Jewish Floridian of Palm Beach County


Material Information

Jewish Floridian of Palm Beach County
Uniform Title:
Jewish Floridian of Palm Beach County (Palm Beach County, Fla. : 1975)
Portion of title:
Jewish Floridian
Physical Description:
8 v. : ill. ;
Fred K. Shochet
Place of Publication:
Miami, Fla


Subjects / Keywords:
Jewish newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Palm Beach (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Palm Beach County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Palm Beach -- Palm Beach


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 28, 1975)-v. 8, no. 40 (Dec. 17, 1982).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue for Jan. 2, 1976 called v.2, no. 22, but constitutes v.2, no. 1.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Numbering in masthead and publisher's statements conflict: July 28, 1978 called no. 14 in masthead and no. 15 in publisher's statement; Aug. 25, 1978 called no. 16 in masthead and no. 17 in publisher's statement; Aug. 10, 1979 called no. 15 in masthead and no. 16 in publisher's statement; Oct. 22, 1982 called no. 31 in masthead and no. 32 in publisher's statement.
General Note:
"Combining Our voice and Federation reporter."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 44607504
lccn - sn 00229550
System ID:

Related Items

Related Items:
Jewish Floridian
Succeeded by:
Jewish Floridian (Palm Beach, Fla. : 1982)

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text
Uewislh Fllariidlii<3i in
in conjunction with The Jewish Federation of Polm Beech County
> 4 Number 7
Palm Beach, Florida Friday, April 7,1978
Price 35 Cents
\ty UN Move Torpedoes
barton Agreement~Gur
lAMV (JTA) Chief
Gen. Mordechai Gur
here that the hasty
states action in pressing
ted Nations Security
THE ISRAELI withdrawal
has not yet begun from south
Lebanon except for a few units,
according to Gur, because the
UN force has not yet been able to
WWII Heroine To Address
South County CJA-IEF
resolution on south
torpedoed a possible
it by Israel with
find Syria over this area.
jr. in television and
/iews, said that such
was still possible
the Lebanese govern-
! for full sovereignty
Lebanon, the UN
the understanding
the Arab deterrent
apparent reference to
;>m' troops remained
the I.iiimi River
, the Israeli operation.
also decided to keep
Its from returning to
Inon and to prevent
cements being sent
establish itself due to hostility
from the Lebanese Christian
militia and poor weather.
The Chief of Staff said he did
not believe the UN would be able
to fulfill its role unless the Pales-
tinian terrorists were controlled
by others. I wouldn't think
Canadians, Iranians or others
would want their soldiers to serve
under fire.-' he said.
(Jur stressed that Israel will
Continued on Page 11
In Jerusalem, atop the
Hill of Remembrance,
stands Yad Vashem, the
shrine to six million mar-
tyred Jews of the Holo-
caust. Leading up to the
Memorial, a tree-lined path,
the Avenue of the
Righteous Gentiles honors
those heroic non-Jews who
saved Jewish lives at the
risk of their own. One of the
trees of this avenue honors
Jeanne Daman Scaglione,
who was given the Yad
Vashem medal by the
Government of Israel.
Jeanne Daman-Scaglione will
be the guest speaker at a recep-
tion for the South County
Division of the Jewish Fed-
eration's 1978 Combined Jewish
Appeal-Israel Emergency Fund
campaign, Monday, April 17. The
reception will be held at Temple
Beth El in Boca Raton, beginning
at 6 p.m. with a cocktail buffet.
MRS. Daman-Scaglione was
raised in Belgium as a Roman
Catholic. In 1942, at the start of
Hitler's persecution of the Jews,
she became the headmistress of
an all-Jewish kindergarten, "Nos
The experience of being an
Cabinet in Unanimous Support
The Cabinet last week unan-
imously approved reports by
Prime Minister Menachem Begin
and Foreign Minister Moshe
Dayan on their Washington visit
and on their presentation of the
Israeli position in the talks with
President Carter.
A communique issued after a
four-hour political debate indi-
cated no specific new concessions
NAOR SAID the Cabinet
would be taking a "number of
initiatives" designed to "advance
the resumption of negotiations
with Egypt." One of these will be
Begins reply to Egyptian
President Anwar Sadat's last
letter to him, received just before
he left for Washington. There
by Israel. But the communique
pointedly referred to the Israeli
peace plan as a "fair basis" for
negotiation, deliberately using
the wording which Carter himself
has consistently used.
CABINET Secretary Arye
Naor said he would "not
pretend" that there had been a
change of situation since last
week, when Begin had publicly
declared that certain demands
made by the U.S. were unaccept-
able by Israel.
But he pointed out that the
Cabinet communique was
phrased "without any negatives"
Israel wanted
forward with
1 overreacting! If you keep quiet, it will disappear.
and added
Egypt to come
Israel did not see its peace plan
as a diktat, Naor said, but as a
basis on which to proceed with
substantive negotiations. The
time "has not come yet for
changes" in the Israeli plan, he
said. Such time would only come
if an when substantive nego-
tiations were entered upon.
would be other initiatives, too,
Naor pledge, "but publication
would ruin them."
Naor admitted that the Israeli
Cabinet could be said to have
responded to Carter's appeal for
"reconsideration" mainly in the
literal sense of having recon-
sidered in detail all the aspects of
the Israeli peace plan and the
political situation.
SPEAKING FOR the Cabinet
Naor blasted reported efforts by
U.S. officials to "meddle" in
Israeli politics by airing the wish
for a change of Prime Minister.
"Ministers expressed their
disdain at this," Naor said.
Ministers, and particularly
Finance Minister Simcha
Continued on Pane 5
Jeanne Daman
eyewitness to the Jewish tragedy
led her to join the Underground
Movement in its dangerous
struggle against the invader. Due
to the courage and compassion of
people like Mrs. Daman-Scag-
lione 10,000 adults and 2,000
children in Belgium were hidden
and saved from the Nazi terror.
Members of her family were
caught and paid a heavy price for
their participation in this
struggle between civilization and
barbarism. Her uncle lost his life,
as a political prisoner in
Mauthausen concentration camp,
and her cousin was incarcerated
for two years in Ravensbruck.
UPON Belgium's liberation
she resumed her work in edu-
cation, helping in the rehab-
ilitation of Jewish youngsters
who had survived the camps.
She now lives in the United
States with her husband, Prof.
Aldo Scaglione, who also fought
the Nazis in the Italian Partisan
Army during the war and is a
professor of comparative lit-
erature at the University of
North Carolina and Chapel Hill.
Drs. Carl Enselberg and
Gerald Robinson are the co-chair-
men for South County's 1978
CJA-IEF campaign.
Women's Division Mans Phones To
Contact Community for Pledges
L Recommends Viewing of 'Holocaust9
ional Education
s recommended to
hout the nation to
's nine and a half
drama, Holocaust,
presented over four
nights Sunday,
p.m.), Monday and
il 17 and 18 (9-11
ednesday, April 19
president of the
Holocaust is an
example of television at its best.
In an era when educators often
criticize television, a series like
Holocaust fortunately comes
along to illustrate the impact
quality television can make as a
dramatic education vehicle for
the nation."
tive director of the N.E.A., also
stated why the N.E.A. was
recommending the program to its
thousands of members:
"We conducted a joint study
(1971) the N.E.A. and the
Israel Teachers Union on how
the Holocaust is treated in cur-
riculum materials throughout the
United States. To our chagrin, we
discovered that on the whole, it
isn't. There are a few lines in the
textbooks, a few moments, a few
Continued on Page 4
Jewish Federation of Palm
Beach County's 1978 Combined
Jewish Appeal Israel Emer-
gency Fund campaign are cur-
rently involved with their phon-a-
gift program which began this
week and will continue for two
consecutive weeks. Volunteers
will be manning the telephones at
the Federation office in order to
contact those members of the
community who have not yet
made their 1978 campaign
Presidents of all Jewish
women's organizations have been
asked to assist with the phon-a-
gift by recruiting members to
assist with the phone calls. Phon-
a-gift calls will be made Monday
through Thursday from 9 to 11
a.m., noon to 2 p.m. and 7 to y
p.m. from the executive board
room of the Jewish Federation
"WE URGE total community
cooperation when a volunteer
calls during this important
portion of our 1978 campaign,"
stated Barbara Shulman,
women's division Campaign
chairman. "We need full par-
ticipation from volunteers rep-
resenting the Jewish women's
organizations in the community,
and the women's division leader-
ship and workers. The quality of
Jewish life and the survival of
Israel will depend on it."
Barbara Wunsh and Barbara
Chane will co-chair the phon-a-
gift effort.

Page 2
The JgwUh Floridian ofPabn Bmuh County
y, April,,

..v.v.v.. .
The original
Declaration of I
There was a time in history when
Man's right to independent worship
went unrecognized.
But,2145 years ago,an event
occurred that firmly established the
principle in the consciousness of Man.
In the year 167 B.C.E.,the first
war in history was fought to preserve a
peoples'way of life: their laws ;stand-
ards of morality ;and above all,the reli-
gion revealed to them in the wilderness
of Sinai more than a thousand years
The Jewish people led by the Mac-
cabees.fough t to break the religious
tyranny of the Assyrian-Greek conquer-
ors of ancient Judea who threatened
the very survival of the Jewish way of
The M accabees and their followers
struggled not for personal gain,and
broader influence.but to preserve the
Jewish Faith.
Their ultimate victory was a tri-
umph of justice and human
brought to humanity's attention an
ideal that transcends life itself.
Chanukah is the Jewish Festival
that commemorates that victory.For
eight nights, commencing with the 25th
day of Kislev.a candle is lit in every
Jewish home. As the candle burns,it
gives hope that the faith of the Jews
will one day serve to banish tyranny
and oppression from the earth.
It is a yearly recurring declara-
tion of mankind's independence.a mem-
orable reassertion of the God-given
right of human beings to live and wor-
ship in freedom.
. Chanukah is called the Festival of
L-ights.It is the
pure light of freedom that glows in the
heart of Man.
It's what makes us Jews.
A free copy of the booklef'It's
What Makes Us Jews"it available at
any Riverside chapel.
MIAMI BEACH: 1920 Alton RoaddSthS
631-1161 _.
NORM A N D Y ISLE: 1260 Normandy Dri^
MIAMI: 1717 S.W.S7th Ave. rDouglu I
443-2221 _
HOLLYWOOD: 2230 Hollywood Blvd. |
SUNRISE: 1171 N.W.6UtAve.(SunttStl
684-6060 ,
WEST PALM BEACH : 4714 OkfechobKl
Fickapdi atrrioc UmNtw Yrk Metropolis*
ial Oip.l IM./Tuiwral Hire""

With the # '
.oyal chapter of Women's
lerican ORT presents "Show
in Fort Lauderdale,
.Inesday, April 12 at noon
th cocktails and ining. At 1:30
j. there will be a performance
Don't Get Smart with an
[gel. Caesar Romero will
The chapter will hold its
onthly meeting at Greenway
llage North recreation hall,
onday, April 10 at 12:30 p.m.
ere will be a guest speaker.
Women's American ORT an-
bunced the formation of a new
jiapter in Boca Largo, Boca
aton. Officers installed March
J> and the members of the board
fe: Bea Goodman, president;
si.her Goldman, treasurer; Sally
iancy, financial secretary;
.orence Gittleman, Thelma
lilstein, Sylvia Roxenzweig, Roz
Jeltzer, ad vice presidents;
[ertrude Slavin, recording sec-
ary and Francis Kessler, cor-
^sponding secretary.
Members were installed by
ketty Jackal, vice president of
the Palm Beach Region. The
chapter meets at the Horizon
Club the third Wednesday of the
month at 10 a.m.
The Palm Beach Evening
chapter will sponsor a bike-a-thon
Sunday, April 9 at 1 p.m. at the
Palm Beach Gardens City Com-
plex. Sponsors are needed. For
information call Mrs. Donald
Mid-Palm chapter general
meeting and election of officers
will be held on April 10 at 1:30
p.m. at Ross Hall, Alameda
Road, West Palm Beach.
The Board meeting of the Palm
Beach County Region will be held
Wednesday, April 12 at 9:30 a.m.
at the Royal Palm Community
Center, Royal Palm Way and
Okeechobee Blvd.
The West Palm Beach chapter
will meet Thursday, April 13 at
12:30 p.m. at Anshei Sholom
Synagogue in Century Village.
Guest speaker Frank Calvecchio
will speak on health and health
PALM BEACH 832-0211
1201 NE 45th ST
TEL. 964-6011
Merchandise for Fund Raising
Organization Fund Raiser:
After you've seen the others, come to Sunrise,
where the prices will shine. A little drive will
SAVE a lot of DOLLARS. Our prices are whole-
sale, not retail.
Handbags (Canvasor Vinyl) Watches
(Name Brands)
14 K Gold Jewelry
Lucita Items Novelties
Toys Wallets
Custom Jewelry Coblers
Playing Cards. Israeli Gifts
Rummikub Rings
Bridge Table Covers Coffee Mugs
Many Other Items!
A Department Store for Fund Raisers!
Call Mimi for Directions
Key Square Arcade
6765 Sunset Strip Phone-
Sunrise, Florida 33313 485-3911
We will never be undersold Out of town call collect or write
problems. Lillian Kessler will
Temple Beth David will hold
its Board meeting Tuesday, April
18 at 8 p.m. at the Westminster
Presbyterian Church annex.
Temple Beth David Sisterhood
will hold its Board meeting
Wednesday, April 12 at 8 p.m.
On Wednesday, April 26 at 8
p.m., the Sisterhood will have as
guests the national forensic
league of the Twin Lakes High
School. The subject deals with
the Holocaust and coincides with
the annual remembrance of the
entire Jewish community of the
Warsaw uprising.
Temple Beth David will hold a
model seder for the Sunday i
School children on Sunday, April I
16 at 9:15 a.m. The children will
receive hagadahs.
The next meeting of Deborah
Hospital Foundation is scheduled
for Wednesday, April 19 at 12:30
p.m. at the Salvation Army
Citadel. Guest speakers will be
David Reid, tax assessor; and
Dr. Edna Hibbel, who will
discuss "How to Live to be 100."
Temple Beth Sholom Sister-
hood will sponsor a Passover
seder on April 21.
The next meeting of the Men's
Club of Temple Beth Sholom will
take place Sunday morning,
April 16 at the temple. Tom
Kelly, editor of the Palm Beach
Post is the scheduled guest
speaker and he will talk about his
recent trip to Israel.
The men'8 club of Congre-
gation Anshei Sholom of Century
Village will hold its regular
meeting Sunday, April 9 at 10
a.m. Guest speaker Dr. Harry
Let man will discuss "Some Facts
about Your Heart. Slides will be
shown. Breakfast will be served.
The Palm Beach section of the
National Council of Jewish
Women has begun a Picture
Lady program in the Palm Beach
School System. The next meeting
will be held on April 26, in the
music room of Temple Israel in
West Palm Beach on North
Flagler Drive, at 10 a.m. A local
attorney will be the speaker.
The United Order of True
Sisters, Palm Beach County No.
61 will meet Monday, April 10 at
12:30 p.m. at Century Village
Holiday Inn.
Royal Palm Beach Zionist
District of the Zionist Organiza-
tion will meet Sunday, April 9 at
6:30 p.m. The organization will ,
honor Jack Ruby, president of
the organization.
The Labor Zionist Alliance will
hold its April meeting Thursday,
April 13 at 1 p.m. at the hos-
pitality room in Century Village, i
The speaker will be Aaron Rose.
The theme of the meeting will
be to memorialize the six million
victims of the Holocaust and to
demonstrate support for Jews in
the Soviet Union.
B'nai B'rith Century Lodge
2939 will hold its monthly
meeting on May 9 at 7 p.m. at
Congregation Anshei Sholom.
B'nai B'rith Lt. Col. Netan-
yahu Lodge 3041 will meet Tues-
day, April 11 at 8 p.m. at Holiday
Inn, 2830 S. Ocean Blvd., Palm
Beach. The Shalom Singers and
Dancers will present a program of
new modern Israeli melodies,
including Chassidic, Hebrew and
\ Continued on Page 15
Announcement to
The Community
The nominating committee of the Jewish Federation of Palm Beach
County Informs and advises that the following slate of candidates for off leers
and board directors was submitted at the regular March meeting of the
board, and will be presented for election at the annual meeting on May ,
President......................................Alan Shuiman
Vice President.......................Dr. Richard Shugarman
Vice President ..............................Dr. Howard Kay
Vice President..............................Kenneth Scherer
Vice President..................................Jeanne Levy
Vice President..............................Jerome Tlshman
Treasurer.......................................Steel Lesser
Secretary...................................Bruce J. Daniels
1 yeer terms ending June, 1M1
Abraham Bisgaier Cynole List
ShiHa Engelsteln John Moss
Dr. Carl Enselberg Myron Nlckman
Heinz Eppler Dr. Gerald Robinson
Dr. Jeffrey Felvus Berenice Rogers
Arnold Lamport Barbara Shulman
Dr. Peter Wunsh and Charlene Sholl
have each been nominated
to fill vacancies of one year terms.
The following are members of the board of directors whose terms have
not expired and who will not be up for election at this time:
Alec Engelsteln Dr. Emanuel Newmark
' Robert Gesoff Robert Rapaport
George Golden Neal Robinson
. Henry Grossman Benjamin Rothenberg
Charles Jacobson Louis Silber
Detra Kay Betty Stone
Dr. Paul Klein Barbara Tanen
H.lrwInLevy Nathan Tanen
Robert S. Levy Max Tochner
Barbra Llfshltz Mortimer Weiss
Robert E. List Robert Wiener
in accordance with the by-laws, additional nominations may be sub-
mitted In writing by any member of the Federation no later than April 15,
provided any such written nominations shall be endorsed by at least twenty
five (25) members of the Federation.
Respectf oil/Submitted for the Nominating Committee
Dr. Sherwin Isaacson, chairman
Sarah Davidman Charles Jacobson
Esther Froellch Dr. Paul Klein
Bette Gilbert Dr. Emanuel Newmark
Henry Grossman Barbara Tanen
First Marine
National Bank and Thist Company
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Page 4
TheJewish Floridian of Palm Beach County
Friday, April?
Spotlight on Petrodiplomacy
Drew Middleton. the Xeu York Timesman. writes in
;i current report that Israel's air installations in the Sinai
Peninsula, one of which is so sophisticated that it cost in
excess of $4 billion to construct, are being heavily used
these days by I S. ;ur raconaissanos units in surveillance
activity against the Soviet Union.
Simply, because the Soviet expansion into Africa is a
cruel and obscene joke at the same time that the Carter
administration is negotiating with the Soviets on SALT
agreements and at the same time that we are engaged with
the Soviets in human rights debate at Belgrade.
Also, because the Soviet Union's increasing grip on
the Horn of Africa more and more openly endangers our
oil routes from abroad.
In the eyes of the Pentagon, this reconnaissance is
indispensable to our security.
Meanwhile. President Carter and the anti-Israel State
Department is applying unbearable pressure (despite their
feeble denials) on Israel not only to give up the air instal-
lations, but all of the Sinai.
One wonders why there are such divisive and. indeed,
suicidal impulses in American political life.
What the Middleton report comes down to is a spot-
light on petrodiplomacy Pentagon or State Department
While growing American sentiment is to back Israel
into a corner, or even off the world map. there are some
circles in Washington that continue to regard Israel's
presence in the Middle East as an adjunct to our security
not. as many want us to see it now. a liability or even
cause to question the loyalty of those who dare to continue
to support Israeli survival.
Good-Bye, Mayshie
All of us will miss Mayshie Friedberg. who died last
week at the age of 95.
. There was not a function in behalf of some Jewish
cause that would fail to bring out the commanding May-
shie Friedberg presence white-bearded like some ancient
Hebrew Patriarch, his beret disarmingly cocked atop his
silver head, walking up and down the aisles among tables,
in and out of the aisles of auditoriums, his pockets jam-
med with pledge cards, pleading for support for Israel.
Mayshie devoted himself to Federation, to Bonds, to
Histadrut. to Farband. to Hebrew University, to Tech-
nion. to the Jewish National Fund. One can go on and on.
No male chauvinist. Mayshie also shook hands, ca-
joled and weedled support for Israel in the cause of Ha-
dassah and other women's organization-
The community will be saying good-bye to Mayshie
Friedberg at a special memorial service on Miami Beach
on Sunday afternoon.
Those present will not be mourning him. They will see
him once again white-bearded patriarch, his beret
dislarmingly cocked atop his silver hair, shaking hands,
cajoling and weedling. his pockets jammed with pledge
cards for one cause: Israel.
Holocaust Memorial Service to Be
Conducted at Temple Emeth
A memorial service for the
victims of the Holocaust and of
the Warsaw Uprising will be held
Sunday. April 16 at 7:30 p.m. at
Temple Emeth in Delray Beach.
El Moley Rachamim, a mem- i
orial prayer, will be chanted by
Cantor Leonard Price. Rabbi
Morris Silberman. spiritual
leader of Temple Emeth, will lead
the congregation in prayers and
deliver the main address.
OTHERS taking part in the
service will be Henry A. Bloom.
president of Temple Emeth and
Dave Mairowitz. president of the
Jewish Culture Group, who will
speak in Yiddish. A choral group
under the direction of Ann Katz
will sing songs of the Holocaust.
A candle lighting ceremony
conducted by Anne Safran.
Safran will call upon refugees
from concentration camps to
light six candles in memory of the
six million Jews killed in the
eJewisJb Floridian
In conjunction with Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County. Inc
Combined Jewish Appeal
1SW NWJAn, Boca Raton. Fit SM S3 Phone M8 1001
PrintingOfflct -130N.I athSL. Miami. Fla SS1U Phone 373-4M
Editor and Publisher
Executive Editor
News Coordinator
MORTON GILBERT Advertising Representative
The Jewish FlarMlaa Dae* Not Guarantee The kashruth
Of The MerctsaaaMe Advertised In Its < olumaa
FORM S57B returns to The Jewish Floridian,
150N W 2 Ave Boca Raton. Fla U432
Second Class Postage Paid at Boca Raton. Fla
Published Bl Weekly
SUBSCRIPTION RATES: (Local Area) One YearV so or by membership to
Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County. 2*1$ Ofceechobee Boulevard. West Palm
Beach. Fla 3J40*. Phone M* 5*00 (Out of Town upon Request)
federation officers, president Stanley Brenner; Vice Presidents. Rabbi Hymin
Fishman. Or. Howard Kay, Kenneth Scherer, Dr. Richard Shuaarman, Treasurer,
Stacey Lesser, Secretary, Bruce Daniels. Executive Director, Norman
Sctiimelman. Submit material for publication to Ronm Tartakow Director of
Public Relations
N.E. A. Recommends Viewing of 'Holocaust
Continued from Page 1
hours dedicated to a study of the
"That's compounded now in
1978 by the fact that for most
American teachers, the Holo-
caust is ancient history, meaning
it occurred before their conscious
life in that they are 40 years
old or so. And they're products of
an educational enterprise that did
not deal with the Holocaust .
We are recommending this for
Holocaust, which covers the
years 1935-45. is the story of two
fictional German families that are
significantly affected by Nazi
policies. The Weiss family mem-
bers, headed by a compassionate
doctor, are systematically
deprived of their rights as
German citizens; their ability to
earn a living and their very sur-
vival is threatened.
Paralleling their saga is the
story of Erik Dorf and his family.
An impoverished lawyer. Dorf
rises in influence and affluence
when he becomes an aide to the
chief strategist devising plans for
"the final solution" of Europe's
The drama, written by author
Gerald Green, features an im-
pressive international cast in-
cluding Tom Bell. Joseph
Bottoms. Tovah Feldshuh.
Marius Goring. Rosemary
Harris. Anthony Haygarth. Ian
Holm, Lee Montague. Michael
Moriarty. Deborah Norton.
George Rose, Robert Stephens,
Meryl Streep, Sam Wanamaker.
David Warner, Fritz Weaver and
James Woods. Holocaust will
introduce Blanche Baker.
executive producer p.
Berger, producer. M,
Chomsky directed and i
original music was composed
conducted by Morton Gould
Points to Mention When
Writing Representatives
The Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County urges that
the following points to be mentioned when writing rep-
resentatives in Washington:
1. Israel is the only democracy in the Middle East.
2. The American people support Israel totally.
3. The President is mistaken in pressuring Israel to make
concessions to Arab extremists.
4. Israel stands as a bulwark against the influence of the
Soviet Union in the Middle East.
5. The President should do something to demonstrate his
support of Israel. A good gesture would be to move the U.S.
Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
6. Congress should continue to appropriate all necessary
funds for arms and economic support for Israel.
The addresses are:
President James Carter
The White House
Washington. D.C. 20500
Senator Richard Stone
United States Senate
Washington. DC. 20515
Senator Lawton Chiles
United States Senate
Washington. DC.20515
Congressman Paul Rogers
House of Representatives
Room 2407 Rayburn Bldg.
Washington. DC. 20515
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to. eh, wtM.t.,1 Ce.WK:lf ..lh (o, .** th,, we nOe
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tzz?mv??jr at,i"*"nr "*,o "" '",e,", wmimi **
EEs.Es"! ""*">"'" M- <'o Me o. deposl ,o die o-
reflet* Rentthons wlhdiswl
It's met tOfeno too lh4 ftOtrsl Cofmntnl
Friday. April 7.1978
Volume 4
29 ADAR 2-5738
Number 7
I Atlantic federal
Savings and Loan
FO. -o-msson CSS DM *4 0709 Brod %4 M II Fa*, Bmct, 6S, 5, JM6
Assets over SI Billion 5jftF| Jfc

