think the matter over oarefully before hurrying into matrimony. I heard a story about a hard-working, well-meaning Wesleyan minister, who was urging an old man to marry the woman with whom he had lived for many years. But at last, when the subjeot was renewed, the old man replied, "Well, minister, we have disooursed together-me son John, and me datter Selina-and dem all say married is very danger. Dis time de ole woman 'tand quiet; but de ohildren say, if I marry she, de old woman will get out lawded, and put on too muoh airs. Better 'tand easy." But it sometimes happens that a man is too anxious to get married, and runs the danger of being a bigamist or trigamist. During the Jubilee year, 1887, one of the olergy announoed that in honour of the Queen's Jubilee he would marry oouples without fees. One day an Afrioan oame to him and said he wanted to be married. All right," said the parson, "bring your bride." H Yes, passon, me bring 'em-me bring two," "What, bring two? Impossible I You oannot have more than one wife." "Yes, passon, me know. He very wioked have more than one wife; DANGERS OF MATRIMONY 265 to teach her her duty, but it was no use. She said she wouldn't leave her pappa, for she always had a decent "karratah," and she didn't know what enoouragement she had given him to make him think she would do suoh a "wutless thing as go to he house." Married women are apt to give themselves airs, so it is as well to think the matter over oarefully before hurrying into matrimony. I heard a story about a hard-working, well-meaning Wesleyan minister, who was urging an old man to marry the woman with whom he had lived for many years. But at last, when the subjeot was renewed, the old man replied, "Well, minister, we have disooursed together-me son John, and me datter Selina-and dem all say married is very danger. Dis time de ole woman 'tand quiet; but de ohildren say, if I marry she, de old woman will get out lawded, and put on too muoh airs. Better 'tand easy." But it sometimes happens that a man is too anxious to get married, and runs the danger of being a bigamist or trigamist. During the Jubilee year, 1887, one of the olergy announoed that in honour of the Queen's Jubilee he would marry oouples without fees. One day an Afrioan oame to him and said he wanted to be married. All right," said the parson, "bring your bride." H Yes, passon, me bring 'em-me bring two," "What, bring two? Impossible I You oannot have more than one wife." "Yes, passon, me know. He very wioked have more than one wife;

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266 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA never do sioh a ting. Me marry two, but one for 'tand one side till first dead, so leff me." He thought he would take advantage of the cheap mauying to provide himself with wives for life. In a oountry where the males outnumber the females, it is not often that a widow is unable to console herself for the loss of her husband or companion; but she rarely does so with the rapidity of Nancy Bascom, about whom the following story was told. She was seen sitting and crying over her dead husband. "Don't cry, mammy," said a consoling friend, "don't cry, man dead, man dey." This consolation in the reminder that though one man was dead, some remained alive, acted benignly on the widow's sorrow. She lifted her head, dried her tears, and replied, "Yes, fistah is true, and one old man been ask me already." The negroes are very fond of long, high-sounding names. Surnames have been acquired by the ex-slaves, but they show their freedom by not tying themselves down to anyone name, but change it at pleasure. Numbers of Congo men were called after the proprietor or manager of the estate on which they were first looated, so we find great numbers of Bascoms, Fields, Russells, and Mac almans. The old slave names, suoh as Venus, Adonis, Heroules, Pompey became surnames, so that we have Thomas Hercules, William Adonis. Titles find much favour with them, especially amongst the ladies-prince, princess, queen, lady, duchess. One decidedly plain young woman told 266 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA never do sioh a ting. Me marry two, but one for 'tand one side till first dead, so leff me." He thought he would take advantage of the cheap mauying to provide himself with wives for life. In a oountry where the males outnumber the females, it is not often that a widow is unable to console herself for the loss of her husband or companion; but she rarely does so with the rapidity of Nancy Bascom, about whom the following story was told. She was seen sitting and crying over her dead husband. "Don't cry, mammy," said a consoling friend, "don't cry, man dead, man dey." This consolation in the reminder that though one man was dead, some remained alive, acted benignly on the widow's sorrow. She lifted her head, dried her tears, and replied, "Yes, fistah is true, and one old man been ask me already." The negroes are very fond of long, high-sounding names. Surnames have been acquired by the ex-slaves, but they show their freedom by not tying themselves down to anyone name, but change it at pleasure. Numbers of Congo men were called after the proprietor or manager of the estate on which they were first looated, so we find great numbers of Bascoms, Fields, Russells, and Mac almans. The old slave names, suoh as Venus, Adonis, Heroules, Pompey became surnames, so that we have Thomas Hercules, William Adonis. Titles find much favour with them, especially amongst the ladies-prince, princess, queen, lady, duchess. One decidedly plain young woman told

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NEGRO SURNAMES 267 me her name was Lovely Venus; whilst another dirty commonplace piece of humanity, after she had kissed the Bible, gave her name as Prinoess Matilda. I was rather taken abaok by a swagger ing buok nigger at Suddie, who stepped into the witness-box and told the clerk his name was Welliugton Napoleon Hamilton Smith. Knowing their weakness, a wag of a registrar endowed two unfortunate boys with oelebrated titles. Massa," said a respeotable blaok gentleman to the Registrar of Births for his district-" massa, me make you know dat for me wife ooniine Tues day gone and she gie me twins, both of dem boys, and me ax you be so kind as gie me name for dem." "Well," said the Registrar, "I think you had better call them Waverley and Guy Mannering." Tank you, me massa, dem name fnst rate, but me beg you write d em on a orip of paper, else me no 'member dem." Sometimes they oan find reasons for their eccentricity in the choice of names. A country parson was onoe taken aback when the happy father, presenting his tenth son for baptism, aunounoed that he had seleoted for the unfor tunate infant the name of Judas Isoariot. Said he, "Dats the boy's name. Judas hez been slighted. Nobody hez eber had de immortal oourage to name a ohile from dat man. But dat a ,in't de ma,;n reason why I named him Judas; I'se got de Bible ter 'sta;n me in gibben de ohile dat name." How does the Bible sustain you in desiring to perpe tuate that name?" asked the astonished parson. NEGRO SURNAMES 267 me her name was Lovely Venus; whilst another dirty commonplace piece of humanity, after she had kissed the Bible, gave her name as Prinoess Matilda. I was rather taken abaok by a swagger ing buok nigger at Suddie, who stepped into the witness-box and told the clerk his name was Welliugton Napoleon Hamilton Smith. Knowing their weakness, a wag of a registrar endowed two unfortunate boys with oelebrated titles. Massa," said a respeotable blaok gentleman to the Registrar of Births for his district-" massa, me make you know dat for me wife ooniine Tues day gone and she gie me twins, both of dem boys, and me ax you be so kind as gie me name for dem." "Well," said the Registrar, "I think you had better call them Waverley and Guy Mannering." Tank you, me massa, dem name fnst rate, but me beg you write d em on a orip of paper, else me no 'member dem." Sometimes they oan find reasons for their eccentricity in the choice of names. A country parson was onoe taken aback when the happy father, presenting his tenth son for baptism, aunounoed that he had seleoted for the unfor tunate infant the name of Judas Isoariot. Said he, "Dats the boy's name. Judas hez been slighted. Nobody hez eber had de immortal oourage to name a ohile from dat man. But dat a ,in't de ma,;n reason why I named him Judas; I'se got de Bible ter 'sta;n me in gibben de ohile dat name." How does the Bible sustain you in desiring to perpe tuate that name?" asked the astonished parson.

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268 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA It's dis fack; Christ in remarking ob Judas said it would hab been better for dat man ef he hadn't been born." "Well?" "An' considering how many mouts is opened at the do' when I goes home wid a side of meat, it would be better fur dat boy of mine ef he had nebber seen daylight. I takes de Scriptur fer de references. In de fucher, ef I finds dat de boy hez made improvements on hisself den I change his name ter Jim." MyoId friend X. Beke told me a ridiculous story about two black girls who were returning from work, and met on the road. They were wearing but a scanty amount of clothes, but each had a baby in her arms, the result of youthful indiscretion. Thet'e was some quarrel between them, and a wordy war ensued. At the close one damsel, turning !.way, said, "Well, I don want no more diacaaree with you, Miss Teraza," "Me make you know, marm," retorted the other girl, "that for me name no Teraza but Tereesa." Well, me dear," was the reply, "Teraza or Teree sa both de same, for me name a better name than for your own, for me name Diana de God dess of Chaste; and she strutted off with a swing of her ragged skirt. I have written above of the curious way in which the people muddle up and misapply words. The following dialogue was heard in the street: "Who dead, me dear?" "A bachelor child no mo." "Wha he name?" "Miss Bessy Colly more." "Eh I eh I how you make she a bachelor? "Well, you see she no been married, 268 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA It's dis fack; Christ in remarking ob Judas said it would hab been better for dat man ef he hadn't been born." "Well?" "An' considering how many mouts is opened at the do' when I goes home wid a side of meat, it would be better fur dat boy of mine ef he had nebber seen daylight. I takes de Scriptur fer de references. In de fucher, ef I finds dat de boy hez made improvements on hisself den I change his name ter Jim." MyoId friend X. Beke told me a ridiculous story about two black girls who were returning from work, and met on the road. They were wearing but a scanty amount of clothes, but each had a baby in her arms, the result of youthful indiscretion. Thet'e was some quarrel between them, and a wordy war ensued. At the close one damsel, turning !.way, said, "Well, I don want no more diacaaree with you, Miss Teraza," "Me make you know, marm," retorted the other girl, "that for me name no Teraza but Tereesa." Well, me dear," was the reply, "Teraza or Teree sa both de same, for me name a better name than for your own, for me name Diana de God dess of Chaste; and she strutted off with a swing of her ragged skirt. I have written above of the curious way in which the people muddle up and misapply words. The following dialogue was heard in the street: "Who dead, me dear?" "A bachelor child no mo." "Wha he name?" "Miss Bessy Colly more." "Eh I eh I how you make she a bachelor? "Well, you see she no been married,