riday, April 7.1978
The Jewish Floridian of Palm Beach County
Page 5
EDITOR: The Jewish Floridian:
A different approach to the
Ikokie, III. hullabaloo: Please
[o not enjoin or restrain the
gkokie marchers.
Let these Nazi vermin come
lut of the woodwork to disclose
Themselves and their unholy
Allow them to again remind
iew and Christian that they are
Ihe willing and self-prescribed
heirs of Hitler, Himmler, Goeb-
els, et al. the architects of the
Slaughter of some 11 million
innocent humans, six million
Jews and five million Christians
committed in the name of
Sazism, their insignia in uniform
and hate!
Let them reawaken mankind to
the almost forgotten horrors of
|the Holocaust with an eternal
tombstone bearing the inscrip-
tion Here lie six million in-
Inocent men, women and children
Iwhose only crime was being a
[jew. Lest we forget the past, we
[are doomed to repeat it.
Let them arouse Jewish unity
land solidarity against these
insane vermin out to defile the
[earth as evidenced by the
planned outpouring of 50.000
|Jews for a nonviolent counter
I demonstration.
This is an ill wind, recognized
I for what it is and astutely
handled, that can result in good
for the Jewish community.
West Palm Beach
Continued from Page 1
Ehrlich, had also hit at Labor's
Abba Eban for speaking on a
New York TV station interview
of the government's "dis-
integration." Ehrlich said this
"crossed the line of loyalty to the
The Secretary said Defense
Minister Ezer Weizman's call for
I a unity government and his
criticism of the Cabinet for not
acting energetically enough to
revive the talks with Egypt had
not come up at today's session.
But apparently they were the
subject of an earlier tete-a-tete
between Begin and Weizman in
the Prime Minister's office. No
details of this were available.
LetNazis Expose Themselves \
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Lei lh \ It orris Be Brief
Koheleth lEci lesiastesl
EDITOR, The Jewish Floridian:
I read with great interest your
article, "Pat Boone Insists He is
Jewish." I wish to enlighten him
that the only difference between a
Jew and a Christian is that the
Jewish people are still waiting for
the Messiah and the Christians
have found their Christ or
Messiah, whom they call Jesus.
One can only be a Jew or a Chris-
tian, but not both. The same is
true for Jews for Jesus. This is a
mistake which should be
We admire your interest in
Jewish matters and the human-
itarian efforts of your family.
This will make you all better
Christians and better people, but
you are not Jews. The only way
you can become Jews is to
convert to Judaism by authority
of a rabbi. Speaking Hebrew,
working on Israeli kibbutzim,
learning about our ancient
heritage, and celebrating
Chanukah and other Jewish fes-
tivals is very praiseworthy, but
Christianity is not a Jewish
religion and not a branch of
Judaism. We respect your sin-
cerity and good-will, but this
letter should help your search for
Mrs. Augusta H. Steinhardt
West Palm Beach
Divinity Degree
Presented to Rabbi
At Founders Day exercises of
the Cincinnati school, the faculty
and board of governors of He-
brew Union College conferred the
degree of doctor of Divinity,
honoris causa, upon Rabbi Irving
B. Cohen of Temple Israel in
West Palm Beach.
The honor was acknowledged
by the congregation of Temple
Israel at a special Sabbath ser-
vice and Oneg Shabbat on March
31. To celebrate the occasion, a
musical sermon in honor of Rabbi
Cohen was presented by Cantor
Harold Orbach of Temple Israel
of Detroit.
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my own ideas
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"I know what I like out
of life. And one of the
things I like is smoking.
But there's no getting
away from the stories I
keep hearing about ciga-
rettes and high tar.
"There's also no get-
ting away from why I
smoke. I smoke for the
pleasure of it. For the taste.
And for enjoying a ciga-
rette after my long day as a
"Then at night when I
work my other jobas a
drummer -1 enjoy lighting
up between sets. It's part of
the way I live.
"For me, the dilemma was
how to find a cigarette that
could give me taste without high
tar. And that was quite a dilemma.
"Which is why 1 appreciate
Vantage as much as I do. It's the
only low-tar cigarette I've found
(and I've tried several other brands)
that really gives
me cigarette taste
and satisfaction.
"And the
Vantage filter is
especially neat
because it's firm
yet easy drawing.
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And that's just the
way I like it."
Mike Barbano
Atlanta. Georgia
Regular, Menthol,
and Vantage 100s.
"Vantage. A lot of taste without a lot of tan
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FILTER 100's 11 mg. "tar", 0.9 mg. nicotine cigarette by FTC method.

Page 6
The Jewish Floridian of Palm Beach County
Friday. April 7
Need to Maintain Control Over Bank
Prime Minister Menachem
Begin of Israel reaffirmed
his government's position
on territories and settle-
ments and approaches to
peace and, in his address to
the National Press Club
and in responses to re-
porters' questions in a tone
of conciliation, expressed
his hope for an understand-
ing in the United States of
Israel's security require-
Bgia spoke before a tense but
enthusiastic audience that over-
flowed the ballroom of the
National Puss Club while the
world media was proclaiming
that he and President Carter
have tailed to bridge gaps to
tvsolv e the Middle Kast problems
and while rumors spread that the
Carter Administration was
determined to bring about his
ousict as Israel's lender through
a massive propaganda effort
because he is unbending on
Israel's position.
BEGIN'S address and his
response to questions reasserted
Israel's need to maintain military
control over Judaea. Samaria and
the Gaza Strip, the right to have
Jewish settlements in those
areas, and complete negation of
the "so-called Palestine Lib-
eration Organization."
But in his words and in his
manner he sought to conciliate
rather than to aggravate in any
wav either the relations with
Carter or with Egyptian Presi-
dent Anwar Sadat.
His presentation was generally
viewed here as contrasting with
the toughness of the speech that
Sadat fired at Israel and Begin
when he spoke from the same
rostrum on Feb. 6.
BEGIN SAID that his pro-
posals for a settlement rep-
resented good and tested con-
cepts that are irrefutable and
repeated what he said was wide-
spread approval of them when
they were introduced three
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months ago. He emphasized that
the Arab people in the occupied
areas would have full autonomy
under the peace plan with Israel
reserving its security for public
"The issue," he said, is that in
Israel, with most of its
population living nine to 15 miles
on a coastal plain dominated by
mountains in Judaea and
Samaria, Soviet artiDerv r.J
blast every Israeli viliie ^
town. ^
"Who controls the rang, j
hills," he said, means to isrij."
matter ot lite itselt
peace negotiations to movea2
at a speedv pace." He decla
Continued on Page 14.^
(Jvct (Jv Cate/te/tg 3m.
Under Supervision of :
Rabbi Max Lipschirz, N.D.V.H.
Rabbi Simcha Freedman
DADE: 940-0197
BROWARD: 561-3500
PALM BEACH:842-2889

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fa* out an Amencan Heritage Enrxv Form and
keep voui fingers classed.
\t \mcncan Savings we realue that most
I not onh hue their own counrrv deepK
but ahv> have saong nes with the land where
bom That's wh\ we thank us
t to lewacmber where we came fjom.
\l of us cherish the customs and rxadaoons passed
on duough generations spanning oceans and
\Ve often decant of one ia\ returning to
the vtlajec wheat our gcndpaieftcs wear marred ..
ot to waak rhtough an almost forgotten town
harfwax across the world where someone w ith the
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When you stop ot any American
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Choose a colorful flag pin. featuring the
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Friday, April 7,1978
. Xftf JtpAih, FhritUan of Palm Beach County
Page 7
The Jewish Community Center I Spanish Jewry To Air on Channel 5
j 13 yean old)
The JCC Summer Program for
the Creative and Performing Arta
s open for registration. The
" A PA. Program offers music,
drama, painting, sculpture, crea-
tive writing and athletics. Chil-
dren can choose the arts or the
sports division or both. Other ac-
tivities include newspaper, na-
ture. Spanish and tap dance.
There will be a daily swim.
All children's programs will
continue for an additional six-
week mini-session. To continue or
Jjoin another activity you must
Ipre-register. All fees will be pro-
A vacation kaleidoscope for all
[jewish Community Day School
Istudents will be offered April 24-
|27 from 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. daily.
I Four days of trips will include
ITreasure Island in Miami; cruise
l0n the Loxahatchee River at
Ijonathan Dickinson State Park;
iSeminole Okalee Indian Village
Iin Hollywood; and a day of mov-
lies, arts and crafts, and super
[slide. Fees: members $25, and
I non-members $35. Call for reser-
Teens meet every Tuesday at 7
p.m. at the Center for a variety of
[activities. For more information
contact the Center.
Sports are offered at the JCC
every Monday through Friday
from 3:30 to 5:30 p.m. Emphasis
will be on soccer, Softball and
volleyball during April. For more
information, call Bill Keiser at
the Center.
A JCC adult volleyball team is
forming this spring season.
Those interested can contact Bill
Basic standardized Red Cross
sailing course will be offered at
the JCC. Those interested, call
the center.
Update Palm Beach Coun-
ty's Israel Week: Dr. Paul Klein,
chairperson; and George Golden,
chairman of the CRC Israel Task
The following organizations
are sponsors of the Independence
Day celebration: American Jew-
ish Committee, Congregation
Anshei Shalom, JCC Second
Tuesday Club, Palm Beach
Men's ORT, Temple Emanu-El
Men's Club. Temple Beth Shalom
Men's Club and United Order of
True Sisters.
JEWISH organizations of
Palm Beach County are partici-
pating in an outdoor bazaar at
the West Palm Beach Auditori-
um on Sunday. May 7. A crowd
of over 5,000 is expected. For in-
formation regarding the bazaar,
call the Center.
A souvenir program to be dis-
tributed to participants at the
auditorium is being printed.
Chairperson Lilyan Phillips Co-
hen announced that individuals
and merchants who want to place
a personal greeting as a salute to
Israel's 30th birthday should call
her for fee and ad size informa-
Co-Chairpersons Ruth and
Alex Block reqeust ushers and
ticket disseminators. Call the
Center office if interested.
FRANK Allerhand, chairper-
son, has requested volunteers to
help prepare and sell Israeli and
American foods at the Auditori-
um on May 7.
Merchants are being asked to
feature Israeli products during
Israel Week. Barbara Brams,
head of the merchandise commit-
tee, will make available to mer-
chants a floor sign and display
Kal Litwak and Sylvia Rain-
bow announce that singles (40-60
years old) will hold a social eve-
ning Sunday, April 16. Dance
lessons and games are planned.
Call the Center offices and ask to
be placed on the Prime Time Sin-
gles mailing list.
of the palm beaches, inc.
[' 2415 Okeccbobee Boulevard, West Palm Beach, Florida 3340*
Telephone 689-7700
INCLUDES: Round Trip Air
Beoutiful 4-Star Hotel Two Meals Doily
8-Day Full Sightseeing Program Taies t Tips
Social t Recreational Activities
1978 Departures. May,
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Enjoy pasteurized
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Slices, delicious Baby
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other Miller favorites All
under supervision
Mr jij '
I An Eternal Light special titled
Sunlight and Shadow, the Golden
Age of Spanish Jewry will be
aired on Channel 5, WPTV, from
1 to 2 p.m. Sunday, April 9. The
host of the program will be
Gerson D. Cohen, seminary
Conceived as the first program
in a series on Jewish history, the
program waa produced by the
NBC public affairs department,
under the direction of Doris Ann.
The program was filmed in
Spain, in color. Marc Siegel wrote
the script. Martin Hoade is the
producer-director for NBC and
Milton E. Krents for the
flavor to


some things never change.
The ancient traditions remain, generation afler
generation. And today, we observe Passover as our
forefathers did thousands of years ago.
For almost a century, the old-fashioned good-
ness of Manlschewitz has ushered In festive holi-
day dinners in lewish homes all over America.
This year, once again. Manischewltz matzo. gefilte
fish, soup and other delectables will grace any
traditional table.
Treat your family and friends to a taste of tra-
dition, too.
And have a good Passover!
For traditional goodness you can count on.
Produced undar Irlct Rabbinical auparviaton ) Cartlflcata on raquaal

Pag* 8
Tht Jtwuh Floridian ofPd*% Bmch County
U,S. AtFault for Stalemate- Dinitz
Israel's Ambassador to Wash
ington, Simcha Dinitr., Mid herv
last wwk that no Middle
pence negotiations will take place
"as long as Arab leaders are led
to believe the United Slates can
produce concessions for them
from Israel
In remarks Saturday night to
the American Jewish Congress
national biennial convention in
the Doral Country Club, Ambas-
sador Dinitr. criticized Kgypt for
breaking off the peace talks Jan.
18 after a day and a half of nego-
April Calendar
JEWISH FEDERATION Woiotn'i Division Phon-A-Gifl
B'nai Torah Congregation Boca Raton Auction 8 p.m. Tempi*
liro*l Young Adults 8 p.m. Jewish Community Center Annual
Meeting 8 p.m. JEWISH FEDERATION Women's Division Phon-A-
B'noi Torah Congregation Boca Raton Tallis and Tefillin Club
B'noiB'nth Woman M.tivoh -9a.m "Temple Beth El Brotherhood -
Boco Raton Breakfast JEWISH FEDERATION Women's Division
Phon-A-Gift Temple Beth El Men's Club
April 10
B'noi B'nth Women Boynton 12:30 p.m. Women's American
ORT North Polm Beach Board 9:45 a.m. Women's American
ORT Palm Beach Board Temple Emanu-EI Board United Ord*r
Tru* Sisters I2:30p m United Order Tru* Srs*rs Board 10am
Hadossoh Cha. Board 10 a.m. JEWISH FEDERATON -
Women's Division Phon-A-Gift
B'noi Torah Congregation Boca Raton Yiddish Culture Crete -
7 30 p m Hadossoh Aviva Board Boca Raton 10 a.m.
Temple Beth El Boca Raton Board Meeting B'noi B'nth 3041 -
8:15 p m B'noi B'nth 293V 7:30 p.m. B'nai B'nth 2969 Board
7 p,m B'nai B nth Women Mosoda Board B'noi B'nth Women
Medina Board -8pm Bnai B nth Women -Menoron 1 p.m.
Hadossoh Book Review Hadossoh Henrietta SroW Board 1
p m Temple Beth El Sooal S*ts Board 8 p. m T*mpl* Emonu-
I S vernood Yiddish Culture Group 10 a m Women's Amer-
.. vV .> raj toad ': p m
B noi Toroh Congregation Board Boco Raton Notionot Courted of
Jewish Women Board Meeting Boca Raton 8 p.m. Hooossoh
w d .- Kftwon 12 pm JEWISH FtDKATiON Eecuhve Com-
M -tt Ww no, ? p Comm, -\ Oewll Women s
.^->o.r *>s *h Commune Day School -Fr>ends-8pm
Vm 10*01 Council of Jew s- Women Board Motono4Council of
*w^v\.- mBeoch -Board- lOo.m Women s Amencon
0<- v>-. ^ Bcona c 0tk j *.mencor. ORT Region -
Boord V30 am* Ptoneer Women Go'oa Me* -1 p m Temple
Both .V. d Sisterhood Board -Bp-m. TempieB*^ ShotomSsier-
hood-Boord 10 15a.m.
.f\ <-
'. -v f &*- : S !>-,\v BM .- MM W Beta
FKATON Women s D-vson Rton-A-GnH
Commtnee Board 4 30 p ~ Noaasso* Shotom
Hodossoh T.ivor. noon Hodassah YovoJ 1 p.v
Zhona Board 10:30 am* Temp* Be Spn*o- -
9 30 a m Hodossori Award luncheon
I *con Corgr*gaic T>0N Women s t> sacr> Phon-A-G>h
^N-"C* *
O.K*r. JEWSr- 9 pa*. xxso- 5 '^CHtMtBSanr)>ood 10am.
>-m Be* SJom lose Wof* Breo*ar 30 a "cw^e
* -*.- S-o am Warn i C .? .ec*wServe*
Wc*"""e- *---* ..-- ."<" 9*o. or M>*e- -v; *n B'rarTi Yrgnni
M H ." -V .- -ocusacr- S.*ov?^- -vo- .*wse ros>4>
-*i v >;s-*- 5^ .- V r- *.-.-<*- ? *.?-;-.?- Cf* Deur
."-.-? fsxiv w **-^c-e ~areO
" 1
* m
*= SnM i m.
"rtcoi.1* k\ya t*
**ir-* 5*" ; S. s>*-*v>.v.- : .v p -
: .v .. .
j**'** ^o*9nes$
*>3- > #rv
4 fjjBto* *>*s- ai B*gv*r We*M*9 Mmm
M1.-0* >#or t* wi ic2w>
-- f s ..\3~WClOr- CjtxW B >*.
or 4BB I *>*v
**o.nar m^ -oaa.
*<** C.i-9-s* Bccr^ I X r.
Be*** i* **ana*tr> aim
5v- ."-.. o- K.-V-- -v.-v.i-..
B**)-ttI'T. t ***nejrv:

HE ADDED: "It is a sad com-
mentary on the situation that the
President of the United States
has spent more time seeking a
solution to the Middle East con-
flict than the President of Egypt.
Sixty years of Arab-Jewish
conflict since the Halfour Decla-
ration deserve more than 36
hours of negotiation from Pres-
ident Sadat." Dinitz told 500
convention delegates from all
net ions of the country.
Ambassador Dinitz said news
preports of Prime Minister Be
gin's visit to Washington had
"tended to create an inaccurate
impression about Israeli posi-
tions on a number of key points.
"For the sake of truth and fair-
ness." he said, it should be made
clear that "Israel has taken grave
risks for peace in offering a com-
prehensive peace plan based on
the return to Egyptian sover-
eignty of the entire Sinai in-
cluding security arrangements
along a narrow belt under UN su-
pervision comprising less than 3
percent of the peninsula and
for self-rule for the Palestinian
Arabs, granting them compplete
autonomy except for the right to
conduct war and terrorism
against Israel.
welcomed by President Carter as
a long step forward' and as rep-
resent injt a rreat measure of
flexibility.' They are the only
peace plans that have been put on
the table to date. Egypt offered
no peace plan of its own, and Jor-
dan has not even come to the ne-
gotiating table."
Dinitz insisted that Israel has
not gone back on her acceptance
of Security Council Resolution
242. "Indeed, Prime Minister Be-
gin made clear during his visit in
Washington that Israel accepts
all of the principles of 242 as a
basis for negotiations with the
Arab states concerned.
Resolution 242 calls fo,^
withdrawal of Israeli armeM
afrom territories occuni^'
the 1967 war and for the 2,?
lishment of secure and reconr
boundaries through negotiaSff
"This is all that Israel i. A
quired to accept and thi, i
precisely what Israel hasa^L
ed. Israel is not required bv R?
olution 242 to make any dT
commitments in advance of .ill
negotiations. *|
Israel has agreed to negotuJ
in good faith any proposal offered
F 1 N c| N
Registered Real Estate Broker- Salesman
700U.S. Hwy. 1, North Polm Beach
".VN^ralfH till
llli *ATIRP00l
11 day. Apr. 20 to Apr. 30 ,ro*425 &' I
3 MEALS EVERY DAY-----------------
Reservations Also Accepted For SEOURIM
or Any or AH PASSOVER Meals
for Reservation*CM | *mjft JK naam
For over thirty-five years, families
have been relying on Planter *Oil
for all their Kosher cooking.
On Passover and all year through.
They like it because it's pure, light and
,x>lyunsaturated. So the true taste
of the food comes through. Try
this traditional Passover recipe
nd see what we moan Cook it with
Kosher and Pane Planters Oil
And Happy Passover.
Makes 4-*< servings
1 (4-pound | dihrken. cut in serving pieces
la orange
2 teaspoons ground ginecr
Pinch salt
V cup Planters Peanut Oil
* cup hooey
Orange slices
Rub chcken pieces ith half orange.
Sprinkle *ith 1 teaspoon ground ginger and
salt. Combine Planters Peanut Oil. honev
and remaining 1 teaspoon ginger Arrange
chicken in baking dish and brush ith
hone) mixture.
Roast a moderate oven (350* F.) 1' ^ to
2 hours, basting occasionall) w uh the
hone) mixture Garnish with orange slices
before serving
A Rassover
from die
Passover Oil
Standard Brands.

ay, April 7,1978
Tht Jewish FloridianofPqlmBtach County
Page 9
thin the framework of Resolu-
242. We are still waiting for
ha proposal."
agree today that five years from
today a plebiscite must take
place which no matter how it is
phrased will surely subject the
future of the area to the terrorist
gang known as the IM,().
ID1NITZ urged that there is
reason whv Israel should
Fin Not Going Yet -Weizman
kfense Minister Ezer Weizman
onday denied he would go to
vpt imminently" to renew
,ks with Foreign Minister
jimsy and other top Egyptians.
answering newsmen's
estions during a visit to
ttulla and the northern border
fea, Weizman said he honestly
I not know" when he would go,
nothing is imminent."
The questions followed a spate
of press reports Monday and a
welter of speculation that
Weizman would go to Cairo in the
next day or two.
THE BEST opinion seems to
be that he will indeed make ef-
forts to go shortly to renew the
contacts which he himself has
recently said have been allowed
unnecessarily to lapse.
He told a press interviewer at
the weekend that he personally
was still maintaining contact
with (iamasy.
It can hardly be in the in-
terest of any country concerned
with Middle Kast peace to
demand that Israel commit itself
to accepting the future role of
IM.O extremists in the area. Can
such a plan really be pn-fer-ed to
the solution that can come out of
negotiations and talks among the
Palestinian Arabs, with Jordan
and Egypt and ourselves?
Israel's position on the settle-
ments has leen equally distorted
and misunderstood. The llcgin
government has not established a
single new settlement in the Sinai
and dot's not intend to do so.
Egypt is the one Arab
country which has sat at the
negotiating table with Israel.
Since no new settlements have
!>een established in the Sinai, the
settlements issue could not
possibly have been an obstack1 to
I mliTNlrM
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in ira
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8 4 Sun
Closed Sat
Every Oceanlronl Facility
Daily Religious Services
All Special Diets
Full Entertainment Program
Sedurim and Holiday Services
by Cantor Victor Gelb
Phone: 538-5731
At holiday time...
warming hearts in Jewish homes
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At holiday timeand
all year 'roundTetley's
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The favorite in Jewish homes since 1875.
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puts spring ta'am into Passover
This joyous springtime festival, Mott's puts the
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Certified Kosher-Parve lor Passover by Rabbi J. H. Ralbag

Page 10
The Jewish Ffrridian ofPobn B*ach County
Friday, Apfl7|1,
Scenes of Women's Division CJA-IEF Program
*jk *
Women's Division of the Jewish Federation of Palm Beach
County in cooperation with Burdines Department Store,
presented their award winning program "The Miracle that is
You," March 15, honoring those women who have dedicated
themselves to the Jewish Federation's 1978 Combined Jewish
Appeal-Israel Emergency Fund campaign. Above, the women
begin their evening at Temple Israel where they reaffirmed
their 1978 campaign commitment and then boarded buses to
take them to the Burdines Department Store in West Palm
As the women arrived at Burdines Depart-
ment Store they were greeted by hostess
volunteers from the Women's Division of the
Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County.
Pictured above are (left to right) Sheila
Lewis, Gail Weinstein, Renee Kessler, Eileen
anrninnnnrifijiji ri/i nfiiijji n n ri n n n n n n n n n ji nn n nn n juuifui(
Detra Kay, vice president of
the women's division, recites
the blessing over the bread
before the champagne supper.
Also serving as hostesses for "The Miracle
that is You" program are Women's Division
members (left to right) Amy Sansbury,
Penny Beers, Myrna Cohen, Marci Scherer,
Lorraine Virshup, Joan Tochner, Carole
Jeanne Levy, president of the
Jewish Federation of Palm
Beach County's Women's
Division speaks from the
podium at the opening of "The
Miracle that is You" program.