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W.4NT OF MIDWIVES 269 and women who no been married yet is called bachelor." "Fader! I never knew dat." As they use words of abuse which they don't understand themselves, but their very vagueness making them seem more terrible, they are equally outraged if you use words to them which they don't understand, and which sound of an abusive nature, like Sheridan's fish-f g who was rendered dumb by being called an isosceles triangle. In good humoured familiarity a lady going out once said to her servant, "Au revoir!" but was astonished by the reply, "Ow! me missy, so long 'ave I bin wid you, and for to cuss me like a this, yourself too I There is a great want in Demerara of an insti tution for the proper training of midwives. The old women who are employed for this necessary work are stupid, ignorant, and superstitious, with one or two exceptions. An inquest was held on the body of a young woman named Hope, who lost her life through the utter stupidity and barbarity of the midwife, a woman named Amsterdam. She deliberately tied the woman with a rope and stretched her; then manipulated her body in a violent way, expecting the energetio treatment would help the birth; at last, the kneading pro cess having failed, she belaboured the poor woman's body with a stick, being unable to think of any thing which could better help the poor suffering, tortured patient out of her trouble. The midwife had been oalled in on the 28th of March, and on the 30th of March, 1874, after suffering awful W.4NT OF MIDWIVES 269 and women who no been married yet is called bachelor." "Fader! I never knew dat." As they use words of abuse which they don't understand themselves, but their very vagueness making them seem more terrible, they are equally outraged if you use words to them which they don't understand, and which sound of an abusive nature, like Sheridan's fish-f g who was rendered dumb by being called an isosceles triangle. In good humoured familiarity a lady going out once said to her servant, "Au revoir!" but was astonished by the reply, "Ow! me missy, so long 'ave I bin wid you, and for to cuss me like a this, yourself too I There is a great want in Demerara of an insti tution for the proper training of midwives. The old women who are employed for this necessary work are stupid, ignorant, and superstitious, with one or two exceptions. An inquest was held on the body of a young woman named Hope, who lost her life through the utter stupidity and barbarity of the midwife, a woman named Amsterdam. She deliberately tied the woman with a rope and stretched her; then manipulated her body in a violent way, expecting the energetio treatment would help the birth; at last, the kneading pro cess having failed, she belaboured the poor woman's body with a stick, being unable to think of any thing which could better help the poor suffering, tortured patient out of her trouble. The midwife had been oalled in on the 28th of March, and on the 30th of March, 1874, after suffering awful

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270 TWENTY-FIVE IN BRITISH agonies, Hope died, her child still unborn_ Talk ing about a school for the tra;ning of midwives, I was reading an account of a meeting in London in support of such an institution, when a lady speaker electrified her audience by asserting that she had given birth to six fine children without the intervention of a man. 270 TWENTY-FIVE IN BRITISH agonies, Hope died, her child still unborn_ Talk ing about a school for the tra;ning of midwives, I was reading an account of a meeting in London in support of such an institution, when a lady speaker electrified her audience by asserting that she had given birth to six fine children without the intervention of a man.

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( 271 ) CHAPTER XII. Good conduct of the coloured people Occasional outbreaks Riots iD. Georgetown-Portuguese sbopkeepers-Antipathy between them and the masses-Murder of Julia Chase-March, 1889-Assault in the market-Rising of the people-Police-Special constablesStreet fighting-Incendiary fires-West India Regiment-Volunteers -Proclamation-Permission to fire-Results-Arrival of bluejacketa and marines of H.M.S. Canada-Unfortunate murder-R11Dning amok-Excitement-Emptying the gaol-Ludicrous results penaation for damage done by rioters Creole Bupe1'8titions-ObeahPoisoning-Education-Want of reverence Confirmation-Jumping Jenny-Coloured gentlemen-Extension of the fraDchise-A local civil service-Painless dentistry-A state of prognostication-The benefits of corporation. TAKING them as a whole, the negroes can be favourably oompared with most white races; they are usually a law-abiding, well-behaved people. Crowds like those which attend the races are more noisy than an English crowd, but there is less ruffianism and brutality; but at times, under strong excitement, the black man becomes riotous and dangerous. Such an occurrence happened in my time in Georgetown, and may fairly be included in these reminisoences. Amongst other attempts to supply the demand for labour on the estates after the abolition of slavery, was the introduction into British Guiana ( 271 ) CHAPTER XII. Good conduct of the coloured people Occasional outbreaks Riots iD. Georgetown-Portuguese sbopkeepers-Antipathy between them and the masses-Murder of Julia Chase-March, 1889-Assault in the market-Rising of the people-Police-Special constablesStreet fighting-Incendiary fires-West India Regiment-Volunteers -Proclamation-Permission to fire-Results-Arrival of bluejacketa and marines of H.M.S. Canada-Unfortunate murder-R11Dning amok-Excitement-Emptying the gaol-Ludicrous results penaation for damage done by rioters Creole Bupe1'8titions-ObeahPoisoning-Education-Want of reverence Confirmation-Jumping Jenny-Coloured gentlemen-Extension of the fraDchise-A local civil service-Painless dentistry-A state of prognostication-The benefits of corporation. TAKING them as a whole, the negroes can be favourably oompared with most white races; they are usually a law-abiding, well-behaved people. Crowds like those which attend the races are more noisy than an English crowd, but there is less ruffianism and brutality; but at times, under strong excitement, the black man becomes riotous and dangerous. Such an occurrence happened in my time in Georgetown, and may fairly be included in these reminisoences. Amongst other attempts to supply the demand for labour on the estates after the abolition of slavery, was the introduction into British Guiana

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272 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA of a number of Portuguese from Madeira and the Azores. As labourers on the estates they proved a failure; the first shiploads imported were almost destroyed by fever, and those that followed soon deserted the cane pieces and embarked in other pursuits. So much mortality had attended the first introduction of Portuguese labourers from Madeira and the Azores, that the medical autho rities were at their wits' end to devise some remedy or preventive. Dr. Blair, in a letter to tho Lamaha Committee, advocated placing newly arrived Portuguese on the pegass land, which bordered parts of the canal, as an experiment as to whether peat land is a preventive against intermittent fever. This strange proposal found no favour with the committee. Being very thrifty people, with an innate taste for bargaining, they soon saved up money, and established themselves as shopkeepers and trades men, and that so successfully that in thirty years' time the whole small retail business of the colony fell into their hands. With one or two exceptions, every rum-shop in the colony was owned by Portuguese, and half a dozen firms of the same nationality were firmly established in Georgetown as wholesale merchants. The coloured population of the colony, with a few honourable exceptiolls, is of an entirely opposite type to the Portuguese. Quashie lives ouly for the day; he Dever .aves any money, and never looks for a day ahead. Even in furnishing provisions for daily use, the poorer black people never buy anything except for 272 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA of a number of Portuguese from Madeira and the Azores. As labourers on the estates they proved a failure; the first shiploads imported were almost destroyed by fever, and those that followed soon deserted the cane pieces and embarked in other pursuits. So much mortality had attended the first introduction of Portuguese labourers from Madeira and the Azores, that the medical autho rities were at their wits' end to devise some remedy or preventive. Dr. Blair, in a letter to tho Lamaha Committee, advocated placing newly arrived Portuguese on the pegass land, which bordered parts of the canal, as an experiment as to whether peat land is a preventive against intermittent fever. This strange proposal found no favour with the committee. Being very thrifty people, with an innate taste for bargaining, they soon saved up money, and established themselves as shopkeepers and trades men, and that so successfully that in thirty years' time the whole small retail business of the colony fell into their hands. With one or two exceptions, every rum-shop in the colony was owned by Portuguese, and half a dozen firms of the same nationality were firmly established in Georgetown as wholesale merchants. The coloured population of the colony, with a few honourable exceptiolls, is of an entirely opposite type to the Portuguese. Quashie lives ouly for the day; he Dever .aves any money, and never looks for a day ahead. Even in furnishing provisions for daily use, the poorer black people never buy anything except for