& 11 l II
* 4
_ in I
Silber, Janet Cohn, Diana Daniels, Sheryl
Davidoff, Sharyn Lopez, Judy Ravitz and
Marcy Marcus. Not pictured: Cissie TUh-
man, Marilyn Lampert, Barbara Chant,
Barbara Wunsh, Barbra Lipshitz and Esther
Klein, Rhona Shugarman, Ellen Weingud\
and Marva Perrin. Not shown: SheUq]
Robinson, Sheila Englestein, Ruth Wilensk]j
and Charlene SholL
Arlene Francis, guest speakir\
for "The Miracle that is Yi"j
[program, entertained the anil
\ience by recalling interestinfl
'and humorous moments fron\
her famous past.
Over 300 women participated in "The Miracle that is You
gram. As the women entered Burdines they were escorted to
third floor dining room and were served a champagne sP
courtesy of Burdines Department Store.
Barbara Shulman (right), women's division Campaign
chairman, presents Salty Harris, fashion coordinator for
Burdines, with a plaque for her cooperation in helping create
and plan "The Miracle that is You'' program.
As part of "The Miracle that
is You" program the women
previewed a showing of "Bur-
dines Fashions 1978."
Guest of honor for the evening was Arlene Francis <^ec0"ffl
right), star of stage, screen, radio and television. pict^T\ti
her (left to right) are Alan L. Shulman, General law
chairman: Barbara Shulman, women's division Vr*
chairman: and Jeanne Levy, president of women's dwu"^

kday. April 7.1978
Thijiwuk Floridian of Palm Beach County
Dr. Irwin Sapenoff Heads Palm
| Beach Odd Fellow Health Program
I Under the auspices of the Palm
ach Odd Fellow Lodge 88,
;st Palm Beach, Dr. Irwin
Lpenoff has sponsored a series
brief senior health care sem-
_ to be held during regular
eting nights, the first and
j-d Wednesdays of each month,
six consecutive assemblies, in
i temple hall building in down-
|wn West Palm Beach. The
Iminars begin at 6:30 p.m., one-
ilf hour prior to the opening of
dial business sessions.
This health care program, a
few departure in Odd Fellowship
[r our brotherhood, should be a
tlpful necessity to the member-
hip because it shall post them on
aid procedures," said Dr.
"THESE brief lectures, some
i and without colored slides or
ovies, by professional doctors,
..1 produce evidence and answer
bestions on specific health care
Lbjects, also distributing
toklets or literature for future
The lectures will feature eyes,
feet, ears, heart, lungs, diabetes,
arthritis, blood pressure, as well
as light daily exercises for those
mm ngni aaiiy exercises ior tnose lif t^
who are willing and can take ad- I ramDers'
Life Members to Be
Honored at Meeting
The regular monthly meeting
of the Temple Emeth Sisterhood
will take place Thursday, April 6
at noon at the temple. There will
be a musical program honoring
Page 11
vantage of such a program
The April 19 meeting is sched-
uled for a half hour seminar on
"Hearts and Lungs" by Dr.
Allan Wald of West Palm Beach.
I.O.O.F Brothers residing in or
visiting the West Palm Beach
area are invited to attend.
Singles Group To
Hear Nutritionist
The regular monthly meeting
of the Temple Emeth singles
group will be held Monday, April
10 at 1 p.m. at the temple.
Guest speaker will be Mark
Stowe, nutritionist. For further
information call the temple office.
APRIL 21 & 22, 1978
RABBI ASHER BAR-ZEV and a Cantor Officiating
Kosher Catering by SAND-ELL of MIAMI
Price: $25 per night per person
or $45 per person, for both nights
For more Information call the
ivmpic 833-0339

jr. Sherwin Isaacson (right),
Viairman of the Jewish Fed-
eration of Palm Beach
bounty's Forum committee,
\reeting Max Dimont, author
If "Jews, God and History"
Ynd "The Indestructible
lews." Dimont was the
featured speaker of the final
Forum series program March
J6. He discussed the confron-
ition between the Arabs and
Israelis in the twentieth
Continued from Page 1'
|ni mm- to help the south Leba-
pe Christians and any agree-
pnt must ensure their safety.
S met yesterday with Major
ad Haddad, the commander of
Christian forces, and reiter-
d Israel's promise not. to
landon them.
THE SYRIAN-controlled
ab deterrent force made its
nouncement that no military
rsonnel or equipment will be
lowed to go into south
faanon. The Syrians also.said
ht other supplies such as food
1 medical equipment must go
|0UKh the Lebanese govern-
phe Israelis view the Syrian
|i'n as motivated by a desire to
* Israeli troops withdraw from
[>lh Lebanon as quickly, as
Mible and to keep the ter-
ras from drawing the Syrians
a clash with Israeli troops.
Syrians also want to con-
lee Israel that Damascus must
[considered in any agreement
[Lebanon's future, according to
| belief here.
The Syrian efforts to ciamp
Kn on the terrorists did; not
[p the shelling of. Israeli areas
FROM $9250 A WEEK,
in the BaHaMas.
The prices are right.
And the places are perfect,
wherever you want to go
in The Bahamas.
From $92.50 to
$372.50, pick a week
in Nassau/Paradise
Tennis or golf. Or
wining, dining, and danc-
ing. You can do it all,
because it's all here to do
in Nassau/Paradise
Hotels, casinos,
straw markets. They're
enough to make you smile
all the way home.
And for your money,
you get an air conditioned
hotelroom for 8 days/
7 nights. Plus extras. From
$42 50 to $162.50,4-day/
3-night vacations are also
From $103 to
$257, pick a week in
If you're into sports,
you should be on our
tennis courts or golf
courses (we have six of
the world's finest). Or you
can dive or fish. Or play
the games of El Casino.
Or dance'til dawn. Or
See your Travel
Agent about a week,
can spend.
These vacation
prices are per person
with double occupancy.
They do not include air
fare. There are other
vacation packages avail-
able, with special golf
and tennis offers.
For reservations or
a copy of our colorful
brochure, see your
Travel Agent. Or call
800-432-5594. Toll free.
In Dade County
sample gourmet restau-
rants. Or just shop to your
delight in the Interna-
tional Bazaar.
Your price includes
an air conditioned hotel
room for 8 days/7 nights,
a welcome cocktail, a tour
to see some sights and
more. Other packages are
yours from $47 to $113,
4 days/3 nights.
From $112 to
$224, pick a week
in The Out Islands.
To really get away,
get off to our Out Islands.
By yourself on a stretched- call443-382L
out beach. Or with our There's no better
friendly people in their time than now.
brightly painted villages
with the random beauty
of flowers of all colors.
Charter your own
boat to fish in one spot
after another. Scuba dive
into some of the world's
clearest waters. Sun,
swim, stay longer for just
a little more if you wish.
As it is, your price
includes air conditioned
accommodations for
8 days/7 nights. From
$48 to $96, we have
4-day/3-night packages,


rv.. <
e,' fmirn Btmck Ccmnty
Fi.y. April;
^ Summep Camping' 78
Cum INfeftli
ft V -V
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MNWAM *"S"V. imi
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mini it

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*iv -ilk > .


the Savaqes
lvio"u.nta.irL X_.a,K:e
2S0 Boys-Girls-Age 516
Mature epenenced staff 1pe*4
Complete activity program includes:
Stung Canoeing. Sailing.
Pact. Riding. Lartdsports. Crafts.
pmo. Tnps. Racquet Ball. Plus ...
Sabbath Services. Friday Eve.
doctors and RN's in residence
*rV0. tax 41-4450, MllWeS Bf
v> Arria & Naa*tte SavageOwners
W 4V 4> '4c
, Fk.3314lj

Camp hiqhlAn6eR
Horse Shoe North Carolina Near Asheville
* ftrsttVutial Camp for leys a**1 Girts Atjes 7-14 efferiaa i
wide se-tcctiM ef ctivhSes asaa tiam H fit every vacahoe
nior win) 3-fa-* week sessiwas Wfaaaag Jnt 1| mi am
wpp* rf nopwear Feaairy
itfle>"if.. .-i-i.-. m
^'> Canoe naj
ft.v-4 ClwAi m
intama 4 feajngi
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*'V ifflflir^
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"aifiaw fi.(.-v
*'?> Cttftt!

The Jewish Floridian of Palm Beach County
Page 13
AJCong. Elects Squadron Prexy
Howard M. Squadron, a
ew York City attorney.
as elected president of the
merican Jewish Congress
the organization's na-
onal biennial convention
re. He is the first pres-
ent of the American Jew-
h Congress in 45 years
ho is not a rabbi.
Squadron succeeds Rab-
i Arthur Hertzberg of En-
lewood. N.J.. who served
ree two-year terms.
p Doral Country Club in Mi-
Over 500 delegates repre-
nting American Jewish Con-
ess chapters and divisions
Icross the country took part in
he four-day meeting through
Squadron has been active in
ti, American Jewish Congress
t>r 25 years. He previously
erved as the organization's sen-
)r vice president, Governing
Council chairman and chairman
of its Commission on Law and
Social Action and New York Me-
tropolitan Council.
He is a member of the Govern-
ing Board of the World Jewish
Congress and a trustee of the So-
ciety for the Advancement of Ju-
From 1970 to 1972. Squadron
headed the Ad Hoc Committee
I for City University, a coalition of
more than 60 organizations cut-
ting across racial, religious and
ethnic lines to support free tui-
tion and the open admissions
program at CUNY.
SQUADRON, who was born in
New York City on Sept. 5. 1926.
received both the AB degree in
history at City College and the
law degree at Columbia Univer-
sity in 1947. where he was an edi-
tor of the Columbia Law Review.
He taught and pursued further
legal studies at the University of
After two years as staff coun-
sel to the American Jewish Con-
gress. Squadron re-entered pri-
vate practice and in 1954 formed
the firm of Squadron. Garten-
berg. Ellenoff and Flesent. of
which he is senior partner.
From 1961 to 1964. Squadron
served as chairman of the New
York Metropolitan Council of the
American Jewish Congress,
chairing the statewide effort to
win passage of a Fair Sabbath
Law exempting Sabbath observ-
ers from the Sunday-closing
laws: helping to establish the
Metropolitan Council's panel of
volunteer lawyers in civil rights
cases: and successfully repre-
senting the 12 AJCongress lead-
ers charged with disorderly con-
duct for picketing the anti-Semi-
tic mural at the Jordanian Pavil-
ion of the New York World's
AJCongress national Commis-
sion on Law and Social Action, a
post to which he was appointed in
November. 1964, Squadron
played a key role in the planning
and directing of the organiza-
tion's programs in the protection
of civil rights and civil liberties
and the struggle against anti-Se-
mitism and other kinds of racism.
He was elected co-chairman of
the Governing Council, AJCon-
gress' national governing body,
in 1968 and in 1972 was elected as
its chairman. In 1974, he was
elected senior vice president.
All Jewish ORQ&niz&tions
ano the
Jewish fe&eRAtion of palm Beach County
arc sponsopinq
a Biothday papty (on
isoael's 30th yeap of Inoepenoence
Sunday, may 7, 1978
11:30 am. 4:00 p.m.
West palm Beach Au&nomum
Palm Beach takes Blvd.. W.p.B.
* *
Coordinated by
The Jewish Community Center
Off The Palm Beaehes, Ine.
* *
Call ISRael Independence day headquacteRS
at the JCC 689-7700. fop mfopmation
Reo&Rdinq youR ORcanization's paRticipation.
Paul klem, o.d.S.
JCC ChampcRson
QeoRQe Qoloen
ChaiRman. CRC. isuaci task fonce
At our spacious 18- acre site we offer children from all sectors of the com-
munity and of all origins, races and religions the opportunity to enioy the
summer months in a safe, wholesome and enriching environment ana pro-
gram. The program is designed for each age group to promote physical. s
clal and cultural growth and the acquisition of newskilis and interests.
Healthy self-expression Is nurtured within an atmosphere of respect for
others and awareness of responsibility both toward the individual and the
THIS YEAR, theelght-week camp season will be from June '^AugusT11.
The first four-week session is from June 19-July 14, and the second tour ween
session from July 17-August 11.
Camp is conducted Monday through Friday, I: IS _?**.# fcj";
Campers are assigned to units by school grades, age, nd-cr mjWntJNWO;
grams and activities are directed and supervised by a trained start, special
activities include athletics, music, drama, arts and crafts. R,ed.,c!'"1^
tied swimming instruction and nature study. Special activities include
bowling, roller skating, trips to beaches and places of Interest.
In keeping with the camp's sponsorship and objectives, J^is* ,'or1y
and customs are Introduced through music and drama, arts and cram, noii
day festivals, and the traditional welcoming of the Sabbath TheseJ>rogrms
are supervised and directed by our Judaic Education specialists and our is
raeli Scout Staff.
Campers are picked up by buses at central or convenient pick-up points
on established^camp bus routes to be announced.
Pre-School, Elementary Divisions
8 weeks $225 + $40 Registration and Activity Fee;
4 weeks $125 + $20 Registration and Activity Fee.
(For each additional child from seme family:
8 weeks $205 ? $40 Registration and Activity ^.
4 weeks $115 + $20 Registration and Activity Fee.I
FEES INCLUDE transportation, snacks, a Camp Shalom "T" Shirt, .nsurance and
special activities.
MINIMUM ENROLLMENT one 4-week session
Enrollment is open to children ages 3 12.
cancelled by June 1. one-half of this fee will be refunded)
"angements have been made for later payment. Reduced fees and scholarship aid
| are available based on need.
For further information, please call or wnte:
2415 Okeechobee Boulevard 689 5900
West Palm Beach. Florida 33409 fJMlfJH ff

What are we doing to ourselves? We ride to work. Sit behind
desks. Ride home. Sit at the table and eat like crazy. Then sit
on that.
And we pay for it. With increasingly costly health care. And
shortened lives.
One of the best things we can do for ourselves is exercise.
And some of the best exercise costs absolutely nothing. Requires
no special training or equipment. And takes no more skill than
putting one foot in front of the other.
Take a walk. Today, and every day. It's good exercise in
itself. Or a good way to work up to a more
strenuous program.
In the long run, keeping in
shape can help save you money in
health care. And it can help save you. Birmingham, Alabama

For a free booklet about exercise and prerenlire health care, send coupon to
Liberty National. Communications Department. Section N. P.O Box 2672. Birmingham. AL 35202

i n* j eunsn r lonaian of raim iiwch County
enamy, a"

co-ordinated by the
::: Palm Beach County Rabbinical Council
w mbbxmtui-,

Rabbi Hyman Fishman
devoted to discussion of themes and issues
relevant to Jewish life past and present
This is a Free Country
By Rabbi Max L. Formao
Often when we are called to
task for acting or speaking
thoughtlessly, hastily, or
selfishly, we interject into the
argument, in self-defense, the
phrase "This is a free country,
isn't it?' I should like to suggest
that it is most important that we
draw from this truth more than
the implication that we are per-
mitted, therefore, to act as we
will and speak as we please.
"This is a free country' means
that all other men are entitled to
that freedom which I claim for
myself. Since I am a free man, I
am constrained to defend the
freedom of my fellow-men when it
is endangered, and to help secure
it when it is denied. This may
involve a good deal of effort,
inconvenience, and even sac-
rifiece; but as a free man, I have
no other choice.
THIS IS a free country'
means that since no outside force j
controls my speech, I must pos- I
sess an inner sense of respon- I
sibility which keeps me from
speaking careless, unfounded,
slanderous, or divisive words
|# T,ME #|
29 ADAR 2-5738 '
else freedom will deteriorate into
"This is a free country' means
that I have the obligation to be
informed about current issues:
those domestic and international
problems with which my country
is concerned. As a citizen, I have
a share in making the decisions
that have to be made. Ignorance
and indifference can only lead to
thoughtless or mistaken views on
my part. Multiply this by a suf-
ficient number of other citizens
and it may result in decisions
inimical to the interests of our
country and disruptive of world
'This is a free country' means
that I must play my part in the
voluntary associations in which
free men band together to ad-
vance common ideals, defend
common causes, reflect common
concerns, and present common
points of view. The life of free
men is not, and cannot be, cir-
cumscribed by governmental
control and authority.
SYNAGOGUES and churches,
labor unions and professional
societies, philanthropic agencies,
social groups and political
parties, together with ever so
many other enterprises serve to
enhance the moral, cultural, and
social climate of the land. They
deserve the participation of all
citizens interested in a richer life
for all America.
"This is a free country' means
that as a free man I must exercise
my freedom to guard zealously
my individuality and my right to
independent judgment, lest they
dissolve under the constant pres-
sures making for conformity,
which can only lead to surrender
to appeals for mass-thinking and
'This is a free country' means
that I am blessed with many
rights and opportunities, this
means, too, that I must be ready
and eager to assume and dis-
charge serious responsibilities
and solemn obligations. To dis-
dain the latter can lead to the loss
of the former.
J T.V. Highlights
: Mosaic, the Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County S
I sponsored TV program, aired weekly over Channel 5 -
| WPTV on Sunday mornings at 9:30 a.m.
Program Schedule:
April 9 Women's Division
April 16 Max Dimont Forum Speaker
Need to Maintain Control
Continued from Page 6
that "we don't want a stalemate
of procrastination, we yearn for
peace for Israel and her neigh-
He said "to accomplish it we
must have patience for each
other, open minds, open hearts,
never to say: if you don't accept
our demands I call off the
talks.' a reference to Sadat's
cancellation of the Israeli-Egyp-
tian political talks.
. Asked if he believed Carter was
trying to force him out of office.
Begin replied. "No I don't. .The
' Prime- Minister of a democratic
country is elected by the people
of the country." He added that
only those people can make the
TO A question asserting that
Begin arid Carter are far apart oh
the elements of a peace agree-
ment, the Prime Minister
responded that he was grateful to
Carter for the three summit
meetings in Jury, December and
this month.
He said the U.S. "role is
positive" and alluded to the
contacts established for Israel by
U.S. officials. He said he was
"sorry'' that the question of
settlements on the West Bank
aroused tension.
"Perhaps we didn't explafci it"
'in suitable terms, he said. At he
inisted "they are perfectly legal
and legitimate. This is our stand.
Everything else stands on the
timing and the decisions of
Israel." he said about the settl
On the question of placing
warplanes for Saudi Arabia.
Egypt and Israel in one package.
Begin said there should be "no
linkage of planes for Israel with
any other country." He stressed
that Israel felt that providing
Saudi Arabia with F-15s would
be "very, very dangerous" for
SPEAKING after his final
meeting with Carter. Begin said
it was his "duty" to remind
public opinion of the fact "that
Israel is still the only country in
the world against which there is a
written document to the effect
that it must disappear and
people who carry out "the abom-
inable acts to prove that they
mean it "
This was a reference to the
Covenant of the Palestine
National Council and the Pales-
tine Liberation Organization.
This situation. Begin added, "is I
the decisive problem we face. I
which is called, sometimes, i
Hertzberg Cautions U.& Against
Doom, Gloom Scenario
Arthur Hertzberg. outgoing
president of the American Jewish
Congress, has cautioned against
the "gloom and doom scenario"
of future U.S.-Israeli relations
following the failure of President
Carter and Prime Minister Mena-
chem Begin to resolve their dif-
ferences at their talks in
"At the same time," he said,
"it would be false optimism not
to concede that American Jews
feel a growing sense of worry and
dismay at the current trend of
U.S. policy in the Middle East."
SPEAKING to 500 delegates
at the AJCongress' national
biennial convention here in what
was his valedictory address as
president of the organization.
Hertzberg voiced optimism over
the future of American-Israeli
relations and the continuity of
Jewish identity in the U.S.
"Israel's security is an
essential element of American
security." he said. President
tarter understands that and
so does Prime Minister Begin
whatever the differences, they
are about tactics on how best to
achieve Middle East peace
THERE IS no reason, Hertz-
berg said, "for any gloom and
doom scenario that forecasts a
rupture of U.S.-Israel relations. |
All parties to the Middle East'
conflict need to get pest rhetoric
and the battle over formulations'
and return to the negotiating
table and the long hard process of
dealing with concrete issues and
specific arrangements." he said.
However, Hertzberg added.
At the same time, it would be
false optimism not to concede
that American Jews feel a
growing sense of worry and
dismay at the current trend of
U.S. policy in the Middle East as
evidenced by the linking of
American military aid for Israel
with arms sales to Egypt and
Saudi Arabia: criticism of
Israel's positions coupled with
praise for President Sadat: and
the American role in the United
Nations resolution calling on
international peace forces to
replace Israeli troops without a
clear mandate to prevent the
return of PLO terrorist
Joseph V. Copulsky, m.0.
announces the association op -
RoBem 6. Schwimmep, m.O
Steven W. Bealinep, m.6.
m the poactice of
UROloqy ano UroIoqic Supqepy
399 W. Camino Qaooens Blv6.
Boca Raton, pa.
By appointment 391 "1552
Synagogues in
Palm Beach County
1901 North Flogler Drive
West Palm Beach, Florida
Rabbi Irving B: Cohen
Sabbath Worship Services
Friday at 8:15 p.m. ,
333 S.W. Fourth Avenue
Boca Raton, Fl. 33432
Rabbi Norman T. Mendel
Cantor Martin Rosen
Sabbath services, Friday at
Saturday morning services at
10:30 a.m.
P.O. Box 3
Boca Raton, Florida 33432
368-1600 391-1111
Rabbi Benjamin Rosayn
Fridays at 8:15 p.m.
at: Boca West
Community UMC .
8900 Boca West GtADES) Rd
(1 MileWostdf

. r

5348 Grove Street
West Palm Beach, Fla. 33409
Rabbi Harry Z. Schectman
Cantor Arthur B. Rosenwasser
Services: Friday 8:30 a.m.,
5p.m., 8:15p.m.
Saturday 8:30a.m., 5 p.m. n.
Doily 8:30a.m., 5p.m.
Boynton Beach, Fla.
Sabbath Services
Friday at 8:15 p.m.
Congregational Church
115N. Federal Highway
2815 North Flogler Drive
West Palm Beach, Florida
i 33407
Rabbi Asher Bar-Zev
Sabbath services Friday ot 8:15
Saturday at 9:30 a.m. '
Daily Minyan at 8:15 a.m.
Sunday at 9a.m.
315 N. "A" St.
Lake Worth, Florida 33460
585-5020 ^^
Rabbi Emanuel Eisenberg
Cantor Jacob Elman
Services, Mondays and
at 8:15 a.m.
Friday at 8:15p.m.
Saturday at 9 a. m
Sabbath services, Friday at 8
At Westminister Presbyterian
'0410 N. Military Trail. Pa|m
w -i Srdens 32) Northlake
Blvd North Palm Beach, Fla.
Rabbi Hyman Fishman '
Cantor Nicholas Fenakel
N.W. Avenue "G"
Belle Glade, Florida 33430
Jack Stateman, Lay Leader
Sabbath services, Friday ot
275 Alemeda Drive
Palm Springs, Florida 33460
Sabbath services, Friday at 8
Saturday at 9a.m.
President Jacob Front 964-
Mondays and Thursdays at 9
a.m. '
Services held ot Faith United
Presbyterian' Chfirch, Palm
1401 N.W: 4thAve.
Boca Raton, Florida 33432
Rabbi Nathan Zelizer
Sabbath services: Friday ot
8:15 p.m.
Saturdays ot 9:30 a.m.
"MPLE EMETH of tht
5780 Wwl Atlantic Avenue
Delray Beach, Florido 33446
Morris Sirborman, Rabbi
Leonard Price, Cantor
Sabbath services: Friday at 8
p. m. Saturday at 9 a.m.
Daily minyons ot 8:45 a.m.
and 5p.m.
190 North County Rood
Palm Beach, Florida 33480
Cantor David Dardashti
Sabbath services, Friday "
8:30 p.m.
Saturday at 9a.m.

(Friday, April 7,1978
The Jewish FhrtdlaH ofJalm Beach County
Page 15
Continued from Page 3
I traditional Jewish songs.
Shalom Hadassah "Education
ll)av" meeting takes place on
lAprU 17 at 12:30 p.m. at the
I Salvation Army Citadel. Jesse
Ifuchs will speak on the sig-
Inificance of Pesach. Rosalyn
Iweinshenker will use visual aids
Ito present an analysis, "If Plains,
I Georgia, were Jerusalem, Israel."
The group is participating in
the charity day sale at the Palm
Beach Mall, Sunday, April 16
from noon to 4 p.m. Call Myra
Ohrenstine for information.
The next regular meeting of
Tikvah Hadassah will take place
Monday, April 17 at 12:30 p.m.
at Temple Anshei Sholom. Dr.
Robert Alsofrom will be the guest
speaker. The next Board meeting
of Tikvah will take place
Thursday, April 13 at 10 a.m. at
Windsor H-l65.
Yovel Hadassah will hold its
regular meeting at Congregation
Anshei Sholom, Thursday, April
20 at 1 p.m., highlighting youth
activities. Guest speaker George
Golden, of the Jewish Federation
of Palm Beach County, will talk
on the current situation in Israel.
On Sunday, April 16, Yovel
will join with other organizations
at the Palm Beach Mall for the
charity day sale. Donations of
hand crafted items, such as
aprons, slippers, sweaters, etc.,
home baked goods and plants will
be accepted.
The group also is planning a
trip May 3-5 to Bok Tower,
Busch Gardens, Spongerama and
Weeki Wachi Springs. For reser-
vations contact Frieda Brum or
Lillian Meyers.
An outstanding profesvonof counseling agency serving the Jewish
community of Palm beach County Professional ond confidential
help is ovoiloble for .
Problems of the aging Marital counseling
Consultation and evaluation services Parent-child conflicts
Vocational counseling Personal problems
Private Offices: 2411 Okeechobee Blvd.
West Palm Beach, Fla. 33409
Telephone: 684-1991
3200 North Federal Hwy. Suite 206-
Room 12, Boca Raton, Fla.
Telephone: 395-3640
Moderote fees are charged in family and individual counsel nig to
those who con pay (Fees are based on income and family size)
The Jewish Family ond Children's Service is a beneficiary agency of
the Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County.


^\n ps

7875 Belvedere Rd., West Palm Beech, Fie. 33411
Located at Camp Shalom
5 Day Program (Monday-Friday)
Playgroup2-3 year olds
Pre-School4-5 year olds
~3 Morning Program 9 a.m.12 noon
Tuition: $52 per month
a non-refundable $40 deposit Is payable with ap-
Afternoon Program: 12 noon3 p.m.
$175 per semester
**FULL-DAY PROGRAM: $400 per semester (a
savings of $25 per semester),
Phyllis Morgan: Pre-School Supervisor
Steel Lesser: Pre-School Committee Chairman
POM or Guardian.
Plau* anroll my child In tna 1S77-7S COMMUNITY PflE-SCMOOL
Morning program only.
Afternoon program only.
MV M0 00 non-ratuadabla application faa It anctoaad
-" y adaration ol PaHn Beach County
The Bat Qurion group is plan-
ning its second annual Inter-
national Night at Temple Israel
on Saturday, April 16 at 8 p.m.
The theme will be "The French
Connection." An authentic
French menu is being planned
with an original French Revue for
entertainment, written and
directed by Madame Gelda Cook.
Stars in the revue are: Sheila
Lewish, Fannie Sherman, Linda
Cohen, Esther Zaretsky, Gail
Weinstein, Gelda Cook and
Michael Cohen. There will be a
band for dancing. For reser-
vations and information contact
Paula Harman. Barbara Chane is
chairman of this event.
Temple Beth El will hold a
seder seminar on April 10 at 9
p.m. in the Hornstein Lounge. A
practical course on conducting
the seder, learning traditional
melodies, and learning the
various customs and ceremonies
will be discussed.
From April 16 through 20,
Rabbi Bar-Zev is available during
office hours for the selling of
A telephone campaign com-
mittee for new members in
Temple Beth El Men's Club has
been organized under the leader-
ship of Maurice Holsberg, chair-
man. During this enrollment
period, applicants for member-
ship who are not members of
Temple Beth El are welcome.
The members of Temple Beth
El will be the guests of the Men's
Club at the breakfast meeting,
Sunday, April 9 at 10 a.m. at
Senter Hall.
Frank Colavecchio, host of
Medical Close-Up, a weekly TV
show, and writer of "Health-
Line" in the Palm Beach Post,
will be the guest speaker. A
question and answer period will
The Free Sons of Israel Palm
Beach Lodge 221 (a co-ed lodge)
will hold its next regular meeting
Thursday, April 13 at 6:30 p.m.
at the Westward Community
School, Palm Beach Lakes
Boulevard and Golf Avenue in
West Palm Beach.
The Theodor Herzl club of
Pioneer Women of Cresthaven
announces that the following
persons will participate in edu-
cational and fund-raising activ-
ities during 1978-79: Hannah
Schwartz, president; Lenore
Breuer, membership vice pres-
ident and treasurer: Rose Kush-
ner, secretary; Rose Moskowitz,
publicity; and Freda Goldfarb,
chairperson of fund raising.
The Golda Meir club will take a
bus trip to Miami Beach on
Thursday, April 20. Call Amy i
Prager for details.
performance of the Mozart opera
"L'Oca Del Cairo" (The Goose of
Cairo) April 3. The opera, one of
the lesser known works of Mozart
was revived and arranged in a
one act format by Dr. Paul
Csonka, director of the Civic
Opera Company, who directed
the performance.
Among the singers was
Edward Doe of the Civic Opera
Grace Herskowitz,
organizational consultant for
Pioneer Women, announced the
formation of the new Pioneer
Women Club in Delray Beach.
The first organizational meeting
was held this week at the home of
Rose Goldman in Kings Point.
The Junior High School de-
partment of the Jewish Com-
munity Day School attended a
Company. The Jewish Com-
munity Day School of Palm
Beach County', Inc. has made
arrangements for a number of
cultural programs as part of its
regular curriculum. These have
included a visit to the Norton
Gallery to hear the Tokyo String
Quartet, and attendance at a
concert of the Palm Beach Phil-
harmonic Orchestra.
ORT School Dedicated to Gould
Formal inauguration of Bram-
son ORT Training Center will
take place at the school Sunday,
April 16. The new ORT school is
dedicated to Nathan Gould,
executive director and executive
vice president of Women's Amer-
ican ORT. Women's American
ORT chapters in the United
States will observe this cele-
bration with their own program.
The Bramson ORT Training
Center is the first ORT in-
stitution in the United States
designed to provide technical
education for the community.
The center conducts post secon-
dary programs in electronics -
technology, and business admin-
ALL programs are job-oriented
and the school maintains an on-
going admission program
allowing the student to begin
studies at any time of the year.
Bramson also utilizes a self-paced
learning approach. This method
permits each student to design
his course of study around his
needs and career goals and to
progress at his own pace.
The Center is designed to meet
the needs of recent high school
graduates looking for
professional careers but unsure
about which one to choose;
college students dissatisfied with
studies that don't lead to career
goals, college graduates with no
marketable skills, unemployed
persons looking for retraining;
and persons returning to the job
market after an absence.
Russian Family Arrives Here |
The Russian resettlement committee of the Jewish Federation
of Palm Beach County in conjunction with Jewish Family &
Children's Services recently assisted in the resettlement of a
Russian Jewish family into the Palm Beach County com-
munity. The resettlement committee, chaired by Bette Gilbert,
has helped in planning for housing, transportation, jobs,
English lessons, etc. Pictured above are Lila Seidler of the
National Council of Jewish Women's Palm Beach Unit and a
member of the Russian resettlement committee; Mr. and Mrs.
Leonid Korolshteyn and their daughter, Tanya; Steve Levitt,
executive director of Jewish Family & Children's Services; and
Blanche Silverman.
Palm Beach County's
Only All Jewish Cemetery
5061 Okeechobee Blvd.
W. Palm Beach, FIs. 33409
W. Palm-684-2277
R L. (Bob) Newhart. L F D Colin). Ragey. L.FD.
Lawrence S Faville. 1. F.D. William R. Zero. Jr.. L.FD
Michael K. Wick, I. F.D. (literal Manager
413 Hibiscus St 410) Parker Ave
West Palm Beach West Palm Beach
832-8121 833 4061
Lantana 582 9061
| Telephone
1832-8423 / 4
Jewish Community Day School
Of Palm Beach County, Inc.
2815 N. Flagler Drive, West Palm Beach, Florida 33407
Is now accepting applications for
Pre-School-Ful! or Half Day
Kindergarten-Full Day
Grade l-Grade Vl-Elementary School
Grades Vll-VIII-Junior High School
Transportation throughout Palm Beach County
Admission Tests Required
*'/ 8*aV
| A Beneficiary Agency of the Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County

Give to the
of the Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County
2415 Okeechobee Boulevard, West Palm Beach, Florida 33409 Telephone: 689l5900
Around the Corner Around theNAfcrld

Supplement to
of Palm Beach County
Friday, April 7.1978
I Published by the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith in Cooperation with The National Council for the Social Studies.
Copyright O 1978 th Antl-Datematlon Lmqim ol B'nil B'rith
Six Million Murdered
There is no way to establish an accurate figure tor the total number ot Jews murdered in World
War II In 1945, the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal estimated that 5,700,000 Jews had been
killed by the Nazis, representing two-thirds ot the pre-war European Jewish population.

Special Television
Drama To
Depict Holocaust
"Holocaust," a nine and
one-half-hour dramatic story of
the annihilation of six million
Jews by the Nazis, will be
shown over the NBC television
network for four nights
beginning Sunday, April 16.
Written by novelist Gerald
Green, "Holocaust" will
cover the years from 1935,
when Germany enacted the
anti-Semitic Nuremberg laws,
to 1945, when the con-
centration camps were
"Holocaust" is "no mere
re-telling of the universally
expressed theme of man's
inhumanity to man," ac-
cording to Robert Mulholland,
president of the NBC network.
The program, through
television, "the major com-
munications medium of our
time, has the opportunity to
help in seeing that George
Santayana's warning
'Those who cannot remember
the past are condemned to
repeat it' is heeded."
! continued on fagt ~16)
WM..........iiiwmr. 1%
The Third Reich, created amid
boasts that it would endure for a
thousand years, lasted instead
twelve years and four months,
from January 1933 until April
1945. During that time more
than 29 million persons were
kilted six million of them
Jews, slaughtered because they
were Jewish.
To claim that their
extermination at the hands of
the Nazis was a greater tragedy
man what has befallen other
persecuted peoples is unfeeling
and fruitless, ft is the
uniqueness of their annihilation
that is historically significant.
ft is important that we
understand that awesome and
terrible event so that we can
better comprehend the
differences between good and
evil and what our moral
choices are.
You will find on the following
pages a pictorial and news
summary of the Holocaust with
suggestions for study,
discussion and further reading. It
is our hope that The Record will
be used by schools and
religious and community groups
and individuals.
From a speech given at the conference
"Teaching About Genocide and the Nazi
Holocaust in Secondary Schools," Oe-
toher 9, 1977.______________________
People don't know today,
and therefore there is no subject
more urgent, more burning.
There is no subject linked more
to justice, for today the greatest
injustice is being accomplished
the obliteration of those
memories, the erasing of those
I received a post card, ad-
dressed to me at Boston
University. It said, "I recently
completed reading 'The Hoax
of the Twentieth Century,' and
the professor who wrote the
book claims that the six million
is a total fiction, that no Jews
were gassed or toasted in the
ovens in German concentration
camps, that there was nothing
in German records to sub-
stantiate the Jewish claims,
that the confessions that were
obtained, were obtained under
duress. I guess Hitler was right
when he said the Jew is the
master of the big lie."
(cominutd on p*ge })
January 30: President Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Reich
Chancellor (Prime Minister) of theNSDAP (NattomalsoxialistiS'
che Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)
March 23: First concentration camp, Dachau, is established
April 1: Nazis proclaim a general boycott of all Jewish-owned
April 7: Jews dismissed from civil service and denied admission to
the bar
April 26: Formation of the Gestapo
May 2: Dissolution of free trade unions
May 10: Burning of books by Jews and opponents of Nazism
December 1: Hitler declares legal unity of the German State and
Nazi Party
August 2: Death of Hindenburg. Hitier becomes Head of State and
Commander in-Chief of the armed forces
Summer: Juden Verhotem (No Jews) signs increase in number
outside towns, villages, restaurants and stores
September 15: Reichstag passes anti-Semitic "Nuremberg Laws"
October 25: Hitler and Mussolini form Rome-Berlin Axis
November 25: Germany and Japan sign military pact
July 16: Buchenwald concentration camp opens
March 13: Annexation of Austria to the hird Reich Nazis apply
anti-Semitic laws.
July 6: International conference at Evian, France, fails to provide
refuge for German Jews
September 29: Munich Agreement: Britain and France accept
German annexation of Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia
October 5: Passports of Jews are marked with the letter J"
' (continued on fnge 3)

Thb Rbcod: The Holocaust in Histoby, 19)3-194) t\
The Ant. Defamation League of B'nai Brith and The National Council for the Social Srudie, 2
TlwHllnltlwHIamn, 1BM-1B4C
Published by the
Anii-Delanialion League of B'nai B'rith
315 Lexington Avenue. New York. 10016
in cooperation with
The National Council lor the Social Studies
Suite 406. 2030 M Street. N W ,
Washington. DC 20005
Theodore Freedman. director.
National Program Division,
Anti-Defamation League ol B'nai B'nth
Anna Ochoa. president.
The National Council tor the Social Studies
Lucian Dobroszycki. research associate.
Yrvo Institute tor Jewish Research
Samuel Eltert. director.
Audio-Visual Department,
Ami-Defamation League of B'nai B'nth
Milton Meluer. author.
Never to Forget
Max Nadei. author.
Portraits ot the American Jew
Stan Wexler. director.
Publications DepanmenL
Ami Defamation League ot B'nai B'nth
Alton Schoener
Martin Moskot
Editor and Art Director
Graphic Designer
ADL it indebted to the following sources
for permission to reprint their material:
Associated Press, for permission to use all
articles credited to it herein: The New York
Times, for permission to use all articles
credited to it herein. Copyright 1935/37/
38/39/40/41/43/45 by The New York
Times. Reuters Limited, for permission to
use the article credited to it herein: United
Press International, for permission to use
all articles credited to it herein: Whitney
Communications, for permission to use the
article credited to the Herald Tribune; The
New Republic, tor permission to reprint
excerpts from 'First Interview with Vice
Chancellor Adolf Hitler." Copyright The New Republic
Acknowledgment is made for permission to
quote from the following works:
Ainsztem, Reuben. Jewish Resistance m
Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe, copyright
e 1974 by Barnes and Noble Books. Re-
printed by permission of Barnes and Noble
Books: Dawidowicz. Lucy S.. A Holocaust
Reader, copyright 1976 by Lucy S
Dawidowicz. Reprinted by permission of
Behrman House Inc Dobroszycki Lucjan
& Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. Image
Before My Eyes, copyright 1977 by
Schockan Books Inc Reprinted by permis-
sion: Frank. Anne. Diary ot a Young Girl,
copyright t 1952 by Otto H. Frank Re-
printed by permission of Ooubleday & Com-
pany. Inc : Goldsmith S J Jews in Transi-
tion, copyright C 1969 by S. J Goldsmith
Reprinted by permission of Herzl Preas.
Hilberg. Raul. Documents ot Destruction.
copyright 1971 by Raul Hilberg Re-
printed by permission of Franklin Watts.
Inc : Marcus. Jacob Radar, The Rise and
Destiny ot the German Jews, reprinted by
permission of the author: Shirer, William
L. Berlin Diary, copyright C 1940. 1941 by
William L Shirer Reprinted by permission
of Paul R Reynolds. Inc New York. New
"The Saviors is adapted from Roll o!
Honor by Or Aneh Baumingar. Jerusalem:
Yad Vashem. 1970
The Crime We Cannot
Neglect or Forget

by Barton M. Joseph,
National Chairman.
Anti-Defamation League
of B'nai B'rith
The Nazi crime of genocide,
in which six million Jews were
killed, is history that we can
neglect or forget only at our
peril. Yet, perhaps because we
cannot readily grasp or
emotionally accept the carefully
planned and systematic murder
of millions, The Holocaust is
largely forgotten or regarded
with apathy. Unfortunately,
most history and social studies
textbooks treat this subject
inadequately, and it is absent
from most classroom
discussion. In Europe and, to a
lesser extent, in the United
States we are beginning to
witness the appearance of
revisionist books that
shamefully declare The
Holocaust a myth.
Except among the most
hopelessly bigoted, NBC's
series will dispel the notion of
any myth. Here is Hitler's
appalling crime against
humanity, in all of its stark
visual truth. Here is the
ultimate meaning of hatred put
into the service of ideology.
Here is the efficiency of modern
technology corrupted into the
ghastly forms of gas chamber
and crematoria. The Holocaust
may not be mankind's first
experience with genocide, but
it is by far the most horrendous.
Sadly, it may not be our last.
We have an obligation to
ourselves and future
generations. Our obligation is
to make the lessons of The
Holocaust a part of the human
mind and spirit. That is the goal
of the Anti-Defamation League
of B'nai B'rith. NBC has made
a magnificent contribution to
that education a con-
tribution whose value will
continue far into the future.
The Organized
Destruction of
European Jewry
Two developments were in-
tertwined in the Nazi assault on
the Jews. One was a German
administrative process evolving
from ponderously slow
beginnings to massive climax,
the other a progressive en-
feeblement of the Jewish
population in the German vise.
The German buildup ensnared
the Jews in laws, decrees, and
regulations. The Germans
issued instruction; the Jews
reorganized their lives. The
Germans became harsh, the
Jews more vulnerable in their
quandary. As German moves
became ominous, the Jews
clung to hope. The Germans
pressed on relentlessly and the
Jews despaired. The outer
limits were reached: never
before had an act been so ex-
treme, a loss so total.
When Adolf Hitler came to
power in 1933, a modern
bureaucracy set out for the first
rime to destroy an entire
people. That machinery of
destruction was not a single
organization but a network of
offices in the party, the
ministries, the army, and
industry. Its onslaught on the
Jews was not planned in ad-
vance but developed blow by
blow. In spite of such decen-
tralization, few operations
could have been more efficient
than this singular deed in the
midst of a general war.
From: Raul Hilberg. Documents
of De it ruction. New York:
Franklin Watts. 1971.
A New Years Curd
Author and Scriptwriter
for "Holocaust"
Years ago, during my
boyhood in Brownsville,
Brooklyn, N.Y., my mother
received a Rosh Hashanah card
every year from distant cousins
in Vilna. I don't remember the
precise relationship of the
people who sent the card. But
they were Matzkins, as was my
mother, and I'm told that all
Matzkins are related and most
are from the Vilna region.
I recall the card clearly. It
was from a brother and sister,
both single, in their early
twenties. The young man was a
professional photographer. He
would make up his own card
a tinted photograph of himself
and his sister. Smiling, gentle
people, fair-skinned, with
curling hair. And next to it a
greeting to his cousins in the
Matzkin family in Yiddish.
The cards stopped coming in
1939. We knew why.
Often I asked my mother and
her brotherswhat happened
to the photographer and his
sister? Did anyone know? They
had vanished, consumed in The
Holocaust, victims of the
greatest crime in history,
sacrifices to the barbarian
racialism, the nationalistic
madness that gripped a Europe
under the iron rule of the
demon king and his remorseless
"Nothing happens in
Germany without my
knowledge," Hitler bragged.
In Munich, in the twenties, he
boasted that when he came to
power he would hang a Jew
from every lamp post in
Munich till the bodies stank,
cut them down and repeat the
process, until every Jew in
Munich was dead. Then he
would begin on other cities. In
the middle thirties, the Fuehrer
informed the Italian am-
bassador that in five hundred
years Adolf Hitler would be
remembered for one thing alone
the annihilation of the Jews.
So much for recent
revisionist "historians" who
claim that Hitler really didn't
want to gas all those women
and children and innocents;
that the allies forced his hand;
that underlings like Heydrich
and Eichmann acted on their
own. Liars beget liars. And
Hitler, supreme terrorist,
murderer and liar has ap-
parently given birth, thirty-five
years after the great crime, to a
brood of lying "scholars."
"Holocaust" will help set the
record straight-
Over the years I often
thought of the vanished brother
and sister. Had my grand-
parents not been brave enough.
(continued on paft 16)
There was a time that when
nations engaged in war, warrior
was pitted against warrior.
Civilians suffered, often deeply,
but usually incidentally or
accidentally. It was the National
Socialist Party the Nazis
of post-World War I Germany
that first mobilized the entire
might of a modern, industrialized
society against an unarmed and
unprepared people civilians
whose only offense was that
they were members of a
minority faith. There were no
soldiers among this enemy
no guns, no tanks, no planes.
They were scattered over the
land, in small enclaves,
unprotected amid the general
population. They had no
awareness, most of them, until it
was too late, of the extent of the
hatred directed against them.
And when at last some of them
arose in desperate struggle,
they were far too few and much
too weak, and they were
doomed, as were their brethren
who went quietly to their deaths.
Jews themselves chose the term
"Holocaust" to describe their
ordeal under the Nazis.
Holocaust means complete
destruction by fire.
The Holocaust began way
before Adolf Hitler came to
power in 1933 and proclaimed
the Third Reich. As early as
1924, Nazis had introduced
anti-Jewish bills in the
Reichstag. The resolutions were
hooted down, jeered as the
ideas of lunatics. A little more
than a decade later the same
bills were the law of the land,
and faithfully obeyed by the
As early as 1925 the Nazis
began open espousal of their
true program: The Final
Solution. It was veiled, to be
sure, expressed in code words,
ambiguous. But it was there for
the world to hear, time enough
for something to have been
The personal attacks against
the Jews of Germany were
followed by laws depriving them
of their citizenship, their rights,
their businesses, their homes
and finally their lives.
The isolation from the society
they felt was their own
culminated on the night of
November 9, 1938, in
Kristallnacht: night of glass,
literally, but Night of Broken
Glass, in reality and now in
name. Kristallnacht:
spontaneous reprisals for the
shooting of a diplomat, the
Nazis said, until their own
documents proved it to be a
well-planned pogrom.
Kristallnacht in which
synagogues and Jewish shops
and Jewish businesses and
Jewish homes were attacked
and destroyed by frenzied mobs
more military than civilian.
The tragic drama might not
have occurred, though, or
having begun, might have been
halted Hitter came to power
legally, using the law to
undermine the meaning of law;
using deception at first and force
later. But men and women of
goodwiH in Germany caught up
in their own personal interests
dismissed his malevolence and
the evil of his National Socialist
ideology as irrelevant to them.
The leaders of the Western
allies had been presented with a
blueprint of his plans for
conquest and ignored it,
acquiescing to his occupation of
the Rhineland and Austria and
Czechoslovakia. The authorities
of the Christian churches of
Europe bought their peace with
the murderer rather than raise
their voices in moral indignation
and condemnation. Few nations
would even open their borders
to those who tried to escape.
Millions of lives would have
been saved. But except for
those Jews saved by the
heroism of the Danes and by
some brave souls in occupied
lands Righteous Gentiles,
they are called now the Jews
were driven to their deaths,
leaving at war's end a pitiful
remnant of survivors, one-third
of their former number.
And so the tragedy ran its
course. Wherever the Nazis
conquered, they rounded up the
Jews, separated them from the
native population, herded them
into ghettos killed them.
Jewish leaders were forced to
assist in the programs of
annihilation. Einsatzgruppen,
special action squads the
special action being
extermination accompanied
regular army units and marched
communities of Jews outside
captured towns and shot them
down in pits the victims
themselves had been forced to
dig. Hordes of Jews were sent
in crowded trains in boxcars
and cattlecars to
concentration camps where, with
gas and fire, they were
destroyed by the hundreds of
thousands. Those who were not
put to death directly were used
for forced labor or inhuman
medical experiments.
Finally, the Free World awoke
and arose against the Nazis.
Overextended by its own
ambition and caught in its own
duplicity, the Third Reich was
brought down. Its chief
architects. Hitter and Goebbets.
lay dead in its rubble. Others
were rounded up, and while the
world tried to comprehend their
brutality, the enormity of their
deeds, they were tried and
sentenced, some to death, some
to jail. Still otoers escaped
some, like Eichmann, to be
hunted down and captured
years later; some, many
perhaps, to remain at large,
even today.
The Holocaust cannot and
must not be forgotten. Not for
the sake of the Jews, but for the
sake of humanity. If civilization
is to survive, mankind must
team to recognize evil when it
appears and halt its spread
before, like the Nazi disease, i
contaminates one people and
destroys another.
Examine the documents,
passages, dispatches and
illustrations that appear on
these pages and consider wM
they reveal about tofc*arian*fli.
about democratic institutions
about extreme and fanatic
political and racial theories and
about the nature ot man.

3 The Recom>: The Hoiocauit in History, 19JM94*
Th Anti-Defamation League of Bmi B'rith and The National Council for the Social Studies
iQinlinutdfrom Pag* II
November 7: Herschel Grynszpan, whose parents were deported
from Germany to Poland, assassinates Ernst vom Rath, Third
Secretary of the German Embassy in Paris
November 9: KristallnacbtQHigiw of Broken Glass), anti-Semitic
riots in Germany and Austria, synagogues are destroyed, shops
are looted.
November 12: 26,000 Jews are arrested and sent to concentration
November 15: Jewish children are expelled from German schools
December 13: Decree on "Aryanization" (compulsory ex-
propriation of Jewish industries, businesses and shops) is enacted
March 15: Germans occupy Czechoslovakia
July 26: Adolf Eichmann is placed in charge of Prague branch of
the emigration office
August 23: Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact
September 1: German Army invades Poland. Beginning of World
War II
September 3: Britain and France declare war on Germany
September 17: Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland
October 12: First deportation of Jews from Austria and Moravia to
November 23: Wearing of JudensUrn (Jewish six-pointed Star of
David) is made compulsory throughout occupied Poland
April 9: Germans invade Denmark and Norway
April 30: Ghetto at Lodz, Poland is sealed off
May 10: Germans invade Holland, Belgium and France
June 4: British Army evacuates its forces from Dunkirk, France
June 22: France surrenders to the Germans
September 27: Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis is established
November 15: Warsaw Ghetto is sealed off
June 22: Germans attack the Soviet Union
July 8: Wearing of the Jewish star is decreed in the German-
occupied Baltic states
July 31: Heydrkh is appointed by Goering to carry out' 'The Final
Solution" (extermination of all Jews in Europe)
September 15: Wearing of the Jewish star is decreed throughout
the Greater Reich
September 23: First experiments with gassing are made at Ausch-
October 10: Theresienstadt Ghetto in Czechoslovakia is established
October 14: Deportation of German Jews begins
October 23: Massacre in Odessa 34,000 dead
October 28: Massacre in Kiev 34,000 dead
November 6: Massacre in Rovno 15,000 dead
December 7: Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
December 8: United States enters the war
December 8: Chelmno extermination camp on the Ner River in
Poland is opened
December 8: Massacre in Riga 27,000 dead
December 22: Massacre in Vilna 32,000 dead
January 20: Wannsee Conference on Nazi "Final Solution of the
Jewish Question"
January 21: Unified resistance organization is established in Vilna
Ghetto. Jewish resistance groups expand in number throughout
Eastern Europe.
June 1: Treblinka death camp opens. Wearing of the Jewish star is
decreed in Nazi-occupied France and Holland.
July 22: 300,000 Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto are deported to
July 28: Jewish resistance organization is established in the
Warsaw Ghetto.
October 17: Allied nations pledge to punish Germans for their
policy of genocide
January 18: Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto launch uprising against
Nazi deportations. Street fighting lasts for four days.
February 2: German Sixth Army surrenders at Stalingrad. This
marks the turning point in the war
April 19: Revolt of Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto begins. Fighting
continues for weeks
May 16: Liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto
June 11: Himmler orders liquidation of all Polish Jewish ghettos
June-September: Hundreds of Jewish partisans leave the Vilna
Ghetto for the forest where they continue their resistance to the
August 2: Revolt at Treblinka death camp
August 16: Revolt in Bialystok Ghetto
September 23: Liquidation of the Vilna Ghetto
October 20: United Nations War Crimes Commission is
May 15-June 8: 476,000 Jews are deported from Hungary to
June 4: Allies in Rome
June 6: D-Day, Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Western Europe
begins in Normandy, France
June 23: Soviet summer offensive begins
July 24: Soviet troops liberate Maidanek death camp
October 23: Paris is liberated by Allied armies
November 24: Himmler orders destruction of Auschwitz
crematoria as Nazis try to hide evidence of the death camps
January I 7: Soviet troops liberate Warsaw
February 4-11: Yalta Conference in the Crimea
March 5: American troops reach the Rhine River
April 11: American troops liberate Buchenwald death camp
April 15: British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen death camp
April 25: American and Soviet troops meet at the Elbe River
April 30: Hitler commits suicide
May 7: Germany surrenders unconditionally. End of the war in
August 15: Japan surrenders unconditionally. End of World War II
November 22: Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal commences
The Nuremberg Trials concluded on October 1, 1946, which
happened to be the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), with a
judgment in which twelve defendants were sentenced to death,
three to life imprisonment, four to various prison terms, and
three acquitted.
'Help the Refugees."'drawing by George Kars, 1945/from the exhibition,
"Spiritual Resistance;1 circulated by the Union
American Hebrew
"leaching The Holocaust by KHe Wiescl
(Cuntinuettfrtim Page II
I received a letter from a
professor at the Sorbonne. Yes,
there were ovens in the camps,
he says, but only for the sick
people, never were there any
gas chambers. There is a
movement now which has one
aim: Not only to rewrite
history, but to destroy it and in
so doing, humble and
humiliate those teachers who
still not only remember, but
still secretly carry their
wounds. If we are to believe
these morally deranged,
perverted so-called historians,
the Holocaust never took place,
the victims did not perish, the
six million blackmailed the
German people, the ovens in
Auschwitz were bakeries...
This attempt to deprive the
victim of his or her past is
obscene. But it's not new.
"The Diary of Anne Frank"
was only recently termed a
forgery by an ambassador at the
United Nations. And to my
shame as a human being, no
one at the U.N. spit in his face.
A prominent European
playwright wrote about the
Auschwitz trial and managed
not to mention the word Jew.
There is no monument for
Jewish victims in Babi Yar, as
there is none in Auschwitz.
Is it not beneath our dignity
and the dignity of the deaths to
refute these lies? But, then, is
silence the answer? It never
was, and that is why the
survivors chose to teach. What
is their testimony if not
They would much rather
speak of other things, but who
then would protest against the
indecent attempts to kill the
victims again? Where are the
humanists today? Why are the
professors of history all over
America not speaking out in
one voice in outrage? And what
about the American soldiers
who liberated the camps? They
saw ... I remember them. Why
don't they speak up? Why
don't they become witnesses?
More than sadness, I feel
despair, and even more than
despair, I feel disgust. But one
doesn't stop. We go on
A new Holocaust cannot
happen, not a systematic
undertaking with ghettos,
camps, barbed wire. But given
the proper circumstances, even
the political situation in the
Middle East, the economic
situation here, I can foresee an
upsurge of an anti-Semitic
movement that would bring
fear to this country. Should the
desecrators succeed in planting
doubts in people's hearts,
should teachers fail, and I am
Jewish yellow "Star of David"/
Photo credit: Yivo Institute for
Jewish Research
"View of the concentration camp
at Compiegne," drawing by lzis
Kischka made as an internee /
From the exhibition, "Spiritual
Resistance," circulated by the
Union of American Hebrew Con-
included among the teachers,
we will betray the victims for
the last time, we will complete
the killer's work. He wanted to
destroy the living Jews and
burn the dead Jews. Anyone
who does not engage actively
today in keeping these
memories alive is an accomplice
of the killer.
So we teach, but how can I, a
teacher, explain to my students
so many things related to the
Holocaust? How can I explain
the indifference of so many
nations and so many leaders, to
so many Jews? ... In the
ideology of Hitler, the deranged
mixture of political expediency,
religious bigotry, social in-
tolerance and even sexual
perversion, there was
something that should make us
think. He said the world
doesn't want the Jews. And
what can one say? It was true.
They were convinced that
one day all nations would be
grateful to the Nazis for doing
their work for them. That is
what Hitler and Himmler
believed... Goebbels mentioned
it frequently in his diaries ... All
this because the world was
How do you tell children, big
and small, that society could
lose its mind and start mur-
dering its own soul? How do
you unveil horrors without
offering at the same time some
measure of hope? Hope in
what? In whom? In progress,
in science and literature and
God? In the viability of human
endeavors? ... The Holocaust
was preceded not by the Middle
Ages but by emancipation, and
enlightenment ... One
generation after the event, we,
although we are teachers, find
it difficult to absorb its anguish
and fervor ... For a long while, I
resisted telling the story ... I
clung to the belief that it was all
a bad dream, mine or God's.
But it was no dream. It was
true. You encounter difficulties
in teaching? So do I....
You think of the past, and
you are faced with two options
despise the living or try to
help them. You can either
spread misfortune or curtail
I teach. I teach the children
... It's more than a matter of
communicating knowledge.
Whoever engages in this field
becomes a messenger.
Elie Viesel, a Holocaust survivor, is
professor of humanities at Boston
I'nit ersity and author of "Messengers
Of God," "Sight" and "Souls on
Fire," among other books.