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PORTUGUESE .Q110PKEEPERS 273 immediate needs by pennyworths at a time, and so naturally pay the highest price for their neces sary food. A Portuguese shop exists at the corner of every street, with which all the poor people in its immediate neighbourhood have numerous dealings every day. The usual antagonistic feel ing which must always exist between buyer and seller exists between them; and this feeliug is much intensified by the contempt with which the people treat the Portuguese; and the fraudulent spirit which the shopkeepers show towards tbeir customers. The use of unjust weights and measures is a common practice amongst these small shop-keepers; and although they cannot detect it, the coloured people are well aware of the fact. Their feelings are too often expressed in insults and menaces, which sometimes ru'ive even the mean-spirited shopmen to retaliation, and a row ensues, which brings the policeman on the scene, and finds its development in the magistrate's court. The ill feeling between the Portuguese and the coloured population first came to a head in 1846, when a general rising of the black population caused the destruction of most of the Portuguese shops in several of the principal districts of the colony. Although the public peace was not broken, the ill feeling between the two races never died out, but only slumbered, waiting for an op portunity to break out afresh. Such an incentive occurred in 1889. A man named Manoel Gou salves, a Portuguese, had murdered his paramour, T PORTUGUESE .Q110PKEEPERS 273 immediate needs by pennyworths at a time, and so naturally pay the highest price for their neces sary food. A Portuguese shop exists at the corner of every street, with which all the poor people in its immediate neighbourhood have numerous dealings every day. The usual antagonistic feel ing which must always exist between buyer and seller exists between them; and this feeliug is much intensified by the contempt with which the people treat the Portuguese; and the fraudulent spirit which the shopkeepers show towards tbeir customers. The use of unjust weights and measures is a common practice amongst these small shop-keepers; and although they cannot detect it, the coloured people are well aware of the fact. Their feelings are too often expressed in insults and menaces, which sometimes ru'ive even the mean-spirited shopmen to retaliation, and a row ensues, which brings the policeman on the scene, and finds its development in the magistrate's court. The ill feeling between the Portuguese and the coloured population first came to a head in 1846, when a general rising of the black population caused the destruction of most of the Portuguese shops in several of the principal districts of the colony. Although the public peace was not broken, the ill feeling between the two races never died out, but only slumbered, waiting for an op portunity to break out afresh. Such an incentive occurred in 1889. A man named Manoel Gou salves, a Portuguese, had murdered his paramour, T

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274 TWENTY-FIVE YE4RS IN RRITISH OUI4N4 Julia Chase, a mulatto girl, in open daylight in a small room in a yard filled with tenants, and in the presence of a witness, by shooting her with a revolver, he having openly and frequently expressed his intention to kill her. He was tried and condemned to death; but, for some reason or another, the officer at that time administering the Government, in the absence on leave of the Governor, considered the case one for the inter position of the Crown, and commuted the sentence to penal servitude for life. Unfortunately, not long before a coloured man had been executed for a similar offence, and the coloured people were indignant that different justice was meted out to one race from another. The governing classes were well aware of the mistake that had been made, and the judges of the Supreme Court took the somewhat unusual course of memorializing tbe Secretary of State on the subjeot, stating that they had reason to fear that, if such distinctions were made in administering justice to men of different races and colour, the consequences to the colony might be very serious. This memorial received confirmation in a very short time. On the 19th of March, 1889, a row occurred in the Stabroek Market between a black boy and a Portuguese shopkeeper, which ended in the man striking the boy on the head with a pole, and laying him apparently lifeless at his feet. A cry went through the market that the Portuguese had murdered a black boy, and about two hundred 274 TWENTY-FIVE YE4RS IN RRITISH OUI4N4 Julia Chase, a mulatto girl, in open daylight in a small room in a yard filled with tenants, and in the presence of a witness, by shooting her with a revolver, he having openly and frequently expressed his intention to kill her. He was tried and condemned to death; but, for some reason or another, the officer at that time administering the Government, in the absence on leave of the Governor, considered the case one for the inter position of the Crown, and commuted the sentence to penal servitude for life. Unfortunately, not long before a coloured man had been executed for a similar offence, and the coloured people were indignant that different justice was meted out to one race from another. The governing classes were well aware of the mistake that had been made, and the judges of the Supreme Court took the somewhat unusual course of memorializing tbe Secretary of State on the subjeot, stating that they had reason to fear that, if such distinctions were made in administering justice to men of different races and colour, the consequences to the colony might be very serious. This memorial received confirmation in a very short time. On the 19th of March, 1889, a row occurred in the Stabroek Market between a black boy and a Portuguese shopkeeper, which ended in the man striking the boy on the head with a pole, and laying him apparently lifeless at his feet. A cry went through the market that the Portuguese had murdered a black boy, and about two hundred