In Jacob K. Marcus
Alter centuries of silent
suffering, the dawn of
democracy in America and
France spurred the Jews of
Germain to hope ft* eman-
cipation. In 1871, attet a tense
hundred vear Struggle, the
Jews were finally granted
"formal equality'' in the
German Empire. The victory
was tar from complete,
however, tor neither the rulers
nor the dominating landed and
military aristocrac) were
minded to reverse their
traditional unsympathetic
attitude toward the Jew.
individually the) did all they
could to stifle Jewish advance
and to prevent absolute
equality. Few Jews were
allowed to become lull
protessors at the universities:
even tewer were commissioned
as officers of the Imperial
Army; and it remained
practically impossible tor a Jew
to be appointed to either the
diplomatic, the consular, of the
civil service. The equality
afforded to Jews was. thus,
formal but not all-embracing.
This position of "formal
equality* continued
throughout the existence of the
Second Empire v1871-1918).
However, there came in close
succession the War. the
collapse of the Empire
(November. 1918>. the flight
of the erratic Kaiser William II.
and the hse to power of new
elements: the business man
and the working class.
With these changes came a
more liberal attitude toward the
Jews They were now admitted
into the various branches d
civil service, although not in
proportion to their numbers. In
the field ot educanon. MO,
there was a change tor the
better; more Jews were ac-
cepted ts teachers in the
secondary schools and as m
structors in the universines.
More Jews engaged in politics:
a lew even became cabinet
members More economic
opportunities were afforded
them Wider fields tor literary,
artistic, and journalistic work
we opened to them. As pan ot
the tcmftixsw. now in power,
their social status likewise
The democratic Weimar
Constitution of 1919 granted to
the Jewish religious com-
munity the same right to
financial support that it ac-
corded the other church
groups. The struggle foe
emancipation and absolute
equality seemed at last to have
ended successfully. Tbe Jew
under tbe Republic was more
willingly accepted as an equal m
the economic, political,
educational, and social Hfe of
the community than at any
previous time in history, tbe
Fatherland seemed at last to
have acknowledged tbe
legitimacy of one of its oldest
trie mm* |na| Mas
From Uy* R \Uiewv TV AW
Ne York twn of \tncji
Hebrew C>wuwUii. ISG4
in Poland
Even betore the establish-
ment of the first Polish
kingdom in the tenth century.
Jewish merchants visited
Poland in the course of their
journeys. While the very first
settlers came trom the east in
the tenth century, the earliest
large scale migrations to
Poland, between the twelfth
and fifteenth centuries, were
from the west. Most of the
settlers fled from German lands
and Bohemia during the
Crusades and the period of the
Black Death. They were
followed by Jews who sought
asylum in Poland and other
countries after their expulsion
from Spain and Portugal in
1492 1493.
Citj Dwellers
Unlike the largely peasant
Slavic populations, the Jews
were city dwellers and skilled
craftsmen. They also were
experienced in trade and fiscal
matters. Polish kings and
princes, who welcomed the
contribution the Jews could
make to Poland's economic
development, encouraged them
to settle and offered them
With the unification of
Poland and Lithuania in 1569.
the newly formed Com-
monwealth extended from the
Baltic to the Black Sea. and
included within its boundaries
Poles. Ukrainians. White
Russians. Lithuanians, and
others. Jews, who had taken
part in the early development of
towns and cities in Poland
proper, now played a major role
in the colonization of the
outlying areas of the Com-
monwealth. Acme in local
commerce, they also exercised
a virtual monopoly over entire
branches of national and in-
ternational trade, for example,
timber and hides Many were
employed as tax collectors and
as stewards of estates and in-
dustries belonging to the
nobility, including salt mines,
mills, and the production and
sale of alcoholic beverages.
The Golden Age
During the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries, tbe Golden
Age of Polish Jewry, tbe Jews
enioyed relanve freedom within
the feudal structure of Poland.
They could travel inside and
outside tbe country, engage in
a variety of occupations, and
pracace their religion and self
government. These rights,
which were basic to their way of
kne. depended on privileges
granted to them by the
generaly sympathetic kings
and nobility. However.
pressures from tbe town-
speople, their economic
competitors, and from the
clergy, who obiected to their
faith, farced even tolerant
rulers place restrictions on
the place ami maaner m which
Jews might Ewe. Indrndual
cities were at tames granted the
Before tbe rise of Nazism, feus were part of the everyday life of
Germany Photo credit: Catherine Hanf Soien. from the Camera of
M) Family, Alfred A. Ktiopf.
privilege de nan tolerandis
JmJdtu. which meant that Jews
could not live within their
limits. Sometimes Jews were
compelled to live within
designated areas within the
towns. They were also banned
from various spheres of
economic and social life.
Jews were resourceful in
coping with such restrictions.
When they were excluded trom
city markets, they engaged in
foreign trade. If they were
forbidden to hve in ones, thev
settled in nearby towns. Most
important, their communities
developed a form of self
governing administrative
organization, the kehillah.
Institutionally complete and
autonomous, the Jewish
community had its own
schools, hospitals, courts of
law. and welfare organizations.
From a. 1580 to 1764. local
Jewish communities were
subiect to the CouncU of the
Four Lands, the supreme
authority regulating the
communal hie of Polish Jew r\
The seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries saw the
end of the Golden Age of Polish
Tin Rr.tonn: Tin Holocaust in History. 19JM9^ m
The Ant-Dfiamati-n League ..t H nai anJ TheNan.wal Council lof the Social StuJu-s *
There were 500.000 Jews in
Germany when the Nazis came
to power in 1933. They
constituted less than 1 of the
German population. A third of
them lived in Berlin, another
40% in other big cities Sixty
percent engaged in trade and
commerce, 25% in industry and
manual trades. 12% in public
service and the professions,
mostly law and medicine:
one-half were self-employed.
A Sons* off Belonging
They were centrist politically,
they were non-Zionist, they were
, German. Indeed, more than
80% were natives. They were
active participants in the
economic, social and cultural life
of their country. They created
works on German themes in
literature, art and music. Central
to them was their sense of
belonging. Nazism, for them,
was simply another
manifestation of anti-Semitism,
which they believed was the
historical fate of all Jews.
In Poland it was different
There were more Jews (3.3
million of them) and they
constituted a larger percentage
of the total population (10%), but
their lot was not as good.
A Different Living
In Poland, too. the Jews were
urban: more than three-quarters
of them lived in cities and towns,
27% of Poland's urban
population. But they earned their
living differently than the
German Jews. In Poland, only a
third of the Jews were involved
m trade and commerce and only
about 6% were professionals:
about 40% were engaged in
industry and handicrafts
Official Anti-Semitism
They were not nearly as weH
off as the Jews of Germany.
They were not nearly as
assimilated either official
government policies of
anti-Semitism prevented that
but they were a more united
community and enjoyed a rich
and vast network of religious,
educational, philanthropic, social
and cultural institutions without
comparison in Europe
Jewish Identity
There were Zionists among
them and socialists, and rich
men and poor, but by and large
they identified themselves as
Jews. And they were proud of i.
Using material from the
sources, compare
the Jewish communkies of
Germany and Poland, as wet
as in other European countries.
examine ther impact on the
native cukure and the impact cf
the cukure on them, examine
the msttukons they estabkshed
for their own wea-bemg and
examine ther response to
an&-Sermnsm and the rise of
Nazism What is your ethnc
background, what kind of
communty did your own
forebears come worn?
ng!h, Tdmaihukom forth, tged.Viliu, 19i~ I Photo
R.;r/\ie! Mnmovih Ynnlnsti-
Jewry. The country was
weakened by war and internal
conflict. In the years 1772-
1795. Poland was partitioned
and absorbed by neighboring
Austria. Prussia, and Russia,
who were to dominate her for
almost one hundred and fifty
years. The Jews, like the rest of
the population, were divided
among these three countries, in
which they confronted
economic, political, and
cultural conditions very dif-
ferent from those they had
known before the partitions.
Even though during the
nineteenth and twentieth cen-
turies radical changes in-
creasing secularization,
development of modern in
dustry, emancipation took
place, basic patterns of Jewish
settlement, communal
organization, and occupation
persisted up until the eve of
World War II.
Fkn l ikmii Dabrooydd ...ul
Barbara Kincheablatt-Ciaafalett
Immer BeJ n tfj Emm \
phi HM
i fotmmd (aft l*lu New
York Schocftea kola |lu

5 The Record: The Holocaust in History, 1933-1945
The Anti-DefamRlion Logiie of Bmi Brith and The National Council for the Social Studies
Law for the
Restoration of
the Professional
Civil Service
April 7, 1933
The Reich Government has
enacted the following law,
promulgated herewith:
1 (1) To restore a national
professional civil service and to
simplify administration, civil
servants may be dismissed from
office in accordance with the
regulations that follow, even in
the absence of the conditions
required therefor under present
3 (1) Civil servants who
are not of Aryan descent are to
be retired ( 8 ff.); if they
are honorary officials, they are
to be dismissed from official
Law Regarding
to The Bar
The Reich Government has
enacted the following law,
promulgated herewith:
1 The admission to the bar
of lawyers who, according to
the Law for the Restoration of
the Professional Civil Service of
April 7, 1933 (Reichsgesetz-
blatt I, p. 175), are of non-
Aryan descent may be revoked
until September 30, 1933.
From: Lucy Dawidowicz, A
Holocaust Reader, New York:
Behrman House, Inc., 1976.
Feb. 15, 1933 It is ex-
tremely difficult for American
correspondents to see Hitler.
He has a deep-rooted suspicion
of them all. It was only after I
had been passed upon by the
press department of the
Nationalist Socialist party that I
was permitted to visit the new
Chancellor at his summer
"Brown House" a hundred or
so miles from Munich. Here he
was living with his secretaries
and his bodyguards, seeing tht
many callers who flocked to his
house daily.
His greeting, when I was
introduced to him, was per-
functory, suggesting latent
hostility, and my first question
brought this forth into full
flame. I had asked him whether
his anti-Semitism concerned
Jews everywhere or whether he
had something specific against
German-Jews as such.
"In America you exclude
any would-be immigrants you
do not care to admit,'' he said
emphatically. 'You regulate
their number. Not content with
that, you prescribe their
physical condition. Not content
with that, you insist on the
conformity of their political
opinions. We demand the same
Adolf Hitler surrounded by thousands of Nazi sympathizers / Photo iredit: Yivo Institute for Jewish Research
right in Germany. We have no
concern with the Jews of other
lands, but we are very much
concerned about the anti-
German elements within our.
country. We demand the right
to deal with these elements as
we see fit. Jews have been the
intellectual proponents of
subversive anti-German
movements, and as such they
must be dealt with."
Prom: Tht New Republic, 2/15/33.
Purged of Jews
On Thursday at 5 p.m. the
swastika flag was hoisted on the
property of the last Jew to leave
Hersbruck. The Hersbruck
district is now definitely purged
of Jews. With pride and
satisfaction the population takes
cognizance of this fact,
recognizing that this "spring
cleaning" is first and foremost
due to district leader Party
comrade Sperber, who has
emphasized the Jewish danger
at thousands of meetings, until
the people realized the truth,
and the last Jew left the district
. We are firmly convinced
that other districts will soon
follow suit, and that the day is
not now far off when the whole
of Franconia will be rid of Jews,
just as that day must dawn
when throughout the whole of
Germany there will no longer
be one single Jew.
From: Frotnkische Taginzeitung,
5/26/34. -
Goebbels Warning
to Jews
"We have been very lenient
with the Jews. But if they think
that therefore they can still be
allowed on German stages,
offering art to the German
people; if they think that they
can still sneak into editorial
offices, writing for German
newspapers; if they still strut
across the Kurfurstendamm as
though nothing had happened,
they might take these words as
a final warning. Jewry can rest
assured that we will leave them
alone as long as they retire
quietly and modestly behind
their four walls, as long as they
are not provocative, and do not
affront the German people with
the claim to be treated as
equals. If the Jews do not listen
to this warning, they will have
themselves to blame for
anything that happens to
From: Goebbtls' speech on 5/11/34-
Plight oi a
Jewish Lawyer
by William L. Shirer
BERLIN, April 11, 1935
Dr. S., a successful Jewish
lawyer who served his country
at the front in the war, sud-
denly appeared at our apart-
ment today after having spent
some months in the Gestapo
jail, Columbia House. Tess was
at home and reports he was in a
bad state, a little out of his
head, but apparently aware of
his condition, because he was
afraid to go home and face his
family. Tess fortified him with
some whisky, cheered him up,
and sent him home. His wife
has been on the verge of
nervous prostration for a long
time. He said no charges had
been preferred against him
other than that he was a Jew or
a half-Jew and one of several
lawyers who had offered to help
defend Thalmann. Many Jews
come to us these days for advice
or help in getting to England or
America, but unfortunately
there is little we can do for
From: William L. Shirer, Berlin .
Diary, New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, Inc., 1940, 1941.
Brunn Department Store in Berlin defaced by Nazis /Photo credit: Yivo Institute for Jewish Research
by Ralph W. Barnes
Sept. 15, 1935 Stringent
new laws depriving German
Jews of all the rights of German
citizens and prohibiting
marriages between Jews and
"Aryans" (Gentiles) were
decreed by a subservient,
cheering Reichstag here
tonight, after an address by
Chancellor Adolf Hitler.
In addition, the swastika
banner of German Facism,
described to the Reichstag by
General Hermann Wilhelm
Goering as "the anti-Jewish
symbol of the world," was
declared to be the sole national
flag of the Reich. The black-
white-red emblem with its
imperial implications, was
abolished in its present form.
Tonight's decrees are
considered among the most
sweeping measures taken since
the Nazis came into power two
and a half years ago.
That proclaiming the
swastika flag as the national
banner was occasioned in part
by the rioting on the liner
Bremen in New York in July,
when the Nazi flag was torn
down, and by Magistrate Louis
B. Brodsky's subsequent
characterization of the swastika
standard as a "black flag of
piracy," it was indicated by
General Goering.
He declared: "It is
regrettable that the American
people recently tolerated an
impudent Jewish insult to our
flag, which has been to us a
holy symbol, under which we
have fought and suffered, and
under which Germany will
stand once and for all
throughout eternity."
Under the new statutes, Jews
in Germany will be put back
abruptly to their position in
Europe during the Middle Ages
and the Renaissance.
The laws constitute a signal
victory for the violent anti-
Jewish wing of the Nazi party,
led by Julius Streicher.
The new any-Jewish laws,
which go into effect January 1,
constitute realization of nearly
the whole anti-Semitic portion
of the Nazi program.
They are described as "laws
for the protection of German
blood and German honor." As
read before the Reichstag by
Goering, president of the
legislative body, they follow:
1. Marriages between Jews
and German citizens are for-
bidden ;
2. Extra-marital relations
between Jews and Germans are
3. Jews are not permitted
to employ in their household
German servants under the age
of forty-five;
4. Jews are forbidden to
hoist the swastika emblem (now
the sole national flag);
5. Jews are permitted to
hoist a racial flag of their own
with assurance of official
tcontinued on page 6)

The Anti-Deftnulion Uue
The Record: Th* Holocaust in History. 1955194, ^
of B'ni B'rith tnd The Ntioul Council for the Social Studio Q
">m P*gt}
Violation of any of the first
three articles, concerning
marriage, sexual relations and
employment of servants, is
punishable by imprisonment at
hard labor. Violation of the
fourth article is punishable by
simple imprisonment.
Goering thereupon spoke at
length, explaining the new
anti-Jewish and citizenship
"We must preserve.*' the
Air Minister and Prussian
Premier said, "the Germanic
and Nordic purity of the race,
and must protect our women
and girls with every means at
our disposal. In this pure blood
stream will blossom forth a new-
era of Germanic happiness.
"An example of our idea of
men sound to the core is found
in the men (100.000 Storm
Troopers) who marched before
Der Fuehrer today. That is
purity of race. Never again will
we let our Germanism be
infected and ruined by Jewish
"Every Nazi German finds
in his race and in his people the
highest fulfillment of his in-
dividual being, and is ready to
give up his whole life for both.
We hereby acknowledge our
fealty to this principle of right,
which is itself dictated by
Tonight's session of the
Reichstag was summoned
unexpectedly by Hider after the
Nazi party congress had
convened here last week. All
but two or three of the 600
members are Nazi parry men.
sr\ they were ready at hand
when the session was an-
The Reichstag, which is now
nothing more than a rubber
stamp, was called to order by
Goering at 9 P.M. in the
auditorium of the German
Cultural Union. On the
platform besides Hider were
Rudolf Hess, deputy Nazi party
leader; Baron Konstantin von
Neurath. Foreign Minister:
General Werner von Blom-
berg. War Minister, and other
government officials.
After speaking of the three
laws. Goering asked the
Reichstag for unanimous
approval. Six hundred-odd
men. the bulk of them in brown
uniforms, leaped to their feet.
At various points during the
speeches of Hitler and Goering
there was enthusiastic
A roar of laughter arose
when Goering proposed that
Jews should not be permitted to
employ in their households
"Aryan" servants under the
age of forty-five.
Wuh the viokndy anti-
Jewish wing ol the Nazi party
now apparendy in the saddle,
further anti-Semitic measures,
supplementing those decreed by
the Reischstag here last night
withdrawing citizenship from
Jews a-d forbidding Jewish-
"Aryan" (Gendle) marriages.
are expected to be enacted soon.
Re-establishment of the
ghetto is now under way, as is
maniiest in the recent decision
to establish separate schools for
Jews. Two months ago Julius
Streicher, anti-Semitic Nazi
leader of Franconia, urged on
the government the ghetto
policy with all its implications.
Streicher had his way in the
matter of the schools, and again
last night in the enactment of
the anti-Jewish laws.
There are definite indications
that Chancellor Adolf Hider is
prepared to go much further
along the lines which Streicher
and others of his crew are
pointing out, with elimination
of all the Jews in Germany as
their ultimate aim.
Just now there is much
speculation as to how the
gradual realization of a ghetto
policy will affect Jews in
business. Although stringent
legal as well as extra-legal
measures are intended to
eliminate Jews from the
professions, direct interference
with their business activities
has been confined largely to
anti-Jewish boycotts and anti-
Jewish riots of a type which
now are frowned on even by
Hider repeated in his speech
before the Reichstag last night a
passage of his proclamation at
the opening of the Nazi party
congress here that if the
agencies of the state proved
incapable of dealing with the
"enemy.'' including the
Jewish "enemy," the task
would be delegated by law to
the Nazi party.
From \>u York Herald Tribune.
9 16 B
BRUSSELS, Belgium,
March 26 (AP). A pastoral
letter condemning National
Socialism and racial theories
was read today in all Catholic
churches in Eastern Belgium,
including Eupen and Malmedy.
the areas detached from
Germany after the World War.
Pro-Nazi worshippers
demonstrated their disapproval
when the letter was read.
The Associated Press. 3 26'39
many. Nov. 29 A district
court in this Silesian town
today deprived a father and
mother of their children
because they opposed the
National Socialist ideology,
taught their children not to give
the Hider salute and were
pacifists. Both parents are
members of a Christian sect
known as International Bible
Researchers. They had adopted
a number of pacifist ideas of the
Quakers and similar sects.
The father denied that he had
tried to influence the children's
attitude toward the present
political regime. The court
ruled that the children could
not live in such an atmosphere
without becoming "enemies of
the State."
The New lor* Times. 11/30/37
German soldiers on parade and crouds showing their support with the Nazi salute / Photo credit: Yno
Institute for Jewish Research
Jailed for Failing
to Salute
Jan. 7 Because he failed to
give the Nazi salute when a
band played the Nazi anthem a
Stralsund citizen was sentenced
today to two weeks' im-
prisonment. A Nazi paper in
near-by Stettin asserts that he
stood with his hands in his
pockets whUe the band played
the Horst Wessel Song, sacred
to every good National
The \ru York Times. 1/8/35.
115 Seized in
BERLIN, Aug. 8. The
police arrested, but later
released. 115 demonstrators
who marched through the tree-
lined streets of suburban
Dahlem tonight in protest
against a ban on public praver
meetings for imprisoned pastors
who had opposed Nazi church
The parade was believed to
have been the lirst public mass
demonstration against any
measure taken by the
Government under Nazi rule.
Several hundred members of
the Dahlem church of the Rev.
Martin Niemoeller, Protestant
lader in the fight against
government regulation of
church affairs, joined in the
march. Herr Niemoeller goes
on trial Tuesday charged with
having opposed Nazi church
The Associated Press. 8/8/37.
Adolf Hitler did not spring
full-blown, like a phoenix, from
the ashes of the Weimar
Republic: he and his
brownshirted thugs had been
around for more than a decade
when Field Marshall von
Hindenburg elevated him to
chancellor on January 30. 1933.
Hitler was in office less than
two months when he coerced
the Reichstag, with terror and
deceit, into approving the
Enabling Act, giving him legal
authonty to subvert the
constitution, legitimizing his
That was March 23. 1933.
Three days earlier, on March 20.
1933, Heinnch Himmler. then
provisional police president of
Munich, had established the first
concentration camp on the
grounds of a former gunpowder
factory In Dachau Its purpose
to remove from society those
who cannot be allowed to
remain free to continue to
agitate and to cause unrest
The first pnsoners were brought
in the following day; within ten
days, 15,000 persons had been
taken into protective custody."
On Apnl 7. the Reichstag
passed the Law for the
Restoration of the Professional
Civil Service.' authonzing the
elimination of Jews and political
opponents of the Nazis from the
avil service It was the first
blatantly ant-Jewish law of the
Third Reich It was followed,
within weeks, by others.
excluding Jews from the justice
system, the medical system and
the educational system There
were to be 400 such laws and
decrees during the twelve years
of the Nazi dictatorship
Violence against Jews
escalated, not only encouraged
by the government but often
organized by it.
The world could no longer
ignore the little ex-corporal who
had been laughed at as a
crackpot, a madman, even by
his own countrymen. But people
did. certain that the civilized,
rational'' Germans would not pi
up with him for long, would not
allow mass meetings to replace
the voting booth, mass hysteria
to replace democratic
government, the rule of terror to
replace the law
The Nazis rejected outside
protests and turned them
against the Jews. Hitler beguJed
the Western leaders as he had
beguiled his own people
including many Jews And the
pogrom continued, got worse
There is ample material
available to trace the nse of
Nazism What does it reveal
about the nature of democratic
institutions and the nature ol
people? What role do
individuals play m a
government, and what role do
other governments play? W*
lessons can be learned from
Adolf Hitler and the Nazis'
Compare Germany s anO-Je***
laws with the Jim Crow laws
that afflicted Black Americans
How did Hitler, m so short a
time, turn almost the entire
population ol Germany mto
cruel and mindless robots?
What can we learn from a sum
of the rise ot Nazism *

7 The Record: The Holocaust in History, 193)194)
The Anti-Defmtion League of B'nai B'rith and The Nati
NRtionRl Council for the Socil Studies
by Quakers
Three Philadelphians
returning today after a month's
visit to Germany as
representatives of the
American Friends Service
Committee brought back word
that permission has been won
from the Nazi government to
establish relief stations in
Germany to help persecuted
The delegation also brought
news of an agreement under
way between the German
authorities and the American -
British French In-
tergovernmental Refugee
Committee to speed evacuation
of 150,000 heads of Jewish
The group is composed of
Dr. Rufus M. Jones, Haverford
College professor, who is
chairman of the Friends
committee; D. Robert Yarnall,
Germantown manufacturer,
and George A. Walton,
headmaster of George School.
"We received full per-
mission to send Quaker
commissioners to Germany to
bring relief and to oversee its
distribution," Dr. Jones said.
"Everywhere we went,
however, we found the Jews
saying that they wanted above
all else to get out of the
"They said, 'don't put food
and hunger first. We can stand
hunger. We can stand
anything, but get us out before
something more awful hap-
pens.' "
When evacuation begins, he
said, transient camps would be
established outside Germany to
house refugees on their way to
permanent homes.
Dr. Jones said that the
delegation observed evidence
that the German people as a
whole were not in entire
sympathy with the persecution.
The delegates had received
every cooperation and courtesy
from the German Government,
he added, but made no effort to
see Hitler.
From: The New York Times,
Jailed for
on Nazis
BERLIN, June 5 (Reuters
Dispatch) Werner Finck,
one of the best known
vaudeville surs in Germany,
has been put in a concentration
camp for "pulling the leg" of
Nazi leaders.
Although his jokes
previously had been passed by
the soviet police, he was
arrested on May 10 when they
swooped down on two Berlin
cabarets and closed them. He
has been detained since in a
secret police prison in Berlin.
His 70-year-old mother has
been unable to obtain any
information regarding his
1 ''". Reuters Dispatch, 8/5/35.
Man wearing Jewish yellow "Star of David" / Photo credit: Hadassah
Photo Archives
Nazis Order
Jews Over Six
All Jews over 6 years of age
were ordered by the secret
police today to wear a large
yellow star of David with the
black superscription "Jew."
The order, issued by Secret
Police Chief Reinhard
Heydrich, said that Jews would
not be permitted to leave the
area in which they resided
without police permission. Jews
must not wear any orders or
decorations, Herr Heydrich
"The star consists of a six-
pointed star, outlined in black
on yellow cloth the size of the
palm of one's hand, with a
black superscription: 'Jew'. It
must be worn visibly and firmly
sewed to the left breast of
From: United Press
International. 9/7/41.
German Liberty Party
Wars on Hitlerism
BERLIN, April 9. Anti-
Hitler propaganda, despite the
secret police, is beginning to
circulate again in Germany.
Today's mails contained a
manifesto of the "German
Liberty party" summoning
loyal Germans to free the
German nation from National
Socialist rule and demanding a
plebiscite on the question of
German participation in the
Spanish civil war. The en-
velopes bore Berlin postmarks.
Prom: T/>. N*
York Tit
HAVANA, May 31 (AP).
Captain Gustav Shroeder of
the Hamburg American liner
Saint Louis informed the Cuban
authorities today that he feared
a "collective suicide pact"
among his 917 German Jewish
refugee passengers, who are
scheduled to sail back to
Hamburg with him tomorrow,
Cuba having refused to admit
He reported there was a
"state of mutiny" aboard
which he could not control and,
therefore, he feared "open
mutiny" when the ship left
Havana Harbor.
Captain Juan Estevez
Maymir, chief aide of President
Federico Laredo Bru, had spent
several hours aboard the ship
investigating reports that
hundreds of the refugees were
threatening to take their lives if
the ship sailed back to Ger-
Refugees on the St. Louis
assert they were unaware when
they left Germany of the decree
of May 5 under which ad-
mittance was denied them. The
Department of State has or-
dered investigation of the act of
five Cuban Consuls in Germany
who granted them visas.
The immigration authorities
today refused to permit the
landing of twelve refugees who
arrived aboard the liner Iller
from Bremen, Germany.
Prom The Associated Press,
(Night of Broken Glass)
by Otto D. Tolischus
BERLIN, Nov. 10 A
wave of destruction, looting
and incendiarism unparalleled
in Germany since the Thirty
Years War and in Europe
generally since the Bolshevist
revolution, swept over Great
Germany today as National
Socialist cohorts took
vengeance on Jewish shops,
offices and synagogues for the,
murder by a young Polish Jew
of Ernst von Rath, third
secretary of the German
Embassy in Paris.
Wrecking, Looting and Burning
Beginning systematically in
the early morning hours in
almost every town and city in
the country, the wrecking,
looting and burning continued
all day. Huge but mostly silent
crowds looked on and the police
confined themselves to
regulating traffic and making
wholesale arrests of Jews "for
their own protection."
All day the main shopping
districts as well as the side
streets of Berlin and in-
numerable other places
resounded to the shattering of
shop windows falling to the
pavement, the dull thuds of
furniture and fittings being
pounded to pieces and the
clamor of fire brigades rushing
to burning shops and
synagogues. Although shop
fires were quickly extinguished,
synagogue fires were merely
kept from spreading to ad-
joining buildings.
Violence to Property
As far as could be ascertained
the violence was mainly
confined to property. Although
individuals were beaten,
reports so far tell of the death of
only two persons a Jew in
Polzin, Pomerania, and
another in Bunzdorf.
In extent, intensity and total
damage, however, the day's
outbreaks exceeded even those
of the 1918 revolution and by
nightfall there was scarcely a
Jewish shop, cafe, office or
synagogue in the country that
was not either wrecked, burned
severely or damaged.
Thereupon Propaganda
Minister Joseph Goebbels
issued the following
"The justified and un-
derstandable anger of the
German people, over the
cowardly Jewish murder of a
German diplomat in Paris
found extensive expression
during last night. In numerous
cities and towns of the Reich
retaliatory action has been
undertaken against Jewish
buildings and businesses.
"Now a strict request is
issued to the entire population
to cease immediately all further
demonstrations and actions
against Jewry, no matter what
kind. A final answer to the
Jewish assassination in Paris
will be given to Jewry by way of
legislation and ordinance."
What this legal action is
going to be remains to be seen.
It is known, however, that
measures for the extensive
expulsion of foreign Jews are
already being prepared in the
Interior Ministry, and some
towns, like Munich, have
ordered all Jews to leave within
forty-eight hours. All Jewish
organizational, cultural and
publishing activity has been
suspended. It is assumed that
the Jews, who have now lost
most of their possessions and
livelihood, will either be
thrown into the streets or put
into ghettos and concentration
camps, or impressed into labor
brigades and put to work for the
Third Reich, as the children of
Israel were once before for the
In any case, all day in Berlin,
as throughout the country,
thousands of Jews, mostly
men, were being taken from
their homes and arrested in
particular prominent Jewish
leaders, who in some cases, it is
understood, were told they
were being held as hostages for
the good behavior of Jewry
outside Germany.
In Breslau they were hunted
out even in the homes of non-
Jews where they might have
been hiding.
Synagogues Burned
Berlin papers also mention
many cities and towns in which
anti-Jewish excesses occurred,
including Potsdam, Stettin,
Frankfort on the Main,
Leipzig, Luebeck, Cologne,
Nuremberg, Essen,
Duesseldorf, Konstanz,
Landsberg, Kottbus and
Eberswalde. In most of them, it
is reported, synagogues were
raided and burned and shops
were demolished. But in
general the press follows a
system of reporting only local
excesses so as to disguise the
national extent of the outbreak,
the full spread of which
probably never will be known.
Generally the crowds were
silent and the majority seemed
gravely disturbed by the
proceedings. Only members of
the wrecking squads shouted-
occasionally, "Perish Jewry!"
and "Kill the Jews!" and in
one case a person in the crowd
shouted, "Why not hang the
owner in the window?"
An American Observer
In one case on the Kur-
fuerstendamm actual violence
was observed by an American
girl who saw one Jew with his
face bandaged dragged from a
shop, beaten and chased by a
crowd while a second Jew was
dragged from the same shop by
a single man who beat him as
the crowd looked on.
Grave doubt prevails
whether insurance companies
will honor their policies. Some
are reported to have flatly
refused to reimburse for the
damage because of its extent,
and, considering the standing
the Jew enjoys in German
courts today, there is little
likelihood of his collecting by
suing. But there still remains to
be settled the damage done to
"Aryan" houses and other
Prom: The v York Times.

Tr* .Kr.:. Drrffitioo Lagutolbni.B nth nd The Ntiooi Qwnc.l for the Socul StJd, O

Se< i i : S s ..
Hider i: J vt
new m lorce H at
vrce and ratbag '
ixees re
S iS is**'
The rex: d ae rre*3aakaaaa
7.- :ae xsesse tree
r>ee TSsr: i
efiers ix praeefcl rrevaaee
a remaoas. mscrtc
"^- *r-w.*; re e-aaecs.
Germans :* Poiaad ire
r cc are; bam aier
bxses 7"r* series et Xroer
> .- i: r > r .: it -
BMraC t re i c~e*: a.-* r ;
ii '.' :.* :: ---*.; ^ t
;-. .- -esaec: ;ar vT-er-rjr.
tOKW Lr er\3f
:.' -i-r.j.tvn -;.-:
Beam i -rr. m H Hi axr
nee. fare? rr lerx
-Bartie wr Hom'
Geraae jearsse xxees _
carr< irae fax a baaar
ri a* xvmg rtgnss d a*
wa arm itasaamaaar.
soiaser -jew .-*
sraaoee x erer-aa:

MMH -v
as Nan aurves .- \:
Seoakat Geeaaer Geaei!
lesK r"e .-v.- rtr-.r-* ajd .-vr
aeris Ner -~
. ae rer.rr.*a3er^a--C30ei at
At ar hn saoec k aecrrt
i ;
Hitier Hints
of New Attacks
on Jews
Herr Hitler's prop aeoes
I ere ax and to dee
re-: x at aarfM
i-- -. -
H BOH : .* r. -; i
l: r .;|
otaaaai as roie a I ie-.-pe '
rs-rjca iaq ^:_ ^_i-
-:- Hakr aaaec
trrwr.T ^>?i aafhai
_ aaaaks aai *ar* ru
Una* Herr r

Germans Confined
for Talking
rExLIN re* 14 UP
7*er:r> sr^ea r^er-sens were
se=: camps
wt :r ;hires
sreaaag tabe asara, the
-ssaaifu Zexx*T.L
;.;:;: :re r; ...t i- i-
- :>. --r i r :>- : -xf -s ere
tree .x rae cewsmaKSi:
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.-raer-e^ t,
saaa a a*; ru^n.
Set ax ie -nr ir
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au ax er arr
AJt Ne Ya*
xr rmeA. ere
arm* arjer ae-.-c-ie
ac ;_-u i_v aaai
arx'je* r>." are raar" av
ecjeante* *-Z one ar recni
3terr arerai. sa-rr' is: rac
31^ *'il srrsr an.- t r-x: *-rt
a ae a-sae ajaaas m-
aaaaaaiiL _e^"s3 ecuxaax
ac eerrmoeji rt acecHes
-t aejc a tTiarsecsev
^~atar. a ras nravesen
-e-aat a ate cc> ~eiaaie


9my of a Young Girl
Arrs" V'.* .^.' food DBMS
rrnd- ie-e tm a>e r. d>er.
3k ean-r^iD.-r :coee^
a>e TBa: x die Gerauas.
^ae; aea tae saoersu? X
as >rs retJS Seaui Aab-
3e^r a?erer< :eCo. ead
ecaer a omeX saecessuc .kvs
ear -d ssar. Vwj
auac aac a aer SrTcks.
jetrj re atamec rac r=a
aaear? xartnaaei ckiwt, lev?
a* aa. tiisMnpc te ie tber
saxsaaf at.-^tu, arw tad
*^ e dax *ac a*= cch a
sftaptvaKa aear rat aaord
>aa aur ."ev? aaa be
maaxs r eaft: .- .v-t tae
* soar. >,
aai taoiars,
at ecaer naces a
eaue. manner; W$ mn ax
"** a"7- m paaic srvra.
hs, mi i
eju-s. aaxc-n aeak. ae xaer
s?,ar3 pat act are all
B,*fc""i. 3^*
** "^Paaaak >w$ aw
* .*" Kt seaoaa.. aa
Still Trying to
Leave Germany
BERLIN. Nov. 4 While
the Jewish population, or entire
towns and villages in Austria
I and the Czech Protectorate is
bong transported to Poland to
RC m labor battabons. Jews
m Geraaay sol! seek to make
of every poss;-
raced with the prospect of
I craadkd :nto the
protected Jewish reservanoo m
nances will last ooIt a
>tfal eighteen months
! longer under the increasing
Nan demands and
aaa :*n tinanoal burdens.
BK are striving, in spite of the
war. to fulfill the emigration
The news filtering through
conquered Poland is
v r_: reassuring to the
German Jews, who are ksoking
crward to Imng m a protected
Jewish reservation.
^ The Jews trom Greater
Garaur.% .-.- ire aajMaj .r.
labor camps tace a hard wmter
m Jll-eouipped barracks, while
a* Peish Jews, considered br
the Nans as the lowest form of
Jewish humanity, hare m
ni*aT cases not even the
doubtful secunrr of the labor
camp Their future, whether
the rurure reserranon o created
-" not. reatains dark, mdeed
rv \rv i |]
11 a -3S
Swakn Offers
J,*fn oiered asrhaa todar k>
-e .000 Jew, arrested K
Jf Gestapo a Deomark Sew
*. the New Year
o*** The oner was made
^^V > Genaaa ac
2J~ oaka* taroarft tat
***** Maan Beraa. bat
* the Reich has aot

BERLLN. Thursday. Nov.ft
Chancellor Hitler escaped
assassinanon last night when i
death-dealing bomb exploded ia
the historic Buergerbraeu Hall
in Munich shortly after the
Chancellor left the premises to
return to Berlin on a special
train. (A United Press dispatch
from Berlin said the bomb
exploded only 15 minutes after
Herr Hitler left the building.)
The following communique
was issued last night bv D. N.
B official German news
The Fuehrer arrived at
.Munich today for a brief visit
on the orramon of the com-
memoration ceremony of old
veterans. Instead of Rudolf
Hess, the Fuehrer personalh;
delivered the address in the
As affairs of Son compelled
the Fuehrer to return tc Berlin
tonight be ken the Buer
gerbraukeHer earlier than was
onginaHy pamaed and departed
for the station, where be
boarded a tram.
Six Killed. Sixty Hurt
Shortly afarr the departure of
the Fuehrer an fipkis>on oc-
curred ia the Buerger-
braeakefler. Of the old \ eterans
of the (Nazi) movement still
ax were killed and
than sorry wounded II *
The deliverance x refagas
iron Ceaard Earope is now not
a Jewah
but rather
. speaken
at a ba-
ck* of
when a
to the financial
support *e
James G. McDonald,
presidest of the Brooklyn
bxstaaar d Are aad Soenco
and tonaer Hagk Game jstooer
d Rehagees axaa Genaaay d
aaLeaaajedNaooas: theRer.
Or Harrr Eaassoa Fosdak of
the tuiima famrl Dr.
JaatesM Saaeis. cbmraaa of
the .Ameraaa Coaaaasee far
of tke

A Thi Rfcoid: The Holocaust in History, 1935-194)
SI The Anti-Defmtion League of B'ni B'rith and The Nati
onal Council for the Social Studies
By Wifeless to
The New York Times
Oct. 7. Well-informed
circles here said today that a
decree had been issued in Berlin
ordering the removal of all Jews
from Europe before the end of
the war. The sources said that
the order was issued by Adolf
Hitler himself.
This report coincided with an
article in Stockholm's Social
Demokraten saying that in-
formed circles in Berlin believe
the Swedish protest to Berlin in
behalf of Danish Jews has
caused a delay in their tran-
sportation to Poland. The
newspaper adds that
arrangements are being made
by prominent Nazi circles to
have the Jews interned in
The power behind the Nazi
persecution of Danish Jews is
the so called "Jew Dictator,"
Storm Trooper Eichmann, the
newspaper is informed. Eich-
mann is known for his sadistic
hatred of Jews. He engineered
all the extermination action
against Jews in Germany and
the occupied territories. The
intervention of Eichmann in
Denmark is defended by
Germans in the following
manner: There is no Danish
Government and therefore
General Hanneken has
demanded that the Gestapo aid
in the execution of military
The New York Times, 10/8/43.
by William L. Shirer
BERLIN, November 19,
1939 For almost two
months now there has been no
military action on land, sea, or
in the air. From talks with
German military people,
however, I'm convinced it
would be a mistake to think that
Germany will accept the Allied
challenge to fight this war
largely on the economic front.
That is just the kind of war in
which the Reich would be at a
disadvantage. And that's one of
the reasons why most people
here expect military action very
soon now.
Frank, the Governor-Gener-
al of occupied Poland, today
decreed that the Jewish ghetto
in Warsaw henceforth must be
shut off from the rest of the
capital by barricades and placed
under sharp police control. He
says the Jews are "carriers of
diseases and germs." An
American friend back from
Warsaw tonight tells me the
Nazi policy is simply to ex-
terminate the Polish Jews
They are being herded into
eastern Poland and forced to
live in unheated shacks and
German soldiers rounding up victims for deportation in the Warsaw Ghetto / Photo credit: Yivo
Institute for Jewish Research
robbed of any opportunity ol
earning bread and butter.
Several thousand Jews from the
Reich have also been sent to
eastern Poland to die, he says.
From: William L. Shirer, Berlin
Diary, New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, Inc., 1940. 1941.
Belgians Free
LONDON, Aug. 20 (ONA)
On April 20, 1,500 Jews
were being transported from
Malines to Poland in catde cars
when the train was held up by a
band of Partisans, who
overpowered the German
guards, opened the cars and
distributed funds to the
deportees. Six hundred
deportees escaped. German
troops later opened fire on the
fleeing passengers, killing
twenty, wounding forty and
recapturing thirty. Those who
escaped were said to be hiding
in the Brussels area._________
Overseas News Agency, 8/2/43.
Prisoners Kill
Nazi Guard at
Concentration Camp
Special Cable to
The New York Times
BERLIN, May 17. A
notice in the obituary column
of the newspaper, VeeDclscher
Beobachter of the death of
Albert Kallweit, a Storm
Trooper who "on May 13 was
the victim of cowardly attack
during the performance of his
duty at a lonely post in the
Thuringian Forest," is taken
here as confirming a report of
the first known outbreak of
violence in a German con-
centration camp.
The report said two prisoners
had killed the guard with a
spade and that their escape
probably had been facilitated by
The New York Times. 5/18/38.
French Aid
Fleeing Jews
Aug. 31 (Delayed)(U.P.)-Police
have begun mass arrests of
13,000 foreign Jews in
unoccupied France for
deportation to labor camps in
German-controlled Eastern
Europe and the French people
are aiding the Jews to resist
seizure, it was learned today.
The round-up began Aug. 26
at the command of the Ger-
mans, who at the same time
began arresting 20,000 foreign
Jews in the occupied zone.
Reports of the arrests in the
unoccupied zone have been
mentioned only briefly in the
Paris press, and not a line about
them has appeared in the
newspapers of unoccupied
"Women Peeling Potatoes at Terezin," drawing by Malvma Schdkova.
:,: w,ernee ,n the concentrationcamp-city /From the exhibition
Resistance,- circulated by the Union of American Hebrew
i,., aliens
In some cases French farmers
have defended Jewish fugitives
from the police with scythes.
Other Jews have barricaded
themselves in their homes or
fled to mountains and forests.
As a result, less than half of the
13,000 have been found.
Opposition was so great at
Toulouse that the departmental
Prefect sought permission to
augment police forces with
troops. The War Office refused,
but in four regions
Toulouse, Limoges, Lyon and
Montpellier only 3,787
Jews out of 7,129 were found.
United Press International, 9/3/42.
by Dr. Witold Majewski
I was in the ghetto three
times. I had permission to visit
it as a physician. The entrance
into the ghetto is under the
control of German and Polish
police; the interior is super-
vised by Jewish police. The
Warsaw street cars stop sixty or
seventy meters from the gates
of the ghetto. When they pass
the streets of the ghetto, the
cars dash through them so
swifdy that no one is able to
jump off. Typhus and other
epidemics rage in the ghetto.
Children under 3 years of age
and adults over 45 may not
receive medical attention. Jews
receive half the food which the
Poles receive. The Poles receive
100 grams of bread daily, the
Jews receive 100 grams by
radon cards every other day.
Sometimes kasha (buckwheat)
is given out, but not regularly
it's all very arbitrary. The
children in the ghetto are worse
off. Sometimes a bottle of milk
is pushed through the sewer
pipes near the ghetto walk.
Food is smuggled through the
walls in many different ways. In
the face of death by hunger, the
Jews risk their lives to obtain a
morsel of bread.
from: Gaztl.i Polsk.i. 1941.
Blitzkrieg! A new kind of war
especially for the Jews. Hitler
invaded Poland on September
1, 1939, and more than three
million Jews came under his
rule, some of them having been
deported there a year or two
earlier by the Nazis themselves.
Two years later Russia was
invaded and another three
million Jews were subjected to
Nazi rule. By that time virtually
all of Europe's Jews nine
million of them before the war
were being crushed under the
Nazi heel. Only one out of every
three would escape death.
Any doubts that the Nazis
would behave differently in
Eastern Europe than they had
acted toward the Jews of
Germany were dispelled early.
On September 16, 1939, the
eve of Rosh Hashana, the
beginning of the Jewish New
Year, the Luftwaffe, the German
air force, bombed the Jewish
quarter of Warsaw. The
significance of the attack was
The response, in Warsaw and
elsewhere, was flight. Jewish
and non-Jewish refugees
crowded the roads, driven by
the advancing Wehrmacht as
dust before a broom.
The Jews, their rights and
livelihoods long gone in
Germany and elsewhere, were
marked: white armbands, yellow
Stars of David. The fact that
they had lived in ghettos, which
they accepted as an historical
truth, now became legally
enforced ghettoization. Judenrat,
Jewish governing councils, were
created by orders of the
occupying authorities to carry
out their murderous designs.
But the ghettos created by the
Nazis were not like the ghettos
the Jews had confined
themselves to during the Middle
Ages. The Medieval ghettos
were devised by Jews for
protection of themselves and
their institutions. These ghettos,
where starvation, exposure and
disease took their toll dairy, were
part of the Final Solution for
Jewish destruction and
extermination. They were human
cages, no less cruel than the
concentration camps, and no
less deadly.
Again, there Is no lack of
documentation of this period of
Nazi rule. Study It, compare the
Nazi occupation to that of other
conquerors, compare the
reaction of those overrun to that
of other peoples who have been
subjugated by an oppressor.
"The will to live Is so strong that
it created the illusions to sustain
It." This statement attempts to
explain why the Jews refused to
believe what their fate would be
at the hands of the Nazis. Is tbie,
an accurate psychological % f
judgment? What would you a*ry\
are the qualities needed to w
survive in a ghetto?