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RIOTS IN GEORGETOWN 275 black and coloured people gathered in a mob and made an attack upon the Portuguese stalls. The constables iu the market were unable to cope with the mob, so a messenger was sent to the Central Police Station, and about twenty-five policemen were sent with two inspectors to their assistance. By their efforts the crowds were driven out of the market, and the gates were closed, the injured boy being sent to the Colonial Hospital. But all the people who were driven out of the market rushed in an excited state through the city, calling out to the people ill all directions for vengeance on the Portuguese. The whole town was up; Portuguese passing along the streets, or riding in the tramcars, were assaulted with sticks and stones, and had to fly for refuge to their houses; shops were attacked, and theu: contents thrown out into the streets. In fact, the whole city in a few hours became at the mercy of a riotous mob. Georgetown is a city of more than fifty thousand inhabitants, and the streets measure about fifty miles in extent. There were about a hundred and fifty polioe stationed in different parts of the city, but half of them had been on night duty, and were lying in. The Governor of the Colony, Viscount Gormanston, had returned from leave a few weeks before the emeute, and upon him the mayor and town oouncil waited to inform him of the state of affairs. I was at that time Sheriff of Demerara, and His Exoellency sent for me and the acting InspectorGeneral of Police, Mr. Harragin, and RIOTS IN GEORGETOWN 275 black and coloured people gathered in a mob and made an attack upon the Portuguese stalls. The constables iu the market were unable to cope with the mob, so a messenger was sent to the Central Police Station, and about twenty-five policemen were sent with two inspectors to their assistance. By their efforts the crowds were driven out of the market, and the gates were closed, the injured boy being sent to the Colonial Hospital. But all the people who were driven out of the market rushed in an excited state through the city, calling out to the people ill all directions for vengeance on the Portuguese. The whole town was up; Portuguese passing along the streets, or riding in the tramcars, were assaulted with sticks and stones, and had to fly for refuge to their houses; shops were attacked, and theu: contents thrown out into the streets. In fact, the whole city in a few hours became at the mercy of a riotous mob. Georgetown is a city of more than fifty thousand inhabitants, and the streets measure about fifty miles in extent. There were about a hundred and fifty polioe stationed in different parts of the city, but half of them had been on night duty, and were lying in. The Governor of the Colony, Viscount Gormanston, had returned from leave a few weeks before the emeute, and upon him the mayor and town oouncil waited to inform him of the state of affairs. I was at that time Sheriff of Demerara, and His Exoellency sent for me and the acting InspectorGeneral of Police, Mr. Harragin, and

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276 TWENTY-FIVE YE.dRS IN BRITISH (}UI.dN.d informed me that he looked to me to preserve the peace of the city, placed me in supreme command over the military, volunteers, and police, and authorized me to swear in a hundred special con stables to help the police in the execution of their duties. It was evident that His Excellency had under rated the serious nature of the outbreak and the difficulties with which we had to contend, as he refused the mayor's request to double the number of special constables to be enrolled; so I found myself at nightfall with about a hundred policemen and a hundred special constables armed (?) with some rotten old police truncheons, to restrain a mob of ten thousand people scattered throughout fifty miles of streets. Nothing is more disheartening and demoralizing than street-fighting. As you charge the mob, they disperse, running into the open yards on both sides, from which they assail you with volleys of broken bottles, bricks, and stones, and then form up in your rear. If you l'ight-about face and charge back agajn, the same tactics are repeated. If you clear one street, the mob swarms into the next. Bottles, jugs, and brickbats are flying iu all ilirections, apparently from invisible hands; and whereas the members of your force are being continuaIIy diminished by injuries received and by the necessity for escorts for prison"s and extra guards for police-stations, the mob has, on the other hand, a tendency to swell in numbers as the row goes on. 276 TWENTY-FIVE YE.dRS IN BRITISH (}UI.dN.d informed me that he looked to me to preserve the peace of the city, placed me in supreme command over the military, volunteers, and police, and authorized me to swear in a hundred special con stables to help the police in the execution of their duties. It was evident that His Excellency had under rated the serious nature of the outbreak and the difficulties with which we had to contend, as he refused the mayor's request to double the number of special constables to be enrolled; so I found myself at nightfall with about a hundred policemen and a hundred special constables armed (?) with some rotten old police truncheons, to restrain a mob of ten thousand people scattered throughout fifty miles of streets. Nothing is more disheartening and demoralizing than street-fighting. As you charge the mob, they disperse, running into the open yards on both sides, from which they assail you with volleys of broken bottles, bricks, and stones, and then form up in your rear. If you l'ight-about face and charge back agajn, the same tactics are repeated. If you clear one street, the mob swarms into the next. Bottles, jugs, and brickbats are flying iu all ilirections, apparently from invisible hands; and whereas the members of your force are being continuaIIy diminished by injuries received and by the necessity for escorts for prison"s and extra guards for police-stations, the mob has, on the other hand, a tendency to swell in numbers as the row goes on.