The Recom>: The Holocaust in Hirroav, 193)194; 4*
The Ami-Definition League of B'iuu Brith ind The NitioMl Council for the Socitl Studic, 1Q
Extermination of
Jews in Reprisal
for Bombings
BERLIN. June 12 (From
German Broadcast Recorded by
The United Press in New
York) Propaganda Minister
Joseph Goebbels said tonight
that Germany would carry out
a mass '"extermination" of
Jews in reprisal for the Allied
ir bombings of German cities
which, he acknowledged, have
caused heavy damage.
Dr. Goebbels, in an article in
the publication The Reich, said
the Jews would be exterminated
throughout Europe "and
perhaps even beyond Europe"
in retaliation against the heavy-
air assaults.
Dr. Goebbels said the
damage inflicted thus far on
German war production was
not great enough to cause
"serious setbacks." He
declared Germany would repay
"blow by blow" the air attacks
on her cities.
From tinted IV--
lntrnwtivMuil. 1.5 4:
"A Total Clean-Up"
Himmler's Order. July 19.
I order that the resettlement
oi the entire Jewish population
oi the Generilgouvemement be
carried .xit and completed bv
December |1, .04;
By December M. 1942, no
persons oi Jewish extraction tn
m be tound m the Genera',
gouvernement. except if they
are in the assembly camps d
Warsaw. Cracow.
Ciestwhowi. Radom. Lublin
AU other work protects em-
ploying Jewish labor must be
completed by then or. it
cvmplenon is not possabie.
must be transferred to one aj
the assembly camps.
These measures are
MCWM] tor the ethnic
separatKv. aj races and peoples
required in the context d the
New Order ol Europe, as well
as a the interest of the security
aadpunnr d the German Reh
aad the spheres oi its interest
Any breach a that proceedmg
1 a threat to peace tad
a the eaore sphere ol
German -.-wrest, a staroag
point tor the resistance
i:cauat. aad a center ot
"oral aad pfcrjcal conagioe
For all these reasons, a weal
cseaaap s necessary and s
acevrdiagh 10 he carried oat
dehro hewad the
are to he reported to
r ter earrr tianai"
All namu woa
other aaeaoes lor aheraooaa or
h ruaama o aaake
cepoocs are a? be sahaatad ac
me persona.
of the
with an
By Wireless to
The New York Times
LONDON. Aug. 7 Polish
Labor Fights, a publication
issued here today, printed an
account of a house maintained
bv the Germans at Treblinka.
Poland, for the extermination
of Jews. In this place alone, it is
said, the Germans have killed
2.000.000 persons.
The account
executions opens
announcement the
pinned up on the station where
the victims arrive.
"You may be easy in your
mind as to your future." the
notice read. "You are going to
the east to work and your wives
will have care of your
household. Before you ieave
you must have a bath and your
clothing must be dekxised.
Your property will be restored
to you in proper condition."
Comply With Order
to Disrobe
Men. women and children
comply with the order for
disrobing and then states Polish
Labor Fights, comes the first
scene in the last act of the
Treblinka tragedy-. The article
"Children and women go
first, urged on by whips of the
Germans. Faster and faster they
are driven and thicker and
thicker fall the blows on heads
paralyzed with terror and pain.
The silence of the woods is
shattered by the screams oi
women and the oaths d
"The victims now realize
their doom is near. At the
entrance d the death house the
N a 1 chief himself drives them
to cells, freely using a whip.
The floor d the ceD is slippery
Some fall and are unable to nse
because d the pressure oi those
behind Small children are fhmg
over the heads d the ooa.
"When the ceQs are filled
they are dosed and sealed
Steam is forced through
apertures aad saHocaoon d die
vvtims begms. At first cnes
-"n be beard bat these
gradually subside aad after
nfteen enawnes aB is safest- The
execution is over
* hen the trap 3 opened re
fet the boshes drop down they
all a a compact mas. stack
rcaether by the heat and steam
aar o sprayed aa them
with a hose after whach the
gravr-daggers pa* the corpses
ratfora ahe the carcasses
d taaghwui:
"Ohec a en vectgge- a ax
*e*k to carry two bodies. e
soar aes arms or ies
i-; MB r:
feu s u oiling in lint for trains to take them to Auschwitz / Photo credit:
Yho Institute for Jeu ish Research
i\-' ; w(f; .
I baad

U "m m Ghetto / Photo en Jit: Yh 0 Institute for
"At times not all victims can
be squeezed into the death cells
*t once, and those remaining
are kept near the house d
death. They can see and hear all
that takes place, but are so
aaabed in their senses that
there is no sign d the instinct d
"This is clear prod d the
oadauup to which they have
been reduced by fll treatment
aad Naraan ""
"v Vrw York T
s s+S
DepositioB by Eric Pfaltsgraf
Oher-Corporal. 328th lai.
Reg, 22-th Grenadier Dir.
The jiaiacaa d the Jews
~eI citing.
Lrt CamaWi
Nazi Execution Mill
Reported in Poland
Feb. 11 (AP) A young
Polish Jew who escaped from a
mass execution in Poland with
the aid d false identification
P*pers repeated today a story
that the Germans operated an
"execution factory" in old
Russian fortifications in eastern
The Jews were forced naked
onto a metal platform operated
*$ a hydraulic elevator which
lowered them into a huge vat
hlled with water up to the
victims" necks, he said. They
*e electrocuted by current
through the water. The
elevator then lifted the bodies to
crematorium above, the
youth said.
The youth said he personally
had seen tramloads d Jews
leave Rawna Luska ,n eastern
roaad in the morning for the
crematorium at near-by Behec
d return empty in the
wetting He was told the rest d
J"**"?- he aid. bv in-
"* who escaped after
f3"*11? beu> taken inside the
fWT The fortifications, he
wo *ere built bv the
Hassans alter thev had
qpad eastern Pound.
TV Associated Pr,
Deposition by Eric Pfaltsgraf
Prisoner of War
Ober-Corporal, 328th Inf.
Reg., 227th Grenadier Div.
...In the Uman, Kirov ograd
and Kiev districts the treatment
accorded the Jews was enough
to make one's hair stand on
end. 0*r-o>r^ea/Schuman in
Kiev described how the SS
troops personally butchered
Russians and Jews. The
troopers called this a clean-up
or pay-off. Schuman's battalion
was ordered to clear the Kiev
outskirts of rebels and par-
tisans, and thousands of
partisans, Jews and other
"criminals" were put to death.
He related that his unit was
ordered to attend the mass
shooting d these people and he
was therefore witness to 1
terrifying sight. About 5,000
people d both sexes and all ages
were forced to dig their graves
and kneel before them. When
they were machine-gunned
they toppled over into the pit
Another column approached
the grave, they in turn were
mowed down. A third group
was compelled to scatter earth
on the graves and then dig then-
own. In these groups were
many women and children who
begged for mercy, but their
cries fell on deaf ears.
When this method d an-
nihilation became too tedious
the officers hit upon another
one. Great masses d people
were driven to a crater which
had been prevously mined.
When they were all there the
explosion was set off in such 1
manner that the flying clods of
earth buried the people beneath
them. After this, for some
minutes straight, the strip of
ground was heavily fire upon by
machine guns.
From: jtuisb Blstk Book Comma.
The BUck Book.
LONDON, Dec. 5 (UJ.)-
Evidence that Russian prisoners
d war were executed awl
cremated in German con-
centrations camps has been
offered to the emigre Czech
Government by a Czech Army
officer aho spent several yew
in a German prison camp before
he escaped to England.
The officer's story has been
investigated by the Czech
Government and will soon be
published. He said that the
inmates d his concentration
camp had found buttons from
Russian uniforms in the ashes
d bodies burned by the Ger
mans after constant nd
wholesale executions The
officer said that some of the
uniforms were those of
executed Partisans, but th
others had undoubted.\ been
by captured Russi"
Fiuni I nited Pnr%
laaraaMuaml i: i-

Tiie Record: The Holocaust in History, 19)M94)
The Anti-DeUntttion Leu <>' B'iwi Brith ind The National Council for the Social Studies
Appeal to
Resistance in
the Warsaw Ghetto
January 1,1942
Let us not go to slaughter like
sheep! Jewish youth, do not
trust the deceivers. Of the
80,000 Jews in Jerusalem of
Lithuania only 20,000 remain.
With our own eyes we saw our
parents, brothers and sisters
snatched away for ever. Where
are the hundreds of men
arrested by the police sup-
posedly to do some job of work?
Where are the naked women
and children taken away in the
horrifying night of the great
provocation? Where are the
Jews captured on Yom Kippur?
And where are our brothers
who were locked up in the
Second Ghetto? Those who
were taken from the ghetto will
never come back, for all the
roads from the Gestapo lead to
Ponary. And Ponary means
Cast off the illusions of
people blinded by despair: your
children, your wives, your
husbands are no more! Ponary
is no camp. They have all been
shot. Hitler has invented a
system for the destruction of all
the Jews in Europe. It has been
our fate to be the first.
Let us not go like sheep to
slaughter! It is true that we are
weak and we have nobody to
help us. But our only dignified
answer to the enemy must be
Brothers, it is better to die
like free fighters than to live by
the murderer's grace. Resist
until your last breatn:
From Reuben Ainsztein, Jewish
Resistance in Nazi-Occupied
Eastern Europe, New York:
Barnes or Noble Books, 1974.
Plea from Warsaw
is Heard in London
LONDON, March 19 A
plea that the Allies should treat
German prisoners of war as
hostages for the safety of Jews
in Warsaw came in a message
from the Warsaw ghetto to the
Jewish labor representative of
the Polish National Council in
London today.
The message also urged that
the Pope should be petitioned to
intervene officially before the
"liquidation" of the ghetto
already speeded up by the Nazis
has been completed.
The message said it was the
German intention to empty the
ghetto altogether and cited the
occasion a few days ago when
the German police tried forcibly
to evacuate a large block of
densely populated houses. The
inmates resisted and fifty
Germans were killed. The
Germans then brought up
machine guns and some
hundreds of Jews were mur-
dered on the spot.
The slaughter continued for
three days until the whole block
was evacuated and 6,000 Jews
were taken away.
The message closed with the
words: "You must rouse the
whole world to action."
The New York Times, 3/19/43.
Jewish partisans of the Bielsk unit in Poland, May 1944 / Photo credit: Yivo Institute jot Jewish Research
Warsaw's Ghetto
Fights Deportation
The New York Times
LONDON, April 22
Armored cars and tanks have
moved into Warsaw, where the
ghetto populace is resisting
deportation of the city's
remaining 35,000 Jews. The
battle was still raging when the
Polish exile government in
London received its latest news
last night.
Those resisting are the most
active elements left after the
mass murders and deportations
of last Fall. The Polish un-
derground movement has
supplied arms and sent trained
commanders for a last stand,
which is said to be costing the
Germans many lives.
After Warsaw, the Cracow
ghetto is to be liquidated, it is
stated, deportations having
already started. Western Poland
has been incorporated into the
Reich and Jews there were
spared until recently. Now
special concentration camps
have been established near
Lodz, and other towns.
Polish circles here believe
1,300,000 Polish Jews already
have perished under the
German occupation.
The Sew York Tiirws.4/23/43.
Battle is Reported
in Warsaw's Ghetto
LONDON, May 6, (U.P.)
A battle has been raging for
seventeen days in Warsaw's
ghetto, where Jews have
converted their homes into
forts and barricaded shops and
stores for defense posts, Polish
sources said today.
The Jews, fighting against
annihilation by the Nazis, were
reported using bedsteads as
bunkers and fighting with arms
smuggled into the ghetto.
An underground Polish radio
station several weeks ago
broadcast an appeal from
Warsaw for help. In a broadcast
that was terminated abruptly, it
reported that Warsaw's
chamher typical of ones through which millions of Jews
remaining Jews had been
sentenced to death* by the
German occupation authorities
and that women and children
were defending themselves
"with their bare arms."
Polish sources here said that
when German execution squads
went into the ghetto they were
met by "furious resistance"
and that fighting had been in
progress since April 29.
United Press International, 5/6/43.
Jews Freed from
Concentration Comp
Join Yugoslav Partisans
There are scarcely any Jews
in the army, since most of them
were slaughtered by the Axis.
However, 300 of a group
liberated from a concentration
camp on the island of Huar
joined one brigade.
The New York Times. 12/24/43.
By 1941, the Final Solution was
no longer confined to secret
memoranda and diaries. The
brutal taunting was past, even
the forced labor camps were no
longer sufficient for meeting the
Nazis' goals. The time had
come to make the Third Reich
free from Jews altogether.
The methods had been
tested: since the late 1930s,
mental and physical cripples had
been put to death; "euthanasia,''
it was called. Now the
Vernichtungslager, the death
camps, were begun. Birkenau;
Chelmno, near Lodz; Belzec and
Majdanek, near Lublin;
TreWinka, near Warsaw. The
methods were refined; the early
ones were inadequate for the
enormity of the task.
The deportations
"resettlement," they were called
started. The ghettos were
scheduled for liquidation.
The record of Jewish
resistance is not extensive, but it
is testimony less to the strength
of the people than to the reality
of their situation. A mob of
drunken peasants or a company
of cossacks were one thing; the
SS was quite another. Civil
disobedience is no weapon
against a government of terror.
The brutality of the reprisals for
any opposition far exceeded any
benefits the acts themselves
There was opposition and
resistance, though. Jews fought
in partisan units and formed
their own, they joined the
underground and had their own
clandestine networks, including
newspapers and telegraph
systems. There were acts of
sabotage and assassination,
even in the death camps. In the
work camps, the slogan, "Work
badly and slowly," was a motto
to live by.
There were many non-Jewish
anti-Nazis, like Pastor Martin
Niemoeller, and the assistance
they gave the Jews is
impressive in the face of the
danger they confronted and the
suffering they risked.
And in each ghetto there were
groups of Jews, most of them
young Zionists and socialists,
who felt they were doomed
anyway and preferred to die
fighting, even knowing they
would change nothing, could
save nothing but their own
honor. That was enough. It
outweighed any risk to the entire
Nowhere was this belief more
prevalent than in the Warsaw
Ghetto where, between April 19,
1943 the first night of
Passover and May 8, 1943,
some of the most heroic actions
of the entire war were recorded.
When the revolt was finally
ended by a Nazi force of more
than 5,000 men, May 8, the
ghetto was a cemetery, but it
had held out against the Nazi
onslaught longer than the Polish
army in 1939.
Reports of what the Nazis
were doing began to filter out.
But how could the Western
world believe them when even
the Jews of Eastern Europe
found it difficult to comprehend
what was happening to them?
As far as the Nazis were
concerned, the Final Solution
was as important as the war.
Jews were moved to the death
camps while troops for the front
were shunted onto sidings. Even
when the military situation
began to deteriorate, execution
of the Final Solution continued
without interruption War plans
could be changed, but not those
for the Final Solution.
Evidence of the Nazi
atrocities is as exhaustive as it
is horrifying. What does it reveal
about the persons who
conceived the Final Solution,
and what does it reveal about
the people against whom the
reign of terror was directed?
Consider the attempts of
Jews to resist and what it
reveals about the Jews of
Europe and oppressed people
anywhere. Consider the
response of the outside world to
appeals from those who were
doomed. Consider the attitudes
of those who died and those
who survived.

The Record: The Holocaust in History, 1933-194} 4M
The Anti-Dcfanution League of Bn.i Brith and The National Council for the Social Stud.e, 12
many, April 22 (AP) Eight
American Congressmen walked
among the horrors of
Buchenwald prison today and
got shocked eyewitness proof of
a German world in which
human life was not worth that
of an animal.
They came at the personal
invitation of Gen. Dwight D.
Eisenhower, who wanted them
toseefor themselves this village
where decency was torn aside
and men died like beasts in one
of Germany's worst butcher
"This is barbarism at its
worst," said Representative
Gordon Canfield, Republican of
New Jersey, "and it is a bad
commentary on civilization.
General Eisenhower has
presented proof of the
atrocities. This bears out
everything he or anyone else
has said."
With Representative Canfield
were Representatives Carter
Manasco, Democrat of
Alabama; Henry M. Jackson,
Democrat of Washington; Earl
Wilson, Republican of Indiana;
Albert Rains, Democrat of
Alabama; Eugene Worley,
Democrat of Texas; Marion T.
Bennett, Republican of
Missouri, and Francis E.
Walter, Democrat of Penn-
sylvania. They were in England
on various missions when they
received the invitation from
General Eisenhower to make a
special trip to Buchenwald.
Each said he was shocked
almost beyond belief at what he
saw and was told by the
prisoners. "This is the most
horrible thing that anyone
could conceive," said
Representative Manasco.
Representative Jackson said,
"we heard atrocity stories from
the last war which were not
verified, but now we have seen
them with our own eyes and
they are the most sordid I have
ever imagined."
The Associated Press, 4/22/45.
Nazi Death Factory
Shocks Germans
on a Forced Tour
By Wireless to
The New York Times
many, April 16 (Delayed)
German civilians 1,200 of
them were brought from the
neighboring city of Weimar
today to see for themselves the
horror, brutality and human
indecency perpetrated against
their "neighbors" at the
infamous Buchenwald con-
centration camp. They saw
sights that brought tears to
their eyes, and scores of them,
including German nurses, just
fainted away.
They saw more than 20,000
non-descript prisoners, many of
them barely living, who were
all that remained of the normal
complement of 80,000. The
Germans were able to evacuate
the others before we overran
General Eisenhower with American soldiers examining bodies of victims at BergenBelsen, 1945 / Photo
credit: Yivo Institute for Jewish Research
the place on April 10.
One of the first things that
the German civilian visitors
saw as they passed through the
gates and into the interior of the
camp was a display of "par-
chment." This consisted of
large pieces of human flesh on
which were elaborate tatooed
markings. These strips had
been collected by a German
doctor who was writing a
treatis.e on tatooes, and also by
the 28-year-old wife of the
Standartenfuehrer or com-
manding officer. This woman,
according to prisoners, was an
energetic sportswoman who,
back in Brandenburg, used to
ride to hounds. She had a mania
for unusual tattooes, and
whenever a prisoner arrived
who had a rare marking on his
body, she would indicate that
that trophy would make a
valuable addition to her
In addition to the "par-
chments" were two large able
lamps, with parchment shades
also made of human flesh.
The German people saw all
this today, and they wept.
Those who didn't weep were
ashamed. They said they didn't
know about it, and maybe they
The New York Times, 4/18/45.
Killings Placed
at 4,000,000
By C. L. Sulzberger
MOSCOW, May 7 More
than 4,000,000 persons were
systematically slaughtered in a
single German concentration
camp that at Oswiecim in
Poland, near Cracow from
1939 to 1944. The Germans
thus accomplished with
scientific efficiency the greatest
incidence of mass murder in
recorded history.
This slaughter exceeds in
barbaric intention and method
not only the greatest brutalities
of such infamous conquerors as
Genghis Khan but also sur-
passes even Germany's
own record in her previous
prize exhibitions at Maidanek,
Dachau and Buchenwald.
Such is the miserable tale
made public today on the eve
of the official end of the
European war by the Soviet
Union's Extraordinary State
Commission investigating the
extermination center at
Oswiecim. For some time
various Russians have had a
pretty good idea of the abysmal
tale of Oswiecim, especially
those now working on a Black
Book of German infamy, but
these are the first statistical data
of the horrible camp's record.
According to the Soviet
commission, "more than
4,000,000 citizens" of the
Mass grave at BergenBelsen, 1945 / Photo credit: Black Star
Soviet Union, Poland, France
Belgium, the Netherlands^
Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and
other countries, including the
non-Allied lands of Hungary
and Rumania, were ex-
terminated in Oswiecim. The
means used were "shooting,
famine, poisoning and mon-
strous tortures."
The report states that gas
chambers, crematoria, surgical
wards, laboratories and clinics
were erected around Oswiecim
to accomplish this mass-
production monstrosity.
Such a report would seem
incredible to American readers
except that now they have been
"conditioned" by the horrors
of Buchenwald, which already
have been fully investigated.
According to the Soviet
report, which included in-
terviews with 2,819 liberated
prisoners at Oswiecim, Ger-
man professors and doctors
conducted their experiments on
healthy persons, including
castration, sterilization of
women, artificial infection with
cancer, typhus and malaria
germs, tests of the effects of
poisons and the destruction of
children by injection into the
heart of carbolic acid or the
simpler method of heaving
them into furnaces.
The camp, it is charged, was
organized by Heinrich Him-
mler, built in 1939 by his order
and construced in a huge series
of buildings around the
Oswiecim suburbs to house
between 180,000 and 250,000
prisoners simultaneously.
The first crematorium was
erected in 1941, but the not
year, it is stated, Himmler
inspected the camp and decided
that "improvements" were
necessary, so new furnaces
were built by the German firm
of Topf 8i Sons.
Public baths were installed
for group cyanide poisoning,
and because "the baths"
output exceeded the
crematoria's capacity, deep pits
were dug where excess bodies
were burned over huge fires.
The report states that in
1943 the frugal Germans
decided to sell the unburned
bones to the firm of Schterhm
to be used for the production of
superphosphates, which was
done, and that, in addition to
almost 113 tons of crushed
bones, loads of women's hair
were sold for industrial pur-
Within twenty-four hours,
each crematorium was able to
consume more than 10,000
bodies, it is stated on the basis
of information provided by
Polish, Hungarian, French,
Czechoslovak, Netherland,
Yugoslavia, Italian, Greek,
Rumanian and Belgian sur-
vivors interviewed.
Besides the human guintt
pigs kept alive for "
perimentation, some 200,000
were utilized at various tun*5
for hard labor, but the weak-
lings were continually weeded
out for the gas chambers.
Tons of clothing, bedding
and the personal belongings ol
the murdered victims were seat
to Germany.
The New York Times. 5/8/45.

THI Record: The Holocaust in History, 19351945
The Anti-Defmtion League of B'nai Brith and The National Council for the Social Studies
From the opening
statement for the United
States of America at the
Nuremberg War Crimes
Tribunal, by Robert H.
Jackson. Representative
and Chief of Gmnsel for
the United States
of America.
November 21,1945
This Tribunal, while it is
novel and experimental, is not
the product of abstract
speculations nor is it created to
vindicate legalistic theories.
This inquest represents the
practical effort of four of the
most mighty of nations, with
the support of fifteen more, to
utilize International Law to
meet the greatest menace of our
times aggressive war. The
common sense of mankind
demands that law shall not stop
with the punishment of petty
crimes by little people. It must
also reach men who possess
themselves of great power and
make deliberate and concerted
use of it to set in motion evils
which leave no home in the
world untouched. It is a cause
of this magnitude that the
United Nations will lay before
Your Honors.
In the prisoners' dock sit
twenty-odd broken men.
Reproached by the humiliation
of those they have led almost as
bitterly as by the desolation of
those they have attacked, their
personal capacity for evil is
forever past. It is hard now to
perceive in these miserable men
as captives the power by which
as Nazi leaders they once
dominated much of the world
and terrified most of it. Merely
as individuals, their fate is of
little consequence to the world.
What makes this inquest
significant is that these
prisoners represent sinister
influences that will lurk in the
world long after their bodies
have returned to dust. They are
living symbob of racial hatreds,
of terrorism and violence, and
of the arrogance and cruelty of
power. They are symbob of
fierce nationalisms and of
militarism, of intrigue and war-
making which have embroiled
Europe generation after
generation, crushing its
manhood, destroying its
homes, and impoverishing its
life. They have so identified
themselves with the
philosophies they conceived
and with the forces they
directed that any tenderness to
them is a victory and an en-
couragement to all the evib
which are attached to their
names. Civilization can afford
no comprombe with the social
forces which would gain
renewed strength if we deal
ambiguously or indecbively
with the men in whom those
forces now precariously sur-
What these men stand for we
will patiently and temperately
disclose. We will give you
undeniable proofs of incredible
events. The catalogue of crimes
will omit nothing that could be
"The living dead at Buchenwald," April 1945 / Photo credit: Margaret Bourke- White / Time-Life, Inc.
conceived by a pathological
pride, cruelty, and lust for
power. These men created in
Germany, under the
"Fuhrerprinzip National
Socialist despotism equaled
only by the dynasties of the
ancient East. They took from
the German people all those
dignities and freedoms that we
hold natural and inalienable
rights in every human being.
The people were compensated
by inflaming and gratifying
hatreds toward those who were
marked as "scapegoats."
Against their opponents,
including Jews, Catholics, and
free labor, the Nazis directed
such a campaign of arrogance,
brutality, and annihilation as
the world has not witnessed
since the pre-Chrbtian ages.
They excited the German
ambition to be a "master
race," which of course implies
serfdom for others. They led
their people on a mad gamble
for domination. They diverted
social energies and resources to
the creation oft what they
thought to be an invincible war
machine. They overran their
Opemng of the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal, November 21, 1945 / Photo cred.t: Hadassah Photo
neighbors. To sustain the
"master race" in its war-
making, they enslaved millions
of human beings and brought
them into Germany, where
these hapless creatures now
wander as "displaced per-
sons." At length bestiality and
bad faith reached such excess
that they aroused the sleeping
strength of imperiled
Civilization. Its united efforts
have ground the German war
machine to fragments. But the
struggle has left Europe a
liberated yet prostrate land
where a demoralized society
struggles to survive. These are
the fruits of the sinister forces
that sit with these defendants in
the prisoners' dock.
The war did not end for two
more years, but Warsaw was
the end as far as organized
Jewish resistance went. The
number of surviving Jews went
pitifully down day by day. The
effort now went into keeping
Jews alive as a "saving
remnant" and as future
witnesses against the Nazis.
The full extent of the crime
was not to be known for a while.
The world watched in horror as
the death camps were liberated,
it listened in shock as
Nuremberg prosecutors elicited
17,000 pages of testimony about
the unprecedented, systematic
destruction of an entire people.
But many of those who had
perpetrated these atrocities had
committed suicide or fled.
Those who were brought to
trial sat in the dock as their
accusers presented them with
nearly three thousand tons of
documents Nazi leaders had
written about their deeds, with
more than five thousand
photographs of ghettos,
deportations, concentration
camps, crematoria and mass
graves. In the face of this
evidence they turned to the
world and said they knew
nothing of what had occurred or
they were only following orders.
It was for Justice Robert
Jackson, chief American counsel
at Nuremberg, to sum it up for
mankind: "The wrongs which we
seek to condemn and punish
have been so calculated, so
malignant and devastating, that
civilization cannot tolerate their
being ignored because it cannot
survive their being repeated."
How was It possible for the
world to stand by without
halting this destruction? What
role did the churches play
during this period? What do you
think are the attitudes of the
survivors? Could you make a
new life in a new country?
Consider the reactions of
mankind when it realized what
had happened.
Contemplate, also, the guilt of
those who were accused, their
defense and the justice that
was meted out to them.
Consider the Holocaust and
what:' means to you.