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STREET-FIGHTING 277 We had a very hot time of it that night. Fifty police-constables were injured and two inspectors placed hors de combat; and there were very few of the hundred specials who were not wounded or otherwise injured, some of them seriously. Three incendiary fires had taken place; so, soon after midnight, I went to Government House, and told the Governor I conld do nothing withont further assistance; and he then wrote an order authorizing me to callout the military, and placing them under my orders. The troops which at that time formed our small garrison were two companies of the West India Regiment, under the command of Major Caulfield. Now, between these black troops and the black police there was a long-standing feud, and I was not at all sure that they wonld not side with the mob against their ancient enemies the police. The mob were well aware of this, for many of the women taunted me as I drove through the streets. "Yon! Sheriff! bring out the sol diers, and we will wash the streets with your blood." I have been blamed by many for not calling out the soldiers, so I have given my reasons. When I left Government House I rode down to the Central Police Station, where I was met by Major Turner, commanding the volunteers, who informed me that he had a company of his men under arms at the Drill Hall, if I wanted them. I jumped at his offer, and soon had the pleasure of s e eing his men march in, more than eighty strong. With them we cleared several streets at the point of the bayonet, and made many prisoners. STREET-FIGHTING 277 We had a very hot time of it that night. Fifty police-constables were injured and two inspectors placed hors de combat; and there were very few of the hundred specials who were not wounded or otherwise injured, some of them seriously. Three incendiary fires had taken place; so, soon after midnight, I went to Government House, and told the Governor I conld do nothing withont further assistance; and he then wrote an order authorizing me to callout the military, and placing them under my orders. The troops which at that time formed our small garrison were two companies of the West India Regiment, under the command of Major Caulfield. Now, between these black troops and the black police there was a long-standing feud, and I was not at all sure that they wonld not side with the mob against their ancient enemies the police. The mob were well aware of this, for many of the women taunted me as I drove through the streets. "Yon! Sheriff! bring out the sol diers, and we will wash the streets with your blood." I have been blamed by many for not calling out the soldiers, so I have given my reasons. When I left Government House I rode down to the Central Police Station, where I was met by Major Turner, commanding the volunteers, who informed me that he had a company of his men under arms at the Drill Hall, if I wanted them. I jumped at his offer, and soon had the pleasure of s e eing his men march in, more than eighty strong. With them we cleared several streets at the point of the bayonet, and made many prisoners.

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278 TWENTYFiVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA The Portuguese shops being now mostly sacked, and the rioters being either drunk or exhausted, there was a lull in the storm about 4 a.m. But this peace was only temporary; at 8 a.m. the rioting was again in full blast. A large party had started up the east bank of the Demerara River, destroying all the Portuguese shops en route. The police were tired out, the lock-ups were crammed with prisoners, and things looked very black indeed. The rioters at last made an attack upon a large rum-shop called the White Coconut Tree. They were driven back by the police, but were gathering reinforcements to renew the attack. I went to Lord Gormanston, and told him I must have per mission to fire on the mob, a permission hitherto withheld. So His Excellency gave me a written order authorizing the police to fire upon all persons breaking into any shops or houses or found pillag. ing therein, and ordered proclamations to that effect to be posted up over the city. From that moment the riot was virtnally at an end. Mter the fi,st discharge of the police revolvers, when the mob saw we were firing in earnest, they gradually melted away, and all danger of any serious catastrophe was at an end. How ever, for several days and nights the city was patrolled by large bodies of police and special constables. The Governor had telegraphed to Barbados, and H.M.S. Canada arrived and landed a force of bluejackets and marines, but, fortunately, we had no need of their services \fter the row had been suppressed, it was 278 TWENTYFiVE YEARS IN RRITISH GUIANA The Portuguese shops being now mostly sacked, and the rioters being either drunk or exhausted, there was a lull in the storm about 4 a.m. But this peace was only temporary; at 8 a.m. the rioting was again in full blast. A large party had started up the east bank of the Demerara River, destroying all the Portuguese shops en route. The police were tired out, the lock-ups were crammed with prisoners, and things looked very black indeed. The rioters at last made an attack upon a large rum-shop called the White Coconut Tree. They were driven back by the police, but were gathering reinforcements to renew the attack. I went to Lord Gormanston, and told him I must have per mission to fire on the mob, a permission hitherto withheld. So His Excellency gave me a written order authorizing the police to fire upon all persons breaking into any shops or houses or found pillag. ing therein, and ordered proclamations to that effect to be posted up over the city. From that moment the riot was virtnally at an end. Mter the fi,st discharge of the police revolvers, when the mob saw we were firing in earnest, they gradually melted away, and all danger of any serious catastrophe was at an end. How ever, for several days and nights the city was patrolled by large bodies of police and special constables. The Governor had telegraphed to Barbados, and H.M.S. Canada arrived and landed a force of bluejackets and marines, but, fortunately, we had no need of their services \fter the row had been suppressed, it was

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BUNNING .AMOK 279 nearly rekindled by an unfortunate occurrence which took place about nine o'clook at night a few days afterwards. The rum-shops, which had been closed for several days by order of the Governor, had been reopened, and the people had been ma.king up for the time they had been deprived of their favourite beverage. At the Peacock rum shop. whioh was situated in a low part of the town, a coloured man from the Spanish main had run amok, and had stabbed a black man to the heart with his long knife. I was called at once to the scene of the tragedy, and found the rum-shop surrounded by a yelling mob, a blaok man lying on the platform in front of the house on his back in a pool of blood, with his arms extended, and his murderer inside the shop, guarded by a few police men. The Inspector-General met me here, anci we walked amongst the crowd, trying to pacify them, assuring them that the assailant was not a Portuguese, and that we would guarantee that justice should be done upon him. We impressed five of the most respectable men we could find, and I swore them in as a jury over the body of the man lying on the platform. The SpaJJiard was removed, under a strong guard, to the Central Police Station, the dead body was carted to the mortuary, and after a time we persuaded the people to disperse. The Spa.niard was in due course tried for murder, and it came out in the evidence that he had been drinking and became quarrelsome, push ing people about and threatening them, until a row began between himself and two black men, BUNNING .AMOK 279 nearly rekindled by an unfortunate occurrence which took place about nine o'clook at night a few days afterwards. The rum-shops, which had been closed for several days by order of the Governor, had been reopened, and the people had been ma.king up for the time they had been deprived of their favourite beverage. At the Peacock rum shop. whioh was situated in a low part of the town, a coloured man from the Spanish main had run amok, and had stabbed a black man to the heart with his long knife. I was called at once to the scene of the tragedy, and found the rum-shop surrounded by a yelling mob, a blaok man lying on the platform in front of the house on his back in a pool of blood, with his arms extended, and his murderer inside the shop, guarded by a few police men. The Inspector-General met me here, anci we walked amongst the crowd, trying to pacify them, assuring them that the assailant was not a Portuguese, and that we would guarantee that justice should be done upon him. We impressed five of the most respectable men we could find, and I swore them in as a jury over the body of the man lying on the platform. The SpaJJiard was removed, under a strong guard, to the Central Police Station, the dead body was carted to the mortuary, and after a time we persuaded the people to disperse. The Spa.niard was in due course tried for murder, and it came out in the evidence that he had been drinking and became quarrelsome, push ing people about and threatening them, until a row began between himself and two black men,

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280 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUl.1YA one of whom he wounded in the arm, and the other he stabbed in the chest with a long knife, which he drew out of his waistband. He was condemned to death, and the sentence was carried out. He was a fine, handsome man, of splendid physique and regular features. I visited him the day before his execution, and he told me that he believed he had killed the black man, because all the witnesses had sworn that they had seen him do it, but that he himself had no recollection of it at all; that he had been drinking for two days, and remembered nothing of what happened at the rum-shop, and only came to himself in the police-cell. The next morning, after I had read his death-warrant, and he was being pinioned by the executioner, he made the same statement, walked on to the scaffold with head erect and a firm step, and met his death as a brave man should. One ludicrous circumstance arose out of the riots. The gaol was so crowded with prisoners that we could not find room for the people who must be removed from the lock-ups, so I obtBjned the permission of the Governor to discharge from gaol all prisoners who were in custody for trivial offences against the labour laws, vagrancy, and such like. These men, to the number of about fifty, were mustered and discharged, but some of the East Indian prisoners refused to leave the gaol, and had literally to be kicked out. One coolie fell on the ground at my feet, embraced my legs, and begged me not to send him out of gaol. "Sahib," he pleaded, "you me father, you me mother, who 280 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUl.1YA one of whom he wounded in the arm, and the other he stabbed in the chest with a long knife, which he drew out of his waistband. He was condemned to death, and the sentence was carried out. He was a fine, handsome man, of splendid physique and regular features. I visited him the day before his execution, and he told me that he believed he had killed the black man, because all the witnesses had sworn that they had seen him do it, but that he himself had no recollection of it at all; that he had been drinking for two days, and remembered nothing of what happened at the rum-shop, and only came to himself in the police-cell. The next morning, after I had read his death-warrant, and he was being pinioned by the executioner, he made the same statement, walked on to the scaffold with head erect and a firm step, and met his death as a brave man should. One ludicrous circumstance arose out of the riots. The gaol was so crowded with prisoners that we could not find room for the people who must be removed from the lock-ups, so I obtBjned the permission of the Governor to discharge from gaol all prisoners who were in custody for trivial offences against the labour laws, vagrancy, and such like. These men, to the number of about fifty, were mustered and discharged, but some of the East Indian prisoners refused to leave the gaol, and had literally to be kicked out. One coolie fell on the ground at my feet, embraced my legs, and begged me not to send him out of gaol. "Sahib," he pleaded, "you me father, you me mother, who

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CREOLE SUPERSTITIONS 281 feed me, who care me." This reminds me of a story I heard in India. There was a riot among the prisoners in the Alipore gaol, near Calcutta, which came to the Governor's ears. That gallant officer came out of his house aud proceeded to the prison yard. For a moment the row ceased at the appearance of the Governor, when he shouted out, Look here, you pigs, if you are not quiet at once, by G-d, I will turn you all out of tile gaol! at which fearful threat all the mutineers became as quiet as mice. Of course, after the riots were over, the Portu guese, who had not made the slightest attcmpt to defend either themselves or their property, de manded compensation from the Government for the lOsses they had sustained; and after a pro tracted inquiry, which was much prolonged owing to the false and exaggerated claims which were made, more than $75,000 was paid to the sufferers. The creoles are very superstitious, but I never knew that they construed literally the old adage, Take a hair of the dog that bit you," until one day, when I saw Bayley, my butler, cutting some hair off my dog Lion's tail. "What are you doing, Bayley? I said. "Please, sir," he replied, "that old black man say the dog bite him, and he beg for a few hairs to cure the bite." Much has been told and written about that strange belief of the negro race called "obeah." It is similar to the ancient belief in witchcraft, and the obeah man is only another form of the CREOLE SUPERSTITIONS 281 feed me, who care me." This reminds me of a story I heard in India. There was a riot among the prisoners in the Alipore gaol, near Calcutta, which came to the Governor's ears. That gallant officer came out of his house aud proceeded to the prison yard. For a moment the row ceased at the appearance of the Governor, when he shouted out, Look here, you pigs, if you are not quiet at once, by G-d, I will turn you all out of tile gaol! at which fearful threat all the mutineers became as quiet as mice. Of course, after the riots were over, the Portu guese, who had not made the slightest attcmpt to defend either themselves or their property, de manded compensation from the Government for the lOsses they had sustained; and after a pro tracted inquiry, which was much prolonged owing to the false and exaggerated claims which were made, more than $75,000 was paid to the sufferers. The creoles are very superstitious, but I never knew that they construed literally the old adage, Take a hair of the dog that bit you," until one day, when I saw Bayley, my butler, cutting some hair off my dog Lion's tail. "What are you doing, Bayley? I said. "Please, sir," he replied, "that old black man say the dog bite him, and he beg for a few hairs to cure the bite." Much has been told and written about that strange belief of the negro race called "obeah." It is similar to the ancient belief in witchcraft, and the obeah man is only another form of the