Congratulations will pour in
upon Einstein today, his
sixtieth birthday. They ought
to pour in on the country too.
Thanks to the barbarity and the
bigotry of the present German
Government, the most
distinguished of living
mathematical physicists, one of
the great figures in the history
of intellectual achievement, is a
resident of the United States
and a citizen-to-be. If the
dazzling gift of Einstein were
not darkened by a tragedy
which has brought despair to
fifteen hundred university
professors. American science
would be justified in cabling a
warm "thank you" to the
Fuehrer who has outdone the
Middle Ages in fanatic cruelty
and so far blighted German
research that not for a
generation after his evil in-
fluence has passed can it expect
to recover something of its
former glory.
The Sew York Times. 3/14/39.
Hadassah Rosensaft was bom
in Sosnowice, Poland. She was
very gifted, always top of her
form at school, according tc
contemporaries. After high
school at home, a university
education at Nancy, France,
she studied dentistry, qualified
well and was ready to settle
down. Her success within the
terms of reference of her class
and her milieu was assured:
high qualifications, a good
family background, looks,
intelligence, a pleasant per-
sonality, a way with people...
And then the calamity. The
dates, in deep black, as it were,
we all heard from Hadassah
herself when, as Dr. Hadassah
Bimko, she appeared as the
chief witness for the
prosecution in the Belsen Trial
(17 September-17 November,
1943). She introduced herself
as 'a Jewess from Poland'' and
told the Court that she had been
arrested and sent to Auschwitz
on 4 August, 1943days,'
hours, even minutes count in
such nightmarish memories
and transferred to Belsen on 23
November, 1944. Both in
Auschwitz and in Belsen she
worked in so-called hospitals
and saw agony within agony.
It was Hadassah Rosensaft
who first told the world, from
the witness box of the first war
crimes trial, that records
secretly compiled by her friends
and herself at Auschwitz
showed that about four million
people had been done to death
in the crematoria. Today we
have access to all the horrible
details and the Nazi record is
laid bare. But Hadassah made
her statement only four months
\ after the war in Europe. An
incredulous world listened in
Albert Einstein, with his wife and daughter, receiving his American citizenship papers / Photo credit:
American Institute of Physics
stunned silence to the
testimony of a survivor who
preserved her sanity and her
judgement, and was able to
summon enough strength to
tell the story coherently.
Hadassah's evidence before
the Court at Luneberg I shall
never forget. She stood there
almost motionless, obviously
keeping a tight grip on herself,
and told the story of Auschwitz
and Belsen in a very quiet
voice, quieter even than usual.
She showed for the first time
how it happened that Belsen
had become the hell on earth
which we saw after liberation;
how healthy and intelligent
men and women had been
reduced to physical helplessness
and mental feebleness; how
proud people had been degraded ,
to a subhuman existence.
Of her own part before j
liberation Hadassah seldom i
speaks. And when she does it is
always in first person plural. It
took me a long time, years of
friendship and conversations,
serious and light-hearted,
penetrating and superficial,
before Hadassah told some of
her own story. This is not a
story one should interfere with.
I am letting her tell it.
"At 3 a.m. on a bitterly cold
December night in 1944, our
block at Belsen was suddenly
awakened by the noise of a
motorcar and the cry of
children. Soon we heard the
shouting of the SS, so familiar
to us in those days. We were
ordered outside and there we
saw a huge lorry full of children
of various ages. The SS told the
children to get out There were
forty-nine of them ranging in
age between eight months and
fifteen years. We took the
children inside. Ours was
supposed to be an ambulance
and treatment unit.
"We learned a little later
that these were the children of
Dutch Jews who had been
removed the same day from the
camp allegedly to teach the
Germans the art of diamond
polishing.They were never seen
again. It should not be difficult
to imagine our feelings when
we suddenly found ourselves in
charge of abandoned Jewish
children. We gave them all our
love and whatever strength was
left to us. Some weeks later,
more children arrived from
Buchenwald and Theresien-
stadt. They were children of
Polish and Czechoslovak Jews
who survived and reached us by
some miracle. I have no other
explanation. Our girls and
women took care of them.
Weak and ailing as they were
themselves, they attended to
the children day and night, fed
them, washed them and played
with them. When some of our
men, who worked in the SS
stores and chemist shops, heard
that we had children in our
block, they risked their lives
daily to steal food and other
commodities which they passed
on to us for our charges.
Without these Jewish men
and women the children would
not have survived. Thanks to
Tiu Kiaw>: The Holocaust in Htrrav, 19331945 *-
Th Anti-Dcfimalion Le*,ue o< Bni and The Ntiool Council foe the SotUI S.ud,c, 14
"After liberation, t^
British medical personnel and
the liberated doctors and nurse
performed super-human tasks
The children were s00b
transferred to proper buildings,
bright and spotlessly clean, and
given good food and constant
medical attention. We did
everything in our power to
teach the children to play and
laugh again"....
General H. L. Glyn Hughes,
the Chief Medical Officer of the
Second Army, became the
heroic figure in the battle to
save as many suvivors as
humanly possible. Many of the
survivors literally owe him
their lives. On liberation day,
the General asked whether one
of the inmates of the camp
would come with him to show
him round, and Hadassah was
chosen by them to accompany
the liberator. This co-operation
in the salvage of human beings
continued all through the
rehabilitation period. Hadassah
was soon appointed Ad-
ministrator of Hospitals in the
liberated camp and became a
provider of healing and balm for
the Nazi victims. When the old
and infested barracks were
ceremonially set on fire, on the
General Glyn Hughes's orders,
he paid his tribute to Hadassah
by inviting her to fire one of
the incendiary guns. Her
emotions at this particular
moment must be left to the
It was not by accident, too,
that Hadassah Rosensaft was
chosen to accompany the first
children's transport to Israel,
or rather Eretz Israel as it then
was. This group left Germany
on 9 April. On that day there
travelled a thousand Jewish
children, assembled from all
over Germany, and twenty
expectant mothers. One million
Jewish children had been done
to death in the holocaust; these
were the few survivors.
Hadassah is fond of saying that
this journey to Eretz Israel with
the children was one of the
highlights of her life. She tells;
"I paid some of the children
a visit to Kiryat Anavim and I
saw with what love and if-
fection they were treated. On
the Friday night, as we were
sitting down for the Sabbath
meal, I knew that our children
had at last come home"....
That was her reward.
Hadassah was by then married
to Yossl Rosensaft They stayed
in Belsen until the last inmate
left the camp in September,
1950, five years and fi
months after liberation.
Hadassah's humanity is not
of the demonstrative kind but
is coming through all ^e^.
Even if you are not in need a
comfort, and don't even Ukeit,
you feel very privileged W
knowing her and you treasure
her friendship. Her humanity.
compassion, good sense, ability
to inspire other people
bring out the best in them,
triumphantly survived th
years of suffering and angu-
And the world is a nicer p
to live in for that.
them none of our children
succumbed to the raging
typhoid fever, although all of
them caught it or went through
some other illness while with
us. I vividly remember a long
and terrible night when we
were sitting by the feverish
children as they tossed and
turned and cried"....
There is nothing about
Hadassah's part in this story of
human courage and human
kindness. Others told me that it
was she who took charge of the
operation, who organized and
guided it to its successful end
when the children, all of them,
were delivered to their parents
and relatives or sent to Israel,
as was the case with the or-
phans and the friendless. But
rehabilitation took some time.
And here is again Hadassah's
own report, still in impersonal
terms, as if she was one of us, a
reporter, and not one of the
most important of the dramatis
The Teheran children' on ,ht unnal m PaUunn, A group of Polnh
tast for years / Photo credit: Zionist Archives.
From Jews in Transition, fy s /
Goldsmith, New York: Herd
Press, 1969-

I the Rcou>: Thi Holocaust in History, 1935-1945
ID The Anti-Defintion League of B'nai Brith and The N.tion.l Council for the Sociil Studies
i ;<
Abba Eban, Israel's former
Minister for Foreign Affairs,
Ionce wrote: "It is saddening to
I record that, with one or two
Inoble exceptions, the family of
nations at large paid little heed
[as, in Europe, an ancient
I people was being harassed
I savagely to death. Worse still,
[the murderers found all too
I many to do their will in the
I occupied territories. It restores
(one's faith in Man to learn that
[the vast and vicious apparatus
Iof slaughter, the ruthless
[hounding down of victims in
I their last hiding-places, in no
[wise deterred gallant souls, in
I this country and in that, from
[striking out selflessly along the
[perilous path of Jewish
| salvation.
"These saviors "were men
and women impelled by the
Bible's behest, 'Love thy
[neighbour as thyself!' "
A few of the stories of these
saviors appear below. Their
names and many others
may be found in the Garden of
the Righteous at Yad Vashem
Heroes' and Martyrs'
Remembrance in Jerusalem.
cDomaru noimncii
Eberhard Helmrich, a
ranking official of the Economic
Department of the German
Occupying Forces in East
Galicia during 1941-44 used all
his authority to save Jewish
lives. The Jews of the.
Drohobycz ghetto were given
aid as were the inmates from
the labor camp of Hyrawka.
j Helmrich supplied food for the
Jewish hospital at a time when
most of the hospital patients
died of malnutrition. Defying
Nazi laws, Eberhard Helmrich
aided in the escape of numerous
Jewish women. There was
Irene Miszel, daughter of a
doctor at the hospital
Helmrich had her driven to a
nenrby town in his official car,
knowing full well that she
intended to hide out using
forged Aryan papers. When
Irene was discovered, again
Eberhard came to her aid,
driving her back to hide her for
two weeks in his own office
until he could arrange suitable
papers which would not arouse
Gestapo suspicion. His
masterpiece, however, was to
send household help from
Drohobycz and Lwow to
German families in Germany.
Understandably, he chose fair-
haired and light-eyed Jewish
girls for this purpose, fur-
nishing them with Aryan
Polish or Ukrainian papers, and
paying their fares. All these
girls survived the war. One
girl, Hansi Warner, worked as
a maid in Berlin for Helmrich's
wife. Mrs. Helmrich was aware
that Hansi was Jewish, and she
[protected her throughout that
period. Hansi describes
Helmrich as "an extraordinary
person who helped hundreds of
People solely for humanitarian
i reasons."
Dr.Aimi Binder
The Secretary
In 1936 Anni Binder was
24-years old, working for the
Czech Foreign Office in Prague.
Following the German
conquest, she was dismissed
from her job and her outlook on
the world was transformed. She
aided Jews by offering them the
use of her diplomatic passport.
In 1938 she was arrested by the
Economic Police. Once
released, she renewed her
efforts and in 1941 was arrested
again, by the Gestapo. First
sent to the Ravensbrueck camp
for women as a political
prisoner, by March, 1942,
Anni was in Auschwitz.
Anni's experience in the
Foreign Office was the key to
her selection to the con-
centration camp office staff. She
became secretary at an ex-
perimental farming station
outside the camp where she was
ordered to find "suitable
German-speaking prisoners"
for the station. Her life-saving
rescue mission began. Seven
Jewish prisoners owe their lives
to Anni. She gave moral
comfort and intellectual
support to countless others.
One day, the SS conducted a
search and discovered Anni's
list of collaborators. Realizing
that they were all in grave
danger, Anni went to the
commander and asked that he
keep the matter quiet on the
condition that she would go to
Birkenau. The deal was made
and Anni left the comparative
comfort of the farming station
for a labor camp. In 1944,
paving roads in the ice and
snow, she fell ill and was taken
to the hospital. In August
1944, she was transferred back
to Ravensbrueck, then to
Graslitz from where she
escaped. Today, this
remarkable woman lives in
Prague with her husband and
three children.
Rotor Kalenczuk
USSR: Ukraine
Tlie Farmer
On a tree in Jerusalem is the
name Fiodor Michailovitch
Kalenczuk. Four Jews from the
Ukraine survived the war
because Kalenczuk, at peril to
himself and his family, hid
them on his farm for seventeen
long months. The Jewish
survivors were Pessah Kranz-
berg, a grain merchant from
the town of Hoszcza, his wife,
his 10-year-old daughter
Rassia, and Rassia's little friend
Miriam. In 1942 the Nazi
invaders marched across Poland
and Russia. Kranzberg and the
others managed to escape from
the burning ghetto in Hoszcza
and fled to Kalenczuk's farm.
The two men had known,
respected and liked each other
for five years, never imagining
what dark days would come.
When the world around the
Kranzbergs collapsed, Kalen-
czuk came forth with support.
First, he sheltered the fugitives
The Garden of the Righteous at Yad VashemHeroes' and Martyrs'
Remembrancein Jerusalem where the names of those courageous
individuals who saved Jewish lives are honored.
in his own home. Then he
fashioned a secure hiding place
for them in his stable, bringing
them meals three times a day,
taking care to provide only
kosher food. Kalenczuk himself
had to struggle to support his
wife and eight children. In
1943 he had to surrender part
of his harvest to the Germans,
yet he continued to feed the
four who were hiding in his
stable. His wife feared that the
Jews were endangering a
Christian household. But he
refused to deny them refuge. At
last, in January 1944 the Red
Army advance made it safe for
the Kranzbergs and little
Miriam to leave their hiding
place. Eventually they reached
Israel. And one day in 1967
Fiodor Michailovitch Kalen-
czuk stood with them in
Jerusalem at the ceremony
enshrining his name in the
Garden of the Righteous.
Wladislaw Misiuna
Tlie Foreman
In the winter of 1944,
thousands of Jews from the
Lodz ghetto were sent to work
in a factory near Radom.
Nearby, the Germans also set
up a rabbit farm for skins for
coats, caps and gloves for
troops on the Russian front.
Work on the farm was fairly
light and mostly women were
employed, including scores of
Jewish girls. But conditions
were such that death from
malnutrition or infection
always threatened. Nineteen-
year-old Wladislaw Misiuna
was one of the three Polish
foremen. He allowed the girls
to take vegetables from the
rabbits' supply. When the girls
told him his action might mean
a firing squad, he replied,
"You are hungry human
beings and therefore must eat.''
Perhaps worse than the star-
vation was the rampant filth
which bred highly contagious
disease. One of the girls was
covered with sores. Afraid that
the Germans would kill her and
the others who were also in-
fected, yet knowing it was
impossible for her to go to the
camp doctor, Wladislaw in-
fected himself, went to the
camp doctor and thus got the
medication to cure not only
himself but the girl as well. One
day Wladislaw had the girls put
all their clothing in a caldron of
boiling water. Just then a group
of SS officers came to inspect
the farm. One asked what was
in the pot. Wladislaw said it was
food for the rabbits. But the
officer was skeptical and un-
covered the laundry. The of-
ficer was enraged, and ordered
the SS-men to shoot the girls
and the foreman. Suddenly
Wladislaw spoke up: 'Don't
you believe in cleanliness and
hygiene? Do you want us to fall
ill with dreadful infections?'
For a moment, complete
silence. Then the officer said,
'Well, then, stay alive you
and these cursed Jewesses!'
When the Germans im-
prisoned the Jews in Vilna
behind the ghetto walls, Ona
Simaite, a librarian at the
University of Vilna, acted. By
pretending to retrieve books
from Jewish students, German
authorities gave her a permit to
enter the ghetto. She went
there almost every day, run-
ning "errands" for hundreds
of Jews. She reclaimed clothing
and valuables Jews had left with
their neighbors (who often
cursed her) and traded these for
food. She carried messages from
fighters in the ghetto to their
comrades in the city and
smuggled in forged documents
and weapons. She shared her
food rations with needy
children, existing herself on
potatoes and cabbage. Only
three women and a few
anonymous donors joined her
clandestine "Committee for
the Rescue of Jews" helping
her to rescue Jewish children,
cultural treasures, and Tor ah
Scrolls. She said a nation cannot
exist without a literature and a
culture and proclaimed her
faith in Jewish survival. Ona
Simaite rescued dozens of
children. One of them who
reached Palestine said "She
took me when the ghetto was
surrounded by gangs of
Lithuanian and Latvian
murderers took me to her
home. I was a total stranger,
but she cared for me as a
mother for her own suffering
child." Before the ghetto was
destroyed, in 1944, Ona
smuggled out a child on forged
"Aryan" papers. The forgery
was detected, Ona was arrested
and sentenced to death. But
Faculty members bribed an
official in the Gestapo to change
the sentence into im-
She was tortured to disclose
where Jews were hiding, to
reveal the identity of Jewish
Gentile partisans.
"I prayed," Ona said, "that
I might give nothing away. I
used to try to confuse the
names and addresses in my
brain so as not to remember
them...and my prayer was
Jewish war orphans being rescued, 1945 / Photo credit: Yad Vashem /
Hadassah Photo Archive

The Record: The Holocaust in History, 1933-194)
THE RECORD; im iwumui in nniwi, 1V5V1945 j^
The llllllPlfHi" Lu f B "' nd The Nalion.1 Council for A, Socil Stud.o 16
six. 1..1 iv 1 ii.uiu iii iv-pki Hohcaaa
Continued Irom Pagr 1>
Nat Kameny, chairman of
the National Program Com-
mittee of the Anti-Defamation
League of B'nai B'rith, called
the program an "effort to bring
the most horrifying experience
of modern times before millions
of people.
"No fictional dramatization
of such monumental genocide
can fully translate the suffering
of so many people," he said.
"But 'Holocaust' is an im-
portant springboard for the
consideration and discussion of
the facts and meaning of the
systematic murder of six
million Jews."
Anna S. Ochoa, president of
the National Council for the
Social Studies, agreed. The
program "will provide the
necessary background to in-
volve people in a meaningful
study of the Holocaust, a
subject that too often has been
neglected in our schools "
"Holocaust" is being
produced by Herbert Brodkin
ind Robert Berger, the winners
of a number of Emmy Awards,
and directed by Marvin
Chomsky, who directed six
hours of "Roots." It will be
televised from 8-11 p.m. on
Sunday, April 16, from 9-11
p.m. on Monday and Tuesday,
April 17 and 18, and from
8; 30-11 p.m. on Wednesday,
April 19.
A Nei Yt-iir',Card Irotn Vilru
/continued from pagi 2)
to make the long voyage from
Europe and become
Americans, I might have stood
at the lip of a ditch outside
Vilna with my cousins, or
waited naked outside the gas
chambers at Treblinka.
Good fortune endows one
with guilt. I have been lucky as
a writer, in having had three
opportunities to exorcise these
tragic memories, these ghastly
reflections of a crime against
my brethren, unprecedented
sufferings and degradations that
defy analysis. Twice I wrote
about The Holocaust in
booksa non-fiction work
entitled "The Artists of
Terezin." and a novel, "The
Legion of Noble Christians."
Consequently when NBC
and Herbert Brodkin ap-
proached me to write a
television drama on The
Holocaust, I already had ac-
cumulated a considerable
library of non-fiction literature
and documentation on the Nazi
era, the anti-Semitic cam-
paigns, the death camps, the
Jewish resistance movements.
And a day of my life has not
gone by that I have not thought
of the smiling young people on
the Rosh Hashanah card.
I did not seek to write a nine
and one-half hour tract The
TV series is not a documentary.
It is a drama, a tragedy, but
written in terms of history, true
events and real people. And the
dread events of the years 1935-
1945, supplied me with almost
too much material.
How, for example, can any
dramatist improve on the
documented account of
Himmler's only witnessing of a
mass shooting? Outside Minsk,
the bespectacled murderer, the
crackpot racial theorist, the
measurer of Jewish skulls,
swooned and staggered and
cried out as the SS machine
guns killed two hundred naked
Jews. Blood and brains spat-
tered on the Reichsfuehrer's
black boots, terrifying him.
Later he complimented his men
on their courage and stead-
fastness. "Mankind has a right
to protect itself from bed-bugs,
lice and Jews," he said.
Or how does one embellish
or intensify the fighting in the
Warsaw ghetto, which took
place at the start of Passover,
with some Jews holding their
meager seders, and others
firing captured German
weapons from windows and
sending the SS and their
Lithuanian hirelings into
confused, frightened retreat?
And how deal with the
nobility and love and kindness
(despite the recurrent stories of
the dog-eat-dog life of the
prisoners) of so many Jews in
the camps? Doctors who tended
the ill; teachers who held
classes in the shadow of the
crematoria; musicians who
tried to keep art and creativity
alive, knowing they might be
selected for "special handling"
the next day?
The answer is that very
little embellishment was
necessary. I created my fictional
Weiss family and let them be
swept up in the events of the
plague years. In counter-point,
I created Erik Dorf, lawyer, SS
officer, aide to the monster
Heydrich, a rationalizer, clever
with words and schemes, who
sends trainloads of Jews to their
death. "A subhuman
species," he says, echoing
Himmler. "They go to their
death willingly, which proves
the Reichsfuehrer's point"
But not all went willingly.
Only recently with the stories
of acts of resistance (the
Warsaw Ghetto fighting is
fairly well known) being
published, does the world
realize that not all Jews accept-
ed the Nazis' lies, deceits and
humiliations without protest.
In any event the drama is
done, and I hope that in some
measure it will be a fitting
tribute to the six million, the
survivors, and those brave Jews
who fought back.
Better to die fighting, said
Mordecai Anielewicz, the
leader of the Warsaw ghetto
revolt, than live at the mercy of
the slaughterer. That perhaps is
the moral of "Holocaust."
Dawidowrcz, Lucy I The War Against
the Jews. 1933-1945 New York Holt.
Rmehart, and Winston. 1975 Ban-
tam. 1976 Paper
Hilberg, Raul I The Destruction of the
European Jews Chicago Quad-
rangle. 1961 New Viewpoints 1973
Meltzer. Milton I Never to Forget The
Jews ot the Holocaust New York
Harper and Row. 1976 Dell. 1977
Before the War in Europe
Dobroszycki, Luc/an and Barbara
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett I Image Before
My Eyes A Photographic History of
Jewish Life m Poland 1864-1939
New York Schocken Books, 1977
Heller. Celia S On the Edge of De-
struction Jews of Poland Between
the Two World Wars New York Co-
lumbia University Press. 1977
Howe, Irving and Eliezer Greenberg
A Treasury of Yiddish Stones New
York Viking 1953 Meridian 1958
Meltzer. Milton / World of Our
Fathers: The Jews of Eastern Europe
New York Dell, 1974
Sachar, Howard Morley The Course
of Modern Jewish History New York,
Dell, 1958
The Rite of Nazi Germany
Mayer. Milton I They Thought They
Were Free The Germans 1933-1945
Chicago The University of Chicago
Press, 1955
Mosse. George L. I Nazi Culture.
New York Grosset and Dunlap,
Raab. Earl I The Anatomy of Nazism.
New York: The Anti-Defamation
League, 1961
Shirer, William L I The Rise and Fall
of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi
Germany New York: Simon and
Schuster. 1960
Switzer. Ellen I How Democracy
Failed New York. Atheneum, 1975.
Vo0, Hannah I The Burden of Guilt: A
Short History of Germany 1914-1945.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Hotoceuet Experience
Green. Gerald I Holocaust New
York: Bantam. 1978
Korczak. Janvsz I Ghetto Diary New
York: Schocken, 1978
Moskm. Marietta I I Am Rosemarie
New York: John Day. 1972
Schaetler. Susan Fromberg I Anya.
New York MecrmHan, 1974.
Schwartz-Bart, Andre / The Last of
the Just New York: Atheneum, 1960
Bantam, 1961 Paper
Wiesel. Eke / The Gates of the Forest
New York: Holt, Rmehart. and
Wnston. 1966 Avon. 1967. Paper
Cohen. Elie A. I The Abyss: A Con-
fession New York W.W Norton,
Jacof, Michael I The Last Butterfly
Indianapolis Bobbs-Merrill. 1974.
Kantor. Alfred I The Book of Atfred
Kantor New York: McGraw-Hill,
Lev/, Primo I Survival in Auschwitz:
The Nazi Assault on Humanity New
York Collier. 1961 Paper
Lustig. Arnost I A Prayer for Katerma
Horovitzova New York Avon. 1975
Sereny. Gitta I Into That Darkness
The Journey from Mercy Killing to
Mass Murder New York McGraw-
Hill 1974
Benchley. Nathaniel I Bright Candles
New York Harper and Row. 1974 Jr
HS Level
Stadier. Bea I The Holocaust A His-
tory of Courage and Resistance New
York ADL/Behrman House 1974
Paper Jr HS Level
Bauer. Yehuda 1 Flight and Rescue
Bnchah The Organized Escape of
the Jewish Survivors of Eastern
Europe 1944-1948 New York Ran-
dom House, 1970
Lambert, Gilles Operation Hazalah
New York Bobbs-Merrill. 1974
Mann. Peggy and Ruth Kluger I The
Last Escape The Launching of the
Largest Secret Movement of All
Times New York: Doubleday 1973
Mark. Bet I Uprising in the Warsa*
Ghetto New York: Schocken. 1975^
Suhl, Yuri I They Fought Back The
Story of the Jewish Resistance in
Nazi Europe New York Schocken
War Crimes
Hausner. Gideon / Justice h
Jerusalem. New York: Harper and
Row. 1966. Schocken, 1978 Pape,
Rabinowitz, Dorothy I New Uvej
Survivors of the Holocaust Living in
America. New York: Knopf, 1975
Avon, 1978. Paper
Steinitt. Lucy Y and David M Szotm
I Living After The Holocaust Reflec-
tions by the Post-War Generation in
America. New York: Btoch, 1975
New Resource Material* from
the Antt-Datamation Logu,
Ann L Nick. A Teacher's Guide tola
Outline of concepts, basic histon-
cal information and structure of tan-
pie lessons Includes bibliography
maps, glossary, teaching strategies
Geared for one weak unit 39 r
Dimensions ot the Holocaust: A
Series of Lectures Presented u
Northwestern University and Coord-
nated by the Department ot History
includes the Holocaust as btervy
inspiration, Eke Wiesel: as histonce'
record, Lucy S. Dawidowicz. as living
memory, Dorothy Rabinowitz, and as
a problem in moral choice, Robert
McAfee Brown. 64 pp $1 95
Selected and Annotated Resource
List ot Materials on the Holocaust
Preface by Elie Wiesel
A practical guide, listing over 200
books and audio-visual materials re-
lated to the Holocaust, intended fa
use by students, teachers, and librar-
ians in secondary schools as well
as the general community Topic
headings include: European Jewry
Before World War II; the Third Reich,
Holocaust Overview; Holocaust Ex-
perience; Ghettos; Camps; World
Reaction; War Crimes. Relugees
Resistance; Survivors Analogies
Jews and Judaism; Preiudice; the
Nature of Man A list of audio-visual
distributors, as well as title and author
indices, are included. 65 pp $1.50
The Holocaust: 1933-1945
20 black and white posters (23" x
29") plus Viewers Guide and
Suggestions for Display The senes
begins with pre-Holocaust Jewish life
m Europe, and goes on to depict the
growth of Nazism and anti-Semitism.
the ghettos, the death camps, libera-
tion, the Nuremburg Trials and the
bunding o* new lives m Israel The
posters were introduced officially ma
special exhibit at The Jewish
Museum in New York. 1977 $2000
including postage and handling
For additional listings send for
"Materials from ADL on the Holo-
This Supplement Compliments of
The Jewish Federation of Palm Beach County.
Reminder: Tune-in to the'Holocaust'program
to be aired April 16-19 on
WPTV, Channel 5, West Palm Beach.

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