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282 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA witch or wizard of the past. Everything that is mysterious and incomprehensible to the negro is obeah. In p"actising my judicial functions I have often been made the subject of B n obeah. On one occasion, on stepping on to the dais in court, I found it covered with small red things, which, on examination, proved to be hundreds of bits of red paper cut into the shape of hearts. Another time, on one arm of my chair was hung a sort of rag doll, which, on being opened, was found to contain a human tooth, some foul-smelling black powder, and some withered herb. This was great obeah, and it was with the greatest difficulty that I could compel any of the black policemen to touch the unclean thing. I have found similar articles s uspended over my hammock when I was asleep, and the curious thing is one can never discover how the different articles are placed in the position in which they are found. Even if anyone knows, they are too frightened to speak, for f e ar of the obeah working evil to themselves. In some cases obeah takes the form of poisoning. There was one case that came under my know ledge, where a jealous mulatto woman, who, as the custom was, had been her master's servant and concubine, obtained from an obeah man a love philtre to retain her master's affections, which had strayed away, and the poor man, imbibing this potion daily in hi s coffee, wasted away, and died 10 agony. It is rarely safe to keep a black cook after determining to send her away. In lieu of a month's 282 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA witch or wizard of the past. Everything that is mysterious and incomprehensible to the negro is obeah. In p"actising my judicial functions I have often been made the subject of B n obeah. On one occasion, on stepping on to the dais in court, I found it covered with small red things, which, on examination, proved to be hundreds of bits of red paper cut into the shape of hearts. Another time, on one arm of my chair was hung a sort of rag doll, which, on being opened, was found to contain a human tooth, some foul-smelling black powder, and some withered herb. This was great obeah, and it was with the greatest difficulty that I could compel any of the black policemen to touch the unclean thing. I have found similar articles s uspended over my hammock when I was asleep, and the curious thing is one can never discover how the different articles are placed in the position in which they are found. Even if anyone knows, they are too frightened to speak, for f e ar of the obeah working evil to themselves. In some cases obeah takes the form of poisoning. There was one case that came under my know ledge, where a jealous mulatto woman, who, as the custom was, had been her master's servant and concubine, obtained from an obeah man a love philtre to retain her master's affections, which had strayed away, and the poor man, imbibing this potion daily in hi s coffee, wasted away, and died 10 agony. It is rarely safe to keep a black cook after determining to send her away. In lieu of a month's

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RELIGION OR OBEAH 283 notice, most masters prefer to give a month' s wages and get rid of the woman, as she is very apt to put something in your food to turn your heart towards her again. Since the extension of education in the Colony, the creole youths begin to despise agriculture as a means of support, and wish to become parsolls, lawyers, or doctors. It is wonderful how they succeed, and where the money comes from to send them to England. I heard .an amusing conver sation between two old men on this subject, discussing the future of a promising young man. First old man: "He is a big boy, and must do something for a living. You have mind to make me him a liyer?" Second old man: "No, liyer, no, my mind ain't gie me fo dat. I has a cousin in Berbice gaol for cutting she matty; an odeI' one in the sea-wall gang; and me wife's brudder in Massaruni for stealing cow; there is law enough in me family already." Although professing Christians, many of the people look upon their religion as a higher kind of obeah. It is difficult to persuade them to behave with proper solemnity at the Sacrament, and their conduct in church is sometimes disgraceful. It is not to be wondered at that uneducated negroes should fail to understand the mysteries of the Eucharist, which have divided Christendom into a dozen opposing camps. The actual Presence was, however, realized by an old woman, who, on receiving the cup before the altar, quickly, and before she could be stopped, drained it of its RELIGION OR OBEAH 283 notice, most masters prefer to give a month' s wages and get rid of the woman, as she is very apt to put something in your food to turn your heart towards her again. Since the extension of education in the Colony, the creole youths begin to despise agriculture as a means of support, and wish to become parsolls, lawyers, or doctors. It is wonderful how they succeed, and where the money comes from to send them to England. I heard .an amusing conver sation between two old men on this subject, discussing the future of a promising young man. First old man: "He is a big boy, and must do something for a living. You have mind to make me him a liyer?" Second old man: "No, liyer, no, my mind ain't gie me fo dat. I has a cousin in Berbice gaol for cutting she matty; an odeI' one in the sea-wall gang; and me wife's brudder in Massaruni for stealing cow; there is law enough in me family already." Although professing Christians, many of the people look upon their religion as a higher kind of obeah. It is difficult to persuade them to behave with proper solemnity at the Sacrament, and their conduct in church is sometimes disgraceful. It is not to be wondered at that uneducated negroes should fail to understand the mysteries of the Eucharist, which have divided Christendom into a dozen opposing camps. The actual Presence was, however, realized by an old woman, who, on receiving the cup before the altar, quickly, and before she could be stopped, drained it of its

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284 TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN BRITISH GUIANA contents. When remonstrated with, she replied, "Ow! me massa, me too much lub me Jesus," A magistrate on the east coast tried a young woman for nsing abnsive and obscene language on the public road, and as